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Sample records for zone cfz process

  1. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  2. Combination Vancomycin/Cefazolin (VAN/CFZ) for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Bloodstream Infections (BSI)

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Trang D; Zasowski, Evan J; Lagnf, Abdalhamid M; Bhatia, Sahil; Dhar, Sorabh; Mynatt, Ryan; Pogue, Jason M; Rybak, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background VAN remains the standard for MRSA BSI but has been associated with treatment failures and resulted in prolonged BSI durations and recurrences. In vitro studies of VAN/CFZ against MRSA demonstrated synergy and prevention of VAN resistance. However, clinical use of VAN/CFZ has not been reported. The objective of this study was to compare patient outcomes treated with VAN/CFZ vs. VAN for MRSA BSI. Methods This was a retrospective, cohort, comparative-effectiveness study of hospitalized adults ≥18y with ≥1 MRSA blood culture and received VAN/CFZ combination for ≥24h or VAN alone initiated within 72h of index infection between 1/1/08 and 5/1/17. Patients who received >24h β-lactams other than CFZ, MRSA-active antibiotics other than VAN, with polymicrobial BSI, or had a second MRSA BSI episode during the study period were excluded. The primary composite failure outcome included: 30d mortality, MRSA BSI ≥7d, and 60d recurrence. Demographics were compared by Χ2, Fisher’s exact, Student’s t, or Mann–Whitney U tests. Multivariable regression models compared outcomes between the two treatment groups. Covariates with p-values ≤0.2 in bivariate analyses were included in the model. Results A total of 101 patients were included (CFZ/VAN = 41, VAN = 60). Demographics were similar except VAN patients were older (mean (±SD) age 58 (±14) v. 51 (±18) y, P = 0.04), had higher median (IQR) Charlson Comorbidity Index (3 (2-5) v. 1 (0–4), P < 0.01), APACHE II scores (13 (8-18) v. 11 (8-18), P = 0.2), and more endocarditis BSI source (37% v. 20%, P = 0.06). After accounting for BSI source, VAN/CFZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.33, 0.13-0.83) and low APACHE II scores (aOR 1.07, 95% CI 1–1.15) were independently associated with fewer failures. Bivariate outcomes are in table below: Variable, n (%) VAN/CFZ VAN P value Composite failure 10 (24) 31 (52) 0.006 30d mortality 3 (7.3) 5 (8.3) 1 BSI ≥7d 6 (15

  3. Fracture process zone in granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  5. Processes in continental collision zones: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhang, Lifei; McClelland, William C.; Cuthbert, Simon

    2012-04-01

    Formation and exhumation of high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in continental subduction zones are the two fundamental geodynamic aspects of collisional orogensis. This volume is based on the Session 08c titled "Geochemical processes in continental collision zones" at Goldschmidt 2010 in Knoxville, USA. It focuses on micro- to macro-scale processes that are temporally and spatially linked to different depths of crustal subduction/exhumation and associated mineralogical changes. They are a key to understanding a wide spectrum of phenomena, involving HP/UHP metamorphism and syn-/post-collisional magmatism. Papers in this volume report progresses in petrological, geochronological and geochemical studies of UHP metamorphic rocks and their derivatives in China, with tectonic settings varying from arc-continent collision to continent-continent collision. Microbeam in-situ analyses of metamorphic and magmatic minerals are successfully utilized to solve various problems in the study of continental deep subduction and UHP metamorphism. In addition to their geochronological applications to dating of HP to UHP metamorphic events during continental collision, microbeam techniques have also served as an efficient means to recognize different generations of mineral growth during continental subduction-zone metamorphism. Furthermore, metamorphic dehydration and partial melting of UHP metamorphic rocks during subduction and exhumation are highlighted with respect to their effects on fluid action and element mobilization. These have provided new insights into chemical geodynamics in continental subduction zones.

  6. On the bistable zone of milling processes

    PubMed Central

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. PMID:26303918

  7. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) processmore » for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG

  8. Introduction to the structures and processes of subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2017-09-01

    Subduction zones have been the focus of many studies since the advent of plate tectonics in 1960s. Workings within subduction zones beneath volcanic arcs have been of particular interest because they prime the source of arc magmas. The results from magmatic products have been used to decipher the structures and processes of subduction zones. In doing so, many progresses have been made on modern oceanic subduction zones, but less progresses on ancient oceanic subduction zones. On the other hand, continental subduction zones have been studied since findings of coesite in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal origin in 1980s. It turns out that high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens provide a direct target to investigate the tectonism of subduction zones, whereas oceanic and continental arc volcanic rocks in accretionary orogens provide an indirect target to investigate the geochemistry of subduction zones. Nevertheless, metamorphic dehydration and partial melting at high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure conditions are tectonically applicable to subduction zone processes at forearc to subarc depths, and crustal metasomatism is the physicochemical mechanism for geochemical transfer from the slab to the mantle in subduction channels. Taken together, these provide us with an excellent opportunity to find how the metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic products are a function of the structures and processes in both oceanic and continental subduction zones. Because of the change in the thermal structures of subduction zones, different styles of metamorphism, metasomatism and magmatism are produced at convergent plate margins. In addition, juvenile and ancient crustal rocks have often suffered reworking in episodes independent of either accretionary or collisional orogeny, leading to continental rifting metamorphism and thus rifting orogeny for mountain building in intracontinental settings. This brings complexity to distinguish the syn

  9. Introduction to the structures and processes of subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2017-09-01

    Subduction zones have been the focus of many studies since the advent of plate tectonics in 1960s. Workings within subduction zones beneath volcanic arcs have been of particular interest because they prime the source of arc magmas. The results from magmatic products have been used to decipher the structures and processes of subduction zones. In doing so, many progresses have been made on modern oceanic subduction zones, but less progresses on ancient oceanic subduction zones. On the other hand, continental subduction zones have been studied since findings of coesite in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal origin in 1980s. It turns out that high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens provide a direct target to investigate the tectonism of subduction zones, whereas oceanic and continental arc volcanic rocks in accretionary orogens provide an indirect target to investigate the geochemistry of subduction zones. Nevertheless, metamorphic dehydration and partial melting at high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure conditions are tectonically applicable to subduction zone processes at forearc to subarc depths, and crustal metasomatism is the physicochemical mechanism for geochemical transfer from the slab to the mantle in subduction channels. Taken together, these provide us with an excellent opportunity to find how the metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic products are a function of the structures and processes in both oceanic and continental subduction zones. Because of the change in the thermal structures of subduction zones, different styles of metamorphism, metasomatism and magmatism are produced at convergent plate margins. In addition, juvenile and ancient crustal rocks have often suffered reworking in episodes independent of either accretionary or collisional orogeny, leading to continental rifting metamorphism and thus rifting orogeny for mountain building in intracontinental settings. This brings complexity to distinguish the syn

  10. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.H.; Fruehan, R.J.; Elliott, J.F.

    1995-01-03

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal. 8 figures.

  11. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOEpatents

    Cox, James H.; Fruehan, Richard J.; Elliott, deceased, John F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal.

  12. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nathan

    A REZ is a geographical area that enables the development of profitable, cost-effective, grid-connected renewable energy (RE). The REZ Transmission Planning Process is a proactive approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure connecting REZs to the power system which helps to increase the share of solar, wind and other RE resources in the power system while maintaining reliability and economics, and focuses on large-scale wind and solar resources that can be developed in sufficient quantities to warrant transmission system expansion and upgrades.

  13. Float-zone processing in a weightless environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowle, A. A.; Haggerty, J. S.; Perron, R. R.; Strong, P. F.; Swanson, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results were reported of investigations to: (1) test the validity of analyses which set maximum practical diameters for Si crystals that can be processed by the float zone method in a near weightless environment, (2) determine the convective flow patterns induced in a typical float zone, Si melt under conditions perceived to be advantageous to the crystal growth process using flow visualization techniques applied to a dimensionally scaled model of the Si melt, (3) revise the estimates of the economic impact of space produced Si crystal by the float zone method on the U.S. electronics industry, and (4) devise a rational plan for future work related to crystal growth phenomena wherein low gravity conditions available in a space site can be used to maximum benefit to the U.S. electronics industry.

  14. Linking Plagioclase Zoning Patterns to Active Magma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Neill, O. K.; Shcherbakov, V.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Plechov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Plagioclase, one of the most common and abundant mineral phases in volcanic products, will vary in composition in response to changes in temperature, pressure, composition of the ambient silicate melt, and melt H2O concentration. Changes in these parameters may cause dissolution or growth of plagioclase crystals, forming characteristic textural and compositional variations (zoning patterns), the complete core-to-rim sequence of which describes events experienced by an individual crystal from its nucleation to the last moments of its growth. Plagioclase crystals in a typical volcanic rock may look drastically dissimilar despite their spatial proximity and the fact that they have erupted together. Although they shared last moments of their growth during magma ascent and eruption, their prior experiences could be very different, as plagioclase crystals often come from different domains of the same magma system. Distinguishing similar zoning patterns, correlating them across the entire population of plagioclase crystals, and linking these patterns to specific perturbations in the magmatic system may provide additional perspective on the variety, extent, and timing of magma processes at active volcanic systems. Examples of magma processes, which may be distinguished based on plagioclase zoning patterns, include (1) cooling due to heat loss, (2) heating and/or pressure build up due to an input of new magmatic material, (3) pressure drop in response to magma system depressurization, and (4) crystal transfer between different magma domains/bodies. This review will include contrasting examples of zoning patters from recent eruptions of Augustine and Cleveland Volcanoes in Alaska, Sakurajima Volcano in Japan, Karymsky, Bezymianny, and Tolbachik Volcanoes in Kamchatka, as well as from the drilling into an active magma body at Krafla, Iceland.

  15. Linking Plagioclase Zoning Patterns to Active Magma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Neill, O. K.; Shcherbakov, V.; Plechov, P.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Plagioclase, one of the most common and abundant mineral phases in volcanic products, will vary in composition in response to changes in temperature, pressure, composition of the ambient silicate melt, and melt H2O concentration. Changes in these parameters may cause dissolution or growth of plagioclase crystals, forming characteristic textural and compositional variations (zoning patterns), the complete core-to-rim sequence of which describes events experienced by an individual crystal from its nucleation to the last moments of its growth. Plagioclase crystals in a typical volcanic rock may look drastically dissimilar despite their spatial proximity and the fact that they have erupted together. Although they shared last moments of their growth during magma ascent and eruption, their prior experiences could be very different, as plagioclase crystals often come from different domains of the same magma system. Distinguishing similar zoning patterns, correlating them across the entire population of plagioclase crystals, and linking these patterns to specific perturbations in the magmatic system may provide additional perspective on the variety, extent, and timing of magma processes at active volcanic systems. Examples of magma processes, which may be distinguished based on plagioclase zoning patterns, include (1) cooling due to heat loss, (2) heating and/or pressure build up due to an input of new magmatic material, (3) pressure drop in response to magma system depressurization, and (4) crystal transfer between different magma domains/bodies. This review will include contrasting examples of zoning patters from recent eruptions of Karymsky, Bezymianny, and Tolbachik Volcanoes in Kamchatka, Augustine and Cleveland Volcanoes in Alaska, as well as from the drilling into an active magma body at Krafla, Iceland.

  16. Critical zone architecture and processes: a geophysical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    The "critical zone (CZ)," Earth's near-surface layer that reaches from treetop to bedrock, sustains terrestrial life by storing water and producing nutrients. Despite is central importance, however, the CZ remains poorly understood, due in part to the complexity of interacting biogeochemical and physical processes that take place there, and in part due to the difficulty of measuring CZ properties and processes at depth. Major outstanding questions include: What is the architecture of the CZ? How does that architecture vary across scales and across gradients in climate, lithology, topography, biology and regional states of stress? What processes control the architecture of the CZ? At what depth does weathering initiate, and what controls the rates at which it proceeds? Based on recent geophysical campaigns at seven Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) sites and several other locations, a geophysical perspective on CZ architecture and processes is emerging. CZ architecture can be usefully divided into four layers, each of which has distinct geophysical properties: soil, saprolite, weathered bedrock and protolith. The distribution of those layers across landscapes varies depending on protolith composition and internal structure, topography, climate (P/T) and the regional state of stress. Combined observations from deep CZ drilling, geophysics and geochemistry demonstrate that chemical weathering initiates deep in the CZ, in concert with mechanical weathering (fracturing), as chemical weathering appears concentrated along fractures in borehole walls. At the Calhoun CZO, the plagioclase weathering front occurs at nearly 40 m depth, at the base of a 25-m-thick layer of weathered bedrock. The principal boundary in porosity, however, occurs at the saprolite/weathered bedrock boundary: porosity decreases over an order of magnitude, from 50% to 5% over an 8-m-thick zone at the base of saprolite. Porosity in weathered bedrock is between 2-5%. Future progress will depend on (1

  17. Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steve

    2010-05-01

    Through unsustainable land use practices, mining, deforestation, urbanisation and degradation by industrial pollution, soil losses are now hypothesized to be much faster (100 times or more) than soil formation - with the consequence that soil has become a finite resource. The crucial challenge for the international research community is to understand the rates of processes that dictate soil mass stocks and their function within Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). The CZ is the environment where soils are formed, degrade and provide their essential ecosystem services. Key among these ecosystem services are food and fibre production, filtering, buffering and transformation of water, nutrients and contaminants, storage of carbon and maintaining biological habitat and genetic diversity. We have initiated a new research project to address the priority research areas identified in the European Union Soil Thematic Strategy and to contribute to the development of a global network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) committed to soil research. Our hypothesis is that the combined physical-chemical-biological structure of soil can be assessed from first-principles and the resulting soil functions can be quantified in process models that couple the formation and loss of soil stocks with descriptions of biodiversity and nutrient dynamics. The objectives of this research are to 1. Describe from 1st principles how soil structure influences processes and functions of soils, 2. Establish 4 European Critical Zone Observatories to link with established CZOs, 3. Develop a CZ Integrated Model of soil processes and function, 4. Create a GIS-based modelling framework to assess soil threats and mitigation at EU scale, 5. Quantify impacts of changing land use, climate and biodiversity on soil function and its value and 6. Form with international partners a global network of CZOs for soil research and deliver a programme of public outreach and research transfer on soil sustainability. The

  18. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing hasmore » been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the

  19. Processing α-mercuric iodide by zone refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, A.; Morgan, S. H.; Henderson, D. O.; Biao, Y.; Zhang, K.; Silberman, E.; Nason, D.; van den Berg, L.; Ortale-Baccash, C.; Cross, E.

    1993-03-01

    An investigation is being conducted on zone refining α-mercuric iodide. Analytical studies using differential scanning calorimetry and anion chromatography indicate that impurities are accumulated mainly at the end where zone travel terminates. Early results indicate that single crystals can be readily grown from zone-refined material.

  20. 75 FR 15413 - Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1671] Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal Navigation Devices), Fort Worth... & Electronics, an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone 196, has requested processing authority within FTZ 196 in Fort...

  1. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  2. Hyporheic zone as a bioreactor: sediment heterogeneity influencing biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perujo, Nuria; Romani, Anna M.; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean fluvial systems are characterized by frequent periods of low flow or even drought. During low flow periods, water from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is proportionally large in fluvial systems. River water might be vertically transported through the hyporheic zone, and then porous medium acts as a complementary treatment system since, as water infiltrates, a suite of biogeochemical processes occurs. Subsurface sediment heterogeneity plays an important role since it influences the interstitial fluxes of the medium and drives biomass growing, determining biogeochemical reactions. In this study, WWTP water was continuously infiltrated for 3 months through two porous medium tanks: one consisting of 40 cm of fine sediment (homogeneous); and another comprised of two layers of different grain size sediments (heterogeneous), 20 cm of coarse sediment in the upper part and 20 cm of fine one in the bottom. Several hydrological, physicochemical and biological parameters were measured periodically (weekly at the start of the experiment and biweekly at the end). Analysed parameters include dissolved nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and oxygen all measured at the surface, and at 5, 20 and 40 cm depth. Variations in hydraulic conductivity with time were evaluated. Sediment samples were also analysed at three depths (surface, 20 and 40 cm) to determine bacterial density, chlorophyll content, extracellular polymeric substances, and biofilm function (extracellular enzyme activities and carbon substrate utilization profiles). Preliminary results suggest hydraulic conductivity to be the main driver of the differences in the biogeochemical processes occurring in the subsurface. At the heterogeneous tank, a low nutrient reduction throughout the whole medium is measured. In this medium, high hydraulic conductivity allows for a large amount of infiltrating water, but with a small residence time. Since some biological processes are largely time-dependent, small water

  3. Modeling critical zone processes in intensively managed environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Le, Phong; Woo, Dong; Yan, Qina

    2017-04-01

    Processes in the Critical Zone (CZ), which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biochemical, and many other domains over both short and long timescales. In addition, vegetation acclimation resulting from elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, along with response to increased temperature and altered rainfall pattern, is expected to result in emergent behaviors in ecologic and hydrologic functions, subsequently controlling CZ processes. We hypothesize that the interplay between micro-topographic variability and these emergent behaviors will shape complex responses of a range of ecosystem dynamics within the CZ. Here, we develop a modeling framework ('Dhara') that explicitly incorporates micro-topographic variability based on lidar topographic data with coupling of multi-layer modeling of the soil-vegetation continuum and 3-D surface-subsurface transport processes to study ecological and biogeochemical dynamics. We further couple a C-N model with a physically based hydro-geomorphologic model to quantify (i) how topographic variability controls the spatial distribution of soil moisture, temperature, and biogeochemical processes, and (ii) how farming activities modify the interaction between soil erosion and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. To address the intensive computational demand from high-resolution modeling at lidar data scale, we use a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture run over large supercomputing systems for simulations. Our findings indicate that rising CO2 concentration and air temperature have opposing effects on soil moisture, surface water and ponding in topographic depressions. Further, the relatively higher soil moisture and lower soil temperature contribute to decreased soil microbial activities in the low-lying areas due to anaerobic conditions and reduced temperatures. The decreased microbial relevant processes cause the reduction of nitrification rates, resulting in relatively lower nitrate

  4. Manufacturing work and organizational stresses in export processing zones.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2009-10-01

    In the light of global industrialization, much attention has been focused on occupational factors and their influence on the health and welfare of workers. This was a cross sectional study using stratified sampling technique based on industry sizes. The study sampled 24 industries, 6 were small scale industries and 9 each for medium and large scale industries. From the 24 industries, a total of 500 respondents for the questionnaire was taken. For occupational health and safety standards that industries have to comply with, there was low compliance among small-scale industries relative to the medium and large scale industries. Only one industry had an air cleaning device for cleaning contaminated air prior to emission into the external community. Among the 500 respondents, majority were female (88.8%), single (69.6%) and worked in the production or assembly-line station (87.4%). Sickness absenteeism was relative high among the workers in this study accounting for almost 54% among females and 48% among males. Many of the workers also reported of poor performance at work, boredom, tardiness and absenteeism. For association between work factors and personal factors, the following were found to be statistically significant at p=0.05. Boredom was associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotion, disincentives for sick leaves, poor relationship with boss and poor relationships with employers. On the other hand, poor performance was also associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotions, job insecurity, and poor relationship with employers. From the data generated, important issues that must be dealt with in work organizations include the quality of work life, and health and safety issues. Based on these findings, we can conclude that there are still issues on occupational health and safety (OHS) in the target site of export processing zones in the Philippines. There must be an active campaign for OHS in industries that are produce for the global market

  5. Hydrologic processes in deep vadose zones in interdrainage arid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Hogan, James F.; Phillips, Fred M.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2004-01-01

    A unifying theory for the hydrology of desert vadose zones is particularly timely considering the rising population and water stresses in arid and semiarid regions. Conventional models cannot reconcile the apparent discrepancy between upward flow indicated by hydraulic gradient data and downward flow suggested by environmental tracer data in deep vadose zone profiles. A conceptual model described here explains both hydraulic and tracer data remarkably well by incorporating the hydrologic role of desert plants that encroached former juniper woodland 10 to 15 thousand years ago in the southwestern United States. Vapor transport also plays an important role in redistributing moisture through deep soils, particularly in coarse-grained sediments. Application of the conceptual model to several interdrainage arid settings reproduces measured matric potentials and chloride accumulation by simulating the transition from downward flow to upward flow just below the root zone initiated by climate and vegetation change. Model results indicate a slow hydraulic drying response in deep vadose zones that enables matric potential profiles to be used to distinguish whether precipitation episodically percolated below the root zone or was completely removed via evapotranspiration during the majority of the Holocene. Recharge declined dramatically during the Holocene in interdrainage basin floor settings of arid and semiarid basins. Current flux estimates across the water table in these environmental settings, are on the order of 0.01 to 0.1 mm yr-1 and may be recharge (downward) or discharge (upward) depending on vadose zone characteristics, such as soil texture, geothermal gradient, and water table depth. In summary, diffuse recharge through the basin floor probably contributes only minimally to the total recharge in arid and semiarid basins.

  6. Fault zone processes in mechanically layered mudrock and chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrill, David A.; Evans, Mark A.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Morris, Alan P.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Gulliver, Kirk D. H.; Lehrmann, Daniel; de Zoeten, Erich; Sickmann, Zach

    2017-04-01

    A 1.5 km long natural cliff outcrop of nearly horizontal Eagle Ford Formation in south Texas exposes northwest and southeast dipping normal faults with displacements of 0.01-7 m cutting mudrock, chalk, limestone, and volcanic ash. These faults provide analogs for both natural and hydraulically-induced deformation in the productive Eagle Ford Formation - a major unconventional oil and gas reservoir in south Texas, U.S.A. - and other mechanically layered hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fault dips are steep to vertical through chalk and limestone beds, and moderate through mudrock and clay-rich ash, resulting in refracted fault profiles. Steeply dipping fault segments contain rhombohedral calcite veins that cross the fault zone obliquely, parallel to shear segments in mudrock. The vertical dimensions of the calcite veins correspond to the thickness of offset competent beds with which they are contiguous, and the slip parallel dimension is proportional to fault displacement. Failure surface characteristics, including mixed tensile and shear segments, indicate hybrid failure in chalk and limestone, whereas shear failure predominates in mudrock and ash beds - these changes in failure mode contribute to variation in fault dip. Slip on the shear segments caused dilation of the steeper hybrid segments. Tabular sheets of calcite grew by repeated fault slip, dilation, and cementation. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope geochemistry analyses of fault zone cements indicate episodic reactivation at 1.4-4.2 km depths. The results of these analyses document a dramatic bed-scale lithologic control on fault zone architecture that is directly relevant to the development of porosity and permeability anisotropy along faults.

  7. Hybrid zone studies: An interdisciplinary approach for the analysis of evolutionary processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Kim T.

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the ecological and evolutionary literature over the relative importance and rate by which microevolutionary processes operating at the population level result in separation and differentiation of lineages and populations, and ultimately in speciation. Our understanding of evolutionary processes have need greatly enhances through the study of hybridization and hybrid zones. Indeed, hybrid zones have been described as “natural laboratories” (Barton, N. H., and G .M. Hewitt, 189. Adaptation, speciation, and hybrid zones. Nature 341:497-503) or as “windows on the evolutionary processes” (Harrison, R. G. 1990. Hybrid zones: windows on the evolutionary process. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 7:69-128). Hybrid zones greatly facilitate analyses of evolutionary dynamics because differences in factors such as mating preference, fertility, and viability are likely to be magnified, making the consequences easier to document over short periods of time.

  8. The Critical Zone: A Necessary Framework for Understanding Surface Earth Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.

    2016-12-01

    One definition of the critical zone is: the thin veneer of Earth that extends from the top of the vegetation to the base of weathered bedrock. With this definition we can envision the critical zone as a distinct entity with a well-defined top and a fairly well-defined bottom that is distributed across terrestrial earth landscapes. It is a zone of co-evolving processes and, importantly, much of this zone is well below the soil mantle (and commonly more than 10 times thicker than the soil). Weathering advance into fresh bedrock creates a hydrologically-conductive skin that mediates runoff and solute chemistry, stores water used by vegetation, releases water as baseflow to streams, influences soil production and hillslope evolution, and feeds gasses to the atmosphere. Especially in seasonally dry environments, rock moisture in the critical zone, i.e. moisture that is exchangeable and potentially mobile in the matrix and fractures of the bedrock, can be a significant source of water to plants and is a previously unrecognized large component of the water budget that matters to climate models. First observations on the systematic variation of the critical zone across hillslopes have led to four distinct theories representing four distinct processes for what controls the depth to fresh bedrock (and thus the thickness of this zone across a hillslope). These theories are motivating geophysical surveys, deep drilling, and other actions to parameterize and explore the power of these models. Studies at the NSF-supported Critical Zone Observatories have taught us that the critical zone is an entity and that enduring field studies reveal key processes. A challenge we now face is how to include this emerging understanding of the critical zone into models of reactive transport, hydrologic processes and water supply, critical zone structure, landscape evolution, and climate.

  9. Characteristics of diffusion zone in changing glass-metal composite processing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, O. N.; Morkovin, A. V.; Andreev, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of manufacturing technology on the characteristics of the glass and steel contact zone in manufacturing new structural material - glass-metal composite is studied theoretically and experimentally. Different types of structures in the contact zone and its dimensions affect the strength characteristics of the composite. Knowledge about changing the width of the glass and steel contact zone after changing such parameters of the technological regime as temperature, holding time and use of solders will allow one to control the structure and characteristics of the glass-metal composite. Experimental measurements of the width of the diffusion zone in the glass-metal composite for different regimes and their statistical processing according to the full factor experiment are presented in this article. The results of analysis of some mechanical characteristics of the diffusion zone are presented: microhardness and modulus of elasticity for samples, prepared according to different processing regimes.

  10. Geophysical study of the structure and processes of the continental convergence zones: Alpine-Himalayan belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.; Molnar, P.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the structure of the continental collision zones using seismic and body waves, theoretical modelling of the thermal regime of the convergence processes, and studies of earthquake mechanisms and deformation aspects of the model are covered.

  11. High rates of organic carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Ryan M; Rutlidge, Helen; Bond, Nick R; Eberhard, Stefan M; Auhl, Alexandra; Andersen, Martin S; Valdez, Dominic G; Kennard, Mark J

    2017-10-16

    Organic carbon cycling is a fundamental process that underpins energy transfer through the biosphere. However, little is known about the rates of particulate organic carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams, which is often the only wetted environment remaining when surface flows cease. We used leaf litter and cotton decomposition assays, as well as rates of microbial respiration, to quantify rates of organic carbon processing in surface and hyporheic environments of intermittent and perennial streams under a range of substrate saturation conditions. Leaf litter processing was 48% greater, and cotton processing 124% greater, in the hyporheic zone compared to surface environments when calculated over multiple substrate saturation conditions. Processing was also greater in more saturated surface environments (i.e. pools). Further, rates of microbial respiration on incubated substrates in the hyporheic zone were similar to, or greater than, rates in surface environments. Our results highlight that intermittent streams are important locations for particulate organic carbon processing and that the hyporheic zone sustains this fundamental process even without surface flow. Not accounting for carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams may lead to an underestimation of its local ecological significance and collective contribution to landscape carbon processes.

  12. Ultrasonic probing of the fracture process zone in rock using surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, P. L.; Spetzler, H.

    1984-01-01

    A microcrack process zone is frequently suggested to accompany macrofractures in rock and play an important role in the resistance to fracture propagation. Attenuation of surface waves propagating through mode I fractures in wedge-loaded double-cantilever beam specimens of Westerly granite has been recorded in an attempt to characterize the structure of the fracture process zone. The ultrasonic measurements do not support the generally accepted model of a macroscopic fracture that incrementally propagates with the accompaniment of a cloud of microcracks. Instead, fractures in Westerly granite appear to form as gradually separating surfaces within a zone having a width of a few millimeters and a length of several tens of millimeters. A fracture process zone of this size would necessitate the use of meter-sized specimens in order for linear elastic fracture mechanics to be applicable.

  13. Description of algorithms for processing Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zion, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The algorithms for processing coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data to geophysical units (pigment concentration) are described. Current public domain information for processing these data is summarized. Calibration, atmospheric correction, and bio-optical algorithms are presented. Three CZCS data processing implementations are compared.

  14. Reactor Meltdown: Critical Zone Processes In Siliciclastics Unlikely To Be Directly Transferable To Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulley, J. D.; Cohen, M. J.; Kramer, M. G.; Martin, J. B.; Graham, W. D.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonate terrains cover 20% of Earth's ice-free land and are modified through interactions between rocks, water and biota that couple ecosystems processes to weathering reactions within the critical zone. Weathering in carbonate systems differs from the Critical Zone Reactor model developed for siliciclastic systems because reactions in siliciclastic critical zones largely consist of incongruent weathering (e.g., feldspar to secondary clay minerals) that typically occur in the soil zone within a few meters of the land surface. These incongruent reactions create regolith, which is removed by physical transport mechanisms that drive landscape denudation. In contrast, carbonate critical zones are mostly composed of homogeneous and soluble minerals, which dissolve congruently with the weathering products exported in solution, limiting regolith in the soil mantle to small amounts of insoluble residues. These reactions can extend to depths greater than 2 km below the surface. As water at the land surface drains preferentially through vertical joints and horizontal bedding planes of the carbonate critical zones, it is 'charged' with biologically-derived carbon dioxide, which decreases pH, dissolves carbonate rock, and enlarges subsurface flowpaths through feedbacks between flow and dissolution. Caves are extreme end products of this process and are key morphological features of carbonate critical zones. Caves link surface processes to the deep subsurface and serve as efficient delivery agents for oxygen, carbon and nutrients to zones within the critical zone that are deficient in all three, interrupting vertical and horizontal chemical gradients that would exist if caves were not present. We present select data from air and water-filled caves in the upper Floridan aquifer, Florida, USA, that demonstrate how caves, acting as very large preferential flow paths, alter processes in carbonate relative to siliciclastic critical zones. While caves represent an extreme end

  15. Microstructure characterization of the stir zone of submerged friction stir processed aluminum alloy 2219

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiuli, E-mail: feng.97@osu.edu; State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001; Liu, Huijie, E-mail: liuhj@hit.edu.cn

    Aluminum alloy 2219-T6 was friction stir processed using a novel submerged processing technique to facilitate cooling. Processing was conducted at a constant tool traverse speed of 200 mm/min and spindle rotation speeds in the range from 600 to 800 rpm. The microstructural characteristics of the base metal and processed zone, including grain structure and precipitation behavior, were studied using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microhardness maps were constructed on polished cross sections of as-processed samples. The effect of tool rotation speed on the microstructure and hardness of the stir zone was investigated. Themore » average grain size of the stir zone was much smaller than that of the base metal, but the hardness was also lower due to the formation of equilibrium θ precipitates from the base metal θ′ precipitates. Stir zone hardness was found to decrease with increasing rotation speed (heat input). The effect of processing conditions on strength (hardness) was rationalized based on the competition between grain refinement strengthening and softening due to precipitate overaging. - Highlights: • SZ grain size (∼ 1 μm) is reduced by over one order of magnitude relative to the BM. • Hardness in the SZ is lower than that of the precipitation strengthened BM. • Metastable θ′ in the base metal transforms to equilibrium θ in the stir zone. • Softening in the SZ results from a decrease of precipitation strengthening.« less

  16. Subglacial till formation: Microscale processes within the subglacial shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Jane K.

    2017-08-01

    This was a study of subglacial deformation till genesis from a modern temperate glacier, at Skálafellsjökull, Iceland. Detailed microscale properties of till samples (from Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM] and thin section analysis) were examined from a glacial site with in situ subglacial process monitoring and an exposed subglacial surface in the foreland. Two lithofacies were examined, a grey sandy till derived from the ash and basalt, and a silty reddish brown till derived from oxidized paleosols and/or tephra layers. These also represented a clay-content continuum from low (0.3%) to high (22.3%). The evolution from debris to subglacial till was investigated. This included a reduction in grain-size (21% for grey lithology, 13% reddish brown lithology), and reduction in rounding (RA) (32% for the grey lithology, 26% for the reddish brown lithology), and the quantification and analysis of the different grain erosion/comminution processes in the resultant till. It was shown that the microstructures within a till were dependent on shear strain and glaciological conditions (deformation history). The low clay content tills were dominated by linear structures (lineations and boudins, and anisotropic microfabric) whilst the higher clay content tills were dominated by rotational structures (turbates and plaster, and isotropic microfabric). These results are important in our understanding of the formation of both modern and Quaternary tills and informs our reconstruction of past glacial dynamics.

  17. Extraction of process zones and low-dimensional attractive subspaces in stochastic fracture mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Kerfriden, P.; Schmidt, K.M.; Rabczuk, T.; Bordas, S.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose to identify process zones in heterogeneous materials by tailored statistical tools. The process zone is redefined as the part of the structure where the random process cannot be correctly approximated in a low-dimensional deterministic space. Such a low-dimensional space is obtained by a spectral analysis performed on pre-computed solution samples. A greedy algorithm is proposed to identify both process zone and low-dimensional representative subspace for the solution in the complementary region. In addition to the novelty of the tools proposed in this paper for the analysis of localised phenomena, we show that the reduced space generated by the method is a valid basis for the construction of a reduced order model. PMID:27069423

  18. Low-Temperature Thermochronology for Unraveling Thermal Processes and Dating of Fault Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagami, T.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal signatures as well as timing of fault motions can be constrained by thermochronological analyses of fault-zone rocks (e.g., Tagami, 2012). Fault-zone materials suitable for such analyses are produced by tectocic and geochemical processes, such as (1) mechanical fragmentation of host rocks, grain-size reduction of fragments and recrystallization of grains to form mica and clay minerals, (2) secondary heating/melting of host rocks by frictional fault motions, and (3) mineral vein formation as a consequence of fluid advection associated with fault motions. The geothermal structure of fault zones are primarily controlled by the following three factors: (a) regional geothermal structure around the fault zone that reflect background thermo-tectonic history of studied province, (b) frictional heating of wall rocks by fault motions and resultant heat transfer into surrounding rocks, and (c) thermal influences by hot fluid advection in and around the fault zone. Thermochronological methods widely applied in fault zones are K-Ar (40Ar/39Ar), fission-track (FT), and U-Th methods. In addition, OSL, TL, ESR and (U-Th)/He methods are applied in some fault zones, in order to extract temporal imformation related to low temperature and/or very recent fault activities. Here I briefly review the thermal sensitivity of individual thermochronological systems, which basically controls the response of each method against faulting processes. Then, the thermal sensitivity of FTs is highlighted, with a particular focus on the thermal processes characteristic to fault zones, i.e., flash and hydrothermal heating. On these basis, representative examples as well as key issues, including sampling strategy, are presented to make thermochronologic analysis of fault-zone materials, such as fault gouges, pseudotachylytes and mylonites, along with geological, geomorphological and seismological implications. Finally, the thermochronologic analyses of the Nojima fault are overviewed, as an

  19. Tracing long-term vadose zone processes at the Nevada Test Site, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James R.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear weapons testing programme of the USA has released radionuclides to the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site. One of these tests has been used to study the hydrological transport of radionuclides for over 25 years in groundwater and the deep unsaturated zone. Ten years after the weapon’s test, a 16 year groundwater pumping experiment was initiated to study the mobility of radionuclides from that test in an alluvial aquifer. The continuously pumped groundwater was released into an unlined ditch where some of the water infiltrated into the 200 m deep vadose zone. The pumped groundwater had well-characterized tritium activities that were utilized to trace water migration in the shallow and deep vadose zones. Within the near-surface vadose zone, tritium levels in the soil water are modelled by a simple one-dimensional, analytical wetting front model. In the case of the near-surface soils at the Cambric Ditch experimental site, water flow and salt accumulation appear to be dominated by rooted vegetation, a mechanism not included within the wetting front model. Simulation results from a two-dimensional vadose groundwater flow model illustrate the dominance of vertical flow in the vadose zone and the recharge of the aquifer with the pumped groundwater. The long-time series of hydrological data provides opportunities to understand contaminant transport processes better in the vadose zone with an appropriate level of modelling. PMID:21785525

  20. 75 FR 64248 - Approval for Processing Authority Foreign-Trade Zones 73 and 74; The Belt's Corporation (Kitting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1713] Approval for Processing Authority Foreign-Trade Zones 73 and 74; The Belt's Corporation (Kitting of Liquor Gift Sets), Elkridge and Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U...

  1. Zoned chondrules in Semarkona: Evidence for high-and low-temperature processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.; Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Wang, Jingyuan; Brearley, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    At least 15% of the low-FeO chondrules in Semarkona (LL3.0) have mesostases that are concentrically zoned in Na, with enrichments near the outer margins. We have studied zoned chondrules using electron microprobe methods (x-ray mapping plus quantitative analysis), ion micropobe analysis for trace elements and hydrogen isotopes, cathodoluminescence imaging, and transmission electron microscopy in order to determine what these objects can tell us about the environment in which chondrules formed and evolved. Mesostases in these chondrules are strongly zoned in all moderately volatile elements and H (interpreted as water). Calcium is depleted in areas of volatile enrichment. Titanium and Cr generally decrease toward the chondrule surfaces, whereas Al and Si may either increase or decrease, generally in opposite directions to one another; Mn follows Na in some chondrules but not in others; Fe and Mg are unzoned. D/H ratios increase in the water-rich areas of zoned chondrules. Mesostasis shows cathodoluminescence zoning in most zoned chondrules, with the brightest yellow color near the outside. Mesostasis in zoned chondrules appears to be glassy, with no evidence for devitrification. Systematic variations in zoning patterns among pyroxene- and olivine-rich chondrules may indicate that fractionation of low- and high-Ca pyroxene played some role in Ti, Cr, Mn, Si, Al, and some Ca zoning. But direct condensation of elements into hot chondrules, secondary melting of late condensates into the outer portions of chondrules, and subsolidus diffusion of elements into warm chondrules cannot account for the sub-parallel zoning profiles of many elements, the presence of H2O, or elemental abundance patterns. Zoning of moderately volatile elements and Ca may have been produced by hydration of chondrule glass without devitrification during aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. This could have induced structural changes in the glass allowing rapid diffusion and exchange of elements

  2. Recovery of Nitrogen Pools and Processes in Degraded Riparian Zones in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    John T. Walker; James M. Vose; Jennifer Knoepp; Christopher D. Geron

    2009-01-01

    Establishment of riparian buffers is an effective method for reducing nutrient input to streams. However, the underlying biogeochemical processes are not fully understood. The objective of this 4-yr study was to examine the effects of riparian zone restoration on soil N cycling mechanisms in a mountain pasture previously degraded by cattle. Soil inorganic N pools,...

  3. Fault zone hydrogeologic properties and processes revealed by borehole temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution borehole temperature monitoring can provide valuable insight into the hydrogeologic structure of fault zones and transient processes that affect fault zone stability. Here we report on results from a subseafloor temperature observatory within the Japan Trench plate boundary fault. In our efforts to interpret this unusual dataset, we have developed several new methods for probing hydrogeologic properties and processes. We illustrate how spatial variations in the thermal recovery of the borehole after drilling and other spectral characteristics provide a measure of the subsurface permeability architecture. More permeable zones allow for greater infiltration of cool drilling fluids, are more greatly thermally disturbed, and take longer to recover. The results from the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) observatory are consistent with geophysical logs, core data, and other hydrologic observations and suggest a permeable damage zone consisting of steeply dipping faults and fractures overlays a low-permeability clay-rich plate boundary fault. Using high-resolution time series data, we have also developed methods to map out when and where fluid advection occurs in the subsurface over time. In the JFAST data, these techniques reveal dozens of transient earthquake-driven fluid pulses that are spatially correlated and consistently located around inferred permeable areas of the fault damage zone. These observations are suspected to reflect transient fluid flow driven by pore pressure changes in response to dynamic and/or static stresses associated with nearby earthquakes. This newly recognized hydrologic phenomenon has implications for understanding subduction zone heat and chemical transport as well as the redistribution of pore fluid pressure which influences fault stability and can trigger other earthquakes.

  4. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system.

  5. Compositional Zoning in Kilauea Olivine: A Geochemical Tool for Investigating Magmatic Processes at Hawaiian Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Kendra J.

    Olivine compositions and zoning patterns have been widely used to investigate the evolution of magmas from their source to the Earthfs surface. Modeling the formation of compositional zoning in olivine crystals has been used to retrieve timescales of magma residence, mixing, and transit. This dissertation is composed of three projects that apply diffusion chronometry principles to investigate how zoned olivine phenocrysts record magmatic processes at Hawaiian volcanoes. Olivine phenocrysts from K.lauea, the most active and thoroughly studied volcano in Hawaiei, are used to develop a better understanding of how Hawaiian olivine crystals record magmatic histories. This work begins by examining how crustal processes such as magma mixing and diffusive reequilibration can modify olivine compositions inherited from growth in parental magmas (Chapter 2). Diffusive re-equilibration of Fe-Mg, Mn, and Ni in olivine crystals overprints the chemical relationships inherited during growth, which strongly impacts interpretations about mantle processes and source components. These issues are further complicated by sectioning effects, where small (400 ƒEm along the c-axis) olivine crystals are more susceptible to overprinting compared to large (800 ƒEm) crystals. Olivine compositions and zoning patterns are then used to show that magmas during K.laueafs explosive Keanak.koei Tephra period (1500-1823 C.E.) were mixed and stored in crustal reservoirs for weeks to months prior to eruption (Chapter 3). Fe-Mg disequilibrium between olivine rims and their surrounding glasses show that a late-stage mixing event likely occurred hours to days prior to eruption, but the exact timescale is difficult to quantify using Fe-Mg and Ni diffusion. Lithium, a rapidly diffusing trace element in olivine, is modeled for the first time in a natural volcanic system to quantify this late-stage, short-duration mixing event (Chapter 4). Lithium zoning in olivine records both growth and diffusion processes

  6. The Ansel Adams zone system: HDR capture and range compression by chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    2010-02-01

    We tend to think of digital imaging and the tools of PhotoshopTM as a new phenomenon in imaging. We are also familiar with multiple-exposure HDR techniques intended to capture a wider range of scene information, than conventional film photography. We know about tone-scale adjustments to make better pictures. We tend to think of everyday, consumer, silver-halide photography as a fixed window of scene capture with a limited, standard range of response. This description of photography is certainly true, between 1950 and 2000, for instant films and negatives processed at the drugstore. These systems had fixed dynamic range and fixed tone-scale response to light. All pixels in the film have the same response to light, so the same light exposure from different pixels was rendered as the same film density. Ansel Adams, along with Fred Archer, formulated the Zone System, staring in 1940. It was earlier than the trillions of consumer photos in the second half of the 20th century, yet it was much more sophisticated than today's digital techniques. This talk will describe the chemical mechanisms of the zone system in the parlance of digital image processing. It will describe the Zone System's chemical techniques for image synthesis. It also discusses dodging and burning techniques to fit the HDR scene into the LDR print. Although current HDR imaging shares some of the Zone System's achievements, it usually does not achieve all of them.

  7. Quantifying Hydro-biogeochemical Model Sensitivity in Assessment of Climate Change Effect on Hyporheic Zone Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Chen, X.; Dai, H.; Hammond, G. E.; Song, H. S.; Stegen, J.

    2016-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is an active region for biogeochemical processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling, where the groundwater and surface water mix and interact with each other with distinct biogeochemical and thermal properties. The biogeochemical dynamics within the hyporheic zone are driven by both river water and groundwater hydraulic dynamics, which are directly affected by climate change scenarios. Besides that, the hydraulic and thermal properties of local sediments and microbial and chemical processes also play important roles in biogeochemical dynamics. Thus for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in the hyporheic zone, a coupled thermo-hydro-biogeochemical model is needed. As multiple uncertainty sources are involved in the integrated model, it is important to identify its key modules/parameters through sensitivity analysis. In this study, we develop a 2D cross-section model in the hyporheic zone at the DOE Hanford site adjacent to Columbia River and use this model to quantify module and parametric sensitivity on assessment of climate change. To achieve this purpose, We 1) develop a facies-based groundwater flow and heat transfer model that incorporates facies geometry and heterogeneity characterized from a field data set, 2) derive multiple reaction networks/pathways from batch experiments with in-situ samples and integrate temperate dependent reactive transport modules to the flow model, 3) assign multiple climate change scenarios to the coupled model by analyzing historical river stage data, 4) apply a variance-based global sensitivity analysis to quantify scenario/module/parameter uncertainty in hierarchy level. The objectives of the research include: 1) identifing the key control factors of the coupled thermo-hydro-biogeochemical model in the assessment of climate change, and 2) quantify the carbon consumption in different climate change scenarios in the hyporheic zone.

  8. Analytical Hierarchy Process modeling for malaria risk zones in Vadodara district, Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, B.; Joshi, J. P.

    2014-11-01

    Malaria epidemic is one of the complex spatial problems around the world. According to WHO, an estimated 6, 27, 000 deaths occurred due to malaria in 2012. In many developing nations with diverse ecological regions, it is still a large cause of human mortality. Owing to the incompleteness of epidemiological data and their spatial origin, the quantification of disease incidence burdening basic public health planning is a major constrain especially in developing countries. The present study focuses on the integrated Geospatial and Multi-Criteria Evaluation (AHP) technique to determine malaria risk zones. The study is conducted in Vadodara district, including 12 Taluka among which 4 Taluka are predominantly tribal. The influence of climatic and physical environmental factors viz., rainfall, hydro geomorphology; drainage, elevation, and land cover are used to score their share in the evaluation of malariogenic condition. This was synthesized on the basis of preference over each factor and the total weights of each data and data layer were computed and visualized. The district was divided into three viz., high, moderate and low risk zones .It was observed that a geographical area of 1885.2sq.km comprising 30.3% fall in high risk zone. The risk zones identified on the basis of these parameters and assigned weights shows a close resemblance with ground condition. As the API distribution for 2011overlaid corresponds to the risk zones identified. The study demonstrates the significance and prospect of integrating Geospatial tools and Analytical Hierarchy Process for malaria risk zones and dynamics of malaria transmission.

  9. Implications of contact metamorphism of Mancos Shale for critical zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarre-Sitchler, A.

    2016-12-01

    Bedrock lithology imparts control on some critical zone processes, for example rates and extent of chemical weathering, solute release though mineral dissolution, and water flow. Bedrock can be very heterogeneous resulting in spatial variability of these processes throughout a catchment. In the East River watershed outside of Crested Butte, Colorado, bedrock is dominantly comprised of the Mancos Shale; a Cretaceous aged, organic carbon rich marine shale. However, in some areas the Mancos Shale appears contact metamorphosed by nearby igneous intrusions resulting in a potential gradient in lithologic change in part of the watershed where impacts of lithology on critical zone processes can be evaluated. Samples were collected in the East River valley along a transect from the contact between the Tertiary Gothic Mountain laccolith of the Mount Carbon igneous system and the underlying Manocs shale. Porosity of these samples was analyzed by small-angle and ultra small-angle neutron scattering. Results indicate contact metamorphism decreases porosity of the shale and changes the pore shape from slightly anisotropic pores aligned with bedding in the unmetamorphosed shale to isotropic pores with no bedding alignment in the metamorphosed shales. The porosity analysis combined with clay mineralogy, surface area, carbon content and oxidation state, and solute release rates determined from column experiments will be used to develop a full understanding of the impact of contact metamorphism on critical zone processes in the East River.

  10. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  11. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was...

  12. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Activities Plan § 285.647 How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone...

  13. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  14. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your GAP will be processed based on how your limited lease, ROW...

  15. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process: A Guidebook for Practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nathan; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Hurlbut, David J.

    Achieving clean energy goals may require new investments in transmission, especially if planners anticipate economic growth and increased demand for electricity. The renewable energy zone (REZ) transmission planning process can help policymakers ensure their infrastructure investments achieve national goals in the most economical manner. Policymakers, planners, and system operators around the world have used variations of the REZ process to chart the expansion of their transmission networks and overcome the barriers of traditional transmission planning. This guidebook seeks to help power system planners, key decision makers, and stakeholders understand and use the REZ transmission planning process to integrate transmission expansionmore » planning and renewable energy generation planning.« less

  16. Borehole Time Domain Reflectometry in Layered Sandstone: Impact of Measurement Technique on Vadose Zone Process Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J.; Truss, S. W.

    2004-12-01

    An investigation is reported into the hydraulic behaviour of the vadose zone of a layered sandstone aquifer using borehole-based Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). TDR has been widely applied to shallow soils but has seen limited application at greater depth and in cemented lithologies due to the difficulty of installing conventional TDR probes in rock and from boreholes. Here, flat TDR probes that are simply in contact with, rather than inserted within the medium under investigation, have been developed and applied in a field study. Both a commercially available portable packer TDR system (TRIME-B3L Borehole Packer Probe) and specially designed TDR probes, permanently installed in boreholes on grouted-in packers were used to monitor seasonal fluctuations in moisture content in the vadose zone of a layered sandstone over one year under natural rainfall loading. The data show that the vadose zone contains seasonal perched water tables that form when downward percolating moisture reaches layers of fine grained sandstone and siltstone and causes local saturation. The formation of perched water tables is likely to lead to lateral flow bypassing the less permeable, finer layers. This contrasts with behaviour inferred from previous studies of the same aquifer that used borehole radar and resistivity, which suggested its vadose zone behaviour was characterized by uniform downwards migration of wetting fronts. To investigate the impact of measurement technique on observed response, the TDR data reported here were used to produce simulated zero offset profile (ZOP) borehole radar responses. This simulation confirmed the limited ability of ZOP borehole radar to detect key vadose zone processes, because the phenomenon of critical refraction minimizes the sensitivity of the results to high moisture content layers. The study illustrates that inappropriate technique selection results in hydrological process mis-identification, with serious consequences for the usefulness of data

  17. Rupture process of large earthquakes in the northern Mexico subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, Larry J.; Miller, Angus D.

    1994-03-01

    The Cocos plate subducts beneath North America at the Mexico trench. The northernmost segment of this trench, between the Orozco and Rivera fracture zones, has ruptured in a sequence of five large earthquakes from 1973 to 1985; the Jan. 30, 1973 Colima event ( M s 7.5) at the northern end of the segment near Rivera fracture zone; the Mar. 14, 1979 Petatlan event ( M s 7.6) at the southern end of the segment on the Orozco fracture zone; the Oct. 25, 1981 Playa Azul event ( M s 7.3) in the middle of the Michoacan “gap”; the Sept. 19, 1985 Michoacan mainshock ( M s 8.1); and the Sept. 21, 1985 Michoacan aftershock ( M s 7.6) that reruptured part of the Petatlan zone. Body wave inversion for the rupture process of these earthquakes finds the best: earthquake depth; focal mechanism; overall source time function; and seismic moment, for each earthquake. In addition, we have determined spatial concentrations of seismic moment release for the Colima earthquake, and the Michoacan mainshock and aftershock. These spatial concentrations of slip are interpreted as asperities; and the resultant asperity distribution for Mexico is compared to other subduction zones. The body wave inversion technique also determines the Moment Tensor Rate Functions; but there is no evidence for statistically significant changes in the moment tensor during rupture for any of the five earthquakes. An appendix describes the Moment Tensor Rate Functions methodology in detail. The systematic bias between global and regional determinations of epicentral locations in Mexico must be resolved to enable plotting of asperities with aftershocks and geographic features. We have spatially “shifted” all of our results to regional determinations of epicenters. The best point source depths for the five earthquakes are all above 30 km, consistent with the idea that the down-dip edge of the seismogenic plate interface in Mexico is shallow compared to other subduction zones. Consideration of uncertainties in

  18. The effect of welding line heat-affected-zone on the formability of tube hydroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChiuHuang, Cheng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-En; Lee, Ping-Kun

    2016-08-01

    Tube hydroforming has been used as a lightweight design approach to reduce CO2 emission for the automotive industry. For the high strength steel tube, the strength and quality of the welding line is very important for a successful tube hydroforming process. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the welding line's strength and the width of the heat-affected zone on the tube thinning during the hydroforming process. The simulation results show that both factors play an important role on the thickness distribution during the tube expansion.

  19. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part I. Model validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process-based modeling provides detailed spatial and temporal information of the soil environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone across field topography where measurements of soil temperature and water may not sufficiently describe the zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the...

  20. 30 CFR 585.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 585.612 Section 585.612 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Plan § 585.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  1. 30 CFR 585.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 585.612 Section 585.612 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Plan § 585.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  2. Recharge processes in an alluvial aquifer riparian zone, Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha; Christenson, Scott; Cozzarelli, Isabelle; Ferree, Dale; Jaeshke, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of stable isotope profiles (d2H and d18O) in the saturated zone, combined with water-table fluctuations, gave a comprehensive picture of recharge processes in an alluvial aquifer riparian zone. At the Norman Landfill U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology research site in Norman, Oklahoma, recharge to the aquifer appears to drive biodegradation, contributing fresh supplies of electron acceptors for the attenuation of leachate compounds from the landfill. Quantifying recharge is a first step in studying this process in detail. Both chemical and physical methods were used to estimate recharge. Chemical methods included measuring the increase in recharge water in the saturated zone, as defined by isotopic signature, specific conductance or chloride measurements; and infiltration rate estimates using storm event isotopic signatures. Physical methods included measurement of water-table rise after individual rain events and on an approximately monthly time scale. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated using diurnal watertable fluctuations; outflux of water from the alluvial aquifer during the growing season had a large effect on net recharge at the site. Evaporation and methanogenesis gave unique isotopic signatures to different sources of water at the site, allowing the distinction of recharge using the offset of the isotopic signature from the local meteoric water line. The downward movement of water from large, isotopically depleted rain events in the saturated zone yielded recharge rate estimates (2.2 - 3.3 mm/day), and rates also were determined by observing changes in thickness of the layer of infiltrated recharge water at the top of the saturated zone (1.5 - 1.6 mm/day). Recharge measured over 2 years (1998-2000) in two locations at the site averaged 37 percent of rainfall, however, part of this water had only a short residence time in the aquifer. Isotopes showed recharge water entering the ground-water system in winter and spring, then being

  3. Boron isotopes at the catchment scale, a new potential tool to infer critical zone processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Noireaux, J.; Braun, J. J.; Riotte, J.; Louvat, P.; Bouchez, J.; Lemarchand, D.; Muddu, S.; Mohan Kumar, M.; Candaudap, F.

