Wang, Tzu-Ling; Yang, Der-Ching
The purposes of this study were to compare the differences in the use of geometry in elementary school mathematics textbooks among Finland, Mainland China, Singapore, Taiwan, and the USA and to investigate the relationships between the design of the textbooks and students' performance on large-scale tests such as TIMSS-4 geometry, TIMSS-8…
Yang, Der-Ching; Tseng, Yi-Kuan; Wang, Tzu-Ling
This study analyzed geometry problems in four middle-grade mathematics textbook series from Taiwan, Singapore, Finland, and the United States, while exploring the expectations for students' learning experiences with these problems. An analytical framework developed for mathematics textbook problem analysis had three dimensions: representation…
Moore, G.; Hayes, G. P.; Portner, D. E.; Furtney, M.; Flamme, H. E.; Hearne, M. G.
The U.S. Geological Survey database of global subduction zone geometries (Slab1.0), is a highly utilized dataset that has been applied to a wide range of geophysical problems. In 2017, these models have been improved and expanded upon as part of the Slab2 modeling effort. With a new data driven approach that can be applied to a broader range of tectonic settings and geophysical data sets, we have generated a model set that will serve as a more comprehensive, reliable, and reproducible resource for three-dimensional slab geometries at all of the world's convergent margins. The newly developed framework of Slab2 is guided by: (1) a large integrated dataset, consisting of a variety of geophysical sources (e.g., earthquake hypocenters, moment tensors, active-source seismic survey images of the shallow slab, tomography models, receiver functions, bathymetry, trench ages, and sediment thickness information); (2) a dynamic filtering scheme aimed at constraining incorporated seismicity to only slab related events; (3) a 3-D data interpolation approach which captures both high resolution shallow geometries and instances of slab rollback and overlap at depth; and (4) an algorithm which incorporates uncertainties of contributing datasets to identify the most probable surface depth over the extent of each subduction zone. Further layers will also be added to the base geometry dataset, such as historic moment release, earthquake tectonic providence, and interface coupling. Along with access to several queryable data formats, all components have been wrapped into an open source library in Python, such that suites of updated models can be released as further data becomes available. This presentation will discuss the extent of Slab2 development, as well as the current availability of the model and modeling tools.
The analytical scheme used in the project The Evolution of the Discourse of School Mathematics (EDSM) was developed to analyse the change over time in examination texts. An adapted version of the EDSM scheme has been deployed to analyse the nature of mathematics construed in Palestinian schools' textbooks and the mathematical activity expected of…
Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.
Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…
Bradley, Arthur; Nam, Jayoung; Xu, Renfeng; Harman, Leslie; Thibos, Larry
Purpose To examine the separate and combined influences of zone geometry, pupil size, diffraction, apodisation and spherical aberration on the optical performance of concentric zonal bifocals. Methods Zonal bifocal pupil functions representing eye + ophthalmic correction were defined by interleaving wavefronts from separate optical zones of the bifocal. A two-zone design (a central circular inner zone surrounded by an annular outer-zone which is bounded by the pupil) and a five-zone design (a central small circular zone surrounded by four concentric annuli) were configured with programmable zone geometry, wavefront phase and pupil transmission characteristics. Using computational methods, we examined the effects of diffraction, Stiles Crawford apodisation, pupil size and spherical aberration on optical transfer functions for different target distances. Results Apodisation alters the relative weighting of each zone, and thus the balance of near and distance optical quality. When spherical aberration is included, the effective distance correction, add power and image quality depend on zone-geometry and Stiles Crawford Effect apodisation. When the outer zone width is narrow, diffraction limits the available image contrast when focused, but as pupil dilates and outer zone width increases, aberrations will limit the best achievable image quality. With two-zone designs, balancing near and distance image quality is not achieved with equal area inner and outer zones. With significant levels of spherical aberration, multi-zone designs effectively become multifocals. Conclusion Wave optics and pupil varying ocular optics significantly affect the imaging capabilities of different optical zones of concentric bifocals. With two-zone bifocal designs, diffraction, pupil apodisation spherical aberration, and zone size influence both the effective add power and the pupil size required to balance near and distance image quality. Five-zone bifocal designs achieve a high degree of
Hayes, Gavin P.; Wald, David J.; Johnson, Rebecca L.
We describe and present a new model of global subduction zone geometries, called Slab1.0. An extension of previous efforts to constrain the two-dimensional non-planar geometry of subduction zones around the focus of large earthquakes, Slab1.0 describes the detailed, non-planar, three-dimensional geometry of approximately 85% of subduction zones worldwide. While the model focuses on the detailed form of each slab from their trenches through the seismogenic zone, where it combines data sets from active source and passive seismology, it also continues to the limits of their seismic extent in the upper-mid mantle, providing a uniform approach to the definition of the entire seismically active slab geometry. Examples are shown for two well-constrained global locations; models for many other regions are available and can be freely downloaded in several formats from our new Slab1.0 website, http://on.doi.gov/d9ARbS. We describe improvements in our two-dimensional geometry constraint inversion, including the use of `average' active source seismic data profiles in the shallow trench regions where data are otherwise lacking, derived from the interpolation between other active source seismic data along-strike in the same subduction zone. We include several analyses of the uncertainty and robustness of our three-dimensional interpolation methods. In addition, we use the filtered, subduction-related earthquake data sets compiled to build Slab1.0 in a reassessment of previous analyses of the deep limit of the thrust interface seismogenic zone for all subduction zones included in our global model thus far, concluding that the width of these seismogenic zones is on average 30% larger than previous studies have suggested.
Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Gorelick, Steven M.
A new approach is presented to condition geostatistical simulation of high‐permeability zones in fractured rock to hydraulic‐connection data. A simulated‐annealing algorithm generates three‐dimensional (3‐D) realizations conditioned to borehole data, inferred hydraulic connections between packer‐isolated borehole intervals, and an indicator (fracture zone or background‐K bedrock) variogram model of spatial variability. We apply the method to data from the U.S. Geological Survey Mirror Lake Site in New Hampshire, where connected high‐permeability fracture zones exert a strong control on fluid flow at the hundred‐meter scale. Single‐well hydraulic‐packer tests indicate where permeable fracture zones intersect boreholes, and multiple‐well pumping tests indicate the degree of hydraulic connection between boreholes. Borehole intervals connected by a fracture zone exhibit similar hydraulic responses, whereas intervals not connected by a fracture zone exhibit different responses. Our approach yields valuable insights into the 3‐D geometry of fracture zones at Mirror Lake. Statistical analysis of the realizations yields maps of the probabilities of intersecting specific fracture zones with additional wells. Inverse flow modeling based on the assumption of equivalent porous media is used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage and to identify those fracture‐zone geometries that are consistent with hydraulic test data.
ten Brink, Uri S.; Molzer, P.C.; Fisher, M.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Bucknam, R.C.; Parsons, T.; Crosson, R.S.; Creager, K.C.
The Seattle fault, a large, seismically active, east-west-striking fault zone under Seattle, is the best-studied fault within the tectonically active Puget Lowland in western Washington, yet its subsurface geometry and evolution are not well constrained. We combine several analysis and modeling approaches to study the fault geometry and evolution, including depth-converted, deep-seismic-reflection images, P-wave-velocity field, gravity data, elastic modeling of shoreline uplift from a late Holocene earthquake, and kinematic fault restoration. We propose that the Seattle thrust or reverse fault is accompanied by a shallow, antithetic reverse fault that emerges south of the main fault. The wedge enclosed by the two faults is subject to an enhanced uplift, as indicated by the boxcar shape of the shoreline uplift from the last major earthquake on the fault zone. The Seattle Basin is interpreted as a flexural basin at the footwall of the Seattle fault zone. Basin stratigraphy and the regional tectonic history lead us to suggest that the Seattle fault zone initiated as a reverse fault during the middle Miocene, concurrently with changes in the regional stress field, to absorb some of the north-south shortening of the Cascadia forearc. Kingston Arch, 30 km north of the Seattle fault zone, is interpreted as a more recent disruption arising within the basin, probably due to the development of a blind reverse fault.
Swanson, Mark T.
Detailed outcrop surface mapping in Late Paleozoic cataclastic strike-slip faults of coastal Maine shows that asymmetric sidewall ripouts, 0.1-200 m in length, are a significant component of many mapped faults and an important wall rock deformation mechanism during faulting. The geometry of these structures ranges from simple lenses to elongate slabs cut out of the sidewalls of strike-slip faults by a lateral jump of the active zone of slip during adhesion along a section of the main fault. The new irregular trace of the active fault after this jump creates an indenting asperity that is forced to plow through the adjoining wall rock during continued adhesion or be cut off by renewed motion along the main section of the fault. Ripout translation during adhesion sets up the structural asymmetry with trailing extensional and leading contractional ends to the ripout block. The inactive section of the main fault trace at the trailing end can develop a 'sag' or 'half-graben' type geometry due to block movement along the scallop-shaped connecting ramp to the flanking ripout fault. Leading contractional ramps can develop 'thrust' type imbrication and forces the 'humpback' geometry to the ripout slab due to distortion of the inactive main fault surface by ripout translation. Similar asymmetric ripout geometries are recognized in many other major crustal scale strike-slip fault zones worldwide. Ripout structures in the 5-500 km length range can be found on the Atacama fault system of northern Chile, the Qujiang and Xiaojiang fault zones in western China, the Yalakom-Hozameen fault zone in British Columbia and the San Andreas fault system in southern California. For active crustal-scale faults the surface expression of ripout translation includes a coupled system of extensional trailing ramps as normal oblique-slip faults with pull-apart basin sedimentation and contractional leading ramps as oblique thrust or high angle reverse faults with associated uplift and erosion. The
Saraswati, A. T.; Mazzotti, S.; Cattin, R.; Cadio, C.
Slab geometry is a key parameter to improve seismic hazard assessment in subduction zones. In many cases, information about structures beneath subduction are obtained from geophysical dedicated studies, including geodetic and seismic measurements. However, due to the lack of global information, both geometry and segmentation in seismogenic zone of many subductions remain badly-constrained. Here we propose an alternative approach based on satellite gravity observations. The GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) mission enables to probe Earth deep mass structures from gravity gradients, which are more sensitive to spatial structure geometry and directional properties than classical gravitational data. Gravity gradients forward modeling of modeled slab is performed by using horizontal and vertical gravity gradient components to better determine slab geophysical model rather than vertical gradient only. Using polyhedron method, topography correction on gravity gradient signal is undertaken to enhance the anomaly signal of lithospheric structures. Afterward, we compare residual gravity gradients with the calculated signals associated with slab geometry. In this preliminary study, straightforward models are used to better understand the characteristic of gravity gradient signals due to deep mass sources. We pay a special attention to the delineation of slab borders and dip angle variations.
Veveakis, Manolis; Schrank, Christoph
The spatial footprint of a brittle fault is usually dominated by a wide area of deformation bands and fractures surrounding a narrow, highly deformed fault core. This diffuse damage zone relates to the deformation history of a fault, including its seismicity, and has a significant impact on flow and mechanical properties of faulted rock. Here, we propose a new mechanical model for damage-zone formation. It builds on a novel mathematical theory postulating fundamental material instabilities in solids with internal mass transfer associated with volumetric deformation due to elastoviscoplastic p-waves termed cnoidal waves. We show that transient cnoidal waves triggered by fault slip events can explain the characteristic distribution and extent of deformation bands and fractures within natural fault damage zones. Our model suggests that an overpressure wave propagating away from the slipping fault and the material properties of the host rock control damage-zone geometry. Hence, cnoidal-wave theory may open a new chapter for predicting seismicity, material and geometrical properties as well as the location of brittle faults.
Midtkandal, I.; Gabrielsen, R. H.; Brun, J.-P.; Huismans, R.
Recent knowledge of the great geometric and dynamic complexity insubduction zones, combined with new capacity for analogue mechanical and numerical modeling has sparked a number of studies on subduction processes. Not unexpectedly, such models reveal a complex relation between physical conditions during subduction initiation, strength profile of the subducting plate, the thermo-dynamic conditions and the subduction zones geometries. One rare geometrical complexity of subduction that remains particularly controversial, is the potential for polarity shift in subduction systems. The present experiments were therefore performed to explore the influence of the architecture, strength and strain velocity on complexities in subduction zones, focusing on along-strike variation of the collision zone. Of particular concern were the consequences for the geometry and kinematics of the transition zones between segments of contrasting subduction direction. Although the model design to some extent was inspired by the configuration along the Iberian - Eurasian suture zone, the results are also of significance for other orogens with complex along-strike geometries. The experiments were set up to explore the initial state of subduction only, and were accordingly terminated before slab subduction occurred. The model wasbuilt from layers of silicone putty and sand, tailored to simulate the assumed lithospheric geometries and strength-viscosity profiles along the plate boundary zone prior to contraction, and comprises two 'continental' plates separated by a thinner 'oceanic' plate that represents the narrow seaway. The experiment floats on a substrate of sodiumpolytungstate, representing mantle. 24 experimental runs were performed, varying the thickness (and thus strength) of the upper mantle lithosphere, as well as the strain rate. Keeping all other parameters identical for each experiment, the models were shortened by a computer-controlled jackscrew while time-lapse images were
Blum, Christopher O.
Asserts that when college mathematics is taught as one of the liberal arts, Euclid's Elements of Geometry, which is one of the oldest math textbooks, may still be the best, because it helps students understand what is "lovely about mathematics". Suggests that "Elements of Geometry" promotes the mental exercise that comes from…
A high rate of intermediate-depth earthquakes is concentrates in the Cauca cluster (3.5°N-5.5°N) and isolated from nearby seismicity in the southwestern Colombia subduction zone. Previously-studied nests of intermediate-depth earthquakes show that a high seismicity rate is often associated with a slab tear, detachment, or contortion. The cause of the less-studied Cauca cluster is unknown. To investigate the cause, we image the slab geometry using precise relative locations of intermediate-depth earthquakes. We use the earthquake catalog produced and seismic waveforms recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from January 2010 to March 2014. We calculate the focal mechanisms to examine whether the earthquakes reactivate pre-existing faults or form new fractures. The focal mechanisms are inverted for the intraslab stress field to check the stress guide hypothesis and to evaluate the stress orientations with regard to the change in the slab geometry. The earthquake relocations indicate that the Cauca segment has a continuous 20 km thick seismic zone and increases in dip angle from north to south. Two 40-km-tall fingers of earthquakes extend out of the slab and into the mantle wedge. Different from the previously-studied nests, the Cauca cluster does not correspond to slab contortions or tearing. The cluster may be associated with a high amount of dehydrated fluid. The determined focal mechanisms of 69 earthquakes have various types and variably-oriented nodal planes, corresponding to the reactivation of pre-existing faults and the formation of new fractures. The results of stress inversion show that the extensional axis in the northern Cauca segment is in the plane of the slab and 25° from the downdip direction, and the southern part has along-strike extension. The compression is subnormal to the plane of the slab. The stress field supports the stress guide hypothesis and shows a consistent rotation with increase in slab dip angle.
Yu, Hongyu; Liu, Yajing; Yang, Hongfeng; Ning, Jieyuan
To assess the potential of catastrophic megathrust earthquakes (MW > 8) along the Manila Trench, the eastern boundary of the South China Sea, we incorporate a 3D non-planar fault geometry in the framework of rate-state friction to simulate earthquake rupture sequences along the fault segment between 15°N-19°N of northern Luzon. Our simulation results demonstrate that the first-order fault geometry heterogeneity, the transitional-segment (possibly related to the subducting Scarborough seamount chain) connecting the steeper south segment and the flatter north segment, controls earthquake rupture behaviors. The strong along-strike curvature at the transitional-segment typically leads to partial ruptures of MW 8.3 and MW 7.8 along the southern and northern segments respectively. The entire fault occasionally ruptures in MW 8.8 events when the cumulative stress in the transitional-segment is sufficiently high to overcome the geometrical inhibition. Fault shear stress evolution, represented by the S-ratio, is clearly modulated by the width of seismogenic zone (W). At a constant plate convergence rate, a larger W indicates on average lower interseismic stress loading rate and longer rupture recurrence period, and could slow down or sometimes stop ruptures that initiated from a narrower portion. Moreover, the modeled interseismic slip rate before whole-fault rupture events is comparable with the coupling state that was inferred from the interplate seismicity distribution, suggesting the Manila trench could potentially rupture in a M8+ earthquake.
The geometry and width of the ductile roots of plate boundary scale faults are very poorly understood. Some field and geophysical data suggests widths of tens of km in the lower crust, possibly more in the upper mantle. Other observations suggest they are much narrower. Dip slip shear zones may flatten out and merge into zones of subhorizontal lower crustal or asthenospheric flow. The width of a ductile shear zone is simply related to relative velocity and strain rate. Strain rate is related to stress through the constitutive relationship. Can we constrain the stress, and do we understand the rheology of materials in ductile shear zones? A lot depends on how shear zones are initiated. If they are localized by pre-existing structures, width and/or rheology may be inherited, and we have too many variables. If shear zones are localized primarily by shear heating, initial shear stress has to be very high (> 1 GPa) to overcome conductive heat loss, and very large feedbacks (both positive and negative) make the system highly unstable. Microstructural weakening requires a minimum level of stress to cause deformation and damage in surrounding rock, thereby buffering the stress. Microstructural weakening leads to grain-size sensitive creep, for which we have constitutive laws, but these are complicated by phase mixing in polyphase materials, by viscous anisotropy, by hydration, and by changes in mineral assemblage. Here are some questions that need to be addressed. (1) If grain-size reduction by dynamic recrystallization results in a switch to grain-size sensitive creep (GSSC) in a stress-buffered shear zone, does dynamic recrystallization stop? Does grain growth set in? If grain-size is still controlled by dislocation processes, then the effective stress exponent for GSSC is 4-5, even though the dominant mechanism may be diffusion and/or grain-boundary sliding (GBS). (2) Is phase mixing in ultramylonites primarily a result of GBS + neighbour switching, creep cavitation and
McCrory, Patricia A.; Blair, J. Luke; Waldhause, Felix; Oppenheimer, David H.
A new model of the subducted Juan de Fuca plate beneath western North America allows first-order correlations between the occurrence of Wadati-Benioff zone earthquakes and slab geometry, temperature, and hydration state. The geo-referenced 3D model, constructed from weighted control points, integrates depth information from earthquake locations and regional seismic velocity studies. We use the model to separate earthquakes that occur in the Cascadia forearc from those that occur within the underlying Juan de Fuca plate and thereby reveal previously obscured details regarding the spatial distribution of earthquakes. Seismicity within the slab is most prevalent where the slab is warped beneath northwestern California and western Washington suggesting that slab flexure, in addition to expected metamorphic dehydration processes, promotes earthquake occurrence within the subducted oceanic plate. Earthquake patterns beneath western Vancouver Island are consistent with slab dehydration processes. Conversely, the lack of slab earthquakes beneath western Oregon is consistent with an anhydrous slab. Double-differenced relocated seismicity resolves a double seismic zone within the slab beneath northwestern California that strongly constrains the location of the plate interface and delineates a cluster of seismicity 10 km above the surface that includes the 1992 M7.1 Mendocino earthquake. We infer that this earthquake ruptured a surface within the Cascadia accretionary margin above the Juan de Fuca plate. We further speculate that this earthquake is associated with a detached fragment of former Farallon plate. Other subsurface tectonic elements within the forearc may have the potential to generate similar damaging earthquakes.
Schroeder, D. M.; Grima, C.; Blankenship, D. D.
The impact of warm ocean water on ice sheet retreat and stability is a one of the primary drivers and sources of uncertainty for the rate of global sea level rise. One critical but challenging observation required to understand and model this impact is the location and extent of grounding ice sheet zones. However, existing surface topography based techniques do not directly detect the location where ocean water reaches (or breaches) grounded ice at the bed, which can significantly affect ice sheet stability. The primary geophysical tool for directly observing the basal properties of ice sheets is airborne radar sounding. However, uncertainty in englacial attenuation from unknown ice temperature and chemistry can lead to erroneous interpretation of subglacial conditions from bed echo strengths alone . Recently developed analysis techniques for radar sounding data have overcome this challenge by taking advantage of information in the angular distribution of bed echo energy and joint modeling of radar returns and water routing. We have developed similar approaches to analyze the spatial pattern and character of echoes to address the problems of improved characterization of grounding zone geometry and englacial attenuation. The spatial signal of the transition from an ice-bed interface to an ice-ocean interface is an increase in bed echo strength. However, rapidly changing attenuation near the grounding zone prevents the unambiguous interpretation of this signal in typical echo strength profiles and violates the assumptions of existing empirical attenuation correction techniques. We present a technique that treat bed echoes as continuous signals to take advantage of along-profile ice thickness and echo strength variations to constrain the spatial pattern of attenuation and detect the grounding zone transition. The transition from an ice-bed interface to an ice-ocean interface will also result in a change in the processes that determine basal interface morphology (e
Maxelon, Michael; Mancktelow, Neil S.
Continental collision during Alpine orogenesis entailed a polyphase deformation history (D 1-D 5) in the Pennine zone of the Central Alps. The regional tectonostratigraphy was basically developed during D 1 and D 2, characterised by isoclinal, typically north-closing recumbent anticlines, separated by pinched-in synclines, on the scale of tens of kilometres. Later deformation phases (D 3 and D 4) warped the stack into wavy to open folds. Exhumation of this zone resulted locally in later vertical shortening and folding of already steep fabrics (D 5). Three-dimensional models of the nappe pile were constructed, based on geostatistical assessment of the regional foliation field and considering the abundant structural field data. These models indicate the existence of five principal tectonostratigraphic levels developed during D 1 and thus equivalent to nappe units s. str.: the Gotthard, the Leventina-Antigorio, the Maggia-Simano (and probably the Monte Leone as well as the Composite Lepontine Series), Lebendun-Soja and Adula-Cima Lunga levels. All these tectonic units formed part of the passive continental margin of Europe prior to the onset of the Alpine orogenesis. Individual isoclinal post-nappe folds reflect relative displacements on the order of 40 km or more. The most prominent D 2 post-nappe structure is the Wandfluhhorn Fold, structurally equivalent to the northern closure of the Leventina-Lucomagno Antiform. The Lebendun and Monte Leone folds are of similar magnitudes and also affect the whole nappe pile, whereas the smaller Mogno and Molare synforms only refold the Maggia-Simano nappe internally. Principal D 3 and D 4 structures are the tight Mergoscia Synform directly north of the Insubric Fault between Bellinzona and Locarno (Southern Steep Belt), the Maggia Steep Zone, forming the steep western limb of the Campo Tencia Synform and subdividing the Lepontine dome into the Simplon and Ticino subdomes, the Chiéra Synform steepening the dominant foliation in
kaul, Upender K.
A procedure for generating smooth uniformly clustered single-zone grids using enhanced elliptic grid generation has been demonstrated here for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) geometries such as aeroshell and canopy. The procedure obviates the need for generating multizone grids for such geometries, as reported in the literature. This has been possible because the enhanced elliptic grid generator automatically generates clustered grids without manual prescription of decay parameters needed with the conventional approach. In fact, these decay parameters are calculated as decay functions as part of the solution, and they are not constant over a given boundary. Since these decay functions vary over a given boundary, orthogonal grids near any arbitrary boundary can be clustered automatically without having to break up the boundaries and the corresponding interior domains into various zones for grid generation.
Gan, Weijun; Zhang, P.; Shen, Z.-K.; Prescott, W.H.; Svarc, J.L.
We suggest a 2-stage deformation model for the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) to explain the geometry of the Garlock fault trace. We assume the Garlock fault was originally straight and then was gradually curved by right-lateral shear deformation across the ECSZ. In our 2-stage deformation model, the first stage involves uniform shear deformation across the eastern part of the shear zone, and the second stage involves uniform shear deformation across the entire shear zone. In addition to the current shape of the Garlock fault, our model incorporates constraints on contemporary deformation rates provided by GPS observations. We find that the best fitting age for initiation of shear in eastern part of the ECSZ is about 5.0 ?? 0.4 Ma, and that deformation of the western part started about 1.6 Myr later.
Is the print textbook--that old-fashioned, heavy, expensive staple of the 20th-century classroom--soon to be a thing of the past? While it's hard to imagine the K-12 world, known for its resistance to change, throwing out math, language, and science textbooks in favor of digital content, the nation's current fiscal crisis, combined with major…
Gamble, Michael W.; Gamble, Teri Kwal
Communication instructors rely on textbook writers to present the latest course content in ways that will motivate students to learn and prepare them for class discussion and activities. Targeting the works they create to reflect student needs and shaping their materials to stimulate and involve their readers, these textbook writers-as-artists…
Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)
Models of pull-apart basin geometry have been described by many previous studies in a variety tectonic setting. 2D geometry of Ranau Lake represents a pull-apart basin in the Sumatran Fault Zone. However, there are unclear geomorphic traces of two sub-parallel overlapping strike-slip faults in the boundary of the lake. Nonetheless, clear geomorphic traces that parallel to Kumering Segment of the Sumatran Fault are considered as inactive faults in the southern side of the lake. I demonstrate the angular characteristics of the Ranau Lake and Suoh complex pull-apart basins and compare with pull-apart basin examples from published studies. I use digital elevation model (DEM) image to sketch the shape of the depression of Ranau Lake and Suoh Valley and measure 2D geometry of pull-apart basins. This study shows that Ranau Lake is not a pull-apart basin, and the pull-apart basin is actually located in the eastern side of the lake. Since there is a clear connection between pull-apart basin and volcanic activity in Sumatra, I also predict that the unclear trace of the pull-apart basin near Ranau Lake may be covered by Ranau Caldera and Seminung volcanic products.
Lücke, O. H.; Arroyo, I. G.
