Science.gov

Sample records for zone ii models

  1. Phase II, improved work zone design guidelines and enhanced model of traffic delays in work zones : final report, March 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    This project contains three major parts. In the first part a digital computer simulation model was developed with the aim to model the traffic through a freeway work zone situation. The model was based on the Arena simulation software and used cumula...

  2. Phase II, improved work zone design guidelines and enhanced model of traffic delays in work zones : executive summary report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    This project contains three major parts. In the first part a digital computer simulation model was developed with the aim to model the traffic through a freeway work zone situation. The model was based on the Arena simulation software and used cumula...

  3. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  4. ESTIMATION OF INFILTRATION RATE IN THE VADOSE ZONE: APPLICATION OF SELECTED MATHEMATICAL MODELS - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Movement of water into and through the vadose zone is of great importance to the assessment of contaminant fate and transport, agricultural management, and natural resource protection. The process of water movement is very dynamic, changing dramatically over time and space. Inf...

  5. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  6. Mushy zone modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Smith, Richard N.; Marsh, Steven P.; Kuklinski, Robert

    A key element of mushy zone modeling is the description of the microscopic evolution of the lengthscales within the mushy zone and the influence of macroscopic transport processes. This paper describes some recent progress in developing a mean-field statistical theory of phase coarsening in adiabatic mushy zones. The main theoretical predictions are temporal scaling laws that indicate that average lengthscale increases as time 1/3, a self-similar distribution of mushy zone lengthscales based on spherical solid particle shapes, and kinetic rate constants which provide the dependences of the coarsening process on material parameters and the volume fraction of the solid phase. High precision thermal decay experiments are described which verify aspects of the theory in pure material mushy zones held under adiabatic conditions. The microscopic coarsening theory is then integrated within a macroscopic heat transfer model of one-dimensional alloy solidification, using the Double Integral Method. The method demonstrates an ability to predict the influence of macroscopic heat transfer on the evolution of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings in Al-Cu alloys. Finally, some suggestions are made for future experimental and theoretical studies required in developing comprehensive solidification processing models.

  7. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  8. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, David A.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetlandmore » hydrologic regimes at different locations on the river floodplain. A new predictive tool is introduced and validated, the potential SEV (pSEV), which can reduce the need for extensive new data collection in wetland restoration planning. Models of water levels and inundation frequency distinguish four zones encompassing eight reaches. The system zones are the wave- and current-dominated Entrance to river kilometer (rkm) 5; the Estuary (rkm-5 to 87), comprised of a lower reach with salinity, the energy minimum (where the turbidity maximum normally occurs), and an upper estuary reach without salinity; the Tidal River (rkm-87 to 229), with lower, middle, and upper reaches in which river flow becomes increasingly dominant over tides in determining water levels; and the steep and weakly tidal Cascade (rkm-229 to 234) immediately downstream from Bonneville Dam. The same zonation is seen in the water levels of floodplain stations, with considerable modification of tidal properties. The system zones and reaches defined here reflect geological features and their boundaries are congruent with five wetland vegetation zones« less

  9. AUGO II: a comprehensive subauroral zone observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I. S.; Connors, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    A new geophysical observatory dedicated to the study of the aurora borealis will be built 25 km southwest of the town of Athabasca, Alberta, Canada. It is anticipated to see first light in the winter of 2010/2011 and be fully operational in the fall of 2011. Based on the highly successful Athabasca University Geophysical Observatory (AUGO), opened in 2002 at the Athabasca University campus in Athabasca, Alberta, AUGO II will have expanded observational capacity featuring up to eight climate-controlled domed optical observation suites for instrumentation, on-site accommodation for up to six researchers, and most importantly, dark skies free of light pollution from urban development. AUGO II will share the same advantages as its predecessor, one being its location in central Alberta, allowing routine study of the subauroral zone, auroral oval studies during active times, and very rarely of the polar cap. Like the original AUGO, AUGO II will be in close proximity to major highways, be connected to a high bandwidth network, and be within two hour driving distance to the city of Edmonton and its international airport. Opportunities are open for guest researchers in space physics to conduct auroral studies at this new, state-of-the-art research facility through the installation of remotely controlled instruments and/or campaigns. An innovative program of instrument development will accompany the new observatory’s enhanced infrastructure with a focus on magnetics and H-beta meridian scanning photometry.

  10. Approximate Model of Zone Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzianik, František

    2011-12-01

    The process of zone sedimentation is affected by many factors that are not possible to express analytically. For this reason, the zone settling is evaluated in practice experimentally or by application of an empirical mathematical description of the process. The paper presents the development of approximate model of zone settling, i.e. the general function which should properly approximate the behaviour of the settling process within its entire range and at the various conditions. Furthermore, the specification of the model parameters by the regression analysis of settling test results is shown. The suitability of the model is reviewed by graphical dependencies and by statistical coefficients of correlation. The approximate model could by also useful on the simplification of process design of continual settling tanks and thickeners.

  11. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part II. Application to electron beam welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.; Klokkehaug, S.

    2000-03-01

    In the present investigation, a process model for electron beam (EB) welding of different grades of duplex stainless steels (i.e. SAF 2205 and 2507) has been developed. A number of attractive features are built into the original finite element code, including (1) a separate module for prediction of the penetration depth and distribution of the heat source into the plate, (2) adaptive refinement of the three-dimensional (3-D) element mesh for quick and reliable solution of the differential heat flow equation, and (3) special subroutines for calculation of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructure evolution. The process model has been validated by comparison with experimental data obtained from in situ thermocouple measurements and optical microscope examinations. Subsequently, its aptness to alloy design and optimization of welding conditions for duplex stainless steels is illustrated in different numerical examples and case studies pertaining to EB welding of tubular joints.

  12. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part II. Modeling the transport process.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, V I; Kashparov, V A; Levchuk, S E; Glukhovskiy, A S; Khomutinin, Yu V; Protsak, V P; Lundin, S M; Tschiersch, J

    2006-01-01

    To predict parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires, several model modules were developed and adapted. Experimental data of controlled burning of prepared experimental plots in the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been used to evaluate the prognostic power of the models. The predicted trajectories and elevations of the plume match with those visually observed during the fire experiments in the grassland and forest sites. Experimentally determined parameters could be successfully used for the calculation of the initial plume parameters which provide the tools for the description of various fire scenarios and enable prognostic calculations. In summary, the model predicts a release of some per thousand from the radionuclide inventory of the fuel material by the grassland fires. During the forest fire, up to 4% of (137)Cs and (90)Sr and up to 1% of the Pu isotopes can be released from the forest litter according to the model calculations. However, these results depend on the parameters of the fire events. In general, the modeling results are in good accordance with the experimental data. Therefore, the considered models were successfully validated and can be recommended for the assessment of the resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in contaminated territories.

  13. Risk factors and rate of progression for zone I versus zone II type 1 retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Kong, Mingui; Kim, Sang Jin; Ham, Don Il; Kang, Se Woong; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2014-04-01

    To compare the risk factors and rate of progression of zone I versus zone II type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The medical records of consecutive preterm infants with bilateral type 1 ROP in zone I and age-matched control infants with type 1 ROP in zone II were retrospectively analyzed. Fundus findings at each screening examination and systemic parameters were compared between groups. Univariate and conditional multivariate regression analyses were employed to identify variables significantly associated with zone I ROP. A total of 30 cases and 30 controls were included. The mean gestational age of included infants was 24.6 weeks in both groups, and the mean birth weights were 685 g in the zone I group and 667 g in the zone II group. The postmenstrual age (PMA) at the time of initial ROP detection did not differ between groups, but the PMA at the time of type 1 ROP detection was significantly earlier in the zone I group (mean, 34.9 vs 37.6 weeks). Conditional multiple logistic regression revealed that mechanical ventilation for 30 days or more was significantly associated with the type 1 ROP in zone I compared with zone II (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.2-10.0). Zone I ROP exhibited rapid progression, necessitating close monitoring and prompt treatment. Compromised pulmonary function with associated mechanical ventilation in early life may restrict retinal vascular growth and increase the likelihood of zone I type 1 ROP. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a long history of both supporting plume model development and providing mixing zone modeling software. The Visual Plumes model is the most recent addition to the suite of public-domain models available through the EPA-Athens Center f...

  15. New reductions of the Astrographic Catalogue. Plate adjustments of the Algiers, Oxford I and II, and Vatican Zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, S. E.; Martin, J. C.; Jackson, E. S.; Corbin, T. E.

    1996-07-01

    The U. S. Naval Observatory is in the process of making new reductions of the Astrographic Catalogue using a modern reference catalog, the ACRS, and new data analysis and reduction software. Currently ten AC zones have been reduced. This papers discusses the reduction models and results from the Algiers, Oxford I and II, and Vatican zones (those of the Cape zone are discussed elsewhere). The resulting star positions will be combined with those of the U.S. Naval Observatory's Twin Astrograph Catalog to produce a catalog of positions and proper motions in support of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  16. A benchmark for subduction zone modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Keken, P.; King, S.; Peacock, S.

    2003-04-01

    Our understanding of subduction zones hinges critically on the ability to discern its thermal structure and dynamics. Computational modeling has become an essential complementary approach to observational and experimental studies. The accurate modeling of subduction zones is challenging due to the unique geometry, complicated rheological description and influence of fluid and melt formation. The complicated physics causes problems for the accurate numerical solution of the governing equations. As a consequence it is essential for the subduction zone community to be able to evaluate the ability and limitations of various modeling approaches. The participants of a workshop on the modeling of subduction zones, held at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, MI, USA in 2002, formulated a number of case studies to be developed into a benchmark similar to previous mantle convection benchmarks (Blankenbach et al., 1989; Busse et al., 1991; Van Keken et al., 1997). Our initial benchmark focuses on the dynamics of the mantle wedge and investigates three different rheologies: constant viscosity, diffusion creep, and dislocation creep. In addition we investigate the ability of codes to accurate model dynamic pressure and advection dominated flows. Proceedings of the workshop and the formulation of the benchmark are available at www.geo.lsa.umich.edu/~keken/subduction02.html We strongly encourage interested research groups to participate in this benchmark. At Nice 2003 we will provide an update and first set of benchmark results. Interested researchers are encouraged to contact one of the authors for further details.

  17. Classroom Model of a Wadati Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a plexiglass and aluminum model of a Wadati zone suitable for classroom exercises and demonstrations in earth science to let students test the hypothesis that earthquake hypocenters near oceanic trenches tend to occur along planes that dip away from the trenches, toward associated island arc or continental mountain chain. (Author/JN)

  18. Work zone lane closure analysis model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-10-01

    At the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT), the tool used by traffic engineers to predict whether a queue will form at a freeway work zone is the Excel-based "Lane Rental Model" developed at the Oklahoma Department of Transportation (OkDOT) ...

  19. EPA MODELING TOOLS FOR CAPTURE ZONE DELINEATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Research and Development supports a step-wise modeling approach for design of wellhead protection areas for water supply wells. A web-based WellHEDSS (wellhead decision support system) is under development for determining when simple capture zones (e.g., centri...

  20. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Zone II Partial Flexor Tendon Lacerations of the Fingers: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Kazmers, Nikolas H; Gordon, Joshua A; Buterbaugh, Kristen L; Bozentka, David J; Steinberg, David R; Khoury, Viviane

    2018-04-01

    Accurate assessment of zone II partial flexor tendon lacerations in the finger is clinically important. Surgical repair is recommended for lacerations of greater than 50% to 60%. Our goal was to evaluate ultrasonographic test characteristics and accuracy in identifying partial flexor tendon lacerations in a cadaveric model. From fresh-frozen above-elbow human cadaveric specimens, 32 flexor digitorum profundus tendons were randomly selected to remain intact or receive low- or high-grade lacerations involving 10% to 40% and 60% to 90% of the radioulnar width within Verdan Zone II, respectively. Static and dynamic ultrasonography using a linear array 14-MHz transducer was performed by a blinded musculoskeletal radiologist. Sensitivities, specificities, and other standard test performance metrics were calculated. Actual and measured percentages of tendon laceration were compared by the paired t test. After randomization, 24 tendons were lacerated (12 low- and 12 high-grade), whereas 8 remained intact. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting the presence versus absence of a partial laceration were 0.54 and 0.75, respectively, with positive and negative likelihood ratio values of 2.17 and 0.61. For low-grade lacerations, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.25 and 0.85, compared to 0.83 and 0.85 for high-grade lacerations. Ultrasonography underestimated the percentage of tendon involvement by a mean of 18.1% for the study population as a whole (95% confidence interval, 9.0% to 27.2%; P < .001) but accurately determined the extent for correctly diagnosed high-grade lacerations (-6.7%; 95% confidence interval, -18.7% to 5.2%; P = .22). Ultrasonography was useful in identifying and characterizing clinically relevant high-grade zone II partial flexor digitorum profundus lacerations in a cadaveric model. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. The effect of early operative stabilization on late displacement of zone I and II sacral fractures.

    PubMed

    Emohare, Osa; Slinkard, Nathaniel; Lafferty, Paul; Vang, Sandy; Morgan, Robert

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect on displacement of early operative stabilization on unstable fractures when compared to stable fractures of the sacrum. Patient consisted of those sustaining traumatic pelvic fractures that also included sacral fractures of Denis type I and type II classification, who were over 18 at the time of the study. Patients were managed emergently, as judged appropriate at the time and then subsequently divided into two cohorts, comprising those who were either treated operatively or non-operatively. The operative group comprised those treated with either internal fixation or external fixation. Twenty-eight patients had zone II fractures, and 20 had zone I fractures. Zone II fractures showed average displacements of 6.5mm and 6.9mm in the rostral-caudal and anteroposterior directions, respectively, at final follow up. Zone I fractures had average displacements of 6.6mm and 6.1mm in both directions. There were no significant differences between zone I and II sacral fractures (rostral-caudal P=0.74, anteroposterior P=0.24). Average changes in fracture displacement in patients with zone I fractures were 0.6-1.0mm in both directions. Average changes in zone II fractures were 1.8-1.5mm in both directions. There were no significant differences between the average changes in zone I and II fractures in any direction (rostral-caudal P=0.64, anteroposterior P=0.68) or in average displacements at final follow up in any of zone or the entire cohort. Statistically significant differences were noted in average changes in displacement in zone II fractures in the anteroposterior plane (P=0.03) and the overall cohort in the anteroposterior plane (P=0.02). Operative fixation for unstable sacral fractures ensures displacement at follow up is comparable with stable fractures treated non operatively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The inner zone electron model AE-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, M. J.; Vette, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of the work performed in the development of the inner radiation zone electron model, AE-5. A complete description of the omnidirectional flux model is given for energy thresholds E sub T in the range 4.0 E sub T/(MeV) 0.04 and for L values in the range 2.8 L 1.2 for an epoch of October 1967. Confidence codes for certain regions of B-L space and certain energies are given based on data coverage and the assumptions made in the analysis. The electron model programs that can be supplied to a user are referred to. One of these, a program for accessing the model flux at arbitrary points in B-L space and arbitrary energies, includes the latest outer zone electron model and proton model. The model AE-5, is based on data from five satellites, OGO 1, OGO 3, 1963-38C, OV3-3, and Explorer 26, spanning the period December 1964 to December 1967.

  3. Comparing two-zone models of dust exposure.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Simmons, Catherine E; Boelter, Fred W

    2011-09-01

    The selection and application of mathematical models to work tasks is challenging. Previously, we developed and evaluated a semi-empirical two-zone model that predicts time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations (Ctwa) of dust emitted during the sanding of drywall joint compound. Here, we fit the emission rate and random air speed variables of a mechanistic two-zone model to testing event data and apply and evaluate the model using data from two field studies. We found that the fitted random air speed values and emission rate were sensitive to (i) the size of the near-field and (ii) the objective function used for fitting, but this did not substantially impact predicted dust Ctwa. The mechanistic model predictions were lower than the semi-empirical model predictions and measured respirable dust Ctwa at Site A but were within an acceptable range. At Site B, a 10.5 m3 room, the mechanistic model did not capture the observed difference between PBZ and area Ctwa. The model predicted uniform mixing and predicted dust Ctwa up to an order of magnitude greater than was measured. We suggest that applications of the mechanistic model be limited to contexts where the near-field volume is very small relative to the far-field volume.

  4. Temperature Models for the Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V. C.; Kostoglodov, V.; Currie, C.; Manea, M.; Wang, K.

    2002-12-01

    It is well known that the temperature is one of the major factors which controls the seismogenic zone. The Mexican subduction zone is characterized by a very shallow flat subducting interplate in its central part (Acapulco, Oaxaca), and deeper subduction slabs northern (Jalisco) and southern (Chiapas). It has been proposed that the seismogenic zone is controlled, among other factors, by a temperature. Therefore, we have developed four two-dimensional steady state thermal models for Jalisco, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas. The updip limit of the seismogenic zone is taken between 100 §C and 150 §C, while the downdip limit is thought to be at 350 §C because of the transition from stick-slip to stable-sliding. The shape of the subducting plate is inferred from gravity and seismicity. The convergence velocity between oceanic and continental lithospheric plates is taken as the following: 5 cm/yr for Jalisco profile, 5.5 for Guerrero profile, 5.8 for Oaxaca profile, and 7.8 for Chiapas profile. The age of the subducting plates, since they are young, and provides the primary control on the forearc thermal structure, are as the following: 11 My for Jalisco profile, 14.5 My for Guerrero profile, 15 My for Oaxaca profile, and 28 My for Chiapas profile. We also introduced in the models a small quantity of frictional heating (pore pressure ratio 0.98). The value of 0.98 for pore pressure ratio was obtained for the Guerrero profile, in order to fit the intersection between the 350 §C isotherm and the subducting plate at 200 Km from trench. The value of 200 km coupling zone from trench is inferred from GPS data for the steady interseismic period and also for the last slow aseismic slip that occurred in Guerrero in 2002. We have used this value of pore pressure ratio (0.98) for all the other profiles. For the others three profiles we obtained the following coupling extents: Jalisco - 100 km, Oaxaca - 170 km and Chiapas - 125 km (from the trench). Independent constrains of the

  5. NAFTA II : California border zone land transportation issues

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-09-01

    This report constitutes Phase II of a study of the impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1992 on border areas and determines transportation infrastructure access. Reviews status of NAFTA impact issues; identifies new issues; d...

  6. Contemporary Strategies in the Management of Civilian Neck Zone II Vascular Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karaolanis, Georgios; Maltezos, Konstantinos; Bakoyiannis, Chris; Georgopoulos, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Neck trauma is the leading cause of death mainly in younger persons posing to surgeons the dilemma whether to proceed with reconstruction of vascular injuries either in the presence of coma or in severe neurological deficit. Vascular injuries in zone II predominate over the other injuries located in zones I/III of the neck. Conventional open repair of carotid injuries with primary closure or interposition grafting is always recommended due to the effective long-term results for penetrating injuries or for patients unfit for endovascular intervention. In cases of blunt trauma, anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy should be administered first in neurologically stable patients. In case of worsening of the neurological status of the patient despite adequate anticoagulation endovascular means should be considered in cases of appropriate anatomy of the arterial trauma. We provide an update on penetrating/blunt trauma in zone II of the neck, giving emphasis on the anticoagulant and endovascular treatment. PMID:29034244

  7. Atomistic Cohesive Zone Models for Interface Decohesion in Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.; Saether, Erik; Glaessgen, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a statistical mechanics approach, a cohesive-zone law in the form of a traction-displacement constitutive relationship characterizing the load transfer across the plane of a growing edge crack is extracted from atomistic simulations for use within a continuum finite element model. The methodology for the atomistic derivation of a cohesive-zone law is presented. This procedure can be implemented to build cohesive-zone finite element models for simulating fracture in nanocrystalline or ultrafine grained materials.

  8. Modeling and Simulation for a Surf Zone Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    of-freedom surf zone robot is developed and tested with a physical test platform and with a simulated robot in Robot Operating System . Derived from...terrain. The application of the model to future platforms is analyzed and a broad examination of the current state of surf zone robotic systems is...public release; distribution is unlimited MODELING AND SIMULATION FOR A SURF ZONE ROBOT Eric Shuey Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S., Systems

  9. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  10. Modeling work zone crash frequency by quantifying measurement errors in work zone length.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Ozbay, Kaan; Ozturk, Ozgur; Yildirimoglu, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    Work zones are temporary traffic control zones that can potentially cause safety problems. Maintaining safety, while implementing necessary changes on roadways, is an important challenge traffic engineers and researchers have to confront. In this study, the risk factors in work zone safety evaluation were identified through the estimation of a crash frequency (CF) model. Measurement errors in explanatory variables of a CF model can lead to unreliable estimates of certain parameters. Among these, work zone length raises a major concern in this analysis because it may change as the construction schedule progresses generally without being properly documented. This paper proposes an improved modeling and estimation approach that involves the use of a measurement error (ME) model integrated with the traditional negative binomial (NB) model. The proposed approach was compared with the traditional NB approach. Both models were estimated using a large dataset that consists of 60 work zones in New Jersey. Results showed that the proposed improved approach outperformed the traditional approach in terms of goodness-of-fit statistics. Moreover it is shown that the use of the traditional NB approach in this context can lead to the overestimation of the effect of work zone length on the crash occurrence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Results of Flexor Tendon Repair in Zone II Using a six Strand Double Loop Technique.

    PubMed

    Savvidou, Christiana; Tsai, Tsu-Min

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the clinical results after repair of flexor tendon zone II injuries utilizing a 6-strand double-loop technique and early post-operative active rehabilitation. We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients involving 51 cases with zone II flexor tendon repair using a six strand double loop technique from September 1996 to December 2012. Most common mechanism of injuries was sharp lacerations (86.5 %). Tendon injuries occurred equally in manual and non-manual workers and were work-related in 33 % of the cases. The Strickland score for active range of motion (ROM) postoperatively was excellent and good in the majority of the cases (81 %). The rupture rate was 1.9 %. The six strand double loop technique for Zone II flexor tendon repair leads to good and excellent motion in the majority of patients and low re- rupture rate. It is clinically effective and allows for early postoperative active rehabilitation.

  12. Investigating Some Technical Issues on Cohesive Zone Modeling of Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates some technical issues related to the use of cohesive zone models (CZMs) in modeling fracture processes. These issues include: why cohesive laws of different shapes can produce similar fracture predictions; under what conditions CZM predictions have a high degree of agreement with linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis results; when the shape of cohesive laws becomes important in the fracture predictions; and why the opening profile along the cohesive zone length needs to be accurately predicted. Two cohesive models were used in this study to address these technical issues. They are the linear softening cohesive model and the Dugdale perfectly plastic cohesive model. Each cohesive model constitutes five cohesive laws of different maximum tractions. All cohesive laws have the same cohesive work rate (CWR) which is defined by the area under the traction-separation curve. The effects of the maximum traction on the cohesive zone length and the critical remote applied stress are investigated for both models. For a CZM to predict a fracture load similar to that obtained by an LEFM analysis, the cohesive zone length needs to be much smaller than the crack length, which reflects the small scale yielding condition requirement for LEFM analysis to be valid. For large-scale cohesive zone cases, the predicted critical remote applied stresses depend on the shape of cohesive models used and can significantly deviate from LEFM results. Furthermore, this study also reveals the importance of accurately predicting the cohesive zone profile in determining the critical remote applied load.

  13. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) work zone driver model software

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-11-01

    FHWA and the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) Volpe Center are developing a work zone car-following model and simulation software that interfaces with existing microsimulation tools, enabling more accurate simulation of car-following through...

  14. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for episodic slow slip events in oceanic subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.; Meng, L.

    2016-12-01

    Episodic slow slip events occur widely along oceanic subduction zones at the brittle-ductile transition depths ( 20-50 km). Although efforts have been devoted to unravel their mechanical origins, it remains unclear about the physical controls on the wide range of their recurrence intervals and slip durations. In this study we present a simple mechanical model that attempts to account for the observed temporal evolution of slow slip events. In our model we assume that slow slip events occur in a viscoplastic shear zone (i.e., Bingham material), which has an upper static and a lower dynamic plastic yield strength. We further assume that the hanging wall deformation is approximated as an elastic spring. We envision the shear zone to be initially locked during forward/landward motion but is subsequently unlocked when the elastic and gravity-induced stress exceeds the static yield strength of the shear zone. This leads to backward/trenchward motion damped by viscous shear-zone deformation. As the elastic spring progressively loosens, the hanging wall velocity evolves with time and the viscous shear stress eventually reaches the dynamic yield strength. This is followed by the termination of the trenchward motion when the elastic stress is balanced by the dynamic yield strength of the shear zone and the gravity. In order to account for the zig-saw slip-history pattern of typical repeated slow slip events, we assume that the shear zone progressively strengthens after each slow slip cycle, possibly caused by dilatancy as commonly assumed or by progressive fault healing through solution-transport mechanisms. We quantify our conceptual model by obtaining simple analytical solutions. Our model results suggest that the duration of the landward motion increases with the down-dip length and the static yield strength of the shear zone, but decreases with the ambient loading velocity and the elastic modulus of the hanging wall. The duration of the backward/trenchward motion depends

  15. Modeling biogechemical reactive transport in a fracture zone

    SciTech Connect

    Molinero, Jorge; Samper, Javier; Yang, Chan Bing, and Zhang, Guoxiang

    2005-01-14

    A coupled model of groundwater flow, reactive solute transport and microbial processes for a fracture zone of the Aspo site at Sweden is presented. This is the model of the so-called Redox Zone Experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of tunnel construction on the geochemical conditions prevailing in a fracture granite. It is found that a model accounting for microbially-mediated geochemical processes is able to reproduce the unexpected measured increasing trends of dissolved sulfate and bicarbonate. The model is also useful for testing hypotheses regarding the role of microbial processes and evaluating the sensitivity of model results to changes inmore » biochemical parameters.« less

  16. Modelling of the MEA float zone using accelerometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1993-01-01

    During a floating zone experiment involving the growth of indium on a recent orbiter mission, (STS 32) oscillation of the zone shapes were observed to occur in response to the background acceleration. An understanding of the nature of the response of the zone shape to forced (g-jitter) oscillations and predictions of its impact on future experiments is of great interest not only to the PI's but to other commercial and academic investigators who plan to fly similar experiments in the orbiter and on space station. Motivated by this, a 15 month study was undertaken to analyze the nature of the g-sensitivity of the STS 32 floating zone crystal growth experiment. Numerical models were used to describe the time-dependent free surface motion of the zone as it responds to the spacecraft residual acceleration. Relevant experimental data concerning the acceleration environment was obtained from the Honeywell in Space Accelerometer (HISA) investigators through MSFC's ACAP program and processed and analyzed. For the indium floating zone experiment, a series of calculations were made using time-dependent axial accelerations g(t). The form of g(t) included simple sinusoidal disturbances as well as actual data (subject to appropriate filtering) measured on the STS 32 mission. Focus was on the calculation of the response of the free surface of the zone as well as the internal flows and internal heat transfer. The influence of solidification on the response of the zone shape was also examined but found to be negligible.

  17. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has a history of developing plume models and providing technical assistance. The Visual Plumes model (VP) is a recent addition to the public-domain models available on the EPA Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) web page. The Wind...

  18. Data reduction of room tests for zone model validation

    Treesearch

    M. Janssens; H. C. Tran

    1992-01-01

    Compartment fire zone models are based on many simplifying assumptions, in particular that gases stratify in two distinct layers. Because of these assumptions, certain model output is in a form unsuitable for direct comparison to measurements made in full-scale room tests. The experimental data must first be reduced and transformed to be compatible with the model...

  19. Relating Cohesive Zone Model to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions required for a cohesive zone model (CZM) to predict a failure load of a cracked structure similar to that obtained by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis are investigated in this paper. This study clarifies why many different phenomenological cohesive laws can produce similar fracture predictions. Analytical results for five cohesive zone models are obtained, using five different cohesive laws that have the same cohesive work rate (CWR-area under the traction-separation curve) but different maximum tractions. The effect of the maximum traction on the predicted cohesive zone length and the remote applied load at fracture is presented. Similar to the small scale yielding condition for an LEFM analysis to be valid. the cohesive zone length also needs to be much smaller than the crack length. This is a necessary condition for a CZM to obtain a fracture prediction equivalent to an LEFM result.

  20. Theoretical model of the helium zone plate microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador Palau, Adrià; Bracco, Gianangelo; Holst, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    Neutral helium microscopy is a new technique currently under development. Its advantages are the low energy, charge neutrality, and inertness of the helium atoms, a potential large depth of field, and the fact that at thermal energies the helium atoms do not penetrate into any solid material. This opens the possibility, among others, for the creation of an instrument that can measure surface topology on the nanoscale, even on surfaces with high aspect ratios. One of the most promising designs for helium microscopy is the zone plate microscope. It consists of a supersonic expansion helium beam collimated by an aperture (skimmer) focused by a Fresnel zone plate onto a sample. The resolution is determined by the focal spot size, which depends on the size of the skimmer, the optics of the system, and the velocity spread of the beam through the chromatic aberrations of the zone plate. An important factor for the optics of the zone plate is the width of the outermost zone, corresponding to the smallest opening in the zone plate. The width of the outermost zone is fabrication limited to around 10 nm with present-day state-of-the-art technology. Due to the high ionization potential of neutral helium atoms, it is difficult to build efficient helium detectors. Therefore, it is crucial to optimize the microscope design to maximize the intensity for a given resolution and width of the outermost zone. Here we present an optimization model for the helium zone plate microscope. Assuming constant resolution and width of the outermost zone, we are able to reduce the problem to a two-variable problem (zone plate radius and object distance) and we show that for a given beam temperature and pressure, there is always a single intensity maximum. We compare our model with the highest-resolution zone plate focusing images published and show that the intensity can be increased seven times. Reducing the width of the outermost zone to 10 nm leads to an increase in intensity of more than 8000

  1. Dynamic Model of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Process Based on Multi-zone Reaction Kinetics: Model Derivation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Bapin Kumar; Brooks, Geoff; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Li, Zushu; Schrama, Frank N. H.; Sun, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A multi-zone kinetic model coupled with a dynamic slag generation model was developed for the simulation of hot metal and slag composition during the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) operation. The three reaction zones (i) jet impact zone, (ii) slag-bulk metal zone, (iii) slag-metal-gas emulsion zone were considered for the calculation of overall refining kinetics. In the rate equations, the transient rate parameters were mathematically described as a function of process variables. A micro and macroscopic rate calculation methodology (micro-kinetics and macro-kinetics) were developed to estimate the total refining contributed by the recirculating metal droplets through the slag-metal emulsion zone. The micro-kinetics involves developing the rate equation for individual droplets in the emulsion. The mathematical models for the size distribution of initial droplets, kinetics of simultaneous refining of elements, the residence time in the emulsion, and dynamic interfacial area change were established in the micro-kinetic model. In the macro-kinetics calculation, a droplet generation model was employed and the total amount of refining by emulsion was calculated by summing the refining from the entire population of returning droplets. A dynamic FetO generation model based on oxygen mass balance was developed and coupled with the multi-zone kinetic model. The effect of post-combustion on the evolution of slag and metal composition was investigated. The model was applied to a 200-ton top blowing converter and the simulated value of metal and slag was found to be in good agreement with the measured data. The post-combustion ratio was found to be an important factor in controlling FetO content in the slag and the kinetics of Mn and P in a BOF process.

  2. Microplate and shear zone models for oceanic spreading center reorganizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engeln, Joseph F.; Stein, Seth; Werner, John; Gordon, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The kinematics of rift propagation and the resulting goemetries of various tectonic elements for two plates is reviewed with no overlap zone. The formation and evolution of overlap regions using schematic models is discussed. The models are scaled in space and time to approximate the Easter plate, but are simplified to emphasize key elements. The tectonic evolution of overlap regions which act as rigid microplates and shear zones is discussed, and the use of relative motion and structural data to discriminate between the two types of models is investigated. The effect of propagation rate and rise time on the size, shape, and deformation of the overlap region is demonstrated.