    2017-12-01

    Boron is a mid-mass element that has two isotopes, 10B and 11B. These isotopes are largely fractioned by a number of chemical, biological and physical processes. Boron as a great affinity for clays and is useful for life, making it a double tracer of critical zone processes. This study focuses on the Mule Hole Critical Zone Observatory in South India. This is part of the French Research Infrastructure OZCAR and has benefited from the fruitful Indo-French collaboration (Indo-French Cell for Water Sciences) for more that 15 years. Boron and its isotopes were measured in the different compartment of the CZ in Mule Hole, vegetation, atmosphere, throughfall, soil, soil water, river water and compared to the behavior of other elements. The well constrained hydrology in Mule Hole allowed us to calculate the main fluxes affecting boron in the Critical Zone and came to the first order conclusion that the recycling of boron by vegetation is by far the most important flux within the system, reaching 15-20 times the catchment outlet flux. From an isotopic point of view, the total range of variation is measured between -3 ‰ and 77‰, with a bedrock value at 10‰ in classical delta unit, making boron a well suited tracer for constraining CZ processes. The flux of boron most enriched in heavy boron is the throughfall, showing the importance of biological processes in controlling the boron isotopic composition of the stream. Boron in soils in depleted in the heavy isotope but is enriched in boron compared to the bedrock, a surprising situation that we interpret as the legacy of a previous stage of transient weathering. These results indicate a strong decoupling between the behaviors of boron at the surface of the CZ and at depth.

  4. Technical Potential Assessment for the Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Process: A GIS-Based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nathan; Roberts, Billy J

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based energy resource and technical potential assessments identify areas capable of supporting high levels of renewable energy (RE) development as part of a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning process. This document expands on the REZ Process to aid practitioners in conducting GIS-based RE resource and technical potential assessments. The REZ process is an approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure that connects REZs - geographic areas that have high-quality RE resources, suitable topography and land-use designations, and demonstrated developer interest - to the power system. The REZ process helps to increase the share of solarmore » photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other resources while also maintaining reliability and economics.« less

  5. Time-alternating method based on single-sideband holography with half-zone-plate processing for the enlargement of viewing zones.

    PubMed

    Mishina, T; Okano, F; Yuyama, I

    1999-06-10

    The single-sideband method of holography, as is well known, cuts off beams that come from conjugate images for holograms produced in the Fraunhofer region and from objects with no phase components. The single-sideband method with half-zone-plate processing is also effective in the Fresnel region for beams from an object that has phase components. However, this method restricts the viewing zone to a narrow range. We propose a method to improve this restriction by time-alternating switching of hologram patterns and a spatial filter set on the focal plane of a reconstruction lens.

  6. Strain heating in process zones; implications for metamorphism and partial melting in the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devès, Maud H.; Tait, Stephen R.; King, Geoffrey C. P.; Grandin, Raphaël

    2014-05-01

    Since the late 1970s, most earth scientists have discounted the plausibility of melting by shear-strain heating because temperature-dependent creep rheology leads to negative feedback and self-regulation. This paper presents a new model of distributed shear-strain heating that can account for the genesis of large volumes of magmas in both the crust and the mantle of the lithosphere. The kinematic (geometry and rates) frustration associated with incompatible fault junctions (e.g. triple-junction) prevents localisation of all strain on the major faults. Instead, deformation distributes off the main faults forming a large process zone that deforms still at high rates under both brittle and ductile conditions. The increased size of the shear-heated region minimises conductive heat loss, compared with that commonly associated with narrow shear zones, thus promoting strong heating and melting under reasonable rheological assumptions. Given the large volume of the heated zone, large volumes of melt can be generated even at small melt fractions.

  7. Biologically-Oriented Processes in the Coastal Sea Ice Zone of the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, I. A.

    2002-12-01

    The annual advance and retreat of sea ice is a major physical determinant of spatial and temporal changes in the structure and function of marine coastal biological communities. Sea ice biological data obtained in the tidal zone of Kandalaksha Gulf (White Sea) during 1996-2001 period will be presented. Previous observations in this area were mainly conducted during the ice-free summer season. However, there is little information on the ice-covered winter season (6-7 months duration), and, especially, on the sea-ice biology in the coastal zone within tidal regimes. During the January-May period time-series observations were conducted on transects along shorelines with coastal and fast ice. Trends in the annual extent of sea ice showed significant impacts on ice-associated biological communities. Three types of sea ice impact on kelps, balanoides, littorinas and amphipods are distinguished: (i) positive, when sea ice protects these populations from grinding (ii) negative, when ice grinds both fauna and flora, and (iii) a combined effect, when fast ice protects, but anchored ice grinds plant and animals. To understand the full spectrum of ecological problems caused by pollution on the coastal zone, as well as the problems of sea ice melting caused by global warming, an integrated, long-term study of the physical, chemical, and biological processes is needed.

  8. Experimental study of boron geochemistry: implications for fluid processes in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C. F.; Spivack, A. J.; Gieskes, J. M.; Rosenbauer, R.; Bischoff, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    A comprehensive experimental study, utilizing an autoclave hydrothermal apparatus with a 10B isotopic tracer, has been conducted to monitor the geochemical behavior of sediment B during early subduction zone processes. The partition coefficient of exchangeable B ( K D) was determined over a temperature range of 25-350°C, at 800 bars and a water/rock ratio of 3-1.5 w/w. These K D are shown to be a complex function of temperature, pH, and possibly mineralogy. At low temperatures, K D is significantly high at ˜4 in contrast to the value of essentially zero at temperatures higher than ˜100°C. A K D of zero represents no B adsorption, implying efficient mobilization of exchangeable B at shallow depths during sediment subduction. Our experimental results demonstrate high mobilization of bulk B in sediments (both exchangeable and lattice bound) at elevated temperatures (200-350°C), in good agreement with previous observations of B in metasediments indicating progressive depletion during metamorphism. In addition, this study emphasizes the importance of a possible water/rock ratio dependence of B mobilization. In other words, the degree of sedimentary B mobilization in subduction zones strongly depends on the local thermal structure and porosity distribution. In low geothermal gradient areas, large amounts of porewater are expelled before significant B mobilization has occurred, so that some sedimentary B will survive and get into the deeper parts of the subduction zone. Our results imply that efficient mobilization of B from the subducted slab must occur and that arc magmatism recycles most of the remaining subducted B back to surface reservoirs. A reconsideration of the B budget in subduction zones provides critical information with respect to B sources and sinks in the ocean.

  9. Vadose zone process that control landslide initiation and debris flow propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidle, Roy C.

    2015-04-01

    Advances in the areas of geotechnical engineering, hydrology, mineralogy, geomorphology, geology, and biology have individually advanced our understanding of factors affecting slope stability; however, the interactions among these processes and attributes as they affect the initiation and propagation of landslides and debris flows are not well understood. Here the importance of interactive vadose zone processes is emphasized related to the mechanisms, initiation, mode, and timing of rainfall-initiated landslides that are triggered by positive pore water accretion, loss of soil suction and increase in overburden weight, and long-term cumulative rain water infiltration. Both large- and small-scale preferential flow pathways can both contribute to and mitigate instability, by respectively concentrating and dispersing subsurface flow. These mechanisms are influenced by soil structure, lithology, landforms, and biota. Conditions conducive to landslide initiation by infiltration versus exfiltration are discussed relative to bedrock structure and joints. The effects of rhizosphere processes on slope stability are examined, including root reinforcement of soil mantles, evapotranspiration, and how root structures affect preferential flow paths. At a larger scale, the nexus between hillslope landslides and in-channel debris flows is examined with emphasis on understanding the timing of debris flows relative to chronic and episodic infilling processes, as well as the episodic nature of large rainfall and related stormflow generation in headwater streams. The hydrogeomorphic processes and conditions that determine whether or not landslides immediately mobilize into debris flows is important for predicting the timing and extent of devastating debris flow runout in steep terrain. Given the spatial footprint of individual landslides, it is necessary to assess vadose zone processes at appropriate scales to ascertain impacts on mass wasting phenomena. Articulating the appropriate

  10. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  11. Processes and Parameters Controlling the Extent of Methanogenic Conditions in the Unsaturated Zone of a Crude Oil Spill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.

    2007-12-01

    Gas concentrations measured in the vadose zone at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN, show that a large area near the oil body is currently dominated by methanogenic conditions. Away from the oil body methane concentrations decrease as it is degraded by methanotrophic bacteria under aerobic conditions. Numerical simulations have been conducted to quantify the contributions of the relevant transport and reaction processes to the production and attenuation of methane in the vadose zone. Methane is generated in the vadose zone by anaerobic degradation of oil and is also added by fluxes from the capillary fringe and the saturated zone. Gas diffusion and advection contribute to the transport of methane in the lateral direction and towards the ground surface. Attenuation of methane concentrations occurs through aerobic oxidation in the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Critical parameters were varied within bounds provided by field data and previous studies. Simulation results confirm that the layered sediment structure present at the site plays a significant role in explaining the observed distribution of gases in the vadose zone. The presence of a low permeability lens in the area upgradient from the source results in higher moisture contents, limiting diffusion of oxygen into the zone of methane production, and contributes to the spread of methane. Diffusion was identified as the most significant transport mechanism for gases in the vadose zone. However, field-observed zones of depleted and enriched N2 and Ar concentrations could only be explained by the development of advective fluxes induced by reactive processes (methanogenesis and methanotrophy). The zones of gas production are characterized by slightly increased total gas pressures and low concentrations of N2 and Ar, while zones of gas consumption show slightly depressed total gas pressures and high concentrations of N2 and Ar. The simulations suggest that the advective flux that develops between these

  12. Evidence of linked biogeochemical and hydrological processes in homogeneous and layered vadose zone systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D. J.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding chemical fate and transport in the vadose zone is critical to protect groundwater resources and preserve ecosystem health. However, prediction can be challenging due to the dynamic hydrologic and biogeochemical nature of the vadose zone. Additional controls on hydrobiogeochemical processes are added by subsurface structural heterogeneity. This study uses repacked soil column experiments to quantify linkages between microbial activity, geochemical cycling and hydrologic flow. Three “short” laboratory soil columns were constructed to evaluate the effects of soil layering: a homogenized medium-grained sand, homogenized organic-rich loam, and a sand-over-loam layered column. In addition, two “long” columns were constructed using either gamma-irradiated (sterilized) or untreated sediments to evaluate the effects of both soil layers and the presence of microorganisms. The long columns were packed identically; a medium-grained sand matrix with two vertically separated and horizontally offset lenses of organic-rich loam. In all 5 columns, downward and upward infiltration of water was evaluated to simulate rainfall and rising water table events respectively. In-situ colocated probes were used to measure soil water content, matric potential, Eh, major anions, ammonium, Fe2+, and total sulfide. Enhanced biogeochemical cycling was observed in the short layered column versus the short, homogeneous columns, and enumerations of iron and sulfate reducing bacteria were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater. In the long columns, microbial activity caused mineral bands and produced insoluble gases that impeded water flow through the pores of the sediment. Capillary barriers, formed around the lenses due to soil textural differences, retarded water flow rates through the lenses. This allowed reducing conditions to develop, evidenced by the production of Fe2+ and S2-. At the fringes of the lenses, Fe2+ oxidized to form Fe(III)-oxide bands that further retarded water

  13. Lithologic Controls on Critical Zone Processes in a Variably Metamorphosed Shale-Hosted Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldam Pommer, R.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Local and regional shifts in thermal maturity within sedimentary shale systems impart significant variation in chemical and physical rock properties, such as pore-network morphology, mineralogy, organic carbon content, and solute release potential. Even slight variations in these properties on a watershed scale can strongly impact surface and shallow subsurface processes that drive soil formation, landscape evolution, and bioavailability of nutrients. Our ability to map and quantify the effects of this heterogeneity on critical zone processes is hindered by the complex coupling of the multi-scale nature of rock properties, geochemical signatures, and hydrological processes. This study addresses each of these complexities by synthesizing chemical and physical characteristics of variably metamorphosed shales in order to link rock heterogeneity with modern earth surface and shallow subsurface processes. More than 80 samples of variably metamorphosed Mancos Shale were collected in the East River Valley, Colorado, a headwater catchment of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Chemical and physical analyses of the samples show that metamorphism decreases overall rock porosity, pore anisotropy, and surface area, and introduces unique chemical signatures. All of these changes result in lower overall solute release from the Mancos Shale in laboratory dissolution experiments and a change in rock-derived solute chemistry with decreasing organic carbon and cation exchange capacity (Ca, Na, Mg, and K). The increase in rock competency and decrease in reactivity of the more thermally mature shales appear to subsequently control river morphology, with lower channel sinuosity associated with areas of the catchment underlain by metamorphosed Mancos Shale. This work illustrates the formative role of the geologic template on critical zone processes and landscape development within and across watersheds.

  14. Development of an automated processing system for potential fishing zone forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardianto, R.; Setiawan, A.; Hidayat, J. J.; Zaky, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    The Institute for Marine Research and Observation (IMRO) - Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Republic of Indonesia (MMAF) has developed a potential fishing zone (PFZ) forecast using satellite data, called Peta Prakiraan Daerah Penangkapan Ikan (PPDPI). Since 2005, IMRO disseminates everyday PPDPI maps for fisheries marine ports and 3 days average for national areas. The accuracy in determining the PFZ and processing time of maps depend much on the experience of the operators creating them. This paper presents our research in developing an automated processing system for PPDPI in order to increase the accuracy and shorten processing time. PFZ are identified by combining MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (CHL) data in order to detect the presence of upwelling, thermal fronts and biological productivity enhancement, where the integration of these phenomena generally representing the PFZ. The whole process involves data download, map geo-process as well as layout that are carried out automatically by Python and ArcPy. The results showed that the automated processing system could be used to reduce the operator’s dependence on determining PFZ and speed up processing time.

  15. Performance processes within affect-related performance zones: a multi-modal investigation of golf performance.

    PubMed

    van der Lei, Harry; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) method utilizing Kamata et al. (J Sport Exerc Psychol 24:189-208, 2002) probabilistic model of determining the individual zone of optimal functioning was utilized as idiosyncratic affective patterns during golf performance. To do so, three male golfers of a varsity golf team were observed during three rounds of golf competition. The investigation implemented a multi-modal assessment approach in which the probabilistic relationship between affective states and both, performance process and performance outcome, measures were determined. More specifically, introspective (i.e., verbal reports) and objective (heart rate and respiration rate) measures of arousal were incorporated to examine the relationships between arousal states and both, process components (i.e., routine consistency, timing), and outcome scores related to golf performance. Results revealed distinguishable and idiosyncratic IAPZs associated with physiological and introspective measures for each golfer. The associations between the IAPZs and decision-making or swing/stroke execution were strong and unique for each golfer. Results are elaborated using cognitive and affect-related concepts, and applications for practitioners are provided.

  16. Deformation processes and weakening mechanisms within the frictional viscous transition zone of major crustal-scale faults: insights from the Great Glen Fault Zone, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Strachan, R. A.

    2000-05-01

    The Great Glen Fault Zone (GGFZ), Scotland, is a typical example of a crustal-scale, reactivated strike-slip fault within the continental crust. Analysis of intensely strained fault rocks from the core of the GGFZ near Fort William provides a unique insight into the nature of deformation associated with the main phase of (sinistral) movements along the fault zone. In this region, an exhumed sequence of complex mid-crustal deformation textures that developed in the region of the frictional-viscous transition (ca. 8-15 km depth) is preserved. Fault rock fabrics vary from mylonitic in quartzites to cataclastic in micaceous shear zones and feldspathic psammites. Protolith mineralogy exerted a strong control on the initial textural development and distribution of the fault rocks. At lower strains, crystal-plastic deformation occurred in quartz-dominated lithologies to produce mylonites simultaneously with widespread fracturing and cataclasis in feldspar- and mica-dominated rocks. At higher strains, shearing appears to increasingly localise into interconnected networks of cataclastic shear zones, many of which are strongly foliated. Textures indicative of fluid-assisted diffusive mass transfer mechanisms are widespread in such regions and suggest that a hydrous fluid-assisted, grainsize-controlled switch in deformation behaviour followed the brittle comminution of grains. The fault zone textural evolution implies that a strain-induced, fluid-assisted shallowing and narrowing of the frictional-viscous transition occurred with increasing strain. It is proposed that this led to an overall weakening of the fault zone and that equivalent processes may occur along many other long-lived, crustal-scale dislocations.

  17. Modeling vadose zone processes during land application of food-processing waste water in California's Central Valley.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gretchen R; Rubin, Yoram; Mayer, K Ulrich; Benito, Pascual H

    2008-01-01

    Land application of food-processing waste water occurs throughout California's Central Valley and may be degrading local ground water quality, primarily by increasing salinity and nitrogen levels. Natural attenuation is considered a treatment strategy for the waste, which often contains elevated levels of easily degradable organic carbon. Several key biogeochemical processes in the vadose zone alter the characteristics of the waste water before it reaches the ground water table, including microbial degradation, crop nutrient uptake, mineral precipitation, and ion exchange. This study used a process-based, multi-component reactive flow and transport model (MIN3P) to numerically simulate waste water migration in the vadose zone and to estimate its attenuation capacity. To address the high variability in site conditions and waste-stream characteristics, four food-processing industries were coupled with three site scenarios to simulate a range of land application outcomes. The simulations estimated that typically between 30 and 150% of the salt loading to the land surface reaches the ground water, resulting in dissolved solids concentrations up to sixteen times larger than the 500 mg L(-1) water quality objective. Site conditions, namely the ratio of hydraulic conductivity to the application rate, strongly influenced the amount of nitrate reaching the ground water, which ranged from zero to nine times the total loading applied. Rock-water interaction and nitrification explain salt and nitrate concentrations that exceed the levels present in the waste water. While source control remains the only method to prevent ground water degradation from saline wastes, proper site selection and waste application methods can reduce the risk of ground water degradation from nitrogen compounds.

  18. Monitoring deep geodynamic processes within Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic zone by geodetic means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita

    2015-04-01

    Background Located in the bending zone of East Carpathians, the so-called Vrancea zone is one of the most active seismic regions in Europe. Despite many years of international research, its intermediate-depth seismicity within full intra-continental environment still represents a challenge of the 21st century. Infrastructure In the attempt to join the above-mentioned efforts, the Solid Earth Dynamics Department (SEDD) in the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy has developed a special research infrastructure, mainly devoted to gravity and space geodesy observations. A geodetic network covering the epicentre area of the intermediate-depth earthquakes has been designed and implemented for monitoring deep geodynamic processes and their surface echoes. Within each base-station of the above-mentioned network, a still-reinforced concrete pillar allows for high accuracy repeated gravity and GPS determinations. Results Starting from some results of the previously run CERGOP and UNIGRACE European programmes, to which additional SEDD repeated field campaigns were added, an unusual geodynamic behaviour has been revealed in the area. 1) Crust deformation: unlike the overall uprising of East Carpathians, as a result of denudation followed by erosion, their SE bending zone, with Vrancea epicentre area exhibits a slight subsidence. 2) Gravity change: more than 200 microgals non-tidal gravity decrease over a 20 years time-span has been noticed within the subsiding area. Extended observations showed the gravity lowering as a nowadays continuing process. Interpretation This strange combination of topography subsidence and gravity lowering has been interpreted in terms of crust stretching in the Vrancea epicentre zone due to the gravity pull created by densification of the lower crust as a result of phase-transform processes taking place in the lithospheric compartment sunken into the upper mantle. The occurrence of crust earthquakes with vertical-extension focal

  19. Linking Weathering, Rock Moisture Dynamics, Geochemistry, Runoff, Vegetation and Atmospheric Processes through the Critical Zone: Graduate Student led Research at the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    In the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory lies Rivendell, a heavily-instrumented steep forested hillslope underlain by nearly vertically dipping argillite interbedded with sandstone. Under this convex hillslope lies "Zb", the transition to fresh bedrock, which varies from less than 6 m below the surface near the channel to 20 m at the divide. Rempe and Dietrich (2014, PNAS) show that the Zb profile can be predicted from the assumption that weathering occurs when drainage is induced in the uplifting fresh bedrock under hillslopes by lateral head gradients driven by channel incision at the hillslope boundary. Infiltrating winter precipitation is impeded at the lower conductivity boundary at Zb, generating perched groundwater that dynamically pulses water laterally to the channel, controlling stream runoff. Below the soil and above the water table lies an unsaturated zone through which all recharge to the perched groundwater (and thus all runoff to channels) occurs. It is this zone and the waters in them that profoundly affect critical zone processes. In our seasonally dry environment, the first rains penetrate past the soil and moisten the underlying weathered bedrock (Salve et al., 2012, WRR). It takes about 200 to 400 mm of cumulative rain, however, before the underlying groundwater rises significantly. Oshun et al (in review) show that by this cumulative rainfall the average of the wide-ranging isotopic signature of rain reaches a nearly constant average annual value. Consequently, the recharging perched groundwater shows only minor temporal isotopic variation. Kim et al, (2014, GCA) find that the winter high-flow groundwater chemistry is controlled by relatively fast-reacting cation exchange processes, likely occurring in transit in the unsaturated zone. Oshun also demonstrates that the Douglas fir rely on this rock moisture as a water source, while the broadleaf trees (oaks and madrone) use mostly soil moisture. Link et al (2014 WRR) show that Doug fir declines

  20. Trace element behavior in hydrothermal experiments: Implications for fluid processes at shallow depths in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C.-F.; Castillo, P. R.; Gieskes, J. M.; Chan, L. H.; Spivack, A. J.

    1996-05-01

    Chemical evaluation of fluids affected during progressive water-sediment interactions provides critical information regarding the role of slab dehydration and/or crustal recycling in subduction zones. To place some constraints on geochemical processes during sediment subduction, reactions between décollement sediments and synthetic NaCl-CaCl 2 solutions at 25-350°C and 800 bar were monitored in laboratory hydrothermal experiments using an autoclave apparatus. This is the first attempt in a single set of experiments to investigate the relative mobilities of many subduction zone volatiles and trace elements but, because of difficulties in conducting hydrothermal experiments on sediments at high P-T conditions, the experiments could only be designed for a shallow (˜ 10 km) depth. The experimental results demonstrate mobilization of volatiles (B and NH 4) and incompatible elements (As, Be, Cs, Li, Pb, Rb) in hydrothermal fluids at relatively low temperatures (˜ 300°C). In addition, a limited fractionation of light from heavy rare earth elements (REEs) occurs under hydrothermal conditions. On the other hand, the high field strength elements (HFSEs) Cr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Ti, and Zr are not mobile in the reacted fluids. The observed behavior of volatiles and trace elements in hydrothermal fluids is similar to the observed enrichment in As, B, Cs, Li, Pb, Rb, and light REEs and depletion in HFSEs in arc magmas relative to magmas derived directly from the upper mantle. Thus, our work suggests a link between relative mobilities of trace elements in hydrothermal fluids and deep arc magma generation in subduction zones. The experimental results are highly consistent with the proposal that the addition of subduction zone hydrous fluids to the subarc mantle, which has been depleted by previous melting events, can produce the unique characteristics of arc magmas. Moreover, the results suggest that deeply subducted sediments may no longer have the composition necessary to generate

  1. Investigating point zero: The artificial catchment 'Chicken Creek' as an observatory to study critical zone structures and processes of the critical zone in an initial ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Gerwin, Werner

    2010-05-01

    Recently, earth surface structures reaching from vegetation to the groundwater in the near underground have been termed "critical zone". This zone is "critical" to supporting life on Earth and, thus, the understanding of processes within this zone is of great importance in environmental sciences. Investigating the critical zone requires interdisciplinary and integrative research approaches across the fields of geomorphology, ecology, biology, soil science, hydrology and environmental modeling. A central motivation of the critical zone concept is the need for moving beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries to a more holistic and integrated study of the Earth surface system. However, the critical zone is characterized by complex interactions between abiotic and biotic structures and processes which need to be analyzed for improving our understanding of ecosystem functioning as well as of ecosystem development. To gain a better understanding of these fundamental questions it might be helpful to look at initial ecosystems, i.e. at ecosystems in the initial phase of development. It can be hypothesized that the complexity of a very young ecosystem is lower compared to mature systems and, therefore, structure-process interactions might become more obvious at early than at later stages of development. In this context, an artificial watershed was constructed with well known boundary conditions to investigate the initial ecosystem phase. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was set up with a layer of post-glacial sandy sediments overlying an aquiclude made of clay at the base. These hydrological starting conditions allowed for the formation of a groundwater body within the sandy layer of the experimental catchment. Further, after completion of the construction works in September 2005 the site was left to natural succession and no measures like planting or fertilization were carried out. As the initial phase of

  2. High efficiency processing for reduced amplitude zones detection in the HRECG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    Summary - This article presents part of a more detailed research proposed in the medium to long term, with the intention of establishing a new philosophy of electrocardiogram surface analysis. This research aims to find indicators of cardiovascular disease in its early stage that may go unnoticed with conventional electrocardiography. This paper reports the development of a software processing which collect some existing techniques and incorporates novel methods for detection of reduced amplitude zones (RAZ) in high resolution electrocardiographic signal (HRECG).The algorithm consists of three stages, an efficient processing for QRS detection, averaging filter using correlation techniques and a step for RAZ detecting. Preliminary results show the efficiency of system and point to incorporation of techniques new using signal analysis with involving 12 leads.

  3. Scaling up: What coupled land-atmosphere models can tell us about critical zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, K. A.; Masarik, M. T.; Rudisill, W. J.; Gelb, L.; Flores, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    A significant limitation to extending our knowledge of critical zone (CZ) evolution and function is a lack of hydrometeorological information at sufficiently fine spatial and temporal resolutions to resolve topo-climatic gradients and adequate spatial and temporal extent to capture a range of climatic conditions across ecoregions. Research at critical zone observatories (CZOs) suggests hydrometeorological stores and fluxes exert key controls on processes such as hydrologic partitioning and runoff generation, landscape evolution, soil formation, biogeochemical cycling, and vegetation dynamics. However, advancing fundamental understanding of CZ processes necessitates understanding how hydrometeorological drivers vary across space and time. As a result of recent advances in computational capabilities it has become possible, although still computationally expensive, to simulate hydrometeorological conditions via high resolution coupled land-atmosphere models. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we developed a high spatiotemporal resolution dataset extending from water year 1987 to present for the Snake River Basin in the northwestern USA including the Reynolds Creek and Dry Creek Experimental Watersheds, both part of the Reynolds Creek CZO, as well as a range of other ecosystems including shrubland desert, montane forests, and alpine tundra. Drawing from hypotheses generated by work at these sites and across the CZO network, we use the resulting dataset in combination with CZO observations and publically available datasets to provide insights regarding hydrologic partitioning, vegetation distribution, and erosional processes. This dataset provides key context in interpreting and reconciling what observations obtained at particular sites reveal about underlying CZ structure and function. While this dataset does not extend to future climates, the same modeling framework can be used to dynamically downscale coarse global climate model output to scales

  4. Defining a "Zone of Impact": Transport Processes and Patterns for Small-Scale Land Runoff.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.; Basdurak, B.

    2016-12-01

    Nearshore pollution is a well-recognized environmental problem, yet the pattern of this pollution is not well studied and it is little recognized in policy. Whether nutrients, pathogens or toxins, the highest concentrations of pollutants in the nearfield are controlled by transport and mixing, rather than decay of the constituent. Thus, this becomes a challenge to determine patterns of runoff (and tidal outflow) and to account for the dominant processes that control these patterns. Salinity and fecal indicator bacteria data exhibit coherent space-time patterns, indicating that a coherent "zone of impact" can be determined, i.e., a time-varying spatial zone in which the constituent of concern exceeds a reference concentration (level of concern). To explain field observations, modeling of small-scale runoff plumes and wave-driven transport can be used. In contrast to larger river plumes, wind forcing is a critical factor in plume behavior and the resultant pattern of pollution. This preliminary work suggests that coherent spatio-temporal patterns can explain the apparently not-so-well-behaved patterns of pollution that are reported when concentrations are under-sampled. And it throws out a challenge to nearshore oceanographers to better explain transport and mixing patterns for the benefit of reducing coastal pollution and its impacts.

  5. Occupational hazards and illnesses of Filipino women workers in export processing zones.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2008-01-01

    This was a baseline study on occupational exposure and health problems among women workers in export processing zones. Physical, chemical, and ergonomic hazards were evaluated and measured through workplace ambient monitoring, survey questionnaires, and interviews with 500 respondents in 24 companies (most were female at 88.8%). The top 5 hazards were ergonomic hazards (72.2%), heat (66.6%), overwork (66.6%), poor ventilation (54.8%), and chemical exposure (50.8%). The most common illnesses were gastrointestinal problems (57.4%), backache (56%), headache (53.2%), and fatigue/weakness (53.2%). Logistic regression showed an association between certain work-related factors and occupational illnesses, and psychosocial problems. Highly significant associations were hearing loss with years spent in the company (p=.005) and gender (p=.006), headache and dizziness with poor ventilation (p=.000), backache with prolonged work (p=.003). These results will have implications for policy and program formulation for women workers' concerns and issues in export zones.

  6. The Geodetic Signature of the Earthquake Cycle at Subduction Zones: Model Constraints on the Deep Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govers, R.; Furlong, K. P.; van de Wiel, L.; Herman, M. W.; Broerse, T.

    2018-03-01

    Recent megathrust events in Tohoku (Japan), Maule (Chile), and Sumatra (Indonesia) were well recorded. Much has been learned about the dominant physical processes in megathrust zones: (partial) locking of the plate interface, detailed coseismic slip, relocking, afterslip, viscoelastic mantle relaxation, and interseismic loading. These and older observations show complex spatial and temporal patterns in crustal deformation and displacement, and significant differences among different margins. A key question is whether these differences reflect variations in the underlying processes, like differences in locking, or the margin geometry, or whether they are a consequence of the stage in the earthquake cycle of the margin. Quantitative models can connect these plate boundary processes to surficial and far-field observations. We use relatively simple, cyclic geodynamic models to isolate the first-order geodetic signature of the megathrust cycle. Coseismic and subsequent slip on the subduction interface is dynamically (and consistently) driven. A review of global preseismic, coseismic, and postseismic geodetic observations, and of their fit to the model predictions, indicates that similar physical processes are active at different margins. Most of the observed variability between the individual margins appears to be controlled by their different stages in the earthquake cycle. The modeling results also provide a possible explanation for observations of tensile faulting aftershocks and tensile cracking of the overriding plate, which are puzzling in the context of convergence/compression. From the inversion of our synthetic GNSS velocities we find that geodetic observations may incorrectly suggest weak locking of some margins, for example, the west Aleutian margin.

  7. The purification process on scintillator material (SrI{sub 2}: Eu) by zone-refinement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Raja; Daniel, D. Joseph; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: ramasamyp@ssn.edu.in

    The thermal properties of Europium doped strontium iodide was analyzed through Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The melting point of europium doped strontium iodide is around 531°C. The hydrated and oxyhalide impurities were found before melting temperature. In order to remove these impurities we have done purification process by Zone-refinement technique. The effective output of purification of zone refining was also observed through the segregation of impurities.

  8. Hydrogeochemistry of prairie pothole region wetlands: Role of long-term critical zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mushet, David M.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Results from the CWLSA were scaled up to a 9700 km2 area surrounding CWLSA using ~ 1800 drill logs and literature data on wetland water chemistry for 178 wetlands within this larger area. The oxidized brown zone depth and wetland water compositional trends are very similar to the CWLSA. Additionally, surface water data from 176 southern Canadian pothole wetlands that conform to the same wetland water geochemical trends as those recorded in the CWLSA further corroborate that SO42 − accumulation driven by pyrite oxidation is a nearly ubiquitous process in the prairie pothole region and distinguishes PPR wetlands from other wetlands worldwide that have a similar overall hydrology.

  9. Do submesoscale frontal processes ventilate the oxygen minimum zone off Peru?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, S.; Kanzow, T.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Krahmann, G.; Engel, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Peruvian upwelling system encompasses the most intense and shallowest oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the ocean. This system shows pronounced submesoscale activity like filaments and fronts. We carried out glider-based observations off Peru during austral summer 2013 to investigate whether submesoscale frontal processes ventilate the Peruvian OMZ. We present observational evidence for the subduction of highly oxygenated surface water in a submesoscale cold filament. The subduction event ventilates the oxycline but does not reach OMZ core waters. In a regional submesoscale-permitting model we study the pathways of newly upwelled water. About 50% of upwelled virtual floats are subducted below the mixed layer within 5 days emphasizing a hitherto unrecognized importance of subduction for the ventilation of the Peruvian oxycline.

  10. Unlocking the Secrets of the Mantle Wedge: New Insights Into Melt Generation Processes in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, T. L.

    2007-05-01

    Recent laboratory studies of the melting and crystallization behavior of mantle peridotite and subduction zone lavas have led to new insights into melting processes in island arc settings. Melting of the mantle wedge in the presence of H2O begins at much lower temperatures than previously thought. The solidus of mantle peridotite at 3 GPa is ~ 800 °C, which is 200 °C below previous estimates. At pressures greater than 2.4 GPa chlorite becomes a stable phase on the solidus and it remains stable until ~ 3.5 GPa. Therefore, melting over this pressure range occurs in the presence of chlorite, which contains ~ 12 wt. % H2O. Chlorite stabilized on the peridotite solidus by slab-derived H2O may be the ultimate source of H2O for subduction zone magmatism. Thus, chlorite could transport large amounts of H2O into the descending mantle wedge to depths where it can participate in melting to generate hydrous arc magmas. Our ability to identify primitive mantle melts at subduction zones has led to the following observations. 1) Primitive mantle melts show evidence of final equilibration at shallow depths near the mantle - crust boundary. 2) They contain variable amounts of dissolved H2O (up to 6 wt. %). 3) They record variable extents of melting (up to > 25 wt. %). To produce melts with such variable characteristics requires more than one melting process and requires consideration of a new type of melting called hydrous flux melting. Flux melting occurs when the H2O - rich melt initially produced on the solidus near the base of the mantle wedge ascends and continuously reacts with overlying hotter, shallower mantle. The mantle melts and magmatic H2O content is constantly diluted as the melt ascends and reacts with shallower, hotter mantle. Anhydrous mantle melts are also found in close temporal and spatial proximity to hydrous flux melts. These melts are extracted at similar depths near the top of the mantle wedge when mantle is advected up and into the wedge corner and melted

  11. Microstructural study of the Mertz shear zone, East Antarctica. Implications for deformation processes and seismic anisotropy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, Gaëlle; Bascou, Jérôme; Maurice, Claire; Cottin, Jean-Yves; Ménot, René-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The Mertz Shear Zone (MSZ; 146°E 67°S; East Antarctica) is one major lithospheric-scale structure which outcrops on the eastern edge of the Terre Adélie Craton (Ménot et al., 2007) and that could connected with shear zones of South Australia (e.g., Kalinjala or Coorong shear zone (Kleinschmidt and Talarico, 2000; Gibson et al., 2013)) before the Cretaceous opening of the Southern Ocean. Geochronological and metamorphic studies indicated an MSZ activity at 1.7 and 1.5 Ga respectively in amphibolite and greenschists facies conditions. The deformation affects both the intermediate and lower crust levels, without associated voluminous magma injection. Granulite crop out in the area of the MSZ. They were dated at 2.4 Ga (Ménot et al., 2005) and could represent some preserved Neoarchean tectonites. These rocks show various degrees of deformation including penetrative structures that may display comparable features with that observed in amphibolite and greenschists facies rocks, i.e. NS-striking and steeply dipping foliation with weekly plunging lineation. In the field, cinematic indicators for the MSZ argue for a dominant dextral shear sense. We proceed to optical analysis and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements using EBSD technique in order to better constrain the deformation processes. Our results highlight (1) a microstructural gradient from highly deformed rocks (mylonites), forming plurimetric large shear bands and showing evidences of plastic deformation, to slightly deformed rocks in preserved cores with no evidences of plastic deformation or with a clear strong static recrystallization; (2) CPO of minerals related with variations on deformation conditions. Feldspar and quartz CPO argue for plastic deformation at high temperature in the most deformed domains and for the absence of deformation or an important stage of static recrystallization in preserved cores; (3) uncommon CPO in orthopyroxene which are characterized by [010]-axes

  12. Stress development in heterogenetic lithosphere: Insights into earthquake processes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yan; Hou, Guiting; Kusky, Timothy; Gregg, Patricia M.

    2016-03-01

    The New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in the Midwestern United States was the site of several major M 6.8-8 earthquakes in 1811-1812, and remains seismically active. Although this region has been investigated extensively, the ultimate controls on earthquake initiation and the duration of the seismicity remain unclear. In this study, we develop a finite element model for the Central United States to conduct a series of numerical experiments with the goal of determining the impact of heterogeneity in the upper crust, the lower crust, and the mantle on earthquake nucleation and rupture processes. Regional seismic tomography data (CITE) are utilized to infer the viscosity structure of the lithosphere which provide an important input to the numerical models. Results indicate that when differential stresses build in the Central United States, the stresses accumulating beneath the Reelfoot Rift in the NMSZ are highly concentrated, whereas the stresses below the geologically similar Midcontinent Rift System are comparatively low. The numerical observations coincide with the observed distribution of seismicity throughout the region. By comparing the numerical results with three reference models, we argue that an extensive mantle low velocity zone beneath the NMSZ produces differential stress localization in the layers above. Furthermore, the relatively strong crust in this region, exhibited by high seismic velocities, enables the elevated stress to extend to the base of the ancient rift system, reactivating fossil rifting faults and therefore triggering earthquakes. These results show that, if boundary displacements are significant, the NMSZ is able to localize tectonic stresses, which may be released when faults close to failure are triggered by external processes such as melting of the Laurentide ice sheet or rapid river incision.

  13. Descending projections from the dysgranular zone of rat primary somatosensory cortex processing deep somatic input.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehee; Kim, Uhnoh

    2012-04-01

    In the mammalian somatic system, peripheral inputs from cutaneous and deep receptors ascend via different subcortical channels and terminate in largely separate regions of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). How these inputs are processed in SI and then projected back to the subcortical relay centers is critical for understanding how SI may regulate somatic information processing in the subcortex. Although it is now relatively well understood how SI cutaneous areas project to the subcortical structures, little is known about the descending projections from SI areas processing deep somatic input. We examined this issue by using the rodent somatic system as a model. In rat SI, deep somatic input is processed mainly in the dysgranular zone (DSZ) enclosed by the cutaneous barrel subfields. By using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) as anterograde tracer, we characterized the topography of corticostriatal and corticofugal projections arising in the DSZ. The DSZ projections terminate mainly in the lateral subregions of the striatum that are also known as the target of certain SI cutaneous areas. This suggests that SI processing of deep and cutaneous information may be integrated, to a certain degree, in this striatal region. By contrast, at both thalamic and prethalamic levels as far as the spinal cord, descending projections from DSZ terminate in areas largely distinguishable from those that receive input from SI cutaneous areas. These subcortical targets of DSZ include not only the sensory but also motor-related structures, suggesting that SI processing of deep input may engage in regulating somatic and motor information flow between the cortex and periphery. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Expanding the role of reactive transport models in critical zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Li; Maher, Kate; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Druhan, Jennifer; Meile, Christof; Lawrence, Corey; Moore, Joel; Perdrial, Julia; Sullivan, Pamela; Thompson, Aaron; Jin, Lixin; Bolton, Edward W.; Brantley, Susan L.; Dietrich, William E.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Steefel, Carl; Valocchi, Albert J.; Zachara, John M.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; McIntosh, Jennifer; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Kumar, Mukesh; Sonnenthal, Eric; Bao, Chen; Beisman, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Models test our understanding of processes and can reach beyond the spatial and temporal scales of measurements. Multi-component Reactive Transport Models (RTMs), initially developed more than three decades ago, have been used extensively to explore the interactions of geothermal, hydrologic, geochemical, and geobiological processes in subsurface systems. Driven by extensive data sets now available from intensive measurement efforts, there is a pressing need to couple RTMs with other community models to explore non-linear interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Here we briefly review the history of RTM development, summarize the current state of RTM approaches, and identify new research directions, opportunities, and infrastructure needs to broaden the use of RTMs. In particular, we envision the expanded use of RTMs in advancing process understanding in the Critical Zone, the veneer of the Earth that extends from the top of vegetation to the bottom of groundwater. We argue that, although parsimonious models are essential at larger scales, process-based models offer tools to explore the highly nonlinear coupling that characterizes natural systems. We present seven testable hypotheses that emphasize the unique capabilities of process-based RTMs for (1) elucidating chemical weathering and its physical and biogeochemical drivers; (2) understanding the interactions among roots, micro-organisms, carbon, water, and minerals in the rhizosphere; (3) assessing the effects of heterogeneity across spatial and temporal scales; and (4) integrating the vast quantity of novel data, including “omics” data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics), elemental concentration and speciation data, and isotope data into our understanding of complex earth surface systems. With strong support from data-driven sciences, we are now in an exciting era where integration of RTM framework into other community models will facilitate process

  15. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the

  16. Multi-Zone Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance Code with Domain Decomposition for Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaz, Homayun K.

    2002-01-01

    -equation turbulence model, and two-phase flow. To overcome these limitations, the LTCP code is rewritten to include the multi-zone capability with domain decomposition that makes it suitable for parallel processing, i.e., enabling the code to run every zone or sub-domain on a separate processor. This can reduce the run time by a factor of 6 to 8, depending on the problem.

  17. Crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates: Floating zone process and ultra rapid crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofiev, A.; Yan, X.; Ikeda, M.; Löffler, S.; Paschen, S.

    2014-09-01

    We studied the crystal growth process of type-I transition metal clathrates in two different regimes: a regime of moderate cooling rate, realized with the floating zone technique, and a regime of ultra rapid cooling, realized by the melt spinning technique. In the former regime, bulk Ba8AuxSi46-x and Ba8Cu4.8GaxGe41.2-x single crystals were grown. We investigated segregation effects of the constituting elements by measurements of the composition profiles along the growth direction. The compositional non-uniformity results in a spatial variation of the electrical resistivity which is discussed as well. Structural features of clathrates and their extremely low thermal conductivities imply specifics in growth behavior which manifest themselves most pronouncedly in a rapid crystallization process. Our melt spinning experiments on Ba8Au5Si41 and Ba8Ni3.5Si42.5 (and earlier on some other clathrates) have revealed surprisingly large grains of at least 1 μm. Because of the anomalously high growth rate of the clathrate phase the formation of impurity phases is considerably kinetically suppressed. We present our scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations of melt spun samples and discuss structural, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the unusual clathrate nucleation and crystallization.

  18. Do submesoscale frontal processes ventilate the oxygen minimum zone off Peru?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, S.; Kanzow, T.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Krahmann, G.; Engel, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Peruvian upwelling region shows pronounced near-surface submesoscale variability including filaments and sharp density fronts. Submesoscale frontal processes can drive large vertical velocities and enhance vertical tracer fluxes in the upper ocean. The associated high temporal and spatial variability poses a large challenge to observational approaches targeting these processes. In this study the role of submesoscale processes for the ventilation of the near-coastal oxygen minimum zone off Peru is investigated. We use satellite based sea surface temperature measurements and multiple high-resolution glider observations of temperature, salinity, oxygen and chlorophyll fluorescence carried out in January and February 2013 off Peru near 14°S during active upwelling. Additionally, high-resolution regional ocean circulation model outputs (ROMS) outputs are analysed. At the beginning of our observational survey a previously upwelled, productive and highly oxygenated water body is found in the mixed layer. Subsequently, a cold filament forms and the waters are moved offshore. After the decay of the filament and the relaxation of the upwelling front, the oxygen enriched surface water is found in the previously less oxygenated thermocline suggesting the occurrence of frontal subduction. A numerical model simulation is used to analyse the evolution of Lagrangian numerical floats in several upwelling filaments, whose vertical structure and hydrographic properties agree well with the observations. The floats trajectories support our interpretation that the subduction of previously upwelled water occurs in filaments off Peru. We find that 40 - 60 % of the floats seeded in the newly upwelled water is subducted within a time period of 5 days. This hightlights the importance of this process in ventilating the oxycline off Peru.

  19. Modelling nitrite dynamics and associated feedback processes in the Benguela oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashifane, T. B.; Vichi, M.; Waldron, H. N.; Machu, E.; Garçonc, V.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding nitrite dynamics in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) is a challenge as it represents an intermediary nitrogen species with a short turnover time. Nitrite is also reduced to nitrogen in OMZs, preventing its accumulation. This creates difficulties in detecting nitrite with colorimetric methods as concentrations may occur below detection limits in some regions. Nitrite concentrations are key to understanding intermediate nitrogen processes and their implication for nitrogen loss in OMZs. A coupled physical-biogeochemical model is applied in the Benguela OMZ to study nitrite dynamics and its associated feedback processes. Simulated results show occurrence of primary and secondary nitrite maxima in the Benguela shelf waters. The primary nitrite maxima in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification and nitrate assimilation as they occur in association with the nitracline. Secondary nitrite maxima accumulate in the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF) OMZ and are attributed to denitrification. The secondary nitrite maxima are consumed by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) off Walvis Bay. Nitrite maxima are restricted to the shelf off Walvis Bay and advected offshore in the ABF region. Interchanges between the poleward South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and the equatorward, well-aerated Eastern South Atlantic Central Water (ESACW) drive the seasonality of nitrogen processes in the Benguela. Subsequent nitrite reduction in the Benguela OMZ leads to nitrous oxide production, with high concentrations occurring in the ABF region as a result of nitrification and denitrification. Off Walvis Bay, nitrous oxide production is low since nitrite is consumed by anammox. Nitrous oxide production occurs in thermocline, intermediate and deeper water masses in the ABF region. High N fluxes in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification as compared to anammox and denitrification. Results from this study demonstrate the role of intermediate nitrogen species in nitrogen feedback

  20. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Elkington, W. Brice

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  1. Evolution of the fracture process zone in high-strength concrete under different loading rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, R. C.; Zhang, X.; Ruiz, G.; Tarifa, M.; Cámara, M.

    2010-06-01

    For cementitious materials, the inelastic zone around a crack tip is termed as fracture process zone (FPZ) and dominated by complicated mechanism, such as microcracking, crack deflection, bridging, crack face friction, crack tip blunting by voids, crack branching, and so on. Due to the length of the FPZ is related with the characteristic length of the cementitious materials, the size, extent and location of the FPZ has been the object of countless research efforts for several decades. For instance, Cedolin et al. [1] have used an optical method based on the moiré interferometry to determine FPZ in concrete. Castro-Montero et al. [2] have applied the method of holographic interferometry to mortar to study the extension of the FPZ. The advantage of the interferometry method is that the complete FPZ can be directly observed on the surface of the sample. Swartz et al. [3] has adopted the dye penetration technique to illustrate the changing patterns observed as the crack progress from the tensile side to the compression side of the beam. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) is also an experimental technique well suited for monitoring fracture process. Haidar et al. [4] and Maji et al. [5] have studied the relation between acoustic emission characteristics and the properties of the FPZ. Compared with the extensive research on properties of the FPZ under quasi-static loading conditions, much less information is available on its dynamic characterization, especially for high-strength concrete (HSC). This paper presents the very recent results of an experimental program aimed at disclosing the loading rate effect on the size and velocity of the (FPZ) in HSC. Eighteen three-point bending specimens were conducted under a wide range of loading rates from from 10-4 mm/s to 103 mm/s using either a servo-hydraulic machine or a self-designed drop-weight impact device. The beam dimensions were 100 mm 100 mm in cross section, and 420 mm in length. The initial notch-depth ratio was

  2. The holistic rhizosphere: integrating zones, processes, and semantics in the soil influenced by roots.

    PubMed

    York, Larry M; Carminati, Andrea; Mooney, Sacha J; Ritz, Karl; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2016-06-01

    Despite often being conceptualized as a thin layer of soil around roots, the rhizosphere is actually a dynamic system of interacting processes. Hiltner originally defined the rhizosphere as the soil influenced by plant roots. However, soil physicists, chemists, microbiologists, and plant physiologists have studied the rhizosphere independently, and therefore conceptualized the rhizosphere in different ways and using contrasting terminology. Rather than research-specific conceptions of the rhizosphere, the authors propose a holistic rhizosphere encapsulating the following components: microbial community gradients, macroorganisms, mucigel, volumes of soil structure modification, and depletion or accumulation zones of nutrients, water, root exudates, volatiles, and gases. These rhizosphere components are the result of dynamic processes and understanding the integration of these processes will be necessary for future contributions to rhizosphere science based upon interdisciplinary collaborations. In this review, current knowledge of the rhizosphere is synthesized using this holistic perspective with a focus on integrating traditionally separated rhizosphere studies. The temporal dynamics of rhizosphere activities will also be considered, from annual fine root turnover to diurnal fluctuations of water and nutrient uptake. The latest empirical and computational methods are discussed in the context of rhizosphere integration. Clarification of rhizosphere semantics, a holistic model of the rhizosphere, examples of integration of rhizosphere studies across disciplines, and review of the latest rhizosphere methods will empower rhizosphere scientists from different disciplines to engage in the interdisciplinary collaborations needed to break new ground in truly understanding the rhizosphere and to apply this knowledge for practical guidance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For

  3. Dynamic Model of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Process Based on Multi-zone Reaction Kinetics: Model Derivation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Bapin Kumar; Brooks, Geoff; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Li, Zushu; Schrama, Frank N. H.; Sun, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A multi-zone kinetic model coupled with a dynamic slag generation model was developed for the simulation of hot metal and slag composition during the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) operation. The three reaction zones (i) jet impact zone, (ii) slag-bulk metal zone, (iii) slag-metal-gas emulsion zone were considered for the calculation of overall refining kinetics. In the rate equations, the transient rate parameters were mathematically described as a function of process variables. A micro and macroscopic rate calculation methodology (micro-kinetics and macro-kinetics) were developed to estimate the total refining contributed by the recirculating metal droplets through the slag-metal emulsion zone. The micro-kinetics involves developing the rate equation for individual droplets in the emulsion. The mathematical models for the size distribution of initial droplets, kinetics of simultaneous refining of elements, the residence time in the emulsion, and dynamic interfacial area change were established in the micro-kinetic model. In the macro-kinetics calculation, a droplet generation model was employed and the total amount of refining by emulsion was calculated by summing the refining from the entire population of returning droplets. A dynamic FetO generation model based on oxygen mass balance was developed and coupled with the multi-zone kinetic model. The effect of post-combustion on the evolution of slag and metal composition was investigated. The model was applied to a 200-ton top blowing converter and the simulated value of metal and slag was found to be in good agreement with the measured data. The post-combustion ratio was found to be an important factor in controlling FetO content in the slag and the kinetics of Mn and P in a BOF process.

  4. New insights into the transport processes controlling the sulfate-methane-transition-zone near methane vents.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sébastien; Ruffine, Livio

    2016-05-27

    Over the past years, several studies have raised concerns about the possible interactions between methane hydrate decomposition and external change. To carry out such an investigation, it is essential to characterize the baseline dynamics of gas hydrate systems related to natural geological and sedimentary processes. This is usually treated through the analysis of sulfate-reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Here, we model sulfate reduction coupled with AOM as a two-dimensional (2D) problem including, advective and diffusive transport. This is applied to a case study from a deep-water site off Nigeria's coast where lateral methane advection through turbidite layers was suspected. We show by analyzing the acquired data in combination with computational modeling that a two-dimensional approach is able to accurately describe the recent past dynamics of such a complex natural system. Our results show that the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ) is not a vertical barrier for dissolved sulfate and methane. We also show that such a modeling is able to assess short timescale variations in the order of decades to centuries.

  5. Mechanical characterization of natural building stones: observation of the fracture process zone by ESPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvetti, Francesco; Cardani, Giuliana; Meda, Alberto

    1999-09-01

    The cultural heritage of many nations consist of a great variety of structures of high intrinsic value, which are often composed of natural building stones (NBS), as granite, limestone, marble and sandstone. The use of accurate inspection devices, such as laser interferometry, allows us to acquire information regarding the mechanical properties and damage (tensile cracks) of NBS, which represents the first step in the restoration process. In this paper, the potential application of an electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is shown, with particular attention to the observed displacement field and the crack penetration during laboratory testing. In ESPI, by superimposing a reflected light to a reference digitized image, an interference phenomenon is produced. By comparing two recorded interference patterns (before and after loading), the corresponding deformation can be evaluated. The application of ESPI in several laboratory tests on NBS is presented in this paper. In particular, during bending tests performed on geometrically similar NBS specimens, it was observed that the size and shape of the localized damage zone do not depend on the specimen size. These results allow for an interpretation of the 'size- effect,' which consists of a reduction of nominal strength as the specimen size increases.