The eastern part of the oceanic Cocos Plate presents a heterogeneous crustal structure due to diverse origins and ages as well as plate-hot spot interactions which originated the Cocos Ridge, a structure that converges with the Caribbean Plate in southeastern Costa Rica. The complex structure of the oceanic plate directly influences the dynamics and geometry of the subduction zone along the Middle American Trench. In this paper an integrated interpretation of the slab geometry is presented based on three-dimensional density modeling of combined satellite and surface gravity data, constrained by available geophysical and geological data and seismological information obtained from local networks. The results show the continuation of steep subduction geometry from the Nicaraguan margin into Northwestern Costa Rica, followed by a moderate dipping slab under the Central Cordillera toward the end of the Central American Volcanic Arc. To the southeast end of the volcanic arc, our preferred model shows a steep, coherent slab that extends up to the landward projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Overall, a gradual change in the depth of the intraplate seismicity is observed, reaching 220 km in the northwestern part, and becoming progressively shallower toward the southeast, where it reaches a terminal depth of 75 km. The changes in the terminal depth of the observed seismicity correlate with the increased density in the modeled slab. The absence of intermediate depth intraplate seismicity in the southeastern section and the higher densities for the subducted slab in this area, support a model in which dehydration reactions in the subducted slab cease at a shallower depth, originating an anhydrous and thus aseismic slab.
Lücke, O. H.; Arroyo, I. G.
The eastern part of the oceanic Cocos Plate presents a heterogeneous crustal structure due to diverse origins and ages as well as plate-hot spot interactions which originated the Cocos Ridge, a structure that converges with the Caribbean Plate in southeastern Costa Rica. The complex structure of the oceanic plate directly influences the dynamics and geometry of the subduction zone along the Middle American Trench. In this paper an integrated interpretation of the slab geometry in Costa Rica is presented based on 3-D density modeling of combined satellite and surface gravity data, constrained by available geophysical and geological data and seismological information obtained from local networks. The results show the continuation of steep subduction geometry from the Nicaraguan margin into northwestern Costa Rica, followed by a moderate dipping slab under the Central Cordillera toward the end of the Central American Volcanic Arc. Contrary to commonly assumed, to the southeast end of the volcanic arc, our preferred model shows a steep, coherent slab that extends up to the landward projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Overall, a gradual change in the depth of the intraplate seismicity is observed, reaching 220 km in the northwestern part, and becoming progressively shallower toward the southeast, where it reaches a maximum depth of 75 km. The changes in the terminal depth of the observed seismicity correlate with the increased density in the modeled slab. The absence of intermediate depth (> 75 km) intraplate seismicity in the southeastern section and the higher densities for the subducted slab in this area, support a model in which dehydration reactions in the subducted slab cease at a shallower depth, originating an anhydrous and thus aseismic slab.
Using Coulomb wedge solutions, we show that the effective strength of megathrusts (μb‧) can be determined from the geometry of out-of-sequence thrusts cutting through an accretionary or orogenic wedge. The method is first tested on central Chilean margin for which it yields a frictional strength of μb‧ = 0.053 (+ 0.043 / - 0.024). The inferred value agrees well with previous strength estimates and with the tectonic response of the central Chilean wedge to 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake. We then use the approach to constrain the strength of the collision megathrust of the central European Alps ∼30-20 million years ago. We find that the collision megathrust had a strength of μb‧ = 0.065 (+ 0.035 / - 0.026), which is similarly low than the strength of subduction megathrusts. The result is integrated into a static force balance model to examine potential implications of a weak megathrust for the Alpine orogeny. The model results suggest that the Alpine megathrust supported a mean maximum elevation of ∼2,000 m and that growth of the wedge up to this elevation supported a switch from contractional to extensional tectonics in the interior of the Alps around 20 Ma. Finally, using the example of the Himalayas, we show how the strength of megathrusts may be also derived from the geometry of crustal ramps, which provides a valuable alternative if details on out-of-sequence thrusts are missing.
Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.; Okaya, D.; Rymer, M.J.; Bawden, G.W.
High-resolution seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction imaging, combined with existing borehole, earthquake, and paleoseismic trenching data, suggest that the Santa Monica fault zone in Los Angeles consists of multiple strands from several kilometers depth to the near surface. We interpret our seismic data as showing two shallow-depth low-angle fault strands and multiple near-vertical (???85??) faults in the upper 100 m. One of the low-angle faults dips northward at about 28?? and approaches the surface at the base of a topographic scarp on the grounds of the Wadsworth VA Hospital (WVAH). The other principal low-angle fault dips northward at about 20?? and projects toward the surface about 200 m south of the topographic scarp, near the northernmost areas of the Los Angeles Basin that experienced strong shaking during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The 20?? north-dipping low-angle fault is also apparent on a previously published seismic-reflection image by Pratt et al. (1998) and appears to extend northward to at least Wilshire Boulevard, where the fault may be about 450 m below the surface. Slip rates determined at the WVAH site could be significantly underestimated if it is assumed that slip occurs only on a single strand of the Santa Monica fault or if it is assumed that the near-surface faults dip at angles greater than 20-28??. At the WVAH, tomographic velocity modeling shows a significant decrease in velocity across near-surface strands of the Santa Monica fault. P-wave velocities range from about 500 m/sec at the surface to about 4500 m/sec within the upper 50 m on the north side of the fault zone at WVAH, but maximum measured velocities on the south side of the low-angle fault zone at WVAH are about 3500 m/sec. These refraction velocities compare favorably with velocities measured in nearby boreholes by Gibbs et al. (2000). This study illustrates the utility of com- bined seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction methods, which allow more accurate
Bezerra, F. H. R.; Rossetti, D. F.; Oliveira, R. G.; Medeiros, W. E.; Neves, B. B. Brito; Balsamo, F.; Nogueira, F. C. C.; Dantas, E. L.; Andrades Filho, C.; Góes, A. M.
The eastern continental margin of South America comprises a series of rift basins developed during the breakup of Pangea in the Jurassic-Cretaceous. We integrated high resolution aeromagnetic, structural and stratigraphic data in order to evaluate the role of reactivation of ductile, Neoproterozoic shear zones in the deposition and deformation of post-rift sedimentary deposits in one of these basins, the Paraíba Basin in northeastern Brazil. This basin corresponds to the last part of the South American continent to be separated from Africa during the Pangea breakup. Sediment deposition in this basin occurred in the Albian-Maastrichtian, Eocene-Miocene, and in the late Quaternary. However, our investigation concentrates on the Miocene-Quaternary, which we consider the neotectonic period because it encompasses the last stress field. This consisted of an E-W-oriented compression and a N-S-oriented extension. The basement of the basin forms a slightly seaward-tilted ramp capped by a late Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary cover ~ 100-400 m thick. Aeromagnetic lineaments mark the major steeply-dipping, ductile E-W- to NE-striking shear zones in this basement. The ductile shear zones mainly reactivated as strike-slip, normal and oblique-slip faults, resulting in a series of Miocene-Quaternary depocenters controlled by NE-, E-W-, and a few NW-striking faults. Faulting produced subsidence and uplift that are largely responsible for the present-day morphology of the valleys and tablelands in this margin. We conclude that Precambrian shear zone reactivation controlled geometry and orientation, as well as deformation of sedimentary deposits, until the Neogene-Quaternary.
Hong, Dae S.; Choi, Kyong Mi
In this study, we analyzed and compared reasoning and proving opportunities in geometry lessons from American standard-based textbooks and Korean textbooks to understand how these textbooks provide student opportunities to engage in reasoning and proving activities. Overall, around 40% of exercise problems in Core Plus Mathematics Project (CPMP)…
Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.
Exact solutions for diffusion in single phase binary alloy systems with constant diffusion coefficient and zero-flux boundary condition have been evaluated to establish the optimum zone size of applicability. Planar, cylindrical and spherical interface geometry, and finite, singly infinite, and doubly infinite systems are treated. Two solutions are presented for each geometry, one well suited to short diffusion times, and one to long times. The effect of zone-size on the convergence of these solutions is discussed. A generalized form of the diffusion solution for doubly infinite systems is proposed.
Martin, D. L.; Perry, M. J.
Water-leaving radiances and phytoplankton pigment concentrations are calculated from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) radiance measurements by removing atmospheric Rayleigh and aerosol radiances from the total radiance signal measured at the satellite. The single greatest source of error in CZCS atmospheric correction algorithms in the assumption that these Rayleigh and aerosol radiances are separable. Multiple-scattering interactions between Rayleigh and aerosol components cause systematic errors in calculated aerosol radiances, and the magnitude of these errors is dependent on aerosol type and optical depth and on satellite viewing geometry. A technique was developed which extends the results of previous radiative transfer modeling by Gordon and Castano to predict the magnitude of these systematic errors for simulated CZCS orbital passes in which the ocean is viewed through a modeled, physically realistic atmosphere. The simulated image mathematically duplicates the exact satellite, Sun, and pixel locations of an actual CZCS image. Errors in the aerosol radiance at 443 nm are calculated for a range of aerosol optical depths. When pixels in the simulated image exceed an error threshhold, the corresponding pixels in the actual CZCS image are flagged and excluded from further analysis or from use in image compositing or compilation of pigment concentration databases. Studies based on time series analyses or compositing of CZCS imagery which do not address Rayleigh-aerosol multiple scattering should be interpreted cautiously, since the fundamental assumption used in their atmospheric correction algorithm is flawed.
Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W., III
The fluid dynamics of the well-documented eruptive episodes at Pu'u 'O'o, Kilauea are used to investigate quantitatively the size and shape of the shallow conduit system beneath the vent. The possible geometry of this region is considered. The dynamics of the eruptive episodes is used to place restrictions on the size and shape of the region and thermal calculations are used to show that the geometry is consistent with the region being the fluid residue of the partially cooled, major preepisode 1 dike. The Pu'u 'O'o example is used to illustrate some general properties of shallow magma storage zones.
Evaluationmethod employedforthe proposed corridor projects by IndianaDepartment of Transportation(INDOT) considerroad : geometry improvements by a generalized categorization. A newmethod which consi...
Laurencin, M.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Marcaillou, B.; Evain, M.
In subduction zones, the 3D geometry of the plate interface is one of the key parameters that controls margin tectonic deformation, interplate coupling and seismogenic behavior. The North American plate subducts beneath the convex Northern Lesser Antilles margin. This convergent plate boundary, with a northward increasing convergence obliquity, turns into a sinistral strike-slip limit at the northwestern end of the system. This geodynamic context suggests a complex slab geometry, which has never been imaged before. Moreover, the seismic activity and particularly the number of events with thrust focal mechanism compatible with subduction earthquakes, increases northward from the Barbuda-Anguilla segment to the Anguilla-Virgin Islands segment. One of the major questions in this area is thus to analyze the influence of the increasing convergence obliquity and the slab geometry onto tectonic deformation and seismogenic behavior of the subduction zone. Based on wide-angle and multichannel reflection seismic data acquired during the Antithesis cruises (2013-2016), we decipher the deep structure of this subduction zone. Velocity models derived from wide-angle data acquired across the Anegada Passage are consistent with the presence of a crust of oceanic affinity thickened by hotspot magmatism and probably affected by the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene arc magmatism forming the 'Great Arc of the Caribbean'. The slab is shallower beneath the Anguilla-Virgin Islands margin segment than beneath the Anguilla-Barbuda segment which is likely to be directly related to the convex geometry of the upper plate. This shallower slab is located under the forearc where earthquakes and partitioning deformations increase locally. Thus, the shallowing slab might result in local greater interplate coupling and basal friction favoring seismic activity and tectonic partitioning beneath the Virgin Islands platform.
In this study, I examine the role of dynamic geometry software (DGS) in curricular proof tasks. I investigated seven US high school geometry textbooks that were categorised into three groups: technology-intensive, standards-based, and traditional curricula. I looked at the frequency and purpose of DGS use in these textbooks. In addition, I…
Greene, Patrick T.; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Zhong, Xiaolin; Kim, John
In this paper, we present a method for performing uniformly high-order direct numerical simulations of high-speed flows over arbitrary geometries. The method was developed with the goal of simulating and studying the effects of complex isolated roughness elements on the stability of hypersonic boundary layers. The simulations are carried out on Cartesian grids with the geometries imposed by a third-order cut-stencil method. A fifth-order hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme was implemented to capture any steep gradients in the flow created by the geometries and a third-order Runge-Kutta method is used for time advancement. A multi-zone refinement method was also utilized to provide extra resolution at locations with expected complex physics. The combination results in a globally fourth-order scheme in space and third order in time. Results confirming the method's high order of convergence are shown. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional test cases are presented and show good agreement with previous results. A simulation of Mach 3 flow over the logo of the Ubuntu Linux distribution is shown to demonstrate the method's capabilities for handling complex geometries. Results for Mach 6 wall-bounded flow over a three-dimensional cylindrical roughness element are also presented. The results demonstrate that the method is a promising tool for the study of hypersonic roughness-induced transition.
Noell, Laura K.
A new textbook designed for first- or second-year courses in mythology as an introduction to literature shows that a community college faculty member who writes a textbook adds teaching experience to scholarship.
Hopkins, Charles R.; Kim, Paul Y.
Since the reading abilities of general business students vary from one individual to the next, the author's report on the readability of three general business textbooks to guide business teachers in their selection of textbooks. (AG)
Baglione, Stephen L.; Sullivan, Kevin
This article describes two separate studies: a survey of students' textbook perceptions, purchases, and usage for e-textbooks and print textbooks and a conjoint analysis on e-textbook attributes. Print textbooks were perceived as easier to read, understand, and navigate, whereas e-textbooks were perceived to be cheaper. Students were willing to…
Focus in Change, 1992
Textbooks have an enormous influence on the curriculum of schools across the nation. Many issues are taken into consideration when selecting textbooks. Textbooks that present students with a multicultural curriculum are often at the center of debate among school administrators. This journal presents a series of articles based on interviews with…
Hahn, Carole L.; Blankenship, Glen
A content analysis of 22 secondary economics textbooks revealed the textbooks to be less sex-biased than the books examined in earlier studies. However, women are still underrepresented in most of the textbooks, and little attention is given to economic realities which women face. (Author/RM)
Brotherton, Sheila; And Others
Within this single module there are two approaches to this brief survey of logic. Since most geometry textbooks fail to give an adequate discussion of logic, a "textbook" treatment of the subject has been included. This is found as explanations interspersed in the exercises and these can be used as a textbook approach. However, also included is an…
Marcaillou, B.; Laurencin, M.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.
In subduction zones, the 3D geometry of the plate interface is thought to be a key parameter for the control of margin tectonic deformation, interplate coupling and seismogenic behavior. In the northern Caribbean subduction, precisely between the Virgin Islands and northern Lesser Antilles, these subjects remain controversial or unresolved. During the ANTITHESIS cruises (2013-2016), we recorded wide-angle seismic, multichannel reflection seismic and bathymetric data along this zone in order to constrain the nature and the geometry of the subducting and upper plate. This experiment results in the following conclusions: 1) The Anegada Passage is a 450-km long structure accross the forearc related to the extension due to the collision with the Bahamas platform. 2) More recently, the tectonic partitioning due to the plate convergence obliquity re-activated the Anegada Passage in the left-lateral strike-slip system. The partitioning also generated the left-lateral strike-slip Bunce Fault, separating the accretionary prism from the forearc. 3) Offshore of the Virgin Islands margin, the subducting plate shows normal faults parallel to the ancient spreading center that correspond to the primary fabric of the oceanic crust. In contrast, offshore of Barbuda Island, the oceanic crust fabric is unresolved (fracture zone?, exhumed mantle? ). 4) In the direction of the plate convergence vector, the slab deepening angle decreases northward. It results in a shallower slab beneath the Virgin Islands Platform compared to the St Martin-Barbuda forearc. In the past, the collision of the Bahamas platform likely changed the geodynamic settings of the northeastern corner of the Caribbean subduction zone and we present a revised geodynamic history of the region. Currently, various features are likely to control the 3D geometry of the slab: the margin convexity, the convergence obliquity, the heterogeneity of the primary fabric of the oceanic crust and the Bahamas docking. We suggest that
Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Kaiho, Y.; Arai, R.; Obana, K.; Nakanishi, A.; Miura, S.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.
Here we present the new model, the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate interface beneath the southern Ryukyu Trench subduction zone, estimated from seismic tomography and focal mechanism estimation by using passive and active data from a temporary amphibious seismic network and permanent land stations. Using relocated low-angle thrust-type earthquakes, repeating earthquakes, and structural information, we constrained the geometry of plate boundary from the trench axis to a 60 km depth with uncertainties of less than 5 km. The estimated plate geometry model exhibited large variation, including a pronounced convex structure that may be evidence of a subducted seamount in the eastern portion of study area, whereas the western part appeared smooth. We also found that the active earthquake region near the plate boundary, defined by the distance from our plate geometry model, was clearly separated from the area dominated by short-term slow-slip events (SSEs). The oceanic crust just beneath the SSE-dominant region, the western part of the study area, showed high Vp/Vs ratios (>1.8), whereas the eastern side showed moderate or low Vp/Vs (<1.75). We interpreted this as an indication that high fluid pressures near the surface of the slab are contributing to the SSE activities. Within the toe of the mantle wedge, P and S wave velocities (<7.5 and <4.2 km/s, respectively) lower than those observed through normal mantle peridotite might suggest that some portions of the mantle may be at least 40% serpentinized.
Wallace, Wesley K.
Collision of the Yakutat terrane with southern Alaska created a collisional fold-and-thrust belt along the Pacific-North America plate boundary. This southerner fold-and-thrust belt formed within continental sedimentary rocks but with the seaward vergence and tectonic position typical of an accretionary wedge. Northward exposure of progressively older rocks reflects that the fold-and-thrust belt forms a southward-tapered orogenic wedge that increases northward in structural relief and depth of erosion. Narrow, sharp anticlines separate wider, flat-bottomed synclines. Relatively steep thrust faults commonly cut the forelimbs of anticlines. Fold shortening and fault displacement both generally increase northward, whereas fault dip generally decreases northward. The coal-bearing lower part of the sedimentary section serves as a detachment for both folds and thrust faults. The folded and faulted sedimentary section defines a regional south dip of about 8°. The structural relief combined with the low magnitude of shortening of the sedimentary section suggest that the underlying basement is structurally thickened. I propose a new interpretation in which this thickening was accommodated by a passive-roof duplex with basement horses that are separated from the overlying folded and thrust-faulted sedimentary cover by a roof thrust with a backthrust sense of motion. Basement horses are ˜7 km thick, based on the thickness between the inferred roof thrust and the top of the basement in offshore seismic reflection data. This thickness is consistent with the depth of the zone of seismicity onshore. The inferred zone of detachment and imbrication of basement corresponds with the area of surface exposure of the fold-and-thrust belt within the Yakutat terrane and with the Wrangell subduction zone and arc farther landward. By contrast, to the west, the crust of the Yakutat terrane has been carried down a subduction zone that extends far landward with a gentle dip, corresponding
Deshon, H. R.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Newman, A. V.; Dorman, L. M.; Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.
We present results of a 3D local earthquake tomography study of the Middle America Trench seismogenic zone in northern Costa Rica. Local earthquake tomography can provide constraints on the updip, downdip, and lateral variability of seismicity and P- and S-wave velocities; these constraints may in turn provide information on compositional and/or mechanical variability along the seismogenic zone. We use arrival time data recorded by the Nicoya Peninsula seismic array, part of the Costa Rica seismogenic zone experiment (CRSEIZE), a collaborative effort undertaken to better understand seismogenic behavior at the Costa Rica subduction zone using data from land and ocean bottom seismic arrays, oceanic fluid flux meters, and GPS receivers. We invert ˜10,000 P-wave and S-wave arrival times from 475 well-recorded local earthquakes (GAP < 180° , >8 P-wave arrivals) to solve for the best-fitting 1D P- and S-wave velocity models, station corrections, and hypocenters using the algorithm VELEST. These 1D velocity models are used as a starting models for 3D simultaneous inversion using the algorithm SIMULPS14. Preliminary P-wave inversions contain a positive velocity anomaly dipping beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, interpreted as the subducting Cocos Plate. Earthquakes occur in a narrow band along the slab-continent interface and are consistent with the results of Newman et al. (2002). The updip limit of seismicity occurs ˜5 km deeper and 5-10 km landward in the northern vs. the southern Nicoya Peninsula, and this shift spatially correlates to the change from Cocos-Nazca to East Pacific Rise derived oceanic plate. P-wave velocities in the upper 5-10 km of the model are consistent with the geology of the Nicoya Peninsula. We will correlate relocated microseismicity to previously noted variability in oceanic plate morphology, heat flow, fluid flow, and thermal structure and compare the resulting P- and S-wave velocity models to wide-angle refraction models and hypothesized mantle
Maggi, Matteo; Cianfarra, Paola; Salvini, Francesco
Faults have a (brittle) deformation zone that can be described as the presence of two distintive zones: an internal Fault core (FC) and an external Fault Damage Zone (FDZ). The FC is characterized by grinding processes that comminute the rock grains to a final grain-size distribution characterized by the prevalence of smaller grains over larger, represented by high fractal dimensions (up to 3.4). On the other hand, the FDZ is characterized by a network of fracture sets with characteristic attitudes (i.e. Riedel cleavages). This deformation pattern has important consequences on rock permeability. FC often represents hydraulic barriers, while FDZ, with its fracture connection, represents zones of higher permability. The observation of faults revealed that dimension and characteristics of FC and FDZ varies both in intensity and dimensions along them. One of the controlling factor in FC and FDZ development is the fault plane geometry. By changing its attitude, fault plane geometry locally alter the stress component produced by the fault kinematics and its combination with the bulk boundary conditions (regional stress field, fluid pressure, rocks rheology) is responsible for the development of zones of higher and lower fracture intensity with variable extension along the fault planes. Furthermore, the displacement along faults provides a cumulative deformation pattern that varies through time. The modeling of the fault evolution through time (4D modeling) is therefore required to fully describe the fracturing and therefore permeability. In this presentation we show a methodology developed to predict distribution of fracture intensity integrating seismic data and numerical modeling. Fault geometry is carefully reconstructed by interpolating stick lines from interpreted seismic sections converted to depth. The modeling is based on a mixed numerical/analytical method. Fault surface is discretized into cells with their geometric and rheological characteristics. For each
Larson, Timothy R.
Presents a case study of the design and production of "Interactive Calculus," an interactive multimedia textbook. Discusses reasons for using multimedia textbooks; what an interactive textbook is; content, organization, graphic design, authoring and composition; and work flow. (AEF)
Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido
INTRODUCTION Inherited structures in the crust form weak zones along which deformation will focus during rifting. Along-strike connection of rift segments may occur along transfer zones, as observed in East Africa. Previous studies have focused on numerical and analog modeling of transfer zones (e.g. Acocella et al., 1999, Allken et al., 2012). We elaborate upon those by investigating the effects of 1) oblique extension and 2) the geometry of linked and non-linked inherited structures on the development of transfer zones. A further improvement is the use of X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) for detailed internal analysis. METHODS The experimental set-up (see Schreurs & Colleta, 1998) contains two sidewalls with a base of compressed foam and plexiglass bars stacked in between. Decompressing this base results in distributed deformation of the overlying model materials. Deforming the model laterally with a mobile base plate produces the strike-slip components for oblique extension. Divergence velocities are in the order of 5 mm/h, translating to ca. 5 mm/Ma in nature, and 1 cm represents 10 km. A 2 cm thick layer of viscous silicone represents the ductile lower crust and a 2 cm quartz sand layer the brittle upper crust. Inherited structures are created with thin lines of silicon laid down on top of the basal silicone layer. Several models were run in a CT-scanner to reveal the 3D evolution of internal structures with time, hence 4D. RESULTS Localization of deformation along the pre-defined structures works well. The models show that the structural style changes with extension obliquity, from wide rift structures to narrower rifts with internal oblique-slip and finally strike-slip structures. Furthermore, rift offset is an important parameter influencing the occurrence of linkage: increasing rift offset decreases linkage as previously observed by Allken et al. (2012). However, increasing divergence obliquity promotes transfer zone formation, as does the presence of rift
ten Brink, Uri S.; Flores, C.H.
Pull-apart basins are narrow zones of crustal extension bounded by strike-slip faults that can serve as analogs to the early stages of crustal rifting. We use seismic tomography, 2-D ray tracing, gravity modeling, and subsidence analysis to study crustal extension of the Dead Sea basin (DSB), a large and long-lived pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform (DST). The basin gradually shallows southward for 50 km from the only significant transverse normal fault. Stratigraphic relationships there indicate basin elongation with time. The basin is deepest (8-8.5 km) and widest (???15 km) under the Lisan about 40 km north of the transverse fault. Farther north, basin depth is ambiguous, but is 3 km deep immediately north of the lake. The underlying pre-basin sedimentary layer thickens gradually from 2 to 3 km under the southern edge of the DSB to 3-4 km under the northern end of the lake and 5-6 km farther north. Crystalline basement is ???11 km deep under the deepest part of the basin. The upper crust under the basin has lower P wave velocity than in the surrounding regions, which is interpreted to reflect elevated pore fluids there. Within data resolution, the lower crust below ???18 km and the Moho are not affected by basin development. The subsidence rate was several hundreds of m/m.y. since the development of the DST ???17 Ma, similar to other basins along the DST, but subsidence rate has accelerated by an order of magnitude during the Pleistocene, which allowed the accumulation of 4 km of sediment. We propose that the rapid subsidence and perhaps elongation of the DSB are due to the development of inter-connected mid-crustal ductile shear zones caused by alteration of feldspar to muscovite in the presence of pore fluids. This alteration resulted in a significant strength decrease and viscous creep. We propose a similar cause to the enigmatic rapid subsidence of the North Sea at the onset the North Atlantic mantle plume. Thus, we propose that aqueous fluid flux
The process of determining textbook content and selecting textbooks for classroom use in public schools throughout America is highly political and raises many fundamental questions about the relationship between education as a social enterprise and other aspects of society--economic, ideological, political, and legal. This study focuses on three…
Cameron, Kim S.; Ireland, R. Duane; Lussier, Robert N.; New, J. Randolph; Robbins, Stephen P.
Four management textbook authors react to the metaphor of textbooks as propaganda. All write to support managerial ideology and are aware of the market, but believe their role in shaping the field is limited. Includes two responses: "Propaganda, Trusteeship, and Artifact" (Daniel R. Gilbert) and "The Hegemonic Discourse of…
Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the…
Lee, Helen C.
How economics can be taught through a student-developed textbook is described. Having secondary students construct their own economics textbook can be an exciting process. During the initial six- or nine-week segment of a course, materials can be collected and organized to make a book that the class can study for the rest of the semester or year.…
Edwards, Bruce L., Jr.