  3. Toward Broadband Source Modeling for the Himalayan Collision Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Sharma, B.; Mishra, O. P.; Yokoi, T.; Hayashida, T.; Bhattarai, M.; Sapkota, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Himalayan collision zone is characterized by the significant tectonic setting. There are earthquakes with low-angle thrust faulting as well as continental outerrise earthquakes. Recently several historical earthquakes have been identified by active fault surveys [e.g., Sapkota et al., 2013]. We here investigate source scaling for the Himalayan collision zone as a fundamental factor to construct source models toward seismic hazard assessment. As for the source scaling for collision zones, Yen and Ma [2011] reported the subduction-zone source scaling in Taiwan, and pointed out the non-self-similar scaling due to the finite crustal thickness. On the other hand, current global analyses of stress drop do not show abnormal values for the continental collision zones [e.g., Allmann and Shearer, 2009]. Based on the compile profiling of finite thickness of the curst and dip angle variations, we discuss whether the bending exists for the Himalayan source scaling and implications on stress drop that will control strong ground motions. Due to quite low-angle dip faulting, recent earthquakes in the Himalayan collision zone showed the upper bound of the current source scaling of rupture area vs. seismic moment (< Mw 8.0), and does not show significant bending of the source scaling. Toward broadband source modeling for ground motion prediction, we perform empirical Green's function simulations for the 2009 Butan and 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence to quantify both long- and short-period source spectral levels.

  4. Modeling critical zone processes in intensively managed environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Le, Phong; Woo, Dong; Yan, Qina

    2017-04-01

    Processes in the Critical Zone (CZ), which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biochemical, and many other domains over both short and long timescales. In addition, vegetation acclimation resulting from elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, along with response to increased temperature and altered rainfall pattern, is expected to result in emergent behaviors in ecologic and hydrologic functions, subsequently controlling CZ processes. We hypothesize that the interplay between micro-topographic variability and these emergent behaviors will shape complex responses of a range of ecosystem dynamics within the CZ. Here, we develop a modeling framework ('Dhara') that explicitly incorporates micro-topographic variability based on lidar topographic data with coupling of multi-layer modeling of the soil-vegetation continuum and 3-D surface-subsurface transport processes to study ecological and biogeochemical dynamics. We further couple a C-N model with a physically based hydro-geomorphologic model to quantify (i) how topographic variability controls the spatial distribution of soil moisture, temperature, and biogeochemical processes, and (ii) how farming activities modify the interaction between soil erosion and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. To address the intensive computational demand from high-resolution modeling at lidar data scale, we use a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture run over large supercomputing systems for simulations. Our findings indicate that rising CO2 concentration and air temperature have opposing effects on soil moisture, surface water and ponding in topographic depressions. Further, the relatively higher soil moisture and lower soil temperature contribute to decreased soil microbial activities in the low-lying areas due to anaerobic conditions and reduced temperatures. The decreased microbial relevant processes cause the reduction of nitrification rates, resulting in relatively lower nitrate

  5. Sustainable Street Vendors Spatial Zoning Models in Surakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, M. J.; Putri, R. A.; Rini, E. F.

    2018-02-01

    Various strategies that have been carried out by Surakarta’s government to organize street vendors have not achieved the goal of street vendors’ arrangement comprehensively. The street vendors arrangement strategy consists of physical (spatial) and non-physical. One of the physical arrangements is to define the street vendor’s zoning. Based on the street vendors’ characteristics, there are two alternative locations of stabilization (as one kind of street vendors’ arrangement) that can be used. The aim of this study is to examine those alternative locations to set the street vendor’s zoning models. Quatitative method is used to formulate the spatial zoning model. The street vendor’s zoning models are formulated based on two approaches, which are the distance to their residences and previous trading locations. Geographic information system is used to indicate all street vendors’ residences and trading locations based on their type of goods. Through proximity point distance tool on ArcGIS, we find the closeness of residential location and previous trading location with the alternative location of street vendors’ stabilization. The result shows that the location was chosen by the street vendors to sell their goods mainly consider the proximity to their homes. It also shows street vendor’s zoning models which based on the type of street vendor’s goods.

  6. Deterministic multi-zone ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Kazmierczak, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The focus here is on a deterministic model of the surface roughness transition behavior of glaze ice. The initial smooth/rough transition location, bead formation, and the propagation of the transition location are analyzed. Based on the hypothesis that the smooth/rough transition location coincides with the laminar/turbulent boundary layer transition location, a multizone model is implemented in the LEWICE code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the model, ice accretion predictions for simple cylinders calculated by the multizone LEWICE are compared to experimental ice shapes. The glaze ice shapes are found to be sensitive to the laminar surface roughness and bead thickness parameters controlling the transition location, while the ice shapes are found to be insensitive to the turbulent surface roughness.

  7. `Dhara': An Open Framework for Critical Zone Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.

    2016-12-01

    Processes in the Critical Zone, which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biological, chemical, pedological, geomorphological and ecological domains over both short and long timescales. Observations and quantification of the Earth's surface across these domains using emerging high resolution measurement technologies such as light detection and ranging (lidar) and hyperspectral remote sensing are enabling us to characterize fine scale landscape attributes over large spatial areas. This presents a unique opportunity to develop novel approaches to model the Critical Zone that can capture fine scale intricate dependencies across the different processes in 3D. The development of interdisciplinary tools that transcend individual disciplines and capture new levels of complexity and emergent properties is at the core of Critical Zone science. Here we introduce an open framework for high-performance computing model (`Dhara') for modeling complex processes in the Critical Zone. The framework is designed to be modular in structure with the aim to create uniform and efficient tools to facilitate and leverage process modeling. It also provides flexibility to maintain, collaborate, and co-develop additional components by the scientific community. We show the essential framework that simulates ecohydrologic dynamics, and surface - sub-surface coupling in 3D using hybrid parallel CPU-GPU. We demonstrate that the open framework in Dhara is feasible for detailed, multi-processes, and large-scale modeling of the Critical Zone, which opens up exciting possibilities. We will also present outcomes from a Modeling Summer Institute led by Intensively Managed Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO) with representation from several CZOs and international representatives.

  8. Hydrodynamical models of cometary H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steggles, H. G.; Hoare, M. G.; Pittard, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    We have modelled the evolution of cometary H II regions produced by zero-age main-sequence stars of O and B spectral types, which are driving strong winds and are born off-centre from spherically symmetric cores with power-law (α = 2) density slopes. A model parameter grid was produced that spans stellar mass, age and core density. Exploring this parameter space, we investigated limb-brightening, a feature commonly seen in cometary H II regions. We found that stars with mass M⋆ ≥ 12 M⊙ produce this feature. Our models have a cavity bounded by a contact discontinuity separating hot shocked wind and ionized ambient gas that is similar in size to the surrounding H II region. Because of early pressure confinement, we did not see shocks outside of the contact discontinuity for stars with M⋆ ≤ 40 M⊙, but the cavities were found to continue to grow. The cavity size in each model plateaus as the H II region stagnates. The spectral energy distributions of our models are similar to those from identical stars evolving in uniform density fields. The turn-over frequency is slightly lower in our power-law models as a result of a higher proportion of low-density gas covered by the H II regions.

  9. Modelling Fault Zone Evolution: Implications for fluid flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, H.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2009-04-01

    Flow simulation models are of major interest to many industries including hydrocarbon, nuclear waste, sequestering of carbon dioxide and mining. One of the major uncertainties in these models is in predicting the permeability of faults, principally in the detailed structure of the fault zone. Studying the detailed structure of a fault zone is difficult because of the inaccessible nature of sub-surface faults and also because of their highly complex nature; fault zones show a high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity i.e. the properties of the fault change as you move along the fault, they also change with time. It is well understood that faults influence fluid flow characteristics. They may act as a conduit or a barrier or even as both by blocking flow across the fault while promoting flow along it. Controls on fault hydraulic properties include cementation, stress field orientation, fault zone components and fault zone geometry. Within brittle rocks, such as granite, fracture networks are limited but provide the dominant pathway for flow within this rock type. Research at the EU's Soultz-sous-Forệt Hot Dry Rock test site [Evans et al., 2005] showed that 95% of flow into the borehole was associated with a single fault zone at 3490m depth, and that 10 open fractures account for the majority of flow within the zone. These data underline the critical role of faults in deep flow systems and the importance of achieving a predictive understanding of fault hydraulic properties. To improve estimates of fault zone permeability, it is important to understand the underlying hydro-mechanical processes of fault zone formation. In this research, we explore the spatial and temporal evolution of fault zones in brittle rock through development and application of a 2D hydro-mechanical finite element model, MOPEDZ. The authors have previously presented numerical simulations of the development of fault linkage structures from two or three pre-existing joints, the results of

  10. EXODUS II: A finite element data model

    SciTech Connect

    Schoof, L.A.; Yarberry, V.R.

    1994-09-01

    EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface (API).

  11. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation in the Dilemma Zone

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a realistic dilemma zone (DZ) model that considers the effects of factors surrounding vehicles at an intersection, particularly focusing on driver decision-making behavior, such as the presence of a pedestrian cou...

  12. Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jan-Mou; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Thakur, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

  13. Empirical Models of Zones Protecting Against Coal Dust Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prostański, Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents predicted use of research' results to specify relations between volume of dust deposition and changes of its concentration in air. These were used to shape zones protecting against coal dust explosion. Methodology of research was presented, including methods of measurement of dust concentration as well as deposition. Measurements were taken in the Brzeszcze Mine within framework of MEZAP, co-financed by The National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR) and performed by the Institute of Mining Technology KOMAG, the Central Mining Institute (GIG) and the Coal Company PLC. The project enables performing of research related to measurements of volume of dust deposition as well as its concentration in air in protective zones in a number of mine workings in the Brzeszcze Mine. Developed model may be supportive tool in form of system located directly in protective zones or as operator tool warning about increasing hazard of coal dust explosion.

  14. An updated model of induced airflow in the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Joss, Craig J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulation of induced movement of air in the unsaturated zone provides a method to determine permeability and to design vapor extraction remediation systems. A previously published solution to the airflow equation for the case in which the unsaturated zone is separated from the atmosphere by a layer of lower permeability (such as a clay layer) has been superseded. The new solution simulates airflow through the layer of lower permeability more rigorously by defining the leakage in terms of the upper boundary condition rather than by adding a leakage term to the governing airflow equation. This note presents the derivation of the new solution. Formulas for steady state pressure, specific discharge, and mass flow in the domain are obtained for the new model and for the case in which the unsaturated zone is in direct contact with the atmosphere.

  15. Soil moisture dynamics modeling considering multi-layer root zone.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Shankar, V; Jat, M K

    2013-01-01

    The moisture uptake by plant from soil is a key process for plant growth and movement of water in the soil-plant system. A non-linear root water uptake (RWU) model was developed for a multi-layer crop root zone. The model comprised two parts: (1) model formulation and (2) moisture flow prediction. The developed model was tested for its efficiency in predicting moisture depletion in a non-uniform root zone. A field experiment on wheat (Triticum aestivum) was conducted in the sub-temperate sub-humid agro-climate of Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. Model-predicted soil moisture parameters, i.e., moisture status at various depths, moisture depletion and soil moisture profile in the root zone, are in good agreement with experiment results. The results of simulation emphasize the utility of the RWU model across different agro-climatic regions. The model can be used for sound irrigation management especially in water-scarce humid, temperate, arid and semi-arid regions and can also be integrated with a water transport equation to predict the solute uptake by plant biomass.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Wastewater Injection in the Denver Basin combined disposal zone in northeast Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. R. M.; Ge, S.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have correlated seismicity with high rate injection at Underground Injection Control Class II wastewater disposal wells. In this study, we examine the impact of injection in the Denver Basin combined disposal zone that is used by numerous Class II wells. The disposal zone includes the Lyons Formation, a sandstone unit, and the Fountain Formation, an arkose unit just above the basement. Within a 30-km radius of the deep Class II injection well (NGL C4A) closest to the June 1, 2014 M3.2 Greeley earthquake, there are fifteen deep wastewater disposal wells injecting into the disposal zone and two shallow wastewater disposal wells injecting into the Lyons Formation only. One of the shallow wells is located at the same disposal facility as NGL-C4A and started injection in October 2004; the earliest deep injection in this region, at well NGL-C6, began in November 2007. The major episode of seismicity in the area started in November 2013. The timing of injection operation and seismicity occurrence raises several questions. Why did seismicity not begin in the area until nearly 10 years after the start of injection? Nine of the deep wastewater disposal wells began injection after the M3.2 earthquake on June 1, 2014; how does the large increase in the number of injection wells in the area change the pore-pressure in the disposal zone? How does the injection from the various wells interact? Does this increase the chances of induced seismicity? We conduct numerical modeling of 18 injection wells from 2004 to 2016 to explore these questions by better understanding the pore-pressure changes through time, pore-pressure changes in areas of induced earthquakes, and the interactions between injection wells. We include the asymmetry of the basin geometry in the model. We also use this case study to refine how well spacing and injection rate influences the occurrence of induced earthquakes.

  17. 76 FR 22809 - Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY... Security Exercise, a multi-agency exercise that tests the proficiency of teams called upon in real [[Page... exercise, many of whom will be traveling at high speeds while interfacing with law enforcement responders...

  18. The Cascadia Subduction Zone: two contrasting models of lithospheric structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romanyuk, T.V.; Blakely, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific margin of North America is one of the most complicated regions in the world in terms of its structure and present day geodynamic regime. The aim of this work is to develop a better understanding of lithospheric structure of the Pacific Northwest, in particular the Cascadia subduction zone of Southwest Canada and Northwest USA. The goal is to compare and contrast the lithospheric density structure along two profiles across the subduction zone and to interpet the differences in terms of active processes. The subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America changes markedly along the length of the subduction zone, notably in the angle of subduction, distribution of earthquakes and volcanism, goelogic and seismic structure of the upper plate, and regional horizontal stress. To investigate these characteristics, we conducted detailed density modeling of the crust and mantle along two transects across the Cascadia subduction zone. One crosses Vancouver Island and the Canadian margin, the other crosses the margin of central Oregon.

  19. Modelling Subduction Zone Magmatism Due to Hydraulic Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, R.; Davies, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this project is to test the hypothesis that subduction zone magmatism involves hydraulic fractures propagating from the oceanic crust to the mantle wedge source region (Davies, 1999). We aim to test this hypothesis by developing a numerical model of the process, and then comparing model outputs with observations. The hypothesis proposes that the water interconnects in the slab following an earthquake. If sufficient pressure develops a hydrofracture occurs. The hydrofracture will expand in the direction of the least compressive stress and propagate in the direction of the most compressive stress, which is out into the wedge. Therefore we can calculate the hydrofracture path and end-point, given the start location on the slab and the propagation distance. We can therefore predict where water is added to the mantle wedge. To take this further we have developed a thermal model of a subduction zone. The model uses a finite difference, marker-in-cell method to solve the heat equation (Gerya, 2010). The velocity field was prescribed using the analytical expression of cornerflow (Batchelor, 1967). The markers contained within the fixed grid are used to track the different compositions and their properties. The subduction zone thermal model was benchmarked (Van Keken, 2008). We used the hydrous melting parameterization of Katz et.al., (2003) to calculate the degree of melting caused by the addition of water to the wedge. We investigate models where the hydrofractures, with properties constrained by estimated water fluxes, have random end points. The model predicts degree of melting, magma productivity, temperature of the melt and water content in the melt for different initial water fluxes. Future models will also include the buoyancy effect of the melt and residue. Batchelor, Cambridge UP, 1967. Davies, Nature, 398: 142-145, 1999. Gerya, Cambridge UP, 2010. Katz, Geochem. Geophys. Geosy, 4(9), 2003 Van Keken et.al. Phys. Earth. Planet. In., 171:187-197, 2008.

  20. Dynamic topography in subduction zones: insights from laboratory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajolet, Flora; Faccenna, Claudio; Funiciello, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The topography in subduction zones can exhibit very complex patterns due to the variety of forces operating this setting. If we can deduce the theoretical isostatic value from density structure of the lithosphere, the effect of flexural bending and the dynamic component of topography are difficult to quantify. In this work, we attempt to measure and analyze the topography of the overriding plate during subduction compared to a pure shortening setting. We use analog models where the lithospheres are modeled by thin-sheet layers of silicone putty lying on low-viscosity syrup (asthenosphere). The model is shorten by a piston pushing an oceanic plate while a continental plate including a weak zone to localize the deformation is fixed. In one type of experiments, the oceanic plate bends and subducts underneath the continental one; in a second type the two plates are in contact without any trench, and thus simply shorten. The topography evolution is monitored with a laser-scanner. In the shortening model, the elevation increases progressively, especially in the weak zone, and is consistent with expected isostatic values. In the subduction model, the topography is characterized, from the piston to the back-wall, by a low elevation of the dense oceanic plate, a flexural bulge, the trench forming a deep depression, the highly elevated weak zone, and the continental upper plate of intermediate elevation. The topography of the upper plate is consistent with isostatic values for very early stages, but exhibits lower elevations than expected for later stages. For a same amount of shortening of the continental plate, the thickening is the same and the plate should have the same elevation in both types of models. However, comparing the topography at 20, 29 and 39% of shortening, we found that the weak zone is 0.4 to 0.6 mm lower when there is an active subduction. Theses values correspond to 2.6 to 4 km in nature. Although theses values are high, there are of the same order as

  1. GLORIA II Sonograph Mosaic of the Western U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacchione, D. A.; Drake, D. E.; Edwards, B.; Field, M.; Gardner, J.; Hampton, M.; Karl, H.; McCulloch, D.; Kenyon, N.; Masson, D.

    In 1983 the United States declared sovereign rights and jurisdiction over living and nonliving resources in an area extending 200 nautical miles (370 km) seaward from its shores. In response to the establishment of this Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented a program, called EEZ-Scan, to systematically map the EEZ, using the Geological Long- Range Inclined ASDIC (GLORIA) II longrange side scan sonar system developed by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS) of Great Britain [Somers et al, 1978]. The first part of the EEZ-Scan field program was completed in the summer of 1984, when USGS and IOS scientists surveyed the EEZ off the western conterminous United States aboard the British research vessel Farnella (Figure 1). The west coast survey, requiring 96 days of ship time and four separate legs, has resulted in virtually total sonograph coverage of the sea floor from the continental shelf break to the 200-nautical mile limit between the Mexican and Canadian borders, an area of about 850,000 km2 . Other data collected on the cruises included two-channel digital seismic reflection and 3.5-kHz highresolution and 10-kHz bathymetric profiles, as well as towed magnetometer data along approximately 20,000 km of trackline spaced nominally at 30-km intervals.

  2. Predicting Biological Information Flow in a Model Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louca, S.; Hawley, A. K.; Katsev, S.; Beltran, M. T.; Bhatia, M. P.; Michiels, C.; Capelle, D.; Lavik, G.; Doebeli, M.; Crowe, S.; Hallam, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial activity drives marine biochemical fluxes and nutrient cycling at global scales. Geochemical measurements as well as molecular techniques such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics provide great insight into microbial activity. However, an integration of molecular and geochemical data into mechanistic biogeochemical models is still lacking. Recent work suggests that microbial metabolic pathways are, at the ecosystem level, strongly shaped by stoichiometric and energetic constraints. Hence, models rooted in fluxes of matter and energy may yield a holistic understanding of biogeochemistry. Furthermore, such pathway-centric models would allow a direct consolidation with meta'omic data. Here we present a pathway-centric biogeochemical model for the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in Saanich Inlet, a fjord off the coast of Vancouver Island. The model considers key dissimilatory nitrogen and sulfur fluxes, as well as the population dynamics of the genes that mediate them. By assuming a direct translation of biocatalyzed energy fluxes to biosynthesis rates, we make predictions about the distribution and activity of the corresponding genes. A comparison of the model to molecular measurements indicates that the model explains observed DNA, RNA, protein and cell depth profiles. This suggests that microbial activity in marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones is well described by DNA abundance, which, in conjunction with geochemical constraints, determines pathway expression and process rates. Our work further demonstrates how meta'omic data can be mechanistically linked to environmental redox conditions and biogeochemical processes.

  3. Free-Standing Zone Plate Optimized for He II 30.4 nm Solar Irradiance Measurements Having High Accuracy and Stability in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J. F.; McMullin, D. R.; Vest, R.; Sakdinawat, A.; Chang, C.; Jones, A. R.; Bremer, J.

    2015-12-01

    A zone plate was designed to record the He II 30.4 nm solar irradiance, was fabricated using electron beam lithography, and was absolutely calibrated using the NIST SURF synchrotron. The zone plate has an open support grid identical to those used to successfully launch transmission gratings in previous solar radiometers and is otherwise free-standing with no support membrane that would absorb EUV radiation. The measured efficiency of 3.0 ± 0.1% at 30.4 nm is consistent with detailed modeling of the efficiency and accounting for the geometrical transmittance of the support grid. The binary nature of the zone plate, consisting of opaque gold bars and open spaces with no support membrane, results in excellent long-term stability in space against contamination, radiation damage, and other effects that could alter the efficiency and instrument throughput. The zone plate's focusing property enables the rejection of out-of-band radiation by small apertures and high signal to background values that are superior to previous radiometers. The 4 mm outer diameter of the zone plate and the 25 mm focal length for 30.4 nm radiation enable a compact instrument that is attractive for small CubeSats and other space flight missions where resources are extremely limited.

  4. Shear heating and metamorphism in subduction zones, 1. Thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, M. J.; Castro, A. E.; Spear, F. S.

    2017-12-01

    Popular thermal-mechanical models of modern subduction systems are 100-500 °C colder at c. 50 km depth than pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions determined from exhumed metamorphic rocks. This discrepancy has been ascribed by some to profound bias in the rock record, i.e. metamorphic rocks reflect only anomalously warm subduction, not normal subduction. Accurately inferring subduction zone thermal structure, whether from models or rocks, is crucial for predicting depths of seismicity, fluid release, and sub-arc melting conditions. Here, we show that adding realistic shear stresses to thermal models implies P-T conditions quantitatively consistent with those recorded by exhumed metamorphic rocks, suggesting that metamorphic rock P-T conditions are not anomalously warm. Heat flow measurements from subduction zone fore-arcs typically indicate effective coefficients of friction (µ) ranging from 0.025 to 0.1. We included these coefficients of friction in analytical models of subduction zone interface temperatures. Using global averages of subducting plate age (50 Ma), subduction velocity (6 cm/yr), and subducting plate geometry (central Chile), temperatures at 50 km depth (1.5 GPa) increase by c. 200 °C for µ=0.025 to 700 °C for µ=0.1. However, at high temperatures, thermal softening will reduce frictional heating, and temperatures will not increase as much with depth. Including initial weakening of materials ranging from wet quartz (c. 300 °C) to diabase (c. 600 °C) in the analytical models produces concave-upward P-T distributions on P-T diagrams, with temperatures c. 100 to 500 °C higher than models with no shear heating. The absolute P-T conditions and concave-upward shape of the shear-heating + thermal softening models almost perfectly matches the distribution of P-T conditions derived from a compilation of exhumed metamorphic rocks. Numerical models of modern subduction zones that include shear heating also overlap metamorphic data. Thus, excepting the

  5. Coupling of Coastal Zone Color Scanner data to a physical-biological model of the southeastern U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. I - CZCS data description and Lagrangian particle tracing experiments. II - An Eulerian model. III - Nutrient and phytoplankton fluxes and CZCS data assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishizaka, Joji

    1990-01-01

    Surface phytoplankton biomass of the southeastern U.S. continental shelf area is discussed based on coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images obtained in April 1980. Data of chlorophyll distributions are analyzed in conjunction with concurrent flow and temperature fields. Lagrangian particle tracing experiments show that the particles move consistently with the evolution of the chlorophyll patterns. A four-component physical-biological model for a horizontal plane at a nominal depth of 17 m is presented. Model simulations using various physical-biological dynamics and boundary conditions show that the variability of chlorophyll distributions is controlled by horizontal advection. Phytoplankton and nutrient fluxes, calculated using the model, show considerable variability with time. The chlorophyll distributions obtained from the CZCS images are assimilated into the model to improve the phytoplankton flux estimates.

  6. Modeling Degradation Product Partitioning in Chlorinated-DNAPL Source Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroumand, A.; Ramsburg, A.; Christ, J.; Abriola, L.

    2009-12-01

    Metabolic reductive dechlorination degrades aqueous phase contaminant concentrations, increasing the driving force for DNAPL dissolution. Results from laboratory and field investigations suggest that accumulation of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) may occur within DNAPL source zones. The lack of (or slow) degradation of cis-DCE and VC within bioactive DNAPL source zones may result in these dechlorination products becoming distributed among the solid, aqueous, and organic phases. Partitioning of cis-DCE and VC into the organic phase may reduce aqueous phase concentrations of these contaminants and result in the enrichment of these dechlorination products within the non-aqueous phase. Enrichment of degradation products within DNAPL may reduce some of the advantages associated with the application of bioremediation in DNAPL source zones. Thus, it is important to quantify how partitioning (between the aqueous and organic phases) influences the transport of cis-DCE and VC within bioactive DNAPL source zones. In this work, abiotic two-phase (PCE-water) one-dimensional column experiments are modeled using analytical and numerical methods to examine the rate of partitioning and the capacity of PCE-DNAPL to reversibly sequester cis-DCE. These models consider aqueous-phase, nonaqueous phase, and aqueous plus nonaqueous phase mass transfer resistance using linear driving force and spherical diffusion expressions. Model parameters are examined and compared for different experimental conditions to evaluate the mechanisms controlling partitioning. Biot number, a dimensionless number which is an index of the ratio of the aqueous phase mass transfer rate in boundary layer to the mass transfer rate within the NAPL, is used to characterize conditions in which either or both processes are controlling. Results show that application of a single aqueous resistance is capable to capture breakthrough curves when DNAPL is distributed in porous media as low

  7. Numerical modeling of continental lithospheric weak zone over plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The work is devoted to the development of magmatic systems in the continental lithosphere over diffluent mantle plumes. The areas of tension originating over them are accompanied by appearance of fault zones, and the formation of permeable channels, which are distributed magmatic melts. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of deformation fields in the lithosphere due to convection currents in the upper mantle, and the formation of weakened zones that extend up to the upper crust and create the necessary conditions for the formation of intermediate magma chambers has been carried out. Thermodynamically consistent non-isothermal model simulates the processes of heat and mass transfer of a wide class of magmatic systems, as well as the process of strain localization in the lithosphere and their influence on the formation of high permeability zones in the lower crust. The substance of the lithosphere is a rheologic heterophase medium, which is described by a two-velocity hydrodynamics. This makes it possible to take into account the process of penetration of the melt from the asthenosphere into the weakened zone. The energy dissipation occurs mainly due to interfacial friction and inelastic relaxation of shear stresses. The results of calculation reveal a nonlinear process of the formation of porous channels and demonstrate the diversity of emerging dissipative structures which are determined by properties of both heterogeneous lithosphere and overlying crust. Mutual effect of a permeable channel and the corresponding filtration process of the melt on the mantle convection and the dynamics of the asthenosphere have been studied. The formation of dissipative structures in heterogeneous lithosphere above mantle plumes occurs in accordance with the following scenario: initially, the elastic behavior of heterophase lithosphere leads to the formation of the narrow weakened zone, though sufficiently extensive, with higher porosity. Further, the increase in the width of

  8. Numerical Modelling of Subduction Zones: a New Beginning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficini, Eleonora; Dal Zilio, Luca; Doglioni, Carlo; Gerya, Taras V.

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zones are one of the most studied although still controversial geodynamic process. Is it a passive or an active mechanism in the frame of plate tectonics? How subduction initiates? What controls the differences among the slabs and related orogens and accretionary wedges? The geometry and kinematics at plate boundaries point to a "westerly" polarized flow of plates, which implies a relative opposed flow of the underlying Earth's mantle, being the decoupling located at about 100-200 km depth in the low-velocity zone or LVZ (Doglioni and Panza, 2015 and references therein). This flow is the simplest explanation for determining the asymmetric pattern of subduction zones; in fact "westerly" directed slabs are steeper and deeper with respect to the "easterly or northeasterly" directed ones, that are less steep and shallower, and two end members of orogens associated to the downgoing slabs can be distinguished in terms of topography, type of rocks, magmatism, backarc spreading or not, foredeep subsidence rate, etc.. The classic asymmetry comparing the western Pacific slabs and orogens (low topography and backarc spreading in the upper plate) and the eastern Pacific subduction zones (high topography and deep rocks involved in the upper plate) cannot be ascribed to the age of the subducting lithosphere. In fact, the same asymmetry can be recognized all over the world regardless the type and age of the subducting lithosphere, being rather controlled by the geographic polarity of the subduction. All plate boundaries move "west". Present numerical modelling set of subduction zones is based on the idea that a subducting slab is primarily controlled by its negative buoyancy. However, there are several counterarguments against this assumption, which is not able to explain the global asymmetric aforementioned signatures. Moreover, petrological reconstructions of the lithospheric and underlying mantle composition, point for a much smaller negative buoyancy than predicted

  9. Boundary conditions traps when modeling interseismic deformation at subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Marcelo; Gerbault, Muriel; Tassara, Andres; Bataille, Klaus; Araya, Rodolfo

    2017-04-01

    In order to gain insight on the controling factors for elastic strain build-up in subduction zones, such as those triggering the Mw 8. 2010 Maule earthquake, we published a modeling study to test the influence of the subducting plate thickness, variations in the updip and downdip limit of a 100% locked interplate zone, elastic parameters, and velocity reduction at the base of the subducted slab (Contreras et al., Andean Geology 43(3), 2016). When comparing our modeled predictions with interseismic GPS observations, our results indicated little influence of the subducting plate thickness, but a necessity to reduce the velocity at the corner-base of the subducted slab below the trench region, to 10% of the far-field convergence rate. Complementary numerical models allowed us to link this velocity reduction at the base of subducting slab with a long-term high flexural stress resulting from the mechanical interaction of the slab with the underlying mantle. This study discusses that even if only a small amount of these high deviatoric stresses transfer energy towards the upper portion of the slab, it may participate in triggering large earthquakes such as the Mw8.8 Maule event. The definition of initial and boundary conditions between short-term to long-term models evidence the mechanical inconsistencies that may appear when considering pre-flexed subducting slabs and unloaded underlying asthenosphere, potentially creating mis-balanced large stress discontinuities.

  10. Operative Treatment of Fifth Metatarsal Jones Fractures (Zones II and III) in the NBA.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Martin; DeSandis, Bridget; Allen, Answorth; Levitsky, Matthew; O'Malley, Quinn; Williams, Riley

    2016-05-01

    Proximal fractures of the fifth metatarsal (zone II and III) are common in the elite athlete and can be difficult to treat because of a tendency toward delayed union, nonunion, or refracture. The purpose of this case series was to report our experience in treating 10 NBA players, determine the healing rate, return to play, refracture rate, and role of foot type in these athletes. The records of 10 professional basketball players were retrospectively reviewed. Seven athletes underwent standard percutaneous internal fixation with bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) whereas the other 3 had open bone grafting primarily in addition to fixation and BMAC. Radiographic features evaluated included fourth-fifth intermetatarsal, fifth metatarsal lateral deviation, calcaneal pitch, and metatarsus adductus angles. Radiographic healing was observed at an overall average of 7.5 weeks and return to play was 9.8 weeks. Three athletes experienced refractures. There were no significant differences in clinical features or radiographic measurements except that the refracture group had the highest metatatarsus adductus angles. Most athletes were pes planus and 9 of 10 had a bony prominence under the fifth metatarsal styloid. This is the largest published series of operatively treated professional basketball players who exemplify a specific patient population at high risk for fifth metatarsal fracture. These players were large and possessed a unique foot type that seemed to be associated with increased risk of fifth metatarsal fracture and refracture. This foot type had forefoot metatarsus adductus and a fifth metatarsal that was curved with a prominent base. We continue to use standard internal fixation with bone marrow aspirate but advocate additional prophylactic open bone grafting in patients with high fourth-to-fifth intermetatarsal, fifth metatarsal lateral deviation, and metatarsus adductus angles as well as prominent fifth metatarsal styloids in order to improve fracture

  11. Modeling the migration of fluids in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M.; Wilson, C. R.; van Keken, P. E.; Hacker, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    Fluids play a major role in the formation of arc volcanism and the generation of continental crust. Progressive dehydration reactions in the downgoing slab release fluids to the hot overlying mantle wedge, causing flux melting and the migration of melts to the volcanic front. While the qualitative concept is well established the quantitative details of fluid release and especially that of fluid migration and generation of hydrous melting in the wedge is still poorly understood. Here we present new models of the fluid migration through the mantle wedge for subduction zones that span the spectrum of arcs worldwide. We focus on the flow of water and use an existing set of high resolution thermal and metamorphic models (van Keken et al., JGR, in review) to predict the regions of water release from the sediments, upper and lower crust, and upper most mantle. We use this water flux as input for the fluid migration calculation based on new finite element models built on advanced computational libraries (FEniCS/PETSc) for efficient and flexible solution of coupled multi-physics problems. The first generation of these models solves for the evolution of porosity and fluid-pressure/flux throughout the slab and wedge given solid flow, viscosity and thermal fields from the existing thermal models. Fluid flow in the new models depends on both permeability and the rheology of the slab-wedge system as interaction with rheological variability can induce additional pressure gradients that affect the fluid flow pathways. We will explore the sensitivity of fluid flow paths for a range of subduction zones and fluid flow parameters with emphasis on variability of the location of the volcanic arc with respect to flow paths and expected degrees of hydrous melting which can be estimated given a variety of wet-melting parameterizations (e.g. Katz et al, 2003, Kelley et al, 2010). The current models just include dehydration reactions but work continues on the next generation of models which

  12. Slab2 - Updated Subduction Zone Geometries and Modeling Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G.; Hayes, G. P.; Portner, D. E.; Furtney, M.; Flamme, H. E.; Hearne, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey database of global subduction zone geometries (Slab1.0), is a highly utilized dataset that has been applied to a wide range of geophysical problems. In 2017, these models have been improved and expanded upon as part of the Slab2 modeling effort. With a new data driven approach that can be applied to a broader range of tectonic settings and geophysical data sets, we have generated a model set that will serve as a more comprehensive, reliable, and reproducible resource for three-dimensional slab geometries at all of the world's convergent margins. The newly developed framework of Slab2 is guided by: (1) a large integrated dataset, consisting of a variety of geophysical sources (e.g., earthquake hypocenters, moment tensors, active-source seismic survey images of the shallow slab, tomography models, receiver functions, bathymetry, trench ages, and sediment thickness information); (2) a dynamic filtering scheme aimed at constraining incorporated seismicity to only slab related events; (3) a 3-D data interpolation approach which captures both high resolution shallow geometries and instances of slab rollback and overlap at depth; and (4) an algorithm which incorporates uncertainties of contributing datasets to identify the most probable surface depth over the extent of each subduction zone. Further layers will also be added to the base geometry dataset, such as historic moment release, earthquake tectonic providence, and interface coupling. Along with access to several queryable data formats, all components have been wrapped into an open source library in Python, such that suites of updated models can be released as further data becomes available. This presentation will discuss the extent of Slab2 development, as well as the current availability of the model and modeling tools.