  6. Midbrain dopamine neurons associated with reward processing innervate the neurogenic subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Lennington, Jessica B; Pope, Sara; Goodheart, Anna E; Drozdowicz, Linda; Daniels, Stephen B; Salamone, John D; Conover, Joanne C

    2011-09-14

    Coordinated regulation of the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) is accomplished by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The neurotransmitter dopamine is one regulatory molecule implicated in SVZ function. Nigrostriatal and ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons innervate regions adjacent to the SVZ, and dopamine synapses are found on SVZ cells. Cell division within the SVZ is decreased in humans with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of Parkinson's disease following exposure to toxins that selectively remove nigrostriatal neurons, suggesting that dopamine is critical for SVZ function and nigrostriatal neurons are the main suppliers of SVZ dopamine. However, when we examined the aphakia mouse, which is deficient in nigrostriatal neurons, we found no detrimental effect to SVZ proliferation or organization. Instead, dopamine innervation of the SVZ tracked to neurons at the ventrolateral boundary of the VTA. This same dopaminergic neuron population also innervated the SVZ of control mice. Characterization of these neurons revealed expression of proteins indicative of VTA neurons. Furthermore, exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP depleted neurons in the ventrolateral VTA and resulted in decreased SVZ proliferation. Together, these results reveal that dopamine signaling in the SVZ originates from a population of midbrain neurons more typically associated with motivational and reward processing.

  7. Oxygen Sensitivity of Anammox and Coupled N-Cycle Processes in Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Jensen, Marlene M.; Contreras, Sergio; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Lam, Phyllis; Günter, Marcel; LaRoche, Julie; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient measurements indicate that 30–50% of the total nitrogen (N) loss in the ocean occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This pelagic N-removal takes place within only ∼0.1% of the ocean volume, hence moderate variations in the extent of OMZs due to global warming may have a large impact on the global N-cycle. We examined the effect of oxygen (O2) on anammox, NH3 oxidation and NO3 − reduction in 15N-labeling experiments with varying O2 concentrations (0–25 µmol L−1) in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZs. Our results show that O2 is a major controlling factor for anammox activity in OMZ waters. Based on our O2 assays we estimate the upper limit for anammox to be ∼20 µmol L−1. In contrast, NH3 oxidation to NO2 − and NO3 − reduction to NO2 − as the main NH4 + and NO2 − sources for anammox were only moderately affected by changing O2 concentrations. Intriguingly, aerobic NH3 oxidation was active at non-detectable concentrations of O2, while anaerobic NO3 − reduction was fully active up to at least 25 µmol L−1 O2. Hence, aerobic and anaerobic N-cycle pathways in OMZs can co-occur over a larger range of O2 concentrations than previously assumed. The zone where N-loss can occur is primarily controlled by the O2-sensitivity of anammox itself, and not by any effects of O2 on the tightly coupled pathways of aerobic NH3 oxidation and NO3 − reduction. With anammox bacteria in the marine environment being active at O2 levels ∼20 times higher than those known to inhibit their cultured counterparts, the oceanic volume potentially acting as a N-sink increases tenfold. The predicted expansion of OMZs may enlarge this volume even further. Our study provides the first robust estimates of O2 sensitivities for processes directly and indirectly connected with N-loss. These are essential to assess the effects of ocean de-oxygenation on oceanic N-cycling. PMID:22216239

  8. Magma Reservoir Processes Revealed by Geochemistry of the Ongoing East Rift Zone Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornber, C. R.

    2002-12-01

    limits of repeated MgO and temperature variation imply end-member magma conditions that are regulated by open-system recharge of the shallow magmatic plumbing system. The low-end of MgO variation (7 wt%) approaches the low-pressure multiphase cotectic, which is maintained by open-system replenishment of a persistent magma reservoir. The high-temperature end-member (10 wt% MgO) is probably regulated by olivine fractionation in a zone of turbulent mixing between primitive recharge magma (15 wt% MgO) and resident cotectic magma. The highest temperature magmas are associated with eruption pulses that occur in response to intrusive events at the summit and initiate short-term increases of HINCE/MINCE. Subsequent changes toward lower magmatic temperatures are associated with periods of overall summit deflation, relatively low-level effusion, and frequent eruptive pauses. The long-term trends can be explained by episodic mixing of chemically uniform recharge melt with diminishing proportions of pre-1983 summit magma (maintained at cotectic conditions). Decreasing HINCE/MINCE may signify that a greater proportion of recharge magma is being diverted directly to Pu`u `O`o with minimal summit interaction or that the mass ratio of those mixing end-members has changed due to a depleted summit chamber (or both). The coincidence of long-term summit deflation since the 1982 summit eruption suggests that shallow processes related to summit reservoir depletion may be responsible for decreasing HINCE/MINCE and Pb isotopes in post-1982 steady-state eruption products. Magma derived from a uniform mantle-source, after having flushed out older resident magma, may now completely occupy the shallow magmatic plumbing system.

  9. 30 CFR 585.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 585.647 Section 585.647 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Management Act? Your GAP will be processed based on how your limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant was...

  10. 30 CFR 585.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 585.647 Section 585.647 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Management Act? Your GAP will be processed based on how your limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant was...

  11. Automating the process for locating no-passing zones using georeferencing data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    This research created a method of using global positioning system (GPS) coordinates to identify the location of no-passing zones in two-lane highways. Analytical algorithms were developed for analyzing the availability of sight distance along the ali...

  12. The Generation of Continents through Subduction Zone Processing of Large Igneous Provinces: A Case Study from the Central American Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, N.; Rychert, C.

    2013-12-01

    Billions of years ago primary mantle magmas evolved to form the continental crust, although no simple magmatic differentiation process explains the progression to average andesitic crustal compositions observed today. A multiple stage process is often invoked, involving subduction and or oceanic plumes, to explain the strong depletion observed in Archean xenoliths and as well as pervasive tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite and komatiite protoliths in the greenstone belts in the crust in the cratons. Studying modern day analogues of oceanic plateaus that are currently interacting with subductions zones can provide insights into continental crust formation. Here we use surface waves to image crustal isotropic and radially anisotropic shear velocity structure above the central American subduction system in Nicaragua and Costa Rica, which juxtaposes thickened ocean island plateau crust in Costa Rica with continental/normal oceanic crust in Nicaragua. We find low velocities beneath the active arc regions (3-6% slower than the surrounding region) and up to 6% radially anisotropic structures within the oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province beneath Costa Rica. The low velocities and radial anisotropy suggest the anomalies are due to pervasive deep crustal magma sills. The inferred sill structures correlate spatially with increased silicic outputs in northern Costa Rica, indicating that deep differentiation of primary magmas is more efficient beneath Costa Rica relative to Nicaragua. Subduction zone alteration of large igneous provinces promotes efficient, deep processing of primary basalts to continental crust. This scenario can explain the formation of continental lithosphere and crust, by both providing strongly depleted mantle lithosphere and a means for rapidly generating a silicic crustal composition.

  13. Morphology and Role of the Investigator Fracture Zone on the Sumatra Subduction Zone Process using High-resolution Bathymetry and Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Robles, F.; Singh, S. C.; Bradley, K. E.; Hananto, N.; Leclerc, F.; Qin, Y.; Wei, S.; Carton, H. D.; Tapponnier, P.; Sieh, K.; Permana, H.; Avianto, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Sumatran subduction zone is one of the most seismically active areas on Earth. Within the last decade, it has produced three great earthquakes plus one earthquake that produced a much larger tsunami than predicted from the magnitude alone. However, the physical factors that limit the lateral extent of these ruptures as well as ancient earthquakes evidenced by paleogeodesy remain poorly understood. It has been suggested that subducted bathymetric features, such as seamounts and fracture zones, may be define many segment boundaries. Offshore of Central Sumatra, the Investigator Fracture Zone (IFZ) impinges on the trench and has been subducted to great depth beneath the overriding accretionary wedge. Where it is still exposed as a bathymetric feature, this fracture zone is 2000 km long and more than 100 km wide, and is composed of four individual ridges that exhibit up to 3.7 km of original relief. In order to study the role of the IFZ on subduction processes, we simultaneously acquired multibeam bathymetry and eight 35-km-long high-resolution seismic reflection profiles across the subduction front during the 2015 MegaTera experiment. We find that subduction of the IFZ ridges significantly deforms the morphology of the overriding accretionary wedge. The steep eastern slope of subducting ridges allowed the development of a long lived frontal thrust that reaches the surface at the trench and is associated with a very large frontal anticline and a flat portion of the accretionary wedge. Extensional deformation of the forearc and transverse basin formation occurs along the trailing edge of the ridges. We suggest that the subducted IFZ defines a segment boundary between the southern limit of coseismic slip of the Mw = 8.7, 2005 Simeulue-Nias earthquake and the northern limit of coseismic slip limit of a major 1797 earthquake recorded by coral paleogeodesy. The presence of four distinct ridges and an intervening 35-km-wide area of normal oceanic crust within the 105-km

  14. Effect of Friction Stir Processing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ91C Magnesium Cast Alloy Weld Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Behzad; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Enayati, Mohammad Hossein; Sabooni, Soheil; Vallant, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    In this study, friction stir processing (FSP) was applied to the GTAW (TIG)-welded AZ91C cast alloy to refine the microstructure and optimize the mechanical properties of the weld zone. Microstructural investigation of the samples was performed by optical microscopy and the phases in the microstructure were determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructural evaluations showed that FSP destroys the coarse dendritic microstructure. Furthermore, it dissolves the secondary hard and brittle β-Mg17Al12 phase existing at grain boundaries of the TIG weld zone. The closure and decrease in amount of porosities along with the elimination of the cracks in the microstructure were observed. These changes were followed by a significant grain refinement to an average value of 11 µm. The results showed that the hardness values increased to the mean ones, respectively, for as-cast (63 Hv), TIG weld zone (67 Hv), and stir zone (79 Hv). The yield and ultimate strength were significantly enhanced after FSP. The fractography evaluations, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicated to a transition from brittle to ductile fracture surface after applying FSP to the TIG weld zone.

  15. Modeling the influence of coupled mass transfer processes on mass flux downgradient of heterogeneous DNAPL source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lurong; Wang, Xinyu; Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Abriola, Linda M.

    2018-04-01

    Sequestered mass in low permeability zones has been increasingly recognized as an important source of organic chemical contamination that acts to sustain downgradient plume concentrations above regulated levels. However, few modeling studies have investigated the influence of this sequestered mass and associated (coupled) mass transfer processes on plume persistence in complex dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. This paper employs a multiphase flow and transport simulator (a modified version of the modular transport simulator MT3DMS) to explore the two- and three-dimensional evolution of source zone mass distribution and near-source plume persistence for two ensembles of highly heterogeneous DNAPL source zone realizations. Simulations reveal the strong influence of subsurface heterogeneity on the complexity of DNAPL and sequestered (immobile/sorbed) mass distribution. Small zones of entrapped DNAPL are shown to serve as a persistent source of low concentration plumes, difficult to distinguish from other (sorbed and immobile dissolved) sequestered mass sources. Results suggest that the presence of DNAPL tends to control plume longevity in the near-source area; for the examined scenarios, a substantial fraction (43.3-99.2%) of plume life was sustained by DNAPL dissolution processes. The presence of sorptive media and the extent of sorption non-ideality are shown to greatly affect predictions of near-source plume persistence following DNAPL depletion, with plume persistence varying one to two orders of magnitude with the selected sorption model. Results demonstrate the importance of sorption-controlled back diffusion from low permeability zones and reveal the importance of selecting the appropriate sorption model for accurate prediction of plume longevity. Large discrepancies for both DNAPL depletion time and plume longevity were observed between 2-D and 3-D model simulations. Differences between 2- and 3-D predictions increased in the presence of

  16. Unravelling the magmatic processes behind zoned fall units on Ascension Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, K. J.; Barclay, J.; Preece, K.; Brown, R. J.; Davidson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ascension Island, an isolated composite volcano in the south Atlantic, has a wide spectrum of explosive and effusive deposits. Eruptions on the island have produced ash and pumice fall deposits, ignimbrites, scoria cones, lava flows and lava domes, which vary in composition from basalt to rhyolite. We report, for the first time, the presence of multiple, zoned pumice fall deposits. These deposits grade upwards (stepwise or gradationally) from pumice to scoria. We present detailed observations of two key deposits which typify the range in zonation observed in the unusual fall units. Forensic examination of these deposits and their petrological and geochemical characteristics provide critical information about the interactions and processes behind the wide spectrum of magma compositions and past eruptive behaviour on Ascension Island. The first deposit changes gradationally from fayalite-bearing trachytic pumice fall (61.1 wt.% SiO2) at the base, to basaltic trachy-andesite scoria fall (54.5 wt.% SiO2) at the top. The second deposit is more complex. It contains mingled pumice-scoria clasts, has a rapid transition from pumice to scoria and no intermediate clasts were observed. New analyses of H2O, CO2 and key trace elements within melt inclusions combined with systematic whole rock and phenocryst analyses enable us to probe the relationship of these co-erupted magmas to other deposits on the island. This has yielded insights into the magma plumbing system; and improved understanding of the roles that fractional crystallisation and magma mixing play in generating the range in compositions observed at this unique ocean island volcano.

  17. Localized traveling ionization zones and their importance for the high power impulse magnetron sputtering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maszl, Christian

    2016-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is a technique to deposit thin films with superior quality. A high ionization degree up to 90% and the natural occurence of high energetic metal ions are the reason why HiPIMS exceeds direct current magnetron sputtering in terms of coating quality. On the other hand HiPIMS suffers from a reduced efficiency, especially if metal films are produced. Therefore, a lot of research is done by experimentalists and theoreticians to clarify the transport mechanisms from target to substrate and to identify the energy source of the energetic metal ions. Magnetron plasmas are prone to a wide range of wave phenomena and instabilities. Especially, during HiPIMS at elevated power/current densities, symmetry breaks and self-organization in the plasma torus are observed. In this scenario localized travelling ionization zones with certain quasi-mode numbers are present which are commonly referred to as spokes. Because of their high rotation speed compared to typical process times of minutes their importance for thin film deposition was underestimated at first. Recent investigations show that spokes have a strong impact on particle transport, are probably the source of the high energetic metal ions and are therefore the essence of HiPIMS plasmas. In this contribution we will describe the current understanding of spokes, discuss implications for thin film synthesis and highlight open questions. This project is supported by the DFG (German Science Foundation) within the framework of the Coordinated Research Center SFB-TR 87 and the Research Department ``Plasmas with Complex Interactions'' at Ruhr-University Bochum.

  18. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  19. Fast Oxidation Processes in a Naturally Reduced Aquifer Zone Caused by Dissolved Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Jemison, N. E.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is quite common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. The naturally reduced zones are heterogeneously dispersed in such aquifers and are characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon and reduced phases, including iron sulfides and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases that are found in association with these natural reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Three field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO wherein groundwater associated with naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in these field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Small concentrations of nitrate were also observed in the previously nitrate-free groundwater, and Fe(II) decreased to the detection limit. These results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS) rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table, and seasonal variations

  20. Petrologic constraints on rift-zone processes - Results from episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, M.O.; Ho, R.A.; Rhodes, J.M.; Wolfe, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Puu Oo eruption in the middle of Kilauea volcano's east rift zone provides an excellent opportunity to utilize petrologic constraints to interpret rift-zone processes. Emplacement of a dike began 24 hours before the start of the eruption on 3 January 1983. Seismic and geodetic evidence indicates that the dike collided with a magma body in the rift zone. Most of the lava produced during the initial episode of the Puu Oo eruption is of hybrid composition, with petrographic and geochemical evidence of mixing magmas of highly evllved and more mafic compositions. Some olivine and plagioclase grains in the hybrid lavas show reverse zoning. Whole-rock compositional variations are linear even for normally compatible elements like Ni and Cr. Leastsquares mixing calculations yield good residuals for major and trace element analyses for magma mixing. Crystal fractionation calculations yield unsatisfactory residuals. The highly evolved magma is similar in composition to the lava from the 1977 eruption and, at one point, vents for these two eruptions are only 200 m apart. Possibly both the 1977 lava and the highly evolved component of the episode 1 Puu Oo lava were derived from a common body of rift-zone-stored magma. The more mafic mixing component may be represented by the most mafic lava from the January 1983 eruption; it shows no evidence of magma mixing. The dike that was intruded just prior to the start of the Puu Oo eruption may have acted as a hydraulic plunger causing mixing of the two rift-zone-stored magmas. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Processes and time scales of magmatic evolution as revealed by Fe-Mg chemical and isotopic zoning in natural olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeser, Martin; Dohmen, Ralf; Horn, Ingo; Schuth, Stephan; Weyer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we applied high-precision in situ Fe and Mg isotope analyses by femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) MC-ICP-MS on chemically zoned olivine xeno- and phenocrysts from intra-plate volcanic regions in order to investigate the magnitude of Fe and Mg isotope fractionation and its suitability to gain information on magma evolution. Our results show that chemical zoning (i.e., Mg#) in magmatic olivines is commonly associated with significant zoning in δ56Fe and δ26Mg (up to 1.7‰ and 0.7‰, respectively). We explored different cases of kinetic fractionation of Fe and Mg isotopes by modeling diffusion in the melt or olivine and simultaneous growth or dissolution. Combining the information of chemical and isotopic zoning in olivine allows to distinguish between various processes that may occur during magma evolution, namely diffusive Fe-Mg exchange between olivine and melt, rapid crystal growth, and Fe-Mg inter-diffusion simultaneous to crystal dissolution or growth. Chemical diffusion in olivine appears to be the dominant process that drives isotope fractionation in magmatic olivine. Simplified modeling of Fe and Mg diffusion is suitable to reproduce both the chemical and the isotopic zoning in most of the investigated olivines and, additionally, provides time information about magmatic processes. For the Massif Central (France), modeling of diffusive re-equilibration of mantle olivines in basanites revealed a short time span (<2 years) between the entrainment of a mantle xenolith in an intra-plate basaltic magma and the eruption of the magma. Furthermore, we determined high cooling rates (on the order of a few tens to hundreds of °C per year) for basanite samples from a single large outcrop in the Massif Central, which probably reflects the cooling of a massive lava flow after eruption. Results from the modeling of Fe and Mg isotope fractionation in olivine point to a systematic difference between βFe and βMg (i.e., βFe/βMg ≈ 2), implying that the

  2. Geobiology of the Critical Zone: the Hierarchies of Process, Form and Life provide an Integrated Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    complementary biotic indicators of the palaeoenviroments in which they evolved. This strategy extends into the critical zone, to track evolutionary tenures and turnovers of endemics "ecological prisoners" in vadosic and phreatic landforms. Moreover, geoecodynamics of the Critical Zone can logically exploit endemic biota at the microscale in regolith, and also extremophiles to extreme depths; all such populations hold fascinating potential as biotic indicators of otherwise encrypted events in Earth history. Geoecodynamics is an exciting area emerging in geobiology. It opens up with new lines of attack on challenges at the core of geomorphology and palaeoecology. In its abilities to quantify mesoscale phenomena, geoecodynamics injects new life into evolutionary geomorphology. Moreover, the means to quantify mesoscale process and form enables quantification of thresholds and tenures of landform dynamics; we can now scrutinize obscurities, including the scale-dependency of landscape events invoked to have shaped palimpsests (Brunsden D 1996 Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie NF, 40, 273- 288). Analogously, where accumulated packages of evidence survive, we should be able to map out key signals in the tempo and mode of the genomic record through the Critical Zone, and so scrutinize otherwise encrypted events that shaped the inherent emptiness of the Rock Record (Ager D 1993. The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record; Miall AD 2015. Strata and Time: Probing the Gaps in Our Understanding. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 404, http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP404.4). Compared to, and notwithstanding, the episodic turnovers of sediments (and all allied events) that shaped evolving landscapes, the history of Life has been distinctly different; descent with modification links all clades and lineages of the Tree of Life with the present - even at deep nodes - though an unbroken chain of genomic connectivity. The complexity of niche space we see in landscapes reflects the diverse

  3. A numerical study of zone-melting process for the thermoelectric material of Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Hwang, W. S.; Hsieh, H. L.; Huang, J. Y.; Huang, T. K.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a numerical model has been established by employing a commercial software; ProCAST, to simulate the variation/distribution of temperature and the subsequent microstructure of Bi2Te3 fabricated by zone-melting technique. Then an experiment is conducted to measure the temperature variation/distribution during the zone-melting process to validate the numerical system. Also, the effects of processing parameters on crystallization microstructure such as moving speed and temperature of heater are numerically evaluated. In the experiment, the Bi2Te3 powder are filled into a 30mm diameter quartz cylinder and the heater is set to 800°C with a moving speed 12.5 mm/hr. A thermocouple is inserted in the Bi2Te3 powder to measure the temperature variation/distribution of the zone-melting process. The temperature variation/distribution measured by experiment is compared to the results of numerical simulation. The results show that our model and the experiment are well matched. Then the model is used to evaluate the crystal formation for Bi2Te3 with a 30mm diameter process. It's found that when the moving speed is slower than 17.5 mm/hr, columnar crystal is obtained. In the end, we use this model to predict the crystal formation of zone-melting process for Bi2Te3 with a 45 mm diameter. The results show that it is difficult to grow columnar crystal when the diameter comes to 45mm.

  4. Chlorite Stability in the Mantle Wedge and its Role in Subduction Zone Melting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, T. L.; Chatterjee, N.; Medard, E.; Parman, S. W.

    2006-12-01

    New experimental constraints on the H2O-saturated melting behavior of mantle peridotite (Grove et al., 2006, EPSL 249: 74 - 89) show that chlorite is a stable phase on the vapor-saturated solidus of peridotite at a pressure of 2 GPa and higher. Hydrous melting in the presence of chlorite begins at 860 °C at 2 GPa and the solidus temperature decreases continuously to 800 °C at 3.2 GPa. The solidus phases include olivine, orthopyroxene, high-Ca clinopyroxene and spinel + chlorite over the pressure range of 2 to 2.4 GPa. Garnet + chlorite + ilmenite are present above 2.4 GPa. At 2.8 to 3.2 GPa, chlorite is stable on the vapor- saturated solidus, but it reacts out 20 to 40 °C above the solidus. The temperature-pressure range for chlorite stability and vapor-saturated melting behavior involving chlorite are similar to those inferred for the mantle wedge above the subducted slab by geodynamic thermal models. Thus, chlorite may be a stable phase within the mantle wedge and may play a role in the onset of hydrous mantle melting. The factors that lead to the initiation of melting in subduction zones have remained enigmatic. The occurrence of volcanic fronts above the mantle wedge-subducted slab interface near a depth of 100 km in most arcs has not been conclusively explained. Melting must somehow be linked to processes that involve the release of water from the slab into the overlying mantle wedge, but why does melting always begin at or below 100 km? A potential melt triggering mechanism is that H2O released from dehydration reactions in the subducted oceanic lithosphere at pressures > 2 GPa rises into the overlying mantle and reacts with peridotite to form chlorite. This chloritized peridotite is pulled down by mantle flow to pressures of 3 to 3.5 GPa. Increases in temperature in the mantle wedge above the subducted slab lead to chlorite breakdown and/or vapor-saturated melting initiation. When mantle peridotite is hydrated ~ 13 wt. % chlorite is produced for a bulk H2

  5. Physical processes in the transition zone between North Sea and Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Lu, Xi; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics in the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea are analyzed here using data from a 22-year-long climatic simulation with a focus on the periods 1992-1994 and 2001-2003 when two recent major inflow events occurred. Observations from gauges and in situ measurements are used to validate the model. Parameters, which cannot be easily measured, such as water and salt transports through straits, have been compared against similar previous estimates. The good performance of simulations is attributed to the finer resolution of the model compared to earlier set ups. The outflow in the Kattegat, which is an analogue of the tidal outflows, tends to propagate to the North over the shallows without showing a substantial deflection to the right due to the Earth's rotation. The inflow follows the topography. The different inflow and outflow pathways are explained as a consequence of the specific combination of bathymetry, axial and lateral processes. The circulation in Kattegat is persistently clockwise with an eastern intensification during inflow and a western one during outflow regimes. The tidal wave there propagates as Kelvin wave, keeping the coast on its right. The flows in the two main straits reveal very different responses to tides, which are also highly asymmetric during inflow and outflow conditions. The circulation has a typical two-layer structure, the correlation between salinity and velocity tends to increase the salt transport in the salinity conveyor belt. The transversal circulation in the entrance of the Sound enhances the vertical mixing of the saltier North Sea water. The long-term averaged ratio of the water transports through the Great Belt and the Sound is ∼2.6-2.7 but this number changes reaching lower values during the major inflow in 1993. The transports in the straits are asymmetric. During inflow events the repartition of water penetrating the Baltic Sea is strongly in favor of the pathway through the Sound, which provides

  6. Fault-zone structure and weakening processes in basin-scale reverse faults: The Moonlight Fault Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alder, S.; Smith, S. A. F.; Scott, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    The >200 km long Moonlight Fault Zone (MFZ) in southern New Zealand was an Oligocene basin-bounding normal fault zone that reactivated in the Miocene as a high-angle reverse fault (present dip angle 65°-75°). Regional exhumation in the last c. 5 Ma has resulted in deep exposures of the MFZ that present an opportunity to study the structure and deformation processes that were active in a basin-scale reverse fault at basement depths. Syn-rift sediments are preserved only as thin fault-bound slivers. The hanging wall and footwall of the MFZ are mainly greenschist facies quartzofeldspathic schists that have a steeply-dipping (55°-75°) foliation subparallel to the main fault trace. In more fissile lithologies (e.g. greyschists), hanging-wall deformation occurred by the development of foliation-parallel breccia layers up to a few centimetres thick. Greyschists in the footwall deformed mainly by folding and formation of tabular, foliation-parallel breccias up to 1 m wide. Where the hanging-wall contains more competent lithologies (e.g. greenschist facies metabasite) it is laced with networks of pseudotachylyte that formed parallel to the host rock foliation in a damage zone extending up to 500 m from the main fault trace. The fault core contains an up to 20 m thick sequence of breccias, cataclasites and foliated cataclasites preserving evidence for the progressive development of interconnected networks of (partly authigenic) chlorite and muscovite. Deformation in the fault core occurred by cataclasis of quartz and albite, frictional sliding of chlorite and muscovite grains, and dissolution-precipitation. Combined with published friction and permeability data, our observations suggest that: 1) host rock lithology and anisotropy were the primary controls on the structure of the MFZ at basement depths and 2) high-angle reverse slip was facilitated by the low frictional strength of fault core materials. Restriction of pseudotachylyte networks to the hanging-wall of the

  7. Fine structure of the landers fault zone: Segmentation and the rupture process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.-G.; Vidale, J.E.; Aki, K.; Marone, C.J.; Lee, W.H.K.

    1994-01-01

    Observations and modeling of 3- to 6-hertz seismic shear waves trapped within the fault zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake series allow the fine structure and continuity of the zone to be evaluated. The fault, to a depth of at least 12 kilometers, is marked by a zone 100 to 200 meters wide where shear velocity is reduced by 30 to 50 percent. This zone forms a seismic waveguide that extends along the southern 30 kilometers of the Landers rupture surface and ends at the fault bend about 18 kilometers north of the main shock epicenter. Another fault plane waveguide, disconnected from the first, exists along the northern rupture surface. These observations, in conjunction with surface slip, detailed seismicity patterns, and the progression of rupture along the fault, suggest that several simple rupture planes were involved in the Landers earthquake and that the inferred rupture front hesitated or slowed at the location where the rupture jumped from one to the next plane. Reduction in rupture velocity can tentatively be attributed to fault plane complexity, and variations in moment release can be attributed to variations in available energy.

  8. Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hagos, Fisseha; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Balcha, Fikadu; Berhe, Semarya; Aregay, Alemseged

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it's affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90%) of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75%) of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress. PMID:24649360

  9. Surface and subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of groundwater recharge processes through the karst vadose zone at Rochefort Cave (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Triantafyllou, A.; Delforge, D.; Quinif, Y.; Van Ruymbeke, M.; Kaufmann, O.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-based gravimetry is a non-invasive and integrated tool to characterize hydrological processes in complex environments such as karsts or volcanoes. A problem in ground-based gravity measurements however concerns the lack of sensitivity in the first meters below the topographical surface, added to limited infiltration below the gravimeter building (umbrella effect). Such limitations disappear when measuring underground. Coupling surface and subsurface gravity measurements therefore allow isolating hydrological signals occurring in the zone between the two gravimeters. We present a coupled surface/subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of 2 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (Belgium). The gravity record includes surface measurements of a GWR superconducting gravimeter and subsurface measurements of a Micro-g LaCoste gPhone gravimeter, installed in a cave 35 m below the surface station. The recharge of karstic aquifers is extremely complex to model, mostly because karst hydrological systems are composed of strongly heterogeneous flows. Most of the problem comes from the inadequacy of conventional measuring tools to correctly sample such heterogeneous media, and particularly the existence of a duality of flow types infiltrating the vadose zone: from rapid flows via open conduits to slow seepage through porous matrix. Using the surface/subsurface gravity difference, we were able to identify a significant seasonal groundwater recharge within the karst vadose zone. Seasonal or perennial perched reservoirs have already been proven to exist in several karst areas due to the heterogeneity of the porosity and permeability gradient in karstified carbonated rocks. Our gravimetric experiment allows assessing more precisely the recharge processes of such reservoirs. The gravity variations were also compared with surface and in-cave hydrogeological monitoring (i.e. soil moisture, in-cave percolating water discharges, water levels of the saturated zone). Combined

  10. Molecular-dynamics Simulation-based Cohesive Zone Representation of Intergranular Fracture Processes in Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.; Saether, Erik; Phillips, Dawn R.; Glaessgen, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    A traction-displacement relationship that may be embedded into a cohesive zone model for microscale problems of intergranular fracture is extracted from atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations. A molecular-dynamics model for crack propagation under steady-state conditions is developed to analyze intergranular fracture along a flat 99 [1 1 0] symmetric tilt grain boundary in aluminum. Under hydrostatic tensile load, the simulation reveals asymmetric crack propagation in the two opposite directions along the grain boundary. In one direction, the crack propagates in a brittle manner by cleavage with very little or no dislocation emission, and in the other direction, the propagation is ductile through the mechanism of deformation twinning. This behavior is consistent with the Rice criterion for cleavage vs. dislocation blunting transition at the crack tip. The preference for twinning to dislocation slip is in agreement with the predictions of the Tadmor and Hai criterion. A comparison with finite element calculations shows that while the stress field around the brittle crack tip follows the expected elastic solution for the given boundary conditions of the model, the stress field around the twinning crack tip has a strong plastic contribution. Through the definition of a Cohesive-Zone-Volume-Element an atomistic analog to a continuum cohesive zone model element - the results from the molecular-dynamics simulation are recast to obtain an average continuum traction-displacement relationship to represent cohesive zone interaction along a characteristic length of the grain boundary interface for the cases of ductile and brittle decohesion. Keywords: Crack-tip plasticity; Cohesive zone model; Grain boundary decohesion; Intergranular fracture; Molecular-dynamics simulation

  11. Precipitation behavior of σ phase in fusion zone of dissimilar stainless steel welds during multi-pass GTAW process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Chang, Tao-Chih; Lin, Dong-Yih; Chen, Ming-Che; Wu, Weite

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the precipitation characteristics of σ phase in the fusion zone of stainless steel welds at various welding passes during a tungsten are welding (GTAW) process. The morphology, quantity, and chemical composition of the δ-ferrite and σ phase were analyzed using optical microscopy (OM), a ferritscope (FS), a X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), and a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS), respectively. Massive δ-ferrite was observed in the fusion zone of the first pass welds during welding of dissimilar stainless steels. The σ phase precipitated at the inner δ-ferrite particles and decreased δ-ferrite content during the third pass welding. The σ and δ phases can be stabilized by Si element, which promoted the phase transformation of σ→ϱ+λ2 in the fusion zone of the third pass welds. It was found that the σ phase was a Fe-Cr-Si intermetallic compound found in the fusion zone of the third pass welds during multi-pass welding.

  12. Prograde and retrograde metamorphic processes in high-pressure subduction zone serpentinites from East Thessaly, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, Petros

    2016-04-01

    The East Thessaly region, Central Greece, includes metaophiolitic mélange formations which extend from the eastern foothills of Mt. Olympus and Ossa, throughout the Agia basin, Mt. Mavrovouni (Sklithro region), South Pelion and reaching up to northeast Othris (regions of Aerino and Velestino). They appear in the form of dispersed and deformed thrust sheets having been variably emplaced onto Mesozoic platform series rocks of the Pelagonian tectonostratigraphic zone[1]. These formations consist mainly of serpentinites, as well as metasediments, metagabbros, metadolerites, rodingites, ophicalcites, talc-schists and chromitites. Based upon petrographic observations, mineral chemistry data and XRD patterns, the subduction zone-related serpentinites from the regions of Potamia, Anavra, Aetolofos and Kalochori-Chasanbali (Agia basin), as well as from the regions of Aerino and Velestino, are characterized by the progressive transformation of lizardite to antigorite and are distinguished into two groups. The first group includes serpentinites from the metaophiolitic formations of Potamia, Anavra, Aerino and Velestino, which are marked by destibillization of lizardite to antigorite, mostly along the grain boundaries of the lizardite mesh textured relics. The presence of lizardite and antigorite in almost equal amounts indicates medium-temperature blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (˜340-370 ° C; P≈10-11 kbar)[2,3,4]. The second serpentinite group appears in the regions of Aetolofos and Kalochori, characterized by the predominance of antigorite, the minor occurrence of lizardite and the complete replacement of spinel by Cr-magnetite. The absence of metamorphic olivine suggests that these serpentinites were most likely formed at slightly higher temperature and pressure conditions compared to the first serpentinite group, corresponding to medium or high temperature blueschist facies metamorphism (˜360-380 ° C; P≈12 kbar)[2,3,4]. These metamorphic conditions are

  13. Elucidating Critical Zone Process Interactions with an Integrated Hydrology Model in a Headwaters Research Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Providence Creek (P300) watershed is an alpine headwaters catchment located at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). Evidence of groundwater-dependent vegetation and drought-induced tree mortality at P300 along with the effect of subsurface characterization on mountain ecohydrology motivates this study. A hyper resolution integrated hydrology model of this site, along with extensive instrumentation, provides an opportunity to study the effects of lateral groundwater flow on vegetation's tolerance to drought. ParFlow-CLM is a fully integrated surface-subsurface model that is driven with reconstructed meteorology, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 (NLDAS-2) dataset. However, large-scale data products mute orographic effects on climate at smaller scales. Climate variables often do not behave uniformly in highly heterogeneous mountain regions. Therefore, forcing physically-based integrated hydrologic models—especially of mountain headwaters catchments—with a large-scale data product is a major challenge. Obtaining reliable observations in complex terrain is challenging and while climate data products introduce uncertainties likewise, documented discrepancies between several data products and P300 observations suggest these data products may suffice. To tackle these issues, a suite of simulations was run to parse out (1) the effects of climate data source (data products versus observations) and (2) the effects of climate data spatial variability. One tool for evaluating the effect of climate data on model outputs is the relationship between latent head flux (LH) and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning with water table depth (WTD). This zone of LH sensitivity to WTD is referred to as the "critical zone." Preliminary results suggest that these critical zone relationships are preserved despite forcing albeit significant shifts in magnitude. These results demonstrate that integrated hydrology models are sensitive

  14. When interflow also percolates: downslope travel distances and hillslope process zones.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C. Rhett; Bitew, Menberu; Du, Enhao

    2014-02-17

    In hillslopes with soils characterized by deep regoliths, such as Ultisols,Oxisols, and Alfisols, interflow occurs episodically over impeding layers near and parallel to the soil surface such as low-conductivity B horizons (e.g.Newman et al., 1998; Buttle andMcDonald, 2002; Du et al., In Review), till layers (McGlynn et al., 1999; Bishop et al., 2004), hardpans (McDaniel et al., 2008), C horizons (Detty and McGuire, 2010), and permeable bedrock (Tromp van Meerveld et al., 2007). As perched saturation develops within and above these impeding but permeable horizons, flow moves laterally downslope, but the perched water also continues to percolate through the impedingmore » horizon to the unsaturated soils and saprolite below. Perched water and solutes will eventually traverse the zone of perched saturation above the impeding horizon and then enter and percolate through the impeding horizon. In such flow situations, only lower hillslope segments with sufficient downslope travel distance will deliver water to the riparian zone within the time scale of a storm.farther up the slope, lateral flow within the zone of perched saturation. will act mainly to shift the point of percolation (location where a water packet leaves the downslope flow zone in the upper soil layer and enters the impeding layer) down the hillslope from the point of infiltration. In flatter parts of the hillslope or in areas with little contrast between the conductivities of the upper and impeding soil layers, lateral flow distances will be negligible.« less

  15. Physical Controls on Biogeochemical Processes in Intertidal Zones of Beach Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiss, James W.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Laattoe, Tariq; Russoniello, Christopher J.; Michael, Holly A.

    2017-11-01

    Marine ecosystems are sensitive to inputs of chemicals from submarine groundwater discharge. Tidally influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing zones in beach aquifers can host biogeochemical transformations that modify chemical loads prior to discharge. A numerical variable-density groundwater flow and reactive transport model was used to evaluate the physical controls on reactivity for mixing-dependent and mixing-independent reactions in beach aquifers, represented as denitrification and sulfate reduction, respectively. A sensitivity analysis was performed across typical values of tidal amplitude, hydraulic conductivity, terrestrial freshwater flux, beach slope, dispersivity, and DOC reactivity. For the model setup and conditions tested, the simulations demonstrate that denitrification can remove up to 100% of terrestrially derived nitrate, and sulfate reduction can transform up to 8% of seawater-derived sulfate prior to discharge. Tidally driven mixing between saltwater and freshwater promotes denitrification along the boundary of the intertidal saltwater circulation cell in pore water between 1 and 10 ppt. The denitrification zone occupies on average 49% of the mixing zone. Denitrification rates are highest on the landward side of the circulation cell and decrease along circulating flow paths. Reactivity for mixing-dependent reactions increases with the size of the mixing zone and solute supply, while mixing-independent reactivity is controlled primarily by solute supply. The results provide insights into the types of beaches most efficient in altering fluxes of chemicals prior to discharge and could be built upon to help engineer beaches to enhance reactivity. The findings have implications for management to protect coastal ecosystems and the estimation of chemical fluxes to the ocean.

  16. Impacts of Quaternary History on Critical Zone Structure and Processes: Examples and a Conceptual Model from the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Alison M.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Grimley, David A.; Stumpf, Andrew J.; Kumar, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The concept of a critical zone (CZ) supporting terrestrial life has fostered groundbreaking interdisciplinary science addressing complex interactions among water, soil, rock, air and life near Earth’s surface. Pioneering work has focused on the CZ in areas with residual soils and steady-state or erosional topography. CZ evolution in these areas is conceptualized as progressive weathering of local bedrock (e.g. in the flow-through reactor model). However, this model is not applicable to areas in which weathering profiles form in transported materials including the formerly glaciated portion of the Central Lowland of North America. We present a new conceptual model of CZ evolution in landscapes impacted by continental glaciation based on investigations at three study sites in the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO) The IML-CZO is devoted to the study of CZ processes in a region characterized by thick surficial deposits resulting from multiple continental glaciations, with bedrock at depths of up to 150 m. Here the physical (glacial ice, loess, developing soil profiles) and biological (microbes, tundra, forest, prairie) components of the CZ vary significantly in time. Moreover, the spatial relationships between mineral components of the CZ record a history of glacial-interglacial cycles and landscape evolution. We present cross-sections from IML-CZO sites to provide specific examples of how environmental change is recorded by the structure of the mineral components of the CZ. We build on these examples to create an idealized model of CZ evolution through a glacial cycle that represents the IML-CZO sites and other areas of low relief that have experienced continental glaciation. In addition, we identify two main characteristics of CZ structure which should be included in a conceptual model of CZ development in the IML-CZO and similar settings: (1) mineral components have diverse origins and transport trajectories including alteration in

  17. Lyman alpha line shapes from electron impact H2 dissociative processes in the Jovian auroral zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Gladstone, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past two years several Lyman alpha line profile spectra of Jupiter were obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) telescope. Several different regions of the planet were observed including the auroral zone, the low and mid latitudes, and the equatorial region which includes the Lyman alpha bulge region. These results have presented a very interesting picture of atomic hydrogen on Jupiter with explanations that range from ion outflow in the auroral zone to large thermospheric winds at low and mid latitudes. New data are needed to address the outstanding questions. Almost certainly, high resolution spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope will play a role in new observations. Better data also require better models, and better models require new laboratory data as inputs. The purpose of this program is two-fold: (1) to introduce a method by which new laboratory electron impact measurements of H2 dissociation can be used to calculate both the slow and fast H(S-2) and H(P-2) fragments in an H2 atmosphere; and (2) to determine the predicted Lyman alpha line shape that would result from electron impact production of these dissociative fragments in the Jovian auroral zone.

  18. Characterization of frictional melting processes in subduction zone faults by trace element and isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Ujiie, K.

    2017-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes found in exhumed accretionary complexes, which are considered to be formed originally at seismogenic depths, are of great importance for elucidating frictional melting and concomitant dynamic weakening of the fault during earthquake in subduction zones. However, fluid-rich environment of the subduction zone faults tends to cause extensive alteration of the pseudotachylyte glass matrix in later stages, and thus it has been controversial that pseudotachylytes are rarely formed or rarely preserved. Chemical analysis of the fault rocks, especially on fluid-immobile trace elements and isotopes, can be a useful means to identify and quantify the frictional melting occurred in subduction zone faults. In this paper, we report major and trace element and Sr isotope compositions for pseudotachylyte-bearing dark veins and surrounding host rocks from the Mugi area of the Shimanto accretionary complex (Ujiie et al., J. Struct. Geol. 2007). Samples were collected from a rock chip along the microstructure using a micro-drilling technique, and then analyzed by ICP-MS and TIMS. Major element compositions of the dark veins showed a clear shift from the host rock composition toward the illite composition. The dark veins, either unaltered or completely altered, were also characterized by extreme enrichment in some of the trace elements such as Ti, Zr, Nb and Th. These results are consistent with disequilibrium melting of the fault zone. Model calculations revealed that the compositions of the dark veins can be produced by total melting of clay-rich matrix in the source rock, leaving plagioclase and quartz grains almost unmolten. The calculations also showed that the dark veins are far more enriched in melt component than that expected from the source rock compositions, suggesting migration and concentration of frictional melt during the earthquake faulting. Furthermore, Sr isotope data of the dark veins implied the occurrence of frictional melting in multiple stages

  19. Fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth: Analysis of the floating zone and vertical Bridgman processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    This research program focuses on analysis of the transport mechanisms in solidification processes, especially one of interest to the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Program of NASA. Research during the last year has focused on analysis of the dynamics of the floating zone process for growth of small-scale crystals, on studies of the effect of applied magnetic fields on convection and solute segregation in directional solidification, and on the dynamics of microscopic cell formation in two-dimensional solidification of binary alloys. Significant findings are given.

  20. Geophysical signature of hydration-dehydration processes in active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Seismological and magneto-telluric tomographies are potential tools for imaging fluid circulation when combined with petrophysical models. Recent measurements of the physical properties of serpentine allow refining hydration of the mantle and fluid circulation in the mantle wedge from geophysical data. In the slab lithospheric mantle, serpentinization caused by bending at the trench is limited to a few kilometers below the oceanic crust (<5 km). Double Wadati-Benioff zones, 20-30 km below the crust, are explained by deformation of dry peridotites, not by serpentine dehydration. It reduces the required amount of water stored in solid phases in the slab (Reynard et al., 2010). In the cold (<700°C) fore-arc mantle wedge above the subducting slab, serpentinization is caused by the release of large amounts of hydrous fluids in the cold mantle above the dehydrating subducted plate. Low seismic velocities in the wedge give a time-integrated estimate of hydration and serpentinization. Serpentinization reaches 50-100% in hot subduction, while it is below 10% in cold subduction (Bezacier et al., 2010; Reynard, 2012). Electromagnetic profiles of the mantle wedge reveal high electrical-conductivity bodies. In hot areas of the mantle wedge (> 700°C), water released by dehydration of the slab induces melting of the mantle under volcanic arcs, explaining the observed high conductivities. In the cold melt-free wedge (< 700°C), high conductivities in electromagnetic profiles provide "instantaneous" images of fluid circulation because the measured electrical conductivity of serpentine is below 0.1 mS/m (Reynard et al., 2011). A small fraction (ca. 1% in volume) of connective high-salinity fluids accounts for the highest observed conductivities. Low-salinity fluids (≤ 0.1 m) released by slab dehydration evolve towards high-salinity (≥ 1 m) fluids during progressive serpentinization in the wedge. These fluids can mix with arc magmas at depths and account for high-chlorine melt

  1. Crustal Structure of Active Deformation Zones in Africa: Implications for Global Crustal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Bastow, I. D.; Whaler, K.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Ayele, A.; Miller, M. S.; Tiberi, C.; Hautot, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cenozoic East African rift (EAR), Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), and Atlas Mountains formed on the slow-moving African continent, which last experienced orogeny during the Pan-African. We synthesize primarily geophysical data to evaluate the role of magmatism in shaping Africa's crust. In young magmatic rift zones, melt and volatiles migrate from the asthenosphere to gas-rich magma reservoirs at the Moho, altering crustal composition and reducing strength. Within the southernmost Eastern rift, the crust comprises 20% new magmatic material ponded in the lower crust and intruded as sills and dikes at shallower depths. In the Main Ethiopian Rift, intrusions comprise 30% of the crust below axial zones of dike-dominated extension. In the incipient rupture zones of the Afar rift, magma intrusions fed from crustal magma chambers beneath segment centers create new columns of mafic crust, as along slow-spreading ridges. Our comparisons suggest that transitional crust, including seaward dipping sequences, is created as progressively smaller screens of continental crust are heated and weakened by magma intrusion into 15-20 km thick crust. In the 30 Ma Recent CVL, which lacks a hot spot age progression, extensional forces are small, inhibiting the creation and rise of magma into the crust. In the Atlas orogen, localized magmatism follows the strike of the Atlas Mountains from the Canary Islands hot spot toward the Alboran Sea. CVL and Atlas magmatism has had minimal impact on crustal structure. Our syntheses show that magma and volatiles are migrating from the asthenosphere through the plates, modifying rheology, and contributing significantly to global carbon and water fluxes.

  2. Geophysical study of the structure and processes of the continental convergence zones: Alpine-Himalayan Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoez, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    The seismic wave velocity structure in the crust and upper mantle region beneath the Tibetan plateau was studied in detail. Also, a preliminary study of the uppermost mantle P wave velocity beneath Iran and Turkey was carried out, and the results are compared with those for the Tibetan plateau. These two studies compose the bulk of the efforts on the observational aspects of continental collision zones in addition to satellite derived data. On the theoretical aspects the thermal evolution of converging plate boundaries was explored using a finite difference scheme.

  3. The role of chemical processes and brittle deformation during shear zone formation and its potential geophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Leydier, Thomas; Mahan, Kevin; Albaric, Julie; Trap, Pierre; Marquer, Didier

    2017-04-01

    Ductile shear zones in the middle and lower continental crust are the locus of interactions between mechanical and chemical processes. Chemical processes encompass metamorphic reactions, fluid-rock interactions, fluid flow and chemical mass-transfer. Studying these processes at the grain scale, and even the atom scale, on exposed inactive shear zones can give insights into large-scale geodynamics phenomena (e.g. crustal growth and mountain building through the reconstruction of P-T-t-D-Ɛ evolutionary paths. However, other major issues in earth sciences can be tackled through these studies as well. For instance, the mechanism of fluid flow and mass transfer in the deep crust where permeability should be small and transient is still largely debated. Studying exhumed inactive shear zones can also help to interpret several new geophysical observations like (1) the origin of tremor and very low frequency earthquakes observed in the ductile middle and lower crust, (2) mechanisms for generating slow slip events and (3) the physical origin of puzzling crustal anisotropy observed in major active crustal shear zones. In this contribution, we present a collection of data (deformation, petrology, geochemistry, microtexture) obtained on various shear zones from the Alps that were active within the viscous regime (T > 450°C). Our observations show that the development of a shear zone, from its nucleation to its growth and propagation, is not only governed by ductile deformation coeval with reactions but also involves brittle deformation. Although brittle deformation is a very short-lived phenomenon, our petrological and textural observations show that brittle failure is also associated with fluid flow, mass transfer, metasomatic reactions and recrystallization. We speculate that the fluids and the associated mineralogical changes involved during this brittle failure in the ductile crust might play a role in earthquake / tremor triggering below the brittle - ductile transition

  4. Linking optical properties of dissolved organic matter to multiple processes at the coastal plume zone in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yulin; Zhao, Jianfu; Li, Penghui; Huang, Qinghui

    2016-10-12

    Because of the significance in photosynthesis, nutrient dynamics, trophodynamics and biological activity, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is important to the microbial community in the coastal plume zone. In this study, we investigated the hydrodynamic processes, photodegradation and biodegradation of DOM at the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea through analyzing water quality and optical properties of DOM. Surface water samples were collected to examine water quality and fluorescence properties of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM). The results indicated that dilution was the key factor in the multiple processes, and the mixing process gradually increased from nearshore to offshore in coastal water. Four components of FDOM representing humic-like substances (C1 & C4) and protein-like substances (C2 & C3) were identified, and all components showed nearly conservative behaviors. Protein-like substances were more mutable compared to humic-like substances. The photodegradation of humic-like substances caused brown algae blooms to some extent. The molecular weight of humic substances gradually decreased along the mixing process. FDOM in the plume zone was both of terrigenous and autochthonous origins, and the characteristic of terrigenous origin was obvious compared to that of autochthonous origin.

  5. Influence of Topography on Root Processes in the Shale Hills-Susquehanna Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; Orr, A. S.; Adams, T. S.; Chen, W.; Gaines, K.

    2015-12-01

    Topography can strongly influence root and associated mycorrhizal fungal function in the Critical Zone. In the Shale Hills-Susquehanna Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO), soil depths range from more than 80 cm deep in the valley floor to about 25 cm on the ridge top. Tree height varies from about 28 m tall at the valley floor to about 17 m tall at the ridge top. Yet total absorptive root length to depth of refusal is quite similar across the hillslope. We find root length density to vary as much at locations only 1-2 m apart as at scales of hundreds of meters across the catchment. Tree community composition also varies along the hillslope, including tree species that vary widely in thickness of their absorptive roots and type of mycorrhiza (arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal). Studies of trees in a common garden of 16 tree species and in forests near SSCZO indicate that both root morphology and mycorrhizal type can strongly influence root foraging. Species that form thick absorptive roots appear more dependent on mycorrhizal fungi and thin-root species forage more by root proliferation. Ectomycorrhizal trees show more variation in foraging precision (proliferation in a nutrient-rich patch relative to that in an unenriched patch) of their mycorrhizal hyphae whereas AM trees show more variation in foraging precision by root proliferation, indicating alternative strategies among trees of different mycorrhizal types. Collectively, the results provide insight into how topography can influence foraging belowground.

  6. Stability and instability of thermocapillary convection in models of the float-zone crystal-growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. P.

    1993-01-01

    This project was concerned with the determination of conditions of guaranteed stability and instability for thermocapillary convection in a model of the float-zone crystal-growth process. This model, referred to as the half-zone, was studied extensively, both experimentally and theoretically. Our own earlier research determined, using energy-stability theory, sufficient conditions for stability to axisymmetric disturbances. Nearly all results computed were for the case of a liquid with Prandtl Number Pr = 1. Attempts to compute cases for higher Prandtl numbers to allow comparison with the experimental results of other researchers were unsuccessful, but indicated that the condition guaranteeing stability against axisymmetric disturbances would be a value of the Marangoni number (Ma), significantly higher than that at which oscillatory convection was observed experimentally. Thus, additional results were needed to round out the stability picture for this model problem. The research performed under this grant consisted of the following: (1) computation of energy-stability limits for non-axisymmetric disturbances; (2) computation of linear-stability limits for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disturbances; (3) numerical simulation of the basic state for half- and full-zones with a deformable free surface; and (4) incorporation of radiation heat transfer into a model energy-stability problem. Each of these is summarized briefly below.

  7. Fault Growth and Propagation and its Effect on Surficial Processes within the Incipient Okavango Rift Zone, Northwest Botswana, Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atekwana, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) is suggested to be a zone of incipient continental rifting occuring at the distal end of the southwestern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), therefore providing a unique opportunity to investigate neotectonic processes during the early stages of rifting. We used geophysical (aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric), Shuttle Radar Tomography Mission, Digital Elevation Model (SRTM-DEM), and sedimentological data to characterize the growth and propagation of faults associated with continental extension in the ORZ, and to elucidate the interplay between neotectonics and surficial processes. The results suggest that: (1) fault growth occurs by along axis linkage of fault segments, (2) an immature border fault is developing through the process of “Fault Piracy” by fault-linkages between major fault systems, (3) significant discrepancies exits between the height of fault scarps and the throws across the faults compared to their lengths in the basement, (4) utilization of preexisting zones of weakness allowed the development of very long faults (> 25-100 km) at a very early stage of continental rifting, explaining the apparent paradox between the fault length versus throw for this young rift, (5) active faults are characterized by conductive anomalies resulting from fluids, whereas, inactive faults show no conductivity anomaly; and 6) sedimentlogical data reveal a major perturbation in lake sedimentation between 41 ka and 27 ka. The sedimentation perturbation is attributed to faulting associated with the rifting and may have resulted in the alteration of hydrology forming the modern day Okavango delta. We infer that this time period may represent the age of the latest rift reactivation and fault growth and propagation within the ORZ.