All textbooks, regardless of their orientation or vocabulary, are equally unhelpful in the processes of teaching and learning writing. For the most part the textbooks seem to blend two sets of functions within the discipline of rhetoric as it is manifested in writing pedagogy. Whether it goes by the label "current-traditional" or…
Using short-term pilot programs to evaluate textbooks can lead to unreliable results and interfere with effective education. Alternative methods for evaluating textbook-based programs include obtaining documented analyses of competitors' products from sales agents, visiting districts using programs being considered, and examining publishers' own…
Moore, Diane E.; Byerlee, J.
Moore, D.E. and Byerlee, J., 1992. Relationships between sliding behavior and internal geometry of laboratory fault zones and some creeping and locked strike-slip faults of California. In: T. Mikumo, K. Aki, M. Ohnaka, L.J. Ruff and P.K.P. Spudich (Editors), Earthquake Source Physics and Earthquake Precursors. Tectonophysics, 211: 305-316. In order to relate fault geometries to sliding behavior, maps of recently active breaks within the Hayward fault of central California, which is characterized by fault creep, have been examined and compared to maps of the San Andreas fault. The patterns of recent breaks of the Hayward fault are consistent with those found within the creeping section of the San Andreas, and they appear to have plausible physical explanations in the findings of laboratory experiments. The distinguishing geometric features of the examined locked and creeping faults are: (1) P-type second-order traces predominate over R(Riedel)-type traces in creeping sections; and (2) R-type second-order traces make smaller angles to the local fault strike in creeping sections than they do in locked sections. Two different maps of the Hayward fault gave similar results, supporting the inference that the patterns identified are basic characteristics of the fault rather than artifacts of a particular mapping procedure. P shears predominate over R shears under laboratory conditions that allow dilation within the fault zone. In our own experiments, P-shear development was favored by the generation of excess pore-fluid pressures. We propose that creep in California faults also is the result of fluid overpressures that are maintained in a low-permeability gouge zone and that significantly lower effective stresses, thus helping to stabilize slip and producing high values of the ratio P/R. Small R-trace angles may also be an indicator of low effective stresses, but the evidence for this is not conclusive because other factors can also affect the size of the angles. ?? 1992.
Chang, Y.; Warren, L. M.; Prieto, G. A.
In the northern Nazca subduction zone, the Nazca plate is subducting to the east beneath the South American Plate. At ~5.6ºN, the subducting plate has a 240-km east-west offset associated with a slab tear, called the Caldas tear, that separates the northern and southern segments. Our study seeks to better define the slab geometry and deformation in the southern segment, which has a high rate of intermediate-depth earthquakes (50-300 km) between 3.6ºN and 5.2ºN in the Cauca cluster. From Jan 2010 to Mar 2014, 228 intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Cauca cluster with local magnitude Ml 2.5-4.7 were recorded by 65 seismic stations of the Colombian National Seismic Network. We review and, if necessary, adjust the catalog P and S wave arrival picks. We use the travel times to relocate the earthquakes using a double difference relocation method. For earthquakes with Ml ≥3.8, we also use waveform modeling to compute moment tensors . The distribution of earthquake relocations shows an ~15-km-thick slab dipping to the SE. The dip angle increases from 20º at the northern edge of the cluster to 38º at the southern edge. Two concentrated groups of earthquakes extend ~40 km vertically above the general downdip trend, with a 20 km quiet gap between them at ~100 km depth. The earthquakes in the general downdip seismic zone have downdip compressional axes, while earthquakes close to the quiet gap and in the concentrated groups have an oblique component. The general decrease in slab dip angle to the north may be caused by mantle flow through the Caldas tear. The seismicity gap in the slab may be associated with an active deformation zone and the concentrated groups of earthquakes with oblique focal mechanisms could be due to a slab fold.
Burgette, R. J.; Weldon, R. J.; Abdrakhmatov, K. Y.; Ormukov, C.
The Pred-Terskey fault zone defines the southern margin of the Issyk-Kul basin, extending eastward over 250 km from at least the Chu River to the Kazakhstan border, and appears to be one of the most active zones in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan. Despite a diversity of structural styles and changes of vergence at the surface, the lateral continuity and overall geometry of the zone is consistent with a single north vergent thrust at depth, which uplifts the Terskey Range and generally tilts the south margin of the basin to the north. This northward tilting of the margin is probably due to a flattening of the fault as it approaches the surface. In spite of historical quiescence, it is likely capable of producing great earthquakes. We have conducted detailed field mapping coupled with terrace profiling and dating at seven representative, well-exposed areas of the fault zone. Based on these field observations and satellite image and air photo interpretation along the entire zone, we identify three major divisions in structural style expressed at the surface. The western segment is typified by the Tura-Su, Ak-Terek and Ton areas. A series of left-stepping, south-vergent, basement-involved reverse faults and folds are uplifting the southern margin of the Issyk-Kul basin in this area. The resulting uphill-facing scarps have trapped and diverted many of the rivers flowing north from the Terskey Range. Tertiary strata and Quaternary geomorphic surfaces show consistent, progressive northward tilting across the entire zone. The west-central segment is represented by the Kajy-Say area. South-vergent reverse faults and a north-vergent backthrust have uplifted an arcuate granite block. Offshore of this area, the lake floor descends to a sharp break in slope with a low relief area at a depth of about 650 m. Late Quaternary geomorphic features do not show evidence of tilting. In contrast to the areas east and west, the major north-dipping thrust is likely planar over this segment and
Simon, Josep; García-Belmar, Antonio
Education and textbooks have traditionally been standard objects of research in the history of science, technology, and medicine. However, they have often remained marginal in the formulation of large historiographical questions. In the last decades, the work of some historians of science has challenged this state of affairs. STEP has promoted a distinctive focus on education and textbooks, compared to other scholarship cultures such as the Anglo-American. This essay reviews its work in this field and stresses the potential of education and textbooks to produce interdisciplinary research in local, national, and international perspective.
Sewall, Gilbert T.
This world history review examines standard textbooks used between the sixth and twelfth grades in schools across the nation. These established textbooks dominate the field and set the pitch for new and forthcoming volumes. The 2002 Texas history textbook adoption and the California list have influenced what textbooks will dominate the national…
Trufanov, Aleksandr N.; Trufanov, Nikolay A.; Semenov, Nikita V.
The experimental data analysis of the stress applying rod section geometry for the PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fiber has been performed. The dependencies of the change in the radial dimensions of the preform and the doping boundary on the angular coordinate have been obtained. The original algorithm of experimental data statistic analysis, which enables determination of the specimens' characteristic form of section, has been described. The influence of actual doped zone geometry on the residual stress fields formed during the stress rod preform fabrication has been investigated. It has been established that the deviation of the boundary between pure silica and the doped zone from the circular shape results in dissymmetry and local concentrations of the residual stress fields along the section, which can cause preforms destruction at high degrees of doping. The observed geometry deviations of up to 10% lead to the increase of the maximum stress intensity value by over 20%.
English Journal, 1988
Evaluates four textbooks recommended by junior high and high school teachers for teaching writing and literature: "Enjoying Literature" (published by Macmillan, 1985); "Exposition: Critical Writing and Thinking" (Robert J. Gula); "Situational Writing" (Gene Krupa); and "Double Exposure: Composing through Writing…
Irwin, Armond J.
Points to remember in getting a textbook published are examined: book idea, publisher's sales representatives, letter of inquiry, qualifications for authorship, author information form, idea proposal, reviews, marketing and sales, publishing agreement, author royalties, and copyright assignment. (CT)
About seven years ago, the mathematics teachers at the author's secondary school came to the conclusion that they were not satisfied with their rather traditional geometry textbook. The author had already begun using a problem-based approach to teaching geometry in her classes, a transition for her and her students that inspired her to write about…
The Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya lies in the eastern part of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt (FTB) in a zone of high arc-perpendicular convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates. In this region two distinct faults form the Main Central thrust (MCT), the structurally higher MCT1 and the lower MCT2; both these faults have translated the Greater Himalayan hanging wall rocks farther towards the foreland than in the western Himalaya. The width of the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan rocks progressively decreases from the western Himalaya to this part of the eastern Himalaya, and as a result, the width of the FTB is narrower in this region compared to the western Himalaya. Our structural analysis shows that in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan duplex is composed of two duplex systems and has a more complex geometry than in the rest of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. The structurally higher Dating duplex is a hinterland-dipping duplex; the structurally lower Rangit duplex varies in geometry from a hinterland-dipping duplex in the north to an antiformal stack in the middle and a foreland-dipping duplex in the south. The MCT2 is the roof thrust of the Daling duplex and the Ramgarh thrust is the roof thrust of the Rangit duplex. In this region, the Ramgarh thrust has a complex structural history with continued reactivation during footwall imbrication. The foreland-dipping component of the Rangit duplex, along with the large displacement associated with the reactivation of the Ramgarh thrust accounts for the large translation of the MCT sheets in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. The growth of the Lesser Himalayan duplex modified the final geometry of the overlying MCT sheets, resulting in a plunge culmination that manifests itself as a broad N-S trending "anticline" in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. This is not a "river anticline" as its trace lies west of the Teesta river. A transport parallel balanced cross section across this region has accommodated
Lee, Jongwon; Catling, Simon
There has been much research into the nature and uses of school geography textbooks as teaching resources, yet the perceptions of their authors have been neglected. This study investigated the perspectives of a sample of authors of English primary and secondary school geography textbooks on their experiences as textbook authors. It enquired into…
Culyer, A. J.
Many things are wrong with college level economics textbooks. For example, they are too ahistorical, too particularist, or unsystematically eclectic. The requirements of a good college economics textbook are examined. (RM)
Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.
This is a guide for use in semester-long courses in Elementary Functions and Analytic Geometry. A list of entry-level skills and a list of approved textbooks is provided. Each of the 18 units consists of: (1) overview, suggestions for teachers, and suggested time; (2) list of objectives; (3) cross-references guide to approved textbooks; (4) sample…
In this dissertation, I undertake a sequential analysis of an elaborate system of forces that contribute to the production of history textbooks in Pakistan. I review longitudinal series of data on education policies and history textbooks from 1938-2012, and examine the decision-making processes, which inform said policies and textbooks, at the…
Al Fraidan, Abdullah
This paper evaluated two ESP textbooks using the evaluation of McDonough and Shaw (2003) based on external and internal evaluation. The first textbook is "Business Objectives" (1996) by Vicki Hollett, and the second textbook is "Business Studies, Second Edition" (2002) by Alain Anderton. To avoid repetition, I will use BO and…
Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.
This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…
Flaumenhaft, Eugene; Flaumenhaft, Carol
Discusses the four textbooks, written in the last quarter of the 19th century, that shaped nursing in the United States. They provided technical information in a systematic fashion, established an autonomous literature that guided nurses in school and beyond, and defined the training school curriculum. (JOW)
Hewitt, John P.; And Others
The articles on textbook publication written by Sheryl Fullerton and Franklin C. Graham were responded to by: John Hewitt, Henry Tischler, George Ritzer, Paul Baker, Erich Goode, D. Stanley Eitzen, Jon Shepard, Richard Schaefer, Caroline Persell, Beth Hess, Paul Zopf, Jr., Jeanne Ballantine, Duane Monette, Mary Ann Lamanna, John Macionis, and…
As community colleges seek to be as accessible as possible to students and attempt to retain low enrollment fees, manageable parking fees, and waiver of fees for those with financial needs, an additional and significant cost ? for textbooks and supplies ? has not been addressed systematically. While fees for a full-time student are $390 per…
Hauck, George F.
Lists engineering textbooks that use SI units. Includes author(s), title, publisher, year, and author's or publisher's comments on the use of the SI units. Books are categorized by topic, such as engineering mechanics, mechanics of materials, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, structural design, and hydrology. (CS)
Hefley, James C.
This book recounts in narrative form the influence of Mel and Norma Gabler, two Texas parents, on the purchase of textbooks for Texas schools. Concerned over content they found objectionable, for more than ten years the Gablers used direct mail campaigns, radio talk shows, petition drives, and personal appearances, in addition to testifying…
Hites, Ronald A.
A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz
When students enter middle school, they are confronted with the necessity of learning from complex content-area textbooks. Many students find these texts boring, and they may lack the higher-order reading comprehension skills they need to tackle complex text. Yet the ability to read informational text is essential to success in middle school and…
Despite their growing popularity, digital alternatives to conventional textbooks are stirring up controversy. With the introduction of tablet computers, and the growing trend toward "cloud computing" and "open source" software, the trend is accelerating because costs are coming down and free or inexpensive materials are becoming more available.…
Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.
In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…
Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty
Textbook censorship cases from Tennessee and Alabama have been brought before the U.S. Supreme Court. In east Tennessee, fundamentalist families objected to a 1983 Holt, Rinehart, and Winston reading series for grades 1-8. Federal District Judge Thomas G. Hull held that Hawkins County Schools had violated the families' First Amendment rights and…
Davis, Joe C.
Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)
Ponce, D.A.; Hildenbrand, T.G.; Jachens, R.C.
The Hayward Fault, one of the most hazardous faults in northern California, trends north-northwest and extends for about 90 km along the eastern San Francisco Bay region. At numerous locations along its length, distinct and elongate gravity and magnetic anomalies correlate with mapped mafic and ultramafic rocks. The most prominent of these anomalies reflects the 16-km-long San Leandro gabbroic block. Inversion of magnetic and gravity data constrained with physical property measurements is used to define the subsurface extent of the San Leandro gabbro body and to speculate on its origin and relationship to the Hayward Fault Zone. Modeling indicates that the San Leandro gabbro body is about 3 km wide, dips about 75??-80?? northeast, and extends to a depth of at least 6 km. One of the most striking results of the modeling, which was performed independently of seismicity data, is that accurately relocated seismicity is concentrated along the western edge or stratigraphically lower bounding surface of the San Leandro gabbro. The western boundary of the San Leandro gabbro block is the base of an incomplete ophiolite sequence and represented at one time, a low-angle roof thrust related to the tectonic wedging of the Franciscan Complex. After repeated episodes of extension and attenuation, the roof thrust of this tectonic wedge was rotated to near vertical, and in places, the strike-slip Hayward Fault probably reactivated or preferentially followed this pre-existing feature. Because earthquakes concentrate near the edge of the San Leandro gabbro but tend to avoid its interior, we qualitatively explore mechanical models to explain how this massive igneous block may influence the distribution of stress. The microseismicity cluster along the western flank of the San Leandro gabbro leads us to suggest that this stressed volume may be the site of future moderate to large earthquakes. Improved understanding of the three-dimensional geometry and physical properties along the
Eze, Nneka Justina
This study assessed the readability of Igbo language textbook in use in Nigerian secondary schools. Five Igbo Language textbook were evaluated. The study employed an evaluation research design. The study was conducted in South Eastern Geopolitical zone of Nigeria which is predominantly the Igbo tribe of Nigeria. Four hundred secondary school…
This paper begins by providing an overview of three types of textbook research methods: asking teachers, parents, or students about the different aspects of textbook quality; textbook analysis, i.e. counting some characteristics of a textbook using strictly fixed rules; and the experimental evaluation of textbooks, usually carried out in schools.…
Goulet, Janet C.
Surveys nine undergraduate microeconomic theory textbooks comprising a representing sample those available. Criteria used were quantity and quality of examples, mathematical rigor, and level of abstraction. (JDH)
Pollack, C D; Diers, D
Hospital information systems have been collecting patient-related data systematically for years. This article describes a course developed at the Yale University School of Nursing that uses hospital data as "textbook" to teach graduate nursing students to navigate a large hospital data set, enabling a multitude of nursing questions to be addressed. The approach used in this course is easily transferrable to the practice setting as demonstrated by the authors. Through understanding patient-level data, their aggregate patterns, and overall database construction, nurses can expand their contributions to clinical practice and management.
Kerber, Robert C.
Addresses the growing size of college organic chemistry textbooks. Notes that at the current rate of growth, average textbooks will be 1544 pages long in year 2000. Suggests methods to reduce textbook size. (ML)
Presents information on textbook design and marketing practices, and their consequences for textbook content; recommends that selection committees firmly define the role of the textbook in curriculum, and adapt published materials to their school system's unique requirements. (MCG)
Aagaard, Lola; Skidmore, Ronald L.
It has been reported (Aagaard & Skidmore, 2004; Sikorski et al., 2002) that only a minority of college students actually read the course textbook in preparation for examinations. Although professors widely lament students' propensity to ignore the carefully chosen textbooks, research specifically investigating why this phenomenon occurs is…
Kahler, Janice E.
Putting access in Access Services is the goal. The Course Reserves unit is the place. Textbooks are the focus. Electronic technologies are the future. Patron-centric services will be our standard. Access to textbooks by all patrons will be the achievement. Course Reserves located in Library West at the University of Florida George A. Smathers…
Analyzes the treatment of genocide in secondary world history textbooks. Acknowledges that textbook space is limited, but argues that all should contain some reference to the subject. Concludes that the Armenian genocide, as well as the genocidal acts of Hitler, Stalin, and Mao Tse-tung should be presented in all survey texts. (GEA)
Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta
This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…
Azzi, Angelo; Zingg, Jean-Marc
Vitamin E was discovered in 1922, but in more than 60 years many new findings have added to the early one. However, its description in many textbooks has not been proportionally updated. The result is an inaccurate, incomplete, and often incorrect description of the function of this vitamin. In some other textbooks, vitamin E is absolutely…
Suggests that more attention be paid by biochemistry textbook authors to the breadth of contemporary learning strategies, given the fact that an increasing number of medical schools have adopted an integrated, self-paced, problem-based curriculum. Discusses the theoretical characteristics desirable in the ideal biochemistry textbook. (JJK)
Wilcox, George K.
An analysis of the syntax of economics textbooks was undertaken to (1) provide real-language examples of the difficult grammatical structures being taught in an advanced economics reading course, and (2) construct a factual database of the nature of economics textbooks. Five texts representative of those typically used in introductory economics…
Waters, John K.
After traveling a long, tortuous road, the much-anticipated e-book revolution has finally arrived. So where is the revolution in the "e-textbook" market? According to the National Association of College Stores (NACS), digital books currently account for less than 3 percent of textbook sales. NACS expects that percentage to reach 10 to 15 percent…
Kim, Jackie Hee-Young; Jung, Hye-Yoon
South Korea has adopted the widespread use of digital textbooks. Part school reform and part an effort to prepare today's children for tomorrow's challenging world, the way in which this effort was implemented and the lessons learned are valuable. This article highlights the history of the digital textbook project and compares printed textbooks…
Glenn, Norval D.
In 1996 the author conducted an intensive study of twenty current family textbooks published in the United States, the results of which appeared in an academic journal article and a nonacademic report in 1997. The study included practical "functionalist" marriage and family textbooks and more academic sociology of the family books; these…
Moyer, Wayne A.
Reviews issues and events related to adopting high school biology textbooks in Texas. Specific reference is given to the viewpoints of Mel and Norma Gabler. It is argued that factors controlling textbook content should not result from past market forces, but from a permanent science constituency and an informed public. (DH)
Koch, James V.
Between 1986 and 2004, textbook prices rose 186 percent in the United States, or slightly more than six percent per year. Meanwhile, other prices rose only about three percent per year. This paper examines the economic reasons why textbook prices have escalated so briskly and what reasonable alternatives are available that might slow down these…
Tsuji, Takeshi; Minato, Shohei; Kamei, Rie; Tsuru, Tetsuro; Kimura, Gaku
We used recent seismic data and advanced techniques to investigate 3D fault geometry over the transition from the partially coupled to the fully coupled plate interface inboard of the Nankai Trough off the Kii Peninsula, Japan. We found that a gently dipping plate boundary décollement with a thick underthrust layer extends beneath the entire Kumano forearc basin. The 1 April 2016 Off-Mie earthquake (Mw6.0) and its aftershocks occurred, where the plate boundary décollement steps down close to the oceanic crust surface. This location also lies beneath the trenchward edge of an older accretionary prism (∼14 Ma) developed along the coast of the Kii peninsula. The strike of the 2016 rupture plane was similar to that of a formerly active splay fault system in the accretionary prism. Thus, the fault planes of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks were influenced by the geometry of the plate interface as well as splay faulting. The 2016 earthquake occurred within the rupture area of large interplate earthquakes such as the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (Mw8.1), although the 2016 rupture area was much smaller than that of the 1944 event. Whereas the hypocenter of the 2016 earthquake was around the underplating sequence beneath the younger accretionary prism (∼6 Ma), the 1944 great earthquake hypocenter was close to oceanic crust surface beneath the older accretionary prism. The variation of fault geometry and lithology may influence the degree of coupling along the plate interface, and such coupling variation could hinder slip propagation toward the deeper plate interface in the 2016 event.
Examines why textbooks will survive despite competition from new technological inventions. Discusses opposition to textbooks through the development of audiovisual aids, multimedia, and interactivity; advantages of textbooks over other educational media; development of print media; five principles for developing textbook content; and future…
As college textbooks have become more attractive, sophisticated, and useful, the textbook industry is suffering from high costs, increased popularity of used books, effects of rapidly advancing information and instructional technology, the atypical business structure of the college textbook market, and changing textbook development processes. (MSE)
Thomas B Fordham Foundation and Institute, 2004
Textbook Adoption: The process, in place in twenty-one states, of reviewing textbooks according to state guidelines and then mandating specific books that schools must use, or lists of approved textbooks that schools must choose from. It consistently produces second-rate textbooks that replicate the same flaws and failings over and over again.…
Stone, Robert W.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori J.
Textbooks have played an important role in education for decades. Given the significant number of technology applications in education, it is not surprising that at least one such application is the electronic textbook (e-textbook). There are a variety of motivations to adopt an e-textbook, including frequent content updates and low costs. The…
Electronic versions of textbooks (e-textbooks) have recently become a hot topic in the educational community. A good e-textbook should be quite different from a printed textbook. It should provide much more besides the obvious additions and improvements such as interactivity, multimedia, and ease of navigation. As the need for individual approach…
Der Grundgedanke der Analytischen Geometrie besteht darin, dass geometrische Untersuchungen mit rechnerischen Mitteln geführt werden. Geometrische Objekte werden dabei durch Gleichungen beschrieben und mit algebraischen Methoden untersucht.
Huang, H.; Hu, J.; Huang, S.; Huang, C.
The Taiwan orogenic belt is resulted from the convergence between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. Serious earthquakes occurred in west and northwest flanks of main mountain belt of the island in 1935 and 1999, caused more than 5000 deaths in total. In addition, Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park (HSIP) located in northwest Taiwan is one of the world's most important areas for semiconductor manufacturing. There are more than 400 technology companies in this park, and accounted for 10% of Taiwan's GDP. Consequently, active Hsincheng and Hsinchu faults in study area become the major threat of the industrial park, thus the understanding of complex subsurface seismogenic structures are crucial issue of earthquake hazard assessment and mitigation in Hsinchu area. Several geological cross sections have been constructed and discussed to suggest possible deep structures of these two major faults in previous study. However, how subsurface fault system and folding intersect still remains unclear and the evolution of fault and fold geometry in Hsinchu area is not fully understood. The main purpose of this study is to clarify the spatial linkage between the major thrust faults, folds, and adjacent transverse structures. In this study, we first construct the NW-SE trending cross-section which is sub-parallel to the regional shortening direction, and then balance this cross section to derive the structure evolution in Hsinchu area. We also incorporate several cross-sections and relocated seismicity to get detail 3D fault geometry for the numerical modeling in order to assess the interseismic strain accumulation and seismic potential based on geodetic measurements.
Maxwell, Nan L.
Labor economics textbooks for use with college students were surveyed. Information concerning intended audience, content, and teaching aids is provided for each text. Criteria used in evaluating the texts is provided. (RM)
Bartoszek, G; Meyer, G; Thiesemann, R
The transparency criteria of the German statutory health insurance on joint contracture prevention have led to controversies about the appropriate assessment, prevention and treatment as well as to various actions in nursing practice. However, appropriate nursing assessments and proven treatment options are lacking so far. It is unclear whether textbooks on nursing reflect these uncertainties. Search for textbooks on nursing through internet-based search engines and publisher registers, data extraction by one investigator and control by a second. A total of 35 textbooks with contributions on joint contractures were identified of which 25 included a definition, causes/risk factors are presented in 32 textbooks and assessments are presented in 5 books. Most often positioning into a physiological or functional neutral position and passive moving of limbs are recommended as passive prophylaxis. Recommended therapeutic and preventive options do not differ. None of the textbooks reflect that there is a lack of scientific knowledge on the subject. Textbooks on nursing do not deal with complete and scientific sound information on joint contractures.
Beeson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Goldfinger, Chris
We mapped an ~120 km offshore portion of the northern San Andreas fault (SAF) between Point Arena and Point Delgada using closely spaced seismic reflection profiles (1605 km), high-resolution multibeam bathymetry (~1600 km2), and marine magnetic data. This new data set documents SAF location and continuity, associated tectonic geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy, and deformation. Variable deformation patterns in the generally narrow (∼1 km wide) fault zone are largely associated with fault trend and with transtensional and transpressional fault bends.We divide this unique transtensional portion of the offshore SAF into six sections along and adjacent to the SAF based on fault trend, deformation styles, seismic stratigraphy, and seafloor bathymetry. In the southern region of the study area, the SAF includes a 10-km-long zone characterized by two active parallel fault strands. Slip transfer and long-term straightening of the fault trace in this zone are likely leading to transfer of a slice of the Pacific plate to the North American plate. The SAF in the northern region of the survey area passes through two sharp fault bends (∼9°, right stepping, and ∼8°, left stepping), resulting in both an asymmetric lazy Z–shape sedimentary basin (Noyo basin) and an uplifted rocky shoal (Tolo Bank). Seismic stratigraphic sequences and unconformities within the Noyo basin correlate with the previous 4 major Quaternary sea-level lowstands and record basin tilting of ∼0.6°/100 k.y. Migration of the basin depocenter indicates a lateral slip rate on the SAF of 10–19 mm/yr for the past 350 k.y.Data collected west of the SAF on the south flank of Cape Mendocino are inconsistent with the presence of an offshore fault strand that connects the SAF with the Mendocino Triple Junction. Instead, we suggest that the SAF previously mapped onshore at Point Delgada continues onshore northward and transitions to the King Range thrust.