  13. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the shear-transformation-zone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Alan M.; Ã-ttinger, Hans Christian

    2014-02-01

    The shear-transformation-zone (STZ) model has been applied numerous times to describe the plastic deformation of different types of amorphous systems. We formulate this model within the general equation for nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) framework, thereby clarifying the thermodynamic structure of the constitutive equations and guaranteeing thermodynamic consistency. We propose natural, physically motivated forms for the building blocks of the GENERIC, which combine to produce a closed set of time evolution equations for the state variables, valid for any choice of free energy. We demonstrate an application of the new GENERIC-based model by choosing a simple form of the free energy. In addition, we present some numerical results and contrast those with the original STZ equations.

  14. Effects of Mg II and Ca II ionization on ab-initio solar chromosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammacher, W.; Cuntz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustically heated solar chromosphere models are computed considering radiation damping by (non-LTE) emission from H(-) and by Mg II and Ca II emission lines. The radiative transfer equations for the Mg II k and Ca II K emission lines are solved using the core-saturation method with complete redistribution. The Mg II k and Ca II K cooling rates are compared with the VAL model C. Several substantial improvements over the work of Ulmschneider et al. (1987) are included. It is found that the rapid temperature rises caused by the ionization of Mg II are not formed in the middle chromosphere, but occur at larger atmospheric heights. These models represent the temperature structure of the 'real' solar chromosphere much better. This result is a major precondition for the study of ab-initio models for solar flux tubes based on MHD wave propagation and also for ab-initio models for the solar transition layer.

  15. Discrete shear-transformation-zone plasticity modeling of notched bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondori, Babak; Amine Benzerga, A.; Needleman, Alan

    2018-02-01

    Plane strain tension analyses of un-notched and notched bars are carried out using discrete shear transformation zone plasticity. In this framework, the carriers of plastic deformation are shear transformation zones (STZs) which are modeled as Eshelby inclusions. Superposition is used to represent a boundary value problem solution in terms of discretely modeled Eshelby inclusions, given analytically for an infinite elastic medium, and an image solution that enforces the prescribed boundary conditions. The image problem is a standard linear elastic boundary value problem that is solved by the finite element method. Potential STZ activation sites are randomly distributed in the bars and constitutive relations are specified for their evolution. Results are presented for un-notched bars, for bars with blunt notches and for bars with sharp notches. The computed stress-strain curves are serrated with the magnitude of the associated stress-drops depending on bar size, notch acuity and STZ evolution. Cooperative deformation bands (shear bands) emerge upon straining and, in some cases, high stress levels occur within the bands. Effects of specimen geometry and size on the stress-strain curves are explored. Depending on STZ kinetics, notch strengthening, notch insensitivity or notch weakening are obtained. The analyses provide a rationale for some conflicting findings regarding notch effects on the mechanical response of metallic glasses.

  16. Definition of zones with different levels of productivity within an agricultural field using fuzzy modeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for the definition of zones with different levels of productivity is based on fuzzy indicator model. Fuzzy indicator model for identification of zones with different levels of productivit...

  17. Geodynamic Modeling of the Subduction Zone around the Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this review, which focuses on our research, we describe the development of the thermomechanical modeling of subduction zones, paying special attention to those around the Japanese Islands. Without a sufficient amount of data and observations, models tended to be conceptual and general. However, the increasing power of computational tools has resulted in simple analytical and numerical models becoming more realistic, by incorporating the mantle flow around the subducting slab. The accumulation of observations and data has made it possible to construct regional models to understand the detail of the subduction processes. Recent advancements in the study of the seismic tomography and geology around the Japanese Islands has enabled new aspects of modeling the mantle processes. A good correlation between the seismic velocity anomalies and the finger-like distribution of volcanoes in northeast Japan has been recognized and small-scale convection (SSC) in the mantle wedge has been proposed to explain such a feature. The spatial and temporal evolution of the distribution of past volcanoes may reflect the characteristics of the flow in the mantle wedge, and points to the possibility of the flip-flopping of the finger-like pattern of the volcano distribution and the migration of volcanic activity from the back-arc side to the trench side. These observations are found to be qualitatively consistent with the results of the SSC model. We have also investigated the expected seismic anisotropy in the presence of SSC. The fast direction of the P-wave anisotropy generally shows the trench-normal direction with a reduced magnitude compared to the case without SSC. An analysis of full 3D seismic anisotropy is necessary to confirm the existence and nature of SSC. The 3D mantle flow around the subduction zone of plate-size scale has been modeled. It was found that the trench-parallel flow in the sub-slab mantle around the northern edge of the Pacific plate at the junction between

  18. Multiscale Modeling of Grain-Boundary Fracture: Cohesive Zone Models Parameterized From Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Phillips, Dawn R.; Yamakov, Vesselin

    2006-01-01

    A multiscale modeling strategy is developed to study grain boundary fracture in polycrystalline aluminum. Atomistic simulation is used to model fundamental nanoscale deformation and fracture mechanisms and to develop a constitutive relationship for separation along a grain boundary interface. The nanoscale constitutive relationship is then parameterized within a cohesive zone model to represent variations in grain boundary properties. These variations arise from the presence of vacancies, intersticies, and other defects in addition to deviations in grain boundary angle from the baseline configuration considered in the molecular dynamics simulation. The parameterized cohesive zone models are then used to model grain boundaries within finite element analyses of aluminum polycrystals.

  19. Application of enthalpy model for floating zone silicon crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauze, A.; Bergfelds, K.; Virbulis, J.

    2017-09-01

    A 2D simplified crystal growth model based on the enthalpy method and coupled with a low-frequency harmonic electromagnetic model is developed to simulate the silicon crystal growth near the external triple point (ETP) and crystal melting on the open melting front of a polycrystalline feed rod in FZ crystal growth systems. Simulations of the crystal growth near the ETP show significant influence of the inhomogeneities of the EM power distribution on the crystal growth rate for a 4 in floating zone (FZ) system. The generated growth rate fluctuations are shown to be larger in the system with higher crystal pull rate. Simulations of crystal melting on the open melting front of the polycrystalline rod show the development of melt-filled grooves at the open melting front surface. The distance between the grooves is shown to grow with the increase of the skin-layer depth in the solid material.

  20. Model of the Streamer Zone of a Leader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, G. M.; Raina, A.; Shneider, M.; Likhanskii, A.; George, A.

    2015-12-01

    Developed leaders represent highly conductive plasma channels, continuously emitting a fan of streamers, termed the streamer zone. The tip moves at a speed much slower than that of individual streamers. A huge number of short-lived streamers in the corona generate the space charge field required to maintain the streamer propagation. A critical issue is the conversion from the streamer to leader phase [Da Silva and Pasko, 2013]. The objective of this paper is to present simulations of the formation and propagation of the streamer zone of a leader. In these simulations we generated a group of streamers that propagate in a discharge gap while they interact with each other. We use the modified numerical model [Likhanskii et al., 2007] developed to simulate discharge plasma actuators driven by nanosecond pulses. The model uses 2D rectangular computational box, and the discharge gap is filled with the air at normal conditions. Furthermore the model considers electrons, positive and negative ions. The plasma kinetics and interaction with neutral molecules is modeled in a drift-diffusion approximation [Likhanskii et al., 2007]. The electric field and potential are related to the density of charged species according to the Poisson equation. The latter was solved by the successive over-relaxation method. It is shown that interaction between the streamers significantly reduces their propagation velocity. Furthermore the streamer velocity depends on the distance between the streamers. The smaller is that distance the stronger is the suppression of the streamer velocity. This explains why the leader, which consists of many streamers, is much slower than a single streamer formed in the same discharge gap. C.L. Da Silva and V.P. Pasko, J. Geophys. Res.: Atmospheres, 118, 1-30, 2013 A.V. Likhanskii et al., Phys. Plasmas, 14, 073501, 2007.

  1. Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2): Model use, calibration, and validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) has been used widely for simulating agricultural management effects on crop production and soil and water quality. Although it is a one-dimensional model it has many desirable features for the modeling community. This paper outlines the principles of calibr...

  2. Modeling the Migration of Fluids in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M.; Van Keken, P. E.; Vrijmoed, J. C.; Hacker, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Fluids play a major role in the formation of arc volcanism and the generation of continental crust. Progressive dehydration reactions in the downgoing slab release fluids to the hot overlying mantle wedge, causing flux melting and the migration of melts to the volcanic front. While the qualitative concept is well established, the quantitative details of fluid release and especially that of fluid migration and generation of hydrous melting in the wedge is still poorly understood. Here we present new models of the fluid migration through the mantle wedge for subduction zones. We use an existing set of high resolution metamorphic models (van Keken et al, 2010) to predict the regions of water release from the sediments, upper and lower crust, and upper most mantle. We use this water flux as input for the fluid migration calculation based on new finite element models built on advanced computational libraries (FEniCS/PETSc) for efficient and flexible solution of coupled multi-physics problems. The first generation of one-way coupled models solves for the evolution of porosity and fluid-pressure/flux throughout the slab and wedge given solid flow, viscosity and thermal fields from separate solutions to the incompressible Stokes and energy equations in the mantle wedge. These solutions are verified by comparing to previous benchmark studies (van Keken et al, 2008) and global suites of thermal subduction models (Syracuse et al, 2010). Fluid flow depends on both permeability and the rheology of the slab-wedge system as interaction with rheological variability can induce additional pressure gradients that affect the fluid flow pathways. These non-linearities have been shown to explain laboratory-scale observations of melt band orientation in labratory experiments and numerical simulations of melt localization in shear bands (Katz et al 2006). Our second generation of models dispense with the pre-calculation of incompressible mantle flow and fully couple the now compressible

  3. Entrainment Zone Characteristics and Entrainment Rates in Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers from DYCOMS-II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    water and ozone across the EIL. The scalar variables from this flight (not shown) suggest significant horizontal variation in the free- troposphere ...near the cloud top where mixing occurs between dry free- troposphere air and moist turbulent air. Although the concept of the entrainment zone is...mixing occurs between dry free- troposphere air and moist turbulent air. Although the concept of the entrainment zone is clear, defining the top and

  4. Phase equilibria constraints on models of subduction zone magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, James D.; Johnston, Dana A.

    Petrologic models of subduction zone magmatism can be grouped into three broad classes: (1) predominantly slab-derived, (2) mainly mantle-derived, and (3) multi-source. Slab-derived models assume high-alumina basalt (HAB) approximates primary magma and is derived by partial fusion of the subducting slab. Such melts must, therefore, be saturated with some combination of eclogite phases, e.g. cpx, garnet, qtz, at the pressures, temperatures and water contents of magma generation. In contrast, mantle-dominated models suggest partial melting of the mantle wedge produces primary high-magnesia basalts (HMB) which fractionate to yield derivative HAB magmas. In this context, HMB melts should be saturated with a combination of peridotite phases, i.e. ol, cpx and opx, and have liquid-lines-of-descent that produce high-alumina basalts. HAB generated in this manner must be saturated with a mafic phase assemblage at the intensive conditions of fractionation. Multi-source models combine slab and mantle components in varying proportions to generate the four main lava types (HMB, HAB, high-magnesia andesites (HMA) and evolved lavas) characteristic of subduction zones. The mechanism of mass transfer from slab to wedge as well as the nature and fate of primary magmas vary considerably among these models. Because of their complexity, these models imply a wide range of phase equilibria. Although the experiments conducted on calc-alkaline lavas are limited, they place the following limitations on arc petrologic models: (1) HAB cannot be derived from HMB by crystal fractionation at the intensive conditions thus far investigated, (2) HAB could be produced by anhydrous partial fusion of eclogite at high pressure, (3) HMB liquids can be produced by peridotite partial fusion 50-60 km above the slab-mantle interface, (4) HMA cannot be primary magmas derived by partial melting of the subducted slab, but could have formed by slab melt-peridotite interaction, and (5) many evolved calc

  5. Surgery in World War II. Orthopedic Surgery in the Zone of Interior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-01-01

    General Reference and Research Branch ROSE C. ENGELMAN, Ph. D., Chief, Historians Branch GERALDINE B. SITES, Chief, Information Activities Branch Major...SERIES Internal Medicine in World War II: Vol. I. Activities of Medical Consultants Vol. II. Infectious Diseases Vol. III. Infectious Diseases and General...Arthropodborne Diseases Other Than Malaria Vol. IX. Special Fields Surgery in World War II: Activities of Surgical Consultants, vol. I Activities of Surgical

  6. Modelling guided waves in the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Sophie; Garth, Thomas; Reitbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone guided wave arrivals from intermediate depth earthquakes (70-300 km depth) have a huge potential to tell us about the velocity structure of the subducting oceanic crust as it dehydrates at these depths. We see guided waves as the oceanic crust has a slower seismic velocity than the surrounding material, and so high frequency energy is retained and delayed in the crustal material. Lower frequency energy is not retained in this crustal waveguide and so travels at faster velocities of the surrounding material. This gives a unique observation at the surface with low frequency energy arriving before the higher frequencies. We constrain this guided wave dispersion by comparing the waveforms recorded in real subduction zones with simulated waveforms, produced using finite difference full waveform modelling techniques. This method has been used to show that hydrated minerals in the oceanic crust persist to much greater depths than accepted thermal petrological subduction zone models would suggest in Northern Japan (Garth & Rietbrock, 2014a), and South America (Garth & Rietbrock, in prep). These observations also suggest that the subducting oceanic mantle may be highly hydrated at intermediate depth by dipping normal faults (Garth & Rietbrock 2014b). We use this guided wave analysis technique to constrain the velocity structure of the down going ~45 Ma Pacific plate beneath Alaska. Dispersion analysis is primarily carried out on guided wave arrivals recorded on the Alaskan regional seismic network. Earthquake locations from global earthquake catalogues (ISC and PDE) and regional earthquake locations from the AEIC (Alaskan Earthquake Information Centre) catalogue are used to constrain the slab geometry and to identify potentially dispersive events. Dispersed arrivals are seen at stations close to the trench, with high frequency (>2 Hz) arrivals delayed by 2 - 4 seconds. This dispersion is analysed to constrain the velocity and width of the proposed waveguide

  7. Modeling Wave-Ice Interactions in the Marginal Ice Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzech, Mark; Shi, Fengyan; Bateman, Sam; Veeramony, Jay; Calantoni, Joe

    2015-04-01

    The small-scale (O(m)) interactions between waves and ice floes in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) are investigated with a coupled model system. Waves are simulated with the non-hydrostatic finite-volume model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012) and ice floes are represented as bonded collections of smaller particles with the discrete element system LIGGGHTS (Kloss et al., 2012). The physics of fluid and ice are recreated as authentically as possible, to allow the coupled system to supplement and/or substitute for more costly and demanding field experiments. The presentation will first describe the development and validation of the coupled system, then discuss the results of a series of virtual experiments in which ice floe and wave characteristics are varied to examine their effects on energy dissipation, MIZ floe size distribution, and ice pack retreat rates. Although Wadhams et al. (1986) suggest that only a small portion (roughly 10%) of wave energy entering the MIZ is reflected, dissipation mechanisms for the remaining energy have yet to be delineated or measured. The virtual experiments are designed to focus on specific properties and processes - such as floe size and shape, collision and fracturing events, and variations in wave climate - and measure their relative roles the transfer of energy and momentum from waves to ice. Questions to be examined include: How is energy dissipated by ice floe collisions, fracturing, and drag, and how significant is the wave attenuation associated with each process? Do specific wave/floe length scale ratios cause greater wave attenuation? How does ice material strength affect the rate of wave energy loss? The coupled system will ultimately be used to test and improve upon wave-ice parameterizations for large-scale climate models. References: >Kloss, C., C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker (2012). Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD-DEM. Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics 12(2/3), 140-152. >Ma, G

  8. Model Fit to Experimental Data for Foam-Assisted Deep Vadose Zone Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Roostapour, A.; Lee, G.; Zhong, Lirong

    2014-01-15

    Foam has been regarded as a promising means of remeidal amendment delivery to overcome subsurface heterogeneity in subsurface remediation processes. This study investigates how a foam model, developed by Method of Characteristics and fractional flow analysis in the companion paper of Roostapour and Kam (2012), can be applied to make a fit to a set of existing laboratory flow experiments (Zhong et al., 2009) in an application relevant to deep vadose zone remediation. This study reveals a few important insights regarding foam-assisted deep vadose zone remediation: (i) the mathematical framework established for foam modeling can fit typical flow experiments matchingmore » wave velocities, saturation history , and pressure responses; (ii) the set of input parameters may not be unique for the fit, and therefore conducting experiments to measure basic model parameters related to relative permeability, initial and residual saturations, surfactant adsorption and so on should not be overlooked; and (iii) gas compressibility plays an important role for data analysis, thus should be handled carefully in laboratory flow experiments. Foam kinetics, causing foam texture to reach its steady-state value slowly, may impose additional complications.« less

  9. A simple cohesive zone model that generates a mode-mixity dependent toughness

    DOE PAGES

    Reedy, Jr., E. D.; Emery, J. M.

    2014-07-24

    A simple, mode-mixity dependent toughness cohesive zone model (MDG c CZM) is described. This phenomenological cohesive zone model has two elements. Mode I energy dissipation is defined by a traction–separation relationship that depends only on normal separation. Mode II (III) dissipation is generated by shear yielding and slip in the cohesive surface elements that lie in front of the region where mode I separation (softening) occurs. The nature of predictions made by analyses that use the MDG c CZM is illustrated by considering the classic problem of an elastic layer loaded by rigid grips. This geometry, which models a thinmore » adhesive bond with a long interfacial edge crack, is similar to that which has been used to measure the dependence of interfacial toughness on crack-tip mode-mixity. The calculated effective toughness vs. applied mode-mixity relationships all display a strong dependence on applied mode-mixity with the effective toughness increasing rapidly with the magnitude of the mode-mixity. The calculated relationships also show a pronounced asymmetry with respect to the applied mode-mixity. As a result, this dependence is similar to that observed experimentally, and calculated results for a glass/epoxy interface are in good agreement with published data that was generated using a test specimen of the same type as analyzed here.« less

  10. MERIDIONAL FLOW IN THE SOLAR CONVECTION ZONE. II. HELIOSEISMIC INVERSIONS OF GONG DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Jackiewicz, J.; Serebryanskiy, A.; Kholikov, S., E-mail: jasonj@nmsu.edu

    2015-06-01

    Meridional flow is thought to play a very important role in the dynamics of the solar convection zone; however, because of its relatively small amplitude, precisely measuring it poses a significant challenge. Here we present a complete time–distance helioseismic analysis of about 2 years of ground-based Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Doppler data to retrieve the meridional circulation profile for modest latitudes in an attempt to corroborate results from other studies. We use an empirical correction to the travel times due to an unknown center-to-limb systematic effect. The helioseismic inversion procedure is first tested and reasonably validated on artificial datamore » from a large-scale numerical simulation followed by a test to broadly recover the solar differential rotation found from global seismology. From GONG data, we measure poleward photospheric flows at all latitudes with properties that are comparable with earlier studies and a shallow equatorward flow about 65 Mm beneath the surface, in agreement with recent findings from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. No strong evidence of multiple circulation cells in depth or latitude is found, yet the whole phase space has not yet been explored. Tests of mass flux conservation are then carried out on the inferred GONG and HMI flows and compared to a fiducial numerical baseline from models, and we find that the continuity equation is poorly satisfied. While the two disparate data sets do give similar results for about the outer 15% of the interior radius, the total inverted circulation pattern appears to be unphysical in terms of mass conservation when interpreted over modest time scales. We can likely attribute this to both the influence of realization noise and subtle effects in the data and measurement procedure.« less

  11. Thermodynamic modeling of phase relations and metasomatism in shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, P.; Oliot, E.; Marquer, D.

    2009-04-01

    Ductile shear zones have been recognized for a long time as privileged sites of intense fluid-rock interactions in the crust. In most cases they induce focused changes in mineralogy and bulk chemical composition (metasomatism) which in turn may control the deformation and fluid-migration processes. Therefore understanding these processes requires in a first step to be able to model phase relations in such open system. In this contribution, emphasizes in placed on metasomatic aspects of the problem. Indeed , in many ductile shear zones reported in metagranites, deformation and fluid-rock interactions are associated with gain in MgO and losses of CaO and Na2O (K2O is also a mobile component but it can be either gained or lost). Although the mineralogical consequences of this so-called Mg-metasomatism are well-documented (replacement of K-feldspar into phengite, breakdown of plagioclase into ab + ep, crystallization of chlorite), the origin of this coupled mass-transfer is still unknown. We have performed a forward modeling of phase relationships using petrogenetic grids and pseudosections that consider variations in chemical potential (μ) of the mobile elements (MgO, CaO, Na2O). Chemical potential gradients being the driving force of mass transfer, μ-μ diagrams are the most appropriate diagrams to model open systems where fluid-rock interactions are prominent. Chemical potential diagrams are equivalent to activity diagrams but our approach differs from previous work because (1) solid solutions are taken into account (2) phase relations are modeled in a more realistic chemical system (Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O) and (3) the use of pseudosections allows to predict changes of the mineralogy (modes, composition) for the specific bulk composition studied. A particular attention is paid to the relationships between component concentrations and chemical potentials, which is not obvious in multi-component system. The studied shear zone is located in the Grimsel

  12. Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages. III - Models based on Ca II and Mg II observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelch, W. L.; Linsky, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Solar plages are modeled using observations of both the Ca II K and the Mg II h and k lines. A partial-redistribution approach is employed for calculating the line profiles on the basis of a grid of five model chromospheres. The computed integrated emission intensities for the five atmospheric models are compared with observations of six regions on the sun as well as with models of active-chromosphere stars. It is concluded that the basic plage model grid proposed by Shine and Linsky (1974) is still valid when the Mg II lines are included in the analysis and the Ca II and Mg II lines are analyzed using partial-redistribution diagnostics.

  13. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  14. Zoning of agricultural field using a fuzzy indicators model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for deciding how to subdivide a field into a few relatively homogenous zones is using applications of fuzzy sets theory. Data collected from a precision agriculture study in central Texas...

  15. Modeling Zone-3 Protection with Generic Relay Models for Dynamic Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qiuhua; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Diao, Ruisheng

    This paper presents a cohesive approach for calculating and coordinating the settings of multiple zone-3 protections for dynamic contingency analysis. The zone-3 protections are represented by generic distance relay models. A two-step approach for determining zone-3 relay settings is proposed. The first step is to calculate settings, particularly, the reach, of each zone-3 relay individually by iteratively running line open-end fault short circuit analysis; the blinder is also employed and properly set to meet the industry standard under extreme loading conditions. The second step is to systematically coordinate the protection settings of the zone-3 relays. The main objective of thismore » coordination step is to address the over-reaching issues. We have developed a tool to automate the proposed approach and generate the settings of all distance relays in a PSS/E dyr format file. The calculated zone-3 settings have been tested on a modified IEEE 300 system using a dynamic contingency analysis tool (DCAT).« less

  16. Numerical modeling of fluid migration in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, M. J.; Quinteros, J.; Sobolev, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that fluids play a crucial role in subduction evolution. For example, mechanical weakening along tectonic interfaces, due to high fluid pressure, may enable oceanic subduction. Hence, the fluid content seems to be a critical parameter for subduction initiation. Studies have also shown a correlation between the location of slab dehydration and intermediate seismic activity. Furthermore, expelled fluids from the subduction slab affect the melting temperature, consequently, contributing to partial melting in the wedge above the down-going plate and extensive volcanism. In summary, fluids have a great impact on tectonic processes and therefore should be incorporated into geodynamic numerical models. Here we use existing approaches to couple and solve fluid flow equations in the SLIM-3D thermo-mechanical code. SLIM-3D is a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical code capable of simulating lithospheric deformation with elasto-visco-plastic rheology. It has been successfully applied to model geodynamic processes at different tectonic settings, including subduction zones. However, although SLIM-3D already includes many features, fluid migration has not been incorporated into the model yet. To this end, we coupled solid and fluid flow assuming that fluids flow through a porous and deformable solid. Thereby, we introduce a two-phase flow into the model, in which the Stokes flow is coupled with the Darcy law for fluid flow. Ultimately, the evolution of porosity is governed by a compaction pressure and the advection of the porous solid. We show the details of our implementation of the fluid flow into the existing thermo-mechanical finite element code and present first results of benchmarks and experiments. We are especially interested in the coupling of subduction processes and the evolution of the magmatic arc. Thereby, we focus on the key factors controlling magma emplacement and its influence on subduction processes.

  17. Work zone safety analysis and modeling: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Ozbay, Kaan; Ozturk, Ozgur; Xie, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Work zone safety is one of the top priorities for transportation agencies. In recent years, a considerable volume of research has sought to determine work zone crash characteristics and causal factors. Unlike other non-work zone-related safety studies (on both crash frequency and severity), there has not yet been a comprehensive review and assessment of methodological approaches for work zone safety. To address this deficit, this article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the existing extensive research efforts focused on work zone crash-related analysis and modeling, in the hopes of providing researchers and practitioners with a complete overview. Relevant literature published in the last 5 decades was retrieved from the National Work Zone Crash Information Clearinghouse and the Transport Research International Documentation database and other public digital libraries and search engines. Both peer-reviewed publications and research reports were obtained. Each study was carefully reviewed, and those that focused on either work zone crash data analysis or work zone safety modeling were identified. The most relevant studies are specifically examined and discussed in the article. The identified studies were carefully synthesized to understand the state of knowledge on work zone safety. Agreement and inconsistency regarding the characteristics of the work zone crashes discussed in the descriptive studies were summarized. Progress and issues about the current practices on work zone crash frequency and severity modeling are also explored and discussed. The challenges facing work zone safety research are then presented. The synthesis of the literature suggests that the presence of a work zone is likely to increase the crash rate. Crashes are not uniformly distributed within work zones and rear-end crashes are the most prevalent type of crashes in work zones. There was no across-the-board agreement among numerous papers reviewed on the relationship between work zone

  18. Modeling Diverse Pathways to Age Progressive Volcanism in Subduction Zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, C. R.; Szwaja, S.; Sylvia, R. T.; Druken, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    One of the best, and most challenging clues to unraveling mantle circulation patterns in subduction zones comes in the form of age progressive volcanic and geochemical trends. Hard fought geological data from many subduction zones, like Tonga-Lau, the Cascades and Costa-Rica/Nicaragua, reveal striking temporal patterns used in defining mantle flow directions and rates. We summarize results from laboratory subduction models showing a range in circulation and thermal-chemical transport processes. These interaction styles are capable of producing such trends, often reflecting apparent instead of actual mantle velocities. Lab experiments use a glucose working fluid to represent Earth's upper mantle and kinematically driven plates to produce a range in slab sinking and related wedge transport patterns. Kinematic forcing assumes most of the super-adiabatic temperature gradient available to drive major downwellings is in the tabular slabs. Moreover, sinking styles for fully dynamic subduction depend on many complicating factors that are only poorly understood and which can vary widely even for repeated parameter combinations. Kinematic models have the benefit of precise, repeatable control of slab motions and wedge flow responses. Results generated with these techniques show the evolution of near-surface thermal-chemical-rheological heterogeneities leads to age progressive surface expressions in a variety of ways. One set of experiments shows that rollback and back-arc extension combine to produce distinct modes of linear, age progressive melt delivery to the surface through a) erosion of the rheological boundary layer beneath the overriding plate, and deformation and redistribution of both b) mantle residuum produced from decompression melting and c) formerly active, buoyant plumes. Additional experiments consider buoyant diapirs rising in a wedge under the influence of rollback, back-arc spreading and slab-gaps. Strongly deflected diapirs, experiencing variable rise

  19. Advanced Residual Strength Degradation Rate Modeling for Advanced Composite Structures. Volume II. Tasks II and III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    ADVANCED COMPOSITE STRUCTURES VOLUME II - TASKS Ix AND III K. N. Lauraitis Tl J. T. Ryder ?l4 D. E. Pettit ~ Lockheed-California Company S Burbank...Strength Degradation Rate Final Report Modeling for Advanced Composite Structures 1 July 1979 to 29 May 1981 Vol II - Task II and III S. PERFORMIN ONG...identify by block namber) composites , graphite/epoxy, impact damage, damaged holes, fatigue, damage propagation, residual strength, NDI 20. ABSTRACT

  20. ELECTROSTATIC BARRIER AGAINST DUST GROWTH IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. MEASURING THE SIZE OF THE 'FROZEN' ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Sakagami, Masa-aki; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2011-04-20

    Coagulation of submicron-sized dust grains into porous aggregates is the initial step of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. Recently, it has been pointed out that negative charging of dust in the weakly ionized disks could significantly slow down the coagulation process. In this paper, we apply the growth criteria obtained in Paper I to finding out a location ('frozen' zone) where the charging stalls dust growth at the fractal growth stage. For low-turbulence disks, we find that the frozen zone can cover a major part of the disks at a few to 100 AU from the central star. The maximummore » mass of the aggregates is approximately 10{sup -7}g at 1 AU and as small as a few monomer masses at 100 AU. Strong turbulence can significantly reduce the size of the frozen zone, but such turbulence will cause the fragmentation of macroscopic aggregates at later stages. We examine a possibility that complete freezeout of dust evolution in low-turbulence disks could be prevented by global transport of dust in the disks. Our simple estimation shows that global dust transport can lead to the supply of macroscopic aggregates and the removal of frozen aggregates on a timescale of 10{sup 6} yr. This overturns the usual understanding that tiny dust particles get depleted on much shorter timescales unless collisional fragmentation is effective. The frozen zone together with global dust transport might explain 'slow' ({approx}10{sup 6} yr) dust evolution suggested by infrared observation of T Tauri stars and by radioactive dating of chondrites.« less

  1. Modeling of Blast Furnace with Layered Cohesive Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. F.; Yu, A. B.; Chew, S. J.; Zulli, P.

    2010-04-01

    An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a moving bed reactor involving counter-, co-, and cross-current flows of gas, powder, liquids, and solids, coupled with heat exchange and chemical reactions. The behavior of multiple phases directly affects the stability and productivity of the furnace. In the present study, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the behavior of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, as well as chemical reactions in a BF, in which gas, solid, and liquid phases affect each other through interaction forces, and their flows are competing for the space available. Process variables that characterize the internal furnace state, such as reduction degree, reducing gas and burden concentrations, as well as gas and condensed phase temperatures, have been described quantitatively. In particular, different treatments of the cohesive zone (CZ), i.e., layered, isotropic, and anisotropic nonlayered, are discussed, and their influence on simulation results is compared. The results show that predicted fluid flow and thermochemical phenomena within and around the CZ and in the lower part of the BF are different for different treatments. The layered CZ treatment corresponds to the layered charging of burden and naturally can predict the CZ as a gas distributor and liquid generator.