  8. Modeling unsaturated zone flow and runoff processes by integrating MODFLOW-LGR and VSF, and creating the new CFL package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borsia, I.; Rossetto, R.; Schifani, C.; Hill, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper two modifications to the MODFLOW code are presented. One concerns an extension of Local Grid Refinement (LGR) to Variable Saturated Flow process (VSF) capability. This modification allows the user to solve the 3D Richards’ equation only in selected parts of the model domain. The second modification introduces a new package, named CFL (Cascading Flow), which improves the computation of overland flow when ground surface saturation is simulated using either VSF or the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package. The modeling concepts are presented and demonstrated. Programmer documentation is included in appendices.

  9. Hybrid Multiscale Simulation of Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Processes in the River-Groundwater Interaction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Scheibe, T. D.; Chen, X.; Hammond, G. E.; Song, X.

    2015-12-01

    The zone in which river water and groundwater mix plays an important role in natural ecosystems as it regulates the mixing of nutrients that control biogeochemical transformations. Subsurface heterogeneity leads to local hotspots of microbial activity that are important to system function yet difficult to resolve computationally. To address this challenge, we are testing a hybrid multiscale approach that couples models at two distinct scales, based on field research at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The region of interest is a 400 x 400 x 20 m macroscale domain that intersects the aquifer and the river and contains a contaminant plume. However, biogeochemical activity is high in a thin zone (mud layer, <1 m thick) immediately adjacent to the river. This microscale domain is highly heterogeneous and requires fine spatial resolution to adequately represent the effects of local mixing on reactions. It is not computationally feasible to resolve the full macroscale domain at the fine resolution needed in the mud layer, and the reaction network needed in the mud layer is much more complex than that needed in the rest of the macroscale domain. Hence, a hybrid multiscale approach is used to efficiently and accurately predict flow and reactive transport at both scales. In our simulations, models at both scales are simulated using the PFLOTRAN code. Multiple microscale simulations in dynamically defined sub-domains (fine resolution, complex reaction network) are executed and coupled with a macroscale simulation over the entire domain (coarse resolution, simpler reaction network). The objectives of the research include: 1) comparing accuracy and computing cost of the hybrid multiscale simulation with a single-scale simulation; 2) identifying hot spots of microbial activity; and 3) defining macroscopic quantities such as fluxes, residence times and effective reaction rates.

  10. Mechanical properties and processes of deformation in shallow sedimentary rocks from subduction zones: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadenne, Leslie; Raimbourg, Hugues; Champallier, Rémi; Yamamoto, Yuzuru

    2014-12-01

    To better constrain the mechanical behavior of sediments accreted to accretionary prism, we conducted triaxial mechanical tests on natural samples from the Miura-Boso paleo-accretionary prism (Japan) in drained conditions with confining pressures up to 200 MPa as well as postexperiments P-wave velocity (Vp) measurements. During experiments, deformation is principally noncoaxial and accommodated by two successive modes of deformation, both associated with strain-hardening and velocity-strengthening behavior: (1) compaction-assisted shearing, distributed in a several mm-wide shear zone and (2) faulting, localized within a few tens of μm-wide, dilatant fault zone. Deformation is also associated with (1) a decrease in Young's modulus all over the tests, (2) anomalously low Vp in the deformed samples compared to their porosity and (3) an increase in sensitivity of Vp to effective pressure. We interpret this evolution of the poroelastic properties of the material as reflecting the progressive breakage of intergrain cement and the formation of microcracks along with macroscopic deformation. When applied to natural conditions, these results suggest that the deformation style (localized versus distributed) of shallow (z < a few km) sediments is mainly controlled by the variations in stress/strain rate during the seismic cycle and is therefore independent of the porosity of sediments. Finally, we show that the effect of strain, through cement breakage and microcracks formation, may lower Vp for effective pressure up to 40 MPa. As a consequence, the low Vp anomalies observed in Nankai accretionary prisms by seismic imaging between 2 and 4 km depth could reflect sediment deformation rather than porosity anomalies.

  11. Observation of flow processes in the vadose zone using ERT on different space and time scales: results, obstacles, and suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Lamparter, Axel; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Bachmann, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) observes the flow processes in the vadose zone indirectly. ERT has been used to estimate water flow in different soil types and under different flow conditions using active experiments or monitoring the natural process in many cases. Our experiments in sand and loess soil connected ERT with local soil probing using TDR devices and tensiometers in order to proof the reliability of the ERT inversion results in terms of infiltration velocity. Additionally, a colour tracer was used and sections through the infiltration zones were excavated in order to compare the shape of the dye -stained infiltration zone with the results of the ERT inversion. The data revealed the complicated infiltration pattern with a higher transport velocity in sand and a different shape than expected by classical soil hydraulic models. These results indicate the need for independent observations in order to correctly assess the water storage in the vadose zone with its hydrological consequences, the groundwater recharge and the contamination risk caused by rapid movement of water. ERT can be used for this purpose on different spatial- and time scales but for reliable results various obstacles need to be dealt with. Firstly, the ambiguity of the resistivity because soil resistivity depends on both, soil water content and electrical soil/water conductivity. This obstacle is less severe when the infiltration velocity is investigated, because then only the first onset of resistivity change is interpreted as the water arrival time. Our results show that the arrival of the water front as well as the final infiltration depth can be reliably detected. In contrast, this obstacle is very severe when the amount of water stored is observed using conductive tracer. The problem is not critical during a passive experiment when the natural rain fall and the waters fate through the vadose zone is monitored. The second obstacle is the limited resolution of ERT which

  12. The role of recharge zones, discharge zones, springs and tile drainage systems in peneplains of Central European highlands with regard to water quality generation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doležal, František; Kvítek, Tomáš

    The hydrogeology, runoff generation and water quality generation in old peneplains of Central Europe built by acid crystalline rocks (such as the Bohemo-Moravian Highland) are described and interpreted in terms of a three-zone concept. The recharge zones are located on flat tops of hills and their soils are mostly permeable. It is mainly through them that the shallow groundwater-bearing formations are loaded with nitrate. The groundwater exfiltrates on the lower parts of slopes (in the so-called transient zone) and in narrow valleys (in the discharge zone), creating dispersed springs and waterlogged areas. In addition, the rapid and shallow flow of perched groundwater down the slope, which takes place during wet periods in the recharge zone and, mainly, in the transient zone, leaches the nitrate from the soil directly to the stream, without necessarily being in contact with the permanent groundwater table of the recharge and the transient zones. Discharge and water quality measurements in the Kopaninský tok experimental catchment (6.7 km 2) were analysed, using a combination of two runoff separation techniques (a digital filter and a simple conceptual model GROUND). Three runoff components were distinguished (direct runoff, interflow and baseflow). There is a weak but significant positive correlation between the stream nitrate concentration on the one hand and either the interflow or the baseflow on the other hand. There is also a weak but significant negative correlation between the stream nitrate concentration on the one hand and either the ratio of direct runoff to total stream flow or the logarithm of this ratio on the other hand, provided that the cases of zero direct runoff are disregarded. A simple mixing model was used to estimate the characteristic nitrate concentrations of individual runoff components. The interflow has the highest characteristic nitrate concentration and is probably the main stream water polluter with nitrate. The baseflow is identified

  13. Carbon Processing in Aquatic Critical Zones: A Source-to-Sink Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of organic carbon (OC) in the global ocean is buried in the coastal margin. In particular, river delta and non-deltaic shelf regions bury an estimated 114 Tg C year-1 and 70 Tg C year-1, respectively, with only ca. 6 Tg C year-1 buried in the open ocean. While there has long standing general agreement that continental selves represent the largest sink of both terrestrial (OCterr) and marine (OCmari) OC in the global ocean, our understanding of the spatial and temporal complexity of this region continues to evolve. For example, fjords are now more recognized as "hotspots"of carbon burial with recent estimates suggesting fjord surface area-normalized OC burial rates are at least five times greater than other marine systems and one hundred times greater than the entire ocean average. Here, I will compare and contrast some of the key molecular biomarkers that have been used to date to track OC across different depositional environments (e.g., large river deltas and fjords) and explore how margin-type, residence time of transport, reservoir dams, redox, priming effects, and molecular stability, impact the utility of using different biomarkers in coastal OC cycling. Finally, I will focus on important critical zones within the aquatic continuum from land-to-sea and examine how more attention is needed better understand OC cycling in these new dynamic interfaces in the Anthropocene.

  14. Crustal deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone and the role of postseismic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver; Robert Smalley, Jr; Zeng, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System data across the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) in the central United States over the period from 2000 through 2014 are analyzed and modeled with several deformation mechanisms including the following: (1) creep on subsurface dislocations, (2) postseismic frictional afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation from the 1811–1812 and 1450 earthquakes in the NMSZ, and (3) regional strain. In agreement with previous studies, a dislocation creeping at about 4 mm/yr between 12 and 20 km depth along the downdip extension of the Reelfoot fault reproduces the observations well. We find that a dynamic model of postseismic frictional afterslip from the 1450 and February 1812 Reelfoot fault events can explain this creep. Kinematic and dynamic models involving the Cottonwood Grove fault provide minimal predictive power. This is likely due to the smaller size of the December 1811 event on the Cottonwood Grove fault and a distribution of stations better suited to constrain localized strain across the Reelfoot fault. Regional compressive strain across the NMSZ is found to be less than 3 × 10−9/yr. If much of the present-day surface deformation results from afterslip, it is likely that many of the earthquakes we see today in the NMSZ are aftershocks from the 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Despite this conclusion, our results are consistent with observations and models of intraplate earthquake clustering. Given this and the recent paleoseismic history of the region, we suggest that seismic hazard is likely to remain significant.

  15. Deep convolutional neural network processing of aerial stereo imagery to monitor vulnerable zones near power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, Abdul; Saad, Naufal M.; Kamel, Nidal; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The monitoring of vegetation near high-voltage transmission power lines and poles is tedious. Blackouts present a huge challenge to power distribution companies and often occur due to tree growth in hilly and rural areas. There are numerous methods of monitoring hazardous overgrowth that are expensive and time-consuming. Accurate estimation of tree and vegetation heights near power poles can prevent the disruption of power transmission in vulnerable zones. This paper presents a cost-effective approach based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm to compute the height (depth maps) of objects proximal to power poles and transmission lines. The proposed CNN extracts and classifies features by employing convolutional pooling inputs to fully connected data layers that capture prominent features from stereo image patches. Unmanned aerial vehicle or satellite stereo image datasets can thus provide a feasible and cost-effective approach that identifies threat levels based on height and distance estimations of hazardous vegetation and other objects. Results were compared with extant disparity map estimation techniques, such as graph cut, dynamic programming, belief propagation, and area-based methods. The proposed method achieved an accuracy rate of 90%.

  16. A Geochemical Study of Magmatic Processes and Evolution along the Submarine Southwest Rift zone of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, J. M.; Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Trusdell, F. A.; Vollinger, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Mauna Loa's southwest rift zone (SWR) extends for 102 km from its summit caldera, at an elevation of 4,170 m above sea level, to submarine depths of over 4,500 m. About 65% of the rift zone is subaerial and 35% submarine. Recent sampling with the Jason II submersible of the `mile-high' (1800 m) Ka Lae submarine landslide scarp and the deepest section of the rift zone, in conjunction with previous submersible and dredge-haul collecting, provides petrological and geochemical understanding of rift zone processes, as well as a record of Mauna Loa's eruptive history extending back about 400 ka. The major and trace element trends of the submarine lavas are remarkably similar to those of historical and young prehistoric lavas (<31 ka) erupted along the subaerial SWR. We take this to imply that magma-forming processes have remained relatively constant over much of the volcano's recorded eruptive history. However, the distribution of samples along these trends has varied, and is correlated with elevation. There are very few picrites (>12% MgO) among the subaerial lavas, and compositions tend to cluster around 6.8-8.0% MgO. In contrast, picritic lavas are extremely abundant in the submarine samples, increasing in frequency with depth, especially below 1200 m. These observations support earlier interpretations that the submarine lavas are derived directly from deeper levels in the magma column, and that magmas from a shallow, steady-state, magma reservoir are of uncommon at these depths. Isotopic ratios of Pb and Sr in the submarine lavas, in conjunction with Nb/Y and Zr/Nb ratios, extend from values that are identical with subaerial historical Mauna Loa lavas to lavas with markedly lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher 206Pb/204Pb isotopic ratios. As yet, we see no correlation with depth or age, but the implications are that, in the past, the plume source of Mauna Loa magmas was more variable than in the last 31 ka, and contained a greater proportion of the Kea component. *Team members

  17. Capillary zone electrophoresis method for a highly glycosylated and sialylated recombinant protein: development, characterization and application for process development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Lawson, Ken; Yeung, Bernice; Wypych, Jette

    2015-01-06

    A purity method based on capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has been developed for the separation of isoforms of a highly glycosylated protein. The separation was found to be driven by the number of sialic acids attached to each isoform. The method has been characterized using orthogonal assays and shown to have excellent specificity, precision and accuracy. We have demonstrated the CZE method is a useful in-process assay to support cell culture and purification development of this glycoprotein. Compared to isoelectric focusing (IEF), the CZE method provides more quantitative results and higher sample throughput with excellent accuracy, qualities that are required for process development. In addition, the CZE method has been applied in the stability testing of purified glycoprotein samples.

  18. Estimation of erosion-accumulative processes at the Inia River's mouth near high-rise construction zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sineeva, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Our study relevance is due to the increasing man-made impact on water bodies and associated land resources within the urban areas, as a consequence, by a change in the morphology and dynamics of Rivers' canals. This leads to the need to predict the development of erosion-accumulation processes, especially within the built-up urban areas. Purpose of the study is to develop programs on the assessment of erosion-accumulation processes at a water body, a mouth area of the Inia River, in the of perspective high-rise construction zone of a residential microdistrict, the place, where floodplain-channel complex is intensively expected to develop. Results of the study: Within the velocities of the water flow comparing, full-scale measured conditions, and calculated from the model, a slight discrepancy was recorded. This allows us to say that the numerical model reliably describes the physical processes developing in the River. The carried out calculations to assess the direction and intensity of the channel re-formations, made us possible to conclude, there was an insignificant predominance of erosion processes over the accumulative ones on the undeveloped part of the Inia River (the processes activity is noticeable only in certain areas (by the coasts and the island)). Importance of the study: The study on the erosion-accumulation processes evaluation can be used in design decisions for the future high-rise construction of this territory, which will increase their economic efficiency.

  19. Tectonic Activity and Processes Preceding the Formation of the Dead Sea Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.; Pilchin, A. N.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of geological-geophysical data indicates that at the end of the Proterozoic, blocks of the Arabian Shield (AS) were thrust to the north-west onto the crust of the proto-Mediterranean (PM). This was caused by the pushing of oceanic crust from the south-east forming the Najd faults system (NF). This thrusting took place between 630 and 590 Ma, and is confirmed by the offsets between the Yanbu suture of the AS and Allaqi-Sol Hamid suture of the Nubian Shield (NS), the Bi'r Umq suture of AS and Nakasib suture of NS, and parts of the Yanbu and Nabitah sutures of AS. This caused the separation of AS from NS, and AS from the continental crust to north-east of it with its north-western displacement, resulting in opening of the Persian Gulf. This caused the start of deposition of huge amounts of Vendian-Cambrian evaporites in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Persian Gulf, Zagros, central Iran and other regions. The fact of the formation and preservation of the evaporites, and the common similarities in Vendian-Triassic sedimentary cover of Central Iran, Zagros, Taurus, and Arabian Plate (AP) and common Late Proterozoic-Early Paleozioc magmatic activity, show that these regions did not change their position significantly since then. Results of the DESERT project show that the lowermost part of the crust is present east of the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ), but it is absent west of it. This could be explained by detachment of the bottom part of the crust west of DSFZ during AP thrusting onto the crust of PM. The lithospheric slice discovered by seismic data between Moho and depth of about 55 km in S. Israel could be a remnant of that crust. During the thrusting, the AP overrode the detached slice. The slice was later remelted during formation of the postorogenic magmatic rocks of 590-530 Ma widespread in Jordan. The formation of three dyke swarms in S. Israel (600-540 Ma), widespread dykes in Sinai (590-530 Ma) and AP (590-530 Ma), as well as high-T-low-P metamorphism between 600

  20. Earthquake source nucleation process in the zone of a permanently creeping deep fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykov, V. I.; Mostryukov, A. O.

    2008-10-01

    The worldwide practice of earthquake prediction, whose beginning relates to the 1970s, shows that spatial manifestations of various precursors under real seismotectonic conditions are very irregular. As noted in [Kurbanov et al., 1980], zones of bending, intersection, and branching of deep faults, where conditions are favorable for increasing tangential tectonic stresses, serve as “natural amplifiers” of precursory effects. The earthquake of September 28, 2004, occurred on the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas deep fault in the area of a local bending of its plane. The fault segment about 60 km long and its vicinities are the oldest prognostic area in California. Results of observations before and after the earthquake were promptly analyzed and published in a special issue of Seismological Research Letters (2005, Vol. 76, no. 1). We have an original method enabling the monitoring of the integral rigidity of seismically active rock massifs. The integral rigidity is determined from the relative numbers of brittle and viscous failure acts during the formation of source ruptures of background earthquakes in a given massif. Fracture mechanisms are diagnosed from the steepness of the first arrival of the direct P wave. Principles underlying our method are described in [Lykov and Mostryukov, 1996, 2001, 2003]. Results of monitoring have been directly displayed at the site of the Laboratory ( http://wwwbrk.adm.yar.ru/russian/1_512/index.html ) since the mid-1990s. It seems that this information has not attracted the attention of American seismologists. This paper assesses the informativeness of the rigidity monitoring at the stage of formation of a strong earthquake source in relation to other methods.

  1. Reconciling opposing soil processes in row-crop agroecosystems via soil functional zone management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustaining soil productivity in agroecosystems presents a fundamental ecological challenge: nutrient provisioning depends upon aggregate turnover and microbial decomposition of organic matter (SOM); yet to prevent soil depletion these processes must be balanced by those that restore nutrients and SO...

  2. The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds – a review of the scientific literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the riparian zone

  3. Toward a physics-based rate and state friction law for earthquake nucleation processes in fault zones with granular gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdowsi, B.; Rubin, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulations of earthquake nucleation rely on constitutive rate and state evolution laws to model earthquake initiation and propagation processes. The response of different state evolution laws to large velocity increases is an important feature of these constitutive relations that can significantly change the style of earthquake nucleation in numerical models. However, currently there is not a rigorous understanding of the physical origins of the response of bare rock or gouge-filled fault zones to large velocity increases. This in turn hinders our ability to design physics-based friction laws that can appropriately describe those responses. We here argue that most fault zones form a granular gouge after an initial shearing phase and that it is the behavior of the gouge layer that controls the fault friction. We perform numerical experiments of a confined sheared granular gouge under a range of confining stresses and driving velocities relevant to fault zones and apply 1-3 order of magnitude velocity steps to explore dynamical behavior of the system from grain- to macro-scales. We compare our numerical observations with experimental data from biaxial double-direct-shear fault gouge experiments under equivalent loading and driving conditions. Our intention is to first investigate the degree to which these numerical experiments, with Hertzian normal and Coulomb friction laws at the grain-grain contact scale and without any time-dependent plasticity, can reproduce experimental fault gouge behavior. We next compare the behavior observed in numerical experiments with predictions of the Dieterich (Aging) and Ruina (Slip) friction laws. Finally, the numerical observations at the grain and meso-scales will be used for designing a rate and state evolution law that takes into account recent advances in rheology of granular systems, including local and non-local effects, for a wide range of shear rates and slow and fast deformation regimes of the fault gouge.

  4. Investigation of the geologic setting and geomorphic processes that control the formation and preservation of precarious rock zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, D.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2008-12-01

    Zones of precariously balanced rocks have been used as negative indicators of previous strong ground motion in seismically active regions of Southern California and Nevada (e.g. Brune 1996). Understanding the geologic context and the geomorphic framework that control the formation and preservation of precarious rocks is essential to testing their fidelity for extreme ground motion analyses. In this study we assess the geologic settings and the geomorphic processes nested within them using precarious rock zones (Granite Dells, Texas Canyon, and Granite Pediment) in low-seismicity regions of Arizona and Southern California. The Granite Dells locality is a ~20 km2 Proterozoic granite field that is ~5 km from the Prescott Valley graben faults (<0.2 mm/yr of Quaternary slip). The Texas Canyon locality is a ~132 km2 Mesozoic granite field that is ~23 km from the Little Rincon Mountains fault (<0.2 mm/yr of Quaternary slip). The Granite Pediment locality is a ~12 km2 Mesozoic granite pediment located ~96 km from the eastern section of the Garlock fault (<5 mm/yr of Quaternary slip). Characterization of the geologic context of each site included assembling a digital geologic database for Arizona, Southern California, and southern Nevada. The geologic database was queried for granitic bodies and Quaternary deposits. Active faults were categorized by their Quaternary slip rates, and a 20 km zone of no precarious rocks was created around each active fault based on the field surveys of Brune (1996). Aerial photographs were used to map the spatial distribution and geometry of joint sets within each site. Ground surveys using hand-held GPS units and digital photography were conducted to document the characteristics (lithology, size, fragility, weathering characteristics) and spatial density of precariously balanced rocks. Morphometric analyses of digital elevation data may indicate if there is a slope or relief range which the precarious rocks are optimally produced and

  5. Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach

  6. Gas Migration Processes through the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone at Four-Way Closure Ridge Offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunath, P.; Chi, W. C.; Berndt, C.; Liu, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    We have used 3D P-Cable seismic data from Four-Way-Closure Ridge, a NW-SE trending anticlinal ridge within the lower slope domain of accretionary wedge, to investigate the geological constraints influencing the fluid migration pattern in the shallow marine sediments. In the seismic data, fluid migration feature manifests itself as high reflection layers of dipping strata, which originate underneath a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) and extend towards the seafloor. Shoaling of the BSR near fluid migration pathways indicates a focused fluid flux, perturbing the temperature field. Furthermore, seafloor video footage confirmed the presence of recent methane seepage above seismically imaged fluid migration pathways. We plan to test two hypotheses for the occurrence of these fluid migration pathways: 1) the extensional regime under the anticlinal ridge crest caused the initiation of localized fault zones, acting as fluid conduits in the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). 2) sediment deformation induced by focused fluid flow and massive growth and dissolution of gas hydrate, similar to processes controlling the evolution of pockmarks on the Nigerian continental margin. We suggest that these processes may be responsible for the formation of a massive hydrate core in the crest of the anticline, as inferred from other geophysical datasets. Triggering process for fluid migration cannot be clearly defined. However, the existence of blind thrust faults may help to advect deep-seated fluids. This may be augmented by biogenic production of shallow gas underneath the ridge, where the excess of gas enables the coexistence of gas, water, and gas hydrate within the GHSZ. Fluid migration structures may exists because of the buoyancy of gas-bearing fluids. This study shows a potential model on how gas-bearing fluids migrate upward towards structural highs, which might occur in other anticlinal structures around the world. Keywords: P-Cable, gas-hydrate, fluid flow, fault-related fold

  7. Sinkhole Susceptibility Hazard Zones Using GIS and Analytical Hierarchical Process (ahp): a Case Study of Kuala Lumpur and Ampang Jaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosdi, M. A. H. M.; Othman, A. N.; Zubir, M. A. M.; Latif, Z. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.

    2017-10-01

    Sinkhole is not classified as new phenomenon in this country, especially surround Klang Valley. Since 1968, the increasing numbers of sinkhole incident have been reported in Kuala Lumpur and the vicinity areas. As the results, it poses a serious threat for human lives, assets and structure especially in the capital city of Malaysia. Therefore, a Sinkhole Hazard Model (SHM) was generated with integration of GIS framework by applying Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) technique in order to produced sinkhole susceptibility hazard map for the particular area. Five consecutive parameters for main criteria each categorized by five sub classes were selected for this research which is Lithology (LT), Groundwater Level Decline (WLD), Soil Type (ST), Land Use (LU) and Proximity to Groundwater Wells (PG). A set of relative weights were assigned to each inducing factor and computed through pairwise comparison matrix derived from expert judgment. Lithology and Groundwater Level Decline has been identified gives the highest impact to the sinkhole development. A sinkhole susceptibility hazard zones was classified into five prone areas namely very low, low, moderate, high and very high hazard. The results obtained were validated with thirty three (33) previous sinkhole inventory data. This evaluation shows that the model indicates 64 % and 21 % of the sinkhole events fall within high and very high hazard zones respectively. Based on this outcome, it clearly represents that AHP approach is useful to predict natural disaster such as sinkhole hazard.

  8. Three types of element fluxes from metabasite into peridotite in analogue experiments: Insights into subduction-zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perchuk, A. L.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Griffin, W. L.; Shur, M. Yu.; Gain, S. E. M.

    2018-03-01

    fractionation during porous melt flow. During metabasite-lherzolite interaction, the metabasite layer becomes mildly enriched in LREE; the lherzolite layer, in contrast, is generally depleted in LREE relative to the initial composition. This also indicates element transfer against the direction of fluid flow. Trace-element profiling reveals the development of Eu anomalies in the peridotite layers and the diffusion of many trace elements out of both layers toward the contact zone. The documented processes may be applicable to both Phanerozoic and Precambrian subduction zones.

  9. Formative Processes of a Sliding Zone in Pelitic Schist - Implications of Microscopic Analyses on High-quality Drilled Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, S.; Chigira, M.

    2009-04-01

    Pelitic schist has been known to be easily deformed by gravitational force to form characteristic topographic and geologic features, but little is known about how they develop. This is mainly due to the fact that deformed politic schist is so fragile that it could not be obtained from subsurface without disturbance. We analyzed high-quality undisturbed cores obtained by using a sophisticated drilling technique from two typical pelitic schist landslide sites in Japan. We made analyses on physical, chemical, mineralogical properties and observations from mesoscopic to microscopic rock textures of these cores and found that a special layering of rock-forming minerals determines the locations of shearing by gravity and that there is specific water-rock interaction processes in pelitic schist. Pelitic schist consists of thinly alternating beds of black layers and quartz-rich layers, and a black layer has numerous microscopic layers containing abundant pyrite and graphite grains (pyrite-graphite layers). Many of the black layers were observed to have microfractures connected to open cracks, suggesting that relatively thick, continuous black layers are easily sheared to form an incipient sliding layer. Thus unevenly distributed pyrite-graphite layers likely to determine the potential location of microscopic slip in a rock mass. Shear displacement along black layers occurs unevenly, depending upon the microscopic heterogeneity in mineral composition as well as undulating shape of the layers. Open micro-cracks nearly perpendicular to the schistosity were commonly observed in quartz-rich layers in contact with black layers, suggesting that the shearing occurred with heterogeneous displacements along the black layer and that it occurred under the low confining pressure. This is in the incipient stage of a fracture zone. When shearing occurs along two thick neighboring black layers, the rock in between would be fractured, rotated and pulverized. In some cases, quartz

  10. Geophysical study of the structure and processes of the continental convergence zones: Alpine-Himalayan Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi; Molnar, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Intracontinental deformation occurrence and the processes and physical parameters that control the rates and styles of deformation were examined. Studies addressing specific mechanical aspects of deformation were reviewed and the studies of deformation and of the structure of specific areas were studied considering the strength of the material and the gravitational effect.

  11. Geomorphic controls on Great Basin riparian vegetation at the watershed and process zone scales

    Treesearch

    Blake Meneken Engelhardt

    2009-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems supply valuable resources in all landscapes, but especially in semiarid regions such as the Great Basin of the western United States. Over half of Great Basin streams are thought to be in poor ecological condition and further deterioration is of significant concern to stakeholders. A thorough understanding of how physical processes acting at...

  12. Basaltic Diatreme To Root Zone Volcanic Processes In Tuzo Kimberlite Pipe (Gahcho Kué Kimberlite Field, NWT, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghedi, I.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Maicher, D.

    2009-05-01

    Tuzo pipe is infilled by a series of coherent and fragmental kimberlite facies types typical for a diatreme to root zone transition level. Coherent or transitional coherent kimberlite facies dominate at depth, but also occur at shallow levels, either as dikes or as individual or agglutinated coherent kimberlite clasts (CKC). Several fragmental kimberlite varieties fill the central and shallow portions of the pipe. The definition, geometry and extent of the geological units are complex and are controlled by vertical elements. Specific for Tuzo is: (1) high abundance of locally derived xenoliths (granitoids and minor diabase) between and within the kimberlite phases, varying in size from sub-millimeter to several tens of meters, frequent in a belt-like domain between 120-200 m depth in the pipe; (2) the general presence of CKC, represented by round-subround, irregular to amoeboid-shaped clasts with a macrocrystic or aphanitic texture, mainly derived from fragmentation of erupting magma and less commonly from previously solidified kimberlite, as well as recycled pyroclasts. In addition, some CKC are interpreted to be intersections of a complex dike network. This diversity attests formation by various volcanic processes, extending from intrusive to explosive; (3) the presence of bedded polymict wall- rock and kimberlite breccia occurring mostly in deep levels of the pipe below 345 m depth. The gradational contact relationships of these deposits with the surrounding kimberlite rocks and their location suggest that they formed in situ. The emplacement of Tuzo pipe involved repetitive volcanic explosions alternating with periods of relative quiescence causing at least partial consolidation of some facies. The volume deficit in the diatreme-root zone after each eruption was compensated by gravitational collapse of overlying diatreme tephra and pre-fragmented wall-rock xenoliths. Highly explosive phases were alternating with weak explosions or intrusive phases, suggesting

  13. Towards Understanding Soil Forming in Santa Clotilde Critical Zone Observatory: Modelling Soil Mixing Processes in a Hillslope using Luminescence Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, A. R.; Laguna, A.; Reimann, T.; Giráldez, J. V.; Peña, A.; Wallinga, J.; Vanwalleghem, T.

    2017-12-01

    Different geomorphological processes such as bioturbation and erosion-deposition intervene in soil formation and landscape evolution. The latter processes produce the alteration and degradation of the materials that compose the rocks. The degree to which the bedrock is weathered is estimated through the fraction of the bedrock which is mixing in the soil either vertically or laterally. This study presents an analytical solution for the diffusion-advection equation to quantify bioturbation and erosion-depositions rates in profiles along a catena. The model is calibrated with age-depth data obtained from profiles using the luminescence dating based on single grain Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL). Luminescence techniques contribute to a direct measurement of the bioturbation and erosion-deposition processes. Single-grain IRSL techniques is applied to feldspar minerals of fifteen samples which were collected from four soil profiles at different depths along a catena in Santa Clotilde Critical Zone Observatory, Cordoba province, SE Spain. A sensitivity analysis is studied to know the importance of the parameters in the analytical model. An uncertainty analysis is carried out to stablish the better fit of the parameters to the measured age-depth data. The results indicate a diffusion constant at 20 cm in depth of 47 (mm2/year) in the hill-base profile and 4.8 (mm2/year) in the hilltop profile. The model has high uncertainty in the estimation of erosion and deposition rates. This study reveals the potential of luminescence single-grain techniques to quantify pedoturbation processes.

  14. Heat-Affected Zone Liquation Cracking Resistance of Friction Stir Processed Aluminum-Copper Alloy AA 2219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, G. M.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Kottada, Ravi Sankar

    2017-04-01

    In the current work, the effect of friction stir processing on heat-affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking resistance of aluminum-copper alloy AA 2219 was evaluated. In Gleeble hot-ductility tests and longitudinal Varestraint tests, the FSPed material, despite its very fine dynamically recrystallized equiaxed grain structure, showed considerably higher susceptibility to HAZ liquation cracking when compared to the base material. Detailed microstructural studies showed that the increased cracking susceptibility of the FSPed material is due to (i) increase in the amount of liquating θ phase (equilibrium Al2Cu) and (ii) increase in the population of grain boundary θ particles. An important learning from the current work is that, in certain materials like alloy 2219, the use of FSP as a pretreatment to fusion welding can be counterproductive.

  15. The dark side of the hyporheic zone: Depth profiles of nitrogen and its processing in stream sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, R.S.; Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Strauss, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    1.Although it is well known that sediments can be hot spots for nitrogen transformation in streams, many previous studies have confined measurements of denitrification and nitrate retention to shallow sediments (<5cm deep). We determined the extent of nitrate processing in deeper sediments of a sand plains stream (Emmons Creek) by measuring denitrification in core sections to a depth of 25cm and by assessing vertical nitrate profiles, with peepers and piezometers, to a depth of 70cm. 2.Denitrification rates of sediment slurries based on acetylene block were higher in shallower core sections. However, core sections deeper than 5cm accounted for 68% of the mean depth-integrated denitrification rate. 3.Vertical hydraulic gradient and vertical profiles of pore water chloride concentration suggested that deep ground water upwelled through shallow sediments before discharging to the stream channel. The results of a two-source mixing model based on chloride concentrations suggested that the hyporheic zone was very shallow (<5cm) in Emmons Creek. 4.Vertical profiles showed that nitrate concentration in shallow ground water was about 10-60% of the nitrate concentration of deep ground water. The mean nitrate concentrations of deep and shallow ground water were 2.17 and 0.73mgNO3-NL-1, respectively. 5.Deep ground water tended to be oxic (6.9mgO2L-1) but approached anoxia (0.8mgO2L-1) after passing through shallow, organic carbon-rich sediments, which suggests that the decline in the nitrate concentrations of upwelling ground water was because of denitrification. 6.Collectively, our results suggest that there is substantial nitrate removal occurring in deep sediments, below the hyporheic zone, in Emmons Creek. Our findings suggest that not accounting for nitrate removal in deep sediments could lead to underestimates of nitrogen processing in streams and catchments. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  17. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results inmore » the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.« less

  18. Simulating subduction zone earthquakes using discrete element method: a window into elusive source processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, D. G.; Morgan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large earthquakes that occur on convergent plate margin interfaces have the potential to cause widespread damage and loss of life. Recent observations reveal that a wide range of different slip behaviors take place along these megathrust faults, which demonstrate both their complexity, and our limited understanding of fault processes and their controls. Numerical modeling provides us with a useful tool that we can use to simulate earthquakes and related slip events, and to make direct observations and correlations among properties and parameters that might control them. Further analysis of these phenomena can lead to a more complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms that accompany the nucleation of large earthquakes, and what might trigger them. In this study, we use the discrete element method (DEM) to create numerical analogs to subduction megathrusts with heterogeneous fault friction. Displacement boundary conditions are applied in order to simulate tectonic loading, which in turn, induces slip along the fault. A wide range of slip behaviors are observed, ranging from creep to stick slip. We are able to characterize slip events by duration, stress drop, rupture area, and slip magnitude, and to correlate the relationships among these quantities. These characterizations allow us to develop a catalog of rupture events both spatially and temporally, for comparison with slip processes on natural faults.

  19. Ambient groundwater flow diminishes nitrate processing in the hyporheic zone of streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Morvarid; Boano, Fulvio; Cook, Perran L. M.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Rippy, Megan A.; Grant, Stanley B.

    2017-05-01

    Modeling and experimental studies demonstrate that ambient groundwater reduces hyporheic exchange, but the implications of this observation for stream N-cycling is not yet clear. Here we utilize a simple process-based model (the Pumping and Streamline Segregation or PASS model) to evaluate N-cycling over two scales of hyporheic exchange (fluvial ripples and riffle-pool sequences), ten ambient groundwater and stream flow scenarios (five gaining and losing conditions and two stream discharges), and three biogeochemical settings (identified based on a principal component analysis of previously published measurements in streams throughout the United States). Model-data comparisons indicate that our model provides realistic estimates for direct denitrification of stream nitrate, but overpredicts nitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification. Riffle-pool sequences are responsible for most of the N-processing, despite the fact that fluvial ripples generate 3-11 times more hyporheic exchange flux. Across all scenarios, hyporheic exchange flux and the Damköhler Number emerge as primary controls on stream N-cycling; the former regulates trafficking of nutrients and oxygen across the sediment-water interface, while the latter quantifies the relative rates of organic carbon mineralization and advective transport in streambed sediments. Vertical groundwater flux modulates both of these master variables in ways that tend to diminish stream N-cycling. Thus, anthropogenic perturbations of ambient groundwater flows (e.g., by urbanization, agricultural activities, groundwater mining, and/or climate change) may compromise some of the key ecosystem services provided by streams.

  20. Nanoscale assembly processes revealed in the nacroprismatic transition zone of Pinna nobilis mollusc shells

    PubMed Central

    Hovden, Robert; Wolf, Stephan E.; Holtz, Megan E.; Marin, Frédéric; Muller, David A.; Estroff, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Intricate biomineralization processes in molluscs engineer hierarchical structures with meso-, nano- and atomic architectures that give the final composite material exceptional mechanical strength and optical iridescence on the macroscale. This multiscale biological assembly inspires new synthetic routes to complex materials. Our investigation of the prism–nacre interface reveals nanoscale details governing the onset of nacre formation using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. A wedge-polishing technique provides unprecedented, large-area specimens required to span the entire interface. Within this region, we find a transition from nanofibrillar aggregation to irregular early-nacre layers, to well-ordered mature nacre suggesting the assembly process is driven by aggregation of nanoparticles (∼50–80 nm) within an organic matrix that arrange in fibre-like polycrystalline configurations. The particle number increases successively and, when critical packing is reached, they merge into early-nacre platelets. These results give new insights into nacre formation and particle-accretion mechanisms that may be common to many calcareous biominerals. PMID:26631940

  1. Nial and Nial-Based Composites Directionally Solidified by a Containerless Zone Process. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Steven M.

    1995-01-01

    A containerless electromagnetically levitated zone (CELZ) process has been used to directionally solidify NiAl and NiAl-based composites. The CELZ processing results in single crystal NiAl (HP-NiAl) having higher purity than commercially pure NiAl grown by a modified Bridgman process (CP-NiAl). The mechanical properties, specifically fracture toughness and creep strength, of the HP-NiAl are superior to binary CP-NiAl and are used as a base-line for comparison with the composite materials subsequently studied. Two-phase composite materials (NiAl-based eutectic alloys) show improvement in room temperature fracture toughness and 1200 to 1400 K creep strength over that of binary HP-NiAl. Metallic phase reinforcements produce the greatest improvement in fracture toughness, while intermetallic reinforcement produces the largest improvement in high temperature strength. Three-phase eutectic alloys and composite materials were identified and directionally solidified with the intent to combine the improvements observed in the two-phase alloys into one alloy. The room temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength (in air) serve as the basis for comparison between all of the alloys. Finally, the composite materials are discussed in terms of dominant fracture mechanism observed by fractography.

  2. The role of critical zone processes in the evolution of the Prairie Pothole Region wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Stricker, Craig A.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region, which occupies 900,000 km2 of the north central USA and south central Canada, is one of the most important ecosystems in North America. It is characterized by millions of small wetlands whose chemistry is highly variable over short distances. The study involved the geochemistry of surface sediments, wetland water, and groundwater in the Cottonwood Lakes area of North Dakota, USA, whose 92 ha includes the dominant wetland hydrologic settings. The data show that oxygenated groundwater interacting with pyrite resident in a component of surficial glacial till derived from the marine Pierre Shale Formation has, over long periods of time, focused SO 4 2 - -bearing fluids from upland areas to topographically low areas. In these low areas, SO 4 2 - -enriched groundwater and wetlands have evolved, as has the CaSO4 mineral gypsum. Sulfur isotope data support the conclusion that isotopically light pyrite from marine shale is the source of SO 4 2 - . Literature data on wetland water composition suggests that this process has taken place over a large area in North Dakota.

  3. Pit and backfill: Getty's plan for a diatomite zone in an oil patch. [Dravo Process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Getty Oil Co. is investigating the recovery of oil from a diatomite deposit in California's McKittrick oil field, using a pair of newly built pilot plants - one a Dravo solvent extraction train and the other a Lurgi-Ruhrgas retort-condenser system. Both are sized to process approximately 240 short tons/day of mined feed, and each will be separately campaigned for a year during the evaluation program. The diatomite project has a number of advantages as a mine and materials-handling project compared to oil shale and tar sands. The deposit is soft, and in-transit handling will probably perform much of the necessarymore » crushing for the plant. The material is light, approximately 100 lb/cu ft in place and 90 lb/cu ft broken. The near-surface location contrasts to the more deeply buried oil shale deposits in other areas of the nation. At the same time, the traction surface and structural bearing strength for heavy earth movers should be somewhat better in diatomite.« less

  4. Evaluation of aquifer environment under Hazaribagh leather processing zone of Dhaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, Anwar; Balke, K.-D.; Hassan, M. Qumrul; Flegr, Matthias

    2006-07-01

    Hazaribagh is a densely populated area of Dhaka city where about 185 leather processing industries have been operating and discharging solid and liquid wastes directly to the low-lying areas, river and natural canals without proper treatment. The area is covered by alluvial deposits of Holocene age and is underlain by Pleistocene Madhupur clay. The Dupi Tila Formation of Mio-Pliocene age underlain by this yellowish gray to brick red clay bed serves as the main water-bearing aquifer of Dhaka city. To assess the environmental degradation as well as the groundwater environment, major anions, cations and heavy metals of water samples, heavy metals and organic carbon content of sediment samples were analyzed in this study. Analyses of tannery effluent detect high concentration of Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO{4/2-} followed by Ca2+, NH{4/+} and K+ with remarkable contents of some trace elements, mainly Cr, Fe, Mn, S, Ni and Pb. Higher accumulations of Cr, Al and Fe are observed in topsoil samples with significant amounts of Mn, Zn, Ni and Cu. Concentrations of ions and all the investigated trace elements of sampled groundwater were within the maximum allowable limit for drinking water of the Department of Environment, Bangladesh (DoE), and World Health Organization (WHO). However, excessive concentrations of Cr, Pb, etc., have already been reported in the shallow groundwater (10-20 m) of the area. Due to excessive withdrawal the vulnerability of groundwater contamination in deeper parts cannot be avoided for the future.

  5. Highly alkaline lavas in a Proterozoic rift zone: Implications for Precambrian mantle metasomatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonac'h, H.; Ludden, J. N.; Picard, C.; Francis, D.

    1992-03-01

    An occurrence of Proterozoic nephelinite and basanite lavas and pyroclastic rocks and associated phonolites indicates that the processes that generate modern alkaline magmas in intraplate settings were operative in the Early Proterozoic. These lavas occur near the top of a 1.9 Ga continental-margin sequence in the Cape Smith fold and thrust belt of northern Quebec. The lavas are classified as nephelinites, basanites, and phonolites on the basis of high field strength and rare earth element contents, although large ion lithophile elements, including alkalis, appear to have been strongly depleted by greenschist facies metamorphism and alteration. Certain major elements define trends consistent with low-pressure fractionation dominated by clinopyroxene, which is the only mafic phenocryst present in the lavas. The mafic and felsic lavas have identical 143Nd/144Nd ratios, consistent with consanguinity and a lack of contamination by older crust of the Superior province. Values for ɛNd (1.96 Ga) of +2 represent an enriched mantle source relative to +4 to +5 for the contemporaneous mid-oceanic-ridge basalt reservoir.

  6. The role of critical zone processes in the evolution of the Prairie Pothole Region wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Mills, C.; Stricker, C.A.; Morrison, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region, which occupies 900,000 km2 of the north central USA and south central Canada, is one of the most important ecosystems in North America. It is characterized by millions of small wetlands whose chemistry is highly variable over short distances. The study involved the geochemistry of surface sediments, wetland water, and groundwater in the Cottonwood Lakes area of North Dakota, USA, whose 92 ha includes the dominant wetland hydrologic settings. The data show that oxygenated groundwater interacting with pyrite resident in a component of surficial glacial till derived from the marine Pierre Shale Formation has, over long periods of time, focused SO2-4-bearing fluids from upland areas to topographically low areas. In these low areas, SO2-4-enriched groundwater and wetlands have evolved, as has the CaSO4 mineral gypsum. Sulfur isotope data support the conclusion that isotopically light pyrite from marine shale is the source of SO2-4. Literature data on wetland water composition suggests that this process has taken place over a large area in North Dakota.

  7. Characterizing Hydrological Processes in Vadose Zone by Direct Infiltration Water Sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Y.; Higashi, N.; Somura, H.; Takeda, I.; Inoue, M.

    2007-12-01

    These days, planted forest mountainside was roughly maintained due to the population descent and small birth rate. Because thinning operation would delayed, forest was always dark and floor weed was rare. Management induced non point source pollution like surface soil erosion was suspected, however, we could not approach to the source with the stream water analysis. Therefore, direct soil water sampling device using glass fiber capillary force was developed to examine hydrological processes in watershed. In our design, water was collected just by the capillary force and let the excess water down through so that infiltration water was truly sampled and solute concentration kept the same quality as in soil water. The experiment was conducted at two neighboring Japanese cedar planted forest under different management, i.e., south slope was roughly maintained and west slope was well maintained by thinning operation. Load discharges were higher in south slope and lower in west slope. Infiltration water analysis revealed that ion concentration was gradually decreased at west slope, however in south slope, it dropped to lower level in soil water and increased again in stream water. The trend showed that soil buffering function was poor in south slope. Actually, disk permeameter survey revealed that hydraulic conductivity was small in south slope; TOC and biological activity were lower. This entire soil environment explained the water environmental differences in stream water. Because changes in soil environment affects water environment in the future, monitoring or examination of soil environment was considered as preventive measure for environmentally sound water and solute circulation in watershed.

  8. Cohesive zone model for intergranular slow crack growth in ceramics: influence of the process and the microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero de la Osa, M.; Estevez, R.; Olagnon, C.; Chevalier, J.; Tallaron, C.

    2011-10-01

    Ceramic polycrystals are prone to slow crack growth (SCG) which is stress and environmentally assisted, similarly to observations reported for silica glasses. The kinetics of fracture are known to be dependent on the load level, the temperature and the relative humidity. In addition, evidence is available on the influence of the microstructure on the SCG rate with an increase in the crack velocity with decreasing the grain size. Crack propagation takes place beyond a load threshold, which is grain size dependent. We present a cohesive zone model for the intergranular failure process. The methodology accounts for an intrinsic opening that governs the length of the cohesive zone and allows the investigation of grain size effects. A rate and temperature-dependent cohesive model is proposed (Romero de la Osa M, Estevez R et al 2009 J. Mech. Adv. Mater. Struct. 16 623-31) to mimic the reaction-rupture mechanism. The formulation is inspired by Michalske and Freiman's picture (Michalske and Freiman 1983 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66 284-8) together with a recent study by Zhu et al (2005 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 53 1597-623) of the reaction-rupture mechanism. The present investigation extends a previous work (Romero de la Osa et al 2009 Int. J. Fracture 158 157-67) in which the problem is formulated. Here, we explore the influence of the microstructure in terms of grain size, their elastic properties and residual thermal stresses originating from the cooling from the sintering temperature down to ambient conditions. Their influence on SCG for static loadings is reported and the predictions compared with experimental trends. We show that the initial stress state is responsible for the grain size dependence reported experimentally for SCG. Furthermore, the account for the initial stresses enables the prediction of a load threshold below which no crack growth is observed: a crack arrest takes place when the crack path meets a region in compression.

  9. Imaging on a Shoestring: Cost-Effective Technologies for Probing Vadose Zone Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corkhill, C.; Bridge, J. W.; Barns, G.; Fraser, R.; Romero-Gonzalez, M.; Wilson, R.; Banwart, S.

    2010-12-01

    requirements. The critical limitations of UV-vis fluorescence imaging are the need for reliable fluorescent probes suited to the experimental objective, and the reliance on thin-bed (2D) transparent porous media. Autoradiographic techniques address some of these limitations permit imaging of key biogeochemical processes in opaque media using radioactive probes, without the need for specialised radiation sources. We present initial calibration data for the use of autoradiography to monitor transport parameters for radionuclides (99-technetium), and a novel application of a radioactive salt tracer as a probe for pore water content, in model porous media systems.

  10. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marske, J.P.; Pietruszka, A.J.; Trusdell, F.A.; Garcia, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4ka) and post-caldera (<9.4ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and

  11. Design of structure and simulation of the three-zone gasifier of dense layer of the inverted process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrutdinov, R. Sh; Negutorov, V. N.; Maliykhin, D. G.; Nikishanin, M. S.; Senachin, P. K.

    2017-11-01

    Experts of LLC “New Energy Technologies” have developed gasifiers designs, with the implementation of the three-zone gasification method, which satisfy the following conditions: 1) the generated gas must be free from tar, soot and hydrocarbons, with a given ratio of CO/H2; 2) to use as the fuel source a wide range of low-grade low-value solid fuels, including biomass and various kinds of carbonaceous wastes; 3) have high reliability in operation, do not require qualified operating personnel, be relatively inexpensive to produce and use steam-air blowing instead of expensive steam-oxygen one; 4) the line of standard sizes should be sufficiently wide (with a single unit capacity of fuel from 1 to 50-70 MW). Two models of gas generators of the inverted gasification process with three combustion zones operating under pressure have been adopted for design: 1) gas generator with a remote combustion chamber type GOP-VKS (two-block version) and 2) a gas generator with a common combustion chamber of the GOP-OK type (single-block version), which is an almost ideal model for increasing the unit capacity. There have been worked out various schemes for the preparation of briquettes from practically the entire spectrum of low-grade fuel: high-ash and high-moisture coals, peat and biomass, including all types of waste - solid household waste, crop, livestock, poultry, etc. In the gas generators there are gasified the cylindrical briquettes with a diameter of 20-25 mm and a length of 25-35 mm. There have been developed a mathematical model and computer code for numerical simulation of synthesis gas generation processes in a gasifier of a dense layer of inverted process during a steam-air blast, including: continuity equations for the 8 gas phase components and for the solid phase; the equation of the heat balance for the entire heterogeneous system; the Darcy law equation (for porous media); equation of state for 8 components of the gas phase; equations for the rates of 3 gas

  12. Can Process Understanding Help Elucidate The Structure Of The Critical Zone? Comparing Process-Based Soil Formation Models With Digital Soil Mapping.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanwalleghem, T.; Román, A.; Peña, A.; Laguna, A.; Giráldez, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    There is a need for better understanding the processes influencing soil formation and the resulting distribution of soil properties in the critical zone. Soil properties can exhibit strong spatial variation, even at the small catchment scale. Especially soil carbon pools in semi-arid, mountainous areas are highly uncertain because bulk density and stoniness are very heterogeneous and rarely measured explicitly. In this study, we explore the spatial variability in key soil properties (soil carbon stocks, stoniness, bulk density and soil depth) as a function of processes shaping the critical zone (weathering, erosion, soil water fluxes and vegetation patterns). We also compare the potential of traditional digital soil mapping versus a mechanistic soil formation model (MILESD) for predicting these key soil properties. Soil core samples were collected from 67 locations at 6 depths. Total soil organic carbon stocks were 4.38 kg m-2. Solar radiation proved to be the key variable controlling soil carbon distribution. Stone content was mostly controlled by slope, indicating the importance of erosion. Spatial distribution of bulk density was found to be highly random. Finally, total carbon stocks were predicted using a random forest model whose main covariates were solar radiation and NDVI. The model predicts carbon stocks that are double as high on north versus south-facing slopes. However, validation showed that these covariates only explained 25% of the variation in the dataset. Apparently, present-day landscape and vegetation properties are not sufficient to fully explain variability in the soil carbon stocks in this complex terrain under natural vegetation. This is attributed to a high spatial variability in bulk density and stoniness, key variables controlling carbon stocks. Similar results were obtained with the mechanistic soil formation model MILESD, suggesting that more complex models might be needed to further explore this high spatial variability.

  13. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.

    1996-01-01

    ), sulfates (anhydrite) and halides (halite). The cooling calculations produce: (a) anhydrite, halite, sylvite; (b) Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn sulfides; (c) Mg fluoride at high temperature (> 370??C); (d) chlorides, fluorides and sulfates of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Al at intermediate temperature (170-370??C); and (e) hydrated sulfates, liquid sulfur, crystalline sulfur, hydrated sulfuric acid and water at low temperature ( 0.41 (> 628??C). This is followed by precipitation of sulfates of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Al at lg/a ratios between 0.41 and -0.4 (628-178??C). At a lg/r ratio of < - 0.4 (178??C), anhydrous sulfates are replaced by their hydrated forms and hygroscopic sulfuric acid forms. At these low g/a ratios, hydrated sulfuric acid becomes the dominant phase in the system. Comparison of the thermochemical modeling results with the natural samples suggests that the alteration assemblages include: (1) minerals that precipitate from direct cooling of the volcanic gas; (2) phases that form by volcanic gases mixing with air; and (3) phases that form by volcanic gas-air-rock reaction. A complex interplay of the three processes produces the observed mineral zoning. Another implication of the numerical simulation results is that most of the observed incrustation and sublimate minerals apparently formed below 700??C.