González-Escobar, Mario; Suárez-Vidal, Francisco; Hernández-Pérez, José Antonio; Martín-Barajas, Arturo
This study examines the structural characteristics of the northern Gulf of California by processing and interpreting ca. 415 km of two-dimensional multi-channel seismic reflection lines (data property of Petróleos Mexicanos PEMEX) collected in the vicinity of the border between the Wagner and Consag basins. The two basins appear to be a link between the Delfín Superior Basin to the south, and the Cerro Prieto Basin to the north in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley along the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The seismic data are consistent with existing knowledge of four main structures (master faults) in the region, i.e., the Percebo, Santa María, Consag Sur, and Wagner Sur faults. The Wagner and Consag basins are delimited to the east by the Wagner Sur Fault, and to the west by the Consag Sur Fault. The Percebo Fault borders the western margin of the modern Wagner Basin depocenter, and is oriented N10°W, dipping (on average) ˜40° to the northeast. The trace of the Santa María Fault located in the Wagner Basin strikes N19°W, dipping ˜40° to the west. The Consag Sur Fault is oriented N14°W, and dips ˜42° to the east over a distance of 21 km. To the east of the study area, the Wagner Sur Fault almost parallels the Consag Sur Fault over a distance of ˜86 km, and is oriented N10°W with an average dip of 59° to the east. Moreover, the data provide new evidence that the Wagner Fault is discontinuous between the two basins, and that its structure is more complex than previously reported. A structural high separates the northern Consag Basin from the southern Wagner Basin, comprising several secondary faults oriented NE oblique to the main faults of N-S direction. These could represent a zone of accommodation, or transfer zone, where extension could be transferred from the Wagner to the Consag Basin, or vice versa. This area shows no acoustic basement and/or intrusive body, which is consistent with existing gravimetric and magnetic data for the region.
Snyder, Vicky L.; Broadway, Francis S.
As teachers committed to educating all students, we need to learn more about how instructional materials shape representations of sexuality and gender. Through its insistent deconstruction of the norms that structure practice and belief, queer theory offers perspectives from which science educators can question assumptions embedded in textbooks. This article applies queer theory to analyze eight biology textbooks used in the United States. Specifically, we ask how biology textbooks address sexuality outside the heterosexual norm and if they propagate heteronormative attitudes. The textbooks examined offer deafening silences, antiseptic factoids, socially sanitized concepts, and politically correct binary-gendered illustrations. In these textbooks, the term homosexuality was used only in the context of AIDS where, along with iv drug users, they were identified as an affected group. The pervasive acceptance of heteronormative behavior privileges students that fit the heterosexual norm, and oppresses through omission and silence those who do not. We offer implications for practice to help science educators broaden their perspectives on the constructs of sexuality and gender to construct new ways of knowing and understanding differences in science classrooms and the natural world.
Mei, Ling; Jiao, Hongmei; Sharma, Tarun; Dua, Arshish; Sanvanson, Patrick; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Shaker, Reza
External cricoid pressure is increasingly used to augment the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Our objective was to determine the effect of 1) pressures applied to cricoid, supracricoid, and subcricoid regions on the length and amplitude of the UES high-pressure zone (UESHPZ), and 2) the external cricoid pressure on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) tone. Case-control study. We studied 11 patients with supraesophageal reflux (mean age 58 ± 12 years) and 10 healthy volunteers (mean age 47 ± 19 years). We tested 20, 30, and 40 mm Hg pressures to cricoid, 1 cm proximal and 1 cm distal to the cricoid. In an additional 15 healthy volunteers (mean age 46 ± 23 years), we studied the effect of external cricoid pressure on LES tone. UES and LES pressures were determined using high-resolution manometry. There was significant increase of UESHPZ length with application of pressure at all sites. The increase of UESHPZ length was relatively symmetric, more orad, and more caudad when the pressure was applied at the cricoid, supracricoid, and subcricoid levels, respectively. The magnitude of pressure increase was greatest at the middle and orad part of the UESHPZ when the pressure was applied at the cricoid and supracricoid levels, respectively. The corresponding magnitude of increase in the caudad part of the UESHPZ was not observed with pressure at the subcricoid level. There was no change of the LES pressure with application of cricoid pressure. The effect of external pressure on the UESHPZ is site dependent. Subcricoid pressure has the least effect on UESHPZ. External cricoid pressure at 20 to 40 mm Hg has no effect on the LES pressure. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2466-2474, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Selles, A.; Mikhailov, V. O.; Arora, K.; Ponomarev, A.; Gopinadh, D.; Smirnov, V.; Srinu, Y.; Satyavani, N.; Chadha, R. K.; Davulluri, S.; Rao, N. P.
Well logging data and core samples from the deep boreholes in the Koyna-Warna Seismic Zone (KWSZ) provided a glimpse of the 3-D fracture network responsible for triggered earthquakes in the region. The space-time pattern of earthquakes during the last five decades show strong linkage of favourably oriented fractures system deciphered from airborne LiDAR and borehole structural logging to the seismicity. We used SAR interferometry data on surface displacements to estimate activity of the inferred faults. The failure in rocks at depths is largely governed by overlying lithostatic and pore fluid pressure in the rock matrix which are subject to change in space and time. While lithostatic pressure tends to increase with depth pore pressure is prone to fluctuations due to any change in the hydrological regime. Based on the earthquake catalogue data, the seasonal variations in seismic activity associated with annual fluctuations in the reservoir water level were analyzed over the time span of the entire history of seismological observations in this region. The regularities in the time changes in the structure of seasonal variations are revealed. An increase in pore fluid pressure can result in rock fracture and oscillating pore fluid pressures due to a reservoir loading and unloading cycles can cause iterative and cumulative damage, ultimately resulting in brittle failure under relatively low effective mean stress conditions. These regularities were verified by laboratory physical modeling. Based on our observations of main trends of spatio-temporal variations in seismicity as well as the spatial distribution of fracture network a conceptual model is presented to explain the triggered earthquakes in the KWSZ. The work was supported under the joint Russian-Indian project of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF) and the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of India (RSF project no. 16-47-02003 and DST project INT/RUS/RSF/P-13).
This study was conducted to compare two grade-ten mathematics textbooks according to Bloom's Taxonomies. In the Arabic version, 37 out of 70 periods (55.29%) were given to plane geometry and trigonometry, whereas 29 out of 70 periods (41.41%) were allocated for geometry and trigonometry. Also, 12 periods (17.14%) were allocated for algebra in the…
Mueller, N.; Kerstetter, S. R.; Katopody, D. T.; Oldow, J. S.
The NW-striking, right-oblique Fish Lake Valley fault zone (FLVFZ) forms the northern segment of the longest active structure in the western Great Basin; the Death Valley - Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley fault system. Since the mid-Miocene, 50 km of right-lateral displacement is documented on the southern FLVFZ and much of that displacement was and is transferred east and north on active WNW left-lateral faults. Prior to the Pliocene, displacement was transferred east and north on a low-angle detachment. Displacement on the northern part of the FLVFZ continues and is transferred to a fanned array of splays striking (west to east) WNW, NNW, ENE and NNE. To determine the displacement budget on these structures, we conducted a gravity survey to determine subsurface basin morphology and its relation to active faults. Over 2450 stations were collected and combined with existing PACES and proprietary data for a total of 3388 stations. The data were terrain corrected and reduced to a 2.67 g/cm3 density to produce a residual complete Bouguer anomaly. The eastern part of northern Fish Lake Valley is underlain by several prominent gravity lows forming several sub-basins with maximum RCBA values ranging from -24 to -28 mGals. The RCBA was inverted for depth using Geosoft Oasis Montaj GM-SYS 3D modeling software. Density values for the inversion were constrained by lithologic and density logs from wells that penetrate the entire Cenozoic section into the Paleozoic basement. Best fitting gravity measurements taken at the wellheads yielded an effective density of 2.4 g/cm3 for the basin fill. Modeled basement depths range between 2.1 to 3 km. The sub-basins form an arc opening to the NW and are bounded by ENE and NNE faults in the south and NS to NNW in the north. At the northern end of the valley, the faults merge with ENE left-lateral strike slip faults of the Mina deflection, which carries displacement to NW dextral strike-slip faults of the central Walker Lane.
McEvilly, A.; Abimbola, A.; Chan, J. H.; Strayer, L. M.
California State University, East Bay (CSUEB), located in Hayward, California, lies atop the San Leandro block (SLB) in the Hayward fault zone. The SLB is a J-K aged lithotectonic assemblage dominated by gabbro and intercalated with minor volcanics and sediments. It is bound by the subparallel northwest-trending western Hayward and eastern Chabot (CF) faults and pervasively cut by anastomosing secondary faults. The block itself is ~30 km along strike and 2-3 km wide. Previous studies suggest the block dips steeply to the northeast and extends to a depth of at least 7 km. In May of 2015, as part of an ongoing collaborative effort led by the USGS to create a 3D velocity model of the San Francisco Bay Area, researchers from CSUEB and the USGS conducted a seismic survey on the CSUEB campus. The primary goal of this pilot study was to locate the trace of the CF on the CSUEB campus and to determine bedrock depth. We deployed a 60-channel, 300m profile using 4.5Hz sensors spaced at 5m intervals. Active seismic sources were used at each geophone location. A 226kg accelerated weight-drop was used to generate P and Rayleigh waves for P-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), and a 3.5kg sledgehammer and block were used to generate S and Love waves for S-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of Love waves (MALW). Preliminary P-wave tomography, MASW, and MALW results from this pilot study suggest the location of an eastward-dipping CF as well as the presence of a high-velocity unit at about 20m depth, presumably an unmapped sliver of bedrock from the San Leandro block. Further studies planned for the fall of 2015 include additional seismic lines and surface mapping along the Chabot fault on and near the CSUEB campus. These new geophysical, GPS, and field geological data will be integrated with LiDAR imagery and existing geological, gravity and magnetic maps to create a 3-dimensional model of the portion of the SLB that contains the CSUEB campus.
Wheeler, James T.
We develop the properties of Weyl geometry, beginning with a review of the conformal properties of Riemannian spacetimes. Decomposition of the Riemann curvature into trace and traceless parts allows an easy proof that the Weyl curvature tensor is the conformally invariant part of the Riemann curvature, and shows the explicit change in the Ricci and Schouten tensors required to insure conformal invariance. We include a proof of the well-known condition for the existence of a conformal transformation to a Ricci-flat spacetime. We generalize this to a derivation of the condition for the existence of a conformal transformation to a spacetime satisfying the Einstein equation with matter sources. Then, enlarging the symmetry from Poincaré to Weyl, we develop the Cartan structure equations of Weyl geometry, the form of the curvature tensor and its relationship to the Riemann curvature of the corresponding Riemannian geometry. We present a simple theory of Weyl-covariant gravity based on a curvature-linear action, and show that it is conformally equivalent to general relativity. This theory is invariant under local dilatations, but not the full conformal group.
Larsen, Kristine M.
Discusses the reasons for identifying the contributions of women astronomers in introductory textbooks. The evolution of inclusion over the past 4 decades is explored by examining the rates of inclusion of 10 women astronomers in textbooks. Contains 100 references. (DDR)
EPA's Green Engineering textbook, Green Engineering: Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes, is a college senior-to-graduate-level engineering textbook. The primary authors are Dr. David Allen and Dr. David Shonnard.
Woody, William Douglas; Daniel, David B.; Baker, Crystal A.
Previous research has demonstrated that the experience of reading e-books is not equivalent to reading textbooks. This study examines factors influencing preference for e-books as well as reported use of e-book content. Although the present student cohort is the most technologically savvy to ever enter universities, students do not prefer e-books…
Woodward, Scott; Lloyd, Adam; Kimmons, Royce
Advocates for student voice in higher education believe students should have the right and power to engage in much of the decision-making traditionally dominated by instructors or administrators. This qualitative study examines the role of student voice in the evaluation of textbook quality. Evaluators included two graduate students enrolled in a…
Perrine, Daniel M.
Presents a problem on nonstandard concentrations at nonstandard temperature modeled after an example problem on the Nernst equation found in a high school chemistry textbook. Discusses why the problem is incorrect, offering a second problem which is correctly solved. Implications for teaching the Nernst equation are considered. (JN)
Ferguson, Yoko Inagi; Riley-Reid, Trevar
Recently, The City College of New York (CCNY) libraries engaged in a collaborative project to transfer the bibliographic holdings for textbook course reserves to a new module when their integrated library systems, the Ex Libris Aleph Integrated Library System, underwent a system upgrade. In this article, the Chief of Circulation and the Chief of…
Liang, Ye; Cobern, William W.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a typical Chinese high school biology textbook using the textbook standards of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The data were composed of three chapters selected from the textbook. Each chapter was analyzed and rated using the AAAS textbook standards. Pearson correlations…
Baek, Eun-Ok; Monaghan, James
eTextbooks have steadily and recently more rapidly penetrated the textbook market. In order to effectively support students' learning, it is important to comprehend students' experiences using eTextbooks. This survey study was designed to gain an understanding of students' experiences in using eTextbooks and variables that impact their…
Sewall, Gilbert T.
The American Textbook Council identified the nation's leading social studies textbooks based on estimated volume of sales and on adoptions in California, Indiana, North Carolina, Florida, and New York. Three multi-volume elementary-level programs and about a dozen secondary-level history textbooks command the market. The history textbooks at the…
van der Vlies, Tina
This article aims to contribute to the field of textbook research by exploring a new approach in textbook analysis. Inspired by Michael Rothberg's concept of multidirectional memory, this article examines multidirectional narratives in history textbooks: narratives that combine different histories, places and times in a productive way. They…
Fike, David; Fike, Renea
The primary focus of this study was to determine if student learning outcomes in an undergraduate Statistics course differed based upon the type of textbook used (e-textbook or hardcopy). Fifty-six students enrolled in the course were allowed to choose textbook type. After controlling for student demographics and academic preparedness, student…
In educational systems without comprehensive systems for regulating textbooks, teachers can exert considerable influence on the use of textbooks. However, existing research has not yet identified the mechanisms of this use. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to examine and explain teachers' strategic use of textbooks. I administered a…
Significant changes in textbook publishing are at college instructors' door. Textbook representatives are directed to mesmerize potential clients with eye-catching displays and statements about digital literacy of the next generation of college students. Based on a one-year pilot study, in 2014-2015, of an electronic textbook, this commentary…
This study analyzed treatment of geometric transformations in presently available middle grades (6, 7, 8) student mathematics textbooks. Fourteen textbooks from four widely used textbook series were evaluated: two mainline publisher series, Pearson (Prentice Hall) and Glencoe (Math Connects); one National Science Foundation (NSF) funded curriculum…
Sagafi-nejad, Tagi; Limaye, Aditya
As a field of study, international business (IB) has evolved with accelerated tempo in the last four decades. The subject has brought with it an increasing plethora of textbooks. We analyze the contents of major textbooks, both classic and new, to find the extent to which these textbooks cover the various components of the common body of knowledge…
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
Carroll, Michael P.
A section on "world religions" (WRs) is now routinely included in the religion chapters of introductory sociology textbooks. Looking carefully at these WR sections, however, two things seem puzzling. The first is that the criteria for defining a WR varies considerably from textbook to textbook; the second is that these WRs sections…
Masalski, Kathleen Woods
Currently, there is a controversy in Japan about textbook treatments of Japanese military actions during World War II. This digest examines: (1) the importance of history textbooks in schools in Japan and the United States; (2) the context of history textbook controversies in Japan; (3) the current issues and contending positions in the Japanese…
Prasad, Deepak; Totaram, Rajneel; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi
In the last few years, open textbook development has picked up dramatically due both to the expense of commercially published textbooks and the increasing availability of high-quality OER alternatives. While this offers a tremendous benefit in terms of lowering student textbook costs, the question remains, to what extent (if any) do open textbooks…
Prasad, Deepak; Totaram, Rajneel; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi
Textbook costs have skyrocketed in recent years, putting them beyond the reach of many students, but there are options which can mitigate this problem. Open textbooks, an open educational resource, have proven capable of making textbooks affordable to students. There have been few educational development as promising as the development of open…
Siler, Carl R.
Using content analysis, presents a study of 14 U.S. history textbooks. Analyzes textbook treatment of the Declaration of Independence, the atomic bomb, and the Holocaust. Examines nontextual materials. Finds errors of omission, boring writing styles, and a basic similarity between the textbooks. (RW)
Lathrop, Thomas A.
Guidelines are offered for preparing and publishing textbook materials in Portuguese and other uncommonly taught languages. The available options for publishing Portuguese materials include two textbook publishers, three university presses, self-publication, and the Cabrilho Press, which produces language textbooks. Methods for submitting…
Young, Jeffrey R.
Textbook publishers argue that their newest digital products should not even be called "textbooks." They are really software programs built to deliver a mix of text, videos, and homework assignments. But delivering them is just the beginning. No old-school textbook was able to be customized for each student in the classroom. The books never graded…
Danzer, Gerald A.
Explains how social studies pupils can use an awareness of textbook design to become better students. Suggestions include reproducing the collage on an American history textbook as a large poster for classroom use and directing students to design a graphic unit opener in the same style as the ones in their textbooks. (DB)
Altman, William S.; Ericksen, Kristen; Pena-Shaff, Judith B.
This article reports on the development and use of an inclusive process to select a departmental textbook for general psychology. It describes a method for developing department-specific instruments to narrow the available textbook choices and an in-class textbook trial used in the final selection. Reported advantages of this method include…
Graydon, Benjamin; Urbach-Buholz, Blake; Kohen, Cheryl
Textbooks too often hinder rather than help students because of their prohibitively expensive prices. Colleges and universities facing intense pressure to lower education expenses while increasing access, retention, and achievement now find addressing the textbook problem more and more urgent. Used textbook sales have grown dramatically over the…
Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.
It has been 13 years since the last objective analysis of full-length introductory psychology textbooks was published and 15 years since the textbook copyright period used in that study, 1995-1997. Given the importance of informed textbook evaluation and selection to the introductory course but the difficulty of this task because of the large…
Cline, Paul C.; Eksterowicz, Anthony J.
Discusses the importance of studying the Vietnam War. Attempts to illustrate the amount and quality of coverage of the Vietnam War in U.S. government textbooks. Explains that the amount of space devoted to the war in most of these texts remains inadequate for student understanding of the Vietnam War. (CMK)
Ronda, Erlina; Adler, Jill
In this paper, we propose an analytic tool for describing the mathematics made available to learn in a "textbook lesson". The tool is an adaptation of the Mathematics Discourse in Instruction (MDI) analytic tool that we developed to analyze what is made available to learn in teachers' lessons. Our motivation to adapt the use of the MDI…
Eksterowicz, Anthony J.; Cline, Paul C.
Asserts that the Watergate scandal during the 1972 presidential election altered the U.S. government and the very mood of the United States. Presents a content analysis of 5 middle school, 5 secondary, and 12 college-level textbooks. Finds that the texts exhibit weak historical discussion or analysis of Watergate. (CFR)
Arnold, Robert D.; And Others
Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…
Alkalesi, Yasin M.
This book is an introductory textbook for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or for those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. The book is divided into 16 lessons: "Arabic Alphabet and Vowels"; "Greetings and Courtesy Expressions"; "Asking for Directions"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part…
The author publishes and freely distributes three online textbooks. "Introduction to Physical Oceanography" is available as a typeset book in Portable Document Format (PDF) or as web pages. "Our Ocean Planet: Oceanography in the 21st Century" and "Environmental Science in the 21st Century" are both available as web pages. All three books, which…
Examines the historical circumstances, prevailing from the early nineteenth century onward, under which the textbook-centered culture of Indian education developed. Discusses conditions associated with colonial rule, teachers' service conditions and professional status, the examination system, and imposition of a foreign language as they…
Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy
A number of Muslim countries have stepped up plans for revising school textbooks as part of the continuing U.S. driven campaign to combat terrorism. Critics maintain that the efforts are superficial and that the books continue to portray dangerous stereotypes and promote extremist views. Some books for religious and social sciences classes in use…
Steuer, Faye B.; Ham, K. Whitfield, II
Sales figures and recollections of psychologists indicate textbooks play a central role in psychology students' education, yet instructors typically must select texts under time pressure and with incomplete information. Although selection aids are available, none adequately address the accuracy of texts. We describe a technique for sampling…
Kang, Wan; Kilpatrick, Jeremy
Didactic transposition theory asserts that bodies of knowledge are designed not to be taught but to be used. Discusses didactic transposition, the transposition of knowledge regarded as a tool to be used to knowledge as something to be learned in mathematics textbooks. (14 references) (MDH)
The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)
Maclennan, Jennifer M.
Presents a study on the process involved in the "Canadianization" of U.S. textbooks for the domestic market. Explores whether disciplinary values have been shaped by the United States in the field of communication. Focuses on the experience of developing the Canadian edition of the book "Public Speaking: Strategies for Success"…
History textbooks in contemporary democracies have often been exposed to censorship and other forms of interference. This article presents the idea of a classification of these forms as a novel way to contemplate the ambivalent relationship between democratic authority and historical instruction. The model primarily distinguishes official forms of…
Der Grundgedanke der Analytischen Geometrie besteht darin, dass geometrische Untersuchungen mit rechnerischen Mitteln geführt werden. Geometrische Objekte werden dabei durch Gleichungen beschrieben und mit algebraischen Methoden untersucht. Behandelt werden folgende Themen: Koordinatensysteme: Kartesisches Koordinatensystem der Ebene und des Raumes, Polarkoordinatensystem der Ebene, Zusammenhang zwischen kartesischen und Polarkoordinaten; Geraden: Geradengleichungen, Abstände von Geraden; Kreise: Kreisgleichungen, Kreisberechnungen; Kugeln; Kegelschnitte; Ellipsen; Hyperbeln; Parabeln; Anwendungen von Kegelschnitten aus Technik und Mathematik; Vektoren: Definitionen, Addition, Multiplikation, Komponentendarstellung in der Ebene und im Raum, Skalarprodukt, Vektorprodukt. Zu den einzelnen Themenkreisen sind Beispiele aufgeführt. Wichtige Regeln und Gesetze sind durch Umrandung besonders kenntlich gemacht.
Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)
Andrikopoulou, M; Michala, L; Creighton, S M; Liao, L-M
When a healthy woman expresses concerns about her vulva, the doctor's response should be informed by clinical knowledge. For many doctors, accumulation of such knowledge would have begun with undergraduate teaching and medical textbooks. The aim of this study is to examine the information on female genital morphology in medical textbooks. A total of 59 gynaecology and anatomy textbooks were searched for information on the dimensions of vulval constitutent parts. No textbook gave measurements for all vulval structures. Vaginal length was reported in 21/59 textbooks, clitoral size in 15/59 and labia minora in 1/59. Where measurements appear, they suggest narrower ranges than recent reports. Information of vulval morphology is scanty and inaccurate in medical textbooks. The general lack of professional resources means that doctors may consciously or non-consciously rely upon personal experiences and popular culture to form their opinions, as do their patients.
Baker, Judy; Thierstein, Joel; Fletcher, Kathi; Kaur, Manpreet; Emmons, Jonathan
To address the high cost of textbooks, Rice University's Connexions and the Community College Open Textbook Project (CCOTP) collaborated to develop a proof-of-concept free and open textbook. The proof-of-concept served to document a workflow process that would support adoption of open textbooks. Open textbooks provide faculty and students with a…
Rudd, R. D.; Bowden, L. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.
A selective bibliography is presented which cites 89 textbooks, monographs, and articles covering introductory and advanced remote sensing techniques, photointerpretation, photogrammetry, and image processing.
Apple, Michael W.
The textbook dominates curricula at the elementary, secondary, and even college levels. The ideological, political, and economic sources of its production, distribution, and reception are examined. (RM)
Kitao, Kenji; And Others
A study of reading textbooks for English as a second language published in Japan evaluated 150 traditional reading textbooks and 32 new reading textbooks published for use in 1985. Traditional reading textbooks are those with main texts and notes and sometimes a few comprehension questions. New reading textbooks have main texts, comprehension…
Gebregeorgis, Mehari Yimulaw
Textbooks are not only meant to deliver subject knowledge; they are also a medium to convey universal and community-specific values. Aiming to explore the social and emotional development goals of "English for Ethiopia Student Textbook Grade 9," this study reviews the content and activities of the textbook by searching for embedded peace…
DeRose, John J.
Old textbooks are one resource for teaching about the evolution of historical interpretation. Some libraries contain collections of U.S. history textbooks spanning multiple years and some schools even keep older textbooks used in past years. Recently, the author used a book by Kyle Ward entitled "History in the Making: An Absorbing Look at How…
Khalili, Masoud; Jodai, Hojat
This paper intends to evaluate the WorldView series textbooks of English learning, which are being taught at an Iranian military university foreign language center. No textbook evaluation had been conducted by the university administration prior to the introduction of the textbooks to the language program. Theorists in the field of ELT textbook…
Badua, Frank; Sharifi, Mohsen; Mendez Mediavilla, Francis
The factors involved in the selection of accounting textbooks are under-investigated, and most of the research is survey-based, largely ignoring the information that could be analyzed by direct inspection of textbook content and its impact on textbook selection. In this study the authors fill this lacuna by deploying content analysis of the…
Sewall, Gilbert T.
How widely adopted world history textbooks cover Islam and the history of the Middle East is a timely and important subject to explore. In 2001 the American Textbook Council began a comprehensive review of middle school and high school world history textbooks. The Council relied on respected historians and standard sources, influential articles…
Reviews 21 one-semester economics textbooks using Kenneth E. Boulding's ideas for introductory textbooks. Lists 240 concepts and topic areas in macroeconomics, microeconomics, public policy, and international economics that may be covered in a textbook. (NL)
National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Some course and curriculum improvement projects funded by the National Science Foundation have produced definitive editions of textbooks, other printed materials, and instructional films. This bulletin lists materials available in 1968 through commercial or college and university sources. The publications include textbooks, laboratory guides,…
Foster, Andrea L.