  2. Incompletely Mixed Surface Transient Storage Zones at River Restoration Structures: Modeling Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endreny, T. A.; Robinson, J.

    2012-12-01

    River restoration structures, also known as river steering deflectors, are designed to reduce bank shear stress by generating wake zones between the bank and the constricted conveyance region. There is interest in characterizing the surface transient storage (STS) and associated biogeochemical processing in the STS zones around these structures to quantify the ecosystem benefits of river restoration. This research explored how the hydraulics around river restoration structures prohibits application of transient storage models designed for homogenous, completely mixed STS zones. We used slug and constant rate injections of a conservative tracer in a 3rd order river in Onondaga County, NY over the course of five experiments at varying flow regimes. Recovered breakthrough curves spanned a transect including the main channel and wake zone at a j-hook restoration structure. We noted divergent patterns of peak solute concentration and times within the wake zone regardless of transect location within the structure. Analysis reveals an inhomogeneous STS zone which is frequently still loading tracer after the main channel has peaked. The breakthrough curve loading patterns at the restoration structure violated the assumptions of simplified "random walk" 2 zone transient storage models which seek to identify representative STS zones and zone locations. Use of structure-scale Weiner filter based multi-rate mass transfer models to characterize STS zones residence times are similarly dependent on a representative zone location. Each 2 zone model assumes 1 zone is a completely mixed STS zone and the other a completely mixed main channel. Our research reveals limits to simple application of the recently developed 2 zone models, and raises important questions about the measurement scale necessary to identify critical STS properties at restoration sites. An explanation for the incompletely mixed STS zone may be the distinct hydraulics at restoration sites, including a constrained

  3. Preferential Flow and Transport of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts Through Vadose Zone: Experiments and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnault, C. J.; Darnault, C. J.; Garnier, P.; Kim, Y.; Oveson, K.; Jenkins, M.; Ghiorse, W.; Baveye, P.; Parlange, J.; Steenhuis, T.

    2001-12-01

    Oocysts of the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum, when they contaminate drinking water supplies, can cause outbreaks of Cryptosporidiosis, a common waterborne disease. Of the different pathways by which oocysts can wind up in drinking water, one has received very little attention to date; because soils are often considered to be perfect filters, the transport of oocysts through the subsoil to groundwater by preferential flow is generally ignored. To evaluate its significance, three set of laboratory experiments investigated transport of oocysts through vadose zone. Experiment set I was carried out in a vertical 50 cm-long column filled with silica sand, under conditions known to foster fingered flow. Experiment set II investigates the effect of gas-water interfaces by modifying the hydrodynamical conditions in the sand columns with water-repellent sand barriers. Experiment III involved undisturbed soil columns subjected to macropores flow. The sand and soil columns were subjected to artificial rainfall and were allowed to reach steady-state. At that point, feces of contaminated calves were applied at the surface, along with a known amount of KCl to serve as tracer, and rainfall was continued at the same rate. The breakthrough of oocysts and Cl-, monitored in the effluent, demonstrate the importance of preferential flow - fingered flow and macropore flow - on the transport of oocysts through vadose zone. Peak oocyst concentrations were not appreciably delayed, compared to Cl-, and in some cases, occurred even before the Cl- peak. However, the numbers of oocysts present in the effluents were still orders of magnitude higher than the 5 to 10 oocysts per liter that are considerable sufficient to cause cryptosporidiosis in healthy adults. The transport of oocysts was simulated based on a partitioning the soil profile in both a distribution zone and a preferential zone, In particular, the model simulates accurately the markedly asymmetric breakthrough patterns, and the

  4. Using modeling and simulation tools for work zone analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-05-01

    Work Zone Planning and Management have become more challenging because of increasing travel demand and an aging roadway network infrastructure facing more frequent maintenance and major rehabilitation projects, while still needing to transport people...

  5. Numerical modeling of fluid migration in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Marius J.; Quinteros, Javier; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that fluids play a crucial role in subduction evolution. For example, excess mechanical weakening along tectonic interfaces, due to excess fluid pressure, may enable oceanic subduction. Hence, the fluid content seems to be a critical parameter for subduction initiation. Studies have also shown a correlation between the location of slab dehydration and intermediate seismic activity. Furthermore, expelled fluids from the subduction slab affect the melting temperature, consequently, contributing to partial melting in the wedge above the downgoing plate, and resulting in chemical changes in earth interior and extensive volcanism. In summary, fluids have a great impact on tectonic processes and therefore should be incorporated into geodynamic numerical models. Here we use existing approaches to couple and solve fluid flow equations in the SLIM-3D thermo-mechanical code. SLIM-3D is a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical code capable of simulating lithospheric deformation with elasto-visco-plastic rheology. It incorporates an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation, free surface, and changes in density and viscosity, due to endothermic and exothermic phase transitions. It has been successfully applied to model geodynamic processes at different tectonic settings, including subduction zones. However, although SLIM-3D already includes many features, fluid migration has not been incorporated into the model yet. To this end, we coupled solid and fluid flow assuming that fluids flow through a porous and deformable solid. Thereby, we introduce a two-phase flow into the model, in which the Stokes flow is coupled with the Darcy law for fluid flow. This system of equations becomes, however, nonlinear, because the rheology and permeability are depended on the porosity (fluid fraction of the matrix). Ultimately, the evolution of porosity is governed by the compaction pressure and the advection of the porous solid. We show the details of our implementation of the

  6. Inhalation exposure to cleaning products: application of a two-zone model.

    PubMed

    Earnest, C Matt; Corsi, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, modifications were made to previously applied two-zone models to address important factors that can affect exposures during cleaning tasks. Specifically, we expand on previous applications of the two-zone model by (1) introducing the source in discrete elements (source-cells) as opposed to a complete instantaneous release, (2) placing source cells in both the inner (near person) and outer zones concurrently, (3) treating each source cell as an independent mixture of multiple constituents, and (4) tracking the time-varying liquid concentration and emission rate of each constituent in each source cell. Three experiments were performed in an environmentally controlled chamber with a thermal mannequin and a simplified pure chemical source to simulate emissions from a cleaning product. Gas phase concentration measurements were taken in the bulk air and in the breathing zone of the mannequin to evaluate the model. The mean ratio of the integrated concentration in the mannequin's breathing zone to the concentration in the outer zone was 4.3 (standard deviation, σ = 1.6). The mean ratio of measured concentration in the breathing zone to predicted concentrations in the inner zone was 0.81 (σ = 0.16). Intake fractions ranged from 1.9 × 10(-3) to 2.7 × 10(-3). Model results reasonably predict those of previous exposure monitoring studies and indicate the inadequacy of well-mixed single-zone model applications for some but not all cleaning events.

  7. Weak ductile shear zone beneath the western North Anatolian Fault Zone: inferences from earthquake cycle model constrained by geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Wright, T. J.; Houseman, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    After large earthquakes, rapid postseismic transient motions are commonly observed. Later in the loading cycle, strain is typically focused in narrow regions around the fault. In simple two-layer models of the loading cycle for strike-slip faults, rapid post-seismic transients require low viscosities beneath the elastic layer, but localized strain later in the cycle implies high viscosities in the crust. To explain this apparent paradox, complex transient rheologies have been invoked. Here we test an alternative hypothesis in which spatial variations in material properties of the crust can explain the geodetic observations. We use a 3D viscoelastic finite element code to examine two simple models of periodic fault slip: a stratified model in which crustal viscosity decreases exponentially with depth below an upper elastic layer, and a block model in which a low viscosity domain centered beneath the fault is embedded in a higher viscosity background representing normal crust. We test these models using GPS data acquired before and after the 1999 Izmit/Duzce earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey). The model with depth-dependent viscosity can show both high postseismic velocities, and preseismic localization of the deformation, if the viscosity contrast from top to bottom of layer exceeds a factor of about 104. However, with no lateral variations in viscosity, this model cannot explain the proximity to the fault of maximum postseismic velocities. In contrast, the model which includes a localized weak zone beneath the faulted elastic lid can explain all the observations, if the weak zone extends down to mid-crustal levels and outward to 10 or 20 km from the fault. The non-dimensional ratio of relaxation time to earthquake repeat time, τ/Δt, is the critical parameter in controlling the observed deformation. In the weak-zone model, τ/Δt should be in the range 0.005 to 0.01 in the weak domain, and larger than ~ 1.0 elsewhere. This implies a viscosity

  8. Detailed p- and s-wave velocity models along the LARSE II transect, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, J.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W.J.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural details of the crust determined from P-wave velocity models can be improved with S-wave velocity models, and S-wave velocities are needed for model-based predictions of strong ground motion in southern California. We picked P- and S-wave travel times for refracted phases from explosive-source shots of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II); we developed refraction velocity models from these picks using two different inversion algorithms. For each inversion technique, we calculated ratios of P- to S-wave velocities (VP/VS) where there is coincident P- and S-wave ray coverage.We compare the two VP inverse velocity models to each other and to results from forward modeling, and we compare the VS inverse models. The VS and VP/VS models differ in structural details from the VP models. In particular, dipping, tabular zones of low VS, or high VP/VS, appear to define two fault zones in the central Transverse Ranges that could be parts of a positive flower structure to the San Andreas fault. These two zones are marginally resolved, but their presence in two independent models lends them some credibility. A plot of VS versus VP differs from recently published plots that are based on direct laboratory or down-hole sonic measurements. The difference in plots is most prominent in the range of VP = 3 to 5 km=s (or VS ~ 1:25 to 2:9 km/s), where our refraction VS is lower by a few tenths of a kilometer per second from VS based on direct measurements. Our new VS - VP curve may be useful for modeling the lower limit of VS from a VP model in calculating strong motions from scenario earthquakes.

  9. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater

  10. Stochastic Ground Water Flow Simulation with a Fracture Zone Continuum Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented for incorporating the hydraulic effects of vertical fracture zones into two-dimensional cell-based continuum models of ground water flow and particle tracking. High hydraulic conductivity features are used in the model to represent fracture zones. For fracture zones that are not coincident with model rows or columns, an adjustment is required for the hydraulic conductivity value entered into the model cells to compensate for the longer flowpath through the model grid. A similar adjustment is also required for simulated travel times through model cells. A travel time error of less than 8% can occur for particles moving through fractures with certain orientations. The fracture zone continuum model uses stochastically generated fracture zone networks and Monte Carlo analysis to quantify uncertainties with simulated advective travel times. An approach is also presented for converting an equivalent continuum model into a fracture zone continuum model by establishing the contribution of matrix block transmissivity to the bulk transmissivity of the aquifer. The methods are used for a case study in west-central Florida to quantify advective travel times from a potential wetland rehydration site to a municipal supply wellfield. Uncertainties in advective travel times are assumed to result from the presence of vertical fracture zones, commonly observed on aerial photographs as photolineaments.

  11. Steady hydromagnetic flows in open magnetic fields. II - Global flows with static zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinganos, K.; Low, B. C.

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical study of an axisymmetric steady stellar wind with a static zone is presented, with emphasis on the situation where the global magnetic field is symmetrical about the stellar equator and is partially open. In this scenario, the wind escapes in open magnetic fluxes originating from a region at the star pole and a region at an equatorial belt of closed magnetic field in static equilibrium. The two-dimensional balance of the pressure gradient and the inertial, gravitational, and Lorentz forces in different parts of the flow are studied, along with the static interplay between external sources of energy (heating and/or cooling) distributed in the flow and the pressure distribution.

  12. An analytical model for non-conservative pollutants mixing in the surf zone.

    PubMed

    Ki, Seo Jin; Hwang, Jin Hwan; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the surf zone is a prerequisite to improve beach management as well as to understand the fundamentals of fate and transport of contaminants. In the present study, a diagnostic model modified from a classic solute model is provided to illuminate non-conservative pollutants behavior in the surf zone. To readily understand controlling processes in the surf zone, a new dimensionless quantity is employed with index of kappa number (K, a ratio of inactivation rate to transport rate of microbial pollutant in the surf zone), which was then evaluated under different environmental frames during a week simulation period. The sensitivity analysis showed that hydrodynamics and concentration gradients in the surf zone mostly depend on n (number of rip currents), indicating that n should be carefully adjusted in the model. The simulation results reveal, furthermore, that large deviation typically occurs in the daytime, signifying inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria is the main process to control surf zone water quality during the day. Overall, the analytical model shows a good agreement between predicted and synthetic data (R(2) = 0.51 and 0.67 for FC and ENT, respectively) for the simulated period, amplifying its potential use in the surf zone modelling. It is recommended that when the dimensionless index is much larger than 0.5, the present modified model can predict better than the conventional model, but if index is smaller than 0.5, the conventional model is more efficient with respect to time and cost.

  13. Modelling wave-induced sea ice break-up in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    A model of ice floe break-up under ocean wave forcing in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is proposed to investigate how floe size distribution (FSD) evolves under repeated wave break-up events. A three-dimensional linear model of ocean wave scattering by a finite array of compliant circular ice floes is coupled to a flexural failure model, which breaks a floe into two floes provided the two-dimensional stress field satisfies a break-up criterion. A closed-feedback loop algorithm is devised, which (i) solves the wave-scattering problem for a given FSD under time-harmonic plane wave forcing, (ii) computes the stress field in all the floes, (iii) fractures the floes satisfying the break-up criterion, and (iv) generates an updated FSD, initializing the geometry for the next iteration of the loop. The FSD after 50 break-up events is unimodal and near normal, or bimodal, suggesting waves alone do not govern the power law observed in some field studies. Multiple scattering is found to enhance break-up for long waves and thin ice, but to reduce break-up for short waves and thick ice. A break-up front marches forward in the latter regime, as wave-induced fracture weakens the ice cover, allowing waves to travel deeper into the MIZ.

  14. Modelling wave-induced sea ice break-up in the marginal ice zone

    PubMed Central

    Squire, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    A model of ice floe break-up under ocean wave forcing in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is proposed to investigate how floe size distribution (FSD) evolves under repeated wave break-up events. A three-dimensional linear model of ocean wave scattering by a finite array of compliant circular ice floes is coupled to a flexural failure model, which breaks a floe into two floes provided the two-dimensional stress field satisfies a break-up criterion. A closed-feedback loop algorithm is devised, which (i) solves the wave-scattering problem for a given FSD under time-harmonic plane wave forcing, (ii) computes the stress field in all the floes, (iii) fractures the floes satisfying the break-up criterion, and (iv) generates an updated FSD, initializing the geometry for the next iteration of the loop. The FSD after 50 break-up events is unimodal and near normal, or bimodal, suggesting waves alone do not govern the power law observed in some field studies. Multiple scattering is found to enhance break-up for long waves and thin ice, but to reduce break-up for short waves and thick ice. A break-up front marches forward in the latter regime, as wave-induced fracture weakens the ice cover, allowing waves to travel deeper into the MIZ. PMID:29118659

  15. Modelling wave-induced sea ice break-up in the marginal ice zone.

    PubMed

    Montiel, F; Squire, V A

    2017-10-01

    A model of ice floe break-up under ocean wave forcing in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is proposed to investigate how floe size distribution (FSD) evolves under repeated wave break-up events. A three-dimensional linear model of ocean wave scattering by a finite array of compliant circular ice floes is coupled to a flexural failure model, which breaks a floe into two floes provided the two-dimensional stress field satisfies a break-up criterion. A closed-feedback loop algorithm is devised, which (i) solves the wave-scattering problem for a given FSD under time-harmonic plane wave forcing, (ii) computes the stress field in all the floes, (iii) fractures the floes satisfying the break-up criterion, and (iv) generates an updated FSD, initializing the geometry for the next iteration of the loop. The FSD after 50 break-up events is unimodal and near normal, or bimodal, suggesting waves alone do not govern the power law observed in some field studies. Multiple scattering is found to enhance break-up for long waves and thin ice, but to reduce break-up for short waves and thick ice. A break-up front marches forward in the latter regime, as wave-induced fracture weakens the ice cover, allowing waves to travel deeper into the MIZ.

  16. STUDENT-TEACHER POPULATION GROWTH MODEL--DYNAMOD II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZABROWSKI, EDWARD K.; AND OTHERS

    DYNAMOD II IS A COMPUTERIZED MARKOVIAN-TYPE FLOW MODEL DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE ESTIMATES OF THE EDUCATIONAL POPULATION OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS OVER SELECTED INTERVALS OF TIME. THE POPULATION IS CROSS-CLASSIFIED INTO 108 GROUPS BY SEX, RACE, AGE, AND EDUCATIONAL CATEGORY. THIS NOTE DESCRIBES THE METHODOLOGY USED IN DYNAMOD II, COMPARES DYNAMOD II…

  17. Modeling tritium transport through a deep unsaturated zone in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayers, C.J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding transport of tritium (3H) in unsaturated zones is critical to evaluating options for waste isolation. Tritium typically is a large component of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in Nevada investigate 3H transport from a closed LLRW facility. Two boreholes are 100 and 160 m from the nearest waste trench and extend to the water table at 110 m. Soil-water vapor samples from the deep boreholes show elevated levels of 3H at all depths. The objectives of this study were to (i) test source thermal and gas-advection mechanisms driving 3H transport and (ii) evaluate model sensitivity to these mechanisms and to selected physical and hydraulic properties including porosity, tortuosity, and anisotropy. A two-dimensional numerical model incorporated a non-isothermal, heterogeneous domain of the unsaturated zone and instantaneous isotopic equilibrium. The TOUGH2 code was used; however, it required modification to account for temperature dependence of both the Henry's law equilibrium constant and isotopic fractionation with respect to tritiated water. Increases in source temperature, pressure, and porosity enhanced 3H migration, but failed to match measured 3H distributions. All anisotropic simulations with a source pressure component resembled, in shape, the upper portion of the 3H distribution of the nearest borehole. Isotopic equilibrium limited migration of 3H, while effects of radioactive decay were negligible. A 500 Pa pressure increase above ambient pressure in conjunction with a high degree of anisotropy (1:100) was necessary for simulated 3H transport to reach the nearest borehole.

  18. Explorative study on management model of tourism business zone at Kuta, Bali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astawa, I. K.; Suardani, A. A. P.; Harmini, A. A. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Business activities through asset management of indigenous village of Kuta provide an opportunity for the community to participate in improving their welfare. This study aims to analyze the management model of Kuta’s tourism business zone, the involvement of stakeholders in the management of Kuta’s tourism business zone in indigenous village of Kuta and the implications of each business tourism zone in indigenous village of Kuta in the level of community welfare in each zone. Data collection was done by observation, interview, questionnaire, and documentation. The main instrument of this study is the researchers themselves assisted with interview guideline. The results showed that the management model has been arranged in 5 tourism business zones in indigenous village of Kuta. The involvement of all stakeholders in the management of the tourism business zone follows the procedure of execution of duties and provides security, comfort and certainty of doing business activities at each zone. The implications of the tourism business in the level of community welfare in each zone in indigenous village of Kuta have been able to bring happiness in business and all community are satisfied with the income they earned from work in each business zone.

  19. Vegetation root zone storage and rooting depth, derived from local calibration of a global hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ent, R.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wang-Erlandsson, L.; Hessels, T.; Bastiaanssen, W.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The storage and dynamics of water in the root zone control many important hydrological processes such as saturation excess overland flow, interflow, recharge, capillary rise, soil evaporation and transpiration. These processes are parameterized in hydrological models or land-surface schemes and the effect on runoff prediction can be large. Root zone parameters in global hydrological models are very uncertain as they cannot be measured directly at the scale on which these models operate. In this paper we calibrate the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB using a state-of-the-art ensemble of evaporation fields derived by solving the energy balance for satellite observations. We focus our calibration on the root zone parameters of PCR-GLOBWB and derive spatial patterns of maximum root zone storage. We find these patterns to correspond well with previous research. The parameterization of our model allows for the conversion of maximum root zone storage to root zone depth and we find that these correspond quite well to the point observations where available. We conclude that climate and soil type should be taken into account when regionalizing measured root depth for a certain vegetation type. We equally find that using evaporation rather than discharge better allows for local adjustment of root zone parameters within a basin and thus provides orthogonal data to diagnose and optimize hydrological models and land surface schemes.

  20. Vegetation root zone storage and rooting depth, derived from local calibration of a global hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ent, Ruud; van Beek, Rens; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Hessels, Tim; Bastiaanssen, Wim; Bierkens, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The storage and dynamics of water in the root zone control many important hydrological processes such as saturation excess overland flow, interflow, recharge, capillary rise, soil evaporation and transpiration. These processes are parameterized in hydrological models or land-surface schemes and the effect on runoff prediction can be large. For root zone parameters in global hydrological models are very uncertain as they cannot be measured directly at the scale on which these models operate. In this paper we calibrate the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB using a state-of-the-art ensemble of evaporation fields derived by solving the energy balance for satellite observations. We focus our calibration on the root zone parameters of PCR-GLOBWB and derive spatial patterns of maximum root zone storage. We find these patterns to correspond well with previous research. The parameterization of our model allows for the conversion of maximum root zone storage to root zone depth and we find that these correspond quite well to the point observations where available. We conclude that climate and soil type should be taken into account when regionalizing measured root depth for a certain vegetation type. We equally find that using evaporation rather than discharge better allows for local adjustment of root zone parameters within a basin and thus provides orthogonal data to diagnose and optimize hydrological models and land surface schemes.

  1. Bayesian Modeling of Exposure and Airflow Using Two-Zone Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yufen; Banerjee, Sudipto; Yang, Rui; Lungu, Claudiu; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is being increasingly used as a means for assessing occupational exposures. However, predicting exposure in real settings is constrained by lack of quantitative knowledge of exposure determinants. Validation of models in occupational settings is, therefore, a challenge. Not only do the model parameters need to be known, the models also need to predict the output with some degree of accuracy. In this paper, a Bayesian statistical framework is used for estimating model parameters and exposure concentrations for a two-zone model. The model predicts concentrations in a zone near the source and far away from the source as functions of the toluene generation rate, air ventilation rate through the chamber, and the airflow between near and far fields. The framework combines prior or expert information on the physical model along with the observed data. The framework is applied to simulated data as well as data obtained from the experiments conducted in a chamber. Toluene vapors are generated from a source under different conditions of airflow direction, the presence of a mannequin, and simulated body heat of the mannequin. The Bayesian framework accounts for uncertainty in measurement as well as in the unknown rate of airflow between the near and far fields. The results show that estimates of the interzonal airflow are always close to the estimated equilibrium solutions, which implies that the method works efficiently. The predictions of near-field concentration for both the simulated and real data show nice concordance with the true values, indicating that the two-zone model assumptions agree with the reality to a large extent and the model is suitable for predicting the contaminant concentration. Comparison of the estimated model and its margin of error with the experimental data thus enables validation of the physical model assumptions. The approach illustrates how exposure models and information on model parameters together with the knowledge of

  2. Structure and Development of the Subesophageal Zone of the Drosophila Brain. II. Sensory Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Kendroud, Sarah; Bohra, Ali Asgar; Kuert, Philipp A.; Nguyen, Bao; Guillermin, Oriane; Sprecher, Simon G.; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, Krishnaswamy; Hartenstein, Volker

    2018-01-01

    The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain processes mechanosensory and gustatory sensory input from sensilla located on the head, mouth cavity and trunk. Motor output from the SEZ directly controls the movements involved in feeding behavior. In an accompanying paper (Hartenstein et al., 2017) we analyzed the systems of fiber tracts and secondary lineages to establish reliable criteria for defining boundaries between the four neuromeres of the SEZ, as well as discrete longitudinal neuropil domains within each SEZ neuromere. Here we use this anatomical framework to systematically map the sensory projections entering the SEZ throughout development. Our findings show a continuity between larval and adult sensory neuropils. Gustatory axons from internal and external taste sensilla of the larva and adult form two closely related sensory projections, (1) the anterior central sensory center (ACSC) located deep in the ventromedial neuropil of the tritocerebrum and mandibular neuromere, and (2) the anterior ventral sensory center (AVSC), occupying a superficial layer within the ventromedial tritocerebrum. Additional, presumed mechanosensory terminal axons entering via the labial nerve define the ventromedial sensory center (VMSC) in the maxilla and labium. Mechanosensory afferents of the massive array of chordotonal organs (Johnston’s organ) of the adult antenna project into the centrolateral neuropil column of the anterior SEZ, creating the antenno-mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC). Dendritic projections of dye back-filled motor neurons extend throughout a ventral layer of the SEZ, overlapping widely with the AVSC and VMSC. Our findings elucidate fundamental structural aspects of the developing sensory systems in Drosophila. PMID:28875566

  3. Identifying Developmental Zones in Maize Lateral Root Cell Length Profiles using Multiple Change-Point Models

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Ortega, Beatriz; Fort, Guillaume; Muller, Bertrand; Guédon, Yann

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the limits between the cell division, elongation and mature zones in the root apex is still a matter of controversy when methods based on cellular features, molecular markers or kinematics are compared while methods based on cell length profiles have been comparatively underexplored. Segmentation models were developed to identify developmental zones within a root apex on the basis of epidermal cell length profiles. Heteroscedastic piecewise linear models were estimated for maize lateral roots of various lengths of both wild type and two mutants affected in auxin signaling (rtcs and rum-1). The outputs of these individual root analyses combined with morphological features (first root hair position and root diameter) were then globally analyzed using principal component analysis. Three zones corresponding to the division zone, the elongation zone and the mature zone were identified in most lateral roots while division zone and sometimes elongation zone were missing in arrested roots. Our results are consistent with an auxin-dependent coordination between cell flux, cell elongation and cell differentiation. The proposed segmentation models could extend our knowledge of developmental regulations in longitudinally organized plant organs such as roots, monocot leaves or internodes. PMID:29123533

  4. Model Package Report: Central Plateau Vadose Zone Geoframework Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Sarah D.

    The purpose of the Central Plateau Vadose Zone (CPVZ) Geoframework model (GFM) is to provide a reasonable, consistent, and defensible three-dimensional (3D) representation of the vadose zone beneath the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site to support the Composite Analysis (CA) vadose zone contaminant fate and transport models. The GFM is a 3D representation of the subsurface geologic structure. From this 3D geologic model, exported results in the form of point, surface, and/or volumes are used as inputs to populate and assemble the various numerical model architectures, providing a 3D-layered grid that is consistent with the GFM. The objective ofmore » this report is to define the process used to produce a hydrostratigraphic model for the vadose zone beneath the Hanford Site Central Plateau and the corresponding CA domain.« less

  5. Ammunition Resupply Model. Volume II. Programmers Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    pointer tables. If the placement is successful the flag ( ICHECK ) is set equal to 1. COMMON BLOCKS: EVENTS CALLS: NONE IS CALLED BY: SCHED CALLING PARAMETERS...decimal portion of the event time multiplied by 3600. ICHECK - 0 if no room on the file, I if there is room on the file. LOCAL ARRAYS: JFORE (1024...8217EVT, ITH, I-IS, !CHECK) C PUTEVT PLACES AN EVENT RECORD IN -THE QUEUE IN CHRONOLOGICAL C ORDER A,1D UPDATES THE QUEUE DIRECTORY. ICHECK FLAG SET C IF

  6. Comparison of different assimilation methodologies of groundwater levels to improve predictions of root zone soil moisture with an integrated terrestrial system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Kurtz, Wolfgang; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks

    2018-01-01

    The linkage between root zone soil moisture and groundwater is either neglected or simplified in most land surface models. The fully-coupled subsurface-land surface model TerrSysMP including variably saturated groundwater dynamics is used in this work. We test and compare five data assimilation methodologies for assimilating groundwater level data via the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to improve root zone soil moisture estimation with TerrSysMP. Groundwater level data are assimilated in the form of pressure head or soil moisture (set equal to porosity in the saturated zone) to update state vectors. In the five assimilation methodologies, the state vector contains either (i) pressure head, or (ii) log-transformed pressure head, or (iii) soil moisture, or (iv) pressure head for the saturated zone only, or (v) a combination of pressure head and soil moisture, pressure head for the saturated zone and soil moisture for the unsaturated zone. These methodologies are evaluated in synthetic experiments which are performed for different climate conditions, soil types and plant functional types to simulate various root zone soil moisture distributions and groundwater levels. The results demonstrate that EnKF cannot properly handle strongly skewed pressure distributions which are caused by extreme negative pressure heads in the unsaturated zone during dry periods. This problem can only be alleviated by methodology (iii), (iv) and (v). The last approach gives the best results and avoids unphysical updates related to strongly skewed pressure heads in the unsaturated zone. If groundwater level data are assimilated by methodology (iii), EnKF fails to update the state vector containing the soil moisture values if for (almost) all the realizations the observation does not bring significant new information. Synthetic experiments for the joint assimilation of groundwater levels and surface soil moisture support methodology (v) and show great potential for improving the representation

  7. Zone model predictive control: a strategy to minimize hyper- and hypoglycemic events.

    PubMed

    Grosman, Benyamin; Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard C; Jovanovic, Lois; Doyle, Francis J

    2010-07-01

    Development of an artificial pancreas based on an automatic closed-loop algorithm that uses a subcutaneous insulin pump and continuous glucose sensor is a goal for biomedical engineering research. However, closing the loop for the artificial pancreas still presents many challenges, including model identification and design of a control algorithm that will keep the type 1 diabetes mellitus subject in normoglycemia for the longest duration and under maximal safety considerations. An artificial pancreatic beta-cell based on zone model predictive control (zone-MPC) that is tuned automatically has been evaluated on the University of Virginia/University of Padova Food and Drug Administration-accepted metabolic simulator. Zone-MPC is applied when a fixed set point is not defined and the control variable objective can be expressed as a zone. Because euglycemia is usually defined as a range, zone-MPC is a natural control strategy for the artificial pancreatic beta-cell. Clinical data usually include discrete information about insulin delivery and meals, which can be used to generate personalized models. It is argued that mapping clinical insulin administration and meal history through two different second-order transfer functions improves the identification accuracy of these models. Moreover, using mapped insulin as an additional state in zone-MPC enriches information about past control moves, thereby reducing the probability of overdosing. In this study, zone-MPC is tested in three different modes using unannounced and announced meals at their nominal value and with 40% uncertainty. Ten adult in silico subjects were evaluated following a scenario of mixed meals with 75, 75, and 50 grams of carbohydrates (CHOs) consumed at 7 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, respectively. Zone-MPC results are compared to those of the "optimal" open-loop preadjusted treatment. Zone-MPC succeeds in maintaining glycemic responses closer to euglycemia compared to the "optimal" open-loop treatment in te three

  8. Mapping the Habitable Zone of Exoplanets with a 2D Energy Balance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Nicole Taylor; Dr. Lisa Kaltenegger, Dr. Ramses Ramirez

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the habitable zone has been defined as the distance at which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. However, different complexity models (simplified and fast:1D, and complex and time-intense:3D) models derive different boundaries for the habitable zone. The goal of this project was to test a new intermediate complexity 2D Energy Balance model, add a new ice albedo feedback mechanism, and derive the habitable zone boundaries. After completing this first project, we also studied how other feedback mechanisms, such as the presence of clouds and the carbonate-silicate cycle, effected the location of the habitable zone boundaries using this 2D model. This project was completed as part of a 2017 summer REU program hosted by Cornell's Center for Astrophysics and Plantary Sciecne and in partnership with the Carl Sagan Institute.

  9. Standard solar model. II - g-modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, D. B.; Demarque, P.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Kim, Y.-C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the g-mode oscillation for a set of modern solar models. Each solar model is based on a single modification or improvement to the physics of a reference solar model. Improvements were made to the nuclear reaction rates, the equation of state, the opacities, and the treatment of the atmosphere. The error in the predicted g-mode periods associated with the uncertainties in the model physics is predicted and the specific sensitivities of the g-mode periods and their period spacings to the different model structures are described. In addition, these models are compared to a sample of published observations. A remarkably good agreement is found between the 'best' solar model and the observations of Hill and Gu (1990).