  14. The investigation of form and processes in the coastal zone under extreme storm events - the case study of Rethymno, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afentoulis, Vasileios; Mohammadi, Bijan; Tsoukala, Vasiliki

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a significant geographical and particular region, since it gathers a wide range of social-human's activities and appears to be a complex as well as fragile system of natural variables. Coastal communities are increasingly at risk from serious coastal hazards, such as shoreline erosion and flooding related to extreme hydro-meteorological events: storm surges, heavy precipitation, tsunamis and tides. In order to investigate the impact of these extreme events on the coastal zone, it is necessary to describe the driving mechanisms which contribute to its destabilization and more precisely the interaction between the wave forces and the transport of sediment. The aim of the present study is to examine the capability of coastal zone processes simulation under extreme wave events, using numerical models, in the coastal area of Rethymno, Greece. Rethymno city is one of the eleven case study areas of PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastal regions) project, an EU funded research project, which aims at developing adaptive risk management strategies for coastal communities focusing on extreme hydro-meteorological events, with a multidisciplinary approach integrating social, environmental and technical research and innovation so as to increase the resilience of coastal regions all over the world. Within this framework, three different numerical models have been used: the MIKE 21 - DHI, the XBeach model and a numerical formulation for sea bed evolution, developed by Afaf Bouharguane and Bijan Mohammadi (2013). For the determination of the wave and hydrodynamic conditions, as well as the assessment of the sediment transport components, the MIKE 21 SW and the MIKE 21 FM modules have been applied and the bathymetry of Rethymno is arranged into a 2D unstructured mesh. This method of digitalization was selected because of its ability to easily represent the complex geometry of the coastal zone. It allows smaller scale wave characteristics to be

  15. Separation of Cs and Sr from LiCl-KCl eutectic salt via a zone-refining process for pyroprocessing waste salt minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Moonsoo; Choi, Ho-Gil; Choi, Jeong-Hun; Yi, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2017-08-01

    The purification of a LiCl-KCl salt mixture was carried out by a zone-refining process. To improve the throughput of zone refining, three heaters were installed in the zone refiner. The zone-refining method was used to grow pure LiCl-KCl salt ingots from a LiCl-KCl-CsCl-SrCl2 salt mixture. The main investigated parameters were the heater speed and the number of passes. From each zone-refined salt ingot, samples were collected axially along the salt ingot and the concentrations of Sr and Cs were determined. Experimental results show that the Sr and Cs concentrations at the initial region of the ingot were low and increased to a maximum at the final freezing region of the salt ingot. Concentration results of the zone-refined salt were compared with theoretical results furnished by the proposed model to validate its predictions. The keff values for Sr and Cs were 0.55 and 0.47, respectively. The correlation between the salt composition and separation behavior was also investigated. The keff values of the Sr in LiCl-KCl-SrCl2 and the Cs in LiCl-KCl-CsCl were found to be 0.53 and 0.44, respectively, by fitting the experimental data into the proposed model.

  16. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  17. Transformation of graphite by tectonic and hydrothermal processes in an active plate boundary fault zone, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, Matina; Toy, Virginia; Timms, Nicholas; Halfpenny, Angela; Menzies, Catriona; Craw, Dave; Rooney, Jeremy; Giorgetti, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Graphite is a material with one of the lowest frictional strengths, with coefficient of friction of 0.1 and thus in natural fault zones it may act as a natural solid lubricant. Graphitization, or the transformation of organic matter (carbonaceous material, or CM) into crystalline graphite, is induced by compositional and structural changes during diagenesis and metamorphism. The supposed irreversible nature of this process has allowed the degree of graphite crystallinity to be calibrated as an indicator of the peak temperatures reached during progressive metamorphism. We examine processes of graphite emplacement and deformation in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand's active continental tectonic plate boundary. Raman spectrometry indicates that graphite in the distal, amphibolite-facies Alpine Schist, which experienced peak metamorphic temperatures up to 640 ◦C, is highly crystalline and occurs mainly along grain boundaries within quartzo-feldspathic domains. The subsequent mylonitisation in the Alpine Fault Zone resulted in progressive reworking of CM under lower temperature conditions (500◦C-600◦C) in a structurally controlled environment, resulting in spatial clustering in lower-strain protomylonites, and further foliation-alignment in higher-strain mylonites. Subsequent brittle deformation of the mylonitised schists resulted in cataclasites that contain over three-fold increase in the abundance of graphite than mylonites. Furthermore, cataclasites contain graphite with two different habits: highly-crystalline, foliated forms that are inherited mylonitic graphite; and lower-crystallinity, less mature patches of finer-grained graphite. The observed graphite enrichment and the occurrence of poorly-organised graphite in the Alpine Fault cataclasites could result from: i) hydrothermal precipitation from carbon-supersaturated fluids; and/or ii) mechanical degradation by structural disordering of mylonitic graphite combined with strain-induced graphite

  18. A methodological approach to be used in integrated coastal zone management processes: the case of the Catalan Coast (Catalonia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardá, Rafael; Avila, Conxita; Mora, Joan

    2005-02-01

    Since early 1999, we have been working on an environmental information system as a preliminary phase to develop the National Strategy of the Catalan Coast. Using the tourism industry as the main pressuring driver and the municipality as the territorial unit, we have compiled a vast amount of information that has been converted into an information platform for the general public, politicians, and public administrators. Working in close co-operation with the planning authorities of the Generalitat of Catalonia, we developed decision support tools as a methodological approach for coastal management. The decision support system is composed by: (a) the development of an environmental indicator-based report; (b) the use of a geographical information system (GIS); and (c) the incorporation of different types of graphical packages. These tools have been applied to the 70 municipalities of the Catalan Coast and a specific development of the system was carried out in the region of La Selva, municipalities of Blanes, Lloret de Mar, and Tossa de Mar (southern Costa Brava, Girona). The system has been designed to help coastal managers in Catalonia, and it is thought to be used in the process of developing the National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) of the Catalan Coast following the EC Recommendation (COM/00/545).

  19. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  20. Processes of zinc attenuation by biogenic manganese oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Christopher C.; Bargar, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and speciation of Zn sorbed to biogenic Mn oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, AZ, was investigated using micro-focused Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF) mapping , bulk EXAFS, and chemical extraction. μSXRF and chemical extractions show that contaminant Zn co-varied with Mn in streambed sediment grain coatings. Bulk and micro-focused EXAFS spectra of Zn in the biogenic Mn oxides coating are indicative of Zn forming triple corner sharing inner-sphere complexes over octahedral vacancies in the Mn oxide sheet structure. Zn desorbed in response to decreasing in pH in batch experiments and resulted in near-equal dissolved Zn at each pH over a 10-fold range in solid to solution ratio. The geometry of sorbed Zn was unchanged after 50% desorption at pH 5, indicating desorption is not controlled by dissolution of secondary Zn phases. In sum, these findings support the idea that Zn attenuation in Pinal Creek is largely controlled by sorption to microbial Mn oxides forming in the streambed during hyporheic exchange. Sorption to biogenic Mn oxides is likely an important process in Zn attenuation in circum-neutral pH reaches of many acid-mine drainage contaminated streams when dissolved Mn is present. PMID:24460038

  1. Processes of zinc attenuation by biogenic manganese oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Christopher C.; Bargar, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and speciation of Zn sorbed to biogenic Mn oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, AZ, was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and microfocused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF) mapping, and chemical extraction. μSXRF and chemical extractions show that contaminant Zn co-varied with Mn in streambed sediment grain coatings. Bulk and microfocused EXAFS spectra of Zn in the biogenic Mn oxide coating are indicative of Zn forming triple-corner-sharing inner-sphere complexes over octahedral vacancies in the Mn oxide sheet structure. Zn desorbed in response to the decrease in pH in batch experiments and resulted in near-equal dissolved Zn at each pH over a 10-fold range in the solid/solution ratio. The geometry of sorbed Zn was unchanged after 50% desorption at pH 5, indicating that desorption is not controlled by dissolution of secondary Zn phases. In summary, these findings support the idea that Zn attenuation in Pinal Creek is largely controlled by sorption to microbial Mn oxides forming in the streambed during hyporheic exchange. Sorption to biogenic Mn oxides is likely an important process of Zn attenuation in circum-neutral pH reaches of many acid-mine drainage contaminated streams when dissolved Mn is present.

  2. Crystal Zoning Constrains on the Processes and Time Scales Involved in Monogenetic Mafic Volcanism (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, H.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Marti, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the historical eruptive activity in Tenerife has been relatively mafic and mildly-explosive monogenetic eruptions, and thus it seems that this activity is the most likely in the near future. Here we investigate the processes and time scales that lead to such eruptions with the aim to better interpret and plan for any possible unrest in the island. We focus on three historical eruptions: Siete Fuentes (December 31 1704-January 1705), Fasnia (January 5-January 13 1705) and Arafo (February 2-February 26 1705) issued from a 10 km long basaltic fissure eruption oriented N45E and covering an area of 10.4 km2. The erupted volume increases by 5-fold from the first to the last eruption. All magmas are tephritic, although the bulk-rock becomes more mafic with time due to accumulation of olivine with Cr-spinel inclusions, and clinopyroxene rather than to the appearance of a truly more primitive melt. Olivine core compositions of the three eruptions range between Fo79 and Fo87. Frequency histograms show three main populations: at Fo79-80, Fo80-82 and Fo84-87 displaying normal and reverse zoning. Thermodynamic calculations show that only cores with Fo80-82 are in equilibrium with the whole rock. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts can have large pools of matrix glass and show rims of different composition. Only the rims, with Mg#84-86, are in equilibrium with the whole-rock. Considering olivine cores and clinopyroxene rims in equilibrium we obtained a temperature range of 1150-1165°C, and MELTS calculations suggest pressures of 1 to 5 kbar. The variety of olivine core populations reflects mixing and mingling between three different magmas, and their proportions have changed with time from Siete Fuentes to Arafo. Most crystals have complex zoning profiles that record two events: (1) one of magma mixing/mingling at depth, (2) another of magma transport and ascent to the surface. Magma mixing at depth ranges from about 3 months to two years and is similar for the three eruptions

  3. Soil Moisture Processes in the Near Surface Unsaturated Zone: Experimental Investigations in Multi-scale Test Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Sakaki, T.; Smits, K. M.; Limsuwat, A.; Terrés-Nícoli, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of soil moisture distribution near the ground surface is of interest in various applications involving land-atmospheric interaction, evaporation from soils, CO2 leakage from carbon sequestration, vapor intrusion into buildings, and land mine detection. Natural soil heterogeneity in combination with water and energy fluxes at the soil surface creates complex spatial and temporal distributions of soil moisture. Even though considerable knowledge exists on how soil moisture conditions change in response to flux and energy boundary conditions, emerging problems involving land atmospheric interactions require the quantification of soil moisture variability both at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The issue of up-scaling becomes critical in all applications, as in general, field measurements are taken at sparsely distributed spatial locations that require assimilation with measurements taken using remote sensing technologies. It is our contention that the knowledge that will contribute to both improving our understanding of the fundamental processes and practical problem solution cannot be obtained easily in the field due to a number of constraints. One of these basic constraints is the inability to make measurements at very fine spatial scales at high temporal resolutions in naturally heterogeneous field systems. Also, as the natural boundary conditions at the land/atmospheric interface are not controllable in the field, even in pilot scale studies, the developed theories and tools cannot be validated for the diversity of conditions that could be expected in the field. Intermediate scale testing using soil tanks packed to represent different heterogeneous test configurations provides an attractive and cost effective alternative to investigate a class of problems involving the shallow unsaturated zone. In this presentation, we will discuss the advantages and limitations of studies conducted in both two and three dimensional intermediate

  4. Strain Measurements within Fibreboard. Part III: Analyzing the Process Zone at the Crack Tip of Medium Density Fiberboards (MDF) Double Cantilever I-Beam Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Rathke, Jörn; Müller, Ulrich; Konnerth, Johannes; Sinn, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the third part of a study dealing with the mechanical and fracture mechanical characterization of Medium Density Fiberboards (MDF). In the first part, an analysis of internal bond strength testing was performed and in the second part MDF was analyzed by means of the wedge splitting experiment; this part deals with the double cantilever I beam test, which is designed for measuring the fracture energy as well as stress intensity factor in Mode I. For a comparison of isotropic and orthotropic material behavior, finite element modeling was performed. In addition to the calculation of fracture energy the stress intensity factor was analyzed by means of finite elements simulation and calculation. In order to analyze strain deformations and the process zone, electronic speckle pattern interferometry measurements were performed. The results revealed an elongated process zone and lower results for KIC if compared to the wedge splitting experiment. The Gf numbers are higher compared to the wedge splitting results and can be explained by the thicker process zone formed during the crack propagation. The process zone width on its part is influenced by the stiff reinforcements and yields a similar crack surface as with the internal bond test.

  5. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes

    Treesearch

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2012-01-01

    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  6. Benthic biological and biogeochemical patterns and processes across an oxygen minimum zone (Pakistan margin, NE Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Gregory L.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) impinging on continental margins present sharp gradients ideal for testing environmental factors thought to influence C cycling and other benthic processes, and for identifying the roles that biota play in these processes. Here we introduce the objectives and initial results of a multinational research program designed to address the influences of water depth, the OMZ (˜150-1300 m), and organic matter (OM) availability on benthic communities and processes across the Pakistan Margin of the Arabian Sea. Hydrologic, sediment, and faunal characterizations were combined with in-situ and shipboard experiments to quantify and compare biogeochemical processes and fluxes, OM burial efficiency, and the contributions of benthic communities, across the OMZ. In this introductory paper, we briefly review previous related work in the Arabian Sea, building the rationale for integrative biogeochemical and ecological process studies. This is followed by a summary of individual volume contributions and a brief synthesis of results. Five primary stations were studied, at 140, 300, 940, 1200 and 1850 m water depth, with sampling in March-May (intermonsoon) and August-October (late-to-postmonsoon) 2003. Taken together, the contributed papers demonstrate distinct cross-margin gradients, not only in oxygenation and sediment OM content, but in benthic community structure and function, including microbial processes, the extent of bioturbation, and faunal roles in C cycling. Hydrographic studies demonstrated changes in the intensity and extent of the OMZ during the SW monsoon, with a shoaling of the upper OMZ boundary that engulfed the previously oxygenated 140-m site. Oxygen profiling and microbial process rate determinations demonstrated dramatic differences in oxygen penetration and consumption across the margin, and in the relative importance of anaerobic processes, but surprisingly little seasonal change. A broad maximum in sediment OM content occurred on

  7. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  8. Use of Friction Stir Processing for Improving Heat-Affected Zone Liquation Cracking Resistance of a Cast Magnesium Alloy AZ91D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, G. M.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Kottada, Ravi Sankar

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a cast magnesium alloy AZ91D was friction stir processed. Detailed microstructural studies and Gleeble hot ductility tests were conducted on the as-cast and the FSPed samples to comparatively assess their heat-affected zone liquation cracking behavior. The results show that the use of FSP as a pretreatment to fusion welding can strikingly improve the heat-affected zone liquation cracking resistance of alloy AZ91D by reducing the amount and size of the low-melting eutectic β (Mg17Al12) as well as by refining the matrix grain size.

  9. Numerical analysis of impurity separation from waste salt by investigating the change of concentration at the interface during zone refining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ho-Gil; Shim, Moonsoo; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Yi, Kyung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    The waste salt treatment process is required for the reuse of purified salts, and for the disposal of the fission products contained in waste salt during pyroprocessing. As an alternative to existing fission product separation methods, the horizontal zone refining process is used in this study for the purification of waste salt. In order to evaluate the purification ability of the process, three-dimensional simulation is conducted, considering heat transfer, melt flow, and mass transfer. Impurity distributions and decontamination factors are calculated as a function of the heater traverse rate, by applying a subroutine and the equilibrium segregation coefficient derived from the effective segregation coefficients. For multipass cases, 1d solutions and the effective segregation coefficient obtained from three-dimensional simulation are used. In the present study, the topic is not dealing with crystal growth, but the numerical technique used is nearly the same since the zone refining technique was just introduced in the treatment of waste salt from nuclear power industry because of its merit of simplicity and refining ability. So this study can show a new application of single crystal growth techniques to other fields, by taking advantage of the zone refining multipass possibility. The final goal is to achieve the same high degree of decontamination in the waste salt as in zone freezing (or reverse Bridgman) method.

  10. Understanding groundwater, surface water, and hyporheic zone biogeochemical processes in a Chalk catchment using fluorescence properties of dissolved and colloidal organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapworth, D. J.; Gooddy, D. C.; Allen, D.; Old, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    Understanding groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction in Chalk catchments is complicated by the degree of geological heterogeneity. At this study site, in southern United Kingdom, alluvial deposits in the riparian zone can be considered as a patchwork of varying grades and types with an equally varied lateral connectivity. Some display good connection with the river system and others good connection with the groundwater system and, by definition, poorer connectivity with the surface water. By coupling tangential flow fractionation (TFF) with fluorescence analysis we were able to characterize the organic matter in the river and hyporheic zone. There is a significant proportion of particulate and colloidal fluorescent organic matter (FOM) within the river system and at depth within the gravels beneath the river channel. At depth in the hyporheic zone, the surface water inputs are dampened by mixing with deeper groundwater FOM. The shallow (0-0.5 m below river bed) hyporheic zone is highly dynamic as a result of changing surface water inputs from upstream processes. Labile C in the form of protein-like FOM appears to be attenuated preferentially compared to fulvic-like fluorescence in the hyporheic zone compared to the adjacent gravel and sand deposits. These preliminary findings have important implications for understanding nutrient and trace element mobility and attenuation within the groundwater, surface water, and hyporheic zone of permeable Chalk catchments. Fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic matter has been shown to be a useful environmental tracer that can be used in conjunction with other methods to understand GW-SW processes within a permeable Chalk catchment.

  11. Eruptive and environmental processes recorded by diatoms in volcanically-dispersed lake sediments from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, Margaret A.; Pledger, Shirley A.; Smith, Euan G. C.; Van Eaton, Alexa; Wilson, Colin J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Late Pleistocene diatomaceous sediment was widely dispersed along with volcanic ash (tephra) across and beyond New Zealand by the 25.4 ka Oruanui supereruption from Taupo volcano. We present a detailed analysis of the diatom populations in the Oruanui tephra and the newly discovered floras in two other eruptions from the same volcano: the 28.6 ka Okaia and 1.8 ka Taupo eruptions. For comparison, the diatoms were also examined in Late Pleistocene and Holocene lake sediments from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). Our study demonstrates how these microfossils provide insights into the lake history of the TVZ since the Last Glacial Maximum. Morphometric analysis of Aulacoseira valve dimensions provides a useful quantitative tool to distinguish environmental and eruptive processes within and between individual tephras. The Oruanui and Okaia diatom species and valve dimensions are highly consistent with a shared volcanic source, paleolake and eruption style (involving large-scale magma-water interaction). They are distinct from lacustrine sediments sourced elsewhere in the TVZ. Correspondence analysis shows that small, intact samples of erupted lake sediment (i.e., lithic clasts in ignimbrite) contain heterogeneous diatom populations, reflecting local variability in species composition of the paleolake and its shallowly-buried sediments. Our analysis also shows a dramatic post-Oruanui supereruption decline in Cyclostephanos novaezelandiae, which likely reflects a combination of (1) reorganisation of the watershed in the aftermath of the eruption, and (2) overall climate warming following the Last Glacial Maximum. This decline is reflected in substantially lower proportions of C. novaezelandiae in the 1.8 ka Taupo eruption deposits, and even fewer in post-1.8 ka sediments from modern (Holocene) Lake Taupo. Our analysis highlights how the excellent preservation of siliceous microfossils in volcanic tephra may fingerprint the volcanic source region and retain a valuable record

  12. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Development of Fracture Process Zone (FPZ) in Rocks under Cyclic and Static Loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamgosar, M.; Erarslan, N.

    2016-03-01

    The development of fracture process zones (FPZ) in the Cracked Chevron Notched Brazilian Disc (CCNBD) monsonite and Brisbane tuff specimens was investigated to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of brittle rocks under static and various cyclic loadings. An FPZ is a region that involves different types of damage around the pre-existing and/or stress-induced crack tips in engineering materials. This highly damaged area includes micro- and meso-cracks, which emerge prior to the main fracture growth or extension and ultimately coalescence to macrofractures, leading to the failure. The experiments and numerical simulations were designed for this study to investigate the following features of FPZ in rocks: (1) ligament connections and (2) microcracking and its coalescence in FPZ. A Computed Tomography (CT) scan technique was also used to investigate the FPZ behaviour in selected rock specimens. The CT scan results showed that the fracturing velocity is entirely dependent on the appropriate amount of fracture energy absorbed in rock specimens due to the change of frequency and amplitudes of the dynamic loading. Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) was used to compute the displacements, tensile stress distribution and plastic energy dissipation around the propagating crack tip in FPZ. One of the most important observations, the shape of FPZ and its extension around the crack tip, was made using numerical and experimental results, which supported the CT scan results. When the static rupture and the cyclic rupture were compared, the main differences are twofold: (1) the number of fragments produced is much greater under cyclic loading than under static loading, and (2) intergranular cracks are formed due to particle breakage under cyclic loading compared with smooth and bright cracks along cleavage planes under static loading.

  13. The Minorca Basin: a buffer zone between the Valencia and Liguro-Provençal Basins (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellen, Romain; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Silenziario, Carmine; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2017-04-01

    The present-day compartmented Mediterranean physiography is inherited from the last 250 Ma kinematic plate evolution (Eurasian, Africa, Iberic and Nubia plates) which implied the formation of orogenic chains, polyphased basins, and morphological - geodynamic thresholds. The interactions between these entities are strongly debated in the North-Western Mediterranean area. Several Neogene reconstructions have been proposed for the Valencia basin depending of the basin segmentation where each model imply a different subsidence, sedimentary, and palaeo-environmental evolution. Our study propose a new kinematic model for the Valencia Basin (VB) that encompasses the sedimentary infill, vertical movement and basin segmentation. Detailed analyses of seismic profiles and boreholes in the VB reveal a differentiated basin, the Minorca Basin (MB), lying between the old Mesozoic Valencia Basin sensu strico (VBss) and the young Oligocene Liguro-Provencal Basin (LPB) (Pellen et al., 2016). The relationship between these basins is shown through the correlation of four Miocene-to-present-day megasequences. The Central and North Balearic Fracture Zones (CFZ and NBFZ) that border the MB represent two morphological and geodynamical thresholds that created an accommodation in steps between the three domains. Little to no horizontal Neogene movements have been found for the Ibiza and Majorca Islands and imply a vertical "sag" subsidence. In contrast, the counterclockwise movement of the Corso-Sardinian blocks induced a counterclockwise movement of the Minorca block towards the SE along the CFZ and NBFZ, during the exhumation of lower continental crust in the LPB. The South-Eastward Minorca block translation stops when the first atypical oceanic crust occurs. The influence of the Neogene Betic compressional phase is thus limited to the VBss on the basis of a different MB origin. This new understanding places the AlKaPeCa blocks northeastward of the present-day Alboran Area. Both NW-SE and

  14. Thermal processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia - observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boike, J.; Georgi, C.; Kirilin, G.; Muster, S.; Abramova, K.; Fedorova, I.; Chetverova, A.; Grigoriev, M.; Bornemann, N.; Langer, M.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst lakes are typical features of the northern permafrost ecosystems, and play an important role in the thermal exchange between atmosphere and subsurface. The objective of this study is to describe the main thermal processes of the lakes and to quantify the heat exchange with the underlying sediments. The thermal regimes of five lakes located within the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia (Lena River Delta) were investigated using hourly water temperature and water level records covering a 3-year period (2009-2012), together with bathymetric survey data. The lakes included thermokarst lakes located on Holocene river terraces that may be connected to Lena River water during spring flooding, and a thermokarst lake located on deposits of the Pleistocene Ice Complex. Lakes were covered by ice up to 2 m thick that persisted for more than 7 months of the year, from October until about mid-June. Lake-bottom temperatures increased at the start of the ice-covered period due to upward-directed heat flux from the underlying thawed sediment. Prior to ice break-up, solar radiation effectively warmed the water beneath the ice cover and induced convective mixing. Ice break-up started at the beginning of June and lasted until the middle or end of June. Mixing occurred within the entire water column from the start of ice break-up and continued during the ice-free periods, as confirmed by the Wedderburn numbers, a quantitative measure of the balance between wind mixing and stratification that is important for describing the biogeochemical cycles of lakes. The lake thermal regime was modeled numerically using the FLake model. The model demonstrated good agreement with observations with regard to the mean lake temperature, with a good reproduction of the summer stratification during the ice-free period, but poor agreement during the ice-covered period. Modeled sensitivity to lake depth demonstrated that lakes in this climatic zone with mean depths > 5 m develop

  15. Isoprenoid quinones resolve the stratification of microbial redox processes in a biogeochemical continuum from the photic zone to deep anoxic sediments of the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kevin W; Elling, Felix J; Schröder, Jan M; Lipp, Julius S; Goldhammer, Tobias; Zabel, Matthias; Elvert, Marcus; Overmann, Jörg; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2018-03-09

    The stratified water column of the Black Sea serves as a model ecosystem for studying the interactions of microorganisms with major biogeochemical cycles. Here we provide detailed analysis of isoprenoid quinones to study microbial redox processes in the ocean. In a continuum from the photic zone through the chemocline into deep anoxic sediments of the southern Black Sea, diagnostic quinones and inorganic geochemical parameters indicate niche segregation between redox processes and corresponding shifts in microbial community composition. Quinones specific for oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration dominate oxic waters, while quinones associated with thaumarchaeal ammonia-oxidation and bacterial methanotrophy, respectively, dominate a narrow interval in suboxic waters. Quinone distributions indicate highest metabolic diversity within the anoxic zone, with anoxygenic photosynthesis being a major process in its photic layer. In the dark anoxic layer, quinone profiles indicate occurrence of bacterial sulfur and nitrogen cycling, archaeal methanogenesis, and archaeal methanotrophy. Multiple novel ubiquinone isomers, possibly originating from unidentified intra-aerobic anaerobes, occur in this zone. The respiration modes found in the anoxic zone continue into shallow subsurface sediments, but quinone abundances rapidly decrease within the upper 50 cm below sea floor, reflecting the transition to lower energy availability. In the deep subseafloor sediments, quinone distributions and geochemical profiles indicate archaeal methanogenesis/methanotrophy and potentially bacterial fermentative metabolisms. We observed that sedimentary quinone distributions track lithology, which supports prior hypotheses that deep biosphere community composition and metabolisms are determined by environmental conditions during sediment deposition. Importance Microorganisms play crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles. Yet, we have only a fragmentary understanding of the diversity

  16. Deformation of mantle pyroxenites provides clues to geodynamic processes in subduction zones: Case study of the Cabo Ortegal Complex, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Hadrien; Tilhac, Romain; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Satsukawa, Takako; Kaczmarek, Mary-Alix; Grégoire, Michel; Ceuleneer, Georges

    2017-08-01

    In the Herbeira massif, Cabo Ortegal Complex, Spain, a well exposed assemblage of deformed dunites and pyroxenites offers a unique opportunity to investigate key upper mantle tectonic processes. Four types of pyroxenites are recognized: clinopyroxenites with enclosed dunitic lenses (type-1), massive websterites (type-2), foliated and commonly highly amphibolitized clinopyroxenites (type-3) and orthopyroxenites (type-4). Field and petrological observations together with EBSD analysis provide new insights on the physical behavior of the pyroxenes and their conditions of deformation and reveal the unexpected journey of the Cabo Ortegal pyroxenites. We show that, during deformation, type-1 pyroxenites, due to their enclosed dunitic lenses, are more likely to localize the deformation than types-2 and -4 pyroxenites and may latter act as preferred pathway for fluid/melt percolation, eventually resulting in type-3 pyroxenites. All pyroxenite types display a similar response to deformation. Orthopyroxene deformed mostly by dislocation creep; it shows kink bands and undulose extinction and its fabric is dominated by [001](100). Clinopyroxene displays subgrain rotation, dynamic recrystallization and fabric with [010] axes clustering next to the foliation pole and [001] axes clustering next to the lineation suggesting activation of [001]{110} and [001](100) in some samples. These observations are in good agreement with deformation at temperatures greater than 1000 °C. Olivine in type-1 and type-4 pyroxenites shows [100](010) or [001](010) fabrics that are consistent with deformation at temperatures >1000 °C and may indicate deformation in a hydrous environment. The amphibole [001](100) fabric gives insights on a lower-temperature deformation episode (∼800 to 500 °C). Our results, interpreted in the light of published experimental data, together with the regional geological and geochemical studies are consistent with the following tectonic evolution of the Cabo Ortegal

  17. Zone lines

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  18. Continuous separation of copper ions from a mixture of heavy metal ions using a three-zone carousel process packed with metal ion-imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Jo, Se-Hee; Lee, See-Young; Park, Kyeong-Mok; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Dukjoon; Mun, Sungyong

    2010-11-05

    In this study, a three-zone carousel process based on a proper molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) resin was developed for continuous separation of Cu(2+) from Mn(2+) and Co(2+). For this task, the Cu (II)-imprinted polymer (Cu-MIP) resin was synthesized first and used to pack the chromatographic columns of a three-zone carousel process. Prior to the experiment of the carousel process based on the Cu-MIP resin (MIP-carousel process), a series of single-column experiments were performed to estimate the intrinsic parameters of the three heavy metal ions and to find out the appropriate conditions of regeneration and re-equilibration. The results from these single-column experiments and the additional computer simulations were then used for determination of the operating parameters of the MIP-carousel process under consideration. Based on the determined operating parameters, the MIP-carousel experiments were carried out. It was confirmed from the experimental results that the proposed MIP-carousel process was markedly effective in separating Cu(2+) from Mn(2+) and Co(2+) in a continuous mode with high purity and a relatively small loss. Thus, the MIP-carousel process developed in this study deserves sufficient attention in materials processing industries or metal-related industries, where the selective separation of heavy metal ions with the same charge has been a major concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Compensating additional optical power in the central zone of a multifocal contact lens forminimization of the shrinkage error of the shell mold in the injection molding process.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lien T; Chen, Chao-Chang A; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chia-Wei

    2018-04-20

    This study aims to develop a compensating method to minimize the shrinkage error of the shell mold (SM) in the injection molding (IM) process to obtain uniform optical power in the central optical zone of soft axial symmetric multifocal contact lenses (CL). The Z-shrinkage error along the Z axis or axial axis of the anterior SM corresponding to the anterior surface of a dry contact lens in the IM process can be minimized by optimizing IM process parameters and then by compensating for additional (Add) powers in the central zone of the original lens design. First, the shrinkage error is minimized by optimizing three levels of four IM parameters, including mold temperature, injection velocity, packing pressure, and cooling time in 18 IM simulations based on an orthogonal array L 18 (2 1 ×3 4 ). Then, based on the Z-shrinkage error from IM simulation, three new contact lens designs are obtained by increasing the Add power in the central zone of the original multifocal CL design to compensate for the optical power errors. Results obtained from IM process simulations and the optical simulations show that the new CL design with 0.1 D increasing in Add power has the closest shrinkage profile to the original anterior SM profile with percentage of reduction in absolute Z-shrinkage error of 55% and more uniform power in the central zone than in the other two cases. Moreover, actual experiments of IM of SM for casting soft multifocal CLs have been performed. The final product of wet CLs has been completed for the original design and the new design. Results of the optical performance have verified the improvement of the compensated design of CLs. The feasibility of this compensating method has been proven based on the measurement results of the produced soft multifocal CLs of the new design. Results of this study can be further applied to predict or compensate for the total optical power errors of the soft multifocal CLs.

  20. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  1. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  2. Investigations of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ocean and Ice Conditions in and Near the Marginal Ice Zone. The “Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment” (MIZOPEX) Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    DeMott, P. J.; Hill, T. C.J.

    Despite the significance of the marginal ice zones of the Arctic Ocean, basic parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST) and a range of sea-ice characteristics are still insufficiently understood in these areas, and especially so during the summer melt period. The field campaigns summarized here, identified collectively as the “Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes Experiment” (MIZOPEX), were funded by U.S. National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) with the intent of helping to address these information gaps through a targeted, intensive observation field campaign that tested and exploited unique capabilities of multiple classes of unmanned aerialmore » systems (UASs). MIZOPEX was conceived and carried out in response to NASA’s request for research efforts that would address a key area of science while also helping to advance the application of UASs in a manner useful to NASA for assessing the relative merits of different UASs. To further exercise the potential of unmanned systems and to expand the science value of the effort, the field campaign added further challenges such as air deployment of miniaturized buoys and coordinating missions involving multiple aircraft. Specific research areas that MIZOPEX data were designed to address include relationships between ocean skin temperatures and subsurface temperatures and how these evolve over time in an Arctic environment during summer; variability in sea-ice conditions such as thickness, age, and albedo within the marginal ice zone (MIZ); interactions of SST, salinity, and ice conditions during the melt cycle; and validation of satellite-derived SST and ice concentration fields provided by satellite imagery and models.« less

  3. Using chemical, hydrologic, and age dating analysis to delineate redox processes and flow paths in the riparian zone of a glacial outwash aquifer‐stream system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, Larry J.; Cowdery, Timothy K.; McMahon, Peter B.; Tornes, Lan H.; Stoner, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of chemical and dissolved gas analyses, chlorofluorocarbon age dating, and hydrologic measurements were used to determine the degree to which biogeochemical processes in a riparian wetland were responsible for removing NO3−from groundwaters discharging to the Otter Tail River in west central Minnesota. An analysis of river chemistry and flow data revealed that NO3− concentrations in the river increased in the lower half of the 8.3 km study reach as the result of groundwater discharge to the river. Groundwater head measurements along a study transect through the riparian wetland revealed a zone of groundwater discharge extending out under the river. On the basis of combined chemical, dissolved gas, age date, and hydrologic results, it was determined that water chemistry under the riparian wetland was controlled largely by upgradient groundwaters that followed flow paths up to 16 m deep and discharged under the wetland, creating a pattern of progressively older, more chemically reduced, low NO3− water the farther one progressed from the edge of the wetland toward the river. These findings pose challenges for researchers investigating biogeochemical processes in riparian buffer zones because the progressively older groundwaters entered the aquifer in earlier years when less NO3− fertilizer was being used. NO3− concentrations originally present in the groundwater had also decreased in the upgradient aquifer as a result of denitrification and progressively stronger reducing conditions there. The resulting pattern of decreasing NO3− concentrations across the riparian zone may be incorrectly interpreted as evidence of denitrification losses there instead of in the upgradient aquifer. Consequently, it is important to understand the hydrogeologic setting and age structure of the groundwaters being sampled in order to avoid misinterpreting biogeochemical processes in riparian zones.

  4. The Physical, Geochemical and Microbial Conditions and Processes in the Hyporheic Zone of a Large Tidally Influenced River: The Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchin, M.; Roschinski, T.; Ross, K.; Leslie, S.; William, M.; Beckie, R.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes that occur in the hyporheic zone of the lower Fraser River, British Columbia. The large flows of between 2000 and 10000 cubic meters per second, the 10 15 m deep, 250 m wide channel, the 1 m tidal fluctuations, the localized scour and redeposition of sediments during freshet and the strong geochemical contrast between groundwater and surface water distinguish this investigation from studies on smaller channels and streams and required the development of novel characterization tools and strategies. The geochemistry of water samples collected with a push-in profiler, bulk electrical conductivity (EC) measurements collected with a push-in tool and hydraulic head measurements indicate that groundwater principally discharges into the river approximately 100 m offshore in a 10 m wide band. River water and groundwater mix to a maximum depth of between 0.75 and 1.5 m. While hydraulic heads show strong tidal reversals, bulk EC profiles show only moderate changes during the tidal cycle. It was hypothesized that high iron (10's mg/L of Fe(II)) in reduced groundwater would precipitate from solution as secondary iron-oxide phases in the zone where groundwater mixes with aerobic river water. Sediments were collected with a freeze-shoe corer and depth profiles through the hyporheic zone and into the underlying aquifer were analyzed by selective extractions. The 15-30 mg/g of total extractable iron in both the aquifer and hyporheic zone is relatively high. The lack of noticeable iron accumulation in the hyporheic zone may indicate that iron precipitates on shallow sediments that are subsequently scoured from the river bed during freshet. Microbial DNA from sediments was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and showed a relatively diverse community structure but an overall low biomass.

  5. Vadose zone processes delay groundwater nitrate reduction response to BMP implementation as observed in paired cultivated vs. uncultivated potato rotation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Nyiraneza, J.; Murray, B. J.; Chapman, S.; Malenica, A.; Parker, B.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrate leaching from crop production contributes to groundwater contamination and subsequent eutrophication of the receiving surface water. A study was conducted in a 7-ha potato-grain-forages rotation field in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada during 2011-2016 to link potato rotation practices and groundwater quality. The field consists of fine sandy loam soil and is underlain by 7-9 m of glacial till, which overlies the regional fractured ;red-bed; sandstone aquifer. The water table is generally located in overburden close to the bedrock interface. Field treatments included one field zone taken out of production in 2011 with the remaining zones kept under a conventional potato rotation. Agronomy data including crop tissue, soil, and tile-drain water quality were collected. Hydrogeology data including multilevel monitoring of groundwater nitrate and hydraulic head and data from rock coring for nitrate distribution in overburden and bedrock matrix were also collected. A significant amount of nitrate leached below the soil profile after potato plant kill (referred to as topkill) in 2011, most of it from fertilizer N. A high level of nitrate was also detected in the till vadose zone through coring in December 2012 and through multilevel groundwater sampling from January to May 2014 in both cultivated and uncultivated field zones. Groundwater nitrate concentrations increased for about 2.5 years after the overlying potato field was removed from production. Pressure-driven uniform flow processes dominate water and nitrate transport in the vadose zone, producing an apparently instant water table response but a delayed groundwater quality response to nitrate leaching events. These data suggest that the uniform flow dominated vadose zone in agricultural landscapes can cause the accumulation of a significant amount of nitrate originated from previous farming activities, and the long travel time of this legacy nitrate in the vadose zone can result in substantially delayed

  6. Hydrogeology, Chemical Characteristics, and Transport Processes in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in York, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, Matthew K.; Clark, Brian R.; McMahon, Peter B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Turco, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated a topical study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to PSW (public-supply wells). Local-scale and regional-scale TANC study areas were delineated within selected NAWQA study units for intensive study of processes effecting transport of contaminants to PSWs. This report describes results from a local-scale TANC study area at York, Nebraska, within the High Plains aquifer, including the hydrogeology and geochemistry of a 108-square-kilometer study area that contains the zone of contribution to a PSW selected for study (study PSW), and describes factors controlling the transport of selected anthropogenic and natural contaminants to PSWs. Within the local-scale TANC study area, the High Plains aquifer is approximately 75 m (meter) thick, and includes an unconfined aquifer, an upper confining unit, an upper confined aquifer, and a lower confining unit with lower confined sand lenses (units below the upper confining unit are referred to as confined aquifers) in unconsolidated alluvial and glacial deposits overlain by loess and underlain by Cretaceous shale. From northwest to southeast, land use in the local-scale TANC study area changes from predominantly irrigated agricultural land to residential and commercial land in the small community of York (population approximately 8,100). For the purposes of comparing water chemistry, wells were classified by degree of aquifer confinement (unconfined and confined), depth in the unconfined aquifer (shallow and deep), land use (urban and agricultural), and extent of mixing in wells in the confined aquifer with water from the unconfined aquifer (mixed and unmixed). Oxygen (delta 18O) and hydrogen (delta D) stable isotopic values indicated a clear isotopic contrast between shallow wells in the unconfined aquifer (hereinafter, unconfined shallow wells) and most monitoring wells in the confined

  7. Processes controlling silicon isotopic fractionation in a forested tropical watershed: Mule Hole Critical Zone Observatory (Southern India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riotte, Jean; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Zambardi, Thomas; Audry, Stéphane; Barboni, Doris; Anupama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Srinivasan; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Poitrasson, Franck; Sekhar, Muddu; Braun, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Assessing the dynamics of the silica cycle in the critical zone remains challenging, particularly within the soil, where multiple processes are involved. To improve our understanding of this cycle in the Tropics, and more specifically the role played by vegetation, we combined elemental Si mass balance with the δ30Si signatures of the compartments involved in the water-plant-rock interactions of a tropical forested watershed, Mule Hole (Southern India). To accomplish this, we analysed (1) the δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths from tree leaves and grass, as well as soil amorphous silica (ASi); (2) the Si isotope fractionation induced by phytolith dissolution; (3) the silicon mass balance inferred from isotopes at the soil-plant scale; and (4) the consistency between water sources and the δ30Si signatures in the ephemeral stream. The δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths and soil ASi vary within a narrow range of 1.10-1.40‰ for all samples, but two deep vertisol samples which likely trapped phytoliths from different vegetation growing under more humid conditions, as indicated by pollen analysis. A homogeneous signature of litter is a minimum condition for using δ30Si as a proxy for the litter/phytolith source of Si. However, litter-ash dissolution experiments demonstrate that the incipient dissolution of phytoliths fractionates Si isotopes, with the preferential dissolution of 28Si over 30Si yielding δ30Si values as low as -1.41‰. Values close to the whole-sample signatures, i.e., above 1‰, were recovered in the solution after a few hours of water-ash interaction. At the soil-plant scale, the average δ30Si value of soil-infiltrating solutions is slightly lighter than the average phytolith signature, which suggests phytoliths as the source of soil dissolved Si. The isotopic budget of dissolved Si within the soil layer, which was obtained based on previous elemental fluxes, is imbalanced. Equilibrating the isotopic budget would imply

  8. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, David A.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetlandmore » hydrologic regimes at different locations on the river floodplain. A new predictive tool is introduced and validated, the potential SEV (pSEV), which can reduce the need for extensive new data collection in wetland restoration planning. Models of water levels and inundation frequency distinguish four zones encompassing eight reaches. The system zones are the wave- and current-dominated Entrance to river kilometer (rkm) 5; the Estuary (rkm-5 to 87), comprised of a lower reach with salinity, the energy minimum (where the turbidity maximum normally occurs), and an upper estuary reach without salinity; the Tidal River (rkm-87 to 229), with lower, middle, and upper reaches in which river flow becomes increasingly dominant over tides in determining water levels; and the steep and weakly tidal Cascade (rkm-229 to 234) immediately downstream from Bonneville Dam. The same zonation is seen in the water levels of floodplain stations, with considerable modification of tidal properties. The system zones and reaches defined here reflect geological features and their boundaries are congruent with five wetland vegetation zones« less

  9. Deeply subducted continental fragments - Part 1: Fracturing, dissolution-precipitation, and diffusion processes recorded by garnet textures of the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Contiguous continental high-pressure terranes in orogens offer insight into deep recycling and transformation processes that occur in subduction zones. These remain poorly understood, and currently debated ideas need testing. The approach we chose is to investigate, in detail, the record in suitable rock samples that preserve textures and robust mineral assemblages that withstood overprinting during exhumation. We document complex garnet zoning in eclogitic mica schists from the Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps). These retain evidence of two orogenic cycles and provide detailed insight into resorption, growth, and diffusion processes induced by fluid pulses in high-pressure conditions. We analysed local textures and garnet compositional patterns, which turned out remarkably complex. By combining these with thermodynamic modelling, we could unravel and quantify repeated fluid-rock interaction processes. Garnet shows low-Ca porphyroclastic cores that were stable under (Permian) granulite facies conditions. The series of rims that surround these cores provide insight into the subsequent evolution: the first garnet rim that surrounds the pre-Alpine granulite facies core in one sample indicates that pre-Alpine amphibolite facies metamorphism followed the granulite facies event. In all samples documented, cores show lobate edges and preserve inner fractures, which are sealed by high-Ca garnet that reflects high-pressure Alpine conditions. These observations suggest that during early stages of subduction, before hydration of the granulites, brittle failure of garnet occurred, indicating high strain rates that may be due to seismic failure. Several Alpine rims show conspicuous textures indicative of interaction with hydrous fluid: (a) resorption-dominated textures produced lobate edges, at the expense of the outer part of the granulite core; (b) peninsulas and atoll garnet are the result of replacement reactions; and (c) spatially limited resorption and enhanced transport

  10. Convective fractionation: A mechanism to provide cryptic zoning (macrosegregation), layering, crescumulates, banded tuffs and explosive volcanism in igneous processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Alan

    1981-01-01

    A large array of igneous and volcanic features has characteristics that are recognized in other disciplines as conclusive and direct evidence of convvection in stratified and/or solidifying melts; e.g., macroscopic segregation (cryptic variation, zoning in magma chambers), mineral layering (in mafic intrusives), crescumulates (fingering) in the vertical and horizontal, banding (in pyroclastics), 'rollover' with attendant flashing of volatiles (explosive volcanism), etc. Some quantitative and qualitative aspect of convection in solidifying and or stratified melts (e.g., mineral layer widths such as are observed inl the Skaergaards) are examined to show consistency with field evidence. Convective fractionation does not possess the physical implausibilities of gravitational segregation (crystal settling). Neither is the field evidence as ambiguous if interpreted in terms of convective fractionation (which can explain amongst other things heavier material overlying lighter). Convective fractionation may operate on larger scales in the interior of planets.

  11. Recycling and recharge processes at the Hasandağ Stratovolcano, Central Anatolia: Insights on magma chamber systematics from plagioclase textures and zoning patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, H. D.; Cipar, J. H.; Crispin, K. L.; Kürkçüoğlu, B.; Furman, T.

    2017-12-01

    We elucidate crystal recycling and magma recharge processes at Hasandağ by investigating compositional zoning patterns and textural variation in plagioclase crystals from Quaternary basaltic andesite through dacite lavas. Previous work on Hasandağ intermediate compositions identified thermochemical disequilibrium features and showed abundant evidence for magma mixing1,2. We expand on this work through detailed micro-texture and mineral diffusion analysis to explore the mechanisms and timescales of crystal transport and mixing processes. Thermobarometric calculations constrain the plumbing system to 1.2-2 kbar and 850-950°C, corresponding to a felsic magma chamber at 4.5 km. Electron microprobe results reveal plagioclase phenocrysts from all lava types have common core (An33-46) and rim (An36-64) compositions, with groundmass laths (An57-67) resembling the phenocryst rims. Low An cores are ubiquitous, regardless of bulk rock chemistry, and suggest a consistent composition within the magma reservoir prior to high An rim growth. High An rims are regularly enriched in Mg, Fe, Ti and Sr, which we attribute to mafic recharge and magma mixing. We assess mixing timescales by inverse diffusion modeling of Mg profiles across the core-rim boundaries. Initial results suggest mixing to eruption processes occur on the order of days to months. Heterogeneous calculated timescales within thin sections indicate crystal populations with different growth histories. Crystals often display prominent sieve-textured zones just inside the rim, as well as other disequilibrium features such as oscillatory zoning or resorbed and patchy-zoned cores. We interpret these textures to indicate mobilization of a homogeneous dacitic reservoir with abundant An35 plagioclase crystals by frequent injection of mafic magma. Variability in observed textures and calculated timescales manifests during defrosting of a highly crystalline felsic mush, through different degrees of magma mixing. This process

  12. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in breathing zone and area air during large-scale commercial coffee roasting, blending and grinding processes.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Michael J; Hoppe Parr, Kimberly A; Anderson, Kim E; Cornish, Jim; Haapala, Matti; Greivell, John

    2017-01-01

    Recently described scientific literature has identified the airborne presence of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione at concentrations approaching or potentially exceeding the current American Conference of Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) at commercial coffee roasting and production facilities. Newly established National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limits for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are even more conservative. Chronic exposure to these alpha-diketones at elevated airborne concentrations has been associated with lung damage, specifically bronchiolitis obliterans, most notably in industrial food processing facilities. Workers at a large commercial coffee roaster were monitored for both eight-hour and task-based, short-term, 15-min sample durations for airborne concentrations of these alpha-diketones during specific work processes, including the coffee bean roasting, blending and grinding processes, during two separate 8-h work periods. Additionally, the authors performed real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the workers' breathing zone as well as the area workplace air for the presence of organic compounds to determine the sources, as well as quantitate and identify various organic compounds proximal to the roasting and grinding processes. Real-time FTIR measurements provided both the identification and quantitation of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, as well as other organic compounds generated during coffee bean roasting and grinding operations. Airborne concentrations of diacetyl in the workers' breathing zone, as eight-hour time-weighted averages were less than the ACGIH TLVs for diacetyl, while concentrations of 2,3-pentanedione were below the limit of detection in all samples. Short-term breathing zone samples revealed airborne concentrations for diacetyl that exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit of 0.02 parts per million (ppm) in

  13. Enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland: Effect of saturated zone depth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Menglu; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Ran

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (VSSF) with saturated zone, and nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF treating digested swine wastewater were investigated at four different saturated zone depths (SZDs). SZD significantly affected nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF throughout the experiment. As the SZD was 45cm, the CANON process was enhanced most effectively in the system owing to the notable enhancement of anammox. Correspondingly, the VSSF had the best TN removal performance [(76.74±7.30)%] and lower N 2 O emission flux [(3.50±0.22)mg·(m 2 ·h) - 1 ]. It could be concluded that autotrophic nitrogen removal via CANON process could become a primary route for nitrogen removal in the VSSF with optimized microenvironment that developed as a result of the appropriate SZD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Scale-Dependent Coupled Processes on Solute Fate and Transport in the Critical Zone: Case Studies Involving Inorganic and Radioactive Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, P. M.; Gentry, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Soil, the thin veneer of matter covering the Earths surface that supports a web of living diversity, is often abused through anthropogenic inputs of toxic waste. This subsurface regime, coupled with life sustaining surface water and groundwater is known as the "Critical Zone". The disposal of radioactive and toxic organic and inorganic waste generated by industry and various government agencies has historically involved shallow land burial or the use of surface impoundments in unsaturated soils and sediments. Presently, contaminated sites have been closing rapidly and many remediation strategies have chosen to leave contaminants in-place. As such, contaminants will continue to interact with the geosphere and investigations on long term changes and interactive processes is imperative to verify risks. In this presentation we provide a snap-shot of subsurface science research from the past 25 y that seeks to provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of multi-scale contaminant fate and transport processes in heterogeneous unsaturated and saturated environments. Investigations focus on coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes that control reactive contaminant transport and that involve multi-scale fundamental research ranging from the molecular scale (e.g. synchrotrons, electron sources, arrays) to in situ plume interrogation strategies at the macroscopic scale (e.g. geophysics, field biostimulation, coupled processes monitoring). We show how this fundamental research is used to provide multi-process, multi-scale predictive monitoring and modeling tools that can be used at contaminated sites to (1) inform and improve the technical basis for decision making, and (2) assess which sites are amenable to natural attenuation and which would benefit from source zone remedial intervention.

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of nutrients in groundwater and associated processes in the coastal zone of the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid urbanization has occurred in the Pearl River Delta since 1980s, resulting in tremendous accumulation of population and material in an area of around 1.1x104 km2. Massive nutrients were released to the coastal zone either via the Pearl River or the aquifer, and effects of these nutrients on ecosystem and drinking water supply are a big public concern. Field campaigns to collect groundwater samples were implemented in rainy (April- September) and dry seasons (October - March) during the period of 2005-2016, and samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, multiple isotopes, N2O and microbiological DNA. Seasonal and spatial pattern of nutrients from the recharge to the discharge zone in two case study areas were identified and compared regarding relevant N transformation processes. Main sources of nutrients in groundwater and major mechanisms, e.g. denitrification, nitrification and etc., involved in these processes were raised by integrating microbiological, isotopic and geochemical evidences. Driven forces of the change in nutrients in the past 10 years were investigated based on statistical data, and total nutrient load in groundwater in the delta was estimated.

  16. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part II. Application to electron beam welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.; Klokkehaug, S.

    2000-03-01

    In the present investigation, a process model for electron beam (EB) welding of different grades of duplex stainless steels (i.e. SAF 2205 and 2507) has been developed. A number of attractive features are built into the original finite element code, including (1) a separate module for prediction of the penetration depth and distribution of the heat source into the plate, (2) adaptive refinement of the three-dimensional (3-D) element mesh for quick and reliable solution of the differential heat flow equation, and (3) special subroutines for calculation of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructure evolution. The process model has been validated by comparison with experimental data obtained from in situ thermocouple measurements and optical microscope examinations. Subsequently, its aptness to alloy design and optimization of welding conditions for duplex stainless steels is illustrated in different numerical examples and case studies pertaining to EB welding of tubular joints.

  17. Shallow structure and its formation process of an active flexure in the forearc basin of the central Nankai subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashi, J.; Ikehara, K.; Omura, A.; Ojima, T.; Murayama, M.

    2013-12-01

    ENE-WSW trending active faults, named Enshu fault system, are developed in the forearc basins of the eastern and central Nankai subduction zone. Three parallel faults developed in the Enshu forearc basin of the eastern Nankai have right lateral slip on the basis of dextral displacement of the canyon axis. Moreover, bathymetry data and side-scan sonar imageries indicate relative uplift of the northern region and the multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles show northward dipping fault planes. In the central Nankai subuduction zone, an ENE-WSW trending step is distributed at the northern part of the Kumano forearc basin and is regarded as the western extension of the Enshu fault system. Although MCS records show deformations including an anticlinal fold beneath the bathymetric step, they have less resolution to identify deformation of basin sequence just below the seafloor. In contrast, deformation seems to reach to the seafloor on a profile by SBP mounted on a mother ship. Investigation of shallow deformation structures is significant for understanding of recent tectonic activity. We carried out deep towed SBP survey by ROV NSS (Navigable Sampling System) during Hakuho-maru KH-11-9 cruise. High resolution mapping of shallow structures was successfully conducted by a chirp SBP system of EdgeTech DW-106. ROV NSS also has capability to take a long core with a pinpoint accuracy around complex topographic region. The Kumano forearc basin is topographically divided into the northern part at a water depth of 2038 m and the other major region at a depth of 2042 m by the ENE-WSW linear step. Three deep towed SBP lines intersected this topographical step and revealed the following structures. This step is composed of 100 m wide gentle slope with an inclination of about 8 degrees. An anticlinal axis is located beneath the upper edge of this slope. Sedimentary layers continue at this slope region without any abut/termination and rapidly increase their thickness toward the

  18. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  19. How the gas hydrate system gives insight into subduction wedge dewatering processes in a zone of highly-oblique convergence on the southern Hikurangi margin of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchley, Gareth; Klaeschen, Dirk; Pecher, Ingo; Henrys, Stuart

    2017-04-01

    The southern end of New Zealand's Hikurangi subduction margin is characterised by highly-oblique convergence as it makes a southward transition into a right-lateral transform plate boundary at the Alpine Fault. Long-offset seismic data that cross part of the offshore portion of this transition zone give new insight into the nature of the plate boundary. We have carried out 2D pre-stack depth migrations, with an iterative reflection tomography to update the velocity field, on two seismic lines in this area to investigate fluid flow processes that have implications for the mechanical stability of the subduction interface. The results show distinct and focused fluid expulsion pathways from the subduction interface to the shallow sub-surface. For example, on one of the seismic lines there is a clear disruption of the gas hydrate system at its intersection with a splay fault - a clear indication of focused fluid release from the subduction interface. The seismic velocities derived from tomography also highlight a broad, pronounced low velocity zone beneath the deforming wedge that we interpret as a thick zone of gas-charged fluids that may have important implications for the long-term frictional stability of the plate boundary in this area. The focused flow upward toward the seafloor has the potential to result in the formation of concentrated gas hydrate deposits. Our on-going work on these data will include amplitude versus offset analysis in an attempt to better characterise the nature of the subduction interface, the fluids in that region, and also the shallower gas hydrate system.