Learning is valuable, but in Africa it is more than that: It is prohibitively expensive. In Ethiopia, where the per-capita income is about $100 a year, a single textbook at Addis Ababa University can cost $50. To get more textbooks to students in developing nations, two people are leading an ambitious project to produce and freely distribute 1,000…
Rahimpour, Massoud; Hashemi, Raheleh
Decisions related to textbook selection and evaluation are of great importance. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the three English language textbooks currently used at high schools in Iran from the high school English teachers' point of view. For this purpose, a 46-item questionnaire was developed about the five sections of the textbooks…
McGowan, Matthew K.; Stephens, Paul R.
The past ten years have seen an increase in the number of ways students can acquire textbooks. The traditional purchase of printed textbooks from the campus bookstore still exists, but now students can purchase e-books, buy online, or rent from either the campus bookstore or from an online provider. This research is an exploratory study of college…
Considering the spiritual needs of patients is an important aspect of holistic patient care. However, many nurses lack knowledge and awareness of the subject, and spirituality is not strongly featured as a key part of holistic care in core nursing textbooks. The author argues that guidance given by nursing textbooks needs to be more applicable to practice.
Fleming, Dan B.; Nurse, Ronald J.
Describes a study which analyzed 10 current and widely used secondary U.S. history textbooks for their coverage of the Vietnam War to determine their accuracy, completeness, and objectivity. Most of the textbooks studied offered a too sketchy account of the Vietnam War. Certain key topics are often neglected. (RM)
Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's…
McCain, Roger A.
Discusses an electronic textbook called "Essential Principles of Economics." Explains that economic concepts are found by following links from the table of contents, while each chapter includes both expository information and interactive material including online multiple-choice drill questions. States that the textbook is a "work…
Savova, Lilia, Ed.
This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series asks one fundamental question, "How can teachers teach the students, not the book?" The response, given within "Using Textbooks Effectively", is to move beyond the textbook as a separate entity and view it instead as part of the ESOL curriculum process and as a tool for student learning. The…
Sewall, Gilbert T.
United States history as a linchpin in the school curriculum and as a potentially exciting, sometimes electrifying, subject was the conviction underlying this analysis of U.S. history textbooks. This assessment investigates the capacity of leading U.S. social studies and history textbooks to inspire the imagination of students through effective…
Bauman, Robert P.
Examines problems that commonly appear in the definition and discussion of work in physics textbooks. Presents the work-energy theorem, provides examples contradicting erroneous statements often found in textbook, and discusses the inconsistent terminology utilized with respect to force and work. (MDH)
Barojas, Jorge; Trigueros, Maria
The planning of an introductory calculus textbook in classical mechanics is shown as an example of an approach to textbook design that uses four main cognitive categories: sources of learning, instruments of learning, processes of knowing, and mechanisms of knowing. The aspects, domains, description, and elements of each section of the textbook…
McLeod, P. J.; Harden, R. M.
Reports on a content analysis of 14 textbooks on endocrinology. Using thyrotoxicosis as the content maker, the study indicated major differences between books with regard to the information provided and the number of words devoted to the subject. Suggests that medical teachers selecting textbooks be aware of such differences. (TW)
With 27 million users, Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Seattle, WA) is the most common business data analysis software. However, audits show that almost all complex spreadsheets have errors. The author examined textbooks to understand why responsible data analysis is taught. A purposeful sample of 10 textbooks was coded, and then compared against…
Discusses the four previous editions of the biochemistry medical textbooks called the "Nationwide Unified Textbooks." Notes the new (1989) edition is much smaller, is organized differently, has new material, has a reorganized Dynamic Biochemistry core, and shows great importance to clinical biochemistry. (MVL)
HARRIS, JUDAH J.
RESULTS OF SURVEYS OF SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS USED IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED. IN SECONDARY TEXTBOOKS, FOCUS WAS ON THE ATTENTION GIVEN TO THE TREATMENT OF JOBS, OF AMERICAN NEGROES, OF IMMIGRANTS, AND OF MINORITIES UNDER NAZISM. IT WAS FOUND THAT (1) ANCIENT HEBREW HISTORY, TO THE EXCLUSION OF…
Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.
This publication lists a selection of consumer economics and consumer mathematics textbooks available for review from the National Institute for Consumer Education. Twenty-six textbooks for the secondary level are cited. Nine advanced level texts are also listed. These texts are generally considered college level texts but could be adapted for…
Many introductory microeconomics textbook authors derive the law of demand from the assumption of diminishing marginal utility. Authors of intermediate and graduate textbooks derive demand from diminishing marginal rate of substitution and ordinal preferences. These approaches are not interchangeable; diminishing marginal utility for all goods is…
Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.
Given their high cost, many students no longer buy textbooks for all of their courses, impacting their learning and performance in these courses. This is especially prevalent at community colleges. Open (digitally free) textbooks constitute one solution to this problem, but the latest national survey of college faculty found that 66% were not…
Ho, Hsuan-fu; Hsu, Ying-tsun
Textbooks were centrally selected in Taiwan until 1996 when the government commissioned its Textbook Liberalization Reform. Although this policy received complements from scholars and the general public, it encounters many unexpected problems in its implementation. The aims of this research are thus to identify the major criteria used by…
Moyer, Wayne A.; Mayer, William V.
Presented are critical reviews of 18 biology textbooks submitted for consideration by the Texas State Board of Education during 1984. These reviews are provided in three categories: (1) general biology textbooks: "Biology and Human Progress"--Prentice Hall; "Scott, Foresman Life Science"--Scott, Foresman; "Living Things"--Holt, Rinehart, and…
Sun, Jun; Flores, Javier; Tanguma, Jesus
The contribution of the e-textbooks can be enormous considering their additional supporting features, but adoption has not crystallized yet. This study examines the relevant experiences of college students in terms of how the use of e-textbooks may enhance their learning. A survey study was conducted to measure the perceptions of each student on…
Patrick, John J.
Textbooks may indicate the quantity and quality of subject content in a secondary school curriculum. They tend to conform to state departments of education and large local school districts' curriculum guides and to be the dominant instructional medium in high school courses. Examinations of widely-used textbooks may indicate the strengths and…
Reppert, James E.
Do textbooks matter in an ever-changing field of broadcast journalism? Are some teaching materials irrelevant or out of touch with equipment needs, or lack thereof, at small institutions? Noting that these questions need to be considered when evaluating broadcast or mass communication writing and production textbooks by national companies, this…
Examines sexual stereotypes in selected professional writing textbooks published from the 1930s to the 1950s. Maintains that these textbooks--portraying women as subservient, emotional, and frivolous, and men as decisive, logical, and strong--suggest that men are more suited for positions of authority, and have played an important role in…
Immigrant success stories found in English as a second language (ESL) textbooks used in government-funded language instruction in Canada imagine Canada as a redeemer of immigrant newcomers. Through a critical discourse analysis of ESL textbooks used in Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada classes in Ontario, I identify two primary…
During the first-ever Digital Learning Day, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan and Federal Communications Commission chief Julius Genachowski unveiled an ambitious plan earlier this year to get schools to switch from print to digital textbooks by 2017. Dubbed the Digital Textbook Playbook, it's a recommendation for how schools could transform…
Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki
This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…
Dennis, Alan R.; Abaci, Serdar; Morrone, Anastasia S.; Plaskoff, Joshua; McNamara, Kelly O.
With additional features and increasing cost advantages, e-textbooks are becoming a viable alternative to paper textbooks. One important feature offered by enhanced e-textbooks (e-textbooks with interactive functionality) is the ability for instructors to annotate passages with additional insights. This paper describes a pilot study that examines…
O'Keeffe, Lisa; O'Donoghue, John
In current textbook analysis research, there is a strong focus on the content, structure and expectation presented by the textbook as elements for analysis. This research moves beyond such foci and proposes a framework for textbook language analysis which is intended to be integrated into an overall framework for mathematics textbook analysis. The…
Examines if the reading levels of state-adopted science textbooks at the high-school level are consistent with their intended reader levels. Finds that four of five chemistry textbooks had reading levels beyond high school, while biology textbooks fared better but not as well as the physics and physical science textbooks, which were on grade level…
... Standard XIV—Textbooks. (a) Each school shall establish a textbook review committee composed of teachers, parents, and students, and school board members. Appointment to the textbook review committee shall be subject to school board approval. (b) The textbook review committee shall establish a procedure and...
Zinser, Brian; Brunswick, Gary
The rate of textbook revision cycles is examined in light of the recent trend towards more rapid revisions (and adoptions of textbooks). The authors conduct background research to better understand the context for textbook revision cycles and the environmental forces that have been influencing what appears to be more rapid textbook revisions. A…
Porter, Paula L.
Current versions of electronic textbooks mimic the format and structure of printed textbooks; however, the electronic capabilities of these new versions of textbooks offer the potential of embedding interactive features of web-based learning within the context of a textbook. This dissertation research study was conducted to determine if student…
Miller, Jon R.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori
The rising cost of college textbooks over the last decade provides an opportunity for alternatives. Electronic or online textbooks are an effective substitute to the traditional paper-based textbooks, although students have been slow to transition to the new method. A custom, professor-written online textbook not only addresses the reduction in…
Griggs, Richard A.; Christopher, Andrew N.
It is important to assess periodically how introductory textbooks portray our discipline because introductory psychology is the most popular psychology course, almost all teachers use textbooks for it, and textbooks play a major role in defining the course for students. To do so, past studies have used textbook citation analyses. We analyzed…
Hilton, John, III; Laman, Carol
The high cost of textbooks is of concern not only to college students but also to society as a whole. Open textbooks promise the same educational benefits as traditional textbooks; however, their efficacy remains largely untested. We report on a case study about one community college's adoption of a free online psychology textbook. During the fall…
Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.
Surveys psychology textbook authors and editors on their perceptions of the introductory psychology textbook market. Finds that the textbook market is divided into three levels according to quality, and that authors and editors are not familiar with most textbooks. Notes that the growth of used book companies has adversely affected the market.…
Dickison, L. R.
The textbook provides a semantical explanation accompanying a complete set of GOAL syntax diagrams, system concepts, language component interaction, and general language concepts necessary for efficient language implementation/execution.
Britton, Gwyneth E.; Lumpkin, Margaret C.
Discusses the fact that, although publishers have acknowledged the problem of sex bias in textbooks in the United States, guidelines lack specifics, timetables, and procedures for monitoring content and enforcing compliance with the guidelines. (MB)
Pickle, Maria Consuelo Capiral
This study analyzed the treatment and scope of statistical concepts in four, widely-used, contemporary, middle grades mathematics textbook series: "Glencoe Math Connects," "Prentice Hall Mathematics," "Connected Mathematics Project," and "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project." There were three…
Barojas, J.; Trigueros, M.
The cognitive domains of a communication scheme for learning physics are related to a framework based on epistemology, and the planning of an introductory calculus textbook in classical mechanics is shown as an example of application.
Reviews economics textbooks frequently used in college level economics courses in England to determine the extent of bias. Topics analyzed include economics as science and ethics, profits, advertising, economic objectives, perfect competition, and nationalized industries. (Author/DB)
Mennenga, Heidi A
Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print.
In this article, the author investigates effective teaching and learning of geometrical concepts using dynamic geometry software (DGS). Based from her students' reactions to her project, the author found that her students' understanding of the concepts was better than if they had learned geometry through paper-based tasks. However, mixing computer…
Textbooks have a low status in the history of science because they have been seen as mere repositories for scientific knowledge. But historians have recently shown how they play a number of roles that can illuminate different aspects of the history of science, from priority disputes to pedagogical practices. The essays in this Focus section aim to expand our vision of textbooks further by showing how they perform various hybrid functions in scientific development.
Murthy, Tejas; Viswanathan, Koushik
Confined geometries are widespread in granular processing applications. The deformation and flow fields in such a geometry, with non-trivial boundary conditions, determine the resultant mechanical properties of the material (local porosity, density, residual stresses etc.). We present experimental studies of deformation and plastic flow of a prototypical granular medium in different nontrivial geometries- flat-punch compression, Couette-shear flow and a rigid body sliding past a granular half-space. These geometries represent simplified scaled-down versions of common industrial configurations such as compaction and dredging. The corresponding granular flows show a rich variety of flow features, representing the entire gamut of material types, from elastic solids (beam buckling) to fluids (vortex-formation, boundary layers) and even plastically deforming metals (dead material zone, pile-up). The effect of changing particle-level properties (e.g., shape, size, density) on the observed flows is also explicitly demonstrated. Non-smooth contact dynamics particle simulations are shown to reproduce some of the observed flow features quantitatively. These results showcase some central challenges facing continuum-scale constitutive theories for dynamic granular flows.
Wallace, Faith H.; Evans, Mary Anna; Stein, Megan
Storytelling can provide unique teachable moments. Mathematics content found in a good story can be seamlessly woven throughout a lesson. The technical vocabulary used in some stories occurs in a natural way, outside a textbook setting. A great story can also motivate students to actively engage in meaningful mathematics. With a wide range of…
We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, "The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds," Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ arXiv:hep-th/0410155
Textbooks are experiencing a 21st century makeover. The author has created a web-based electronic textbook, Material and Energy Balances zyBook, that records students' interactions. Animations and question sets create interactive and scaffolded content. The interactive format is adopted successfully in other engineering disciplines and is now…
Miller, Steven L.; Rose, Stephen A.
The 16 US history textbooks reviewed failed to incorporate economists' research on the causes of the Great Depression and consistently presented information that the economics profession has rejected. Strategies that social studies educators might adopt to improve the quality of economic analysis in textbooks is suggested. (Author/RM)
Epstein, Terrie L.
Contends that differences in historical interpretations presented in textbooks have implications for citizenship education. Compares the treatment of the civil rights movement in two secondary level U.S. history textbooks. Concludes that selection committees should examine historical interpretation as well the amount of information about…
Zajkov, Oliver; Gegovska-Zajkova, Sonja; Mitrevski, Boce
A physics textbook for the 8th grade was analyzed, in particular the section on the interaction between electric current and magnetic field. The textbook is written in the Macedonian language, but is translated into Albanian, Serbian, and Turkish, which provides an opportunity to influence a larger population of children, in a larger ethnic area.…
For most educational historians, the Harold Rugg textbook controversy serves as an example of the mid-twentieth-century "assault" on progressive education. By restricting their analyses of the textbook controversy to the "rise and fall" of the progressivism paradigm, however, scholars have generally missed Americans' more measured approach to the…
McDonald, Nathaniel J.
Chronicles a teacher's first year teaching geometry at the Hershey Montessori Farm School in Huntsburg, Ohio. Instructional methods relied on Euclid primary readings and combined pure abstract logic with practical applications of geometry on the land. The course included geometry background imparted by Montessori elementary materials as well as…
MATERIALS ARE INTENDED FOR A UNIFIED AND ACCELERATED PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY COURSE AND FOR EASY MODIFICATION AND ADAPTATION BY EXPERIENCED OR INEXPERIENCED TEACHER. TEXTBOOKS TO WHICH THE GUIDE HAS BEEN KEYED ARE LISTED. UNITS ARE GIVEN FOR BOTH SEMESTERS WITH TIME ALLOTMENTS RECOMMENDED. EACH UNIT IS SUBDIVIDED INTO TOPICS AND OBJECTIVES,…
Curtis, Charles W.; And Others
These materials were developed to help high school teachers to become familiar with the approach to tenth-grade Euclidean geometry which was adopted by the School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG). It is emphasized that the materials are unsuitable as a high school textbook. Each document contains material too difficult for most high school students.…
Reggia, James A.; Pula, Thaddeus P.; Price, Thomas R.; Perricone, Barry T.
We define an intelligent textbook of medicine to be a computer system that: (1) provides for storage and selective retrieval of synthesized clinical knowledge for reference purposes; and (2) supports the application by computer of its knowledge to patient information to assist physicians with decision making. This paper describes an experimental system called KMS (a Knowledge Management System) for creating and using intelligent medical textbooks. KMS is domain-independent, supports multiple inference methods and representation languages, and is designed for direct use by physicians during the knowledge acquisition process. It is presented here in the context of the development of an Intelligent Textbook of Neurology. We suggest that KMS has the potential to overcome some of the problems that have inhibited the use of knowledge-based systems by physicians in the past.
End-of-the-chapter textbook problems are often the bread and butter of any traditional physics classroom. However, research strongly suggests that students be given the opportunity to apply their knowledge in multiple contexts as well as be provided with opportunities to do the process of science through laboratory experiences. Little correlation has been shown linking the number of textbook problems solved with conceptual understanding of topics in mechanics. Furthermore, textbook problems as the primary source of practice for students robs them of the joy and productive struggle of learning how to think like an experimental physicist. Methods such as Modeling Instruction tackle this problem head-on by starting each instructional unit with an inquiry-based lab aimed at establishing the important concepts and equations for the unit, and this article will discuss ideas and experiences for how to carry that philosophy throughout a unit.
Background The consistency of treatment recommendations of evidence-based medical textbooks with more recently published evidence has not been investigated to date. Inconsistencies could affect the quality of medical care. Objective To determine the frequency with which topics in leading online evidence-based medical textbooks report treatment recommendations consistent with more recently published research evidence. Methods Summarized treatment recommendations in 200 clinical topics (ie, disease states) covered in four evidence-based textbooks–UpToDate, Physicians’ Information Education Resource (PIER), DynaMed, and Best Practice–were compared with articles identified in an evidence rating service (McMaster Premium Literature Service, PLUS) since the date of the most recent topic updates in each textbook. Textbook treatment recommendations were compared with article results to determine if the articles provided different, new conclusions. From these findings, the proportion of topics which potentially require updating in each textbook was calculated. Results 478 clinical topics were assessed for inclusion to find 200 topics that were addressed by all four textbooks. The proportion of topics for which there was 1 or more recently published articles found in PLUS with evidence that differed from the textbooks’ treatment recommendations was 23% (95% CI 17-29%) for DynaMed, 52% (95% CI 45-59%) for UpToDate, 55% (95% CI 48-61%) for PIER, and 60% (95% CI 53-66%) for Best Practice (χ 2 3=65.3, P<.001). The time since the last update for each textbook averaged from 170 days (range 131-209) for DynaMed, to 488 days (range 423-554) for PIER (P<.001 across all textbooks). Conclusions In online evidence-based textbooks, the proportion of topics with potentially outdated treatment recommendations varies substantially. PMID:23220465
Bauman, Robert P.
Examines inconsistencies in science textbook discussions of vector quantities and force. Provides illustrations of textbook inconsistencies related to Newton's laws of motion and the concepts of centrifugal and coriolis force. (MDH)
Feiner, Susan F.; Morgan, Barbara A.
Reviews widely-used introductory economics textbooks, examining how issues relating to race and gender are treated. Suggests how stereotypical roles could be avoided in the future. Includes a table summarizing data from 21 textbooks. (Author/DH)
Young, Jeffrey R.
Book publishers are stepping up efforts to stop college students from downloading illegal copies of textbooks online. One Web site, Textbook Torrents, promises more than 5,000 textbooks for download in PDF format, complete with the original books' layouts and full-color illustrations. Users must simply set up a free account and download a free…
Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Thompson, Denisse R.; Senk, Sharon L.
Recognizing that textbooks play a prominent role in fostering students' understanding of reasoning and proof, the authors conducted a study to examine the extent to which textbooks used in U.S. high schools provide opportunities for students to encounter proof-related reasoning and how the nature of proof-related reasoning in textbooks varies by…
Since an alarming number of students do not read their textbooks, the author investigated whether students might more readily review their course information if it were available on MP3 files instead of in textbook form. Her hypotheses are that students who have access to textbook section summaries in MP3 form will cover more of the textbook…
Winograd, Peter; Osborn, Jean
Kentucky is one of twenty-four states that rely upon a state adoption process for selecting school textbooks, a procedure that occurs every six years. Publishers' bids are solicited and evaluated by the State Textbook Commission, and the Textbook Selection Criteria Committee for Reading makes recommendations that will be of help to people…
Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.
It has been 12 years since the last objective analysis of brief introductory psychology textbooks was published and 13 years since the textbook copyright period used in that study, 1997-2000. Given the importance of informed textbook evaluation and selection to the introductory course but the difficulty of this task because of the large number of…
This paper provides insights into both the educational design of textbooks and interdisciplinary education. The author introduces two educational principles for textbook design--instructional alignment and balancing diversity and meaningful guidance for readers--and applies them to writing his own textbook chapter for being interdisciplinary. The…
Miller, Jon R.; Nutting, Andrew W.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori
Electronic books are a fast-growing component of the publishing industry. Sales of electronic textbooks (e-textbooks) are growing, but at a slower rate. In this research we use data from an undergraduate student survey to estimate the determinants of e-textbook use. We find that students who are younger, lower-income, and from larger high schools…
Galarza, Sualyneth; Perry, Sarah; Peyton, Shelly
Textbooks are expensive, updated infrequently, and rarely used effectively by students. We discuss here a way for students to create the textbook for the course, helping them feel ownership over the course material. This Wiki-based, student-created textbook is online free for use, widely accessible by all, and editable during the course of and as…
Knight, Bruce Allen
This paper explores teachers' use of textbooks in the digital age. After discussing student expectancies and needs, textbook use and the affordances of modern technology, the paper reports the results of a small-scale pilot study involving eight higher education teachers in Australia who discuss the use of textbooks in higher education in the…
This paper examines the issues useful for faculty members that are considering electronically self-publishing their course textbook. A brief history of the use of electronic textbooks is presented as well as the advantages and disadvantages associated with self-publishing and electronic textbooks. A brief overview is provided on the process of…
Previous studies on electronic textbooks were all survey studies of college students in the U.S.A. Their main findings revealed that using electronic textbooks and using print textbooks showed no statistical differences in learning achievements. As mobile devices became popular in classrooms, the present study was intended to confirm the…
Bossaller, Jenny; Kammer, Jenna
eTextbooks are both texts and tools. They provide opportunities for textbook companies to expand their services. Some large textbook companies are offering extensive educational technology products and services along with texts. These etexts, integrated into the Learning Management System (LMS), give instructors opportunities to use integrated…
Jamshidi, Tahereh; Soori, Afshin
This study aimed to evaluate an ESP textbook in terms of McDonough and Shaw (2003) based on external and internal evaluation. The ESP textbook was "Special English for Computer Sciences" (2010) by Hojjat Baghban. This study also discussed the external evaluation and a detailed evaluation of a chapter of the ESP textbook. This ESP…
Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi
Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…
Jung, Eulho; Bauer, Christine; Heaps, Allan
The high cost of tuition and textbooks can have a negative impact on potential students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Open Educational Resources (OER) offers students a way to save educational costs while utilizing high-quality open textbooks. Up until now, there have been few studies focused on a specific provider of open textbooks. This…
Tani, Masaru; And Others
Reports on a study trip by 13 U.S. social studies educators and publishers to Japan. Compares development, marketing, and selection of textbooks in the United States and Japan. Concludes that both nations should improve textbooks and textbook selection processes. (CFR)
Perlmutter, David D.
Finds that the secondary-school textbook vision of society is homogenized and sanitized to reduce the risk of controversy. Reveals three domains of control that influence textbook visual content: industrial (how the image world of a textbook is created); commercial (marketing pressures); and social (interest groups that influence the visual…
German Geography textbooks are structured using the principle of "Systematic Geography based on a regional example" that is predominant in Germany. Compared to other macroregions such as Europe, North America, Africa, or Asia, however, Australia is presented less frequently in school textbooks. Those textbooks which deal with Australia…
Binns, Ian C.
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the representation of scientific methodology in secondary science textbooks. More specifically, this study looked at how textbooks introduced scientific methodology and to what degree the examples from the rest of the textbook, the investigations, and the images were consistent with the text's…
Zecha, Stefanie; Popp, Stephan; Yasar, Aysun
This paper investigates the Islam and Muslim life in German textbooks. The study is based on the analysis of current Geography textbooks in Bavarian secondary schools. As a first step, the authors developed a system for objective analysis of the textbooks that structures the content in categories. In a second step, the authors used the qualitative…
Suarez, Alicia E.; Balaji, Alexandra
Mirroring increased cultural and disciplinary attention to sexuality, many introductory sociology textbooks have begun to include coverage of the topic. Our study first assesses the extent of textual coverage of sexuality in a sample of 38 introductory textbooks published after 2000. Secondly, we focus on 14 textbooks with a sexuality chapter…
Keser, Hafize; Aydin, Burcu
In this study, the content analysis' categories and sub topics were drawn up for sixth and seventh grade computer textbooks in order to compare visual and verbal contents of these textbooks. Totally nine sixth and seventh grade computer textbooks which were chosen by Ministry of National Education were included in this study. These nine textbooks…
Wiese, Melanie; Du Plessis, Giselle
The Internet has not only brought about a new technological era, but also seen the introduction of a number of emerging technologies such as e-textbooks. However, the slow acceptance of e-textbooks is an issue of concern. The objective of this study is to investigate students' perceptions and use of e-textbooks. Data was collected by using a…
This research is an exploratory study that investigates students' perceptions pertinent to textbook layout and organization and their evaluation of the textbook ease of learning. The objective is to find out whether the layout dynamics of school textbooks make any difference in students' interest in studying or subject understanding. 73 students…
Most textbooks, ignoring current narrative theory, fail to explain a large number of published essays containing narrative. To challenge textbook definitions of narratives, three points should be made: (1) a clear distinction should be recognized between narratives making points and narratives proving points, (2) the textbook equating of…
Reppert, James E.
How relevant are some textbooks when professors, even in the same department, teach similar courses in different ways? Are there methods by which textbook companies can receive realistic, substantive feedback concerning the quality of communication textbook offerings? This paper details the methods by which its author/educator became a textbook…
Sewall, Gilbert T.
This review samples ten of the nation's most widely used junior and senior high school history textbooks comparing what respected historians say about Islam in authoritative histories to what is being said in textbooks. It assesses how today's history textbooks characterize Islam's foundations and creeds; changes and additions that have occurred…
Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi
Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…
These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.
Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.
The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.