  10. Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-10-28

    The work presented in this report is a continuation of the work described in the May 2015 report, “Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development”. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model aims to predict the temperature and bubble volume fraction in an aqueous solution of uranium. These values affect the reactivity of the fissile solution, so it is important to be able to calculate them and determine their effects on the reaction. Part A of this report describes some of the parameter comparisons performed on the CFD model using Fluent. Part B describes the coupling of the Fluent model with amore » Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) neutron transport model. The fuel tank geometry is the same as it was in the May 2015 report, annular with a thickness-to-height ratio of 0.16. An accelerator-driven neutron source provides the excitation for the reaction, and internal and external water cooling channels remove the heat. The model used in this work incorporates the Eulerian multiphase model with lift, wall lubrication, turbulent dispersion and turbulence interaction. The buoyancy-driven flow is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation, and the flow turbulence is determined using the k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The dispersed turbulence multiphase model is employed to capture the multiphase turbulence effects.« less

  11. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part I. Model validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process-based modeling provides detailed spatial and temporal information of the soil environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone across field topography where measurements of soil temperature and water may not sufficiently describe the zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the...

  12. Double-Sided Wedge Model For Retreating Subduction Zones: Applications to the Apenninic and Hellenic Subduction Zones (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, M. T.; Willett, S.; Rahl, J. M.; Cowan, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    We propose a new model for the evolution of accreting wedges at retreating subduction zones. Advance and retreat refer to the polarity of the velocity of the overriding plate with respect to subduction zone. Advance indicates a velocity toward the subduction zone (e.g., Andes) and retreat, away from the subduction zone (e.g. Apennines, Crete). The tectonic mode of a subduction zone, whether advancing or retreating, is a result of both the rollback of the subducting plate and the absolute motion of the overriding plate. The Hellenic and Apenninic wedges are both associated with retreating subduction zones. The Hellenic wedge has been active for about 100 Ma, whereas the Apenninic wedge has been active for about 30 Ma. Comparison of maximum metamorphic pressures for exhumed rocks in these wedges (25 and 30 km, respectively) with the maximum thickness of the wedges at present (30 and 35 km, respectively) indicates that each wedge has maintained a relatively steady size during its evolution. This conclusion is based on the constraint that both frictional and viscous wedges are subject to the constraint of a steady wedge taper, so that thickness and width are strongly correlated. Both wedges show clear evidence of steady accretion during their full evolution, with accretionary fluxes of about 60 and 200 km2 Ma-1. These wedges also both show steady drift of material from the front to the rear of the wedge, with horizontal shortening dominating in the front of the wedge, and horizontal extension within the back of the wedge. We propose that these wedges represent two back-to-back wedges, with a convergent wedge on the leading side (proside), and a divergent wedge on the trailing side (retroside). In this sense, the wedges are bound by two plates. The subducting plate is familiar. It creates a thrust-sense traction beneath the proside of the wedge. The second plate is an “educting” plate, which is creates a normal-sense traction beneath the retroside of the wedge. The

  13. Evaluation of using digital gravity field models for zoning map creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    At the present time the digital cartographic models of geophysical fields are taking a special significance into geo-physical mapping. One of the important directions to their application is the creation of zoning maps, which allow taking into account the morphology of geophysical field in the implementation automated choice of contour intervals. The purpose of this work is the comparative evaluation of various digital models in the creation of integrated gravity field zoning map. For comparison were chosen the digital model of gravity field of Russia, created by the analog map with scale of 1 : 2 500 000, and the open global model of gravity field of the Earth - WGM2012. As a result of experimental works the four integrated gravity field zoning maps were obtained with using raw and processed data on each gravity field model. The study demonstrates the possibility of open data use to create integrated zoning maps with the condition to eliminate noise component of model by processing in specialized software systems. In this case, for solving problem of contour intervals automated choice the open digital models aren't inferior to regional models of gravity field, created for individual countries. This fact allows asserting about universality and independence of integrated zoning maps creation regardless of detail of a digital cartographic model of geo-physical fields.

  14. On The Modeling of Educational Systems: II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Robert T.

    1975-01-01

    A unified approach to model building is developed from the separate techniques of regression, simulation, and factorial design. The methodology is applied in the context of a suburban school district. (Author/LS)

  15. Nyala and Bushbuck II: A Harvesting Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Greeff, Johanna C.

    1999-01-01

    Adds a cropping or harvesting term to the animal overpopulation model developed in Part I of this article. Investigates various harvesting strategies that might suggest a solution to the overpopulation problem without actually culling any animals. (ASK)

  16. Predictive Models and Computational Toxicology (II IBAMTOX)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ‘virtual embryo’ project is building an integrative systems biology framework for predictive models of developmental toxicity. One schema involves a knowledge-driven adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework utilizing information from public databases, standardized ontologies...

  17. One-dimensional flow model of the river-hyporheic zone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrajac, D.

    2016-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is a shallow layer beneath natural streams that is characterized by intense exchange of water, nutrients, pollutants and thermal energy. Understanding these exchange processes is crucial for successful modelling of the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics at various scales from the river corridor up to the river network scale (Cardenas, 2015). Existing simulation models of hyporheic exchange processes are either idealized models of the tracer movement through the river-hyporheic zone system (e.g. TSM, Bencala and Walters, 1983) or detailed models of turbulent flow in a stream, coupled with a conventional 2D Darcian groundwater model (e.g. Cardenas and Wilson, 2007). This paper presents an alternative approach which involves a simple 1-D simulation model of the hyporheic zone system based on the classical SWE equations coupled with the newly developed porous media analogue. This allows incorporating the effects of flow unsteadiness and non-Darcian parameterization od the drag term in the hyporheic zone model. The conceptual model of the stream-hyporheic zone system consists of a 1D model of the open channel flow in the river, coupled with a 1D model of the flow in the hyporheic zone via volume flux due to the difference in the water level in the river and the hyporheic zone. The interaction with the underlying groundwater aquifer is neglected, but coupling the present model with any conventional groundwater model is straightforward. The paper presents the derivation of the 1D flow equations for flow in the hyporheic zone, the details of the numerical scheme used for solving them and the model validation by comparison with published experimental data. References Bencala, K. E., and R. A. Walters (1983) "Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream- a transient storage model", Water Resources Reseach 19(3): 718-724. Cardenas, M. B. (2015) "Hyporheic zone hydrologic science: A historical account of its emergence and a

  18. A revised dislocation model of interseismic deformation of the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Kelin; Wells, Ray E.; Mazzotti, Stephane; Hyndman, Roy D.; Sagiya, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    CAS3D‐2, a new three‐dimensional (3‐D) dislocation model, is developed to model interseismic deformation rates at the Cascadia subduction zone. The model is considered a snapshot description of the deformation field that changes with time. The effect of northward secular motion of the central and southern Cascadia forearc sliver is subtracted to obtain the effective convergence between the subducting plate and the forearc. Horizontal deformation data, including strain rates and surface velocities from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, provide primary geodetic constraints, but uplift rate data from tide gauges and leveling also provide important validations for the model. A locked zone, based on the results of previous thermal models constrained by heat flow observations, is located entirely offshore beneath the continental slope. Similar to previous dislocation models, an effective zone of downdip transition from locking to full slip is used, but the slip deficit rate is assumed to decrease exponentially with downdip distance. The exponential function resolves the problem of overpredicting coastal GPS velocities and underpredicting inland velocities by previous models that used a linear downdip transition. A wide effective transition zone (ETZ) partially accounts for stress relaxation in the mantle wedge that cannot be simulated by the elastic model. The pattern of coseismic deformation is expected to be different from that of interseismic deformation at present, 300 years after the last great subduction earthquake. The downdip transition from full rupture to no slip should take place over a much narrower zone.

  19. Analysis of Truck Drivers' Opinions on Safety and Traffic Control on Highway Work Zones - Volume II - Final Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the truck drivers' travel characteristics, concerns about work zone traffic control devices, assessment of work zone features, as well as to determine the location of accidents and bad driving situations based on...

  20. Assessment of the geothermal potential of fault zones in Germany by numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuder, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Fault zones with significantly better permeabilities than host rocks can act as natural migration paths for ascending fluids that are able to transport thermal energy from deep geological formations. Under these circumstances, fault zones are interesting for geothermal utilization especially those in at least 7 km depth (Jung et al. 2002, Paschen et al. 2003). One objective of the joint project "The role of deep rooting fault zones for geothermal energy utilization" supported by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy was the evaluation of the geothermal potential of fault zones in Germany by means of numerical modelling with COMSOL. To achieve this goal a method was developed to estimate the potential of regional generalized fault zones in a simple but yet sophisticated way. The main problem for the development of a numerical model is the lack of geological and hydrological data. To address this problem the geothermal potential of a cube with 1 km side length including a 20 meter broad, 1000 m high and 1000 m long fault zone was calculated as a unified model with changing parameter sets. The properties of the surrounding host rock and the fault zone are assumed homogenous. The numerical models were calculated with a broad variety of fluid flow, rock and fluid property parameters for the depths of 3000-4000 m, 4000-5000 m, 5000-6000 m and 6000-7000 m. The fluid parameters are depending on temperature, salt load and initial pressure. The porosity and permeability values are provided by the database of the geothermal information system (GeotIS). The results are summarized in a table of values of geothermal energy modelled with different parameter sets and depths. The geothermal potential of fault zones in Germany was then calculated on the basis of this table and information of the geothermal atlas of Germany (2016).

  1. Regulation of Ion Gradients across Myocardial Ischemic Border Zones: A Biophysical Modelling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Niederer, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The myocardial ischemic border zone is associated with the initiation and sustenance of arrhythmias. The profile of ionic concentrations across the border zone play a significant role in determining cellular electrophysiology and conductivity, yet their spatial-temporal evolution and regulation are not well understood. To investigate the changes in ion concentrations that regulate cellular electrophysiology, a mathematical model of ion movement in the intra and extracellular space in the presence of ionic, potential and material property heterogeneities was developed. The model simulates the spatial and temporal evolution of concentrations of potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, hydrogen and bicarbonate ions and carbon dioxide across an ischemic border zone. Ischemia was simulated by sodium-potassium pump inhibition, potassium channel activation and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. The model predicted significant disparities in the width of the border zone for each ionic species, with intracellular sodium and extracellular potassium having discordant gradients, facilitating multiple gradients in cellular properties across the border zone. Extracellular potassium was found to have the largest border zone and this was attributed to the voltage dependence of the potassium channels. The model also predicted the efflux of from the ischemic region due to electrogenic drift and diffusion within the intra and extracellular space, respectively, which contributed to depletion in the ischemic region. PMID:23577101

  2. Deformation and stress change associated with plate interaction at subduction zones: a kinematic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shaorong; Takemoto, Shuzo

    2000-08-01

    The interseismic deformation associated with plate coupling at a subduction zone is commonly simulated by the steady-slip model in which a reverse dip-slip is imposed on the down-dip extension of the locked plate interface, or by the backslip model in which a normal slip is imposed on the locked plate interface. It is found that these two models, although totally different in principle, produce similar patterns for the vertical deformation at a subduction zone. This suggests that it is almost impossible to distinguish between these two models by analysing only the interseismic vertical deformation observed at a subduction zone. The steady-slip model cannot correctly predict the horizontal deformation associated with plate coupling at a subduction zone, a fact that is proved by both the numerical modelling in this study and the GPS (Global Positioning System) observations near the Nankai trough, southwest Japan. It is therefore inadequate to simulate the effect of the plate coupling at a subduction zone by the steady-slip model. It is also revealed that the unphysical assumption inherent in the backslip model of imposing a normal slip on the locked plate interface makes it impossible to predict correctly the horizontal motion of the subducted plate and the stress change within the overthrust zone associated with the plate coupling during interseismic stages. If the analysis made in this work is proved to be correct, some of the previous studies on interpreting the interseismic deformation observed at several subduction zones based on these two models might need substantial revision. On the basis of the investigations on plate interaction at subduction zones made using the finite element method and the kinematic/mechanical conditions of the plate coupling implied by the present plate tectonics, a synthesized model is proposed to simulate the kinematic effect of the plate interaction during interseismic stages. A numerical analysis shows that the proposed model

  3. 24 CFR 3285.405 - Severe wind zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Severe wind zones. 3285.405 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.405 Severe wind zones. When any part of a home is installed within 1,500 feet of a coastline in Wind Zones II or III, the...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.405 - Severe wind zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Severe wind zones. 3285.405 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.405 Severe wind zones. When any part of a home is installed within 1,500 feet of a coastline in Wind Zones II or III, the...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.405 - Severe wind zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Severe wind zones. 3285.405 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.405 Severe wind zones. When any part of a home is installed within 1,500 feet of a coastline in Wind Zones II or III, the...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.405 - Severe wind zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Severe wind zones. 3285.405 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.405 Severe wind zones. When any part of a home is installed within 1,500 feet of a coastline in Wind Zones II or III, the...

  7. Implementing the Ecosystem Model: Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, John H.

    1978-01-01

    The ecosystem model was used to assess student perceptions of certain aspects of residential life at a large university. Over 70 percent of questionnaires were returned. From the data, aspects of the environment were changed according to student recommendations. A great need for more information communication was found. (RPG)

  8. NGC1300 dynamics - II. The response models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapotharakos, C.; Patsis, P. A.; Grosbøl, P.

    2010-10-01

    We study the stellar response in a spectrum of potentials describing the barred spiral galaxy NGC1300. These potentials have been presented in a previous paper and correspond to three different assumptions as regards the geometry of the galaxy. For each potential we consider a wide range of Ωp pattern speed values. Our goal is to discover the geometries and the Ωp supporting specific morphological features of NGC1300. For this purpose we use the method of response models. In order to compare the images of NGC1300 with the density maps of our models, we define a new index which is a generalization of the Hausdorff distance. This index helps us to find out quantitatively which cases reproduce specific features of NGC1300 in an objective way. Furthermore, we construct alternative models following a Schwarzschild-type technique. By this method we vary the weights of the various energy levels, and thus the orbital contribution of each energy, in order to minimize the differences between the response density and that deduced from the surface density of the galaxy, under certain assumptions. We find that the models corresponding to Ωp ~ 16 and 22 kms-1kpc-1 are able to reproduce efficiently certain morphological features of NGC1300, with each one having its advantages and drawbacks. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile: programme ESO 69.A-0021. E-mail: ckalapot@phys.uoa.gr (CK); patsis@academyofathens.gr (PAP); pgrosbol@eso.org (PG)

  9. EVALUATION OF UNSATURATED/VADOSE ZONE MODELS FOR SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mathematical models of water and chemical movement in soils are being used as decision aids for defining groundwater protection practices for Superfund sites. Numerous transport models exist for predicting movementand degradation of hazardous chemicals through soils. Many of thes...

  10. EVALUATION OF UNSATURATED/VADOSE ZONE MODELS FOR SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mathematical models of water and chemical movement in soils are being used as decision aids for defining groundwater protection practices for Superfund sites. umerous transport models exist for predicting movement and degradation of hazardous chemicals through soil& Many of these...

  11. Slab1.0: A three-dimensional model of global subduction zone geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Wald, David J.; Johnson, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and present a new model of global subduction zone geometries, called Slab1.0. An extension of previous efforts to constrain the two-dimensional non-planar geometry of subduction zones around the focus of large earthquakes, Slab1.0 describes the detailed, non-planar, three-dimensional geometry of approximately 85% of subduction zones worldwide. While the model focuses on the detailed form of each slab from their trenches through the seismogenic zone, where it combines data sets from active source and passive seismology, it also continues to the limits of their seismic extent in the upper-mid mantle, providing a uniform approach to the definition of the entire seismically active slab geometry. Examples are shown for two well-constrained global locations; models for many other regions are available and can be freely downloaded in several formats from our new Slab1.0 website, http://on.doi.gov/d9ARbS. We describe improvements in our two-dimensional geometry constraint inversion, including the use of `average' active source seismic data profiles in the shallow trench regions where data are otherwise lacking, derived from the interpolation between other active source seismic data along-strike in the same subduction zone. We include several analyses of the uncertainty and robustness of our three-dimensional interpolation methods. In addition, we use the filtered, subduction-related earthquake data sets compiled to build Slab1.0 in a reassessment of previous analyses of the deep limit of the thrust interface seismogenic zone for all subduction zones included in our global model thus far, concluding that the width of these seismogenic zones is on average 30% larger than previous studies have suggested.

  12. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations.more » The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.« less

  13. Variable-intercept panel model for deformation zoning of a super-high arch dam.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhongwen; Gu, Chongshi; Qin, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study determines dam deformation similarity indexes based on an analysis of deformation zoning features and panel data clustering theory, with comprehensive consideration to the actual deformation law of super-high arch dams and the spatial-temporal features of dam deformation. Measurement methods of these indexes are studied. Based on the established deformation similarity criteria, the principle used to determine the number of dam deformation zones is constructed through entropy weight method. This study proposes the deformation zoning method for super-high arch dams and the implementation steps, analyzes the effect of special influencing factors of different dam zones on the deformation, introduces dummy variables that represent the special effect of dam deformation, and establishes a variable-intercept panel model for deformation zoning of super-high arch dams. Based on different patterns of the special effect in the variable-intercept panel model, two panel analysis models were established to monitor fixed and random effects of dam deformation. Hausman test method of model selection and model effectiveness assessment method are discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of established models is verified through a case study.

  14. Alternative Zoning Scenarios for Regional Sustainable Land Use Controls in China: A Knowledge-Based Multiobjective Optimisation Model

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

  15. Multiphasic modeling of charged solute transport across articular cartilage: Application of multi-zone finite-bath model.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-06-14

    Charged and uncharged solutes penetrate through cartilage to maintain the metabolic function of chondrocytes and to possibly restore or further breakdown the cartilage tissue in different stages of osteoarthritis. In this study the transport of charged solutes across the various zones of cartilage was quantified, taken into account the physicochemical interactions between the solute and the cartilage constituents. A multiphasic finite-bath finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate equine cartilage diffusion experiments that used a negatively charged contrast agent (ioxaglate) in combination with serial micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure the diffusion. By comparing the FE model with the experimental data both the diffusion coefficient of ioxaglate and the fixed charge density (FCD) were obtained. In the multiphasic model, cartilage was divided into multiple (three) zones to help understand how diffusion coefficient and FCD vary across cartilage thickness. The direct effects of charged solute-FCD interaction on diffusion were investigated by comparing the diffusion coefficients derived from the multiphasic and biphasic-solute models. We found a relationship between the FCD obtained by the multiphasic model and ioxaglate partitioning obtained from micro-CT experiments. Using our multi-zone multiphasic model, diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was up to ten-fold higher than that of the middle zone, while the FCD of the middle zone was up to almost two-fold higher than that of the superficial zone. In conclusion, the developed finite-bath multiphasic model provides us with a non-destructive method by which we could obtain both diffusion coefficient and FCD of different cartilage zones. The outcomes of the current work will also help understand how charge of the bath affects the diffusion of a charged molecule and also predict the diffusion behavior of a charged solute across articular cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Mortality Probability Model III and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Kuzniewicz, Michael W.; Cason, Brian A.; Lane, Rondall K.; Dean, Mitzi L.; Clay, Ted; Rennie, Deborah J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dudley, R. Adams

    2009-01-01

    Background: To develop and compare ICU length-of-stay (LOS) risk-adjustment models using three commonly used mortality or LOS prediction models. Methods: Between 2001 and 2004, we performed a retrospective, observational study of 11,295 ICU patients from 35 hospitals in the California Intensive Care Outcomes Project. We compared the accuracy of the following three LOS models: a recalibrated acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) IV-LOS model; and models developed using risk factors in the mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0) and the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II mortality prediction model. We evaluated models by calculating the following: (1) grouped coefficients of determination; (2) differences between observed and predicted LOS across subgroups; and (3) intraclass correlations of observed/expected LOS ratios between models. Results: The grouped coefficients of determination were APACHE IV with coefficients recalibrated to the LOS values of the study cohort (APACHE IVrecal) [R2 = 0.422], mortality probability model III at zero hours (MPM0 III) [R2 = 0.279], and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II) [R2 = 0.008]. For each decile of predicted ICU LOS, the mean predicted LOS vs the observed LOS was significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) for three, two, and six deciles using APACHE IVrecal, MPM0 III, and SAPS II, respectively. Plots of the predicted vs the observed LOS ratios of the hospitals revealed a threefold variation in LOS among hospitals with high model correlations. Conclusions: APACHE IV and MPM0 III were more accurate than SAPS II for the prediction of ICU LOS. APACHE IV is the most accurate and best calibrated model. Although it is less accurate, MPM0 III may be a reasonable option if the data collection burden or the treatment effect bias is a consideration. PMID:19363210

  17. KINEMATIC MODELING OF MULTIPHASE SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN THE VADOSE ZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research was the development of a computationally efficient simulation model for multiphase flow of organic hazardous waste constituents in the shallow soil environment. Such a model is appropriate for investigation of fate and transport of organic chemicals intr...

  18. COMPILATION OF SATURATED AND UNSATURATED ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report provides readers an overview of available ground-water modeling programs and related software. It is an update of EPA/600/R-93/118 and EPA/600/R-94/028, two previous reports from the same program at the International Ground Water Modeling Center (IGWMC) in Colora...

  19. PARALLEL MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF TRANSPORT IN THE DARHT II BEAMLINE ON ETA II

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, F W; Raymond, B A; Falabella, S

    To successfully tune the DARHT II transport beamline requires the close coupling of a model of the beam transport and the measurement of the beam observables as the beam conditions and magnet settings are varied. For the ETA II experiment using the DARHT II beamline components this was achieved using the SUICIDE (Simple User Interface Connecting to an Integrated Data Environment) data analysis environment and the FITS (Fully Integrated Transport Simulation) model. The SUICIDE environment has direct access to the experimental beam transport data at acquisition and the FITS predictions of the transport for immediate comparison. The FITS model ismore » coupled into the control system where it can read magnet current settings for real time modeling. We find this integrated coupling is essential for model verification and the successful development of a tuning aid for the efficient convergence on a useable tune. We show the real time comparisons of simulation and experiment and explore the successes and limitations of this close coupled approach.« less

  20. Zic deficiency in the cortical marginal zone and meninges results in cortical lamination defects resembling those in type II lissencephaly.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Masaharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Aruga, Jun

    2008-04-30

    The formation of the highly organized cortical structure depends on the production and correct placement of the appropriate number and types of neurons. The Zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors plays essential roles in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors in the medial forebrain and the cerebellum. Examination of the expression of Zic genes demonstrated that Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 were expressed by the progenitor cells in the septum and cortical hem, the sites of generation of the Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed that Zic proteins were abundantly expressed in the meningeal cells and that the majority of the CR cells distributed in the medial and dorsal cortex also expressed Zic proteins in the mid-late embryonic and postnatal cortical marginal zones. During embryonic cortical development, Zic1/Zic3 double-mutant and hypomorphic Zic2 mutant mice showed a reduction in the number of CR cells in the rostral cortex, whereas the cell number remained unaffected in the caudal cortex. These mutants also showed mislocalization of the CR cells and cortical lamination defects, resembling the changes noted in type II (cobblestone) lissencephaly, throughout the brain. In the Zic1/3 mutant, reduced proliferation of the meningeal cells was observed before the thinner and disrupted organization of the pial basement membrane (BM) with reduced expression of the BM components and the meningeal cell-derived secretory factor. These defects correlated with the changes in the end feet morphology of the radial glial cells. These findings indicate that the Zic genes play critical roles in cortical development through regulating the proliferation of meningeal cells and the pial BM assembly.

  1. Statistic inversion of multi-zone transition probability models for aquifer characterization in alluvial fans

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Lin; Dai, Zhenxue; Gong, Huili; ...

    2015-06-12

    Understanding the heterogeneity arising from the complex architecture of sedimentary sequences in alluvial fans is challenging. This study develops a statistical inverse framework in a multi-zone transition probability approach for characterizing the heterogeneity in alluvial fans. An analytical solution of the transition probability matrix is used to define the statistical relationships among different hydrofacies and their mean lengths, integral scales, and volumetric proportions. A statistical inversion is conducted to identify the multi-zone transition probability models and estimate the optimal statistical parameters using the modified Gauss–Newton–Levenberg–Marquardt method. The Jacobian matrix is computed by the sensitivity equation method, which results in anmore » accurate inverse solution with quantification of parameter uncertainty. We use the Chaobai River alluvial fan in the Beijing Plain, China, as an example for elucidating the methodology of alluvial fan characterization. The alluvial fan is divided into three sediment zones. In each zone, the explicit mathematical formulations of the transition probability models are constructed with optimized different integral scales and volumetric proportions. The hydrofacies distributions in the three zones are simulated sequentially by the multi-zone transition probability-based indicator simulations. Finally, the result of this study provides the heterogeneous structure of the alluvial fan for further study of flow and transport simulations.« less

  2. Potential-based and non-potential-based cohesive zone formulations under mixed-mode separation and over-closure-Part II: Finite element applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Máirtín, Éamonn Ó.; Parry, Guillaume; Beltz, Glenn E.; McGarry, J. Patrick

    2014-02-01

    This paper, the second of two parts, presents three novel finite element case studies to demonstrate the importance of normal-tangential coupling in cohesive zone models (CZMs) for the prediction of mixed-mode interface debonding. Specifically, four new CZMs proposed in Part I of this study are implemented, namely the potential-based MP model and the non-potential-based NP1, NP2 and SMC models. For comparison, simulations are also performed for the well established potential-based Xu-Needleman (XN) model and the non-potential-based model of van den Bosch, Schreurs and Geers (BSG model). Case study 1: Debonding and rebonding of a biological cell from a cyclically deforming silicone substrate is simulated when the mode II work of separation is higher than the mode I work of separation at the cell-substrate interface. An active formulation for the contractility and remodelling of the cell cytoskeleton is implemented. It is demonstrated that when the XN potential function is used at the cell-substrate interface repulsive normal tractions are computed, preventing rebonding of significant regions of the cell to the substrate. In contrast, the proposed MP potential function at the cell-substrate interface results in negligible repulsive normal tractions, allowing for the prediction of experimentally observed patterns of cell cytoskeletal remodelling. Case study 2: Buckling of a coating from the compressive surface of a stent is simulated. It is demonstrated that during expansion of the stent the coating is initially compressed into the stent surface, while simultaneously undergoing tangential (shear) tractions at the coating-stent interface. It is demonstrated that when either the proposed NP1 or NP2 model is implemented at the stent-coating interface mixed-mode over-closure is correctly penalised. Further expansion of the stent results in the prediction of significant buckling of the coating from the stent surface, as observed experimentally. In contrast, the BSG model

  3. A Two-Zone Multigrid Model for SI Engine Combustion Simulation Using Detailed Chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Ge, Hai-Wen; Juneja, Harmit; Shi, Yu; ...

    2010-01-01

    An efficient multigrid (MG) model was implemented for spark-ignited (SI) engine combustion modeling using detailed chemistry. The model is designed to be coupled with a level-set-G-equation model for flame propagation (GAMUT combustion model) for highly efficient engine simulation. The model was explored for a gasoline direct-injection SI engine with knocking combustion. The numerical results using the MG model were compared with the results of the original GAMUT combustion model. A simpler one-zone MG model was found to be unable to reproduce the results of the original GAMUT model. However, a two-zone MG model, which treats the burned and unburned regionsmore » separately, was found to provide much better accuracy and efficiency than the one-zone MG model. Without loss in accuracy, an order of magnitude speedup was achieved in terms of CPU and wall times. To reproduce the results of the original GAMUT combustion model, either a low searching level or a procedure to exclude high-temperature computational cells from the grouping should be applied to the unburned region, which was found to be more sensitive to the combustion model details.« less

  4. Cohesive zone model for direct silicon wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubair, D. V.; Spearing, S. M.

    2007-05-01

    Direct silicon wafer bonding and decohesion are simulated using a spectral scheme in conjunction with a rate-dependent cohesive model. The cohesive model is derived assuming the presence of a thin continuum liquid layer at the interface. Cohesive tractions due to the presence of a liquid meniscus always tend to reduce the separation distance between the wafers, thereby opposing debonding, while assisting the bonding process. In the absence of the rate-dependence effects the energy needed to bond a pair of wafers is equal to that needed to separate them. When rate-dependence is considered in the cohesive law, the experimentally observed asymmetry in the energetics can be explained. The derived cohesive model has the potential to form a bridge between experiments and a multiscale-modelling approach to understand the mechanics of wafer bonding.

  5. ESTIMATION OF INFILTRATION RATE IN THE VADOSE ZONE: COMPILATION OF SIMPLE MATHEMATICAL MODELS - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The unsaturated or vadose zone provides a complex system for the simulation of water movement and contaminant transport and fate. Numerous models are available for performing simulations related to the movement of water. There exists extensive documentation of these models. Ho...

  6. SENSITIVE PARAMETER EVALUATION FOR A VADOSE ZONE FATE AND TRANSPORT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information pertaining to quantitative evaluation of the potential impact of selected parameters on output of vadose zone transport and fate models used to describe the behavior of hazardous chemicals in soil. The Vadose 2one Interactive Processes (VIP) model...

  7. Histological Characterization of the Irritative Zones in Focal Cortical Dysplasia Using a Preclinical Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Abhay; Leichner, Jared; Bae, Jihye; Song, Yinchen; Valdés-Hernández, Pedro A; Lin, Wei-Chiang; Riera, Jorge J

    2018-01-01

    Current clinical practice in focal epilepsy involves brain source imaging (BSI) to localize brain areas where from interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) emerge. These areas, named irritative zones , have been useful to define candidate seizures-onset zones during pre-surgical workup. Since human histological data are mostly available from final resected zones, systematic studies characterizing pathophysiological mechanisms and abnormal molecular/cellular substrates in irritative zones-independent of them being epileptogenic-are challenging. Combining BSI and histological analysis from all types of irritative zones is only possible through the use of preclinical animal models. Here, we recorded 32-channel spontaneous electroencephalographic data from rats that have focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and chronic seizures. BSI for different IED subtypes was performed using the methodology presented in Bae et al. (2015). Post-mortem brain sections containing irritative zones were stained to quantify anatomical, functional, and inflammatory biomarkers specific for epileptogenesis, and the results were compared with those obtained using the contralateral healthy brain tissue. We found abnormal anatomical structures in all irritative zones (i.e., larger neuronal processes, glioreactivity, and vascular cuffing) and larger expressions for neurotransmission (i.e., NR2B) and inflammation (i.e., ILβ1, TNFα and HMGB1). We conclude that irritative zones in this rat preclinical model of FCD comprise abnormal tissues disregarding whether they are actually involved in icto-genesis or not. We hypothesize that seizure perpetuation happens gradually; hence, our results could support the use of IED-based BSI for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of potential epileptic foci. Further verifications in humans are yet needed.

  8. Modeling of sheet metal fracture via cohesive zone model and application to spot welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Joseph Z.

    Even though the cohesive zone model (CZM) has been widely used to analyze ductile fracture, it is not yet clearly understood how to calibrate the cohesive parameters including the specific work of separation (the work of separation per unit crack area) and the peak stress. A systematic approach is presented to first determine the cohesive values for sheet metal and then apply the calibrated model to various structure problems including the failure of spot welds. Al5754-0 was chosen for this study since it is not sensitive to heat treatment so the effect of heat-affected-zone (HAZ) can be ignored. The CZM has been applied to successfully model both mode-I and mode-III fracture for various geometries including Kahn specimens, single-notch specimens, and deep double-notch specimens for mode-I and trouser specimens for mode-III. The mode-I fracture of coach-peel spot-weld nugget and the mixed-mode fracture of nugget pull-out have also been well simulated by the CZM. Using the mode-I average specific work of separation of 13 kJ/m2 identified in a previous work and the mode-III specific work of separation of 38 kJ/m 2 found in this thesis, the cohesive peak stress has been determined to range from 285 MPa to 600 MPa for mode-I and from 165 MPa to 280 MPa for mode-III, depending on the degree of plastic deformation. The uncertainty of these cohesive values has also been examined. It is concluded that, if the specific work of separation is a material constant, the peak stress changes with the degree of plastic deformation and is therefore geometry-dependent.

  9. Low mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - II. Flow-locked and runaway migration, and a torque prescription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2018-04-01

    We examine the migration of low mass planets in laminar protoplanetary discs, threaded by large scale magnetic fields in the dead zone that drive radial gas flows. As shown in Paper I, a dynamical corotation torque arises due to the flow-induced asymmetric distortion of the corotation region and the evolving vortensity contrast between the librating horseshoe material and background disc flow. Using simulations of laminar torqued discs containing migrating planets, we demonstrate the existence of the four distinct migration regimes predicted in Paper I. In two regimes, the migration is approximately locked to the inward or outward radial gas flow, and in the other regimes the planet undergoes outward runaway migration that eventually settles to fast steady migration. In addition, we demonstrate torque and migration reversals induced by midplane magnetic stresses, with a bifurcation dependent on the disc surface density. We develop a model for fast migration, and show why the outward runaway saturates to a steady speed, and examine phenomenologically its termination due to changing local disc conditions. We also develop an analytical model for the corotation torque at late times that includes viscosity, for application to discs that sustain modest turbulence. Finally, we use the simulation results to develop torque prescriptions for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation.