  20. Early benthic successional processes at implanted substrates in Barkley Submarine Canyon affected by a permanent oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera De Leo, F.; Smith, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Fleury, A.; Aguzzi, J.

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of cabled observatories scientists are now able to have a permanent presence in the deep-seafloor, being able to reveal previously unseen faunal behavior as well as to track long-term changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function. The Ocean Networks Canada 800-km loop seafloor observatory array (NEPTUNE) located in the NE Pacific has instruments measuring a variety of environmental variables ranging from temperature, salinity, oxygen, currents, turbidity, fluorescence, etc, at multiple and very high temporal resolution scales. High-definition video cameras also monitor benthic communities in multiple deep-sea habitats, all at some extent influenced by an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). In the present study, whale-bone and wood substrates are being used to evaluate bathymetric, regional and inter-basin variations in benthic biodiversity and connectivity, as well as interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem function. In May of 2014 three humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) rib sections, one 20x20x10 cm block of Douglas Fir (Pseudotsunga meniziesii), and a 30x30x30 block of authigenic carbonate were placed with the use of an ROV at 890 m depth inside Barkley Canyon. The substrate packages were placed concentrically, 45-cm away from a HD video camera. Five-minute videos were captured at 2-hr intervals. Preliminary data analysis from 8 months of deployment showed very distinct early community succession patterns between the two organic substrates (bones and wood) and the authigenic carbonate. Whalebones and wood showed amphipod (Orchomene obtusa) abundance peaks mostly contained during the first 60 days after deployment; Amphipod peak abundance rapid decline coincides with rapid growth of bacterial mat on whalebone and wood surfaces. Low abundance, species richness and substrate degradation rates are in agreement with a low oxygen environment of the OMZ in the canyon. Despite the early stages of data analysis, this experiment demonstrates how

  1. Vapor-phase transport of trichloroethene in an intermediate-scale vadose-zone system: retention processes and tracer-based prediction.

    PubMed

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Carlson, Tyson D; Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-02-01

    Gas-phase transport experiments were conducted using a large weighing lysimeter to evaluate retention processes for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water-unsaturated (vadose-zone) systems, and to test the utility of gas-phase tracers for predicting VOC retardation. Trichloroethene (TCE) served as a model VOC, while trichlorofluoromethane (CFM) and heptane were used as partitioning tracers to independently characterize retention by water and the air-water interface, respectively. Retardation factors for TCE ranged between 1.9 and 3.5, depending on water content. The results indicate that dissolution into the bulk water was the primary retention mechanism for TCE under all conditions studied, contributing approximately two-thirds of the total measured retention. Accumulation at the air-water interface comprised a significant fraction of the observed retention for all experiments, with an average contribution of approximately 24%. Sorption to the solid phase contributed approximately 10% to retention. Water contents and air-water interfacial areas estimated based on the CFM and heptane tracer data, respectively, were similar to independently measured values. Retardation factors for TCE predicted using the partitioning-tracer data were in reasonable agreement with the measured values. These results suggest that gas-phase tracer tests hold promise for characterizing the retention and transport of VOCs in the vadose-zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. VAPOR-PHASE TRANSPORT OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN AN INTERMEDIATE-SCALE VADOSE-ZONE SYSTEM: RETENTION PROCESSES AND TRACER-BASED PREDICTION

    PubMed Central

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Carlson, Tyson D.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase miscible-displacement experiments were conducted using a large weighing lysimeter to evaluate retention processes for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water-unsaturated (vadoze-zone) systems, and to test the utility of gas-phase tracers for predicting VOC retardation. Trichloroethene (TCE) served as a model VOC, while trichlorofluoromethane (CFM) and heptane were used as partitioning tracers to independently characterize retention by water and the air-water interface, respectively. Retardation factors for TCE ranged between 1.9 and 3.5, depending on water content. The results indicate that dissolution into the bulk water was the primary retention mechanism for TCE under all conditions studied, contributing approximately two thirds of the total measured retention. Accumulation at the air-water interface comprised a significant fraction of the observed retention for all experiments, with an average contribution of approximately 24%. Sorption to the solid phase contributed approximately 10% to retention. Water contents and air-water interfacial areas estimated based on the CFM and heptane tracer data, respectively, were similar to independently measured values. Retardation factors for TCE predicted using the partitioning-tracer data were in reasonable agreement with the measured values. These results suggest that gas-phase tracer tests hold promise for characterizing the retention and transport of VOCs in the vadose-zone. PMID:23333418

  3. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  4. Flooding the Zone: A Ten-Point Approach to Assessing Critical Thinking as Part of the AACSB Accreditation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Frank; Mayer, Bradley W.

    2012-01-01

    Undergoing the accreditation process of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) can be quite daunting and stressful. It requires prodigious amounts of planning, record-keeping, and document preparation. It is not something that can be thrown together at the last minute. The same is true of the five-year reaccreditation…

  5. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model to study the spatial variation of carbon processes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Eissenstat, D. M.; Davis, K. J.; He, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Forest carbon processes are affected by, among other factors, soil moisture, soil temperature, soil nutrients and solar radiation. Most of the current biogeochemical models are 1-D and represent one point in space. Therefore, they cannot resolve the topographically driven hill-slope land surface heterogeneity or the spatial pattern of nutrient availability. A spatially distributed forest ecosystem model, Flux-PIHM-BGC, has been developed by coupling a 1-D mechanistic biogeochemical model Biome-BGC (BBGC) with a spatially distributed land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. Flux-PIHM is a coupled physically based model, which incorporates a land-surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model. Flux-PIHM is able to represent the link between groundwater and the surface energy balance, as well as the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography. In the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D BBGC model, while soil nitrogen is transported among model grids via subsurface water flow. In each grid, Flux-PIHM provides BBGC with soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation information, while BBGC provides Flux-PIHM with leaf area index. The coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model has been implemented at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills critical zone observatory (SSHCZO). Model results suggest that the vegetation and soil carbon distribution is primarily constrained by nitorgen availability (affected by nitorgen transport via topographically driven subsurface flow), and also constrained by solar radiation and root zone soil moisture. The predicted vegetation and soil carbon distribution generally agrees with the macro pattern observed within the watershed. The coupled ecosystem-hydrologic model provides an important tool to study the impact of topography on watershed carbon processes, as well as the impact of climate change on water resources.

  6. Mushy zone modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Smith, Richard N.; Marsh, Steven P.; Kuklinski, Robert

    A key element of mushy zone modeling is the description of the microscopic evolution of the lengthscales within the mushy zone and the influence of macroscopic transport processes. This paper describes some recent progress in developing a mean-field statistical theory of phase coarsening in adiabatic mushy zones. The main theoretical predictions are temporal scaling laws that indicate that average lengthscale increases as time 1/3, a self-similar distribution of mushy zone lengthscales based on spherical solid particle shapes, and kinetic rate constants which provide the dependences of the coarsening process on material parameters and the volume fraction of the solid phase. High precision thermal decay experiments are described which verify aspects of the theory in pure material mushy zones held under adiabatic conditions. The microscopic coarsening theory is then integrated within a macroscopic heat transfer model of one-dimensional alloy solidification, using the Double Integral Method. The method demonstrates an ability to predict the influence of macroscopic heat transfer on the evolution of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings in Al-Cu alloys. Finally, some suggestions are made for future experimental and theoretical studies required in developing comprehensive solidification processing models.

  7. A cross sectional study on nursing process implementation and associated factors among nurses working in selected hospitals of Central and Northwest zones, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Baraki, Zeray; Girmay, Fiseha; Kidanu, Kalayou; Gerensea, Hadgu; Gezehgne, Dejen; Teklay, Hafte

    2017-01-01

    The nursing process is a systematic method of planning, delivering, and evaluating individualized care for clients in any state of health or illness. Many countries have adopted the nursing process as the standard of care to guide nursing practice; however, the problem is its implementation. If nurses fail to carry out the necessary nursing care through the nursing process; the effectiveness of patient progress may be compromised and can lead to preventable adverse events. This study was aimed to assess the implementation of nursing process and associated factors among nurses working in selected hospitals of central and northwest zones of Tigray, Ethiopia, 2015. A cross sectional observational study design was utilized. Data was collected from 200 participants using structured self-administered questionnaire which was contextually adapted from standardized, reliable and validated measures. The data were entered using Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Data were summarized and described using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship of independent and dependent variable. Then, finally, data were presented in tables, graphs, frequency percentage of different variables. Seventy (35%) of participants have implemented nursing process. Different factors showed significant association. Nurses who worked in a stressful atmosphere of the workplace were 99% less likely to implement the nursing process than nurses who worked at a very good atmosphere. The nurses with an educational level of BSc. Degree were 6.972 times more likely to implement the nursing process than those who were diploma qualified. Nurses with no consistent material supply to use the nursing process were 95.1% less likely to implement the nursing process than nurses with consistent material supply. The majority of the participants were not implementing the nursing process properly. There are many factors that hinder them

  8. Experimental investigations on the state of the friction-welded joint zone in steel hybrid components after process-relevant thermo-mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Vucetic, M.; Peshekhodov, I.; Matthias, T.; Kolbasnikov, N.; Sokolov, S.; Ganin, S.

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the newly established Collaborative Research Center 1153 (SFB 1153) "Process chain for the manufacturing of hybrid high-performance components by tailored forming" at the Leibniz Universität Hannover, the Institute of Forming Technology and Machines (IFUM) examines the influence of thermo-mechanical stresses on the reduced Young's modulus as well as the hardness of hybrid (steel-steel compound) joined semi-finished products. Currently the expertise in the production of bulk metal formed parts is limited to mono-materials. For manufacturing parts of hybrid materials and also for the methods of the new process routes, practical experience has to be gained. The subproject C1 within the collaborative research center 1153 with the short title "Failure Prediction" deals with the question, if the hybrid semi-finished products fulfill the thermo-mechanical demands or if they fail at the joining zone (JZ) during forging. For this purpose, stresses similar to those in the process were imposed on hybrid semi-finished products by torsion tests by using the thermo-mechanical test system Gleeble 3800. Afterwards, the specimens were examined metallographically and by nanoindentations with the help of a TriboIndenter TI950. Thus, first knowledge on the behaviour of thermo-mechanical stresses on the reduced Young's modulus and the hardness of hybrid joined semi-finished parts was gained.

  9. Formation processes of sea ice floe size distribution in the interior pack and its relationship to the marginal ice zone off East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Takenobu; Kohout, Alison; Fraser, Alexander D.

    2016-09-01

    To understand the behavior of the Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ), which is composed of sea-ice floes of various sizes, knowledge of the floe size distribution (FSD) is important. In particular, FSD in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ), controlled by wave-ice interaction, plays an important role in determining the retreating rates of sea-ice extent on a global scale because the cumulative perimeter of floes enhances melting. To improve the understanding of wave-ice interaction and subsequent effects on FSD in the MIZ, FSD measurements were conducted off East Antarctica during the second Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment (SIPEX-2) in late winter 2012. Since logistical reasons limited helicopter operations to two interior ice regions, FSD in the interior ice region was determined using a combination of heli-photos and MODIS satellite visible images. The possible effect of wave-ice interaction in the MIZ was examined by comparison with past results obtained in the same MIZ, with our analysis showing: (1) FSD in the interior ice region is basically scale invariant for both small- (<100 m) and large- (>1 km) scale regimes; (2) although fractal dimensions are quite different between these two regimes, they are both rather close to that in the MIZ; and (3) for floes <100 m in diameter, a regime shift which appeared at 20-40 m in the MIZ is absent. These results indicate that one role of wave-ice interaction is to modulate the FSD that already exists in the interior ice region, rather than directly determine it. The possibilities of floe-floe collisions and storm-induced lead formation are considered as possible formation processes of FSD in the interior pack.

  10. Nitrogen Loss from Pristine Carbonate-Rock Aquifers of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Germany) Is Primarily Driven by Chemolithoautotrophic Anammox Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Swatantar; Herrmann, Martina; Thamdrup, Bo; Schwab, Valérie F.; Geesink, Patricia; Trumbore, Susan E.; Totsche, Kai-Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high relevance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) for nitrogen loss from marine systems, its relative importance compared to denitrification has less been studied in freshwater ecosystems, and our knowledge is especially scarce for groundwater. Surprisingly, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)-based studies identified zones with potentially active anammox bacteria within two superimposed pristine limestone aquifer assemblages of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE; Germany). We found anammox to contribute an estimated 83% to total nitrogen loss in suboxic groundwaters of these aquifer assemblages at rates of 3.5–4.7 nmol L−1 d−1, presumably favored over denitrification by low organic carbon availability. Transcript abundances of hzsA genes encoding hydrazine synthase exceeded nirS and nirK transcript abundances encoding denitrifier nitrite reductase by up to two orders of magnitude, providing further support of a predominance of anammox. Anammox bacteria, dominated by groups closely related to Cand. Brocadia fulgida, constituted up to 10.6% of the groundwater microbial community and were ubiquitously present across the two aquifer assemblages with indication of active anammox bacteria even in the presence of 103 μmol L−1 oxygen. Co-occurrence of hzsA and amoA gene transcripts encoding ammonia mono-oxygenase suggested coupling between aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation under suboxic conditions. These results clearly demonstrate the relevance of anammox as a key process driving nitrogen loss from oligotrophic groundwater environments, which might further be enhanced through coupling with incomplete nitrification. PMID:29067012

  11. Evaluating the role of soil variability on groundwater pollution and recharge at regional scale by integrating a process-based vadose zone model in a stochastic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Alessandro; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Zdruli, Pandi

    2013-04-01

    modelling approaches have been developed at small space scales. Their extension to the applicative macroscale of the regional model is not a simple task mainly because of the heterogeneity of vadose zone properties, as well as of non-linearity of hydrological processes. Besides, one of the problems when applying distributed models is that spatial and temporal scales for data to be used as input in the models vary on a wide range of scales and are not always consistent with the model structure. Under these conditions, a strictly deterministic response to questions about the fate of a pollutant in the soil is impossible. At best, one may answer "this is the average behaviour within this uncertainty band". Consequently, the extension of these equations to account for regional-scale processes requires the uncertainties of the outputs be taken into account if the pollution vulnerability maps that may be drawn are to be used as agricultural management tools. A map generated without a corresponding map of associated uncertainties has no real utility. The stochastic stream tube approach is a frequently used to the water flux and solute transport through the vadose zone at applicative scales. This approach considers the field soil as an ensemble of parallel and statistically independent tubes, assuming only vertical flow. The stream tubes approach is generally used in a probabilistic framework. Each stream tube defines local flow properties that are assumed to vary randomly between the different stream tubes. Thus, the approach allows average water and solute behaviour be described, along with the associated uncertainty bands. These stream tubes are usually considered to have parameters that are vertically homogeneous. This would be justified by the large difference between the horizontal and vertical extent of the spatial applicative scale. Vertical is generally overlooked. Obviously, all the model outputs are conditioned by this assumption. The latter, in turn, is more dictated by

  12. Experimental investigation of low temperature garnet-melt partitioning in CMASH, with application to subduction zone processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizet, Y.; Blundy, J.; McDade, P.

    2003-04-01

    During subduction, the slab undergoes several processes such as dehydration and partial melting at pressures of 2-3 GPa and temperatures of 600-900^oC. Under these conditions, there is little or no distinction between melt and fluid phases (Bureau &Keppler, 1999, EPSL 165, 187-196). To investigate the behaviour of trace elements under these conditions we have carried out partitioning experiments in the system CMASH at 2.2 GPa, 700-920^oC. CMAS starting compositions were doped with trace elements, and loaded together with quartz and water into a Pt capsule, which was in turn contained within a Ni-lined Ti capsule. Run durations were 3-7 days. A run at 810^oC produced euhedral calcic garnet, zoisite, quartz, hydrous melt and tiny clinopyroxene interpreted as quench crystals. LA-ICPMS and SIMS were used to quantify trace element concentrations of the phases. Garnet-melt D's for the HREE decrease from ˜300 for Lu to less than 0.2 for La. DSc and D_V are less than 5, consistent with the large X-site dimension in the garnet. DLi DSr and DBa are considerably less than the adjacent REE. There is a very slight negative partitioning anomaly for Zr and Hf relative to Nd and Sm; DHf is slightly greater than DZr. D_U < DTh, due largely to the oxidizing conditions of the experiment (NNO). The most striking result is very high D's for Nb and Ta: 18±10 and 5.4±1.9 (LA-ICPMS), 25.8±11.9 and 6.6±1.3 (SIMS) for Nb and Ta respectively. These are considerably larger than any previously measured (at much higher temperatures). The observed partitioning behaviour is consistent with the large temperature dependence for DREE proposed by Van Westrenen et al. (2001, Contrib Min Pet, 142, 219-234), and an even larger temperature dependence for DNb and DTa. These preliminary results suggest that garnet (rather than rutile) may play the key role in controlling the Nb and Ta budget of arc magmas and the Nb/Ta ratio of residual eclogites. For example, modelling of eclogite melting, using a N

  13. The Cascadia Subduction Zone and related subduction systems: seismic structure, intraslab earthquakes and processes, and earthquake hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Stephen H.; Wang, Kelin; Dunlop, Susan

    2002-01-01

    The following report is the principal product of an international workshop titled “Intraslab Earthquakes in the Cascadia Subduction System: Science and Hazards” and was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and the University of Victoria. This meeting was held at the University of Victoria’s Dunsmuir Lodge, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada on September 18–21, 2000 and brought 46 participants from the U.S., Canada, Latin America and Japan. This gathering was organized to bring together active research investigators in the science of subduction and intraslab earthquake hazards. Special emphasis was given to “warm-slab” subduction systems, i.e., those systems involving young oceanic lithosphere subducting at moderate to slow rates, such as the Cascadia system in the U.S. and Canada, and the Nankai system in Japan. All the speakers and poster presenters provided abstracts of their presentations that were a made available in an abstract volume at the workshop. Most of the authors subsequently provided full articles or extended abstracts for this volume on the topics that they discussed at the workshop. Where updated versions were not provided, the original workshop abstracts have been included. By organizing this workshop and assembling this volume, our aim is to provide a global perspective on the science of warm-slab subduction, to thereby advance our understanding of internal slab processes and to use this understanding to improve appraisals of the hazards associated with large intraslab earthquakes in the Cascadia system. These events have been the most frequent and damaging earthquakes in western Washington State over the last century. As if to underscore this fact, just six months after this workshop was held, the magnitude 6.8 Nisqually earthquake occurred on February 28th, 2001 at a depth of about 55 km in the Juan de Fuca slab beneath the southern Puget Sound region of western Washington. The Governor

  14. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls.

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-06-21

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container typesmore » for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion.« less

  15. 3D features of delayed thermal convection in fault zones: consequences for deep fluid processes in the Tiberias Basin, Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Fabien; Möller, Sebastian; Inbar, Nimrod; Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that thermal convection in faults can also occur for subcritical Rayleigh conditions. This type of convection develops after a certain period and is referred to as "delayed convection" (Murphy, 1979). The delay in the onset is due to the heat exchange between the damage zone and the surrounding units that adds a thermal buffer along the fault walls. Few numerical studies investigated delayed thermal convection in fractured zones, despite it has the potential to transport energy and minerals over large spatial scales (Tournier, 2000). Here 3D numerical simulations of thermally driven flow in faults are presented in order to investigate the impact of delayed convection on deep fluid processes at basin-scale. The Tiberias Basin (TB), in the Jordan Rift Valley, serves as study area. The TB is characterized by upsurge of deep-seated hot waters along the faulted shores of Lake Tiberias and high temperature gradient that can locally reach 46 °C/km, as in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG). 3D simulations show that buoyant flow ascend in permeable faults which hydraulic conductivity is estimated to vary between 30 m/yr and 140 m/yr. Delayed convection starts respectively at 46 and 200 kyrs and generate temperature anomalies in agreement with observations. It turned out that delayed convective cells are transient. Cellular patterns that initially develop in permeable units surrounding the faults can trigger convection also within the fault plane. The combination of these two convective modes lead to helicoidal-like flow patterns. This complex flow can explain the location of springs along different fault traces of the TB. Besides being of importance for understanding the hydrogeological processes of the TB (Magri et al., 2015), the presented simulations provide a scenario illustrating fault-induced 3D cells that could develop in any geothermal system. References Magri, F., Inbar, N., Siebert, C., Rosenthal, E., Guttman, J., Möller, P., 2015. Transient

  16. Primitive Melt Inclusions from Multiple Samples from the FAMOUS Zone: Insights into the Mantle Melting Column and the Fractionation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubier, M.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2008-12-01

    On mid-ocean ridges, the influential work by Sobolev and Shimizu (Nature, 1993) and Sobolev (Petrology, 1996) has inferred fractional melting during polybaric upwelling by showing that olivine-hosted inclusions were formed over a range of pressures. However melt inclusion studies have often concerned single MORB samples and may be seen as anecdotal in the sense that they are neither repeated nor globally verified. Recent modeling and experimental results also suggest the importance of post-entrapment processes for major and trace elements. This study presents major and trace element data in 300 olivine-hosted melt inclusions from 11 samples from the FAMOUS segment on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Published data from Shimizu (Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 1998) and Kamenetsky (EPSL, 1996; spinel-hosted inclusions) are also reported. In parallel, major and trace element measurements were performed in 150 glasses of the segment in order to have consistent datasets. Melt inclusions, trapped in olivine phenocrysts Mg#85-92, display complex trends in major element plots and can be divided into three groups. Group 1, the largest, is characterized by high MgO (9.4-13.4 wt.%), intermediate SiO2 and Al2O3 contents. Group 2 displays distinctively high Al2O3 (up to 18.4 wt.%), low SiO2 (as low as 46.5 wt.%) and high MgO (10.5-12.8 wt.%) contents, along with low CaO and variable TiO2, K2O and incompatible element concentrations. Group 3 consists of the melt inclusions trapped in less primitive olivines (Mg#<88.5) and displays higher SiO2, CaO and trace element contents. In the lava population, two groups can be distinguished. A small subset, that shares many features with the group 2 melt inclusions, displays high MgO and Al2O3 and low SiO2 and incompatible element contents. This type of lava - high-Al, low-Si and high-Mg - has been previously reported for various mid-ocean ridges (e.g., le Roux et al., Contrib. Min. Petrol., 2002; Eason and Sinton, EPSL, 2008). The second group plots

  17. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model with a nitrogen transport module to study the spatial variation of carbon processes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Yuning; Eissenstat, David M.; He, Yuting; ...

    2018-05-12

    Terrestrial carbon processes are affected by soil moisture, soil temperature, nitrogen availability and solar radiation, among other factors. Most of the current ecosystem biogeochemistry models represent one point in space, and have limited characterization of hydrologic processes. Therefore these models can neither resolve the topographically driven spatial variability of water, energy, and nutrient, nor their effects on carbon processes. A spatially-distributed land surface hydrologic biogeochemistry model, Flux-PIHM-BGC, is developed by coupling the Biome-BGC model with a physically-based land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. In the coupled system, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D Biome-BGC model. In addition, a topographic solarmore » radiation module and an advection-driven nitrogen transport module are added to represent the impact of topography on nutrient transport and solar energy distribution. Because Flux-PIHM is able to simulate lateral groundwater flow and represent the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography, Flux-PIHM-BGC is capable of simulating the complex interaction among water, energy, nutrient, and carbon in time and space. The Flux-PIHM-BGC model is tested at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory. Model results show that distributions of carbon and nitrogen stocks and fluxes are strongly affected by topography and landscape position, and tree growth is nitrogen limited. The predicted aboveground and soil carbon distributions generally agree with the macro patterns observed. Although the model underestimates the spatial variation, the predicted watershed average values are close to the observations. Lastly, the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model provides an important tool to study spatial variations in terrestrial carbon and nitrogen processes and their interactions with environmental factors, and to predict the spatial structure of the responses of ecosystems to climate change.« less

  18. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model with a nitrogen transport module to study the spatial variation of carbon processes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yuning; Eissenstat, David M.; He, Yuting

    Terrestrial carbon processes are affected by soil moisture, soil temperature, nitrogen availability and solar radiation, among other factors. Most of the current ecosystem biogeochemistry models represent one point in space, and have limited characterization of hydrologic processes. Therefore these models can neither resolve the topographically driven spatial variability of water, energy, and nutrient, nor their effects on carbon processes. A spatially-distributed land surface hydrologic biogeochemistry model, Flux-PIHM-BGC, is developed by coupling the Biome-BGC model with a physically-based land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. In the coupled system, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D Biome-BGC model. In addition, a topographic solarmore » radiation module and an advection-driven nitrogen transport module are added to represent the impact of topography on nutrient transport and solar energy distribution. Because Flux-PIHM is able to simulate lateral groundwater flow and represent the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography, Flux-PIHM-BGC is capable of simulating the complex interaction among water, energy, nutrient, and carbon in time and space. The Flux-PIHM-BGC model is tested at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory. Model results show that distributions of carbon and nitrogen stocks and fluxes are strongly affected by topography and landscape position, and tree growth is nitrogen limited. The predicted aboveground and soil carbon distributions generally agree with the macro patterns observed. Although the model underestimates the spatial variation, the predicted watershed average values are close to the observations. Lastly, the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model provides an important tool to study spatial variations in terrestrial carbon and nitrogen processes and their interactions with environmental factors, and to predict the spatial structure of the responses of ecosystems to climate change.« less

  19. The Multi-factor Predictive Seis &Gis Model of Ecological, Genetical, Population Health Risk and Bio-geodynamic Processes In Geopathogenic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Y.

    I. Goal and Scope. Human birth rate decrease, death-rate growth and increase of mu- tagenic deviations risk take place in geopathogenic and anthropogenic hazard zones. Such zones create unfavourable conditions for reproductive process of future genera- tions. These negative trends should be considered as a protective answer of the com- plex biosocial system to the appearance of natural and anthropogenic risk factors that are unfavourable for human health. The major goals of scientific evaluation and de- crease of risk of appearance of hazardous processes on the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, along with creation of the multi-factor predictive Spirit-Energy-Information Space "SEIS" & GIS Model of ecological, genetical and population health risk in connection with dangerous bio-geodynamic processes, were: multi-factor modeling and correla- tion of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and those of human health; determination of indicators that show the risk of destruction structures appearance on different levels of organization and functioning of the city ecosystem (geophys- ical and geochemical fields, soil, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere); analysis of regularities of natural, anthropogenic, and biological rhythms' interactions. II. Meth- ods. The long spatio-temporal researches (Y. Bondarenko, 1996, 2000) have proved that the ecological, genetic and epidemiological processes are in connection with de- velopment of dangerous bio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes. Mathemat- ical processing of space photos, lithogeochemical and geophysical maps with use of JEIS o and ERDAS o computer systems was executed at the first stage of forma- tion of multi-layer geoinformation model "Dnipropetrovsk ARC View GIS o. The multi-factor nonlinear correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray variations, geophysical, geodynamic, geochemical, atmospheric, technological, biological, socio- economical processes and oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary

  20. Process regime, salinity, morphological, and sedimentary trends along the fluvial to marine transition zone of the mixed-energy Mekong River delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugliotta, Marcello; Saito, Yoshiki; Nguyen, Van Lap; Ta, Thi Kim Oanh; Nakashima, Rei; Tamura, Toru; Uehara, Katsuto; Katsuki, Kota; Yamamoto, Seiichiro

    2017-09-01

    The fluvial to marine transition zone (FMTZ) is the area of coastal rivers in which sedimentation is controlled by the interaction of fluvial and marine processes. This study examines the FMTZ of the Mekong River delta, along a total channel length of 660 km. Methods consist of collection and analysis of channel bed sediment samples, measurements of channel morphological parameters, and recognition of mangrove, molluscan, and diatom species. The process regime, salinity, morphological, and sedimentary trends recognized were used to define two main tracts for this FMTZ: an upstream, fluvial-dominated tract and a downstream, tide-dominated tract. In more detail, they allow the identification of four subzones, from upstream to downstream: 1) fluvial-dominated, tide-affected; 2) fluvial-dominated, tide-influenced; 3) tide-dominated, fluvial-influenced; and 4) tide-dominated, fluvial-affected. Tide-induced water-level changes affect the entire study area and extend into Cambodia. Measured salinity intrusion extends 15 km upstream of the river mouth during wet season, and 50 km during dry season. Brackish water species of mangroves, mollusks, and diatoms, however, occur landward of these limits, suggesting that highly diluted brackish water may reach 160 km upstream of the river mouth during the dry season. In the fluvial-dominated tract, channels are sinuous and show a seaward-deepening trend, whereas width is relatively constant. In the tide-dominated tract, channels are straight, and show seaward-widening and seaward-shallowing trends. Natural levees are present in the fluvial-dominated, tide-affected subzone, but are replaced by mangroves elsewhere along the FMTZ. In the fluvial-dominated tract, mud content is low, sand grain size fines seaward, and gravelly sand and sand are the dominant facies. In the tide-dominated tract, mud content is high, sand grain size is constant, recycled sand is common, and tidal rhythmites are the dominant facies. Mud pebbles are common

  1. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model to study the spatial variation of carbon processes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Eissenstat, D. M.; Davis, K. J.; He, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Forest carbon processes are affected by soil moisture, soil temperature and solar radiation. Most of the current biogeochemical models are 1-D and represent one point in space. Therefore they can neither resolve topographically driven hill-slope soil moisture patterns, nor simulate the nonlinear effects of soil moisture on carbon processes. A spatially-distributed biogeochemistry model, Flux-PIHM-BGC, has been developed by coupling the Biome-BGC (BBGC) model with a coupled physically-based land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. Flux-PIHM incorporates a land-surface scheme (adapted from the Noah land surface model) into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). Because PIHM is capable of simulating lateral water flow and deep groundwater, Flux-PIHM is able to represent the link between groundwater and the surface energy balance, as well as the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography. Flux-PIHM-BGC model was tested at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills critical zone observatory (SSHCZO). The abundant observations at the SSHCZO, including eddy covariance fluxes, soil moisture, groundwater level, sap flux, stream discharge, litterfall, leaf area index, aboveground carbon stock, and soil carbon efflux, provided an ideal test bed for the coupled model. Model results show that when uniform solar radiation is used, vegetation carbon and soil carbon are positively correlated with soil moisture in space, which agrees with the observations within the watershed. When topographically-driven solar radiation is used, however, the wetter valley floor becomes radiation limited, and produces less vegetation and soil carbon than the drier hillslope due to the assumption that canopy height is uniform in the watershed. This contradicts with the observations, and suggests that a tree height model with dynamic allocation model are needed to reproduce the spatial variation of carbon processes within a watershed.

  2. Experimental evaluation of the effect of a modified port-location mode on the performance of a three-zone simulated moving-bed process for the separation of valine and isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Kim, Pung-Ho; Mun, Sungyong

    2014-06-01

    The removal of isoleucine from valine has been a key issue in the stage of valine crystallization, which is the final step in the valine production process in industry. To address this issue, a three-zone simulated moving-bed (SMB) process for the separation of valine and isoleucine has been developed previously. However, the previous process, which was based on a classical port-location mode, had some limitations in throughput and valine product concentration. In this study, a three-zone SMB process based on a modified port-location mode was applied to the separation of valine and isoleucine for the purpose of making a marked improvement in throughput and valine product concentration. Computer simulations and a lab-scale process experiment showed that the modified three-zone SMB for valine separation led to >65% higher throughput and >160% higher valine concentration compared to the previous three-zone SMB for the same separation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamics of coupled ice-ocean system in the marginal ice zone: Study of the mesoscale processes and of constitutive equations for sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, S.

    1984-01-01

    This study is aimed at the modelling of mesoscale processed such as up/downwelling and ice edge eddies in the marginal ice zones. A 2-dimensional coupled ice-ocean model is used for the study. The ice model is coupled to the reduced gravity ocean model (f-plane) through interfacial stresses. The constitutive equations of the sea ice are formulated on the basis of the Reiner-Rivlin theory. The internal ice stresses are important only at high ice concentrations (90-100%), otherwise the ice motion is essentially free drift, where the air-ice stress is balanced by the ice-water stress. The model was tested by studying the upwelling dynamics. Winds parallel to the ice edge with the ice on the right produce upwilling because the air-ice momentum flux is much greater that air-ocean momentum flux, and thus the Ekman transport is bigger under the ice than in the open water. The upwelling simulation was extended to include temporally varying forcing, which was chosen to vary sinusoidally with a 4 day period. This forcing resembles successive cyclone passings. In the model with a thin oceanic upper layer, ice bands were formed.

  4. Geocryological hazards and destructive exogenic geological processes on lines of linear constructions of tundra and forest-tundra zones of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospennikov, E. N.; Hilimonjuk, V. Z.

    2009-04-01

    Economic development of northern oil-and gas-bearing regions, even by application of shift method, is accompanied by a construction of the linear transport systems including automobile- and railways. Construction of such roads is connected with the risks caused by the whole complex of hazards, defined by the environmental features of the region, including flat surface with strong marshiness, development of a peat, fine-grained and easily eroded friable sedimentations, as well as by complicated geocryological conditions. Geocryological conditions of Western Siberia area are characterized by a rather high heterogeneity. This implies the strong variability of permafrost soils distribution, their thickness and continuity, depths of seasonal thawing and frost penetration, and also intact development of geocryological processes and phenomena. Thermokarst, thermo erosion and thermo-abrasion develop in the natural conditions. These processes are caused by partial degradation of permafrost. A frost heave also occurs during their seasonal or long-term freezing. Failure of an environment, which is always peculiar to construction of the roads, causes reorganization of geocryological systems that is accompanied by occurrence of dangerous geocryological processes, such as technogenic thermokarst (with formation of various negative forms of a relief: from fine subsidence up to small and average sized lakes), frost heave ground (with formation frost mound in height up to 0,5 - 1,5 meters and more), thermal erosion (gullies and ravines with volume of the born material up to several thousand cubic meters). Development of these destructive processes in a road stripes leads to emergencies owing to deformations and destructions of an earthen cloth, and to failure of natural tundra and forest-tundra ecosystems. The methodical approaches based on typification and zoning of the area by its environmental complex have been developed for an estimation of geocryological hazards at linear

  5. Aeration Zone Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, B.

    The International Symposium on Recent Investigations in the Zone of Aeration (RIZA) was organized by the Institute for Hydrogeology and Hydrochemistry of the Technical University of Munich and held October 1-5, 1984, in the lecture halls of the Grosshadern Klinik in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). P. Udluft, B. Merkel, and K.-H. Prüsl, all of the university, were responsible for the organization of the symposium, which was under the patronage of K.-E. Quentin. There were over 200 participants from 22 different countries, among them Australia, Canada, China, India, and the United States. The topics of the symposium were the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes in the unsaturated zone, the region between the surface and the groundwater level. Here a number of complex processes occur that on the one hand are of natural origin and on the other hand are influenced by human activities in a number of ways.

  6. Separation of CsCl and SrCl2 from a ternary CsCl-SrCl2-LiCl via a zone refining process for waste salt minimization of pyroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Moonsoo; Choi, Ho Gil; Yi, Kyung Woo; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    The purification of LiCl salt mixture has traditionally been carried out by a melt crystallization process. To improve the throughput of zone refining, three heaters were installed in the zone refiner. The zone refining method was used to grow pure LiCl salt ingots from LiCl-CsCl-SrCl2 salt mixture. The main investigated parameters were the heater speed and the number of passes. A change in the LiCl crystal grain size was observed according to the horizontal direction. From each zone refined salt ingot, samples were collected horizontally. To analyze the concentrations of Sr and Cs, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer were used, respectively. The experimental results show that Sr and Cs concentrations at the initial region of the ingot were low and reached their peak at the final freezing region of the salt ingot. Concentration results of zone refined salt were compared with theoretical results yielded by the proposed model to validate its predictions. The keff of Sr and Cs were 0.13 and 0.11, respectively. The decontamination factors of Sr and Cs were 450 and 1650, respectively.

  7. Oxygen at Nanomolar Levels Reversibly Suppresses Process Rates and Gene Expression in Anammox and Denitrification in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O2 and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N2-producing processes of anammox and denitrification determine where this loss occurs. We studied experimentally how O2 at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification were reversibly suppressed, most likely at the enzyme level. Fifty percent inhibition of N2 and N2O production by denitrification was achieved at 205 and 297 nM O2, respectively, whereas anammox was 50% inhibited at 886 nM O2. Coupled metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that transcripts encoding nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrite reductase (nirS), and nitric oxide reductase (norB) decreased in relative abundance above 200 nM O2. This O2 concentration did not suppress the transcription of other dissimilatory nitrogen cycle genes, including nitrate reductase (narG), hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo), and nitrite reductase (nirK). However, taxonomic characterization of transcripts suggested inhibition of narG transcription in gammaproteobacteria, whereas the transcription of anammox narG, whose gene product is likely used to oxidatively replenish electrons for carbon fixation, was not inhibited. The taxonomic composition of transcripts differed among denitrification enzymes, suggesting that distinct groups of microorganisms mediate different steps of denitrification. Sulfide addition (1 µM) did not affect anammox or O2 inhibition kinetics but strongly stimulated N2O production by denitrification. These results identify new O2 thresholds for delimiting marine nitrogen loss and highlight the utility of integrating biogeochemical and metatranscriptomic analyses. PMID:25352619

  8. Functional enzyme-based modeling approach for dynamic simulation of denitrification process in hyporheic zone sediments: Genetically structured microbial community model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H. S.; Li, M.; Qian, W.; Song, X.; Chen, X.; Scheibe, T. D.; Fredrickson, J.; Zachara, J. M.; Liu, C.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling environmental microbial communities at individual organism level is currently intractable due to overwhelming structural complexity. Functional guild-based approaches alleviate this problem by lumping microorganisms into fewer groups based on their functional similarities. This reduction may become ineffective, however, when individual species perform multiple functions as environmental conditions vary. In contrast, the functional enzyme-based modeling approach we present here describes microbial community dynamics based on identified functional enzymes (rather than individual species or their groups). Previous studies in the literature along this line used biomass or functional genes as surrogate measures of enzymes due to the lack of analytical methods for quantifying enzymes in environmental samples. Leveraging our recent development of a signature peptide-based technique enabling sensitive quantification of functional enzymes in environmental samples, we developed a genetically structured microbial community model (GSMCM) to incorporate enzyme concentrations and various other omics measurements (if available) as key modeling input. We formulated the GSMCM based on the cybernetic metabolic modeling framework to rationally account for cellular regulation without relying on empirical inhibition kinetics. In the case study of modeling denitrification process in Columbia River hyporheic zone sediments collected from the Hanford Reach, our GSMCM provided a quantitative fit to complex experimental data in denitrification, including the delayed response of enzyme activation to the change in substrate concentration. Our future goal is to extend the modeling scope to the prediction of carbon and nitrogen cycles and contaminant fate. Integration of a simpler version of the GSMCM with PFLOTRAN for multi-scale field simulations is in progress.

  9. Miocene volcanism in the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone, Eastern Carpathians, Romania: Relationship to geodynamic processes in the Transcarpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Seghedi, Ioan; Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Pécskay, Zoltán; Jurje, Maria

    2017-12-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of Miocene volcanic rocks of the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone (OGVZ), Romania, which are exposed in the eastern Transcarpathian Basin (TB), within the Eastern Alpine-Western Carpathian-Northern Pannonian (ALCAPA) block. Collision between the ALCAPA block and Europe at 18-16 Ma produced the Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt. This was followed by clockwise rotation and an extensional regime forming core complexes of the separated TB fragment. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, including Srsbnd Nd isotopic compositions and Ksbnd Ar ages, we distinguish three types of volcanic activity in the OGVZ: (1) early Miocene felsic volcanism that produced caldera-related ignimbrites in the Gutâi Mountains (15.4-14.8 Ma); (2) widespread middle-late Miocene intermediate/andesitic volcanism (13.4-7.0 Ma); and (3) minor late Miocene andesitic/rhyolitic volcanism comprising the Oraşu Nou rhyolitic volcano and several andesitic-dacitic domes in the Oaş Mountains (11.3-9.5 Ma). We show that magma evolution in the OGVZ was controlled by assimilation-fractional crystallization and magma-mixing processes within an interconnected multi-level crustal magmatic reservoir. The evolution of volcanic activity within the OGVZ was controlled by the geodynamics of the Transcarpathian Basin. The early felsic and late intermediate Miocene magmas were emplaced in a post-collisional setting and were derived from a mantle source region that was modified by subduction components (dominantly sediment melts) and lower crust. The style of volcanism within the eastern TB system exhibits spatial variations, with andesitic composite volcanoes (Gutâi Mountains) observed at the margins, and isolated andesitic-rhyolitic monogenetic volcanoes (Oaş Mountains) in the center of the basin.

  10. Sensitivity tests on the rates of the excited states of positron decays during the rapid proton capture process of the one-zone X-ray burst model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Rita

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the sensitivities of positron decays on a one-zone model of type-I X-ray bursts. Most existing studies have multiplied or divided entire beta decay rates (electron captures and beta decay rates) by 10. Instead of using the standard Fuller & Fowler (FFNU) rates, we used the most recently developed weak library rates [1], which include rates from Langanke et al.'s table (the LMP table) (2000) [2], Langanke et al.'s table (the LMSH table) (2003) [3], and Oda et al.'s table (1994) [4] (all shell model rates). We then compared these table rates with the old FFNU rates [5] to study differences within the final abundances. Both positron decays and electron capture rates were included in the tables. We also used pn-QRPA rates [6,7] to study the differences within the final abundances. Many of the positron rates from the nuclei's ground states and initial excited energy states along the rapid proton capture (rp) process have been measured in existing studies. However, because temperature affects the rates of excited states, these studies should have also acknowledged the half-lives of the nuclei's excited states. Thus, instead of multiplying or dividing entire rates by 10, we studied how the half-lives of sensitive nuclei in excited states affected the abundances by dividing the half-lives of the ground states by 10, which allowed us to set the half-lives of the excited states. Interestingly, we found that the peak of the final abundance shifted when we modified the rates from the excited states of the 105Sn positron decay rates. Furthermore, the abundance of 80Zr also changed due to usage of pn-QRPA rates instead of weak library rates (the shell model rates).

  11. Geodetic evidence for continuing tectonic activity of the Carboneras fault (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, Anna; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva; Masana, Eulalia

    2015-11-01

    The Carboneras fault zone (CFZ) is a prominent onshore-offshore strike-slip fault that forms part of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ), located in SE Spain. In this work, we show for the first time, the continuing tectonic activity of the CFZ and quantify its geodetic slip-rates using continuous and campaign GPS observations conducted during the last decade. We find that the left-lateral motion dominates the kinematics of the CFZ, with a strike-slip rate of 1.3 ± 0.2 mm/yr along the N48° direction. The shortening component is significantly lower and poorly constrained. Recent onshore and offshore paleoseismic and geomorphic results across the CFZ suggest a minimum Late Pleistocene to present-day strike-slip rate of 1.1 mm/yr. Considering the similarity of the geologic and geodetic slip rates measured at different points along the fault, the northern segment of the CFZ must have been slipping approximately at a constant rate during the Quaternary. Regarding the eastern Alpujarras fault zone corridor (AFZ), located to the north of the CFZ, our GPS measurements corroborate that this zone is active and exhibits a right-lateral motion. These opposite type strike-slip motion across the AFZ and CFZ is a result of a push-type force due to Nubia and Eurasia plate convergence, which, in turn, causes the westward escape of the block bounded by these two fault zones.

  12. Influence of multi-industrial activities on trace metal contamination: an approach towards surface water body in the vicinity of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Golam; Miah, M Arzu; Anawar, Hossain M; Chowdhury, Didarul A; Ahmad, Jasim U

    2012-07-01

    Industrial wastewater discharged into aquatic ecosystems either directly or because of inadequate treatment of process water can increase the concentrations of pollutants such as toxic metals and others, and subsequently deteriorate water quality, environmental ecology and human health in the Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ), the largest industrial belt of 6-EPZ in Bangladesh. Therefore, in order to monitor the contamination levels, this study collected water samples from composite effluent points inside DEPZ and the surrounding surface water body connected to effluent disposal sites and determined the environmental hazards by chemical analysis and statistical approach. The water samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine 12 trace metals such as As, Ag, Cr, Co, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn in order to assess the influence of multi-industrial activities on metal concentrations. The composite effluents and surface waters from lagoons were characterized by a strong colour and high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, total organic carbon, Turb., Cl(-), total suspended solids and total dissolved solids, which were above the limit of Bangladesh industrial effluent standards, but dissolved oxygen concentration was lower than the standard value. The measurement of skewness and kurtosis values showed asymmetric and abnormal distribution of the elements in the respective phases. The mean trend of variation was found in a decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Sr > Pb > Ni > Cr > Li > Co > V > Se > As > Ag in composite industrial effluents and Zn > Cu > Sr > Pb > Ni > Cr > Li > V > As > Ag > Co > Se in surface waters near the DEPZ. The strong correlations between effluent and surface water metal contents indicate that industrial wastewaters discharged from DEPZ have a strong influence on the contamination of the surrounding water bodies by toxic

  13. Aquifer Chemistry and Transport Processes in the Zone of Contribution to a Public-Supply Well in Woodbury, Connecticut, 2002-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Trombley, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    A glacial aquifer system in Woodbury, Connecticut, was studied to identify factors that affect the groundwater quality in the zone of contribution to a community public-supply well. Water samples were collected during 2002-06 from the public-supply well and from 35 monitoring wells in glacial stratified deposits, glacial till, and fractured bedrock. The glacial aquifer is vulnerable to contamination from a variety of sources due to the short groundwater residence times and the urban land use in the contributing recharge area to the public-supply well. The distribution and concentrations of pH, major and trace elements, stable isotope ratios, recharge temperatures, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions, were used to identify recharge source areas, aquifer source material, anthropogenic sources, chemical processes, and groundwater-flow paths from recharge areas to the public-supply well, PSW-1. The major chemical sources to groundwater and the tracers or conditions used to identify them and their processes throughout the aquifer system include (1) bedrock and glacial stratified deposits and till, characterized by high pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO42-), bicarbonate, uranium (U), radon-222, and arsenic (As) relative to those of other wells, reducing redox conditions, enriched delta sulfur-34 (d34S) and delta carbon-13 (d13C) values, depleted delta oxygen-18 (d18O) and delta deuterium (dD) values, calcite near saturation, low recharge temperatures, and groundwater ages of more than about 9 years; (2) natural organic matter, either in sediments or in an upgradient riparian zone, characterized by high concentrations of DOC or manganese (Mn), low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate (NO3-), enriched d34S values, and depleted d18O and dD values; (3) road salt (halite), characterized by high concentrations of sodium (Na), chloride (Cl-), and calcium (Ca), and indicative

  14. ELECTROMAGNETIC STIRRING IN ZONE REFINING

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, I.; Frank, F.C.; Marshall, S.

    1958-02-01

    The efficiency of the zone refining process can obviously be increased by stirring the molten zone to disperse the impurity-rich layer at the solid- liquid surface. Induction heating is sometimes preferred to radiant heat because it produces more convection, but no marked improvement has been reported. Pfann and Dorsi(1967) have described a method of stirring the melt by passing an electric current through the ingot and compressing a magnetic field across the molten zone. Preliminary results obtained by using a rotating magnetic field us the stirring agent during the purification of aluminum are described. (A.C.)

  15. Chlorine and fluorine partition coefficients and abundances in sub-arc mantle xenoliths (Kamchatka, Russia): Implications for melt generation and volatile recycling processes in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénard, A.; Koga, K. T.; Shimizu, N.; Kendrick, M. A.; Ionov, D. A.; Nebel, O.; Arculus, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    We report chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F) abundances in minerals, interstitial glasses, and melt inclusions in 12 andesite-hosted, spinel harzburgite xenoliths and crosscutting pyroxenite veins exhumed from the sub-arc lithospheric mantle beneath Avacha volcano in the Kamchatka Arc (NE Russia). The data are used to calculate equilibrium mineral-melt partition coefficients (D mineral / melt) for Cl and F relevant to subduction-zone processes and unravel the history of volatile depletion and enrichment mechanisms in an arc setting. Chlorine is ∼100 times more incompatible in pyroxenes (DClmineral/melt = 0.005-0.008 [±0.002-0.003]) than F (DFmineral/melt = 0.50-0.57 [±0.21-0.24]), which indicates that partial melting of mantle sources leads to strong depletions in Cl relative to F in the residues. The data set in this study suggests a strong control of melt composition on DCl,Fpyroxene/melt, in particular H2O contents and Al/(Al + Si), which is in line with recent experiments. Fluorine is compatible in Ca-amphibole in the 'wet' sub-arc mantle (DFamphibole/melt = 3.5-3.7 [±1.5]) but not Cl (DClamphibole/melt = 0.03-0.05 [±0.01-0.03]), indicating that amphibole may fractionate F from Cl in the mantle wedge. The inter-mineral partition coefficients for Cl and F in this study are consistent amongst different harzburgite samples, whether they contain glass or not. In particular, disseminated amphibole hosts much of the Cl and F bulk rock budgets of spinel harzburgites (DClamphibole/pyroxene up to 14 and DFamphibole/pyroxene up to 40). Chlorine and fluorine are variably enriched (up to 1500 ppm Cl and 750 ppm F) in the parental arc picrite and boninite melts of primitive pyroxenite veins (and related melt inclusions) crosscutting spinel harzburgites. Based on the data in this study, the main inferences on the behaviour of Cl and F during melting and metasomatic processes in the sub-arc mantle are as follow: (i) Melting models show that most depleted mantle protoliths

  16. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  17. Approximate Model of Zone Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzianik, František

    2011-12-01

    The process of zone sedimentation is affected by many factors that are not possible to express analytically. For this reason, the zone settling is evaluated in practice experimentally or by application of an empirical mathematical description of the process. The paper presents the development of approximate model of zone settling, i.e. the general function which should properly approximate the behaviour of the settling process within its entire range and at the various conditions. Furthermore, the specification of the model parameters by the regression analysis of settling test results is shown. The suitability of the model is reviewed by graphical dependencies and by statistical coefficients of correlation. The approximate model could by also useful on the simplification of process design of continual settling tanks and thickeners.

  18. Discontinuous character of the Wadati-Benioff zone in the Banda Arc region: a consequence of a cyclic character of the process of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejkova, R.; Spicak, A.; Vanek, J.

    2010-12-01

    Our former investigation into heterogeneous distribution of earthquakes at convergent plate margins led us to an idea of discontinuities in the process of subduction (e.g. Hanuš and Vaněk, 1978; Špičák et al., 2007). This idea suggests the existence of subduction cycles lasting several million years. A fade-out of a subduction process should be caused e.g. by a collision of the slab with the 670 boundary, convergence of hardly subductable seamount provinces, collision with a thick continental crust etc. Such a fade-out of subduction may be followed by an onset of a new subduction cycle, with important consequences to, e.g., position of the volcanic arc. In this contribution, we analyse spatial distribution of intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes in the southern part of the Banda Arc region (5°-10°S and 127°-132°E). The EHB global hypocentral determinations (Engdahl et al., 1998) covering the period 1964-2007 have been used. To visualize depth distribution of earthquake foci, we covered the region of interest by narrow (25 km width) swaths, oriented perpendicular to the plate margin, and displayed earthquake foci in vertical sections. The vertical sections show concentration of earthquake foci of the Wadati-Benioff zone (hereafter denoted as WBZ) in four distinct domains that do not fit a continuous plate-like body. These domains can be clearly distinguished from each other by a distinct gap in seismicity between them and/or a noticeable change in dip angle of neighbouring domains. This observation casts doubt on a generally accepted idea that the seismically active domains of the Banda WBZ represent one continuous slab. The deepest domain D1 of earthquakes (400-700 km depth) is probably associated with deep earthquakes north of Java and corresponds to a subduction cycle that faded about 8 Ma ago. Our estimate of the age of the cycle is based on the assumption of a steady convergence rate of about 7 cm/yr. The domain D2 of earthquakes at depths between

  19. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  20. Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: the need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachand, Philip A.M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Stephenson, Mark; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2014-01-01

    Concentration and mass balance analyses were used to quantify methylmercury (MeHg) loads from conventional (white) rice, wild rice, and fallowed fields in northern California's Yolo Bypass. These analyses were standardized against chloride to distinguish transport pathways and net ecosystem production (NEP). During summer, chloride loads were both exported with surface water and moved into the root zone at a 2:1 ratio. MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) behaved similarly with surface water and root zone exports at ~ 3:1 ratio. These trends reversed in winter with DOC, MeHg, and chloride moving from the root zone to surface waters at rates opposite and exceeding summertime root zone fluxes. These trends suggest that summer transpiration advectively moves constituents from surface water into the root zone, and winter diffusion, driven by concentration gradients, subsequently releases those constituents into surface waters. The results challenge a number of paradigms regarding MeHg. Specifically, biogeochemical conditions favoring microbial MeHg production do not necessarily translate to synchronous surface water exports; MeHg may be preserved in the soils allowing for release at a later time; and plants play a role in both biogeochemistry and transport. Our calculations show that NEP of MeHg occurred during both summer irrigation and winter flooding. Wild rice wet harvesting and winter flooding of white rice fields were specific practices that increased MeHg export, both presumably related to increased labile organic carbon and disturbance. Outflow management during these times could reduce MeHg exports. Standardizing MeHg outflow:inflow concentration ratios against natural tracers (e.g. chloride, EC) provides a simple tool to identify NEP periods. Summer MeHg exports averaged 0.2 to 1 μg m− 2 for the different agricultural wetland fields, depending upon flood duration. Average winter MeHg exports were estimated at 0.3 μg m− 2. These exports are

  1. Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: the need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone.