Discusses a study of 19 junior and senior high school textbooks used in the Washington D.C. area to introduce students to the Arab World and Islam. Findings indicated that Middle Eastern culture and history were frequently measured by western standards, information was often inaccurate, the Arab-Israeli conflict often portrayed Arabs as being at…
Magdas, Ioana; Drîngu, Maria-Carmen
Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports of Romania through order no. 3654/29.03.2012 approved the Framework Plan for Primary Education, Preparatory Grade, First and Second Grades. New subjects and syllabuses were introduced. In 2014-2015 school year appeared new school textbooks for first and second grade. Unlike the previous textbooks…
Dutch, Steven I.
Students don't hang on to textbooks anymore, and the prevalence of second-hand merchandise obliges publishers to recoup their costs the first semester after a new release. Thus, those publishers are loath to experiment with novel approaches and are hypersensitive about reviewer criticism. Steven I. Dutch, who spent a decade preparing an…
Ketcham, Allen F.; Rossman, Joseph E., Jr.
The 66th and 67th Texas legislatures mandated that an economics course with an emphasis on the free enterprise system and its benefits be a required course for all students graduating from Texas high schools. This paper presents an analysis of the 1982-1988 textbooks adopted for that course. The key concepts evaluated were: definition of…
Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.
Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…
Schick, James B. M.
Outlines recommended conditions and features of online history textbooks: link control, coverage of methodology, maps, breadth and depth of information, layered storytelling approach, tools, tutorials, customization, team teaching, short movies, interviews, reading activities and skill building activities, overcharging, and password protection.…
Bragdon, Henry Wilkinson
Nearly three decades ago, the author started writing an American history textbook. He recently finished the revisions on the ninth edition and here he describes the struggles he had with his publisher, The Macmillan Publishing Company, in developing his history text. (Author/RK)
Mukundan, Jayakaran; Hajimohammadi, Reza; Nimehchisalem, Vahid
The paper describes the considerations that were taken into account in the development of a tentative English language textbook evaluation checklist. A brief review of the related literature precedes the crucial issues that should be considered in developing checklists. In the light of the previous evaluation checklists the developers created a…
French, A. P.
Refutes a recent article which stated that the standard textbook treatment of two capacitors in series is wrong. States that the calculated capacitance is correct if measured immediately after a dc voltage is applied and that perhaps the effect is due to the choice of materials making up the capacitor. (MVL)
American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
The textbooks described in this document are written for or widely used in high school psychology courses. To help teachers decide which books to examine more closely, reviews are provided. Complete price and bibliographic information are included for each text, along with a description of accompanying materials, such as instructor's manuals or…
Byrne, Michelle M.
The portrayal of African Americans in nursing fundamentals textbooks was analyzed, resulting in 11 themes in the areas of history, culture, and physical assessment. Few African American leaders were included, and racial bias and stereotyping were apparent. Differences were often discussed using Eurocentric norms, and language tended to minimize…
This study aims to examine the advantages and disadvantages of one type of TEFL materials, English language textbook "Spot On", used in state primary schools in Turkey. Sample of the research consists of 46 English teachers chosen randomly from state primary schools in Malatya and Adiyaman city centres. A five-likert type scale was used…
Huetteman, Julie Doidge
Six college health textbooks published between 1980 and 1987 were analyzed to determine the extent of coverage of 10 selected content areas from "Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention." Content areas assessed included: motor vehicle accidents, alcohol and drug misuse, teenage pregnancy,…
Zoeller, Geoffrey W., Jr.
Education in a free society requires that students are provided with a provocative and thoughtful curriculum and learning materials that will prepare them to function as productive adult citizens in a diverse and changing world. Textbooks and curricular materials that engage the rising generation in the study of social ideas, problems, and issues…
Wahl, Otto F.
Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…
The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…
Jonas, Gregory A.; Norman, Carolyn Strand
Compared with course management software (e.g. Blackboard and WebCT), the content and technology offered by a textbook website (TBW) is relatively costless to universities and professors, and is a potentially valuable tool that can be leveraged to help students learn course material. The present study uses the extended Technology Acceptance Model…
Rees, Paul A.
Textbooks for GCE Advanced Level Biology have provided over-simplified and inaccurate accounts of Charles Darwin's contribution to the study of evolution over a period of many decades. They have credited him with field skills and insight that he did not possess, and repeated several historical inaccuracies. Darwin's strength was as a synthesiser…
Bramhall, David D.
Each year college students in America spend approximately $5.5 billion on textbooks. With each student spending roughly $900 on books assigned by professors, are these dollars being well spent and are students receiving a fair return on their investment? More importantly, do these texts serve the integral function in the courses as described in…
Bardakjian, Kevork B.; Thomson, Robert W.
This textbook is designed as a first-year course at the undergraduate level. It is specifically aimed at students with no prior knowledge of Armenian, and emphasis has been placed on the numerous subtleties and nuances of Armenian which might seem strange or difficult to English speakers. In the text, stress has been put on explaining the grammar…
Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca
This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…
Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.
Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…
Shapiro, Victor W.
This paper examines: (1) the extent to which recently published textbooks used in United States history survey courses reflect a revised view of the historical relationship between the Caribbean region and the United States; and (2) whether recent shifts in research emphases and methodological expansions in the field of American history have…
This collection of "polar statements" was adopted from "Stereotypes, Distortions and Omissions in U.S. History Textbooks: A Content Analysis Instrument for Detecting Racism and Sexism," to be published in Fall 1976 by the Council on Interracial Books for Children, Racism and Sexism Resource Center for Educators. (Author/JM)
Wei, Bing; Li, Yue; Chen, Bo
This study aimed to examine the representations of nature of science (NOS) in the eight histories of science selected from three series of integrated science textbooks used in junior high school in China. Ten aspects of NOS were adopted in the analytical framework. It was found that NOS had not been well treated in the selected histories of…
Lucier, Richard L.
Reviews 14 international economics textbooks to help instructors with selection. Includes organization and structure, topics covered, and characteristics of the texts. Suggests considerations such as course length, level of abstraction desired, opinion of numerically based graphical analysis, extensiveness of examples and applications, and whether…
Healey, Mick; Ilbery, Brian
Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using a single textbook in a college-level economic geography course. Argues that, if a course text is used thoughtfully, the advantages can outweigh the disadvantages. Asserts that students must take greater responsibility for their own learning and develop independent inquiry skills. (CFR)
Walbert, Mark S.
Examines computer software currently available with most introductory economics textbooks. Compares what is available with what should be available in order to meet the goal of effectively using the microcomputer to teach economic principles. Recommends 14 specific pedagogical changes that should be made in order to improve current designs. (LS)
Romanish, Bruce A.
An analysis of the way 10 high school economics textbooks treat the topics of other economic systems, labor, role of government, and environment showed that the texts present free enterprise principles to the exclusion of other ideas. Topics which, if included, would provide a more balanced overall treatment are discussed. (RM)
Fleming, Daniel B.
A review of 19 recently published, secondary-level United States and world history textbooks found only brief coverage of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan) bombings, slight attention to the arms race and disarmament, and concentration on scientific and technical developments behind the atomic bomb rather than on its effects. (Author/RW)
Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy
A bill that has been sent to the floor of the California Senate would require textbooks used in public schools to include information on the roles and contributions of gay people throughout history, a move that could affect the content of instructional materials throughout much of the country. The measure would help build tolerance of diverse…
Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon
Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…
Debates concerning how the issue of human life's origins should be handled within the confines of American public schools still continue. In order to mitigate the impact that evolution has on students, some school boards and state legislatures have recommended that stickers voicing a disclaimer about evolution be placed in biology textbooks. Even…
This article concerns textbook analysis regarding the presentation of socialism in four leading high school social studies books, one in each of the following subjects: United States history, world history, United States government, and economics. Findings indicate that students relying on these texts to gain understanding of socialism and…
Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.
This report conducted for the Association of American Publishers, Inc. on the college textbook market provides the industry with operationally useful information and trend data on the prevailing attitudes, needs, purchasing and usage patterns of the prime users of college educational materials--the faculty and the students. Detailed findings…
McCarty, Thomas G.
List of textbooks in Greek and Latin for 1975. Subject, title, publisher and price are noted. Greek and Latin works are listed separately under the eight categories of texts, beginner's books, grammars, books about the language, readers and anthologies, composition, dictionaries, and New Testament Greek and Later Latin. (RM)
Robelen, Erik W.
New laws in California have set the state on a course for some potentially significant changes to the curriculum, including a measure that revisits the matter of teaching Algebra 1 in 8th grade and another that revamps the state's textbook-adoption process and hands districts greater leeway in choosing instructional materials. The algebra-related…
Mohamad, Alif Fairus Nor; Jin, Ng Yu
English for Specific Purposes (ESP) educators often face dilemma in deciding what lexical items to teach their students. In the field of English for Nursing Purposes (ENP), there is no exception on this issue as well. Only by analyzing the nursing corpus made up of essential core textbooks that can provide better insights and guide to both nursing…
Stansfield, William D.
A history of the search for the structure of DNA, as revealed in the evolution of biochemistry and genetics textbooks, reveals that they are unacceptably tardy in presenting the current (or even the recent) state of knowledge. This problem places an extra burden on biology teachers to supplement these texts.
Storey, Richard D.
The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…
Tinkler, Sarah; Woods, James
The authors evaluated principles of macroeconomics textbooks for readability using Coh-Metrix, a computational linguistics tool. Additionally, they conducted an experiment on Amazon's Mechanical Turk Web site in which participants ranked the readability of text samples. There was a wide range of scores on readability indexes both among…
This book presents a new and comprehensive framework for the analysis of representations of culture, society and the world in textbooks for foreign and second language learning. The framework is transferable to other kinds of learning materials and to other subjects. The framework distinguishes between five approaches: national studies,…
Stoddard, Jeremy; Rayner, Mason
Civics education shouldn't be confined to dusty textbooks, as evidenced by this assortment of projects. In one unit, elementary students play out the presidential election--from campaigning to inauguration day--using the Storypath approach. In another project, 5th graders explore the controversy about Confederate monuments by studying a local…
Van Steenbrugge, H.; Valcke, M.; Desoete, A.
The debate on the differential effects of mathematics textbook series is a recurrent topic in the research literature. Research results remain inconclusive, pointing to a lack of evidence to decide on the relevance of the selection by schools of a mathematics textbook series. Studies also point to difficulties in comparing textbooks. Recently, in…
Vestøl, Jon Magne
Drawing on perspectives from sociocultural theory, this article investigates how Christian denominations are represented in Norwegian textbooks of religious education and by young believers. The main finding is that textbooks and young adherents present religion in substantially different ways. While textbooks relate religion to global and…
Ortega, Rafael; Akhtar-Khavari, Vafa; Barash, Paul; Sharar, Sam; Stock, M Christine
The 'flipped classroom' instructional strategy has gained much momentum in educational discourse, yet no single educational offering exists in postgraduate medical education (PME) to systematically replace the lecture element of didactic sessions. This article describes the design and implementation of Clinical Anesthesia Fundamentals, the first known textbook in PME addressing this gap in resources through the integration of full-length interactive multimedia-enhanced video lectures. The 'flipped classroom' instructional strategy has gained much momentum in educational discourse INNOVATION: The textbook was developed in alignment with the content outline for the specialty provided by the American Board of Anesthesiology. Its accompanying video lectures, produced at the Media Lab in the Department of Anesthesiology at Boston University Medical Center (BUMC), cover the topics in each chapter of the textbook and include review questions featuring explanatory feedback. Following a 5-month trial period at the BUMC Anesthesiology Residency Program, the complete resident class (25 of 25; 100%) participated in an anonymous, Institutional Review Board (IRB) -approved, five-point Likert-type scale survey assessing an underlying variable of preference for the use of multimedia learning tools. Survey results suggest that residents favour technology-enhanced learning environments in which textbooks are coupled with interactive multimedia, and the 'flipped classroom' approach is employed. Although the development of digital videos requires time and financial investment, the improved accessibility and uniform delivery of didactic content are two positive outcomes. This textbook provides an example for educators wishing to learn how to capitalise on advances in technology to further enhance learning and accessibility. Further studies could address the impact of this approach on the academic performance of residents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study
AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.
Lyublinskaya, Irina; Funsch, Dan
Several interactive geometry software packages are available today to secondary school teachers. An example is The Geometer's Sketchpad[R] (GSP), also known as Dynamic Geometry[R] software, developed by Key Curriculum Press. This numeric based technology has been widely adopted in the last twenty years, and a vast amount of creativity has been…
Kaufmann, Matthew L.; Bomer, Megan A.; Powell, Nancy Norem
Students enter the geometry classroom with a strong concept of fairness and a sense of what it means to "play by the rules," yet many students have difficulty understanding the postulates, or rules, of geometry and their implications. Although they may never have articulated the properties of an axiomatic system, they have gained a practical…
Morris, Barbara H.
This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…
An approach to the instruction of maxima and minima problems that works with tools of geometry and algebra is presented. The focus is on a classic pie-cutting problem, which is viewed as an interesting and instructive task that is an excellent application of transformation geometry. (MP)
Nunes, Everardo Duarte
This article has as its starting point two central ideas: textbooks as a means of production and dissemination of knowledge and narrative as an approach. After a brief review of studies on health/medical sociology textbooks, I analyze a few of these textbooks from the 1900-2012 period, produced in the United States and England. I have selected eleven textbooks which I thought were representative. In addition to a content analysis, the textbooks are located within the process of constitution of the health/medical sociology with brief references to the biographies of the authors. The textbooks analyzed were classified according to the main narrative features: doctor-centered; interdisciplinary; pedagogical; analytical; almost autobiographical; critical; and synthetic-reflective. In the final remarks, some points about the textbooks, limits and possibilities are presented.
Strother, Elizabeth A; Brunet, Darlene P; Bates, Michael L; Gallo, John R
Dental students at the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry (LSUSD) have participated in the VitalSource Bookshelf digital textbook program for the last four years. The Bookshelf, a collection of downloadable textbooks, includes the Contemporary Dental Library (CDL), a basic package of sixty books, plus additional titles selected by course directors. A survey was sent to students in the four LSUSD classes to assess satisfaction with the program. Eighty-two (34.2 percent) students completed the survey. In addition, exit interviews of graduating seniors contained a question on the Bookshelf. In both the survey and the exit interview, LSUSD students overwhelmingly expressed dissatisfaction with reading extensive amounts of text online and indicated a preference for printed books. Some students also resented paying for books in the CDL that were not required by instructors and felt that, considering how infrequently they used the Bookshelf, the cost was too high.
Byrne, M M
This article describes research that sought to identify and critique selected content areas from three nursing fundamentals textbooks for the presence or absence of racial bias embedded in the portrayal of African Americans. The analyzed content areas were the history of nursing, cultural content, and physical assessment/hygiene parameters. A researcher-developed guide was used for data collection and analysis of textual language, illustrations, linguistics, and references. A thematic analysis resulted in I I themes reflecting the portrayal of African Americans in these sampled textbooks. An interpretive analysis with a lens of Sadker and Sadker's categories of bias, along with other literary and theoretical contexts, were used to explore for the presence or absence of racial bias. Recommendations for nursing education are provided.
Discussed are the major historical developments of geometry. Euclid, Descartes, Klein's Erlanger Program, Gaus and Riemann, globalization, topology, Elie Cartan, and an application to molecular biology are included as topics. (KR)
Karlgaard, Christopher D.
The Flyby Geometry Optimization Tool is a computer program for computing trajectories and trajectory-altering impulsive maneuvers for spacecraft used in radio relay of scientific data to Earth from an exploratory airplane flying in the atmosphere of Mars.
Bell, A. W.
The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)
In the age of electronic media, some say producing textbooks is a dying art. And it may be true that every day, devices with names such as iPod and eBook threaten to replace the age-old "technology" of the traditional book with a newer, faster, and equally (if not more) portable approach. In many cases, at colleges and universities across the…
The following report is broken down into two components. First, a status report covering the period from August 15, 1998 to October 30, 1998. The remainder of the report summarizes all project accomplishments of the K-8 Aeronautics Internet Textbook over the period of June 19, 1995 through October 30, 1998. The report also discusses observations and lessons learned in the undertaking of the project.
Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan
The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra and geometry, like other branches of mathematics, are interrelated.
Alion, Tyler; Viren, Brett; Junk, Tom
The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) involves many detectors. The experiment's near detector (ND) facility, may ultimately involve several detectors. The far detector (FD) will be significantly larger than any other Liquid Argon (LAr) detector yet constructed; many prototype detectors are being constructed and studied to motivate a plethora of proposed FD designs. Whether it be a constructed prototype or a proposed ND/FD design, every design must be simulated and analyzed. This presents a considerable challenge to LBNE software experts; each detector geometry must be described to the simulation software in an efficient way which allows for multiple authors to easily collaborate. Furthermore, different geometry versions must be tracked throughout their use. We present a framework called General Geometry Description (GGD), written and developed by LBNE software collaborators for managing software to generate geometries. Though GGD is flexible enough to be used by any experiment working with detectors, we present it's first use in generating Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) files to interface with LArSoft, a framework of detector simulations, event reconstruction, and data analyses written for all LAr technology users at Fermilab. Brett is the other of the framework discussed here, the General Geometry Description (GGD).
Smythe, W. Roy
The first systematic textbook of surgery written in the United States, The Elements of Surgery, was completed in 1813 by John Syng Dorsey, a University of Pennsylvania surgeon. The work thoroughly covered all major clinical areas of surgery of that time in a two-volume, 797-page text. Subsequent editions were published in 1818, 1823, and 1831. It became the standard surgical textbook in this country during that era and was the first American medical text exported abroad for use at the more established European centers of medical education. The reasons for writing the text included a desire to put into print the teachings of Philip Syng Physick (first Chair of the Department of Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania, and Dorsey’s uncle), the new American nationalism, and socioeconomic pressures forced on the American publishing industry by the War of 1812 and preceding trade embargoes. In addition to extensive exposure to Physick, Dorsey was also uniquely qualified to write and illustrate this text, as he exhibited an unusually succinct style and was a remarkable medical artist. The book was the forerunner to William Gibson’s The Institutes and Practice of Surgery and all American surgical textbooks to follow. PMID:12677156
Walter, bastien; Geraud, yves; Diraison, marc
Basement reservoirs are nowadays frequently investigated for deep-seated fluid resources (e.g. geothermal energy, groundwater, hydrocarbons). The term 'basement' generally refers to crystalline and metamorphic formations, where matrix porosity is negligible in fresh basement rocks. Geothermal production of such unconventional reservoirs is controlled by brittle structures and altered rock matrix, resulting of a combination of different tectonic, hydrothermal or weathering phenomena. This work aims to characterize the petro-structural and petrophysical properties of two basement surface analogue case studies in geological extensive setting (the Albert Lake rift in Uganda; the Ifni proximal margin of the South West Morocco Atlantic coast). Different datasets, using field structural study, geophysical acquisition and laboratory petrophysical measurements, were integrated to describe the multi-scale geometry of the porous network of such fractured and weathered basement formations. This study points out the multi-scale distribution of all the features constituting the reservoir, over ten orders of magnitude from the pluri-kilometric scale of the major tectonics structures to the infra-millimetric scale of the secondary micro-porosity of fractured and weathered basements units. Major fault zones, with relatively thick and impermeable fault core structures, control the 'compartmentalization' of the reservoir by dividing it into several structural blocks. The analysis of these fault zones highlights the necessity for the basement reservoirs to be characterized by a highly connected fault and fracture system, where structure intersections represent the main fluid drainage areas between and within the reservoir's structural blocks. The suitable fluid storage areas in these reservoirs correspond to the damage zone of all the fault structures developed during the tectonic evolution of the basement and the weathered units of the basement roof developed during pre
Kevin T. Smith
Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.
Amir, Lisa H; Raval, Manjri; Hussainy, Safeera Y
Women often need to take medicines while breastfeeding and pharmacists need to provide accurate information in order to avoid undue caution about the compatibility of medicines and breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to review information provided about breastfeeding in commonly used pharmacology textbooks. We asked 15 Australian universities teaching pharmacy courses to provide a list of recommended pharmacology textbooks in 2011. Ten universities responded, generating a list of 11 textbooks that we analysed for content relating to breastfeeding. Pharmacology textbooks outline the mechanisms of actions of medicines and their use: however, only a small emphasis is placed on the safety/compatibility of medicines for women during breastfeeding. Current pharmacology textbooks recommended by Australian universities have significant gaps in their coverage of medicine use in breastfeeding. Authors of textbooks should address this gap, so academic staff can recommend texts with the best lactation content.
Lee, HeeJeong Jasmine; Messom, Chris; Yau, Kok-Lim Alvin
An electronic textbook (e-Textbook) is a digitized (or electronic) form of textbook, which normally needs an endorsement by the national or state government when it is used in the K-12 education system. E-Textbooks have been envisioned to replace existing paper-based textbooks due to its educational advantages. Hence, it is of paramount importance…
In this dissertation, I study economics textbook markets as an example of durable goods monopoly. Textbooks are protected by copyrights, and from a student's point of view, different textbooks are not good substitutes because students wish to use the textbook adopted by their instructors. Therefore sellers have market power. Textbooks can be…
Binns, Ian C.
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the representation of scientific methodology in secondary science textbooks. More specifically, this study looked at how textbooks introduced scientific methodology and to what degree the examples from the rest of the textbook, the investigations, and the images were consistent with the text's description of scientific methodology, if at all. The sample included eight secondary science textbooks from two publishers, McGraw-Hill/Glencoe and Harcourt/Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Data consisted of all student text and teacher text that referred to scientific methodology. Second, all investigations in the textbooks were analyzed. Finally, any images that depicted scientists working were also collected and analyzed. The text analysis and activity analysis used the ethnographic content analysis approach developed by Altheide (1996). The rubrics used for the text analysis and activity analysis were initially guided by the Benchmarks (AAAS, 1993), the NSES (NRC, 1996), and the nature of science literature. Preliminary analyses helped to refine each of the rubrics and grounded them in the data. Image analysis used stereotypes identified in the DAST literature. Findings indicated that all eight textbooks presented mixed views of scientific methodology in their initial descriptions. Five textbooks placed more emphasis on the traditional view and three placed more emphasis on the broad view. Results also revealed that the initial descriptions, examples, investigations, and images all emphasized the broad view for Glencoe Biology and the traditional view for Chemistry: Matter and Change. The initial descriptions, examples, investigations, and images in the other six textbooks were not consistent. Overall, the textbook with the most appropriate depiction of scientific methodology was Glencoe Biology and the textbook with the least appropriate depiction of scientific methodology was Physics: Principles and Problems. These findings
Though the notion of a scientific textbook has been around for almost three centuries, the category has hardly been stable. The plasticity of the textbook genre may be illustrated by recent variations as well as long-term trends. In this brief essay I examine two idiosyncratic but highly successful physics books, each published in the mid 1970s, whose production, marketing, and adoption reveal some of the slippage between such categories as textbook, scholarly monograph, and popular best seller.
Textbooks are required for virtually all college science courses taught around the country, but whether students use them and find them valuable is not clear. In order to get a better idea about what the students thought of the textbook and how they spent their time using it, an anonymous survey was taken by 305 (out of 400) students enrolled in Physics 101 during the Fall semester of 2005. Developed and administered by www.textrev.com, this is a free survey that college faculty may use for physics and chemistry textbooks. This survey revealed two interesting points. First, although 75% of the students found the textbook to be moderately to very challenging, only 38% of students reported spending 2 or more hours per week reading the text. Reading was assigned the majority of class periods, with the intention that they would read the material before it was covered in class. Second, 81% of the students found that the end of chapter problems were moderately to very challenging, but 62% reported spending one hour or less per week working on the assigned questions. Homework was assigned regularly from the textbook for the first half of the class, after which point we experimented with an online homework system. Next semester a new textbook is being adopted for this class, which has no color pictures and is significantly slimmer than the current textbook. This textbook survey will be given again at the end of next semester to look for any changes in textbook usage.
Winegard, Benjamin M; Winegard, Bo M; Deaner, Robert O
Evolutionary psychology has provoked controversy, especially when applied to human sex differences. We hypothesize that this is partly due to misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology that are perpetuated by undergraduate sex and gender textbooks. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we develop a catalog of eight types of errors and document their occurrence in 15 widely used sex and gender textbooks. Consistent with our hypothesis, of the 12 textbooks that discussed evolutionary psychology, all contained at least one error, and the median number of errors was five. The most common types of errors were "Straw Man," "Biological Determinism," and "Species Selection." We conclude by suggesting improvements to undergraduate sex and gender textbooks.
Rosenthal, Dorothy B.
Twenty-two high school biology textbooks published between 1963 and 1983 were analyzed for their treatment of social issues. Textbooks were selected from among those used most frequently by teachers and/or having the highest sales. The textbooks were read in random order and the amount of space, to the nearest tenth of a page, devoted to each social issue was expressed as a percentage of total length of text. The results showed that attention to social issues decreased between 1963 and 1983 in the textbooks studied. The implications of these results for biology education in the 1980s are discussed.
Dake, L. S.
Several years ago I had to select a new textbook for my calculus-based introductory physics class. I subscribe to Just-in-Time Teaching methods, which require students to read the book before the material is covered in class. Thus, the readability of the text by the students is critical. However, I did not feel that I was the best judge of this factor, so I turned the textbook selection into a class project. The students unanimously chose one textbook, which I have now successfully used for three years. The project was decidedly worthwhile, and I gained considerable insight into what students prefer in a textbook.
Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan
Dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as Cabri and Geometers' Sketchpad has been regularly used worldwide for teaching and learning Euclidean geometry for a long time. The DGS with its inductive nature allows students to learn Euclidean geometry via explorations. However, with respect to non-Euclidean geometries, do we need to introduce them to…
Cells are highly complex and orderly machines, with defined shapes and a startling variety of internal organizations. Complex geometry is a feature of both free-living unicellular organisms and cells inside multicellular animals. Where does the geometry of a cell come from? Many of the same questions that arise in developmental biology can also be asked of cells, but in most cases we do not know the answers. How much of cellular organization is dictated by global cell polarity cues as opposed to local interactions between cellular components? Does cellular structure persist across cell generations? What is the relationship between cell geometry and tissue organization? What ensures that intracellular structures are scaled to the overall size of the cell? Cell biology is only now beginning to come to grips with these questions. PMID:21880160
Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.
Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.
In this thesis, we discuss the possibility of exploring the statistical mechanics description of a black hole from the point view of supergravity. Specifically, we study five dimensional microstate geometries of a black hole or black ring. At first, we review the method to find the general three-charge BPS supergravity solutions proposed by Bena and Warner. By applying this method, we show the classical merger of a black ring and black hole on [Special characters omitted.] base space in general are irreversible. On the other hand, we review the solutions on ambi-polar Gibbons-Hawking (GH) base which are bubbled geometries. There are many possible microstate geometries among the bubbled geometries. Particularly, we show that a generic blob of GH points that satisfy certain conditions can be either microstate geometry of a black hole or black ring without horizon. Furthermore, using the result of the entropy analysis in classical merger as a guide, we show that one can have a merger of a black-hole blob and a black-ring blob or two black-ring blobs that corresponds to a classical irreversible merger. From the irreversible mergers, we find the scaling solutions and deep microstates which are microstate geometries of a black hole/ring with macroscopic horizon. These solutions have the same AdS throats as classical black holes/rings but instead of having infinite throats, the throat is smoothly capped off at a very large depth with some local structure at the bottom. For solutions that produced from U (1) × U (1) invariant merger, the depth of the throat is limited by flux quantization. The mass gap is related with the depth of this throat and we show the mass gap of these solutions roughly match with the mass gap of the typical conformal-field-theory (CFT) states. Therefore, based on AdS/CFT correspondence, they can be dual geometries of the typical CFT states that contribute to the entropy of a black hole/ring. On the other hand, we show that for the solutions
Although vocabulary instruction is a pressing need for postsecondary reading instructors, a minimal amount of current postsecondary scholarship addresses this need, and almost no current scholarship addresses the textbook tradition of morphemic analysis (MA). The present article reviews the literature on MA instruction and argues for teaching MA…
Errington, Alison; Bubna-Litic, David
Critical thinking is widely regarded as a crucial capability for competent management and also for any leadership role in society. In this article, we ask, "How do textbooks play a role in the weakness of many management graduates' critical thinking skills?" Management teachers can find plentiful advice about best teaching practices, yet…
Froelich, Donald Max
Fifty-eight students enrolled in basic electronics courses from three state colleges in Missouri, were involved in comparing the cloze readability technique with the Flesch Reading Ease Formula to ascertain the effectiveness of each in assessing the readability of selected college level electronics textbooks. Pearson product-moment correlations…
D'Alessandro, D M; Kreiter, C D; Erkonen, W E; Winter, R J; Knapp, H R
The goal of this prospective, interinstitutional study was to compare the long-term instructional effectiveness of a pediatric multimedia textbook (MMTB) to that of a standard lecture and a printed textbook. A randomized cohort of 89 3rd-year medical students from two institutions were initially evaluated from June 1992 to June 1993 and reevaluated in May 1994. Students were randomly assigned to one of four instructional groups: computer-aided instruction by means of MMTBs (n = 21), traditional lecture (n = 23), printed textbook (n = 19), and a control group (n = 26). After instruction, all groups were tested by means of a multiple choice test at the end of their pediatric clerkship; they were given this same test 11-22 months later. The long-term instructional effectiveness of the MMTB, printed textbook, and lecture were the same as that in the control group, as determined by analysis of variance of mean test scores. The educational advantage of MMTBs observed immediately after instruction was not detected 1 year later. Because attrition reduced statistical power, further research is necessary to determine how educational fading affects these instructional formats.
Cho, Youngdal; Park, Yunkyoung
In this study we will observe how multicultural content is covered in elementary and secondary schools in Korea. For this purpose, a total of 52 textbooks (social studies, ethics and Korean language from third to ninth grade) were analysed using two analysis frames. The first frame is the "multicultural content analysis frame (MCAF)"…
Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen C.
Over 50 years, two major reform efforts in science education took place. The purpose of the present study is to explore how the educational reforms were reflected in nine 6th grade science textbooks published in 1975, in 1985 and in 1997 in terms of (a) the materials used, (b) the contexts to which the electricity concept was related, (c) the type…
This paper presents the results of collaborative research between open textbook provider OpenStax College (OSC) and the OER Research Hub (OERRH), a Hewlett funded mixed methods open research project examining the impact of open educational resources (OER) on learning and teaching. The paper focuses primarily on the results of two surveys that were…
Dwyer, Karen Kangas; Davidson, Marlina M.
As part of a yearly university mandated assessment of a large basic communication course that fulfills the oral communication general education requirement, this study examined student preferences for textbooks, reading, and learning. Specifically, basic course students ("N"=321) at a large state university in the Midwest were asked to…
Gretchen Flesher Moon's 2003 analysis of emotion's treatment in composition textbooks revealed that pathos "gets very short shrift" or none at all. Since then, however, conversations regarding affect and emotion have advanced in both scope and sophistication. This proliferation of scholarly activity has brought the passions of persuasion…
This action research project investigated fourth grade students¡¦ motivation to learn science using a digital science techbook. Participants in the study included 29 fourth grade students in two different classrooms. One classroom of 16 students used a digital science techbook to learn science while the other classroom of 13 students used a traditional paper science textbook to learn science. Students in both classrooms answered five sets of questions regarding their experience using a digital science techbook and a paper science techbook to understand science, find science information, solve science problems, learn science, and assess learning science was fun. Results were compiled and coded based on positive and negative responses to conditions. A chi-square was used to analyze the ordinal data. Overall differences between techbooks vs. textbook were significant, X2 (1, N = 29) = 23.84, p = .000, justifying further examination of individual survey items. Three items had statistically significant difference for finding science information, solving science problems, and learning science. A gender difference was also found in one item. Females preferred to use paper science textbooks to understand science, while males preferred digital techbooks to learn science. The fourth graders in this study indicated that digital techbooks were a powerful learning tool for increasing interest, excitement and learning science. Even though students reported paper science textbooks as easy to use, they found using digital science techbooks a far more appealing way to learn science.
Fernández, Francisco M.
We propose to introduce the concept of exceptional points in intermediate courses on mathematics and classical mechanics by means of simple textbook examples. The first one is an ordinary second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. The second one is the well-known damped harmonic oscillator. From a strict mathematical viewpoint both are the same problem that enables one to connect the occurrence of linearly dependent exponential solutions with a defective matrix which cannot be diagonalized but can be transformed into a Jordan canonical form.
The purpose of this textbook is to provide engineering students with basic learning material about statics and dynamics which are fundamental engineering subjects. The chapters contain information on: an introduction to engineering mechanics; forces on particles, rigid bodies, and structures; kinetics of particles, particle systems, and rigid bodies in motion; kinematics; mechanical vibrations; and friction, work, moments of inertia, and potential energy. Each chapter contains introductory material, the development of the essential equations, worked-out example problems, homework problems, and, finally, summaries of the essential methods and equations, graphically illustrated where appropriate. (LCL)
Efforts were focused on web site migration, from UC (University of California) Davis to the National Business Aviation Association's (NBAA) web site. K8AIT (K-8 Aeronautics Internet Textbook), which has remained an unadvertised web site, receives almost two million hits per month. Project continuation funding with the National Business Aviation Association is being pursued. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between NASA Ames LTP (Learning Technologies Project) and Cislunar has been drafted and approved by NASA's legal department. Additional web content on space flight and the Wright brothers has been added in English and Spanish.
Given both the unprecedented attention to the importance of providing children with the best possible science textbooks and the overwhelming evidence that students in the United States are severely lacking the most basic science knowledge, the decline in the number of students pursuing science degrees is alarming. In spite of all the efforts being made, a disparity still exists between (1) the wealth of science information available, (2) the apparent ease of access to scientific information, and (3) the lack of scientific academic progress being made in classrooms across the United States. A literature review was conducted which included the areas of textbook analysis and textbook readability levels, the fields of textbook analysis and readability, and findings from recently published books about textbook readability. The majority of the literature reflected an urgent need for science textbooks to be revised. Based on the information gathered during the literature review, the study examined the readability levels of elementary level science textbooks that were published by six textbook publishers. Results from the study revealed that when used properly, readability formulas provide an objective look at textbooks. After applying these formulas to the selected elementary level science textbooks, it became clear that very few changes were implemented between the most recent previous editions and the current editions. The textbooks remain too difficult for the students using them. The findings from this study will help science textbook publishers and textbook writers see that some changes need to be made in the way their textbooks are written. In order to maintain a competitive edge in the global marketplace, more students need to pursue science. In order for more students to do that, they need to pursue science degrees, but in order for them to pursue science degrees, they need to have a certain degree of confidence and level of interest in the subject matter. For
McDonald, Christine V.
A large body of research has drawn attention to the importance of providing engaging learning experiences in junior secondary science classes, in an attempt to attract more students into post-compulsory science courses. The reality of time and resource constraints, and the high proportion of non-specialist science teachers teaching science, has resulted in an overreliance on more transmissive pedagogical tools, such as textbooks. This study sought to evaluate the usage of junior secondary science textbooks in Australian schools. Data were collected via surveys from 486 schools teaching junior secondary (years 7-10), representing all Australian states and territories. Results indicated that most Australian schools use a science textbook in the junior secondary years, and textbooks are used in the majority of science lessons. The most highly cited reason influencing choice of textbook was layout/colour/illustrations, and electronic technologies were found to be the dominant curricula material utilised, in addition to textbooks, in junior secondary science classes. Interestingly, the majority of respondents expressed high levels of satisfaction with their textbooks, although many were keen to stress the subsidiary role of textbooks in the classroom, emphasising the textbook was `one' component of their teaching repertoire. Importantly, respondents were also keen to stress the benefits of textbooks in supporting substitute teachers, beginning teachers, and non-specialist science teachers; in addition to facilitating continuity of programming and staff support in schools with high staff turnover. Implications from this study highlight the need for high quality textbooks to support teaching and learning in Australian junior secondary science classes.
Geoff Giles died suddenly in 2005. He was a highly original thinker in the field of geometry teaching. As early as 1964, when teaching at Strathallen School in Perth, he was writing in "MT27" about constructing tessellations by modifying the sides of triangles and (irregular) quadrilaterals to produce what he called "trisides" and "quadrisides".…
The cycloid has been called the Helen of Geometry, not only because of its beautiful properties but also because of the quarrels it provoked between famous mathematicians of the 17th century. This article surveys the history of the cycloid and its importance in the development of the calculus.
Cooper, Brett D.; Barger, Rita
The many connections between music and mathematics are well known. The length of a plucked string determines its tone, the time signature of a piece of music is a ratio, and note durations are measured in fractions. One connection commonly overlooked is that between music and geometry--specifically, geometric transformations, including…
Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan
The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…
Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted
Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.
KLIER, KATHERINE M.
PRESENTED IS A FUSED COURSE IN PLANE, SOLID, AND COORDINATE GEOMETRY. ELEMENTARY SET THEORY, LOGIC, AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION PROVIDE UNIFYING THREADS THROUGHOUT THE TEXT. THE TWO CURRICULUM GUIDES HAVE BEEN PREPARED FOR USE WITH TWO DIFFERENT TEXTS. EITHER CURRICULUM GUIDE MAY BE USED DEPENDING UPON THE CHOICE OF THE TEACHER AND THE NEEDS…
Atiyah, Michael; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Hitchin, Nigel
We review the remarkably fruitful interactions between mathematics and quantum physics in the past decades, pointing out some general trends and highlighting several examples, such as the counting of curves in algebraic geometry, invariants of knots and four-dimensional topology. PMID:20123740
Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R
Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.
Sanders, Cathleen V.
When given opportunities to explore mathematics, make conjectures, and write about what they have discovered, students gain a deeper understanding of this fascinating subject. In this article, the author describes her successful Geometry Portfolio class. In addition to traditional student work, the author frequently added short essay questions or…
Hsü, K J; Hsü, A J
Music critics have compared Bach's music to the precision of mathematics. What "mathematics" and what "precision" are the questions for a curious scientist. The purpose of this short note is to suggest that the mathematics is, at least in part, Mandelbrot's fractal geometry and the precision is the deviation from a log-log linear plot. PMID:11607061
Following our previous results on this subject [R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(I): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. The general theory, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 239-266; R.P. Agarwal, A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. III(II): Webs on PDE's and integral bordism groups. Applications to Riemannian geometry PDE's, Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 17 (2007) 267-285; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's and Mechanics, World Scientific, Singapore, 1996; A. Prástaro, Quantum and integral (co)bordism in partial differential equations, Acta Appl. Math. (5) (3) (1998) 243-302; A. Prástaro, (Co)bordism groups in PDE's, Acta Appl. Math. 59 (2) (1999) 111-201; A. Prástaro, Quantized Partial Differential Equations, World Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore, 2004, 500 pp.; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. I: Integral bordism groups in PDE's, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 319 (2006) 547-566; A. Prástaro, Geometry of PDE's. II: Variational PDE's and integral bordism groups, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 321 (2006) 930-948; A. Prástaro, Th.M. Rassias, Ulam stability in geometry of PDE's, Nonlinear Funct. Anal. Appl. 8 (2) (2003) 259-278; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, I, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1967; I. Stakgold, Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics, II, Collier-MacMillan, Canada, Ltd, Toronto, Ontario, 1968], integral bordism groups of the Navier-Stokes equation are calculated for smooth, singular and weak solutions, respectively. Then a characterization of global solutions is made on this ground. Enough conditions to assure existence of global smooth solutions are given and related to nullity of integral characteristic numbers of the boundaries. Stability of global solutions are related to some characteristic numbers of the space-like Cauchy dataE Global solutions of variational problems constrained by (NS) are classified by means of suitable integral bordism groups too.
Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca
This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.
Taub, Diane E.; Fanflik, Patricia L.
Investigates the portrayal of disability in 25 introductory sociology textbooks that were published between 1996 and 1998. Focuses on textual representation and pictorial depiction of individuals with disabilities using content analysis. Reveals that the textbooks provide a limited amount of information on disability. (CMK)
DeMoss, Michelle; Nicholson, Carolyn Y.
In this study, the authors examined whether introductory marketing textbooks contain the information that is needed to educate future business leaders about the important role of environmentally sustainable practices. We content-analyzed the 21 current introductory marketing textbooks for coverage of these practices. The results showed limited,…
For good or ill, textbooks are the most widespread means of disseminating theoretically-informed practices in the field of composition and rhetoric. In fact, in spite of the growing number of graduate programs concentrating on composition theory, pedagogy, and rhetoric, composition textbooks still reach more teachers and more students than…
Conniffe, Patricia, Ed.
This mini-unit seeks to fill the gap in textbooks that exists when teaching about modern France. Many textbooks end their coverage of France with the chapter on World War II. This unit offers high school students a unique introduction to France in the mid-1990s. The mini-unit includes a two-sided poster, teaching tips, and student pages. Student…
The Holocaust is now a regular part of high school history curricula throughout the United States and, as a result, coverage of the Holocaust has become a standard feature of high school textbooks. As with any major event, it is important for textbooks to provide a rigorously accurate and valid historical account. In dealing with the Holocaust,…
Pocovi, M. Cecilia; Finley, Fred N.
Analyzes how two electromagnetism textbooks approach the concept of electric field. Uses historical evolution of the field representation. Indicates that one textbook mixes up the historical and pedagogical reasons for the introduction of the concept of field while the other one presents a sketch that might lead students to understand the field…
Khutorskoi, A. V.
There have been a great many good and varied textbooks in the history of education. For example, there was L.F. Magnitskii's "Arithmetic," L.N. Tolstoy's "Primer," and the Bible, which can also be thought of as a textbook. None of them is like the others at all. Each one is suitable for dealing with its own objectives in the…
Foster, Andrea L.
Learning is valuable, but in Africa it is more than that: It is prohibitively expensive. In Ethiopia, where the per-capita income is about $100 a year, a single textbook at Addis Ababa University can cost $50. In order to get more textbooks to students in developing nations, two people are leading an ambitious project to produce and freely…
Wise, Paula Sachs
This study indicates that introductory psychology textbooks ignore the role of the psychologist in the schools. Out of 84 textbooks, only 26 described the school psychologist. When 12 students analyzed these available descriptions for five skill types, no coherent images of school psychologists emerged. (AM)
Giannangelo, Duane M.; Kaplan, Mary Bene
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate four social studies textbooks recently under consideration for use by the Memphis (Tennessee) City Public Schools. The textbooks, chosen at random, are: "World Geography: A Physical and Cultural Study" (de Blij and others, Scott Foresman, 1989); "A History of the United States" (Boorstin…
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Textbooks and curricular material. 5.455 Section 5.455 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.455 Textbooks an...
Although there is an ever-growing volume of research focused on TESOL textbooks (or coursebooks, as they are sometimes known), I argue that the TESOL research community should pay more attention to textbook research in mainstream education, that is, to the work of those scholars who focus on L1 rather than L2 education, given that there is a rich,…
Gholami, Reza; Noordin, Nooreen; Rafik-Galea, Shameem
It is thoroughly agreed that English language textbooks stand amongst the foremost components in any language classrooms worldwide, being referred to as valid, beneficial and labor-saving tools to fulfill an extensive range of needs. An ELT textbook is not merely a set of sheets of paper fastened together to hinge at one side, but is the beating…
Cogan, Leland S.; Burroughs, Nathan; Schmidt, William H.
Researchers at the Center for the Study of Curriculum at Michigan State University have developed a tool to help teachers implement the Common Core State Standards in mathematics by letting standards, not textbooks, guide their instruction. Using the web-based Textbook Navigator/Journal, teachers can pick a standard and ask which portions of the…
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Textbooks and curricular material. 36.455 Section 36.455 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.455 Textbooks...
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniforms and textbooks. 310.63 Section 310.63 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Admission and Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy § 310.63 Uniforms and textbooks. The Academy shall supply midshipmen uniforms an...
Testa, Italo; Leccia, Silivo; Puddu, Emanuella
In this paper we present a study on the difficulties secondary school students experience in interpreting textbook images of elementary astronomical phenomena, namely, the changing of the seasons, Sun and lunar eclipses and Moon phases. Six images from a commonly used textbook in Italian secondary schools were selected. Interviews of 45 min about…
Lee, Heather A.
If Christian schools desire students to achieve higher-level thinking, then the textbooks that teachers use should reflect such thinking. Using Risner's (1987) methodology, raters classified questions from two Christian publishers' fifth grade reading textbooks based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy (Anderson et al., 2001). The questions in the A…
This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…
Burgraff, Donna L.
With college textbook prices soaring, acceptable solutions are difficult to find. After going over the controversial past of textbooks, some of the reasons for these skyrocketing costs and the impact they are having on students, professors and higher education institutions are reviewed. This article outlines a solution that is pleasing to all…
Ebadi, Saman; Beigzadeh, Maryam
As the main applicable language resources in classrooms, textbooks provide the primary source of information, and they serve the foundation of instruction and transfer the curriculum objectives. Therefore, teachers should be conscious in choosing the right textbooks and activities for their students. The purpose of this study is to investigate one…
Robinson, T. Jared; Fischer, Lane; Wiley, David; Hilton, John, III
Given the increasing costs associated with commercial textbooks and decreasing financial support of public schools, it is important to better understand the impacts of open educational resources on student outcomes. The purpose of this quantitative study is to analyze whether the adoption of open science textbooks significantly affects science…
Griggs, Richard A.; Whitehead, George I., III
Past studies of the treatment of Milgram's obedience experiments in social psychology textbooks from the 1960s to the 1990s discovered an evolving "Milgram-friendly" coverage style (dealing with criticisms of his experiments either summarily, in a pro-Milgram manner, or not at all). We examined 10 current social textbooks to determine…
Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine
This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…
Council on Interracial Books for Children, Inc., New York, NY.
This book, published by the Council on Interracial Books for Children, presents a content analysis instrument for assessing the portrayal of women and third world peoples in U.S. History textbooks. Thirteen textbooks published since 1970 and one which was published in 1967 are examined for their treatment of six groups: women, African Americans,…
Fleming, Dan B.; Nurse, Ronald J.
Reports the results of a study of 12 recently published U.S. history textbooks' content on the Vietnam War. Concludes that, overall, the textbooks of the mid-1980s provide an improved treatment of the war when compared to earlier books. States that texts still lack depth on the topic, making use of supplementary materials as necessary. (GEA)
Miller, Linda Karen
Reports on a study of the treatment of the Second Amendment in 24 secondary-level U.S. history textbooks and 8 U.S. government textbooks. Discusses inadequate and inaccurate interpretations and calls for a portrayal of the Second Amendment that reflects what the founding fathers wanted and what the courts have decided. (CFR)
Bergmann, Leila Mury
This article discusses representations of television in written texts found in elementary school Portuguese language textbooks (PLTb) from 5th to 8th grade. In order to obtain the necessary information for this article, six PLTb collections were selected (out of the 35 that were analyzed and approved by Brazil's National Textbook Program--PNLD--in…
Rudolph, Alexander L.
The increasing use of interactive learning [IL] strategies in Astro 101 classrooms has led some instructors to consider the usefulness of a textbook in such classes. These strategies provide students a learning modality very different from the traditional lecture supplemented by reading a textbook and homework and raise the question of whether the…
... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Textbooks and curricular material. 25.455 Section 25.455 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.455 Textbooks and curricular material...
Novak, Michael; And Others
These critiques of a high school American government textbook, "American Government in Action," (Resnik and Nerenberg, 1973) represent the first in a series of studies designed to assess the effectiveness of social science textbooks in communicating and reinforcing Western values. The critiques are followed by a response by the authors of the…
This paper initially presents the results of several studies concerning what kind of writing mathematics teachers assign and what kind of writing mathematics textbooks assign. By far, report-research was the most popular type of writing assigned in the surveyed textbooks. The types of reports students were asked to write include biography,…
Gonzalez-Suarez, Mirta; Ekstrom, Ruth B.
Seven representative elementary school textbooks used in the United States were examined, as part of an international study of sex-stereotyping in textbooks, to determine whether the depiction of males and females was qualitatively and quantitatively sex-equitable. The analysis used a gender models checklist developed by M. Gonzalez-Suarez (1986)…
Böcü, Ayça Berna; Razi, Salim
This study aimed to identify elements related to "intercultural communicative competence" in the textbook series "Life" at A1 and A2 level published by "National Geographic Learning" which incorporates plentiful photographic content. Activities in the textbooks, based on the four skills and visuals, were analyzed…
This study analyzes the misrepresentation of Gibbs energy by college chemistry textbooks. The article reports the way first-year university chemistry textbooks handle the concepts of spontaneity and equilibrium. Problems with terminology are found; confusion arises in the meaning given to [delta]G, [delta][subscript r]G, [delta]G[degrees], and…
Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta
The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…
Nyachwaya, James M.; Wood, Nathan B.
That different levels of representation are important for complete understanding of chemistry is an accepted fact in the chemistry education community. This study sought to uncover types of representations used in given physical chemistry textbooks. Textbooks play a central role in the teaching and learning of science (chemistry), and in some…
Cruz, Barbara C.
This study reviewed six history textbooks widely used in grades 7-12 across the U.S. Using a story-line analysis, the findings of this study suggest: (1) textbooks reinforce negative stereotypes of Latin Americans as lazy, passive, irresponsible, and, somewhat paradoxically, lustful, animalistic and violent; (2) the method of description employed…
The objective of this study is to analyze the new textbooks prepared under the framework of the "curriculum reform" realized in Turkey , as part of the EU harmonization process, in terms of gender representation. For this purpose, illustrations in the new ABC, Life Studies and Social Studies textbooks prepared under the new program were…
Al Harbi, Abdullah Abdul Muhsen
This study aimed at evaluating EFL textbook for secondary stage in Saudi Public schools. Participants consisted of (100) male teachers and (73) female teachers teaching secondary stage students in two cities: Madinah and Dowadmi. The tool of the study designed to cover five dimensions: layout and design, the objectives of the textbook, teaching…
The purpose of this study is to investigate locally designed ELT textbooks in the light of multiple intelligences theory. Three textbooks (grade 1.2.3) used in guidance school of Iranian educational system were analyzed using MI checklist developed by Botelho, Mario do Rozarioand. Catered for kinds of intelligences in the activities and exercises…
Shehab, Saadeddine Salim; BouJaoude, Saouma
This study focused on the requirements that chemical representations should meet in textbooks in order to enhance conceptual understanding. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical representations that are present in 7 secondary Lebanese chemistry textbooks. To achieve the latter purpose, an instrument adapted from…
Smith, Gerald; And Others
The Flesch formula was used to calculate the readability of 15 financial accounting textbooks. The 15 textbooks represented introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels and also were classified by five different publishers. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis revealed some significant differences. (Author/CT)
College students living at or below the poverty line often have difficult choices to make: buy groceries, pay rent, or purchase textbooks. To Eric Frank, cofounder of Flat World Knowledge, this is not really a choice. When it comes to eating or buying a textbook, most will choose to eat. According to Frank, the biggest barrier to learning on scale…
Son, Ji-Won; Kim, Ok-Kyeong
In order to investigate how teachers' use of textbooks creates different kinds of opportunities for student learning, this study focused on teachers' selection and enactment of problems and tasks from the textbooks and their influence on the cognitive demand placed on students. By drawing on data from three elementary teachers in the USA, two of…
Houseknecht, Justin B.
Textbook choice has a significant effect upon course success. Among the factors that influence this decision, two of the most important are material organization and emphasis. This paper examines the sequencing of 19 organic chemistry topics, 21 concepts and skills, and 7 biological topics within nine of the currently available organic textbooks.…
Ruleman, Alice B.; Riley, Cheryl
The University of Central Missouri has experienced a 1,498% increase in students from India since 2012. These international students utilize interlibrary loan to request textbooks at a rate not evident in other student population groups. Their search for course textbooks impacted librarians, staff, and student workers at public desks and on chat…
Aagaard, Lola; Conner, Timothy W., II.; Skidmore, Ronald L.