  10. Generalized Pseudo-Reaction Zone Model for Non-Ideal Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wescott, Bradley

    2007-06-01

    The pseudo-reaction zone model was proposed to improve engineering scale simulations when using Detonation Shock Dynamics with high explosives that have a slow reaction component. In this work an extension of the pseudo-reaction zone model is developed for non-ideal explosives that propagate well below their steady-planar Chapman-Jouguet velocity. A programmed burn method utilizing Detonation Shock Dynamics and a detonation velocity dependent pseudo-reaction rate has been developed for non-ideal explosives and applied to the explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO). The pseudo-reaction rate is calibrated to the experimentally obtained normal detonation velocity---shock curvature relation. The generalized pseudo-reaction zone model proposed here predicts the cylinder expansion to within 1% by accounting for the slow reaction in ANFO.

  11. Root zone water quality model (RZWQM2): Model use, calibration and validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ma, Liwang; Ahuja, Lajpat; Nolan, B.T.; Malone, Robert; Trout, Thomas; Qi, Z.

    2012-01-01

    The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) has been used widely for simulating agricultural management effects on crop production and soil and water quality. Although it is a one-dimensional model, it has many desirable features for the modeling community. This article outlines the principles of calibrating the model component by component with one or more datasets and validating the model with independent datasets. Users should consult the RZWQM2 user manual distributed along with the model and a more detailed protocol on how to calibrate RZWQM2 provided in a book chapter. Two case studies (or examples) are included in this article. One is from an irrigated maize study in Colorado to illustrate the use of field and laboratory measured soil hydraulic properties on simulated soil water and crop production. It also demonstrates the interaction between soil and plant parameters in simulated plant responses to water stresses. The other is from a maize-soybean rotation study in Iowa to show a manual calibration of the model for crop yield, soil water, and N leaching in tile-drained soils. Although the commonly used trial-and-error calibration method works well for experienced users, as shown in the second example, an automated calibration procedure is more objective, as shown in the first example. Furthermore, the incorporation of the Parameter Estimation Software (PEST) into RZWQM2 made the calibration of the model more efficient than a grid (ordered) search of model parameters. In addition, PEST provides sensitivity and uncertainty analyses that should help users in selecting the right parameters to calibrate.

  12. Optimising the use of marine tephrochronology in the North Atlantic: a detailed investigation of the Faroe Marine Ash Zones II, III and IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, Adam J.; Davies, Siwan M.; Abbott, Peter M.; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Palmer, Adrian P.

    2014-12-01

    Tephrochronology is central to the INTIMATE goals for testing the degree of climatic synchroneity during abrupt climatic events that punctuated the last glacial period. Since their identification in North Atlantic marine sequences, the Faroe Marine Ash Zone II (FMAZ II), FMAZ III and FMAZ IV have received considerable attention due to their potential for high-precision synchronisation with the Greenland ice-cores. In order to optimise the use of these horizons as isochronous markers, a detailed re-investigation of their geochemical composition, sedimentology and the processes that deposited each ash zone is presented. Shard concentration profiles, geochemical homogeneity and micro-sedimentological structures are investigated for each ash zone preserved within core JM11-19PC, retrieved from the southeastern Norwegian Sea on the central North Faroe Slope. This approach allows a thorough assessment of primary ash-fall preservation and secondary depositional features and demonstrates its value for assessing depositional integrity in the marine environment. Results indicate that the FMAZ II and IV are well-resolved primary deposits that can be used as isochrons for high-precision correlation studies. We outline key recommendations for future marine tephra studies and provide a protocol for optimising the application of tephrochronology to meet the INTIMATE synchronisation goals.

  13. THE HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELS OF THE COMETARY COMPACT H ii REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Feng-Yao; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Li, Juan

    2015-10-10

    We have developed a full numerical method to study the gas dynamics of cometary ultracompact H ii regions, and associated photodissociation regions (PDRs). The bow-shock and champagne-flow models with a 40.9/21.9 M{sub ⊙} star are simulated. In the bow-shock models, the massive star is assumed to move through dense (n = 8000 cm{sup −3}) molecular material with a stellar velocity of 15 km s{sup −1}. In the champagne-flow models, an exponential distribution of density with a scale height of 0.2 pc is assumed. The profiles of the [Ne ii] 12.81 μm and H{sub 2} S(2) lines from the ionized regionsmore » and PDRs are compared for two sets of models. In champagne-flow models, emission lines from the ionized gas clearly show the effect of acceleration along the direction toward the tail due to the density gradient. The kinematics of the molecular gas inside the dense shell are mainly due to the expansion of the H ii region. However, in bow-shock models the ionized gas mainly moves in the same direction as the stellar motion. The kinematics of the molecular gas inside the dense shell simply reflects the motion of the dense shell with respect to the star. These differences can be used to distinguish two sets of models.« less

  14. Modeling Fe II Emission and Revised Fe II (UV) Empirical Templates for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy I Zw 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhweiler, F.; Verner, E.

    2008-03-01

    We use the narrow-lined broad-line region (BLR) of the Seyfert 1 galaxy, I Zw 1, as a laboratory for modeling the ultraviolet (UV) Fe II 2100-3050 Å emission complex. We calculate a grid of Fe II emission spectra representative of BLR clouds and compare them with the observed I Zw 1 spectrum. Our predicted spectrum for log [nH/(cm -3) ] = 11.0, log [ΦH/(cm -2 s-1) ] = 20.5, and ξ/(1 km s-1) = 20, using Cloudy and an 830 level model atom for Fe II with energies up to 14.06 eV, gives a better fit to the UV Fe II emission than models with fewer levels. Our analysis indicates (1) the observed UV Fe II emission must be corrected for an underlying Fe II pseudocontinuum; (2) Fe II emission peaks can be misidentified as that of other ions in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with narrow-lined BLRs possibly affecting deduced physical parameters; (3) the shape of 4200-4700 Å Fe II emission in I Zw 1 and other AGNs is a relative indicator of narrow-line region (NLR) and BLR Fe II emission; (4) predicted ratios of Lyα, C III], and Fe II emission relative to Mg II λ2800 agree with extinction corrected observed I Zw 1 fluxes, except for C IV λ1549 (5) the sensitivity of Fe II emission strength to microturbulence ξ casts doubt on existing relative Fe/Mg abundances derived from Fe II (UV)/Mg II flux ratios. Our calculated Fe II emission spectra, suitable for BLRs in AGNs, are available at http://iacs.cua.edu/people/verner/FeII. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 05-26555.

  15. Modeling and Simulation. II. Specificity Models for Visual Cortex Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-12

    136; 1978. .1. Barlow, 11. B . and WV. 1H. Levick , The mechanism of directionallv-select ive units In rabbit’s retina, J. Physiol 178, 477d-501; 1965. 5...RESEAR.. UNCLRSSIFIED A B SAUL ET AL. 12 DEC B6 TR-35 F/G 6/16 EEEEEEEEEEEEE EEEEEEEEEEEEEEIEEIIIIIIIIIIIIIl k-0 1.2 33 4.p p ’.r11.P ’.4 % INN’* 8... b ( iiquiet eel Is’ . GAHA~. is 1 rlm hlv thie t ra nsmiitt er for tIi ese nienron" 82, and tIi ei r ,y imap,-es are loea.t e(l ofl (it her t he

  16. Predictive data modeling of human type II diabetes related statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Kristina L.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Albritton, Nathaniel G.

    2009-04-01

    During the course of routine Type II treatment of one of the authors, it was decided to derive predictive analytical Data Models of the daily sampled vital statistics: namely weight, blood pressure, and blood sugar, to determine if the covariance among the observed variables could yield a descriptive equation based model, or better still, a predictive analytical model that could forecast the expected future trend of the variables and possibly eliminate the number of finger stickings required to montior blood sugar levels. The personal history and analysis with resulting models are presented.

  17. Quantifying Hydro-biogeochemical Model Sensitivity in Assessment of Climate Change Effect on Hyporheic Zone Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Chen, X.; Dai, H.; Hammond, G. E.; Song, H. S.; Stegen, J.

    2016-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is an active region for biogeochemical processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling, where the groundwater and surface water mix and interact with each other with distinct biogeochemical and thermal properties. The biogeochemical dynamics within the hyporheic zone are driven by both river water and groundwater hydraulic dynamics, which are directly affected by climate change scenarios. Besides that, the hydraulic and thermal properties of local sediments and microbial and chemical processes also play important roles in biogeochemical dynamics. Thus for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in the hyporheic zone, a coupled thermo-hydro-biogeochemical model is needed. As multiple uncertainty sources are involved in the integrated model, it is important to identify its key modules/parameters through sensitivity analysis. In this study, we develop a 2D cross-section model in the hyporheic zone at the DOE Hanford site adjacent to Columbia River and use this model to quantify module and parametric sensitivity on assessment of climate change. To achieve this purpose, We 1) develop a facies-based groundwater flow and heat transfer model that incorporates facies geometry and heterogeneity characterized from a field data set, 2) derive multiple reaction networks/pathways from batch experiments with in-situ samples and integrate temperate dependent reactive transport modules to the flow model, 3) assign multiple climate change scenarios to the coupled model by analyzing historical river stage data, 4) apply a variance-based global sensitivity analysis to quantify scenario/module/parameter uncertainty in hierarchy level. The objectives of the research include: 1) identifing the key control factors of the coupled thermo-hydro-biogeochemical model in the assessment of climate change, and 2) quantify the carbon consumption in different climate change scenarios in the hyporheic zone.

  18. Analogue modelling of inclined, brittle-ductile transpression: Testing analytical models through natural shear zones (external Betics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos, L.; Díaz-Azpiroz, M.; Balanyá, J. C.; Expósito, I.; Jiménez-Bonilla, A.; Faccenna, C.

    2016-07-01

    The combination of analytical and analogue models gives new opportunities to better understand the kinematic parameters controlling the evolution of transpression zones. In this work, we carried out a set of analogue models using the kinematic parameters of transpressional deformation obtained by applying a general triclinic transpression analytical model to a tabular-shaped shear zone in the external Betic Chain (Torcal de Antequera massif). According to the results of the analytical model, we used two oblique convergence angles to reproduce the main structural and kinematic features of structural domains observed within the Torcal de Antequera massif (α = 15° for the outer domains and α = 30° for the inner domain). Two parallel inclined backstops (one fixed and the other mobile) reproduce the geometry of the shear zone walls of the natural case. Additionally, we applied digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) method to calculate the velocity field of the incremental deformation. Our results suggest that the spatial distribution of the main structures observed in the Torcal de Antequera massif reflects different modes of strain partitioning and strain localization between two domain types, which are related to the variation in the oblique convergence angle and the presence of steep planar velocity - and rheological - discontinuities (the shear zone walls in the natural case). In the 15° model, strain partitioning is simple and strain localization is high: a single narrow shear zone is developed close and parallel to the fixed backstop, bounded by strike-slip faults and internally deformed by R and P shears. In the 30° model, strain partitioning is strong, generating regularly spaced oblique-to-the backstops thrusts and strike-slip faults. At final stages of the 30° experiment, deformation affects the entire model box. Our results show that the application of analytical modelling to natural transpressive zones related to upper crustal deformation

  19. Mojave Compliant Zone Structure and Properties: Constraints from InSAR and Mechanical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, E. H.; Fialko, Y.; Finzi, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Long-lived zones with significantly lower elastic strength than their surroundings are associated with active Mojave faults (e.g., Li et al., 1999; Fialko et al., 2002, 2004). In an earthquake these weak features concentrate strain, causing them to show up as anomalous, short length-scale features in SAR interferograms (Fialko et al., 2002). Fault-zone trapped wave studies indicate that the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake caused a small reduction in P- and S-wave velocities in a compliant zone along the Landers earthquake rupture (Vidale and Li, 2003). This suggests that coseismic strain concentration, and the resulting damage, in the compliant zone caused a further reduction in its elastic strength. Even a small coseismic strength drop should make a compliant zone (CZ) deform, in response to the total (not just the coseismic) stress. The strain should be in the sense which is compatible with the orientations and values of the region's principal stresses. However, as indicated by Fialko and co-workers (2002, 2004), the sense of coseismic strain of Mojave compliant zones was consistent with coseismic stress change, not the regional (background) stress. Here we use finite-element models to investigate how InSAR measurements of Mojave compliant zone coseismic strain places limits on their dimensions and on upper crustal stresses. We find that unless the CZ is shallow, narrow, and has a high Poisson's ratio (e.g., 0.4), CZ contraction under lithostatic stress overshadows deformation due to deviatoric background stress or coseismic stress change. We present ranges of CZ dimensions which are compatible with the observed surface deformation and address how these dimensions compare with new results from damage-controlled fault evolution models.

  20. Low grade metamorphism fluid circulation in a sedimentary environment thrust fault zone: properties and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trincal, Vincent; Lacroix, Brice; Buatier, Martine D.; Charpentier, Delphine; Labaume, Pierre; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2014-05-01

    analyses were conducted in order to compare the green phyllonites from the fault core zone with the red pelites from the damage zone. Quartz, muscovite 2M1, chlorite (clinochlore), calcite and rutile are present in all samples. Hematite occurs in the damage zone but is absent in the core zone. Synkinematic chlorites are abundant in the core and damage zones and are mainly located in veins, sometimes in association with quartz. The temperature of formation of these newly-formed chlorites is 300-350° C according to Inoue (2009) geothermometer. Mössbauer spectroscopic analyses were performed on bulk rock samples. In the damage zone, Fe3+/Fetotal vary between 0.7 and 0.8, whereas in the core zone Fe3+/Fetotal is about 0.35. This decrease in Fe3+ from the damage zone to the core zone can be related to the dissolution of hematite. In contrast, Fe3+/Fetotal in phyllosilicates is clearly related to the chlorite content relative to mica, as Fe2+ increases with chlorite content. All these data allow us to propose a model of fluid circulation in relation with the Pic de Port Vieux thrust activity. The origin of the fluid, its interactions with host-rock and the consequences on fault zone mineralizations will be discussed. Inoue, A., Meunier, A., Patrier-Mas, P., Rigault, C., Beaufort, D., Vieillard, P., 2009. Application of chemical geothermometry to low-temperature trioctahedral chlorites. Clay Clay Min. 57, 371-382.

  1. Modeling CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers for effects of thorium-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    St-Aubin, E.; Marleau, G.

    2012-07-01

    We use the DRAGON code to model the CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers and evaluate the effects of thorium-based fuels on their incremental cross sections and reactivity worth. We optimize both the numerical quadrature and spatial discretization for 2D cell models in order to provide accurate fuel properties for 3D liquid zone controller supercell models. We propose a low computer cost parameterized pseudo-exact 3D cluster geometries modeling approach that avoids tracking issues on small external surfaces. This methodology provides consistent incremental cross sections and reactivity worths when the thickness of the buffer region is reduced. When compared with an approximate annularmore » geometry representation of the fuel and coolant region, we observe that the cluster description of fuel bundles in the supercell models does not increase considerably the precision of the results while increasing substantially the CPU time. In addition, this comparison shows that it is imperative to finely describe the liquid zone controller geometry since it has a strong impact of the incremental cross sections. This paper also shows that liquid zone controller reactivity worth is greatly decreased in presence of thorium-based fuels compared to the reference natural uranium fuel, since the fission and the fast to thermal scattering incremental cross sections are higher for the new fuels. (authors)« less

  2. Wave Climate and Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones of Arctic Seas, Observations and Modelling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    At the same time, the PIs participate in Australian efforts of developing wave-ocean- ice coupled models for Antarctica . Specific new physics modules...Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones of Arctic Seas, Observations and Modelling Alexander V. Babanin Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box...operational forecast. Altimeter climatology and the wave models will be used to study the current and future wind/wave and ice trends. APPROACH

  3. The single-zone numerical model of homogeneous charge compression ignition engine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyanov, E. A.; Itkis, E. M.; Kuzmin, V. N.; Shumskiy, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    The single-zone model of methane-air mixture combustion in the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engine was developed. First modeling efforts resulted in the selection of the detailed kinetic reaction mechanism, most appropriate for the conditions of the HCCI process. Then, the model was completed so as to simulate the performance of the four-stroke engine and was coupled by physically reasonable adjusting functions. Validation of calculations against experimental data showed acceptable agreement.

  4. Creep model of unsaturated sliding zone soils and long-term deformation analysis of landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liangchao; Wang, Shimei; Zhang, Yeming

    2015-04-01

    Sliding zone soil is a special soil layer formed in the development of a landslide. Its creep behavior plays a significant role in long-term deformation of landslides. Due to rainfall infiltration and reservoir water level fluctuation, the soils in the slide zone are often in unsaturated state. Therefore, the investigation of creep behaviors of the unsaturated sliding zone soils is of great importance for understanding the mechanism of the long-term deformation of a landslide in reservoir areas. In this study, the full-process creep curves of the unsaturated soils in the sliding zone in different net confining pressure, matric suctions and stress levels were obtained from a large number of laboratory triaxial creep tests. A nonlinear creep model for unsaturated soils and its three-dimensional form was then deduced based on the component model theory and unsaturated soil mechanics. This creep model was validated with laboratory creep data. The results show that this creep model can effectively and accurately describe the nonlinear creep behaviors of the unsaturated sliding zone soils. In order to apply this creep model to predict the long-term deformation process of landslides, a numerical model for simulating the coupled seepage and creep deformation of unsaturated sliding zone soils was developed based on this creep model through the finite element method (FEM). By using this numerical model, we simulated the deformation process of the Shuping landslide located in the Three Gorges reservoir area, under the cycling reservoir water level fluctuation during one year. The simulation results of creep displacement were then compared with the field deformation monitoring data, showing a good agreement in trend. The results show that the creeping deformations of landslides have strong connections with the changes of reservoir water level. The creep model of unsaturated sliding zone soils and the findings obtained by numerical simulations in this study are conducive to

  5. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Adam J., E-mail: adam_olszewski@brown.edu; Desai, Amrita

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortalmore » time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas.« less

  6. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, John; Greer, Chris; O'Connor, Ben L.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support the utility-scale solar energy development at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) solar energy program.

  7. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow in vadose zone and groundwater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One habitual simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone are not significant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In ...

  8. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, John; Carr, Adrianne E.; Greer, Chris

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support utility-scale solar energy development at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone (SEZ), as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program.

  9. Reanalysis of water and carbon cycle models at a critical zone observatory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) is a forested, hill-slope catchment located in the temperate-climate of central Pennsylvania with an extensive network of ground-based instrumentation for model testing and development. In this paper we discuss the use of multi-state fi...

  10. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  11. Application of Data Assimilation with the Root Zone Water Quality Model for Soil Moisture Profile Estimation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), a popular data assimilation technique for non-linear systems was applied to the Root Zone Water Quality Model. Measured soil moisture data at four different depths (5cm, 20cm, 40cm and 60cm) from two agricultural fields (AS1 and AS2) in northeastern Indiana were us...

  12. Comparison of modeled traffic exposure zones using on-road air pollution measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeled traffic data were used to develop traffic exposure zones (TEZs) such as traffic delay, high volume, and transit routes in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA). On-road air pollution measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxid...

  13. Development and testing of a compartmentalized reaction network model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith; Kent, Douglas B.

    1998-01-01

    The work reported here is the first part of a larger effort focused on efficient numerical simulation of redox zone development in contaminated aquifers. The sequential use of various electron acceptors, which is governed by the energy yield of each reaction, gives rise to redox zones. The large difference in energy yields between the various redox reactions leads to systems of equations that are extremely ill-conditioned. These equations are very difficult to solve, especially in the context of coupled fluid flow, solute transport, and geochemical simulations. We have developed a general, rational method to solve such systems where we focus on the dominant reactions, compartmentalizing them in a manner that is analogous to the redox zones that are often observed in the field. The compartmentalized approach allows us to easily solve a complex geochemical system as a function of time and energy yield, laying the foundation for our ongoing work in which we couple the reaction network, for the development of redox zones, to a model of subsurface fluid flow and solute transport. Our method (1) solves the numerical system without evoking a redox parameter, (2) improves the numerical stability of redox systems by choosing which compartment and thus which reaction network to use based upon the concentration ratios of key constituents, (3) simulates the development of redox zones as a function of time without the use of inhibition factors or switching functions, and (4) can reduce the number of transport equations that need to be solved in space and time. We show through the use of various model performance evaluation statistics that the appropriate compartment choice under different geochemical conditions leads to numerical solutions without significant error. The compartmentalized approach described here facilitates the next phase of this effort where we couple the redox zone reaction network to models of fluid flow and solute transport.

  14. Nonlinear convective pulsation models of type II Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolec, Radoslaw

    2015-08-01

    We present a grid of nonlinear convective pulsation models of type-II Cepheids: BL Her stars, W Vir stars and RV Tau stars. The models cover a wide range of masses, luminosities, effective temperatures and chemical compositions. The most interesting result is detection of deterministic chaos in the models. Different routes to chaos are detected (period doubling, intermittent route) as well as variety of phenomena intrinsic to chaotic dynamics (periodic islands within chaotic bands, crisis bifurcation, type-I and type-III intermittency). Some of the phenomena (period doubling in BL Her and in RV Tau stars, irregular pulsation of RV Tau stars) are well known in the pulsation of type-II Cepheids. Prospects of discovering the other are briefly discussed. Transition from BL Her type pulsation through W Vir type till RV Tau type is analysed. In the most luminous models a dynamical instability is detected, which indicates that pulsation driven mass loss is important process occurring in type-II Cepheids.

  15. SPARTAN II: An Instructional High Resolution Land Combat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    93M-09 SPARTAN II: AN INSTRUCTIONAL HIGH RESOLUTION LAND COMBAT MODEL THESIS DWquALfl’ 4 Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the...ADVISOR NAJ Edward Negrelli/ENS REALDER MAJ Bruce Marl an/MA LD1 { The goal of this thesis was to improve SPARTAN, a high resolution land combat model...should serve as a useful tool for learning about the advantages and disadvantages of high resolution combat modeling. I wish to thank I4AJ Edward

  16. Fault compaction and overpressured faults: results from a 3-D model of a ductile fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

    2003-10-01

    A model of a ductile fault zone is incorporated into a forward 3-D earthquake model to better constrain fault-zone hydraulics. The conceptual framework of the model fault zone was chosen such that two distinct parts are recognized. The fault core, characterized by a relatively low permeability, is composed of a coseismic fault surface embedded in a visco-elastic volume that can creep and compact. The fault core is surrounded by, and mostly sealed from, a high permeability damaged zone. The model fault properties correspond explicitly to those of the coseismic fault core. Porosity and pore pressure evolve to account for the viscous compaction of the fault core, while stresses evolve in response to the applied tectonic loading and to shear creep of the fault itself. A small diffusive leakage is allowed in and out of the fault zone. Coseismically, porosity is created to account for frictional dilatancy. We show in the case of a 3-D fault model with no in-plane flow and constant fluid compressibility, pore pressures do not drop to hydrostatic levels after a seismic rupture, leading to an overpressured weak fault. Since pore pressure plays a key role in the fault behaviour, we investigate coseismic hydraulic property changes. In the full 3-D model, pore pressures vary instantaneously by the poroelastic effect during the propagation of the rupture. Once the stress state stabilizes, pore pressures are incrementally redistributed in the failed patch. We show that the significant effect of pressure-dependent fluid compressibility in the no in-plane flow case becomes a secondary effect when the other spatial dimensions are considered because in-plane flow with a near-lithostatically pressured neighbourhood equilibrates at a pressure much higher than hydrostatic levels, forming persistent high-pressure fluid compartments. If the observed faults are not all overpressured and weak, other mechanisms, not included in this model, must be at work in nature, which need to be

  17. Linear-stability theory of thermocapillary convection in a model of float-zone crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. P.; Chang, K.-T.; Jankowski, D. F.; Mittelmann, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Linear-stability theory has been applied to a basic state of thermocapillary convection in a model half-zone to determine values of the Marangoni number above which instability is guaranteed. The basic state must be determined numerically since the half-zone is of finite, O(1) aspect ratio with two-dimensional flow and temperature fields. This, in turn, means that the governing equations for disturbance quantities will remain partial differential equations. The disturbance equations are treated by a staggered-grid discretization scheme. Results are presented for a variety of parameters of interest in the problem, including both terrestrial and microgravity cases.

  18. Transfer zones and fault reactivation in inverted rift basins: Insights from physical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinovskaya, Elena A.; Harris, Lyal B.; Poulin, Jimmy; Ivanov, Gennady M.

    2007-08-01

    Lateral transfer zones of deformation and fault reactivation were investigated in multilayered silicone-sand models during extension and subsequent co-axial shortening. Model materials were selected to meet similarity criteria and to be distinguished on CT scans; this approach permitted non-destructive visualisation of the progressive evolution of structures. Transfer zones were initiated by an orthogonal offset in the geometry of a basal mobile aluminium sheet and/or by variations of layer thickness or material rheology in basal layers. Transfer zones affected rift propagation and fault kinematics in models. Propagation and overlapping rift culminations occurred in transfer zones during extension. During shortening, deviation in the orientation of frontal thrusts and fold axes occurred within transfer zones in brittle and ductile layers, respectively. CT scans showed that steep (58-67°) rift-margin normal faults were reactivated as reverse faults. The reactivated faults rotated to shallower dips (19-38°) with continuing shortening after 100% inversion. Rotation of rift phase faults appears to be due to deep level folding and uplift during the inversion phase. New thrust faults with shallow dips (20-34°) formed outside the inverted graben at late stages of shortening. Frontal ramps propagated laterally past the transfer structure during shortening. During inversion, the layers filling the rift structures underwent lateral compression at the depth, the graben fill was pushed up and outwards creating local extension near the surface. Sand marker layers in inverted graben have showed fold-like structures or rotation and tilting in the rifts and on the rift margins. The results of our experiments conform well to natural examples of inverted graben. Inverted rift basins are structurally complex and often difficult to interpret in seismic data. The models may help to unravel the structure and evolution of these systems, leading to improved hydrocarbon exploration

  19. Viscoelastic shear zone model of a strike-slip earthquake cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2001-01-01

    I examine the behavior of a two-dimensional (2-D) strike-slip fault system embedded in a 1-D elastic layer (schizosphere) overlying a uniform viscoelastic half-space (plastosphere) and within the boundaries of a finite width shear zone. The viscoelastic coupling model of Savage and Prescott [1978] considers the viscoelastic response of this system, in the absence of the shear zone boundaries, to an earthquake occurring within the upper elastic layer, steady slip beneath a prescribed depth, and the superposition of the responses of multiple earthquakes with characteristic slip occurring at regular intervals. So formulated, the viscoelastic coupling model predicts that sufficiently long after initiation of the system, (1) average fault-parallel velocity at any point is the average slip rate of that side of the fault and (2) far-field velocities equal the same constant rate. Because of the sensitivity to the mechanical properties of the schizosphere-plastosphere system (i.e., elastic layer thickness, plastosphere viscosity), this model has been used to infer such properties from measurements of interseismic velocity. Such inferences exploit the predicted behavior at a known time within the earthquake cycle. By modifying the viscoelastic coupling model to satisfy the additional constraint that the absolute velocity at prescribed shear zone boundaries is constant, I find that even though the time-averaged behavior remains the same, the spatiotemporal pattern of surface deformation (particularly its temporal variation within an earthquake cycle) is markedly different from that predicted by the conventional viscoelastic coupling model. These differences are magnified as plastosphere viscosity is reduced or as the recurrence interval of periodic earthquakes is lengthened. Application to the interseismic velocity field along the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault suggests that the region behaves mechanically like a ???600-km-wide shear zone accommodating 50 mm/yr fault

  20. An Extended Multi-Zone Model for the MCG-6-30-15 Warm Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, R.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2000-01-01

    The variable warm absorber seen with ASCA in the X-ray spectrum of MCG 6-30-15 shows complex time behaviour in which the optical depth of O VIII anticorrelates with the flux whereas that of O VII is unchanging. The explanation in terms of a two zone absorber has since been challenged by BeppoSAX observations. These present a more complicated behaviour for the O VII edge. The explanation we offer for both ASCA and BeppoSAX observations requires a very simple photoionization model together with the presence of a third, intermediate, zone and a period of very low luminosity. In practice warm absorbers are likely to be extended, multi-zone regions of which only part causes directly observable absorption edges at any given time depending on the value of the luminosity.

  1. Time-lapse gravity data for monitoring and modeling artificial recharge through a thick unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).

  2. Time-lapse gravity data for monitoring and modeling artificial recharge through a thick unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).

  3. Parametric modeling studies of turbulent non-premixed jet flames with thin reaction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng

    2013-11-01

    The Sydney piloted jet flame series (Flames L, B, and M) feature thinner reaction zones and hence impose greater challenges to modeling than the Sanida Piloted jet flames (Flames D, E, and F). Recently, the Sydney flames received renewed interest due to these challenges. Several new modeling efforts have emerged. However, no systematic parametric modeling studies have been reported for the Sydney flames. A large set of modeling computations of the Sydney flames is presented here by using the coupled large eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) method. Parametric studies are performed to gain insight into the model performance, its sensitivity and the effect of numerics.

  4. An Analysis Plan for the ARCOMS II (Armor Combat Operations Model Support II) Experiment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    In order to facilitate Armor Combat Modeling, the data analysis shculd focus upon the methods which transform the data intc descriptive or predictive ...discussed in Chapter III tc predict the Farameter for probability of detection in time ŕt. This should be compared with the results of the N.4gh -t Vision...J 6A 46.) I-I 0 f U-CL 0~ z o -Z 06 09 03 v 0 0 SJldnYS 10 ON Ipgr Cp o LSTm n at emn itgas 4AA rI z ;A (AZ - 090.0 UlA0 -O ON 404 Fiur CAd &P CC

  5. The thermochemical, two-phase dynamics of subduction zones: results from new, fully coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees Jones, D. W.; Katz, R. F.; May, D.; Tian, M.; Rudge, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction zones are responsible for most of Earth's subaerial volcanism. However, previous geodynamic modelling of subduction zones has largely neglected magmatism. We previously showed that magmatism has a significant thermal impact, by advecting sensible heat into the lithosphere beneath arc volcanos [1]. Inclusion of this effect helps reconcile subduction zone models with petrological and heat flow observations. Many important questions remain, including how magma-mantle dynamics of subduction zones affects the position of arc volcanos and the character of their lavas. In this presentation, we employ a fully coupled, thermochemical, two-phase flow theory to investigate the dynamics of subduction zones. We present the first results from our new software (SubFUSc), which solves the coupled equations governing conservation of mass, momentum, energy and chemical species. The presence and migration of partial melts affect permeability and mantle viscosity (both directly and through their thermal impact); these, in turn, feed back on the magma-mantle flow. Thus our fully coupled modelling improves upon previous two-phase models that decoupled the governing equations and fixed the thermal structure [2]. To capture phase change, we use a novel, simplified model of the mantle melting in the presence of volatile species. As in the natural system, volatiles are associated with low-degree melting at temperatures beneath the anhydrous solidus; dehydration reactions in the slab supply volatiles into the wedge, triggering silicic melting. We simulate the migration of melts under buoyancy forces and dynamic pressure gradients. We thereby demonstrate the dynamical controls on the pattern of subduction-zone volcanism (particularly its location, magnitude, and chemical composition). We build on our previous study of the thermal consequences of magma genesis and segregation. We address the question of what controls the location of arc volcanoes themselves [3]. [1] Rees Jones, D. W

  6. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume II ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SWMM is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. The runoff component of SWMM operates on a collection of subcatchment areas that receive precipitation and generate runoff and pollutant loads. The routing portion of SWMM transports this runoff through a system of pipes, channels, storage/treatment devices, pumps, and regulators. SWMM tracks the quantity and quality of runoff generated within each subcatchment, and the flow rate, flow depth, and quality of water in each pipe and channel during a simulation period comprised of multiple time steps. The reference manual for this edition of SWMM is comprised of three volumes. Volume I describes SWMM’s hydrologic models, Volume II its hydraulic models, and Volume III its water quality and low impact development models. This document provides the underlying mathematics for the hydraulic calculations of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

  7. Crustal magnetization and accretion at the Southwest Indian Ridge near the Atlantis II fracture zone, 0-25 Ma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosford, A.; Tivey, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Dick, H.; Schouten, Hans; Kinoshita, H.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze geophysical data that extend from 0 to 25-Myr-old seafloor on both flanks of the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). Lineated marine magnetic anomalies are consistent and identifiable within the study area, even over seafloor lacking a basaltic upper crust. The full spreading rate of 14 km/Myr has remained nearly constant since at least 20 Ma, but crustal accretion has been highly asymmetric, with half rates of 8.5 and 5.5 km/Myr on the Antarctic and African flanks, respectively. This asymmetry may be unique to a ???400 km wide corridor between large-offset fracture zones of the SWIR. In contrast to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, crustal magnetization amplitudes correlate directly with seafloor topography along the present-day rift valleys. This pattern appears to be primarily a function of along-axis variations in crustal thickness, rather than magnetic mineralogy. Off-axis, magnetization amplitudes at paleo-segment ends are more positive than at paleo-segment midpoints, suggesting the presence of an induced component of magnetization within the lower crust or serpentinized upper mantle. Alteration of the magnetic source layer at paleo-segment midpoints reduces magnetization amplitudes by 70-80% within 20 Myr of accretion. Magnetic and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 735B data suggest that the lower crust cooled quickly enough to lock in a primary thermoremanent magnetization that is in phase with that of the overlying upper crust. Thus magnetic polarity boundaries within the intrusive lower crust may be steeper than envisioned in prior models of ocean crustal magnetization. As the crust ages, the lower crust becomes increasingly important in preserving marine magnetic stripes.