    PubMed

    Bachand, P A M; Bachand, S M; Fleck, J A; Alpers, C N; Stephenson, M; Windham-Myers, L

    2014-02-15

    Concentration and mass balance analyses were used to quantify methylmercury (MeHg) loads from conventional (white) rice, wild rice, and fallowed fields in northern California's Yolo Bypass. These analyses were standardized against chloride to distinguish transport pathways and net ecosystem production (NEP). During summer, chloride loads were both exported with surface water and moved into the root zone at a 2:1 ratio. MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) behaved similarly with surface water and root zone exports at ~3:1 ratio. These trends reversed in winter with DOC, MeHg, and chloride moving from the root zone to surface waters at rates opposite and exceeding summertime root zone fluxes. These trends suggest that summer transpiration advectively moves constituents from surface water into the root zone, and winter diffusion, driven by concentration gradients, subsequently releases those constituents into surface waters. The results challenge a number of paradigms regarding MeHg. Specifically, biogeochemical conditions favoring microbial MeHg production do not necessarily translate to synchronous surface water exports; MeHg may be preserved in the soils allowing for release at a later time; and plants play a role in both biogeochemistry and transport. Our calculations show that NEP of MeHg occurred during both summer irrigation and winter flooding. Wild rice wet harvesting and winter flooding of white rice fields were specific practices that increased MeHg export, both presumably related to increased labile organic carbon and disturbance. Outflow management during these times could reduce MeHg exports. Standardizing MeHg outflow:inflow concentration ratios against natural tracers (e.g. chloride, EC) provides a simple tool to identify NEP periods. Summer MeHg exports averaged 0.2 to 1 μg m(-2) for the different agricultural wetland fields, depending upon flood duration. Average winter MeHg exports were estimated at 0.3 μg m(-2). These exports are within the

  2. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  3. Dehydration and Deformation process in Paleo-cold subduction zone ―the Jurassic high P/T, Mikabu blueschist as an example―

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, T.; Okamoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    As shown in the 2011 Tohoku March 11 great earthquake, injection of fluid in large area (hundreds of km wide and depth) of rupture zone is an important remain issue to solve. The hypocenter of the first shot was located on the slab surface in 24 km depth. The temperature is estimated below 200°. In order to know the origin of the fluid in the depth, observation of natural blueschist (high P/T metamorphic rock) is the best method because few reliable experiments in such low T condition. Mikabu high P/T rock has been called as Mikabu greenstone. Hereafter we propose it is termed as `Mikabu blueschist` because it suffered blueschist facies metamorphism. Mikabu blueschist is considered as accreted large oceanic plateau and suffered blueschist facies metamorphism at Jurassic time. It extends approximately 1000 km in EW direction from the Kanto Mountain to Kyushu Island. In north-south direction, succession of ocean plateau stratigraphy can be reconstructed although accretion thrusts duplicate them. We have done detailed field observation along the N-S route and collected the rock sample systematically. In the outcrop, the Mikabu blueschist is well foliated with mineral lineation. However, we have identified massive, cataclastic samples in the structural middle in the NS section. Under the microscope, glassy parts suffered brittle and ductile deformation. Origin of the most glass part can be ascribed as igneous product. However, some glass layers along the deformation band in stilpnomelane aggregates might be formed as melt due to shear heating. If this zone is related to earthquake fault zone, it indicates that a huge earthquake has occurred.

  4. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.

    2006-01-01

    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  6. Olivine-liquid relations of lava erupted by Kilauea volcano from 1994 to 1998: Implications for shallow magmatic processes associated with the ongoing east-rift-zone eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornber, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    From 1994 through 1998, the eruption of Ki??lauea, in Hawai'i, was dominated by steady-state effusion at Pu'u 'O??'??o that was briefly disrupted by an eruption 4 km uprift at Np??au Crater on January 30, 1997. In this paper, I describe the systematic relations of whole-rock, glass, olivine, and olivine-inclusion compositions of lava samples collected throughout this interval. This suite comprises vent samples and tube-contained flows collected at variable distances from the vent. The glass composition of tube lava varies systematically with distance and allows for the "vent-correction" of glass thermometry and olivine-liquid KD as a function of tube-transport distance. Combined olivine-liquid data for vent samples and "vent-corrected" lava-tube samples are used to document pre-eruptive magmatic conditions. KD values determined for matrix glasses and forsterite cores define three types of olivine phenocrysts: type A (in equilibrium with host glass), type B (Mg-rich relative to host glass) and type C (Mg-poor relative to host glass). All three types of olivine have a cognate association with melts that are present within the shallow magmatic plumbing system during this interval. During steady-state eruptive activity, the compositions of whole-rock, glass and most olivine phenocrysts (type A) all vary sympathetically over time and as influenced by changes of magmatic pressure within the summit-rift-zone plumbing system. Type-A olivine is interpreted as having grown during passage from the summit magmachamber along the east-rift-zone conduit. Type-B olivine (high Fo) is consistent with equilibrium crystallization from bulk-rock compositions and is likely to have grown within the summit magma-chamber. Lower-temperature, fractionated lava was erupted during non-steady state activity of the Na??pau Crater eruption. Type-A and type-B olivine-liquid relations indicate that this lava is a mixture of rift-stored and summit-derived magmas. Post-Na??pau lava (at Pu'u 'O?? 'o

  7. Chemistry of unsaturated zone gases sampled in open boreholes at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Data and basic concepts of chemical and physical processes in the mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorstenson, Donald C.; Weeks, Edwin P.; Haas, Herbert; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, Niel; Peters, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Boreholes open to the unsaturated zone at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were variously sampled for CO2 (including 13C and 14C), CH4, N2, O2, Ar, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 from 1986 to 1993. Air enters the mountain in outcrops, principally on the eastern slope, is enriched in CO2by mixing with soil gas, and is advected to the mountain crest, where it returns to the atmosphere. The CFC data indicate that travel times of the advecting gas in the shallow Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit are ≤5 years. The 14C activities are postbomb to depths of 100 m, indicating little retardation of 14CO2 in the shallow flow systems. The 14C activities from 168 to 404 m in the Topopah Spring hydrogeologic unit are 85–90 pMC at borehole USW-UZ6. The CFC data show that the drilling of USW-UZ6 in 1984 has altered the natural system by providing a conduit through the Paintbrush Nonwelded unit, allowing flow from Topopah Spring outcrops in Solitario Canyon on the west to USW-UZ6, upward in the borehole through the Paintbrush, to the shallow Tiva Canyon flow systems, and out of the mountain.

  8. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part II. Modeling the transport process.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, V I; Kashparov, V A; Levchuk, S E; Glukhovskiy, A S; Khomutinin, Yu V; Protsak, V P; Lundin, S M; Tschiersch, J

    2006-01-01

    To predict parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires, several model modules were developed and adapted. Experimental data of controlled burning of prepared experimental plots in the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been used to evaluate the prognostic power of the models. The predicted trajectories and elevations of the plume match with those visually observed during the fire experiments in the grassland and forest sites. Experimentally determined parameters could be successfully used for the calculation of the initial plume parameters which provide the tools for the description of various fire scenarios and enable prognostic calculations. In summary, the model predicts a release of some per thousand from the radionuclide inventory of the fuel material by the grassland fires. During the forest fire, up to 4% of (137)Cs and (90)Sr and up to 1% of the Pu isotopes can be released from the forest litter according to the model calculations. However, these results depend on the parameters of the fire events. In general, the modeling results are in good accordance with the experimental data. Therefore, the considered models were successfully validated and can be recommended for the assessment of the resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in contaminated territories.

  9. Byers Auto Group: A Case Study Into The Economics, Zoning, and Overall Process of Installing Small Wind Turbines at Two Automotive Dealerships in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Oteri, F.; Sinclair, K.

    This paper provides the talking points about a case study on the installation of a $600,000 small wind project, the installation process, estimated annual energy production and percentage of energy needs met by the turbines.

  10. Byers Auto Group: A Case Study Into The Economics, Zoning, and Overall Process of Installing Small Wind Turbines at Two Automotive Dealerships in Ohio (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

    This presentation provides the talking points about a case study on the installation of a $600,000 small wind project, the installation process, estimated annual energy production and percentage of energy needs met by the turbines.

  11. Work zone performance monitoring application development.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires state transportation agencies to (a) collect and analyze safety and mobility data to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects during construction and (b) improve overall agency processes a...

  12. Zircon U-Pb dating, Hf analysis from the Horoman perdiotite -age constraint for lithospheric process, and tectonic juxtaposition of collision root zone-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Yi, K.; Wang, K. L.; Chung, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hidaka metamorphic belt, Hokkaido, Japan is known as youngest arc-arc collision in the world. It ncludes the youngest granulite and the Horoman peridotite complex in the highest grade zone. Age of these rocks have been determined by various methods (K-Ar, U-Pb, Rb-Sr). However, the age of Horoman peridotite complex has not been determined yet. Only Yoshikawa et al 1993) reported the cooling age of the complex as 23 Ma according to whole rock Rb-Sr isochron. This study has performed U-Pb dating of zircons from the Horoman peridotite, and from the paragneiss surrounding the peridotite complex in order to determine the intrusive age of the Horoman peridotite complex into the lower crustal conditions. Several zircon grains were separated from the peridotite. All zircons are homogeneous exhibiting different age group; 267-278 Ma, 33-40 Ma and 18-20 Ma. Hf isotope analysis indicates that the 267-278 Ma is juvenile age and other two are recycled. As a result of this measurement, rims of the zircons from the gneisses show that 238U-206Pb ages are 20 Ma and detrital cores are ranging from 580-510 Ma, 60-50 Ma, 46-40 Ma and 27 Ma. The rim ages are from the gneiss suffered amphibolite facies and granulite faices, and there is a consistancy with zircon rim ages (19 Ma) from the granulite (Kemp et al 2007, Usuki et al 2006 and so on). That is, granulite faices metamorphism was coeval to regional metamorphism in the lower crust at 20 Ma. The zircon ages from the peridotite was probably related to local hydration related to precipitation of phlogopite at 20 Ma, I type magma infiltration at 40 Ma and lithosphere formation at 270 Ma. It is considered that the Horoman peridotite complex was part of the lithosphere at 270 Ma, and the joined as subarc mantle prior to I type magma activity at 40 Ma, aud suffered local hydration and regional metamorphism at 20 Ma. Ref. Kemp, A.I.S., et al., 2007, Geology, 35, 807-810; Usuki, T. et al, 2006, Island Arc, 14, 503-516.

  13. HFSE systematics of rutile-bearing eclogites: New insights into subduction zone processes and implications for the earth’s HFSE budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Weyer, Stefan; John, Timm; Brey, Gerhard P.

    2009-01-01

    The depleted mantle and the continental crust are generally thought to balance the budget of refractory and lithophile elements of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE), resulting in complementary trace element patterns. However, the two high field strength elements (HFSE) niobium and tantalum appear to contradict this mass balance. All reservoirs of the silicate Earth exhibit subchondritic Nb/Ta ratios, possibly as a result of Nb depletion. In this study a series of nineteen orogenic MORB-type eclogites from different localities was analyzed to determine their HFSE concentrations and to contribute to the question of whether subducted oceanic crust could form a hidden reservoir to account for the mass imbalance of Nb/Ta between BSE and the chondritic reservoir. Concentrations of HFSE were analyzed with isotope dilution (ID) techniques. Additionally, LA-ICPMS analyses of clinopyroxene, garnet and rutile have been performed. Rutile is by far the major host for Nb and Ta in all analyzed eclogites. However, many rutiles revealed zoning in Nb/Ta ratios, with cores being higher than rims. Accordingly, in situ analyses of rutiles have to be evaluated carefully and rutile cores do not necessarily reflect a bulk rock Nb and Ta composition, although over 90% of these elements reside in rutile. The HFSE concentration data in bulk rocks show that the orogenic eclogites have subchondritic Nb/Ta ratios and near chondritic Zr/Hf ratios. The investigated eclogites show neither enrichment of Nb compared to similarly incompatible elements (e.g. La), nor fractionation of Nb/Ta ratios relative to MOR-basalts, the likely precursor of these rocks. This indicates that during the conversion of the oceanic crust to eclogites in most cases, (1) HFSE and REE have similar mobility on average, possibly because both element groups remain in the down going slab, and (2) no significant fractionation of Nb/Ta occurs in subducted oceanic crust. With an average Nb/Ta ratio of 14.2 ± 1.4 (2s.e.), the

  14. Using Valsiner's Zone Theory for Identifying the Forms of Students' Pseudo Responses in Mathematics Teaching Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iffah, Jauhara Dian Nurul; Sutawidjaja, Akbar; Sa'dijah, Cholis; Subanji

    2017-01-01

    Various methods of teaching had been implemented to create an active and fun teaching process by teachers for students. Teachers' actions during class could lead to different responses from students. However, those actions are not always well accepted by students. Valsiner suggested a theory on a set of teachers' actions for promoting students'…

  15. Hydrogeology, water chemistry, and transport processes in the zone of contribution of a public-supply well in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2007-9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Crilley, Dianna M.; Christenson, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of groundwater studies in 2001 in representative aquifers across the Nation in order to increase understanding of the factors that affect transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells. One of 10 regional-scale TANC studies was conducted in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, where a more detailed local-scale study subsequently investigated the hydrogeology, water chemistry, and factors affecting the transport of contaminants in the zone of contribution of one 363-meter (m) deep public-supply well in Albuquerque. During 2007 through 2009, samples were collected for the local-scale study from 22 monitoring wells and 3 public-supply (supply) wells for analysis of major and trace elements, arsenic speciation, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), dissolved gases, stable isotopes, and tracers of young and old water. To study groundwater chemistry and ages at various depths within the aquifer, the monitoring wells were divided into three categories: (1) each shallow well was screened across the water table or had a screen midpoint within 18.3 m of the water level in the well; (2) each intermediate well had a screen midpoint between about 27.1 and 79.6 m below the water level in the well; and (3) each deep well had a screen midpoint about 185 m or more below the water level in the well. The 24-square-kilometer study area surrounding the "studied supply well" (SSW), one of the three supply wells, consists of primarily urban land within the MRGB, a deep alluvial basin with an aquifer composed of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated deposits of sand, gravel, silt, and clay. Conditions generally are unconfined, but are semiconfined at depth. Groundwater withdrawals for public supply have substantially changed the primary direction of flow from northeast to southwest under predevelopment

  16. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep

  17. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  18. Work zone safety analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  19. California tree seed zones

    Treesearch

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  20. Longleaf pine site zones

    Treesearch

    Phillip J. Craul; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    2005-01-01

    The authors delineate six major climatic areas of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) region. They subdivide these areas into 21 site zones, each of which is deemed homogenous with respect to climate, physiography, and soils. The site zones are mapped and their climate, physiography, and soils described. The authors recommend that plantings of...

  1. Iowa Work Zone Fatalities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    From March through November, the Iowa DOT may have up to 500 road construction work zones, and each of the department's maintenance garages may establish one or more short-term work zones per day. Couple that with the work of cities and counties, and...

  2. Significant alteration of Critical Zone processes in urban watersheds: shifting from a transport-limited to a weathering-limited regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J.; Bird, D. L.; Dobbis, S. K.; Woodward, G.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas and associated impervious surface cover (ISC) are among the fastest growing land use types. Rapid growth of urban lands has significant implications for geochemical cycling and solute sources to streams, estuaries, and coastal waters. However, little work has been done to investigate the impacts of urbanization on Critical Processes, including on the export of solutes from urban watersheds. Despite observed elevated solute concentrations in urban streams in some previous studies, neither solute sources nor total solute fluxes have been quantified due to mixed bedrock geology, lack of a forested reference watershed, or the presence of point sources that confounded separation of anthropologic and natural sources. We investigated the geochemical signal of the urban built environment (e.g., roads, parking lots, buildings) in a set of five USGS-gaged watersheds across a rural (forested) to urban gradient in the Maryland Piedmont. These watersheds have ISC ranging from 0 to 25%, no point sources, and similar felsic bedrock chemistry. Weathering from the urban built environment and ISC produces dramatically higher solute concentrations in urban watersheds than in the forested watershed. Higher solute concentrations result in chemical weathering fluxes from urban watersheds that are 11-13 times higher than the forested watershed and are similar to fluxes from mountainous, weathering-limited watersheds rather than fluxes from transport-limited, dilute streams like the forested watershed. Weathering of concrete in urban watersheds produces geochemistry similar to weathering-limited watersheds with high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and DIC, which is similar to stream chemistry due to carbonate weathering. Road salt dissolution results in high Na+ and Cl- concentrations similar to evaporite weathering. Quantifying processes causing elevated solute fluxes from urban areas is essential to understanding cycling of Ca2+, Mg2+, and DIC in urban streams and in

  3. Zircon growth in shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaulina, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of direct dating of the deformation process is critical for understanding of orogenic belts evolution. Establishing the age of deformation by isotopic methods is indispensable in the case of uneven deformation overlapping, when later deformation inherits the structural plan of the early strains, and to distinguish them on the basis of the structural data only is impossible. A good example of zircon from the shear zones is zircon formed under the eclogite facies conditions. On the one hand, the composition of zircon speaks about its formation simultaneously to eclogitic paragenesis (Rubatto, Herman, 1999; Rubatto et al., 2003). On the other hand, geological studies show that mineral reactions of eclogitization are often held only in areas of shear deformations, which provides access of fluid to the rocks (Austrheim, 1987; Jamtveit et al., 2000; Bingen et al., 2004). Zircons from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Tanaelv and Kolvitsa belts (Kola Peninsula, the Baltic Shield) have showed that the metamorphic zircon growth is probably controlled by the metamorphic fluid regime, as evidenced by an increase of zircon quantity with the degree of shearing. The internal structure of zircon crystals can provide an evidence of zircon growth synchronous with shearing. The studied crystals have a sector zoning and often specific "patchy" zoning (Fig. 1), which speaks about rapid change of growth conditions. Such internal structure can be compared with the "snowball" garnet structure reflecting the rotation of crystals during their growth under a shift. Rapidly changing crystallization conditions can also be associated with a small amount of fluid, where supersaturation is changing even at a constant temperature. Thus, the growth of metamorphic zircon in shear zones is more likely to occur in the fluid flow synchronous with deformation. A distinctive feature of zircons in these conditions is isometric shape and sector "patchy" zoning. The work was supported by

  4. Geochemical and Isotopic Data from Micron to Across-Arc Scales in the Andean Central Volcanic Zone: Applications for Resolving Crustal Magmatic Differentiation and Modification Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelfelder, G.; Wilder, A.; Feeley, T.

    2014-12-01

    Plagioclase crystals from silicic (andesitic to dacitic) lavas and domes at Volcán Uturuncu, a potentially active volcano in the back-arc of the Andean CVZ (22.3°S, 67.2°W), exhibit large variations in An contents, textures, and core to rim 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Many of the isotopic variations can not have existed at magmatic temperatures for more than a few thousand years. The crystals likely derived from different locations in the crustal magmatic system and mixed just prior to eruption. Uturuncu magmas initially assimilated crustal rocks with high 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The magmas were subsequently modified by frequent recharge of more mafic magmas with lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios. A typical Uturuncu silicic magma therefore only attains its final composition just prior to or during eruption. In the Lazufre region of active surface uplift (~25˚14'S; Volcán Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre) closed system differentiation processes are not the only factors influencing silicic magma compositions. 87Sr/86Sr (0.70651-0.70715) and 206Pb/204Pb ratios (18.83-18.88) are highly elevated and143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512364 -0.512493) are low relative to similar composition rocks from the "southern Cordillera domain." These data, along with major and trace element trends, reflect a multitude of differentiation processes and magma sources including crystallization-differentiation of more mafic magmas, melting and assimilation of older crustal rocks, and magma mixing and mingling. On an arc-wide scale silicic lavas erupted from three well-characterized composite volcanoes between 21oS and 22oS (Aucanquilcha, Ollagüe, and Uturuncu) display systematically higher K2O, LILE, REE and HFSE contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios with increasing distance from the arc-front. In contrast, the lavas have systematically lower Na2O, Sr, and Ba contents; LILE/HFSE ratios; 143Nd/144Nd ratios; and more negative Eu anomalies. Silicic magmas along the arc-front apparently reflect melting of relatively young, mafic

  5. Effects of oxidation reduction potential in the bypass micro-aerobic sludge zone on sludge reduction for a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexun; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongpin; Liu, Dongfang

    2014-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) on sludge reduction in a bypass micro-aerobic sludge reduction system. The system was composed of a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process with a sludge holding tank in the sludge recycle loop. The ORPs in the micro-aerobic tanks were set at approximately +350, -90, -150, -200 and -250 mV, by varying the length of aeration time for the tanks. The results show that lower ORP result in greater sludge volume reduction, and the sludge production was reduced by 60% at the lowest ORP. In addition, low ORP caused extracellular polymer substances dissociation and slightly reduced sludge activity. Comparing the sludge backflow characteristics of the micro-aerobic tank's ORP controlled at -250 mV with that of +350 mV, the average soluble chemical oxygen (SCOD), TN and TP increased by 7, 0.4 and 2 times, median particle diameter decreased by 8.5 μm and the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) decreased by 0.0043 milligram O2 per gram suspended solids per minute. For the effluent, SCOD and TN and TP fluctuated around 30, 8.7 and 0.66 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the effective assignment of ORP in the micro-aerobic tank can remarkably reduce sludge volume and does not affect final effluent quality.

  6. Development and testing of a snow interceptometer to quantify canopy water storage and interception processes in the rain/snow transition zone of the North Cascades, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Kael A.; Van Stan, John T.; Dickerson-Lange, Susan E.; Lutz, James A.; Berman, Jeffrey W.; Gersonde, Rolf; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2013-06-01

    Tree canopy snow interception is a significant hydrological process, capable of removing up to 60% of snow from the ground snowpack. Our understanding of canopy interception has been limited by our ability to measure whole canopy water storage in an undisturbed forest setting. This study presents a relatively inexpensive technique for directly measuring snow canopy water storage using an interceptometer, adapted from Friesen et al. (2008). The interceptometer is composed of four linear motion position sensors distributed evenly around the tree trunk. We incorporate a trunk laser-mapping installation method for precise sensor placement to reduce signal error due to sensor misalignment. Through calibration techniques, the amount of canopy snow required to produce the measured displacements can be calculated. We demonstrate instrument performance on a western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) for a snow interception event in November 2011. We find a snow capture efficiency of 83 ± 15% of accumulated ground snowfall with a maximum storage capacity of 50 ± 8 mm snow water equivalent (SWE). The observed interception event is compared to simulated interception, represented by the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The model generally underreported interception magnitude by 33% using a leaf area index (LAI) of 5 and 16% using an LAI of 10. The interceptometer captured intrastorm accumulation and melt rates up to 3 and 0.75 mm SWE h-1, respectively, which the model failed to represent. While further implementation and validation is necessary, our preliminary results indicate that forest interception magnitude may be underestimated in maritime areas.

  7. Fifty years of shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  8. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  9. Jovian 'Twilight Zone'

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-01

    This image captures the swirling cloud formations around the south pole of Jupiter, looking up toward the equatorial region. NASA's Juno spacecraft took the color-enhanced image during its eleventh close flyby of the gas giant planet on Feb. 7 at 7:11 a.m. PST (10:11 a.m. EST). At the time, the spacecraft was 74,896 miles (120,533 kilometers) from the tops of Jupiter's clouds at 84.9 degrees south latitude. Citizen scientist Gerald Gerald Eichstädt processed this image using data from the JunoCam imager. This image was created by reprocessing raw JunoCam data using trajectory and pointing data from the spacecraft. This image is one in a series of images taken in an experiment to capture the best results for illuminated parts of Jupiter's polar region. To make features more visible in Jupiter's terminator -- the region where day meets night -- the Juno team adjusted JunoCam so that it would perform like a portrait photographer taking multiple photos at different exposures, hoping to capture one image with the intended light balance. For JunoCam to collect enough light to reveal features in Jupiter's dark twilight zone, the much brighter illuminated day-side of Jupiter becomes overexposed with the higher exposure. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21980

  10. Imaging Stress Transients and Fault Zone Processes with Crosswell Continuous Active-Source Seismic Monitoring at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F.; Taira, T.; Daley, T. M.; Marchesini, P.; Robertson, M.; Wood, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recent field and laboratory experiments identify seismic velocity changes preceding microearthquakes and rock failure (Niu et al., 2008, Nature; Scuderi et al., 2016, NatureGeo), which indicates that a continuous monitoring of seismic velocity might provide a mean of understanding of the earthquake nucleation process. Crosswell Continuous Active-Source Seismic Monitoring (CASSM) using borehole sources and sensors has proven to be an effective tool for measurements of seismic velocity and its temporal variation at seismogenic depth (Silver, et al, 2007, BSSA; Daley, et al, 2007, Geophysics). To expand current efforts on the CASSM development, in June 2017 we have begun to conduct a year-long CASSM field experiment at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) in which the preceding field experiment detected the two sudden velocity reductions approximately 10 and 2 hours before microearthquakes (Niu et al., 2008, Nature). We installed a piezoelectric source and a three-component accelerometer at the SAFOD pilot and main holes ( 1 km depth) respectively. A seismic pulse was fired from the piezoelectric source four times per second. Each waveform was recorded 150-ms-long data with a sampling rate of 48 kHz. During this one-year experiment, we expect to have 10-15 microearthquakes (magnitude 1-3) occurring near the SAFOD site, and the data collected from the new experiment would allow us to further explore a relation between velocity changes and the Parkfield seismicity. Additionally, the year-long data provide a unique opportunity to study long-term velocity changes that might be related to seasonal stress variations at Parkfield (Johnson et al., 2017, Science). We will report on initial results of the SAFOD CASSM experiment and operational experiences of the CASSM development.

  11. Habitable Zone Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, D.; Lota, J.

    2012-12-01

    The location of the habitable zone around a star depends upon stellar luminosity and upon the properties of a potentially habitable planet such as its mass and near-surface volatile inventory. Stellar luminosity generally increases as a star ages whilst planetary properties change through time as a consequence of biological and geological evolution. Hence, the location of the habitable zone changes through time as a result of both stellar evolution and planetary evolution. Using the Earth's Phanerozoic temperature history as a constraint, it is shown that changes in our own habitable zone over the last 540 My have been dominated by planetary evolution rather than solar evolution. Furthermore, sparse data from earlier times suggests that planetary evolution may have dominated habitable zone development throughout our biosphere's history. Hence, the existence of a continuously habitable zone depends upon accidents of complex bio-geochemical evolution more than it does upon relatively simple stellar-evolution. Evolution of the inner margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations. Evolution of the outer margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations.

  12. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  13. Speeds in school zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  14. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  15. Vertical forearc tectonic displacements offer insights into underlying interplate thrust zone processes: 104-105 yr uplift/subsidence cycles in Southwest Pacific arcs may represent recoverable plastic deformation that is often falsely attributed to other causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. W.; Lavier, L. L.; Frohlich, C.; Thirumalai, K.; Papabatu, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In the forearcs of subduction zones, the characteristics of both short-term (temporary earthquake cycle) and longer-term permanent vertical deformation offer insights into processes by which plates subduct. But permanent vertical deformation may be a product of several simultaneous processes, including tectonic erosion/underplating, changing dip of the slab, upward displacement due to buoyancy or bathymetric features, and plastic shortening/extension of the forearc wedge. Here we note the rarely recognized, but possibly common, phenomenon of intermediate time scale transient vertical movements (TVM's). Both the central New Hebrides and Western Solomon forearcs have uplifted ≥500 m over time scales of 105 yr. Uplift started abruptly (over ≤10 ky) and proceeded at localized rates up to 7-8 mm/yr. Both initial uplifts terminated preceding rapid subsidence of similar dimensions and rates that, in turn, had followed yet older uplift. However, these uplifts and subsidences are superimposed on a yet longer-term trend of uplift on time scales >105 yr. The most recent uplifts extended 100-200 km along-arc and 60-90 km cross-arc while plate convergence was <10 km. These 105 yr vertical oscillations are most likely due to plastic shortening/extension driven by strong horizontal forces related to rugged seafloor bathymetry impinging on the outer forearc. Subsidence follows uplift when horizontal force abates temporarily and uplift is no longer supported by enhanced interplate coupling. Over the 105 yr time frame when interplate slip is <10 km, it is difficult to account for the timing, geography, and amounts of up and down motion by processes such as buoyancy or volumetric displacement of downgoing bathymetric features or by tectonic underplating/erosion. Instead, ~1% of shortening within the upper plate is sufficient to account for up to several hundred m of uplift across a large area of the forearc.

  16. An interactive method for digitizing zone maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.; Thompson, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for digitizing maps that consist of zones, such as contour or climatic zone maps. A color-coded map is prepared by any convenient process. The map is then read into memory of an Image 100 computer by means of its table scanner, using colored filters. Zones are separated and stored in themes, using standard classification procedures. Thematic data are written on magnetic tape and these data, appropriately coded, are combined to make a digitized image on tape. Step-by-step procedures are given for digitization of crop moisture index maps with this procedure. In addition, a complete example of the digitization of a climatic zone map is given.

  17. Coastal Zone Color Scanner studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, J.

    1988-01-01

    Activities over the past year have included cooperative work with a summer faculty fellow using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to study the effects of gradients in trophic resources on coral reefs in the Caribbean. Other research included characterization of ocean radiances specific to an acid-waste plume. Other activities include involvement in the quality control of imagery produced in the processing of the global CZCS data set, the collection of various other data global sets, and the subsequent data comparison and analysis.

  18. Freeway work zone lane capacity.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this report is a capacity analysis of two long-term urban freeway Work Zones. Work Zone #1 : tapered four mainline lanes to two, using two separate tapers; Work Zone #2 tapered two mainline lanes to one. : Work Zone throughput was analyz...

  19. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    drawing the boundary on a reference image. Hence, a farmer can start to engage in precision farming shortly after gaining access to the Web site, without the need for incurring the high costs of conventional precision-agriculture data-collection practices that include collecting soil samples, mapping electrical conductivity of soil, and compiling multiyear crop-yield data. Given the boundary of a field, a SAMZ server computes the zones within the field in a three-stage process. In the first stage, a vector-valued image of the field is constructed by assembling, from the archives, the equivalent of a stack of the available images of the field (see figure). In the second stage, the vector-valued image is analyzed by use of a wavelet transform that detects spatial variations considered significant for precision farming while suppressing small-scale heterogeneities that are regarded as insignificant. In the third stage, a segmentation algorithm assembles the zones from smaller regions that have been identified in the wavelet analysis.

  20. Spring-summer net community production, new production, particle export and related water column biogeochemical processes in the marginal sea ice zone of the Western Antarctic Peninsula 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Stukel, Michael R; Eveleth, Rachel; Doney, Scott C; Jickells, Tim; Schofield, Oscar; Baker, Alex R; Brindle, John; Chance, Rosie; Cassar, Nicolas

    2018-06-28

    New production (New P, the rate of net primary production (NPP) supported by exogenously supplied limiting nutrients) and net community production (NCP, gross primary production not consumed by community respiration) are closely related but mechanistically distinct processes. They set the carbon balance in the upper ocean and define an upper limit for export from the system. The relationships, relative magnitudes and variability of New P (from 15 NO 3 - uptake), O 2  : argon-based NCP and sinking particle export (based on the 238 U :  234 Th disequilibrium) are increasingly well documented but still not clearly understood. This is especially true in remote regions such as polar marginal ice zones. Here we present a 3-year dataset of simultaneous measurements made at approximately 50 stations along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) continental shelf in midsummer (January) 2012-2014. Net seasonal-scale changes in water column inventories (0-150 m) of nitrate and iodide were also estimated at the same stations. The average daily rates based on inventory changes exceeded the shorter-term rate measurements. A major uncertainty in the relative magnitude of the inventory estimates is specifying the start of the growing season following sea-ice retreat. New P and NCP(O 2 ) did not differ significantly. New P and NCP(O 2 ) were significantly greater than sinking particle export from thorium-234. We suggest this is a persistent and systematic imbalance and that other processes such as vertical mixing and advection of suspended particles are important export pathways.This article is part of the theme issue 'The marine system of the west Antarctic Peninsula: status and strategy for progress in a region of rapid change'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. Dike zones on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  2. Contactless heater floating zone refining and crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, Chung-Wen (Inventor); Kou, Sindo (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Floating zone refining or crystal growth is carried out by providing rapid relative rotation of a feed rod and finish rod while providing heat to the junction between the two rods so that significant forced convection occurs in the melt zone between the two rods. The forced convection distributes heat in the melt zone to allow the rods to be melted through with a much shorter melt zone length than possible utilizing conventional floating zone processes. One of the rods can be rotated with respect to the other, or both rods can be counter-rotated, with typical relative rotational speeds of the rods ranging from 200 revolutions per minute (RPM) to 400 RPM or greater. Zone refining or crystal growth is carried out by traversing the melt zone through the feed rod.

  3. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  4. Arid Zone Hydrology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  5. Zone of intrusion study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-15

    The Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) performed an analysis using LS-DYNA simulation to investigate the zone of intrusion (ZOI) of an NCHRP Report No. 350 2000p pickup truck when impacting a 40-in. high F-shape parapet. : The ZOI for the 40-in...

  6. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  8. Crossing Comfort Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, D. Soyini

    1993-01-01

    Offers a narrative based on a real event, in the form of a "docustory," describing that moment when teaching worked--when, in an instructional setting, communication was "perfect" or "excellent." Describes how three very different students, in a course on the cultures of women of color, moved beyond comfort zones while working together on a class…

  9. Purification of Germanium Crystals by Zone Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Kyler; Yang, Gang; Mei, Dongming

    2016-09-01

    Germanium zone refining is one of the most important techniques used to produce high purity germanium (HPGe) single crystals for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors. During zone refining the impurities are isolated to different parts of the ingot. In practice, the effective isolation of an impurity is dependent on many parameters, including molten zone travel speed, the ratio of ingot length to molten zone width, and number of passes. By studying the theory of these influential factors, perfecting our cleaning and preparation procedures, and analyzing the origin and distribution of our impurities (aluminum, boron, gallium, and phosphorous) identified using photothermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS), we have optimized these parameters to produce HPGe. We have achieved a net impurity level of 1010 /cm3 for our zone-refined ingots, measured with van der Pauw and Hall-effect methods. Zone-refined ingots of this purity can be processed into a detector grade HPGe single crystal, which can be used to fabricate detectors for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay detection. This project was financially supported by DOE Grant (DE-FG02-10ER46709) and the State Governor's Research Center.

  10. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is availablemore » to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that

  11. Evolution of a Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how Earth's surface might have evolved with time and to examine in a more general way the initiation and continuance of subduction zones and the possible formation of continents on an Earth-like planet. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life, and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), but may also depend on the biosphere. Employing the Fortran convection code CHIC (developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium), we simulate a subduction zone with a pre-defined weak zone (between oceanic and continental crust) and a fixed plate velocity for the subducting oceanic plate (Quinquis et al. in preparation). In our study we first investigate the main factors that influence the subduction process. We simulate the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate (Noack et al., 2013). The crust is separated into an upper crust and a lower crust. We apply mixed Newtonian/non-Newtonian rheology and vary the parameters that are most likely to influence the subduction of the ocanic plate, as for example density of the crust/mantle, surface temperature, plate velocity and subduction angle. The second part of our study concentrates on the long-term evolution of a subduction zone. Even though we model only the upper mantle (until a depth of 670km), the subducted crust is allowed to flow into the lower mantle, where it is no longer subject to our investigation. This way we can model the subduction zone over long time spans, for which we assume a continuous inflow of the oceanic plate into the investigated domain. We include variations in mantle temperatures (via secular cooling and decay of radioactive heat sources) and dehydration of silicates (leading to stiffening of the material). We investigate how the mantle environment influences

  12. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  13. The global aftershock zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,

    2014-01-01

    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  14. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  15. Optimal design of work zone median crossovers.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    The use of temporary median crossovers in work zones allows for the closure of one side of a multi-lane roadway while : maintaining two-way traffic on the opposite side. This process provides the ability for construction and maintenance crews : to co...

  16. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  17. Crash characteristics at work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    Work zones tend to cause hazardous conditions for drivers and construction workers since they generate conflicts between construction activities and traffic. A clear understanding of the characteristics of work zone crashes will enhance the selection...

  18. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  19. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  20. Work zone intrusion alarm effectiveness.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    16. Abstract : The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) commissioned a study to evaluate how : effective a work zone safety device known as the SonoBlaster! Work Zone Intrusion Alarm would be : in protecting maintenance workers fro...

  1. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets."

  2. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig M.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich - von Neumann - Doling (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes are discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  3. Automatic detection and classification of damage zone(s) for incorporating in digital image correlation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudipta; Deb, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a technique developed for monitoring surface deformation/displacement of an object under loading conditions. This method is further refined to make it capable of handling discontinuities on the surface of the sample. A damage zone is referred to a surface area fractured and opened in due course of loading. In this study, an algorithm is presented to automatically detect multiple damage zones in deformed image. The algorithm identifies the pixels located inside these zones and eliminate them from FEM-DIC processes. The proposed algorithm is successfully implemented on several damaged samples to estimate displacement fields of an object under loading conditions. This study shows that displacement fields represent the damage conditions reasonably well as compared to regular FEM-DIC technique without considering the damage zones.

  4. Small-Scale Surf Zone Geometric Roughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    and an image of the tie points can be seen (Figure 6). 23 Figure 6. Screen Shot of Alignment Process On the left side is the workspace which...rest of the points, producing the 3D surface. 24 Figure 7. Screen Shot of Dense Cloud Process On the left side is the workspace which...maximum 200 words) Measurements of small-scale (O(mm)) geometric roughness (kf) associated with breaking wave foam were obtained within the surf zone on

  5. Applications of ISES for coastal zone studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to the discipline- and process-oriented topics addressed, coastal zone studies are defined geographically by the special circumstances inherent in the interface between land and water. The characteristics of coastal zones which make them worthy of separate consideration are: (1) the dynamic nature of natural and anthropogenic processes taking place; (2) the relatively restricted spatial domain of the narrow land/water interface; and (3) the large proportion of the Earth's population living within coastal zones, and the resulting extreme pressure on natural and human resources. These characteristics place special constraints and priorities on remote sensing applications, even though the applications themselves bear close relation to those addressed by other elements of this report (e.g., oceans, ice, vegetation/land use). The discussion which follows first describes the suite of remote sensing activities relevant to coastal zone studies. Potential Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) experiments will then be addressed within two general categories: applications of real-time data transmission and applications of onboard data acquisition and processing.

  6. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  7. Relationship between crystallographic structure of the Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS complex inclusion and microstructure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in steel processed by oxide metallurgy route and impact toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Zhihui; Liu, Shilong; Wang, Xuemin, E-mail: wxm@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    A new method based on electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) is proposed to determine the structure of titanium oxide/MnS complex inclusion which induced the formation of intragranular acicular ferrite (IAF) in heat-affected zone (HAZ) in steel processed by oxide metallurgy route. It was found that the complex inclusion was Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS, the orientation relationship between Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnS was also examined, and the crystallographic orientation relationship among IAF, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS complex inclusion, austenite, bainite formed at lower temperature is researched systematically. It was observed that MnS precipitated on Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} at specific habit plane andmore » direction and MnS had a specific orientation relationship ((0001) Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}//(111) MnS), <10–10> Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}//<110> MnS) with respect to Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Intragranular acicular ferrite (IAF) nucleated on MnS part of the Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS complex inclusion had no specific orientation relationship with MnS. IAF and the surrounding bainite had different Bain groups, so that there was an increase in high angle boundaries, which was beneficial for the toughness of HAZ. - Highlights: • The inclusion of TiO{sub x}/MnS that induced IAF formation is identified to be Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS. • The inclusion is identified based on electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). • MnS and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} had specific orientation relationship of Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS complex inclusion. • The IAFs formed on the same inclusion tend to be in one Bain group. • IAF and the surrounding bainite tend to be in different Bain groups.« less

  8. Fibonacci-like zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shubo; Liu, Mengsi; Xia, Tian; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    We present a new family of diffractive lenses, Fibonacci-like zone plates, generated with a modified Fibonacci sequence. The focusing properties and the evolution of transverse diffraction pattern for the Fibonacci-like zone plates have been analytically investigated both theoretically and experimentally and compared with the corresponding Fresnel zone plates of the same resolution. The results demonstrate that the Fibonacci-like zone plates possess the self-similar property and the multifocal behavior. Furthermore, the Fibonacci-like zone plate beams are found to possess the self-reconstruction property, and would be promising for 3D optical tweezers, laser machining, and optical imaging.

  9. The generalized mean zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    In this paper a generalized mean zone plate is proposed, which generates twin foci located at the positions satisfying the expression of the generalized mean, which includes the m-golden mean, precious mean, and so on. The generalized mean zone plate can be designed to generate twin foci with various position ratios. The diffraction properties of the generalized mean zone plates have been investigated with simulations and experiments. The results show that the ratio of the positions of the twin foci for the generalized mean zone plate can be designed with the selected zone plate parameters.

  10. Liquid zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  11. Smartphones and Time Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  12. Marginal Ice Zone Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    A Voyage of Discovery. George Deacon 70th An-niversary Volume, (M. Angel, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, p.15-41. Coachman, L.K., C.A. Barnes, 1961...some polar contrasts. In: S "" RUsium on Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, ( George Deacon, ed.), Sci- 72 Lebedev, A.A., 1968: Zone of possible icing of...Atlantic and Western Europe. British Meteorological Office. Geophysical Memoirs, 4(41). Brost , R.A., J.C. Wyngaard, 1978: A model study of the stably

  13. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  14. [Current approach to zoning atomic shipbuilding plants].

    PubMed

    Blekher, A Ia

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the currently introduced radiation-and-hygienic system for zoning atomic shipbuilding plants, in accordance with which three radiation-and-hygienic zones (a strict regime zone, a controlled approach zone, and a free regime zone) are established at the plant site and two zones (a sanitary-and-protective zone and a follow-up zone) are also established outside the plant site.

  15. Evaluation of the late merge work zone traffic control strategy.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-01

    Several alternative lane merge strategies have been proposed in recent years to process vehicles through work zone lane closures more safely and efficiently. Among these is the late merge. With the late merge, drivers are instructed to use all lanes ...

  16. Crustal growth in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Castro, Antonio; Gerya, Taras

    2015-04-01

    There is a broad interest in understanding the physical principles leading to arc magmatisim at active continental margins and different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the composition and evolution of the continental crust. It is widely accepted that water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle allowing for "flux melting" of the hydrated mantle. However, relamination of subducted crustal material to the base of the continental crust has been recently suggested to account for the growth and composition of the continental crust. We use petrological-thermo-mechanical models of active subduction zones to demonstrate that subduction of crustal material to sublithospheric depth may result in the formation of a tectonic rock mélange composed of basalt, sediment and hydrated /serpentinized mantle. This rock mélange may evolve into a partially molten diapir at asthenospheric depth and rise through the mantle because of its intrinsic buoyancy prior to emplacement at crustal levels (relamination). This process can be episodic and long-lived, forming successive diapirs that represent multiple magma pulses. Recent laboratory experiments of Castro et al. (2013) have demonstrated that reactions between these crustal components (i.e. basalt and sediment) produce andesitic melt typical for rocks of the continental crust. However, melt derived from a composite diapir will inherit the geochemical characteristics of its source and show distinct temporal variations of radiogenic isotopes based on the proportions of basalt and sediment in the source (Vogt et al., 2013). Hence, partial melting of a composite diapir is expected to produce melt with a constant major element composition, but substantial changes in terms of radiogenic isotopes. However, crustal growth at active continental margins may also involve accretionary processes by which new material is added to the continental crust. Oceanic plateaus and other

  17. Linear optical pulse compression based on temporal zone plates.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Li, Ming; Lou, Shuqin; Azaña, José

    2013-07-15

    We propose and demonstrate time-domain equivalents of spatial zone plates, namely temporal zone plates, as alternatives to conventional time lenses. Both temporal intensity zone plates, based on intensity-only temporal modulation, and temporal phase zone plates, based on phase-only temporal modulation, are introduced and studied. Temporal zone plates do not exhibit the limiting tradeoff between temporal aperture and frequency bandwidth (temporal resolution) of conventional linear time lenses. As a result, these zone plates can be ideally designed to offer a time-bandwidth product (TBP) as large as desired, practically limited by the achievable temporal modulation bandwidth (limiting the temporal resolution) and the amount of dispersion needed in the target processing systems (limiting the temporal aperture). We numerically and experimentally demonstrate linear optical pulse compression by using temporal zone plates based on linear electro-optic temporal modulation followed by fiber-optics dispersion. In the pulse-compression experiment based on temporal phase zone plates, we achieve a resolution of ~25.5 ps over a temporal aperture of ~5.77 ns, representing an experimental TBP larger than 226 using a phase-modulation amplitude of only ~0.8π rad. We also numerically study the potential of these devices to achieve temporal imaging of optical waveforms and present a comparative analysis on the performance of different temporal intensity and phase zone plates.

  18. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  19. Compositional zoning of the bishop tuff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Wilson, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    the bulk compositional gradient, implying both that few crystals settled or were transported far and that the observed crystals contributed little to establishing that gradient. Upward increases in aqueous gas and dissolved water, combined with the adiabatic gradient (for the 5 km depth range tapped) and the roofward decline in liquidus temperature of the zoned melt, prevented significant crystallization against the roof, consistent with dominance of crystal-poor magma early in the eruption and lack of any roof-rind fragments among the Bishop ejecta, before or after onset of caldera collapse. A model of secular incremental zoning is advanced wherein numerous batches of crystal-poor melt were released from a mush zone (many kilometers thick) that floored the accumulating rhyolitic melt-rich body. Each batch rose to its own appropriate level in the melt-buoyancy gradient, which was selfsustaining against wholesale convective re-homogenization, while the thick mush zone below buffered it against disruption by the deeper (non-rhyolitic) recharge that augmented the mush zone and thermally sustained the whole magma chamber. Crystal-melt fractionation was the dominant zoning process, but it took place not principally in the shallow melt-rich body but mostly in the pluton-scale mush zone before and during batchwise melt extraction. ?? Published by Oxford University Press (2007).

  20. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    In-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change the subsurface hydrological, physical and chemical conditions in order to enable development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria. As such the remediation efficiency is much dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. These conditions are usually determined in laboratory experiments where parameters such as the chemical composition of the soil water solution, redox potential and water content of the sediment are fully controlled. Usually, implementation of desired optimal degradation conditions in deep vadose zone at full scale field setups is achieved through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives on the land surface. It is assumed that deep percolation into the vadose zone would create chemical conditions that promote biodegradation of specific compounds. However, application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily results in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) that was recently developed allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of deep sections of the unsaturated zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes which allow continuous monitoring of the temporal variation of the vadose zone water content, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) which are designed to allow frequent sampling of the sediment pore-water and gas at multiple depths. Implementation of the vadose zone monitoring system in sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the actual chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Up-to-date the system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and contaminant transport in

  1. Use of Data Layering to Address Changes in Nitrogen Management Zone Delineation

    Treesearch

    D.W. Franzen; T. Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Use of N management zones appears to be a practical method of revealing dominant patterns of residual soil nitrate in North Dakota crop fields, where fall soil nitrate sampling is a common N management tool. Delineation of zone boundaries to date has been a largely subjective process. A weighted, classified method of delineating nitrogen management zones is presented....

  2. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20–30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P < 0.0001). Our findings that zonal differences in normal tissue persist in tumor tissue and that these differences are associated with Gleason score and sample type suggest that subtypes potentially resulting from different etiologic pathways might arise in these zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  3. Small Gas Turbine Combustor Primary Zone Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. E.; Young, E. R.; Miles, G. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A development process is described which consists of design, fabrication, and preliminary test evaluations of three approaches to internal aerodynamic primary zone flow patterns: (1) conventional double vortex swirl stabilization; (2) reverse flow swirl stabilization; and (3) large single vortex flow system. Each concept incorporates special design features aimed at extending the performance capability of the small engine combustor. Since inherent geometry of these combustors result in small combustion zone height and high surface area to volume ratio, design features focus on internal aerodynamics, fuel placement, and advanced cooling. The combustors are evaluated on a full scale annular combustor rig. A correlation of the primary zone performance with the overall performance is accomplished using three intrusion type gas sampling probes located at the exit of the primary zone section. Empirical and numerical methods are used for designing and predicting the performance of the three combustor concepts and their subsequent modifications. The calibration of analytical procedures with actual test results permits an updating of the analytical design techniques applicable to small reverse flow annular combustors.

  4. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of themore » past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.« less

  5. Magmatic conditions and processes in the storage zone of the 2004-2006 Mount St. Helens dacite: Chapter 31 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, Malcom J.; Devine, Joseph D.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    O2 values of NNO +1 log unit. Magnetite compositions suggest that the 2004-6 magma was formed by mingling of magmas less than 5-8 weeks before eruption and that the magma last equilibrated within this temperature range. The amphibole phenocryst zoning involves approximately equal amounts of a pressure-sensitive Al-Tschermak molecular substitution and a temperature-sensitive edenite substitution in one cycle of growth. Hydrothermal experiments done on the natural dacite show that crystallization of the Fe- and Al-rich amphibole end member requires pressures of 200-300 MPa at temperatures of 900°C, conditions approaching the upper temperature limit of amphibole stability. The dacitic magma crystallizes the An68 plagioclase when the pressure drops to 200 MPa at 900°C. The magma must cool at this depth to produce a complete An68-An40 plagioclase zone and a Mg-rich layer on the amphiboles before the magma is cycled back to a high pressure, when a new layer of Fe-rich amphibole is acquired. The amphibole crystallizing in the dacite experiments at less than 200 MPa is lower in aluminum than any compositions in the natural cyclically zoned phenocrysts. The outer rim on some 2004-6 amphibole phenocrysts appears to have formed in the 100-200 MPa range, as do some phenocrysts in the May 1980 dacite pumice. Plagioclase rims of An35 in the 2004-6 magmas indicate that phenocryst growth continued until the pressure decreased to 130 MPa and that ascent was slow until this depth. Magma then entered the conduit for a relatively rapid ascent to the surface as indicated by the very thin (less than 5 μm) decompression-induced rims on the amphibole phenocrysts.

  6. Remote sensing of the marginal ice zone during Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) 83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Campbell, W. J.; Burns, B. A.; Ellingsen, E.; Farrelly, B. A.; Gloersen, P.; Grenfell, T. C.; Hollinger, J.; Horn, D.; Johannessen, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The remote sensing techniques utilized in the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) to study the physical characteristics and geophysical processes of the Fram Strait Region of the Greenland Sea are described. The studies, which utilized satellites, aircraft, helicopters, and ship and ground-based remote sensors, focused on the use of microwave remote sensors. Results indicate that remote sensors can provide marginal ice zone characteristics which include ice edge and ice boundary locations, ice types and concentration, ice deformation, ice kinematics, gravity waves and swell (in the water and the ice), location of internal wave fields, location of eddies and current boundaries, surface currents and sea surface winds.

  7. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; Zutavern, Fred J; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Zipperian, Thomas E.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Denison, Gary J.; Brown, Darwin J.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Hou, Hong Q.

    2001-01-01

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  8. Studies of rotating liquid floating zones on Skylab IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, J. R.; Gibson, E. G.; Klett, M. G.; Facemire, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid zones of water, soap solution and soap foam were deployed between two aligned circular disks which were free to rotate about the zone axis in the microgravity environment of Skylab IV. Such a configuration is of interest in the containerless handling of melts for possible future space processing crystal growth experiments. Three basic types of zone surface deformation and instability were observed for these rotational conditions; axisymmetric shape changes under single disk rotation, nonaxisymmetric, whirling, C-modes for long zones with equal rotation of both disks, and capillary wave phenomena for short zones with equal rotation of both disks. The sources of these instabilities and the conditions promoting them are analyzed in detail from video tape recordings of the Skylab experiments.