A convenient cluster sample of 105 undergraduate students at a regional university in the midsouth completed a survey regarding their use of college textbooks, what strategies might increase the likelihood of their reading textbook assignments, and their preference for how class time was used. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the results and…
Hodges, Thomas E.; Cady, JoAnn; Collins, Lee
Three widely used sixth-grade textbooks were studied to see how fraction concepts were represented. The textbooks selected were "Connected Mathematics," "Middle Grades MathThematics," and Glencoe's "Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Course 1." Three specific areas were examined: representation mode, model, and problem context. Results of…
Staud, Margaret Crespo
Studied were the characteristics and changes of textbooks used in college zoology instruction in the United States and the relationship of these findings to the development of college zoology instruction. The authors' professional backgrounds, the textbook audience, and the status of zoology and college education at the time each book was written…
This book discusses ways in which special-interest groups influence the content of textbooks used in public and private schools throughout the United States. The book focuses on recent federal lawsuits involving attempts to censor or ban reading, literature, science, and social studies textbooks. Recreating the story behind each lawsuit, the book…
Menton, Linda K.; Lush, Noren W.; Tamura, Eileen H.; Gusukuma, Chance I.
This textbook highlights key aspects of Japan's history and culture from the Tokugawa era (1600-1868) to the present. The textbook includes role plays, primary documents, first-person accounts, diary entries, excerpts from literary works, songs, poems, maps and timelines, charts and graphs, and political cartoons. It also includes a glossary that…
Gueudet, Ghislaine; Pepin, Birgit; Restrepo, Angela; Sabra, Hussein; Trouche, Luc
This paper is concerned with the development of e-textbooks. We claim that analysis (and design) of e-textbooks requires the development of a specific frame. Digital affordances provide particular opportunities (e.g. in terms of interactions between users) that require specific considerations for their analysis, as teachers and students use them…
Martin, Curtis M.
This geography textbook assessment is a tool and a guide for teachers and curriculum administrators who are responsible for adopting classroom geography materials. The assessment's goal is to help teachers identify the geography textbooks that are most compatible with the content goals of the geography education reform movement as stated in "The…
Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre; Oerke, Britta; Valente, Adriana
What kinds of images of human beings illustrate human evolution in school textbooks? A comparison between the textbooks of eighteen different countries (twelve European countries and six non-European countries) was attempted. In six countries (Algeria, Malta, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, and Tunisia), we did not find any chapter on the topic of…
Gurung, Regan A. R.
In three separate introductory psychology classes over a three-year period, I tested whether over 600 students' exam scores were associated with the use of textbook technology supplements (TTSs). Each class used a different textbook and a different TTS ("Learnsmart," "PsychPortal," and "Aplia"). In general, students…
Sangam, Deepika; Jesiek, Brent K.
Many university-level electrical engineering courses continue to use textbooks as curriculum scaffolds, prescribed texts, and/or reference volumes. Textbook reliance is even more pronounced in courses that teach foundational principles of the discipline, such as introductory circuit theory. This paper reports on the conceptual coverage of…
Cady, Jo A.; Hodges, Thomas E.; Collins, R. Lee
In the United States, fractions are an important part of the middle school curriculum, yet many middle school students struggle with fraction concepts. Teachers also have difficulty with the conceptual understanding needed to teach fractions and rely on textbooks when making instructional decisions. This reliance on textbooks, the idea that…
Kalia, Narendra Nath
This study examined 41 Hindi or English language instruction textbooks widely used in Indian high school/higher secondary or preuniversity instruction. Frequency of male and female characters, their images, and their occupations were tabulated. Results indicate that Indian textbooks still present a stereotyped view of dominant males and…
Chan, Jim Yee Him
This study assesses the extent to which situational authenticity has been implemented in three commercial ELT textbook series in Hong Kong, which are designed to reflect the local sociolinguistic setting. The analysis involved the quantification and categorization of both written and spoken texts in the textbooks. The results of this analysis were…
Faced with the challenge of keeping up with the rapidly changing field of information systems, author and teacher John Gallaugher opted to write an open source textbook with a new online company, Flat World Knowledge (FWK). Gallaugher's open source textbook, "Information Systems: A Manager's Guide to Harnessing Technology", has an expected…
Ilma, Silfia; Wijarini, Fitri
Environmental education subject aims to form students who have the character to maintain the environment. One effort to achieve the objectives of the Environmental education subject is the local Environmental Education Textbook Based on Local Potencies. This research was aimed to produce textbook of environment-based education subject…
The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss an analysis of the extent to which environmental issues are addressed in the textbooks in the schools of the Republic of Macedonia. Research has analyzed a range of textbooks (279) published in the past 15 years. Our fundamental conclusion is that the inclusion of environmental issues in the…
Morales, Rebecca; Baker, Alesha
In an attempt to align instructional resources with new state standards and to increase teacher awareness of these standards, one large suburban public school district piloted the development and adoption of open secondary science textbooks. Open textbooks created by teachers in grades six through nine replaced conventional science textbooks…
Members of the second United States booksellers delegation to the People's Republic of China observed that textbooks in China carry political messages; the state and teachers are involved in the publishing process; texts are written by committees; and textbooks are almost always paperbacks and not available as a retail item. (JMD)
Brehmer, Daniel; Ryve, Andreas; Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik
The aim of this study is to analyse how mathematical problem solving is represented in mathematical textbooks for Swedish upper secondary school. The analysis comprises dominating Swedish textbook series, and relates to uncovering (a) the quantity of tasks that are actually mathematical problems, (b) their location in the chapter, (c) their…
Kang, Ji Hei; Everhart, Nancy
Introduction: A legislative mandate to adopt digital textbooks in Florida provides an opportunity to identify concerns school librarians have regarding digital textbook implementation. Method: The stages of concern questionnaire was used to identify stages of concern among Florida school librarians about their potential role in this…
This document reviews a dozen history textbooks. The following American History textbooks are reviewed: (1) Joyce Appleby, Alan Brinkley, and James M. McPherson, The American Journey: Building a Nation (Glencoe, 2003), and Joyce Appleby, Alan Brinkley, Albert S. Broussard, James M. McPherson, and Donald A. Ritchie, The American Republic Since 1877…
Laverick DeFelice, Catherine
This reading specialist has come up with a strategy to help other CTE instructors map the CTE textbook, so that students can better comprehend the information in them and discover a joy of reading. CTE textbooks present a particular challenge because they are packed with information and can be quite different in structure than texts student have…
Bordage, Georges; Lemieux, Madeleine
This study examining whether certain textbooks emphasize a semantic presentation of their contents arose from the results of a previous study conducted by the authors. It was hypothesized that certain textbooks would organize their contents by comparing and contrasting symptoms, signs, and disorders rather than simply listing them. (MLW)
Blankenship, Glen; Hahn, Carole L.
Analyzes 17 secondary level economics textbooks for sex bias. All of the texts reviewed are on Georgia's approved textbook list. Without exception, each of the texts is guilty of sex bias, although to varying degrees. The method used in analyzing the texts is explained. (RM)
Ulbrich, Holley H.
Argues that the textbook presentation of the concept of natural monopolies has changed little since the early 1960s. Suggests that most economics textbooks have ignored the issue of economies of scale versus fixed costs. Notes that educators often discuss economies of scale without explaining why certain industries enjoy greater scale economies…
Argues that much of the monetary theory in economics textbooks has not changed in accordance with the facts of monetary history. Contends that by neglecting institutional changes in the monetary system in the 50 years since the publication of Keynes' General Theory, many textbooks are now in danger of seriously misleading their readers. (GEA)
Olson, Terry L.
Explores the consequences of textbook authors' failure to recognize that producers can acquire the good in which they lack a comparative advantage through either trade or internal production. Examines variations in the construction and graphical depiction of consumption possibility frontiers in principles of economics textbooks. (MJP)
Leak, Sarah E.; Phillips, Richard C.
Discusses a survey of history and economics textbooks and their treatment of the concept of free enterprise. The survey found that the textbooks were not adequate in the area of history, theory, foundation, and manner in which free enterprise is practiced. (JOW)
Builds on the author's book, "A Conspiracy of Good Intentions: America's Textbook Fiasco." Concludes that tenure rules, scholarly hyperspecialization, widespread contempt for "commercial" writing, and lack of ethical standards are obstacles to textbook reform at all education levels. Advocates sequence of learning tasks in each subject discipline.…
Rodriguez-Solano, Carlos; Sánchez-Alonso, Salvador; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel
Open textbook initiatives have appeared as an alternative to traditional publishing. These initiatives for the production of alternatively copyrighted educational resources provide a way of sharing materials through the Web. While the open model of peer-produced materials enables the global reuse of textbooks, the combination of fragments to…
Császár, Zsuzsu M.; Vati, Tamás
This research has been seeking an answer to the question about what kind of image of the Islam is conveyed by the most popular and densely used textbooks to students. In the course of analysis, primary and secondary schools textbooks were examined via quantitative and qualitative methods. The objective demonstration of the research results aims to…
Adler, Eliyana R.
This article examines 10 textbooks used in Jewish religion classes in Russian high schools in the final decades of the 19th century. The textbooks reveal an expectation of a low level of Hebrew background, an interest in promoting the practice of prayer, and two distinct approaches to teaching Judaism. While some of the books introduce students to…
Young, Jeffrey R.
The story of one University of Maine student's quest for a reasonably priced textbook reveals just how complicated course materials have become as the textbook industry makes its awkward transition from print to digital. The student is Luke Thomas, a senior majoring in business on the Orono campus, who last semester took a 250-person introductory…
McInerney, Joseph D.
Examines Texas adoption process, described by author as having an inordinate impact on textbook market. Creationist opposition to evolution content in biological textbooks is well organized. Author presents 10 arguments made at hearing by creationists that he describes as a monument to scientific illiteracy. Asserts that creationists' confusion of…
In 1997 the Lebanese government published its newly developed curriculum and textbooks following a long and fierce civil war, which started in 1975. The new curriculum emphasized nation building, reconciliation and citizenship. This study aims to examine how the civics textbooks in Lebanon addressed human rights and peace education, both of which…
Velentzas, Athanasios; Halkia, Krystallia
In this study, an analysis of the structure of scientific explanations included in physics textbooks of upper secondary schools in Greece was completed. In scientific explanations for specific phenomena found in the sample textbooks, the "explanandum" is a logical consequence of the "explanans," which in all cases include at…
Khine, Myint Swe; Liu, Yang
Textbooks are primary teaching aids, sources from which students obtain knowledge of science domain. Due to this fact, curriculum developers in the field emphasize the crucial role of analysing the contents of science textbooks in improving science education. Scientific domain knowledge relies on graphical representations for the manifestation of…
This article examines patterns of cultural representations embedded in Korean EFL textbooks, using a content analysis to investigate how different cultures are reflected in textbooks and whether or not cultural biases are present. In the revised Korean national English curriculum that has been implemented since 2009, English is viewed as a…
Taboas-Pais, Maria Ines; Rey-Cao, Ana
The aim of this paper is to show how images of disability are portrayed in physical education textbooks for secondary schools in Spain. The sample was composed of 3,316 images published in 36 textbooks by 10 publishing houses. A content analysis was carried out using a coding scheme based on categories employed in other similar studies and adapted…
Content weakness in textbooks is a major obstacle to effective social studies teaching. Chapters 1-3 of this book provide the Education for Democracy Project's Statement of Principles, a consideration of history's role as the core of social studies education, and the role of textbooks in teaching world history. Chapters 4-14 examine five selected…
Griggs, Richard A.
Inaccuracies, especially concerning the stimulus generalization findings, in textbook descriptions of the Little Albert study have been well documented since the 1970s. However, there has not been a systematic examination of introductory psychology textbooks since the 1980s to determine whether such inaccuracies still persist. This study filled…
Romanowski, Michael H.
Analyzes 10 widely used secondary history textbooks for references to Christianity and the Religious Right in contemporary American history (after 1945). Discusses the relationship of private faith and public behavior, President Jimmy Carter's faith and motivations, the Religious Right and politics, television evangelism, and textbooks' inadequate…
Tessier, Jack T.
College faculty have myriad choices of resources for their students when designing courses. The rising prices of textbooks and the availability of cell phones with internet access open the question of using cell phones in the classroom. In this study, I compared student learning in an ecology course between a semester in which a textbook was used…
Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.
Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…
Vinisha, K.; Ramadas, J.
Visual representations, including photographs, sketches and schematic diagrams, are a valuable yet often neglected aspect of textbooks. Visual means of communication are particularly helpful in introducing abstract concepts in science. For effective communication, visuals and text need to be appropriately integrated within the textbook. This study…
Feldstein, Andrew; Martin, Mirta; Hudson, Amy; Warren, Kiara; Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David
This study reports findings from a year-long pilot study during which 991 students in 9 core courses in the Virginia State University School of Business replaced traditional textbooks with openly licensed books and other digital content. The university made a deliberate decision to use open textbooks that were copyrighted under the Creative…
Kajander, Ann; Lovric, Miroslav
As a fundamental resource, textbooks shape the way we teach and learn mathematics. Based on examination of secondary school and university textbooks, we describe to what extent, and how, the presentation of mathematics material--in our case study, the concept of the line tangent to the graph of a function--could contribute to creation and…
Cincotta, Madeleine Strong
This paper explores the changing attitudes concerning sex-role stereotyping and discusses the part played by textbooks in the formation of sex-role attitudes. It examines in this regard a widely-used textbook for the teaching of French. (Author/CFM)
This paper presents a study of images in Norwegian physics textbooks for upper secondary school, and how they invite students into physics by means of visual communication. The concept of "framing" is used to investigate how the perspective in the image provides a sense of participation. It is found that older textbooks, where objects…
Binns, Ian C.; Bell, Randy L.
This study explored how eight widely used secondary science textbooks described scientific methodology and to what degree the textbooks' examples and investigations were consistent with this description. Data consisted of all text from student and teacher editions that referred to scientific methodology and all investigations. Analysis used an…
Firmin, Michael W.; Johnson, Erica J.; Wikler, Jeremiah
We examined the coverage given by General Psychology textbooks, representing 8 major commercial publishers, regarding the professions of psychology, counseling, marriage & family therapy, and social workers. Of the 24 textbooks assessed, we found substantial bias favoring the coverage of psychology. While 25% of the texts mentioned social workers,…
Bikowski, Dawn; Casal, J. Elliott
This mixed-methods study explored non-native English speaking students' learning processes and engagement as they used a customized interactive digital textbook housed on a mobile device. Think aloud protocols, surveys of anticipated and actual engagement with the digital textbook, reflective journals, and member checking constituted data…
Hu, Jinyan; Liu, Zhongxia; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Jianheng; Zhang, Lili
Currently, the construction of information technology textbooks in the primary and middle schools is an important content of the information technology curriculum reform. The article expect to have any inspire and reference on inland China school information technology teaching material construction and development through the analyzing and refining the characteristics of the Hong Kong quality textbook series - "I learn . elementary school computer cognitive curriculum".
New Zealand Dept. of Education, Wellington.
This study looked at six primary textbooks and 25 of 31 secondary textbooks of mathematics published in New Zealand. All exercises, problems, and illustrations were analyzed for references to roles and activities assigned to males and females. The number of times males and females were mentioned and the number of famous people of each sex noted…
In this article, the author reflects on his work as a textbook writer. Given that knowledge is memorable when it is related to engaging stories, the author wonders if it is possible to turn the history of our great nation into such tales to motivate children's learning. Attempts to make his textbook writing more vivid, however, are met with a…
Berkeley, Sheri; King-Sears, Margaret E.; Hott, Brittany L.; Bradley-Black, Katherine
Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students' comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question types…
Boden, Philip K.
A project is described which was carried out among Unesco member nations from 1971 to 1974 to investigate multilateral arrangements for the review of high school textbooks in the fields of history, geography, and social studies. Objectives of the project were to provide publishers with feedback about the potential of their textbooks to promote…
Tshuma, Tholani; Sanders, Martie
While school textbooks are assumed to be written for and used by students, it is widely acknowledged that they also serve a vital support function for teachers, particularly in times of curriculum change. A basic assumption is that biology textbooks are scientifically accurate. Furthermore, because of the negative impact of…
Extensive reading is believed to have considerable benefits for learners both in terms of learning gains and motivation and seems to be becoming ever more popular in the ELT world. So far, however, there seems to be almost no integration of extensive reading and textbooks. This article argues that textbooks should be encouraging extensive reading,…
Ayello, Elizabeth A; Meaney, Geraldine
Nurses enter the profession with knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention and care and acquired from their basic educational programs. A prior review of nursing textbooks regarding pressure ulcer content published almost a decade ago revealed that incomplete, inaccurate, and at times limited information (as few as 200 lines of text) was contained in 10 commonly used textbooks. A review of the updated editions of the textbooks revealed a wide variation in the number of lines of text devoted to pressure ulcers, depth and quality of information, and the number of illustrations and tables. New findings were the inclusion of cultural concepts and research studies. These findings suggest an improvement in the amount and quality of pressure ulcer information in the majority of nursing textbooks surveyed. Recommendations for future textbook chapters on pressure ulcers are provided.
In the main part of this thesis, we present the foundations and initial results of the Spinorial Geometry formalism for solving Killing spinor equations. This method can be used for any supergravity theory, although we largely focus on D=11 supergravity. The D=5 case is investigated in an appendix. The exposition provides a comprehensive introduction to the formalism, and contains background material on the complex spin representations which, it is hoped, will provide a useful bridge between the mathematical literature and our methods. Many solutions to the D=11 Killing spinor equations are presented, and the consequences for the spacetime geometry are explored in each case. Also in this thesis, we consider another class of supergravity solutions, namely heterotic string backgrounds with (2,0) world-sheet supersymmetry. We investigate the consequences of taking alpha-prime corrections into account in the field equations, in order to remain consistent with anomaly cancellation, while requiring that spacetime supersymmetry is preserved.
Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.
Dassios, George; Kariotou, Fotini
An exact analytic solution for the forward problem in the theory of biomagnetics of the human brain is known only for the (1D) case of a sphere and the (2D) case of a spheroid, where the excitation field is due to an electric dipole within the corresponding homogeneous conductor. In the present work the corresponding problem for the more realistic ellipsoidal brain model is solved and the leading quadrupole approximation for the exterior magnetic field is obtained in a form that exhibits the anisotropic character of the ellipsoidal geometry. The results are obtained in a straightforward manner through the evaluation of the interior electric potential and a subsequent calculation of the surface integral over the ellipsoid, using Lamé functions and ellipsoidal harmonics. The basic formulas are expressed in terms of the standard elliptic integrals that enter the expressions for the exterior Lamé functions. The laborious task of reducing the results to the spherical geometry is also included.
Rodgers, Jocelyn M.; Fast, Patton L.; Truhlar, Donald G.
Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol.
Thompson, Hilary H.; Cotton, Jennifer E. M.
In Fall 2014 the University of Maryland Libraries launched a textbook reserves program to help relieve the burden of high textbook costs on students. Although its initial performance was lackluster, workflow refinements and expanded promotion greatly improved usage, resulting in a tenfold increase in circulation and expansion of the program. This…
That students will eventually use computers in place of traditional textbooks is almost certain. Just watch the eight-year-old children at your local elementary school pulling their backpacks (now on wheels). Will the digital textbook become more than a CD-ROM of the print version? First, like most other education technologies, it will be an…
Alajmi, Amal Hussain
Textbooks play an important part in the design of instruction. This study analyzed the presentation of fractions in textbooks designed for the elementary grades in Kuwait, Japan, and the USA. The analysis focused on the physical characteristics of the books, the structure of the lessons, and the nature of the mathematical problems presented.…
Arthur, Gabriella Colussi
Considers the most recently published or re-edited North American textbooks for Italian with a view to discussing the current methodological trends they illustrate. Findings indicate that all except one of the seven textbooks reviewed have been upgraded to reflect an integrated or eclectic approach and that they differ mainly in the authors'…
Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; ...
We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS 3/CFT 2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length ofmore » any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS 3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.« less
We intend to illustrate how the methods of noncommutative geometry are currently used to tackle problems in class field theory. Noncommutative geometry enables one to think geometrically in situations in which the classical notion of space formed of points is no longer adequate, and thus a “noncommutative space” is needed; a full account of this approach is given in  by its main contributor, Alain Connes. The class field theory, i.e., number theory within the realm of Galois theory, is undoubtedly one of the main achievements in arithmetics, leading to an important algebraic machinery; for a modern overview, see . The relationship between noncommutative geometry and number theory is one of the many themes treated in [22, 7-9, 11], a small part of which we will try to put in a more down-to-earth perspective, illustrating through an example what should be called an “application of physics to mathematics,” and our only purpose is to introduce nonspecialists to this beautiful area.
Maarif, S.; Wahyudin; Raditya, A.; Perbowo, K. S.
Geometry is one of the areas of mathematics interesting to discuss. Geometry also has a long history in mathematical developments. Therefore, it is important integrated historical development of geometry in the classroom to increase’ knowledge of how mathematicians earlier finding and constructing a geometric concept. Introduction geometrical concept can be started by introducing the Muslim mathematician who invented these concepts so that students can understand in detail how a concept of geometry can be found. However, the history of mathematics development, especially history of Islamic geometry today is less popular in the world of education in Indonesia. There are several concepts discovered by Muslim mathematicians that should be appreciated by the students in learning geometry. Great ideas of mathematicians Muslim can be used as study materials to supplement religious character values taught by Muslim mathematicians. Additionally, by integrating the history of geometry in teaching geometry are expected to improve motivation and geometrical understanding concept.
Many, if not most, college students taking an introductory geoscience course purchase, borrow, download, or rent one of several commercial textbooks currently available. Art used in such books has evolved significantly over the past three decades. Concepts once conveyed only by black-and-white line drawings, drawn by hand in ink, have gradually been replaced by full-color images produced digitally. Multiple high-end graphics programs, when used in combination, can yield images with super-realistic textures and palettes so that, in effect, anything that a book author wants to be drawn can be drawn. Because of the time and skill level involved in producing the art, the process commonly involves professional artists. In order to produce high-quality geoscience art that can help students (who are, by definition, non-experts) understand concepts, develop geoscience intuition, and hone their spatial-visualization skills, an author must address two problems. First, design a figure which can convey complex concepts through visual elements that resonate with students. Second, communicate the concepts to a professional artist who does not necessarily have personal expertise in geoscience, so that the figure rendered is both technically correct and visually engaging. The ultimate goal of geoscience art in textbooks is to produce an image that avoids unnecessary complexity that could distract from the art's theme, includes sufficient realism for a non-expert to relate the image to the real world, provides a personal context in which to interpret the figure, and has a layout that conveys relationships among multiple components of the art so that the art tells a coherent story. To accomplish this goal, a chain of choices--about perspective, sizes, colors, texture, labeling, captioning, line widths, and fonts--must be made in collaboration between the author and artist. In the new world of computer-aided learning, figures must also be able to work both on the computer screen and
Romani, Roger W.; Yadigaroglu, I.-A.
There are now a half-dozen young pulsars detected in high-energy photons by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), showing a variety of emission efficiencies and pulse profiles. We present here a calculation of the pattern of high-energy emission on the sky in a model which posits gamma-ray production by charge-depleted gaps in the outer magnetosphere. This model accounts for the radio to gamma-ray pulse offsets of the known pulsars, as well as the shape of the high-energy pulse profiles. We also show that about one-third of emitting young radio pulsars will not be detected due to beaming effects, while approximately 2.5 times the number of radio-selected gamma-ray pulsars will be viewed only high energies. Finally we compute the polarization angle variation and find that the previously misunderstood optical polarization sweep of the Crab pulsar arises naturally in this picture. These results strongly support an outer magnetosphere location for the gamma-ray emission.
Dem Allgemeinen steht begrifflich das Besondere gegenüber. In diesem Sinne sind allgemeine Überlegungen zum Verstehen von Mathematik zu ergänzen durch Untersuchungen hinsichtlich des Verstehens der einzelnen mathematischen Disziplinen, insbesondere der Geometrie. Hier haben viele Schülerinnen und Schüler Probleme. Diese rühren hauptsächlich daher, dass eine fertige geometrische Konstruktion in ihrer statischen Präsentation auf Papier nicht mehr die einzelnen Konstruktionsschritte erkennen lässt; zum Nachvollzug müssen sie daher ergänzend in einer Konstruktionsbeschreibung festgehalten werden.
He, Yang-Hui; Jejjala, Vishnu; Matti, Cyril; Nelson, Brent D.; Stillman, Michael
We present an intriguing and precise interplay between algebraic geometry and the phenomenology of generations of particles. Using the electroweak sector of the MSSM as a testing ground, we compute the moduli space of vacua as an algebraic variety for multiple generations of Standard Model matter and Higgs doublets. The space is shown to have Calabi-Yau, Grassmannian, and toric signatures, which sensitively depend on the number of generations of leptons, as well as inclusion of Majorana mass terms for right-handed neutrinos. We speculate as to why three generations is special.
Geometry plays an important role in the school mathematics curriculum all around the world. Teaching of geometry varies a lot (Hoyls, Foxman, & Kuchemann, 2001). Many countries revise the objectives, the content, and the approaches to the geometry in school. Studies of the processes show that there are not common trends of these changes…
Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)
Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.
Starting in 1958, Harry Harlow published numerous research papers analyzing the emotional and social development of rhesus monkeys. This essay examines the presentation of Harlow's work in introductory psychology textbooks from 1958 to 1975, focusing on whether the textbooks erased the process of research, presented results without hedging, and provided a uniform account of Harlow's work and results. It argues that many textbooks were not passive vehicles of knowledge transmission; instead, they played a role similar to articles of meta-analysis and literature reviews.
Stewart, John; Campbell, Richard; Clanton, Jessica
The conceptual problem content of the electricity and magnetism chapters of seven major physics textbooks was investigated. The textbooks presented a total of 1600 conceptual electricity and magnetism problems. The solution to each problem was decomposed into its fundamental reasoning steps. These fundamental steps are, then, used to quantify the distribution of conceptual content among the set of topics common to the texts. The variation of the distribution of conceptual coverage within each text is studied. The variation between the major groupings of the textbooks (conceptual, algebra-based, and calculus-based) is also studied. A measure of the conceptual complexity of the problems in each text is presented.
Griggs, Richard A.
To determine how topical coverage in introductory textbooks may have changed from the 1980s to the present, the author examined topic coverage in full-length and brief introductory textbooks from this time period. Because 98% of the teachers use textbooks for the introductory course and the majority do not assign reading beyond the textbook, the…