  8. Subduction zone decoupling/retreat modeling explains south Tibet (Xigaze) and other supra-subduction zone ophiolites and their UHP mineral phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Jared P.; Beaumont, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The plate tectonic setting in which proto-ophiolite 'oceanic' lithosphere is created remains controversial with a number of environments suggested. Recent opinions tend to coalesce around supra-subduction zone (SSZ) forearc extension, with a popular conceptual model in which the proto-ophiolite forms during foundering of oceanic lithosphere at the time of spontaneous or induced onset of subduction. This mechanism is favored in intra-oceanic settings where the subducting lithosphere is old and the upper plate is young and thin. We investigate an alternative mechanism; namely, decoupling of the subducting oceanic lithosphere in the forearc of an active continental margin, followed by subduction zone (trench) retreat and creation of a forearc oceanic rift basin, containing proto-ophiolite lithosphere, between the continental margin and the retreating subduction zone. A template of 2D numerical model experiments examines the trade-off between strength of viscous coupling in the lithospheric subduction channel and net slab pull of the subducting lithosphere. Three tectonic styles are observed: 1) C, continuous subduction without forearc decoupling; 2) R, forearc decoupling followed by rapid subduction zone retreat; 3) B, breakoff of subducting lithosphere followed by re-initiation of subduction and in some cases, forearc decoupling (B-R). In one case (BA-B-R; where BA denotes backarc) subduction zone retreat follows backarc rifting. Subduction zone decoupling is analyzed using frictional-plastic yield theory and the Stefan solution for the separation of plates containing a viscous fluid. The numerical model results are used to explain the formation of Xigaze group ophiolites, southern Tibet, which formed in the Lhasa terrane forearc, likely following earlier subduction and not necessarily during subduction initiation. Either there was normal coupled subduction before subduction zone decoupling, or precursor slab breakoff, subduction re-initiation and then decoupling

  9. Validating modelled variable surface saturation in the riparian zone with thermal infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Barbara; Klaus, Julian; Frei, Sven; Frentress, Jay; Pfister, Laurent; Hopp, Luisa

    2015-04-01

    Variable contributing areas and hydrological connectivity have become prominent new concepts for hydrologic process understanding in recent years. The dynamic connectivity within the hillslope-riparian-stream (HRS) system is known to have a first order control on discharge generation and especially the riparian zone functions as runoff buffering or producing zone. However, despite their importance, the highly dynamic processes of contraction and extension of saturation within the riparian zone and its impact on runoff generation still remain not fully understood. In this study, we analysed the potential of a distributed, fully coupled and physically based model (HydroGeoSphere) to represent the spatial and temporal water flux dynamics of a forested headwater HRS system (6 ha) in western Luxembourg. The model was set up and parameterised under consideration of experimentally-derived knowledge of catchment structure and was run for a period of four years (October 2010 to August 2014). For model evaluation, we especially focused on the temporally varying spatial patterns of surface saturation. We used ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to map surface saturation with a high spatial and temporal resolution and collected 20 panoramic snapshots of the riparian zone (ca. 10 by 20 m) under different hydrologic conditions. These TIR panoramas were used in addition to several classical discharge and soil moisture time series for a spatially-distributed model validation. In a manual calibration process we optimised model parameters (e.g. porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, evaporation depth) to achieve a better agreement between observed and modelled discharges and soil moistures. The subsequent validation of surface saturation patterns by a visual comparison of processed TIR panoramas and corresponding model output panoramas revealed an overall good accordance for all but one region that was always too dry in the model. However, quantitative comparisons of

  10. A compartmentalized solute transport model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers: 2. Field‐scale simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper, the second of two parts [see Abrams and Loague, this issue], reports the field‐scale application of COMPTRAN (compartmentalized solute transport model) for simulating the development of redox zones. COMPTRAN is fully developed and described in the companion paper. Redox zones, which are often delineated by the relative concentrations of dissolved oxygen, have been observed around the globe. The distribution of other redox‐sensitive species is affected by redox zonation. At the U.S. Geological Survey's Cape Cod research site, an anoxic zone containing high concentrations of dissolved iron has been observed. Field data were abstracted from the Cape Cod site for the one‐dimensional and two‐dimensional COMPTRAN simulations reported in this paper. The purpose of the concept‐development simulations was to demonstrate that the compartmentalized approach reported by Abrams et al. [1998] can be linked with a solute transport model to simulate field‐scale phenomena. The results presented in this paper show that COMPTRAN successfully simulated the development of redox zones at the field scale, including trends in pH and alkalinity. Thermodynamic constraints were used to prevent lower‐energy redox reactions from occurring under infeasible geochemical conditions without imposing equilibrium among all redox species. Empirical methods of reaction inhibition were not needed for the simulations conducted for this study. COMPTRAN can be extended easily to include additional compartments and reactions and is capable of handling complex velocity fields in more than one dimension.

  11. Large Black Holes in the Randall-Sundrum II Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghoobpour Tari, Shima

    The Einstein equation with a negative cosmological constant ! in the five dimensions for the Randall-Sundrum II model, which includes a black hole, has been solved numerically. We have constructed an AdS5-CFT 4 solution numerically, using a spectral method to minimize the integral of the square of the error of the Einstein equation, with 210 parameters to be determined by optimization. This metric is conformal to the Schwarzschild metric at an AdS5 boundary with an infinite scale factor. So, we consider this solution as an infinite-mass black hole solution. We have rewritten the infinite-mass black hole in the Fefferman-Graham form and obtained the numerical components of the CFT energy-momentum tensor. Using them, we have perturbed the metric to relocate the brane from infinity and obtained a large static black hole solution for the Randall- Sundrum II model. The changes of mass, entropy, temperature and area of the large black hole from the Schwarzschild metric are studied up to the first order for the perturbation parameter 1/(-Λ5M 2). The Hawking temperature and entropy for our large black hole have the same values as the Schwarzschild metric with the same mass, but the horizon area is increased by about 4.7/(-Λ5). Figueras, Lucietti, and Wiseman found an AdS5-CFT4 solution using an independent and different method from us, called the Ricci-DeTurck-flow method. Then, Figueras and Wiseman perturbed this solution in a same way as we have done and obtained the solution for the large black hole in the Randall-Sundrum II model. These two numerical solutions are the first mathematical proofs for having a large black hole in the Randall-Sundrum II. We have compared their results with ours for the CFT energy-momentum tensor components and the perturbed metric. We have shown that the results are closely in agreement, which can be considered as evidence that the solution for the large black hole in the Randall-Sundrum II model exists.

  12. Towards "realistic" fault zones in a 3D structure model of the Thuringian Basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, J.; Malz, A.; Donndorf, S.; Fischer, T.; Zehner, B.

    2012-04-01

    3D computer models of geological architecture are evolving into a standard tool for visualization and analysis. Such models typically comprise the bounding surfaces of stratigraphic layers and faults. Faults affect the continuity of aquifers and can themselves act as fluid conduits or barriers. This is one reason why a "realistic" representation of faults in 3D models is desirable. Still so, many existing models treat faults in a simplistic fashion, e.g. as vertical downward projections of fault traces observed at the surface. Besides being geologically and mechanically unreasonable, this also causes technical difficulties in the modelling workflow. Most natural faults are inclined and may change dips according to rock type or flatten into mechanically weak layers. Boreholes located close to a fault can therefore cross it at depth, resulting in stratigraphic control points allocated to the wrong block. Also, faults tend to split up into several branches, forming fault zones. Obtaining a more accurate representation of faults and fault zones is therefore challenging. We present work-in-progress from the Thuringian Basin in central Germany. The fault zone geometries are never fully constrained by data and must be extrapolated to depth. We use balancing of serial, parallel cross-sections to constrain subsurface extrapolations. The structure sections are checked for consistency by restoring them to an undeformed state. If this is possible without producing gaps or overlaps, the interpretation is considered valid (but not unique) for a single cross-section. Additional constraints are provided by comparison of adjacent cross-sections. Structures should change continuously from one section to another. Also, from the deformed and restored cross-sections we can measure the strain incurred during deformation. Strain should be compatible among the cross-sections: If at all, it should vary smoothly and systematically along a given fault zone. The stratigraphic contacts and

  13. A kinematic model for the evolution of the Eastern California Shear Zone and Garlock Fault, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Timothy H.; Xie, Surui

    2018-07-01

    The Eastern California shear zone in the Mojave Desert, California, accommodates nearly a quarter of Pacific-North America plate motion. In south-central Mojave, the shear zone consists of six active faults, with the central Calico fault having the fastest slip rate. However, faults to the east of the Calico fault have larger total offsets. We explain this pattern of slip rate and total offset with a model involving a crustal block (the Mojave Block) that migrates eastward relative to a shear zone at depth whose position and orientation is fixed by the Coachella segment of the San Andreas fault (SAF), southwest of the transpressive "big bend" in the SAF. Both the shear zone and the Garlock fault are assumed to be a direct result of this restraining bend, and consequent strain redistribution. The model explains several aspects of local and regional tectonics, may apply to other transpressive continental plate boundary zones, and may improve seismic hazard estimates in these zones.

  14. The effect of adipose derived stromal vascular fraction on stasis zone in an experimental burn model.

    PubMed

    Eyuboglu, Atilla Adnan; Uysal, Cagri A; Ozgun, Gonca; Coskun, Erhan; Markal Ertas, Nilgun; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Stasis zone is the surrounding area of the coagulation zone which is an important part determining the extent of the necrosis in burn patients. In our study we aim to salvage the stasis zone by injecting adipose derived stromal vascular fraction (ADSVF). Thermal injury was applied on dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20) by the "comb burn" model as described previously. When the burn injury was established on Sprague-Dawley rats (30min); rat dorsum was separated into 2 equal parts consisting of 4 burn zones (3 stasis zone) on each pair. ADSVF cells harvested from inguinal fat pads of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5) were injected on the right side while same amount of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injected on the left side of the same animal. One week later, average vital tissue on the statis zone was determined by macroscopy, angiography and microscopy. Vascular density, inflammatory cell density, gradient of fibrosis and epithelial thickness were determined via immunohistochemical assay. Macroscopic stasis zone tissue viability (32±3.28%, 57±4.28%) (p<0.01), average number of vessels (10.28±1.28, 19.43±1.72) (p<0.01), capillary count (15.67±1.97, 25.35±2.15) (p<0.01) vascular density (1.55±0.38, 2.14±0.45) (p<0.01) epithelial thickness (0.014±0.009mm, 0.024±0.0011mm) were higher on ADSVF side. Fibrosis gradient (1.87±0.51, 1.50±0.43) (p<0.01) and inflammatory cell density (1.33±0.40, 1.20±0.32) (p<0.01) were higher on the PBS side. Macroscopic and microscopic findings determined that ADSVF has a statistically significant benefit for salvaging stasis zone on acute burn injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Elucidating Critical Zone Process Interactions with an Integrated Hydrology Model in a Headwaters Research Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Providence Creek (P300) watershed is an alpine headwaters catchment located at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). Evidence of groundwater-dependent vegetation and drought-induced tree mortality at P300 along with the effect of subsurface characterization on mountain ecohydrology motivates this study. A hyper resolution integrated hydrology model of this site, along with extensive instrumentation, provides an opportunity to study the effects of lateral groundwater flow on vegetation's tolerance to drought. ParFlow-CLM is a fully integrated surface-subsurface model that is driven with reconstructed meteorology, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 (NLDAS-2) dataset. However, large-scale data products mute orographic effects on climate at smaller scales. Climate variables often do not behave uniformly in highly heterogeneous mountain regions. Therefore, forcing physically-based integrated hydrologic models—especially of mountain headwaters catchments—with a large-scale data product is a major challenge. Obtaining reliable observations in complex terrain is challenging and while climate data products introduce uncertainties likewise, documented discrepancies between several data products and P300 observations suggest these data products may suffice. To tackle these issues, a suite of simulations was run to parse out (1) the effects of climate data source (data products versus observations) and (2) the effects of climate data spatial variability. One tool for evaluating the effect of climate data on model outputs is the relationship between latent head flux (LH) and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning with water table depth (WTD). This zone of LH sensitivity to WTD is referred to as the "critical zone." Preliminary results suggest that these critical zone relationships are preserved despite forcing albeit significant shifts in magnitude. These results demonstrate that integrated hydrology models are sensitive

  16. Hollow Cylinder Tests on Boom Clay: Modelling of Strain Localization in the Anisotropic Excavation Damaged Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Bertrand; Labiouse, Vincent; Dizier, Arnaud; Marinelli, Ferdinando; Charlier, Robert; Collin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Boom Clay is extensively studied as a potential candidate to host underground nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. To guarantee the safety of such a disposal, the mechanical behaviour of the clay during gallery excavation must be properly predicted. In that purpose, a hollow cylinder experiment on Boom Clay has been designed to reproduce, in a small-scale test, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) as experienced during the excavation of a disposal gallery in the underground. In this article, the focus is made on the hydro-mechanical constitutive interpretation of the displacement (experimentally obtained by medium resolution X-ray tomography scanning). The coupled hydro-mechanical response of Boom Clay in this experiment is addressed through finite element computations with a constitutive model including strain hardening/softening, elastic and plastic cross-anisotropy and a regularization method for the modelling of strain localization processes. The obtained results evidence the directional dependency of the mechanical response of the clay. The softening behaviour induces transient strain localization processes, addressed through a hydro-mechanical second grade model. The shape of the obtained damaged zone is clearly affected by the anisotropy of the materials, evidencing an eye-shaped EDZ. The modelling results agree with experiments not only qualitatively (in terms of the shape of the induced damaged zone), but also quantitatively (for the obtained displacement in three particular radial directions).

  17. SIMULATING RADIONUCLIDE FATE AND TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE: EVALUATION AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES OF SELECT COMPUTER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical, mathematical models of water and chemical movement in soils are used as decision aids for determining soil screening levels (SSLs) of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone. Many models require extensive input parameters which include uncertainty due to soil variabil...

  18. Modeling Mantle Shear Zones, Melt Focusing and Stagnation - Are Non Volcanic Margins Really Magma Poor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavier, L. L.; Muntener, O.

    2011-12-01

    Mantle peridotites from ocean-continent transition zones (OCT's) and ultraslow spreading ridges question the commonly held assumption of a simple link between mantle melting and MORB. 'Ancient' and partly refertilized mantle in rifts and ridges illustrates the distribution of the scale of upper mantle heterogeneity even on a local scale. Upwelling of partial melts that enter the conductive lithospheric mantle inevitably leads to freezing of the melt and metasomatized lithosphere. Field data and petrology demonstrates that ancient, thermally undisturbed, pyroxenite-veined subcontinental mantle blobs formed parts of the ocean floor next to thinned continental crust. Similar heterogeneity might be created in the oceanic lithosphere where the thermal boundary layer (TBM) is thick and veined with metasomatic assemblages. This cold, ancient, 'subcontinental domain' is separated by ductile shear zones (or some other form of permeability barriers) from an infiltrated ('hot') domain dominated by refertilized spinel and/or plagioclase peridotite. The footwall of these mantle shear zones display complex refertilization processes and high-temperature deformation. We present numerical models that illustrate the complex interplay of km-scale refertilization with active deformation and melt focusing on top of the mantle. Melt lubricated shear zones focus melt flow in shear fractures (melt bands) occurring along grain boundaries. Continuous uplift and cooling leads to crystallization, and crystal plastic deformation prevails in the subsolidus state. Below 800oC if water is present deformation by shearing of phyllosilicates may become prevalent. We develop physical boundary conditions for which stagnant melt beneath a permeability barrier remains trapped rather than being extracted to the surface via melt-filled fractures. We explore the parameter space for fracturing and drainage and development of anastomozing impermeable shear zones. Our models might be useful to constrain the

  19. Biological production in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones - Part 1: refined estimation via the use of a variable compensation depth in ocean carbon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethalekshmi Sreeush, Mohanan; Valsala, Vinu; Pentakota, Sreenivas; Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, Koneru; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2018-04-01

    Biological modelling approach adopted by the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-II) provided amazingly simple but surprisingly accurate rendition of the annual mean carbon cycle for the global ocean. Nonetheless, OCMIP models are known to have seasonal biases which are typically attributed to their bulk parameterisation of compensation depth. Utilising the criteria of surface Chl a-based attenuation of solar radiation and the minimum solar radiation required for production, we have proposed a new parameterisation for a spatially and temporally varying compensation depth which captures the seasonality in the production zone reasonably well. This new parameterisation is shown to improve the seasonality of CO2 fluxes, surface ocean pCO2, biological export and new production in the major upwelling zones of the Indian Ocean. The seasonally varying compensation depth enriches the nutrient concentration in the upper ocean yielding more faithful biological exports which in turn leads to accurate seasonality in the carbon cycle. The export production strengthens by ˜ 70 % over the western Arabian Sea during the monsoon period and achieves a good balance between export and new production in the model. This underscores the importance of having a seasonal balance in the model export and new productions for a better representation of the seasonality of the carbon cycle over upwelling regions. The study also implies that both the biological and solubility pumps play an important role in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones.

  20. Multi-dimensional modelling of gas turbine combustion using a flame sheet model in KIVA II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, W. K.; Lai, M.-C.; Chue, T.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A flame sheet model for heat release is incorporated into a multi-dimensional fluid mechanical simulation for gas turbine application. The model assumes that the chemical reaction takes place in thin sheets compared to the length scale of mixing, which is valid for the primary combustion zone in a gas turbine combustor. In this paper, the details of the model are described and computational results are discussed.

  1. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  2. Generalized Pseudo-Reaction Zone Model for Non-Ideal Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wescott, B. L.

    2007-12-01

    The pseudo-reaction zone model was proposed to improve engineering scale simulations with high explosives that have a slow reaction component. In this work an extension of the pseudo-reaction zone model is developed for non-ideal explosives that propagate well below the steady-planar Chapman-Jouguet velocity. A programmed burn method utilizing Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) and a detonation velocity dependent pseudo-reaction rate has been developed for non-ideal explosives and applied to the explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO). The pseudo-reaction rate is calibrated to the experimentally obtained normal detonation velocity—shock curvature relation. Cylinder test simulations predict the proper expansion to within 1% even though significant reaction occurs as the cylinder expands.

  3. Simulation of anisotropic fracture behaviour of polycrystalline round blank tungsten using cohesive zone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Michael; Gaganidze, Ermile; Aktaa, Jarir

    2018-04-01

    The experimental observation of anisotropic fracture behaviour of round blank polycrystalline tungsten was simulated using finite element (FE) method in combination with cohesive zone model. Experiments in the past had shown that due to the anisotropic microstructure the fracture toughness varies by factor of about two for different orientations. The reason is the crack propagation direction, which is - in some orientations - not the typical crack propagation direction for mode I fracture. In some directions the crack is not growing perpendicular to the crack opening tensile load. Nevertheless, in the present paper, the microstructure is modelled by FE mesh including cohesive zone elements which mimic grain boundaries (GB). This is based on the assumption that GB's are the weakest links in the structure. The use of the correct parameters to describe the fracture process allows the description of the observed experimental orientation dependent fracture toughness.

  4. Dynamic model of forest area on flood zone of Padang City, West Sumatra Province-Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewata, Indang; Iswandi, U.

    2018-05-01

    The flood disaster has caused many harm to human life, and the change of watershed characteristic is one of the factors causing the flood disaster. The increase of deforestation due to the increase of water causes the occurrence of flood disaster in the rainy season. The research objective was to develop a dynamic model of forest on flood hazard zone using powersim 10.1. In model development, there are three scenarios: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic. The study shows that in Padang there are about 13 percent of high flood hazard zones. Deforestation of 4.5 percent/year is one cause that may increased the flooding intensity in Padang. There will be 14 percent of total forest area when management policy of forest absence in 2050.

  5. Optimal harvesting policy of predator-prey model with free fishing and reserve zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toaha, Syamsuddin; Rustam

    2017-03-01

    The present paper deals with an optimal harvesting of predator-prey model in an ecosystem that consists of two zones, namely the free fishing and prohibited zones. The dynamics of prey population in the ecosystem can migrate from the free fishing to the prohibited zone and vice versa. The predator and prey populations in the free fishing zone are then harvested with constant efforts. The existence of the interior equilibrium point is analyzed and its stability is determined using Routh-Hurwitz stability test. The stable interior equilibrium point is then related to the problem of maximum profit and the problem of present value of net revenue. We follow the Pontryagin's maximal principle to get the optimal harvesting policy of the present value of the net revenue. From the analysis, we found a critical point of the efforts that makes maximum profit. There also exists certain conditions of the efforts that makes the present value of net revenue becomes maximal. In addition, the interior equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable which means that the optimal harvesting is reached and the unharvested prey, harvested prey, and harvested predator populations remain sustainable. Numerical examples are given to verify the analytical results.

  6. Magnetic-saturation zone model for two semipermeable cracks in magneto-electro-elastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangid, Kamlesh

    2018-03-01

    Extension of the PS model (Gao et al. [1]) in piezoelectric materials and the SEMPS model (Fan and Zhao [2]) in MEE materials, is proposed for two semi-permeable cracks in a MEE medium. It is assumed that the magnetic yielding occurs at the continuation of the cracks due to the prescribed loads. We have model these crack continuations as the zones with cohesive saturation limit magnetic induction. Stroh's formalism and complex variable techniques are used to formulate the problem. Closed form analytical expressions are derived for various fracture parameters. A numerical case study is presented for BaTiO3 - CoFe2O4 ceramic cracked plate.

  7. Testing high resolution numerical models for analysis of contaminant storage and release from low permeability zones.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Steven W; Parker, Beth L; Sale, Tom C; Doner, Lee Ann

    2012-08-01

    It is now widely recognized that contaminant release from low permeability zones can sustain plumes long after primary sources are depleted, particularly for chlorinated solvents where regulatory limits are orders of magnitude below source concentrations. This has led to efforts to appropriately characterize sites and apply models for prediction incorporating these effects. A primary challenge is that diffusion processes are controlled by small-scale concentration gradients and capturing mass distribution in low permeability zones requires much higher resolution than commonly practiced. This paper explores validity of using numerical models (HydroGeoSphere, FEFLOW, MODFLOW/MT3DMS) in high resolution mode to simulate scenarios involving diffusion into and out of low permeability zones: 1) a laboratory tank study involving a continuous sand body with suspended clay layers which was 'loaded' with bromide and fluorescein (for visualization) tracers followed by clean water flushing, and 2) the two-layer analytical solution of Sale et al. (2008) involving a relatively simple scenario with an aquifer and underlying low permeability layer. All three models are shown to provide close agreement when adequate spatial and temporal discretization are applied to represent problem geometry, resolve flow fields and capture advective transport in the sands and diffusive transfer with low permeability layers and minimize numerical dispersion. The challenge for application at field sites then becomes appropriate site characterization to inform the models, capturing the style of the low permeability zone geometry and incorporating reasonable hydrogeologic parameters and estimates of source history, for scenario testing and more accurate prediction of plume response, leading to better site decision making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling water infiltration and pesticides transport in unsaturated zone of a sedimentary aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoli, Pauline; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Baran, Nicole; Lassabatère, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality monitoring has become an important environmental, economic and community issue since increasing needs drinking water at the same time with high anthropic pressure on aquifers. Leaching of various contaminants as pesticide into the groundwater is closely bound to water infiltration in the unsaturated zone which whom solute transport can occur. Knowledge's about mechanisms involved in the transfer of pesticides in the deep unsaturated zone are lacking today. This study aims to evaluate and to model leaching of pesticides and metabolites in the unsaturated zone, very heterogeneous, of a fluvio-glacial aquifer, in the South-East of France, where contamination of groundwater resources by pesticides is frequently observed as a consequence of intensive agricultural activities. Water flow and pesticide transport were evaluated from column tests under unsaturated conditions and from adsorption batch experiments onto the predominant lithofacies collected, composed of a mixture of sand and gravel. A maize herbicide, S-metolachlor, applied on the study site and worldwide and its two major degradation products (metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid and metolachlor oxanilic acid) were studied here. A conservative tracer, bromide ion, was used to determine water dispersive parameters of porous media. Elution curves were obtained from pesticide concentrations analyzed by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography system interfaced to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and from bromide concentrations measured by ionic chromatography system. Experimental data were implemented into Hydrus to model flow and solute transfer through a 1D profile in the vadose zone. Nonequilibrium solute transport model based on dual-porosity model with mobile and immobile water is fitting correctly elution curves. Water dispersive parameters show flow pattern realized in the mobile phase. Exchanges between mobile and immobile water are very limited. Because of low adsorptions onto

  9. Computer modelling of technogenic thermal pollution zones in large water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshakova, Ya N.; Lyubimova, T. P.

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, the thermal pollution zones created due to discharge of heated water from thermal power plants are investigated using the example of the Permskaya Thermal Power Plant (Permskaya TPP or Permskaya GRES), which is one of the largest thermal power plants in Europe. The study is performed for different technological and hydrometeorological conditions. Since the vertical temperature distribution in such wastewater reservoirs is highly inhomogeneous, the computations are performed in the framework of 3D model.

  10. Two-scale modeling of joining of the aluminum alloys by a cohesive zone element technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Yinan; Wulfinghoff, Stephan; Reese, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    The roll bonding of aluminum sheets is numerically investigated. In the first part of the paper, a cohesive zone element formulation in the framework of zero-thickness interface elements is developed. Based on a traction-separation law, this enables the modeling of bonding and debonding on both macroscale and microscale. Simulations on microscale are done to show the mechanism of bonding and the influence of different factors on the bonding strength.

  11. Testing high resolution numerical models for analysis of contaminant storage and release from low permeability zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Steven W.; Parker, Beth L.; Sale, Tom C.; Doner, Lee Ann

    2012-08-01

    It is now widely recognized that contaminant release from low permeability zones can sustain plumes long after primary sources are depleted, particularly for chlorinated solvents where regulatory limits are orders of magnitude below source concentrations. This has led to efforts to appropriately characterize sites and apply models for prediction incorporating these effects. A primary challenge is that diffusion processes are controlled by small-scale concentration gradients and capturing mass distribution in low permeability zones requires much higher resolution than commonly practiced. This paper explores validity of using numerical models (HydroGeoSphere, FEFLOW, MODFLOW/MT3DMS) in high resolution mode to simulate scenarios involving diffusion into and out of low permeability zones: 1) a laboratory tank study involving a continuous sand body with suspended clay layers which was 'loaded' with bromide and fluorescein (for visualization) tracers followed by clean water flushing, and 2) the two-layer analytical solution of Sale et al. (2008) involving a relatively simple scenario with an aquifer and underlying low permeability layer. All three models are shown to provide close agreement when adequate spatial and temporal discretization are applied to represent problem geometry, resolve flow fields and capture advective transport in the sands and diffusive transfer with low permeability layers and minimize numerical dispersion. The challenge for application at field sites then becomes appropriate site characterization to inform the models, capturing the style of the low permeability zone geometry and incorporating reasonable hydrogeologic parameters and estimates of source history, for scenario testing and more accurate prediction of plume response, leading to better site decision making.

  12. Evolution of the conceptual model of unsaturated zone hydrology at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Fabryka-Martin, June

    2001-06-01

    Yucca Mountain is an arid site proposed for consideration as the United States' first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Low rainfall (approximately 170 mm/yr) and a thick unsaturated zone (500-1000 m) are important physical attributes of the site because the quantity of water likely to reach the waste and the paths and rates of movement of the water to the saturated zone under future climates would be major factors in controlling the concentrations and times of arrival of radionuclides at the surrounding accessible environment. The framework for understanding the hydrologic processes that occur at this site and that control how quickly water will penetrate through the unsaturated zone to the water table has evolved during the past 15 yr. Early conceptual models assumed that very small volumes of water infiltrated into the bedrock (0.5-4.5 mm/yr, or 2-3 percent of rainfall), that much of the infiltrated water flowed laterally within the upper nonwelded units because of capillary barrier effects, and that the remaining water flowed down faults with a small amount flowing through the matrix of the lower welded, fractured rocks. It was believed that the matrix had to be saturated for fractures to flow. However, accumulating evidence indicated that infiltration rates were higher than initially estimated, such as infiltration modeling based on neutron borehole data, bomb-pulse isotopes deep in the mountain, perched water analyses and thermal analyses. Mechanisms supporting lateral diversion did not apply at these higher fluxes, and the flux calculated in the lower welded unit exceeded the conductivity of the matrix, implying vertical flow of water in the high permeability fractures of the potential repository host rock, and disequilibrium between matrix and fracture water potentials. The development of numerical modeling methods and parameter values evolved concurrently with the conceptual model in order to account for the observed field data

  13. Evolution of the conceptual model of unsaturated zone hydrology at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Fabryka-Martin, June

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is an arid site proposed for consideration as the United States’ first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Low rainfall (approximately 170 mm/yr) and a thick unsaturated zone (500–1000 m) are important physical attributes of the site because the quantity of water likely to reach the waste and the paths and rates of movement of the water to the saturated zone under future climates would be major factors in controlling the concentrations and times of arrival of radionuclides at the surrounding accessible environment. The framework for understanding the hydrologic processes that occur at this site and that control how quickly water will penetrate through the unsaturated zone to the water table has evolved during the past 15 yr. Early conceptual models assumed that very small volumes of water infiltrated into the bedrock (0.5–4.5 mm/yr, or 2–3 percent of rainfall), that much of the infiltrated water flowed laterally within the upper nonwelded units because of capillary barrier effects, and that the remaining water flowed down faults with a small amount flowing through the matrix of the lower welded, fractured rocks. It was believed that the matrix had to be saturated for fractures to flow. However, accumulating evidence indicated that infiltration rates were higher than initially estimated, such as infiltration modeling based on neutron borehole data, bomb-pulse isotopes deep in the mountain, perched water analyses and thermal analyses. Mechanisms supporting lateral diversion did not apply at these higher fluxes, and the flux calculated in the lower welded unit exceeded the conductivity of the matrix, implying vertical flow of water in the high permeability fractures of the potential repository host rock, and disequilibrium between matrix and fracture water potentials. The development of numerical modeling methods and parameter values evolved concurrently with the conceptual model in order to account for the observed field data

  14. Kinetic modelling for zinc (II) ions biosorption onto Luffa cylindrica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oboh, I.; Aluyor, E.; Audu, T.

    2015-03-01

    The biosorption of Zinc (II) ions onto a biomaterial - Luffa cylindrica has been studied. This biomaterial was characterized by elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and the biomaterial before and after sorption, was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectrometer. The kinetic nonlinear models fitted were Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and Intra-particle diffusion. A comparison of non-linear regression method in selecting the kinetic model was made. Four error functions, namely coefficient of determination (R2), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), average relative error (ARE), and sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ), were used to predict the parameters of the kinetic models. The strength of this study is that a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world and which occurs as waste material could be put into effective utilization as a biosorbent to address a crucial environmental problem.