  9. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    SciTech Connect

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturatedmore » Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.« less

  10. Achieving That Elusive "Leadership Zone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Reaching the "leadership zone" happens when librarians tap into the extraordinary skills lying within to overcome obstacles and transform sometimes-difficult situations into meaningful outcomes. Maturing into an experienced leader who stays in the leadership zone requires knowledge, training, and practice. This article provides tactical…

  11. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  12. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Contact Zone: Missoula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-23

    A rock outcrop dubbed "Missoula," near Marias Pass on Mars, is seen in this image mosaic taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager on NASA's Curiosity rover. Pale mudstone (bottom of outcrop) meets coarser sandstone (top) in this geological contact zone, which has piqued the interest of Mars scientists. White mineral veins that fill fractures in the lower rock unit abruptly end when they meet the upper rock unit. Such clues help scientists understand the possible timing of geological events. First, the fine sediment that now forms the lower unit would have hardened into rock. It then would have fractured, and groundwater would have deposited calcium sulfate minerals into the fractures. Next, the coarser sediment that forms the upper unit would have been deposited. The area pictured is about 16 inches (40 centimeters) across. The image was taken on the 1,031st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 1, 2015). MAHLI was built by Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19829

  14. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  15. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  16. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  17. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  18. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  19. Bread board float zone experiment system for high purity silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A breadboard float zone experimental system has been established at Westech Systems for use by NASA in the float zone experimental area. A used zoner of suitable size and flexibility was acquired and installed with the necessary utilities. Repairs, alignments and modifications were made to provide for dislocation free zoning of silicon. The zoner is capable of studying process parameters used in growing silicon in gravity and is flexible to allow trying of new features that will test concepts of zoning in microgravity. Characterizing the state of the art molten zones of a growing silicon crystal will establish the data base against which improvements of zoning in gravity or growing in microgravity can be compared. 25 mm diameter was chosen as the reference size, since growth in microgravity will be at that diameter or smaller for about the next 6 years. Dislocation free crystals were growtn in the 100 and 111 orientations, using a wide set of growth conditions. The zone shape at one set of conditions was measured, by simultaneously aluminum doping and freezing the zone, lengthwise slabbing and delineating by etching. The whole set of crystals, grown under various conditions, were slabbed, polished and striation etched, revealing the growth interface shape and the periodic and aperiodic natures of the striations.

  20. Modelling of the MEA float zone using accelerometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1993-01-01

    During a floating zone experiment involving the growth of indium on a recent orbiter mission, (STS 32) oscillation of the zone shapes were observed to occur in response to the background acceleration. An understanding of the nature of the response of the zone shape to forced (g-jitter) oscillations and predictions of its impact on future experiments is of great interest not only to the PI's but to other commercial and academic investigators who plan to fly similar experiments in the orbiter and on space station. Motivated by this, a 15 month study was undertaken to analyze the nature of the g-sensitivity of the STS 32 floating zone crystal growth experiment. Numerical models were used to describe the time-dependent free surface motion of the zone as it responds to the spacecraft residual acceleration. Relevant experimental data concerning the acceleration environment was obtained from the Honeywell in Space Accelerometer (HISA) investigators through MSFC's ACAP program and processed and analyzed. For the indium floating zone experiment, a series of calculations were made using time-dependent axial accelerations g(t). The form of g(t) included simple sinusoidal disturbances as well as actual data (subject to appropriate filtering) measured on the STS 32 mission. Focus was on the calculation of the response of the free surface of the zone as well as the internal flows and internal heat transfer. The influence of solidification on the response of the zone shape was also examined but found to be negligible.

  1. 49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire State of Alaska, except as provided in § 71.12...

  2. 49 CFR 71.13 - Samoa zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Samoa zone. 71.13 Section 71.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.13 Samoa zone. The eighth zone, the Samoa standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 169 degrees...

  3. 49 CFR 71.6 - Central zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.6 Central zone. The third zone, the central standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the boundary line between the eastern and central standard time zones described in § 71.5 and east of the...

  4. 49 CFR 71.4 - Eastern zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eastern zone. 71.4 Section 71.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.4 Eastern zone. The second zone, the eastern standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of 67°30″ W...

  5. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″ W...

  6. 49 CFR 71.14 - Chamorro Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chamorro Zone. 71.14 Section 71.14 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.14 Chamorro Zone. The ninth zone, the Chamorro standard time zone, includes the Island of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern...

  7. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the boundary line between the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east of the...

  8. 49 CFR 71.10 - Pacific zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.10 Pacific zone. The fifth zone, the Pacific standard time zone, includes that part of the continental United States that is west of the boundary line between the mountain and Pacific standard time zones described in § 71.9, but...

  9. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  10. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  11. Recent Advances in Hyporheic Zone Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    The hyporheic zone exists beneath and adjacent to streams and rivers where surface water and groundwater interact. It provides unique habitat for aquatic organisms, can buffer surface water temperatures, and can be highly reactive, processing nutrients and improving water quality. The hyporheic zone is the subject of considerable research and the past year in WRR witnessed important conceptual advances. A key focus was rigorous evaluation of mixing between surface water and groundwater that occurs within hyporheic sediments. Field observations indicate that greater mixing occurs in the hyporheic zone than in deeper groundwater, and this distinction has been explored by recent numerical modeling studies, but more research is needed to fully understand the causes. A commentary this year in WRR proposed that hyporheic mixing is enhanced by a combination of fluctuating boundary conditions and multiscale physical and chemical spatial heterogeneity but confirmation is left to future research. This year also witnessed the boundaries of knowledge pushed back in a number of other key areas. Field quantification of hyporheic exchange and reactions benefited from advances including the use and interpretation of high frequency nutrient sensors, actively heater fiber optic sensors, isotope tracers, and geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity imaging. Conceptual advances were made in understanding the effects of unsteady environmental conditions (e.g., tides and storms) and preferential flow on hyporheic processes. Finally, hyporheic science is being brought increasingly to bear on applied issues such as informing nutrient removal crediting for stream restoration practices, for example in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  12. Habitable zones around main sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.; Whitmire, Daniel P.; Reynolds, Ray T.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for stabilizing climate on the earth and other earthlike planets is described, and the physical processes that define the inner and outer boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) around the sun and main sequence stars are discussed. Physical constraints on the HZ obtained from Venus and Mars are taken into account. A 1D climate model is used to estimate the width of the HZ and the continuously habitable zone around the sun, and the analysis is extended to other main sequence stars. Whether other stars have planets and where such planets might be located with respect to the HZ is addressed. The implications of the findings for NASA's SETI project are considered.

  13. A multi-zone muffle furnace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

    1993-01-01

    A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

  14. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... they could be published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, drawbridge operation regulations and regulated navigation areas, all...

  15. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  16. Thermal structure and geodynamics of subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Ikuko

    The thermal structure of subduction zones depends on the age-controlled thermal state of the subducting slab and mantle wedge flow. Observations indicate that the shallow part of the forearc mantle wedge is stagnant and the slab-mantle interface is weakened. In this dissertation, the role of the interface strength in controlling mantle wedge flow, thermal structure, and a wide range of subduction zone processes is investigated through two-dimensional finite-element modelling and a global synthesis of geological and geophysical observations. The model reveals that the strong temperature-dependence of the mantle strength always results in full slab-mantle decoupling along the weakened part of the interface and hence complete stagnation of the overlying mantle. The interface immediately downdip of the zone of decoupling is fully coupled, and the overlying mantle is driven to flow at a rate compatible with the subduction rate. The sharpness of the transition from decoupling to coupling depends on the rheology assumed and increases with the nonlinearity of the flow system. This bimodal behaviour of the wedge flow gives rise to a strong thermal contrast between the cold stagnant and hot flowing parts of the mantle wedge. The maximum depth of decoupling (MDD) thus dictates the thermal regime of the forearc. Observed surface heat flow patterns and petrologically and geochemically estimated mantle wedge temperatures beneath the volcanic arc require an MDD of 70--80 km in most, if not all, subduction zones regardless of their thermal regime of the slab. The common MDD of 70--80 km explains the observed systematic variations of the petrologic, seismological, and volcanic processes with the thermal state of the slab and thus explains the rich diversity of subduction zones in a unified fashion. Models for warm-slab subduction zones such as Cascadia and Nankai predict shallow dehydration of the slab beneath the cold stagnant part of the mantle wedge, which provides ample fluid

  17. Improving work zone safety through speed management.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    Safety hazards are increased in highway work zones as the dynamics of a work zone introduce a constantly changing : environment with varying levels of risk. Excessive speeding through work and maintenance zones is a common occurrence : which elevates...

  18. Hydropyrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Ullman, Alan Z.; Silverman, Jacob; Friedman, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

  19. Progress Report on the US Critical Zone Observatory Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) program supported by the National Science Foundation originated from the recommendation of the Earth Science community published in the National Research Council report "Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Sciences" (2001) to establish natural laboratories to study processes and systems of the Critical Zone - the surface and near-surface environment sustaining nearly all terrestrial life. After a number of critical zone community workshops to develop a science plan, the CZO program was initiated in 2007 with three sites and has now grown to 10 sites and a National Office, which coordinates research, education and outreach activities of the network. Several of the CZO sites are collocated with sites supported by the US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and the Long Term Agricultural Research (LTAR) programs, and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Future collaboration with additional sites of these networks will add to the potential to answer questions in a more comprehensive manner and in a larger regional scale about the critical zone form and function. At the international level, CZOs have been established in many countries and strong collaborations with the US program have been in place for many years. The next step is the development of a coordinated international program of critical zone research. The success of the CZO network of sites can be measured in transformative results that elucidate properties and processes controlling the critical zone and how the critical zone structure, stores and fluxes respond to climate and land use change. This understanding of the critical zone can be used to enhance resilience and sustainability, and restore ecosystem function. Thus, CZO science can address major societal challenges. The US CZO network is a facility open to research of the critical zone community at large. Scientific data and information about the US program are available at www.criticalzone.org.

  20. Crash characteristics at work zones

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-05-01

    Work zones tend to cause hazardous conditions for vehicle drivers and construction workers since they generate conflicts between construction activities and the traffic, and therefore aggravate the existing traffic conditions.

  1. Work zone and operation enhancements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-02-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  2. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  3. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed

    Maantay, J

    2001-07-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems.

  4. Scalable screen-size enlargement by multi-channel viewing-zone scanning holography.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Nakaoka, Mitsuki

    2016-08-08

    Viewing-zone scanning holographic displays can enlarge both the screen size and the viewing zone. However, limitations exist in the screen size enlargement process even if the viewing zone is effectively enlarged. This study proposes a multi-channel viewing-zone scanning holographic display comprising multiple projection systems and a planar scanner to enable the scalable enlargement of the screen size. Each projection system produces an enlarged image of the screen of a MEMS spatial light modulator. The multiple enlarged images produced by the multiple projection systems are seamlessly tiled on the planar scanner. This screen size enlargement process reduces the viewing zones of the projection systems, which are horizontally scanned by the planar scanner comprising a rotating off-axis lens and a vertical diffuser to enlarge the viewing zone. A screen size of 7.4 in. and a viewing-zone angle of 43.0° are demonstrated.

  5. Critical Transition in Critical Zone of Intensively Managed Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of industrial agriculture has resulted in severe unintended global impacts, including degradation of arable land and eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Modern agricultural practices rely on significant direct and indirect human energy inputs, which have created imbalances between increased rates of biogeochemical processes related to production and background rates of natural processes. These imbalances have cascaded through the deep inter-dependencies between carbon, soil, water, nutrient and ecological processes, resulting in a critical transition of the Critical Zone and creating emergent dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Understanding of these novel organization and function of the Critical Zone is vital for developing sustainable agricultural practices.

  6. Modeling biogechemical reactive transport in a fracture zone

    SciTech Connect

    Molinero, Jorge; Samper, Javier; Yang, Chan Bing, and Zhang, Guoxiang

    2005-01-14

    A coupled model of groundwater flow, reactive solute transport and microbial processes for a fracture zone of the Aspo site at Sweden is presented. This is the model of the so-called Redox Zone Experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of tunnel construction on the geochemical conditions prevailing in a fracture granite. It is found that a model accounting for microbially-mediated geochemical processes is able to reproduce the unexpected measured increasing trends of dissolved sulfate and bicarbonate. The model is also useful for testing hypotheses regarding the role of microbial processes and evaluating the sensitivity of model results to changes inmore » biochemical parameters.« less

  7. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  8. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  9. 77 FR 50929 - Security Zones; 2012 RNC Bridge Security Zones, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone, Tampa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; 2012 RNC Bridge Security Zones, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone, Tampa, FL... temporary security zones around certain bridges on the waters of Pinellas County and Tampa Bay, Florida..., or mooring on waters within 50 yards of the designated bridges during the times that the security...

  10. Review of unsaturated-zone transport and attenuation of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes leached from shallow source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivett, Michael O.; Wealthall, Gary P.; Dearden, Rachel A.; McAlary, Todd A.

    2011-04-01

    Reliable prediction of the unsaturated zone transport and attenuation of dissolved-phase VOC (volatile organic compound) plumes leached from shallow source zones is a complex, multi-process, environmental problem. It is an important problem as sources, which include solid-waste landfills, aqueous-phase liquid discharge lagoons and NAPL releases partially penetrating the unsaturated zone, may persist for decades. Natural attenuation processes operating in the unsaturated zone that, uniquely for VOCs includes volatilisation, may, however, serve to protect underlying groundwater and potentially reduce the need for expensive remedial actions. Review of the literature indicates that only a few studies have focused upon the overall leached VOC source and plume scenario as a whole. These are mostly modelling studies that often involve high strength, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) sources for which density-induced and diffusive vapour transport is significant. Occasional dissolved-phase aromatic hydrocarbon controlled infiltration field studies also exist. Despite this lack of focus on the overall problem, a wide range of process-based unsaturated zone — VOC research has been conducted that may be collated to build good conceptual model understanding of the scenario, particularly for the much studied aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). In general, the former group is likely to be attenuated in the unsaturated zone due to their ready aerobic biodegradation, albeit with rate variability across the literature, whereas the fate of the latter is far less likely to be dominated by a single mechanism and dependent upon the relative importance of the various attenuation processes within individual site — VOC scenarios. Analytical and numerical modelling tools permit effective process representation of the whole scenario, albeit with potential for inclusion of additional processes — e.g., multi-mechanistic sorption phase partitioning, and

  11. Physical and chemical controls on the critical zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.P.; Von Blanckenburg, F.; White, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Geochemists have long recognized a correlation between rates of physical denudation and chemical weathering. What underlies this correlation? The Critical Zone can be considered as a feed-through reactor. Downward advance of the weathering front brings unweathered rock into the reactor. Fluids are supplied through precipitation. The reactor is stirred at the top by biological and physical processes. The balance between advance of the weathering front by mechanical and chemical processes and mass loss by denudation fixes the thickness of the Critical Zone reactor. The internal structure of this reactor is controlled by physical processes that create surface area, determine flow paths, and set the residence time of material in the Critical Zone. All of these impact chemical weathering flux.

  12. Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bronson, Mark C.

    1995-01-01

    A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing.

  13. Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bronson, M.C.

    1995-02-14

    A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing. 6 figs.

  14. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental...

  15. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental...

  16. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section... AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones § 165.30 Security zones. (a) A security zone is an area of land, water, or land and water which is so designated by...

  17. Laser Vacuum Furnace for Zone Refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.; Zurburg, F. W.; Penn, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Laser beam scanned to produce moving melt zone. Experimental laser vacuum furnace scans crystalline wafer with high-power CO2-laser beam to generate precise melt zone with precise control of temperature gradients around zone. Intended for zone refining of silicon or other semiconductors in low gravity, apparatus used in normal gravity.

  18. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  19. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  20. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  1. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  2. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  3. State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Alan H.; Fisher, Peter S.

    The effectiveness of state enterprise zone programs was examined by using a hypothetical-firm model called the Tax and Incentives Model-Enterprise Zones (TAIM-ez) model to analyze the value of enterprise zone incentives to businesses across the United States and especially in the 13 states that had substantial enterprise zone programs by 1990. The…

  4. 47 CFR 5.313 - Innovation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Innovation zones. 5.313 Section 5.313... Licenses § 5.313 Innovation zones. (a) An innovation zone is a specified geographic location with pre... own motion or in response to a request from the public. Innovation zones will be announced via public...

  5. 47 CFR 5.313 - Innovation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Innovation zones. 5.313 Section 5.313... Licenses § 5.313 Innovation zones. (a) An innovation zone is a specified geographic location with pre... own motion or in response to a request from the public. Innovation zones will be announced via public...

  6. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets tomore » validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated

  7. SAMZ: Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    drawing the boundary on a reference image. Hence, a farmer can start to engage in precision farming shortly after gaining access to the Web site, without need for incurring the high costs of conventional precision-agriculture data-collection practices that include collecting soil samples, mapping electrical conductivity of soil, and compiling multi-year crop-yield data. Given the boundary of a field, a SAMZ server computes the zones within the field in a three-stage process. In the first stage, a vector-valued image of the field is constructed by assembling, from the archives, the equivalent of a stack of the available images of the field (see figure). In the second stage, the vector-valued image is analyzed by use of a wavelet transform that detects spatial variations considered significant for precision farming while suppressing small-scale heterogeneities that are regarded as insignificant. In the third stage, a segmentation algorithm assembles the zones from smaller regions that have been identified in the wavelet analysis.

  8. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Boris RM; Frijns, Arjan JH; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached. PMID:27583296

  9. Methods for converting industrial zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, L.; Kosyakov, E.; Polyakova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    In this article, industrial zones of Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong were considered. Competitive projects aimed at developing the grey belt of Saint Petersburg were considered. The methodology of the survey of reconstruction of the industrial zone of Hong Kong is also analyzed. The potential of the city’s grey belt lies in its location on the border of the city’s historical centre. Rational use of this potential will make it possible to achieve numerous objectives, including development of the city’s transport infrastructure, positioning of business functions, and organization of housing and the city’s system of green public spaces.

  10. Crossing disciplines and scales to understand the critical zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, S.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Vala, Ragnarsdottir K.

    2007-01-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the system of coupled chemical, biological, physical, and geological processes operating together to support life at the Earth's surface. While our understanding of this zone has increased over the last hundred years, further advance requires scientists to cross disciplines and scales to integrate understanding of processes in the CZ, ranging in scale from the mineral-water interface to the globe. Despite the extreme heterogeneities manifest in the CZ, patterns are observed at all scales. Explanations require the use of new computational and analytical tools, inventive interdisciplinary approaches, and growing networks of sites and people.

  11. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Carious Dentin from Transparent Zone to Normal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Yao, X.; Liu, Y.W.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that caries invasion leads to the differentiation of dentin into zones with altered composition, collagen integrity and mineral identity. However, understanding of these changes from the fundamental perspective of molecular structure has been lacking so far. In light of this, the present work aims to utilize Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to directly extract molecular information regarding collagen's and hydroxyapatite's structural changes as dentin transitions from the transparent zone (TZ) into the normal zone (NZ). Unembedded ultrathin dentin films were sectioned from carious teeth, and an FTIR imaging system was used to obtain spatially resolved FTIR spectra. According to the mineral-to-matrix ratio image generated from large-area low-spectral-resolution scan, the TZ, the NZ and the intermediate subtransparent zone (STZ) were identified. High-spectral-resolution spectra were taken from each zone and subsequently examined with regard to mineral content, carbonate distribution, collagen denaturation and carbonate substitution patterns. The integrity of collagen's triple helical structure was also evaluated based on spectra collected from demineralized dentin films of selected teeth. The results support the argument that STZ is the real sclerotic layer, and they corroborate the established knowledge that collagen in TZ is hardly altered and therefore should be reserved for reparative purposes. Moreover, the close resemblance between the STZ and the NZ in terms of carbonate content, and that between the STZ and the TZ in terms of being A-type carbonate-rich, suggest that the mineral that initially occludes dentin tubules is hydroxyapatite newly generated from odontoblastic activities, which is then transformed into whitlockite in the demineralization/remineralization process as caries progresses. PMID:24556607

  12. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of carious dentin from transparent zone to normal zone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Yao, X; Liu, Y W; Wang, Y

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that caries invasion leads to the differentiation of dentin into zones with altered composition, collagen integrity and mineral identity. However, understanding of these changes from the fundamental perspective of molecular structure has been lacking so far. In light of this, the present work aims to utilize Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to directly extract molecular information regarding collagen's and hydroxyapatite's structural changes as dentin transitions from the transparent zone (TZ) into the normal zone (NZ). Unembedded ultrathin dentin films were sectioned from carious teeth, and an FTIR imaging system was used to obtain spatially resolved FTIR spectra. According to the mineral-to-matrix ratio image generated from large-area low-spectral-resolution scan, the TZ, the NZ and the intermediate subtransparent zone (STZ) were identified. High-spectral-resolution spectra were taken from each zone and subsequently examined with regard to mineral content, carbonate distribution, collagen denaturation and carbonate substitution patterns. The integrity of collagen's triple helical structure was also evaluated based on spectra collected from demineralized dentin films of selected teeth. The results support the argument that STZ is the real sclerotic layer, and they corroborate the established knowledge that collagen in TZ is hardly altered and therefore should be reserved for reparative purposes. Moreover, the close resemblance between the STZ and the NZ in terms of carbonate content, and that between the STZ and the TZ in terms of being A-type carbonate-rich, suggest that the mineral that initially occludes dentin tubules is hydroxyapatite newly generated from odontoblastic activities, which is then transformed into whitlockite in the demineralization/remineralization process as caries progresses. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Laser-zone growth in a Ribbon-To-Ribbon (RTR) process. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtler, R. W.; Baghdadi, A.; Legge, R.; Sopori, B.; Ellis, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Ribbon-to-Ribbon (RTR) approach to silicon ribbon growth is investigated. An existing RTR apparatus is to be upgraded to its full capabilities and operated routinely to investigate and optimize the effects of various growth parameters on growth results. A new RTR apparatus was constructed to incorporate increased capabilities and improvements over the first apparatus and to be capable of continuous growth. New high power lasers were implemented and this led to major improvements in growth velocity -- 4 inch/min. growth has been demonstrated. A major step in demonstration of the full feasibility of the RTR process is reported in the demonstration of RTR growth from CVD polyribbon rather than sliced polyribbon ingots. Average solar cell efficiencies of greater than 9% and a best cell efficiency of 11.7% are reported. Processing was shown to provide a substantial improvement in material minority carrier diffusion length. An economic analysis is reported which treats both the polyribbon fabrication and RTR processes.

  14. 76 FR 63202 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Based on a review of safety and security zones around critical infrastructure in the... Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor--Safety and Security Zone regulation and the Security Zones; Captain...

  15. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine...

  16. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine...

  17. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine...

  18. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine...

  19. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  20. `Dhara': An Open Framework for Critical Zone Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.

    2016-12-01

    Processes in the Critical Zone, which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biological, chemical, pedological, geomorphological and ecological domains over both short and long timescales. Observations and quantification of the Earth's surface across these domains using emerging high resolution measurement technologies such as light detection and ranging (lidar) and hyperspectral remote sensing are enabling us to characterize fine scale landscape attributes over large spatial areas. This presents a unique opportunity to develop novel approaches to model the Critical Zone that can capture fine scale intricate dependencies across the different processes in 3D. The development of interdisciplinary tools that transcend individual disciplines and capture new levels of complexity and emergent properties is at the core of Critical Zone science. Here we introduce an open framework for high-performance computing model (`Dhara') for modeling complex processes in the Critical Zone. The framework is designed to be modular in structure with the aim to create uniform and efficient tools to facilitate and leverage process modeling. It also provides flexibility to maintain, collaborate, and co-develop additional components by the scientific community. We show the essential framework that simulates ecohydrologic dynamics, and surface - sub-surface coupling in 3D using hybrid parallel CPU-GPU. We demonstrate that the open framework in Dhara is feasible for detailed, multi-processes, and large-scale modeling of the Critical Zone, which opens up exciting possibilities. We will also present outcomes from a Modeling Summer Institute led by Intensively Managed Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO) with representation from several CZOs and international representatives.

  1. Microstructural Evolution during Mid-Crustal Shear Zone Thickening and Thinning, Mount Irene Detachment Zone, Fiordland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, M.; Smith, S. A. F.; Scott, J.; Rooney, J. S.; Demurtas, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent work has shown that ductile shear zones experience cyclic variations in stress and strain rate due to, for example, elastic loading from earthquake slip on brittle faults or the presence of rigid particles and asperities within the shear zone. Such non-steady state flow conditions can promote microstructural changes including a decrease in grain sizes followed by a switch in the main deformation mechanisms. Understanding the microstructural changes that occur during non steady-state deformation is therefore critical in evaluating shear zone rheology. The Mount Irene shear zone formed during Cretaceous extension in the middle crust and was active at temperatures of 600°C and pressures of 6 kbar. The shear zone localized in a basal calcite marble layer typically 3-5 m thick containing hundreds of thin (mm-cm) calc-silicate bands that are now parallel to the shear zone boundaries. The lower boundary of the shear zone preserves meter-scale undulations that cause the shear zone to be squeezed in to regions that are <1.5 m thick. The calc-silicate bands act as "flow markers" and allow individual shear zone layers to be traced continuously through thick and thin regions, implying that the mylonites experienced cyclic variations in stress and strain rate. Calc-mylonite samples collected from the same layer close to the base of the shear zone reveal that layer thinning was accompanied by progressive microstructural changes including intense twinning, stretching and flattening of large calcite porphyroclasts as well as the development of interconnected networks of recrystallized calcite aggregates. EBSD analysis shows that the recrystallized aggregates contain polygonal calcite grains with microstructures (e.g. grain quadruple junctions) similar to those reported for neighbor-switching processes associated with grain boundary sliding and superplasticity. Ongoing and future work will utilize samples from across the full thickness of the shear zone to determine key

  2. 'No Organics' Zone Circles Pinwheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Pinwheel galaxy, otherwise known as Messier 101, sports bright reddish edges in this new infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Research from Spitzer has revealed that this outer red zone lacks organic molecules present in the rest of the galaxy. The red and blue spots outside of the spiral galaxy are either foreground stars or more distant galaxies.

    The organics, called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are dusty, carbon-containing molecules that help in the formation of stars. On Earth, they are found anywhere combustion reactions take place, such as barbeque pits and exhaust pipes. Scientists also believe this space dust has the potential to be converted into the stuff of life.

    Spitzer found that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons decrease in concentration toward the outer portion of the Pinwheel galaxy, then quickly drop off and are no longer detected at its very outer rim. According to astronomers, there's a threshold at the rim where the organic material is being destroyed by harsh radiation from stars. Radiation is more damaging at the far reaches of a galaxy because the stars there have less heavy metals, and metals dampen the radiation.

    The findings help researchers understand how stars can form in these harsh environments, where polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lacking. Under normal circumstances, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons help cool down star-forming clouds, allowing them to collapse into stars. In regions like the rim of the Pinwheel as well as the very early universe stars form without the organic dust. Astronomers don't know precisely how this works, so the rim of the Pinwheel provides them with a laboratory for examining the process relatively close up.

    In this image, infrared light with a wavelength of 3.6 microns is colored blue; 8-micron light is green; and 24-micron light is red. All three of Spitzer's instruments were used in the study: the infrared array camera, the

  3. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Faming; Huang, Boqiang; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Shenghui

    2018-05-23

    Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A), while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002⁻2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B). Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban sustainability in

  4. Work zone positive protection guidelines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this project was to develop implementation guidance that the Texas Department of : Transportation (TxDOT) can use to make better decisions regarding when and where to use positive : protection in work zones and when to consider exposure c...

  5. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  6. Building a Subduction Zone Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Bodin, Paul; Bourgeois, Jody; Cashman, Susan; Cowan, Darrel; Creager, Kenneth C.; Crowell, Brendan; Duvall, Alison; Frankel, Arthur; González, Frank I.; Houston, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Kelsey, Harvey; Miller, Una; Roland, Emily C.; Schmidt, David; Staisch, Lydia; Vidale, John; Wilcock, William; Wirth, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones contain many of Earth’s most remarkable geologic structures, from the deepest oceanic trenches to glacier-covered mountains and steaming volcanoes. These environments formed through spectacular events: Nature’s largest earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions are born here.

  7. Investigating Some Technical Issues on Cohesive Zone Modeling of Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates some technical issues related to the use of cohesive zone models (CZMs) in modeling fracture processes. These issues include: why cohesive laws of different shapes can produce similar fracture predictions; under what conditions CZM predictions have a high degree of agreement with linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis results; when the shape of cohesive laws becomes important in the fracture predictions; and why the opening profile along the cohesive zone length needs to be accurately predicted. Two cohesive models were used in this study to address these technical issues. They are the linear softening cohesive model and the Dugdale perfectly plastic cohesive model. Each cohesive model constitutes five cohesive laws of different maximum tractions. All cohesive laws have the same cohesive work rate (CWR) which is defined by the area under the traction-separation curve. The effects of the maximum traction on the cohesive zone length and the critical remote applied stress are investigated for both models. For a CZM to predict a fracture load similar to that obtained by an LEFM analysis, the cohesive zone length needs to be much smaller than the crack length, which reflects the small scale yielding condition requirement for LEFM analysis to be valid. For large-scale cohesive zone cases, the predicted critical remote applied stresses depend on the shape of cohesive models used and can significantly deviate from LEFM results. Furthermore, this study also reveals the importance of accurately predicting the cohesive zone profile in determining the critical remote applied load.

  8. Sedimentation in the Kane fracture zone, western North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroslow, G.E.

    1991-03-01

    The Kane fracture zone, a deep narrow trough in oceanic crust, has provided an ideal depocenter for reservation on the seismic stratigraphic record of the North Atlantic basin. The acoustic stratigraphy in single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiles crossing the Kane fracture zone in the western North Atlantic has been examined in order to scrutinize age processes within a fracture zone. Maps of total sediment thickness have provided insight into overall sediment distribution and the influence of topography on sedimentation. Eight reflectors have been traced and correlated with lithostratigraphy at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sites. The Bermuda Rise, amore » prominent topographic feature, has had a profound effect on the distribution of sediments within the fracture zone. Since late Eocene, the rise has blocked transport by turbidity currents of terrigenous sediments to distal portions of the fracture valley. A 1,000-m-thick turbidite pond within the fracture zone east of the Bermuda Rise has been determined to have been derived from local sources. Within the ponded sequence a seismic discontinuity is estimated to be early Oligocene and postdates the emergence of the Bermuda Rise, adding an independent age constraint on the development of the rise. The pond terminates against a structural dam at 55{degree}20W, east of which the fracture zone is essentially sediment starved.« less

  9. Laser-zone Growth in a Ribbon-to-ribbon (RTR) Process Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baghdadi, A.; Gurtler, R. W.; Legge, R.; Sopori, B.; Rice, M. J.; Ellis, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for growing limited-length ribbons continually was demonstrated. This Rigid Edge technique can be used to recrystallize about 95% of the polyribbon feedstock. A major advantage of this method is that only a single, constant length silicon ribbon is handled throughout the entire process sequence; this may be accomplished using cassettes similar to those presently in use for processing Czochralski waters. Thus a transition from Cz to ribbon technology can be smoothly affected. The maximum size being considered, 3 inches x 24 inches, is half a square foot, and will generate 6 watts for 12% efficiency at 1 sun. Silicon dioxide has been demonstrated as an effective, practical diffusion barrier for use during the polyribbon formation.

  10. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  11. Evolution of Root Zone Storage after Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijzink, R.; Hutton, C.; Capell, R.; Pechlivanidis, I.; Hrachowitz, M.; Savenije, H.

    2015-12-01

    It has been acknowledged for some time that a coupling exists between vegetation, climate and hydrological processes (e.g. Eagleson, 1982a, Rodriguez-Iturbe,2001 ). Recently, Gao et al.(2014) demonstrated that one of the core parameters of hydrological functioning, the catchment-scale root zone water storage capacity, can be estimated based on climate data alone. It was shown that ecosystems develop root zone storage capacities that allow vegetation to bridge droughts with return periods of about 20 years. As a consequence, assuming that the evaporative demand determines the root zone storage capacity, land use changes, such as deforestation, should have an effect on the development of this capacity . In this study it was tested to which extent deforestation affects root zone storage capacities. To do so, four different hydrological models were calibrated in a moving window approach after deforestation occurred. In this way, model based estimates of the storage capacity in time were obtained. This was compared with short term estimates of root zone storage capacities based on a climate based method similar to Gao et al.(2014). In addition, the equilibrium root zone storage capacity was determined with the total time series of an unaffected control catchment. Preliminary results indicate that models tend to adjust their storage capacity to the values found by the climate based method. This is strong evidence that the root zone storage is determined by the evaporative demand of vegetation. Besides, root zones storage capacities develop towards an equilibrium value where the ecosystem is in balance, further highlighting the evolving, time dynamic character of hydrological systems.

  12. The TRAPPIST-1 Habitable Zone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-22

    The TRAPPIST-1 system contains a total of seven planets, all around the size of Earth. Three of them -- TRAPPIST-1e, f and g -- dwell in their star's so-called "habitable zone." The habitable zone, or Goldilocks zone, is a band around every star (shown here in green) where astronomers have calculated that temperatures are just right -- not too hot, not too cold -- for liquid water to pool on the surface of an Earth-like world. While TRAPPIST-1b, c and d are too close to be in the system's likely habitable zone, and TRAPPIST-1h is too far away, the planets' discoverers say more optimistic scenarios could allow any or all of the planets to harbor liquid water. In particular, the strikingly small orbits of these worlds make it likely that most, if not all of them, perpetually show the same face to their star, the way our moon always shows the same face to the Earth. This would result in an extreme range of temperatures from the day to night sides, allowing for situations not factored into the traditional habitable zone definition. The illustrations shown for the various planets depict a range of possible scenarios of what they could look like. The system has been revealed through observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the ground-based TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) telescope, as well as other ground-based observatories. The system was named for the TRAPPIST telescope. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21424

  13. Seismic fault zone trapped noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Campillo, M.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Roux, P.

    2014-07-01

    Systematic velocity contrasts across and within fault zones can lead to head and trapped waves that provide direct information on structural units that are important for many aspects of earthquake and fault mechanics. Here we construct trapped waves from the scattered seismic wavefield recorded by a fault zone array. The frequency-dependent interaction between the ambient wavefield and the fault zone environment is studied using properties of the noise correlation field. A critical frequency fc ≈ 0.5 Hz defines a threshold above which the in-fault scattered wavefield has increased isotropy and coherency compared to the ambient noise. The increased randomization of in-fault propagation directions produces a wavefield that is trapped in a waveguide/cavity-like structure associated with the low-velocity damage zone. Dense spatial sampling allows the resolution of a near-field focal spot, which emerges from the superposition of a collapsing, time reversed wavefront. The shape of the focal spot depends on local medium properties, and a focal spot-based fault normal distribution of wave speeds indicates a ˜50% velocity reduction consistent with estimates from a far-field travel time inversion. The arrival time pattern of a synthetic correlation field can be tuned to match properties of an observed pattern, providing a noise-based imaging tool that can complement analyses of trapped ballistic waves. The results can have wide applicability for investigating the internal properties of fault damage zones, because mechanisms controlling the emergence of trapped noise have less limitations compared to trapped ballistic waves.

  14. Information fusion for the Gray Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) recently published a white paper describing the "Gray Zone", security challenges characterized by "ambiguity about the nature of the conflict, opacity of the parties involved…competitive interactions among and within state and non-state actors that fall between the traditional war and peace duality."1 Ambiguity and related uncertainty about actors, situations, relationships, and intent require new approaches to information collection, processing and fusion. General Votel, the current SOCOM commander, during a recent speech on "Operating in the Gray Zone" emphasized that it would be important to get left of the next crises and stated emphatically, "to do that we must understand the Human Domain."2 This understanding of the human domain must come from making meaning based on different perspectives, including the "emic" or first person/participant and "etic" or third person/observer perspectives. Much of the information currently collected and processed is etic. Incorporation and fusion with the emic perspective enables forecasting of behaviors/events and provides context for etic information (e.g., video).3 Gray zone challenges are perspective-dependent; for example, the conflict in Ukraine is interpreted quite differently by Russia, the US and Ukraine. Russia views it as war, necessitating aggressive action, the US views it as a security issue best dealt with by economic sanctions and diplomacy and the Ukraine views it as a threat to its sovereignty.4 General Otto in the Air Force ISR 2023 vision document stated that Air Force ISR is needed to anticipate strategic surprise.5 Anticipatory analysis enabling getting left of a crisis inherently requires a greater focus on information sources that elucidate the human environment as well as new methods that elucidate not only the "who's" and "what's", but the "how's and "why's," extracting features and/or patterns and subtle cues useful for forecasting behaviors and

  15. Laser-zone growth in a Ribbon-To-Ribbon, RTR, process silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtler, R. W.; Baghdadi, A.

    1977-01-01

    A ribbon-to-ribbon process was used for routine growth of samples for analysis and fabrication into solar cells. One lot of solar cells was completely evaluated: ribbon solar cell efficiencies averaged 9.23% with a highest efficiency of 11.7%. Spherical reflectors have demonstrated significant improvements in laser silicon coupling efficiencies. Material analyses were performed including silicon photovoltage and open circuit photovoltage diffusion length measurements, crystal morphology studies, modulus of rupture measurements, and annealing/gettering studies. An initial economic analysis was performed indicating that ribbon-to-ribbon add-on costs of $.10/watt might be expected in the early 1980's.

  16. On the initiation of subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, Sierd; Wortel, Rinus; Vlaar, N. J.

    1989-03-01

    Analysis of the relation between intraplate stress fields and lithospheric rheology leads to greater insight into the role that initiation of subduction plays in the tectonic evolution of the lithosphere. Numerical model studies show that if after a short evolution of a passive margin (time span a few tens of million years) subduction has not yet started, continued aging of the passive margin alone does not result in conditions more favorable for transformation into an active margin. Although much geological evidence is available in supporting the key role small ocean basins play in orogeny and ophiolite emplacement, evolutionary frameworks of the Wilson cycle usually are cast in terms of opening and closing of wide ocean basins. We propose a more limited role for large oceans in the Wilson cycle concept. In general, initiation of subduction at passive margins requires the action of external plate-tectonic forces, which will be most effective for young passive margins prestressed by thick sedimentary loads. It is not clear how major subduction zones (such as those presently ringing the Pacific Basin) form but it is unlikely they form merely by aging of oceanic lithosphere. Conditions likely to exist in very young oceanic regions are quite favorable for the development of subduction zones, which might explain the lack of preservation of back-arc basins and marginal seas. Plate reorganizations probably occur predominantly by the formation of new spreading ridges, because stress relaxation in the lithosphere takes place much more efficiently through this process than through the formation of new subduction zones.

  17. The transition zone above a lumbosacral fusion.

    PubMed

    Hambly, M F; Wiltse, L L; Raghavan, N; Schneiderman, G; Koenig, C

    1998-08-15

    The clinical and radiographic effect of a lumbar or lumbosacral fusion was studied in 42 patients who had undergone a posterolateral fusion with an average follow-up of 22.6 years. To examine the long-term effects of posterolateral lumbar or lumbosacral fusion on the cephalad two motion segments (transition zone). It is commonly held that accelerated degeneration occurs in the motion segments adjacent to a fusion. Most studies are of short-term, anecdotal, uncontrolled reports that pay particular attention only to the first motion segment immediately cephalad to the fusion. Forty-two patients who had previously undergone a posterolateral lumbar or lumbosacral fusion underwent radiographic and clinical evaluation. Rate of fusion, range of motion, osteophytes, degenerative spondylolisthesis, retrolisthesis, facet arthrosis, disc ossification, dynamic instability, and disc space height were all studied and statistically compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. The patient's self-reported clinical outcome was also recorded. Degenerative changes occurred at the second level above the fused levels with a frequency equal to those occurring in the first level. There was no statistical difference between the study group and the cohort group in the presence of radiographic changes within the transition zone. In those patients undergoing fusion for degenerative processes, 75% reported a good to excellent outcome, whereas 84% of those undergoing fusion for spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis reported a good to excellent outcome. Radiographic changes occur within the transition zone cephalad to a lumbar or lumbosacral fusion. However, these changes are also seen in control subjects who have had no surgery.

  18. Seismic probing of continental subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Xu, Xiaobing; Malusà, Marco G.

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution images of Earth's interior provide pivotal information for the understanding of a range of geodynamic processes, including continental subduction and exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. Here we present a synthesis of available global seismic observations on continental subduction zones, and selected examples of seismic probing from the European Alps, the Himalaya-Tibet and the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belts. Our synthesis and examples show that slabs recognized beneath exhumed continental UHP terranes generally have shallow dip angles (<45°) at depths <100 km, to become much steeper at depths >100 km. Slabs underlined by a clear high velocity anomaly from Earth's surface to the mantle are generally Cenozoic in age. Some of these slabs are continuous, whereas other continental subduction zones are located above discontinuous high velocity anomalies possibly suggesting slab breakoff. The density of seismic stations and the quality of recordings are of primary importance to get high-resolution images of the upper mantle to be used as a starting point to provide reliable geodynamic interpretations. In some cases, areas previously indicated as possible site of slab breakoff, such as the European Alps, have been later proven to be located above a continuous slab by using higher quality travel time data from denser seismic arrays. Discriminating between oceanic and continental slabs can be challenging, but valuable information can be provided by combining teleseismic tomography and receiver function analysis. The upper mantle beneath most continental UHP terranes generally shows complex seismic anisotropy patterns that are potentially preserved even in pre-Cenozoic subduction zones. These patterns can be used to provide information on continental slabs that are no longer highlighted by a clear high-velocity anomaly.

  19. Laser-zone growth in a Ribbon-To-Ribbon (RTR) process silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtler, R. W.; Baghdadi, A.; Wise, J.; Ellis, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Ribbon-to-Ribbon (RTR) approach to silicon ribbon growth was investigated. An existing RTR apparatus, RTR#1, was upgraded to allow for 5 cm wide ribbon growth with a finite stroke length of at least 15 cm. A second RTR apparatus, RTR#2, was designed, built, and operated which utilizes continuous feed mechanisms and allows continuous growth of 7.5 cm wide ribbons. RTR#2 includes development and utilization of advanced beam scanning (or shaping), high power lasers, and thermal profile modification elements to attain maximum growth velocities (with a design goal of 18 cm/min). Materials studies, process development, and thermal analyses are also described. Residual stresses and dislocation densities were minimized through theoretical and experimental efforts towards optimization of thermal profiles. Growth runs were performed on RTR#2 and solar cells were fabricated which demonstrated efficiencies greater than 10%.

  20. Laser-zone growth in a Ribbon-To-Ribbon (RTR) process. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area sheet task of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baghdadi, A.; Gurtler, R. W.; Legge, R.; Sopori, B.; Ellis, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    A new calculation of the effects of thermal stresses during growth on silicon ribbon quality is reported. Thermal stress distributions are computed for ribbon growth under a variety of temperature profiles. A growth rate of 55 cu cm/min with a single ribbon was achieved. The growth of RTR ribbon with a fairly uniform parallel dendritic structure was demonstrated. Results with two approaches were obtained for reducing the Mo impurity level in polycrystalline feedstock. Coating the Mo substrate with Si3N4 does not effect thermal shear separation of the polyribbon; this process shows promise of improving cell efficiency and also increasing the useful life of the molybdenum substrate. A number of solar cells were fabricated on RTR silicon grown from CVD feedstock.

  1. Observing Complex Systems Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Joshua; Saleh, Asmalina; Andrade, Alejandro; Bryan, Branden

    2017-01-01

    Our paper builds on the construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky in Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978) to analyze the relationship between students' answers and the help they receive as they construct them. We report on a secondary analysis of…

  2. Lafourche Parish Coastal Zone Curriculum Resource Unit. Bulletin 1834.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Bobby; And Others

    The Louisiana coastal zone is a unique geographic feature. Soil carried by the Mississippi River has been deposited in Louisiana for the last 6,000 years to form the coastal area. All natural features in coastal Louisiana relate to materials and processes associated with the emptying of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The…

  3. In the Zone: Vygotskian-Inspired Pedagogy for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Lev Vygotsky's (1978) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides inspiration for a teaching approach for sustainability in a social science discipline, where students often lack or have widely varied levels of foundational understanding. This qualitative case study describes intellectual processes and aspects of the educational…

  4. Waves and mesoscale features in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chih Y.

    1993-01-01

    Ocean-ice interaction processes in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) by waves and mesoscale features, such as upwelling and eddies, are studied using ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery and wave-ice interaction models. Satellite observations of mesoscale features can play a crucial role in ocean-ice interaction study.

  5. 76 FR 38297 - Safety Zone; Marine Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Sault Sainte Marie Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...'' W [DATUM: NAD 83]. (ii) Enforcement Period. This safety zone will be enforced on July 4, 2011 from 9...'' N, 086[deg]39'08.52'' W [DATUM: NAD 83]. (ii) Enforcement Period. This safety zone will be enforced...: NAD 83], with the West Bay shoreline forming the South and West boundaries of the zone. (ii...

  6. Infrared zone-scanning system.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Aleksandr; Popov, Gennady

    2006-03-20

    Challenges encountered in designing an infrared viewing optical system that uses a small linear detector array based on a zone-scanning approach are discussed. Scanning is performed by a rotating refractive polygon prism with tilted facets, which, along with high-speed line scanning, makes the scanning gear as simple as possible. A method of calculation of a practical optical system to compensate for aberrations during prism rotation is described.

  7. The Base Zone Protection Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    The Base Zone Protection Problem Dinesh C. Verma IBM T. J. Watson Research Center Hawthorne, NY 10549 Theodore Brown, Amotz Bar Noy and...al. 2008 have tried to develop the impact of terrain on the coverage area of a sensor and simulated its impact on sensor coverage. Kumar et al...conference on Wireless sensor networks and applications. WSNA 03, ACM Press, 2003, pp. 115--121. Kumar S., Lai T. and Arora A., “Barrier Coverage

  8. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from themore » outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to

  9. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map

    Science.gov Websites

    those with slower Internet access. Users may also simply type in a ZIP Code and find the hardiness zone : Find Javascript is not enabled in this Internet Browser For a better experience throughout this web site, please enable Javascript in your Internet Browser What is a Captcha and why am I seeing one (on

  10. Evaluation of Work Zone Speed Reduction Measures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-01

    The Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) has made improving work zone (WZ) safety a high priority. Managing vehicle speeds through work zones is perceived to be an important factor in achieving this goal. A number of speed reduction techniques are...

  11. Downtown Crossing: Auto Restricted Zone in Boston

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-07-01

    The Downtown Crossing auto restricted zone, implemented in 1978, involved the : elimination of all auto traffic froma zone of twelve blocks encompassing six : different streets in Bostn's central business district. Some of the blocks were : pedestria...

  12. New York City green loading zones study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact and potential benefits of Green Loading Zones (GLZs)a policy solution to incentivize further : electric truck adoption with the creation of curbside loading zones that are exclusively available to...

  13. 49 CFR 71.6 - Central zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... States that is west of the boundary line between the eastern and central standard time zones described in... between the central and mountain time zones. The Chicago, Rock Island and Gulf Railway Company and the...

  14. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  15. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  16. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  17. Research notes : helping businesses in work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-03-01

    Many business owners fear that highway construction projects will significantly reduce traffic to their businesses. Customers complain about the difficulty in finding business driveways in work zones. Drivers are guided through most work zone using o...

  18. Life zone investigations in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, Merritt

    1917-01-01

    Wyoming is among the foremost of our States in its wealth of natural scenery, culminating in the grandeur of Yellowstone National Park, one of the wonders of the world. In addition to this distinction it posseses vast open plains and lofty mountains whence flow the headwaters of mighty river systems emptying far away to the west into the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast into the Gulf of Mexico, and to the southwest into the Gulf of California. The various slope exposures of its mountain ranges, the fertility of its intervening valleys or basins, and the aridity of its desert spaces present a study of geographic and vertical distribution of wild life that is in many particulars unique.The study of geographic and vertical distribution of life with the governing factors and attendant problems is valuable as a matter of scientific research and in the attainment of practical knowledge. The Biological Survey has been making detailed investigations of the transcontinental life belts, or zones, of North America for some years, and this work has been carried on with special reference to their practical value. It has become increasingly evident that life zones furnish a fairly accurate index to average climatic conditions and, therefore, are useful as marking the limits of agricultural possibilities, so far as these are dependent upon climate. The knowledge thus gained has been published and made available as the investigations have progressed and the life zones have been mapped.1

  19. Cases of Coastal Zone Change and Land Use/Land Cover Change: a learning module that goes beyond the "how" of doing image processing and change detection to asking the "why" about what are the "driving forces" of global change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    In 2006 the Loma Linda University ESSE21 Mesoamerican Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century) along with partners such as the University of Redlands and California State University, Pomona, produced an online learning module that is designed to help students learn critical remote sensing skills-- specifically: ecosystem characterization, i.e. doing a supervised or unsupervised classification of satellite imagery in a tropical coastal environment. And, it would teach how to measure land use / land cover change (LULC) over time and then encourage students to use that data to assess the Human Dimensions of Global Change (HDGC). Specific objectives include: 1. Learn where to find remote sensing data and practice downloading, pre-processing, and "cleaning" the data for image analysis. 2. Use Leica-Geosystems ERDAS Imagine or IDRISI Kilimanjaro to analyze and display the data. 3. Do an unsupervised classification of a LANDSAT image of a protected area in Honduras, i.e. Cuero y Salado, Pico Bonito, or Isla del Tigre. 4. Virtually participate in a ground-validation exercise that would allow one to re-classify the image into a supervised classification using the FAO Global Land Cover Network (GLCN) classification system. 5. Learn more about each protected area's landscape, history, livelihood patterns and "sustainability" issues via virtual online tours that provide ground and space photos of different sites. This will help students in identifying potential "training sites" for doing a supervised classification. 6. Study other global, US, Canadian, and European land use/land cover classification systems and compare their advantages and disadvantages over the FAO/GLCN system. 7. Learn to appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of existing LULC classification schemes and adapt them to local-level user needs. 8. Carry out a change detection exercise that shows how land use and/or land cover has changed over time for the protected area of your choice

  20. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsekian, Andy; Singha, Kamini; Minsley, Burke J.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Slater, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  1. Maritime zones delimitation - Problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastrisios, Christos; Tsoulos, Lysandros

    2018-05-01

    The delimitation of maritime zones and boundaries foreseen by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is a factor of economic growth, effective management of the coastal and ocean environment and the cornerstone for maritime spatial planning. Maritime zones and boundaries form the outermost limits of coastal states and their accurate delineation and cartographic portrayal is a matter of national priority. Although UNCLOS is a legal document, its implementation -at first place- is purely technical and requires -amongst others- theoretical and applied background on Geodesy, Cartography and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for those involved. This paper provides a brief historical background of the evolution of the UNCLOS, presents the various concepts of the Convention and identifies the problems inherent in the maritime delimitation process. Furthermore, it presents solutions that will facilitate the cartographer's work in order to achieve unquestionable results. Through the paper it becomes evident that the role of the cartographer and the GIS expert is critical for the successful implementation of maritime delimitation.

  2. UV habitable zones around M stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2007-12-01

    During the last decade there was a change in paradigm, which led to consider that terrestrial-type planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars can also be suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Since many dMe stars emit large amount of UV radiation during flares, in this work we analyze the UV constrains for living systems on Earth-like planets around dM stars. We apply our model of UV habitable zone (UV-HZ; Buccino, A.P., Lemarchand, G.A., Mauas, P.J.D., 2006. Icarus 183, 491-503) to the three planetary systems around dM stars (HIP 74995, HIP 109388 and HIP 113020) observed by IUE and to two M-flare stars (AD Leo and EV Lac). In particular, HIP 74995 hosts a terrestrial planet in the LW-HZ, which is the exoplanet that most resembles our own Earth. We show, in general, that during the quiescent state there would not be enough UV radiation within the LW-HZ to trigger the biogenic processes and that this energy could be provided by flares of moderate intensity, while strong flares do not necessarily rule-out the possibility of life-bearing planets.

  3. OLED emission zone measurement with high accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danz, N.; MacCiarnain, R.; Michaelis, D.; Wehlus, T.; Rausch, A. F.; Wächter, C. A.; Reusch, T. C. G.

    2013-09-01

    Highly efficient state of the art organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) comprise thin emitting layers with thicknesses in the order of 10 nm. The spatial distribution of the photon generation rate, i.e. the profile of the emission zone, inside these layers is of interest for both device efficiency analysis and characterization of charge recombination processes. It can be accessed experimentally by reverse simulation of far-field emission pattern measurements. Such a far-field pattern is the sum of individual emission patterns associated with the corresponding positions inside the active layer. Based on rigorous electromagnetic theory the relation between far-field pattern and emission zone is modeled as a linear problem. This enables a mathematical analysis to be applied to the cases of single and double emitting layers in the OLED stack as well as to pattern measurements in air or inside the substrate. From the results, guidelines for optimum emitter - cathode separation and for selecting the best experimental approach are obtained. Limits for the maximum spatial resolution can be derived.

  4. Surface deformation in volcanic rift zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollard, D.D.; Delaney, P.T.; Duffield, W.A.; Endo, E.T.; Okamura, A.T.

    1983-01-01

    The principal conduits for magma transport within rift zones of basaltic volcanoes are steeply dipping dikes, some of which feed fissure eruptions. Elastic displacements accompanying a single dike emplacement elevate the flanks of the rift relative to a central depression. Concomitant normal faulting may transform the depression into a graben thus accentuating the topographic features of the rift. If eruption occurs the chara