  15. Kinetic modelling for zinc (II) ions biosorption onto Luffa cylindrica

    SciTech Connect

    Oboh, I., E-mail: innocentoboh@uniuyo.edu.ng; Aluyor, E.; Audu, T.

    The biosorption of Zinc (II) ions onto a biomaterial - Luffa cylindrica has been studied. This biomaterial was characterized by elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and the biomaterial before and after sorption, was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectrometer. The kinetic nonlinear models fitted were Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and Intra-particle diffusion. A comparison of non-linear regression method in selecting the kinetic model was made. Four error functions, namely coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), average relative error (ARE), and sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ), were used tomore » predict the parameters of the kinetic models. The strength of this study is that a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world and which occurs as waste material could be put into effective utilization as a biosorbent to address a crucial environmental problem.« less

  16. Comparison of three GIS-based models for predicting rockfall runout zones at a regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorren, Luuk K. A.; Seijmonsbergen, Arie C.

    2003-11-01

    Site-specific information about the level of protection that mountain forests provide is often not available for large regions. Information regarding rockfalls is especially scarce. The most efficient way to obtain information about rockfall activity and the efficacy of protection forests at a regional scale is to use a simulation model. At present, it is still unknown which forest parameters could be incorporated best in such models. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test and evaluate a model for rockfall assessment at a regional scale in which simple forest stand parameters, such as the number of trees per hectare and the diameter at breast height, are incorporated. Therefore, a newly developed Geographical Information System (GIS)-based distributed model is compared with two existing rockfall models. The developed model is the only model that calculates the rockfall velocity on the basis of energy loss due to collisions with trees and on the soil surface. The two existing models calculate energy loss over the distance between two cell centres, while the newly developed model is able to calculate multiple bounces within a pixel. The patterns of rockfall runout zones produced by the three models are compared with patterns of rockfall deposits derived from geomorphological field maps. Furthermore, the rockfall velocities modelled by the three models are compared. It is found that the models produced rockfall runout zone maps with rather similar accuracies. However, the developed model performs best on forested hillslopes and it also produces velocities that match best with field estimates on both forested and nonforested hillslopes irrespective of the slope gradient.

  17. Percutaneous internal fixation of proximal fifth metatarsal jones fractures (Zones II and III) with Charlotte Carolina screw and bone marrow aspirate concentrate: an outcome study in athletes.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Christopher D; Kennedy, John G

    2011-06-01

    Internal fixation is a popular first-line treatment method for proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fractures in athletes; however, nonunions and screw breakage can occur, in part because of nonspecific fixation hardware and poor blood supply. To report the results from 26 patients who underwent percutaneous internal fixation with a specialized screw system of a proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fracture (zones II and III) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Percutaneous internal fixation for a proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fracture (zones II and III) was performed on 26 athletic patients (mean age, 27.47 years; range, 18-47). All patients were competing at some level of sport and were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score and SF-12 outcome scores. The mean follow-up time was 20.62 months (range, 12-28). Of the 26 fractures, 17 were traditional zone II Jones fractures, and the remaining 9 were zone III proximal diaphyseal fractures. The mean Foot and Ankle Outcome Score significantly increased, from 51.15 points preoperatively (range, 14-69) to 90.91 at final follow-up (range, 71-100; P < .01). The mean physical component of the SF-12 score significantly improved, from 25.69 points preoperatively (range, 6-39) to 54.62 at final follow-up (range, 32-62; P < .01). The mean mental component of the SF-12 score also significantly improved, from 28.20 points preoperatively (range, 14-45) to 58.41 at final follow-up (range, 36-67; P < .01). The mean time to fracture healing on standard radiographs was 5 weeks after surgery (range, 4-24). Two patients did not return to their previous levels of sporting activity. One patient experienced a delayed union, and 1 healed but later refractured. Percutaneous internal fixation of proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fractures, with a Charlotte Carolina screw and bone marrow aspirate concentrate, provides more predictable results while permitting athletes a

  18. Using Isotopic Age of Water as a Constraint on Model Identification at a Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Bhatt, G.; George, H.; Boyer, E. W.; Sullivan, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an ecohydrologic model constrained by comprehensive space and time observations of water and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen for an upland catchment, the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSH_CZO). The paper first develops the theoretical basis for simulation of flow, isotope ratios and "age" as water moves through the canopy, to the unsaturated and saturated zones and finally to an intermittent stream. The model formulation demonstrates that the residence time and age of environmental tracers can be directly simulated without knowledge of the form of the underlying residence time distribution function and without the addition of any new physical parameters. The model is used to explore the observed rapid attenuation of event and seasonal isotopic ratios in precipitation over the depth of the soil zone and the impact of decreasing hydraulic conductivity with depth on the dynamics of streamflow and stream isotope ratios. The results suggest the importance of mobile macropore flow on recharge to groundwater during the non-growing cold-wet season. The soil matrix is also recharged during this season with a cold-season isotope signature. During the growing-dry season, root uptake and evaporation from the soil matrix along with a declining water table provides the main source of water for plants and determines the growing season signature. Flow path changes during storm events and transient overland flow is inferred by comparing the frequency distribution of groundwater and stream isotope histories with model results. Model uncertainty is evaluated for conditions of matrix-macropore partitioning and heterogeneous variations in conductivity with depth. The paper concludes by comparing the fully dynamical model with the simplified mixing model form in dynamic equilibrium. The comparison illustrates the importance of system memory on the time scales for flow and mixing processes and the limitations of the dynamic equilibrium

  19. Using MERRA, AMIP II, CMIP5 Outputs to Assess Actual and Potential Building Climate Zone Change and Variability From the Last 30 Years Through 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Westberg, D. J.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Zhang, T.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, residential and commercial building infrastructure combined consumes about 40% of total energy usage and emits about 39% of total CO2emission (DOE/EIA "Annual Energy Outlook 2013"). Thus, increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is paramount to reducing energy costs and emissions. Building codes, as used by local and state enforcement entities are typically tied to the dominant climate within an enforcement jurisdiction classified according to various climate zones. These climates zones are based upon a 30-year average of local surface observations and are developed by DOE and ASHRAE (formerly known as the American Society of Hearting, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers). A significant shortcoming of the methodology used in constructing such maps is the use of surface observations (located mainly near airports) that are unequally distributed and frequently have periods of missing data that need to be filled by various approximation schemes. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric data assimilation to derive the ASHRAE climate zone maps and then using MERRA to define the last 30 years of variability in climate zones. These results show that there is a statistically significant increase in the area covered by warmer climate zones and some tendency for a reduction of area in colder climate zones that require longer time series to confirm. Using the uncertainties of the basic surface temperature and precipitation parameters from MERRA as determined by comparison to surface measurements, we first compare patterns and variability of ASHRAE climate zones from MERRA relative to present day climate model runs from AMIP simulations to establish baseline sensitivity. Based upon these results, we assess the variability of the ASHRAE climate zones according to CMIP runs through 2100 using an ensemble analysis that classifies model output changes by

  20. Modeling the Effects of Hydrogeomorphology and Climactic Factors on Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Riparian Zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Y.; Vidon, P.; Gold, A.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Addy, K.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetated riparian zones are often considered for use as best management practices to mitigate the impacts of agriculture on water quality. However, riparian zones can also be a source of greenhouse gases and their influence on water quality varies depending on landscape hydrogeomorphic characteristics and climate. Methods used to evaluate riparian zone functions include conceptual models, and spatially explicit and process based models (REMM), but very few attempts have been made to connect riparian zone characteristics with function using easily accessible landscape scale data. Here, we present comprehensive statistical models that can be used to assess riparian zone functions with easily obtainable landscape-scale hydrogeomorphic attributes and climate data. Models were developed from a database spanning 88 years and 36 sites. Statistical methods including principal component analysis and stepwise regression were used to reduced data dimensionality and identify significant predictors. Models were validated using additional data collected from scientific literature. The 8 models developed connect landscape characteristics to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and removal (1-4), greenhouse gas emissions (5-7), and water table depth (8). Results show the range of influence that various climate and landscape characteristics have on riparian zone functions, and the tradeoffs that exist with regards to nitrogen, phosphorous, and greenhouse gases. These models will help reduce the need for extensive field measurements and help scientists and land managers make more informed decisions regarding the use of riparian zones for water quality management.

  1. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation. I - Method and general results for convergent zones. II - Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, G.; England, P.

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation has the objective to perform numerical experiments on a rheologically simple continuum model for the continental lithosphere. It is attempted to obtain a better understanding of the dynamics of continental deformation. Calculations are presented of crustal thickness distributions, stress, strain, strain rate fields, latitudinal displacements, and finite rotations, taking into account as basis a model for continental collision which treats the litoshphere as a thin viscous layer subject to indenting boundary conditions. The results of this paper support the conclusions of England and McKenzie (1982) regarding the role of gravity in governing the deformation of a thin viscous layer subject to indenting boundary conditions. The results of the experiments are compared with observations of topography, stress and strain rate fields, and palaeomagnetic latitudinal displacements in Asia.

  2. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Imaging the Chicxulub central crater zone from large scale seismic acoustic wave propagation and gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Martin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Large complex craters are characterized by central uplifts that represent large-scale differential movement of deep basement from the transient cavity. Here we investigate the central sector of the large multiring Chicxulub crater, which has been surveyed by an array of marine, aerial and land-borne geophysical methods. Despite high contrasts in physical properties,contrasting results for the central uplift have been obtained, with seismic reflection surveys showing lack of resolution in the central zone. We develop an integrated seismic and gravity model for the main structural elements, imaging the central basement uplift and melt and breccia units. The 3-D velocity model built from interpolation of seismic data is validated using perfectly matched layer seismic acoustic wave propagation modeling, optimized at grazing incidence using shift in the frequency domain. Modeling shows significant lack of illumination in the central sector, masking presence of the central uplift. Seismic energy remains trapped in an upper low velocity zone corresponding to the sedimentary infill, melt/breccias and surrounding faulted blocks. After conversion of seismic velocities into a volume of density values, we use massive parallel forward gravity modeling to constrain the size and shape of the central uplift that lies at 4.5 km depth, providing a high-resolution image of crater structure.The Bouguer anomaly and gravity response of modeled units show asymmetries, corresponding to the crater structure and distribution of post-impact carbonates, breccias, melt and target sediments

  4. A new predictive multi-zone model for HCCI engine combustion

    DOE PAGES

    Bissoli, Mattia; Frassoldati, Alessio; Cuoci, Alberto; ...

    2016-06-30

    Here, this work introduces a new predictive multi-zone model for the description of combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. The model exploits the existing OpenSMOKE++ computational suite to handle detailed kinetic mechanisms, providing reliable predictions of the in-cylinder auto-ignition processes. All the elements with a significant impact on the combustion performances and emissions, like turbulence, heat and mass exchanges, crevices, residual burned gases, thermal and feed stratification are taken into account. Compared to other computational approaches, this model improves the description of mixture stratification phenomena by coupling a wall heat transfer model derived from CFD application with amore » proper turbulence model. Furthermore, the calibration of this multi-zone model requires only three parameters, which can be derived from a non-reactive CFD simulation: these adaptive variables depend only on the engine geometry and remain fixed across a wide range of operating conditions, allowing the prediction of auto-ignition, pressure traces and pollutants. This computational framework enables the use of detail kinetic mechanisms, as well as Rate of Production Analysis (RoPA) and Sensitivity Analysis (SA) to investigate the complex chemistry involved in the auto-ignition and the pollutants formation processes. In the final sections of the paper, these capabilities are demonstrated through the comparison with experimental data.« less

  5. NAPL source zone depletion model and its application to railroad-tank-car spills.

    PubMed

    Marruffo, Amanda; Yoon, Hongkyu; Schaeffer, David J; Barkan, Christopher P L; Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new semi-analytical source zone depletion model (SZDM) for multicomponent light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) and incorporated this into an existing screening model for estimating cleanup times for chemical spills from railroad tank cars that previously considered only single-component LNAPLs. Results from the SZDM compare favorably to those from a three-dimensional numerical model, and from another semi-analytical model that does not consider source zone depletion. The model was used to evaluate groundwater contamination and cleanup times for four complex mixtures of concern in the railroad industry. Among the petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures considered, the cleanup time of diesel fuel was much longer than E95, gasoline, and crude oil. This is mainly due to the high fraction of low solubility components in diesel fuel. The results demonstrate that the updated screening model with the newly developed SZDM is computationally efficient, and provides valuable comparisons of cleanup times that can be used in assessing the health and financial risk associated with chemical mixture spills from railroad-tank-car accidents. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Construction of avulsion potential zone model for Kulik River of Barind Tract, India and Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debabrata; Pal, Swades

    2018-04-21

    Avulsion is a natural fluvial process but considered it as a hazard in the populated region due to the chance of immense failure of lives and properties. So, early warning indicates that the zone of avulsion can facilitate the people living there. About 317 numbers of local and regional historical imprints of channel cutoff along river Kulik claim the need of this work. The present study tried to identify avulsion potential zone (APZ) of Kulik river of Indo-Bangladesh using multi-parametric weighted combination approach. Analytic hierarchy approach (AHP) is applied for weighting the used parameters. Avulsion potential model clearly exhibits that 9.51-km stream segment of middle and lower catchment is highly susceptible for avulsion especially during sudden high discharge and earthquake incidents. There is also high chance of channel avulsion following the existing Paleo-avulsion courses and left channels. Hard points can also be erected alongside the main channel for resisting channel avulsion propensity.

  7. 1D minimum p-velocity model of the Kamchatka subducting zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkous, I.; Sanina, I.; Gontovaya, L.

    2003-04-01

    Kamchatka peninsula is a very active seismic zone. The old Pacific plate subducts below the North American Plate and this causes high seismic and volcanic activity in this region. The extensive Kamchatka Regional Seismic Network (KRSN) has operated since 1962 and registers around 600 earthquakes per year. This provides a large number of high quality seismic data. In this work we are investigate P-velocity structure of the Kamchatka peninsula and subducting zone in Western Pacific. This region is well studied, but we would like to try a little bit different approach. We would like to present 1D minimum P-velocity model of the Kamchatka region created using VELEST program [3]. Data set based on 84 well-located earthquakes (IP, EP, IS and ES phases) recorded by KRSN in 1998 and in 1999. As the initial model Kuzin's model have been taken [1]. But in our calculations we split model into 17 layers instead of initial 5. Maximal investigated depth is 120 km. Using VELEST simultaneous mode we solve coupled hypocenter-velocity model problem for local earthquakes. In this case it is very important to utilize well locatable events for the sake of minimizing a priori added uncertainties. And this is major point of the approach. We apply this idea and the result is looks like the result obtained by A. Gorbatov et. al. [2] Using this 1D minimum model we redefine earthquakes hypocenter parameters and recalculate p-wave travel time residuals. This work is the first step in 3D modeling of the Kamchatka subducting zone. References: 1. I.P Kuzin. 'Focal zone and upper mantle structure of the East Kamchatka region', Moscow, Nauka, 1974. 2. A. Gorbatov, J. Domingues, G.Suarez, V.kostoglodov, D.Zhao, and E. Gordeev, 'Tomographic imaging of the P-wave velocity structure beneath the Kamchatka peninsula', Geophys. J. Int, 1999, 137, 269-279. 3. Kissling, E., W.L. Ellsworth, D. Eberhart-Phillips, and U. Kradolfer: Initial reference models in local earthquake tomography, J. Geophys. Res., 99

  8. Homology modeling, binding site identification and docking study of human angiotensin II type I (Ang II-AT1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Vivek K; Ghate, Manjunath; Patel, Kinjal; Qureshi, Gulamnizami; Shah, Surmil

    2015-08-01

    Ang II-AT1 receptors play an important role in mediating virtually all of the physiological actions of Ang II. Several drugs (SARTANs) are available, which can block the AT1 receptor effectively and lower the blood pressure in the patients with hypertension. Currently, there is no experimental Ang II-AT1 structure available; therefore, in this study we modeled Ang II-AT1 receptor structure using homology modeling followed by identification and characterization of binding sites and thereby assessing druggability of the receptor. Homology models were constructed using MODELLER and I-TASSER server, refined and validated using PROCHECK in which 96.9% of 318 residues were present in the favoured regions of the Ramachandran plots. Various Ang II-AT1 receptor antagonist drugs are available in the market as antihypertensive drug, so we have performed docking study with the binding site prediction algorithms to predict different binding pockets on the modeled proteins. The identification of 3D structures and binding sites for various known drugs will guide us for the structure-based drug design of novel compounds as Ang II-AT1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Validating the Performance of the FHWA Work Zone Model Version 1.0: A Case Study Along I-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-08-01

    Central to the effective design of work zones is being able to understand how drivers behave as they approach and enter a work zone area. States use simulation tools in modeling freeway work zones to predict work zone impacts and to select optimal de...

  10. Enhanced Stability of the Fe(II)/Mn(II) State in a Synthetic Model of Heterobimetallic Cofactor Assembly.

    PubMed

    Kerber, William D; Goheen, Joshua T; Perez, Kaitlyn A; Siegler, Maxime A

    2016-01-19

    Heterobimetallic Mn/Fe cofactors are found in the R2 subunit of class Ic ribonucleotide reductases (R2c) and R2-like ligand binding oxidases (R2lox). Selective cofactor assembly is due at least in part to the thermodynamics of M(II) binding to the apoprotein. We report here equilibrium studies of Fe(II)/Mn(II) discrimination in the biomimetic model system H5(F-HXTA) (5-fluoro-2-hydroxy-1,3-xylene-α,α'-diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). The homobimetallic F-HXTA complexes [Fe(H2O)6][1]2·14H2O and [Mn(H2O)6][2]2·14H2O (1 = [Fe(II)2(F-HXTA)(H2O)4](-); 2 = [Mn(II)2(F-HXTA)(H2O)4](-)) were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. NMR data show that 1 retains its structure in solution (2 is NMR silent). Metal exchange is facile, and the heterobimetallic complex [Fe(II)Mn(II)(F-HXTA)(H2O)4](-) (3) is formed from mixtures of 1 and 2. (19)F NMR was used to quantify 1 and 3 in the presence of excess M(II)(aq) at various metal ratios, and equilibrium constants for Fe(II)/Mn(II) discrimination were calculated from these data. Fe(II) is preferred over Mn(II) with K1 = 182 ± 13 for complete replacement (2 ⇌ 1). This relatively modest preference is attributed to a hard-soft acid-base mismatch between the divalent cations and the polycarboxylate ligand. The stepwise constants for replacement are K2 = 20.1 ± 1.3 (2 ⇌ 3) and K3 = 9.1 ± 1.1 (3 ⇌ 1). K2 > K3 demonstrates enhanced stability of the heterobimetallic state beyond what is expected for simple Mn(II) → Fe(II) replacement. The relevance to Fe(II)/Mn(II) discrimination in R2c and R2lox proteins is discussed.

  11. Sanitary protection zoning based on time-dependent vulnerability assessment model - case examples at two different type of aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Živanović, Vladimir; Jemcov, Igor; Dragišić, Veselin; Atanacković, Nebojša

    2017-04-01

    Delineation of sanitary protection zones of groundwater source is a comprehensive and multidisciplinary task. Uniform methodology for protection zoning for various type of aquifers is not established. Currently applied methods mostly rely on horizontal groundwater travel time toward the tapping structure. On the other hand, groundwater vulnerability assessment methods evaluate the protective function of unsaturated zone as an important part of groundwater source protection. In some particular cases surface flow might also be important, because of rapid transfer of contaminants toward the zones with intense infiltration. For delineation of sanitary protection zones three major components should be analysed: vertical travel time through unsaturated zone, horizontal travel time through saturated zone and surface water travel time toward intense infiltration zones. Integrating the aforementioned components into one time-dependent model represents a basis of presented method for delineation of groundwater source protection zones in rocks and sediments of different porosity. The proposed model comprises of travel time components of surface water, as well as groundwater (horizontal and vertical component). The results obtained using the model, represent the groundwater vulnerability as the sum of the surface and groundwater travel time and corresponds to the travel time of potential contaminants from the ground surface to the tapping structure. This vulnerability assessment approach do not consider contaminant properties (intrinsic vulnerability) although it can be easily improved for evaluating the specific groundwater vulnerability. This concept of the sanitary protection zones was applied at two different type of aquifers: karstic aquifer of catchment area of Blederija springs and "Beli Timok" source of intergranular shallow aquifer. The first one represents a typical karst hydrogeological system with part of the catchment with allogenic recharge, and the second one

  12. In situ reactive zone with modified Mg(OH)2 for remediation of heavy metal polluted groundwater: Immobilization and interaction of Cr(III), Pb(II) and Cd(II).

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Li, Bowen; Bao, Qiburi

    2017-04-01

    Mg(OH) 2 dissolves slowly and can provide a long-term source of alkalinity, thus a promising alternative reagent for the in situ remediation of heavy metal polluted groundwater. However, the application of Mg(OH) 2 on in situ reactive zone (IRZ) for heavy metal polluted groundwater has never been investigated. In this study, the behaviors of heavy metals in a Mg(OH) 2 IRZ were monitored for 45d. The heavy metals show a sequential precipitation by modified Mg(OH) 2 due to the difference of K sp . Column tests were conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distribution of heavy metals in Mg(OH) 2 IRZ and evaluate the stabilization effect for multi-heavy metal polluted groundwater. Experimental results indicate that there exist interactions between different heavy metals, and their zoning distribution is attributed either to the competitive adsorption onto porous media (control column) or to the sequential precipitation of heavy metal ions (IRZ column). In contrast with the control column, heavy metal contaminated area in Mg(OH) 2 IRZ significantly shrinks. According to the chemical speciation analysis, when water containing Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) flows through Mg(OH) 2 IRZ, exchangeable fraction of total concentration significantly reduce and the proportion of carbonate and Fe/Mn oxides fraction increase, indicating the decrease of their mobility and toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In situ reactive zone with modified Mg(OH)2 for remediation of heavy metal polluted groundwater: Immobilization and interaction of Cr(III), Pb(II) and Cd(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; Li, Bowen; Bao, Qiburi

    2017-04-01

    Mg(OH)2 dissolves slowly and can provide a long-term source of alkalinity, thus a promising alternative reagent for the in situ remediation of heavy metal polluted groundwater. However, the application of Mg(OH)2 on in situ reactive zone (IRZ) for heavy metal polluted groundwater has never been investigated. In this study, the behaviors of heavy metals in a Mg(OH)2 IRZ were monitored for 45 d. The heavy metals show a sequential precipitation by modified Mg(OH)2 due to the difference of Ksp. Column tests were conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distribution of heavy metals in Mg(OH)2 IRZ and evaluate the stabilization effect for multi-heavy metal polluted groundwater. Experimental results indicate that there exist interactions between different heavy metals, and their zoning distribution is attributed either to the competitive adsorption onto porous media (control column) or to the sequential precipitation of heavy metal ions (IRZ column). In contrast with the control column, heavy metal contaminated area in Mg(OH)2 IRZ significantly shrinks. According to the chemical speciation analysis, when water containing Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) flows through Mg(OH)2 IRZ, exchangeable fraction of total concentration significantly reduce and the proportion of carbonate and Fe/Mn oxides fraction increase, indicating the decrease of their mobility and toxicity.

  14. Numerical model of water flow in a fractured basalt vadose zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christine

    2000-12-01

    A numerical model of a fractured basalt vadose zone has been developed on the basis of the conceptual model described by Faybishenko et al. [[his issue]. The model has been used to simulate a ponded infiltration test in order to investigate infiltration through partially saturated fractured basalt. A key question addressed is how the fracture pattern geometry and fracture connectivity within a single basalt flow of the Snake River Plain basalt affect water infiltration. The two-dimensional numerical model extends from the ground surface to a perched water body 20 m below and uses an unconventional quasi-deterministic approach with explicit but highly simplified representation of major fractures and other important hydrogeologic features. The model adequately reproduces the majority of the field observation and provides insights into the infiltration process that cannot be obtained by data collection alone, demonstrating its value as a component of field studies.

  15. Real-time flood forecasting by employing artificial neural network based model with zoning matching approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, M.; El-Shafie, A.; Karim, O.; Basri, H.

    2011-10-01

    Flood forecasting models are a necessity, as they help in planning for flood events, and thus help prevent loss of lives and minimize damage. At present, artificial neural networks (ANN) have been successfully applied in river flow and water level forecasting studies. ANN requires historical data to develop a forecasting model. However, long-term historical water level data, such as hourly data, poses two crucial problems in data training. First is that the high volume of data slows the computation process. Second is that data training reaches its optimal performance within a few cycles of data training, due to there being a high volume of normal water level data in the data training, while the forecasting performance for high water level events is still poor. In this study, the zoning matching approach (ZMA) is used in ANN to accurately monitor flood events in real time by focusing the development of the forecasting model on high water level zones. ZMA is a trial and error approach, where several training datasets using high water level data are tested to find the best training dataset for forecasting high water level events. The advantage of ZMA is that relevant knowledge of water level patterns in historical records is used. Importantly, the forecasting model developed based on ZMA successfully achieves high accuracy forecasting results at 1 to 3 h ahead and satisfactory performance results at 6 h. Seven performance measures are adopted in this study to describe the accuracy and reliability of the forecasting model developed.

  16. 24 CFR 3285.405 - Severe wind zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.405 Severe wind zones. When any part of a home is installed within 1,500 feet of a coastline in Wind Zones II or III, the manufactured home must be designed for the increased requirements, as specified on the home's data plate (refer...

  17. Residence-time framework for modeling multicomponent reactive transport in stream hyporheic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, S. L.; Coon, E. T.; Brooks, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based models for transport and transformation of nutrients and contaminants in streams require tractable representations of solute exchange between the stream channel and biogeochemically active hyporheic zones. Residence-time based formulations provide an alternative to detailed three-dimensional simulations and have had good success in representing hyporheic exchange of non-reacting solutes. We extend the residence-time formulation for hyporheic transport to accommodate general multicomponent reactive transport. To that end, the integro-differential form of previous residence time models is replaced by an equivalent formulation based on a one-dimensional advection dispersion equation along the channel coupled at each channel location to a one-dimensional transport model in Lagrangian travel-time form. With the channel discretized for numerical solution, the associated Lagrangian model becomes a subgrid model representing an ensemble of streamlines that are diverted into the hyporheic zone before returning to the channel. In contrast to the previous integro-differential forms of the residence-time based models, the hyporheic flowpaths have semi-explicit spatial representation (parameterized by travel time), thus allowing coupling to general biogeochemical models. The approach has been implemented as a stream-corridor subgrid model in the open-source integrated surface/subsurface modeling software ATS. We use bedform-driven flow coupled to a biogeochemical model with explicit microbial biomass dynamics as an example to show that the subgrid representation is able to represent redox zonation in sediments and resulting effects on metal biogeochemical dynamics in a tractable manner that can be scaled to reach scales.

  18. Dynamical Evolution of Planetesimals in the Outer Solar System. II. The Saturn/Uranus and Uranus/Neptune Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Newman, William I.; Varadi, Ferenc; Kaula, William M.; Hyman, James M.

    1999-08-01

    We report on numerical simulations exploring the dynamical stability of planetesimals in the gaps between the outer Solar System planets. We search for stable niches in the Saturn/Uranus and Uranus/Neptune zones by employing 10,000 massless particles-many more than previous studies in these two zones-using high-order optimized multistep integration schemes coupled with roundoff error minimizing methods. An additional feature of this study, differing from its predecessors, is the fact that our initial distributions contain particles on orbits which are both inclined and noncircular. These initial distributions were also Gaussian distributed such that the Gaussian peaks were at the midpoint between the neighboring perturbers. The simulations showed an initial transient phase where the bulk of the primordial planetesimal swarm was removed from the Solar System within 105 years. This is about 10 times longer than we observed in our previous Jupiter/Saturn studies. Next, there was a gravitational relaxation phase where the particles underwent a random walk in momentum space and were exponentially eliminated by random encounters with the planets. Unlike our previous Jupiter/Saturn simulation, the particles did not fully relax into a third Lagrangian niche phase where long-lived particles are at Lagrange points or stable niches. This is either because the Lagrangian niche phase never occurs or because these simulations did not have enough particles for this third phase to manifest. In these simulations, there was a general trend for the particles to migrate outward and eventually to be cleared out by the outermost planet in the zone. We confirmed that particles with higher eccentricities had shorter lifetimes and that the resonances between the jovian planets "pumped up" the eccentricities of the planetesimals with low-inclination orbits more than those with higher inclinations. We estimated the expected lifetime of particles using kinetic theory and even though the time

  19. 3D Numerical modelling of topography development associated with curved subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Jessica; Ueda, Kosuke; Burg, Jean-Pierre; May, Dave; Gerya, Taras

    2017-04-01

    Curved subduction zones, also called oroclines, are geological features found in various places on Earth. They occur in diverse geodynamic settings: 1) single slab subduction in oceanic domain (e.g. Sandwich trench in the Southern Atlantic); 2) single slab subduction in continental domain, (e.g. Gibraltar-Alboran orocline in the Western Mediterranean) 3); multi-slab subduction (e.g. Caribbean orocline in the South-East of the Gulf of Mexico). These systems present various curvatures, lengths (few hundreds to thousands of km) and ages (less than 35 Ma for Gibraltar Alboran orocline, up to 100 Ma for the Caribbean). Recent studies suggested that the formation of curved subduction systems depends on slab properties (age, length, etc) and may be linked with processes such as retreating subduction and delamination. Plume induced subduction initiation has been proposed for the Caribbean. All of these processes involve deep mechanisms such as mantle and slab dynamics. However, subduction zones always generate topography (trenches, uplifts, etc), which is likely to be influenced by surface processes. Hence, surface processes may also influence the evolution of subduction zones. We focus on different kinds of subduction systems initiated by plume-lithosphere interactions (single slab subduction/multi-slab subduction) and scrutinize their surface expression. We use numerical modeling to examine large-scale subduction initiation and three-dimensional slab retreat. We perform two kinds of simulations: 1) large scale subduction initiation with the 3D-thermomechanical code I3ELVIS (Gerya and Yuen, 2007) in an oceanic domain and 2) large scale subduction initiation in oceanic domain using I3ELVIS coupled with a robust new surface processes model (SPM). One to several retreating slabs form in the absence of surface processes, when the conditions for subduction initiation are reached (c.f. Gerya et al., 2015), and ridges occur in the middle of the extensional domain opened by slab

  20. Modelling groundwater seepage zones in an unconfined aquifer with MODFLOW: different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Gedeon, Matej

    2014-05-01

    In areas where groundwater level occurs close to surface topography, the discharge of groundwater flow to the ground surface (or seepage) can be an important aspect of catchment hydrological cycle. It is also associated with valuable zones from an ecological point of view, often having a permanent shallow water table and constant lithotrophic water quality (Batelaan et al., 2003). In the present study, we try to implement a correct representation of this seepage process in a MODFLOW-HYDRUS coupled model for a small catchment (18.6 km²) of north-east Belgium. We started from an exisiting transient groundwater model of the unconfined aquifer in the study area (Gedeon and Mallants, 2009) discretized in 50x50 m cells. As the model did not account for seepage, hydraulic heads were simulated above the surface topography in certain zones. In the coupled MODFLOW-HYDRUS setup, transient boundary conditions (potential evapotranspiration and precipitation) are used to calculate the recharge with the HYDRUS package (Seo et al., 2007) for MODFLOW-2000 (Harbaugh et al., 2000). Coupling HYDRUS to MODFLOW involves the definition of a number of zones based on similarity in estimated groundwater depth, soil type and land cover. Concerning simulation of seepage, several existing packages are tested, including the DRAIN package (as in Reeve et al., 2006), the SPF package (from VSF Process; Thoms et al., 2006) and the PBC package (Post, 2011). Alternatively to the HYDRUS package for MODFLOW, the UZF package (Niswonger et al., 2006) for the simulation of recharge (and seepage) is also tested. When applicable, the parameterization of drain conductance in the top layer is critical and is investigated in relation to the soil hydraulic conductivity values used for the unsaturated zone (HYDRUS). Furthermore, stability issues are discussed, and where successful model runs are obtained, simulation results are compared with observed groundwater levels from a piezometric network. Spatial and

  1. Geological modeling of a fault zone in clay rocks at the Mont-Terri laboratory (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakurina, M.; Guglielmi, Y.; Nussbaum, C.; Valley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Clay-rich formations are considered to be a natural barrier for radionuclides or fluids (water, hydrocarbons, CO2) migration. However, little is known about the architecture of faults affecting clay formations because of their quick alteration at the Earth's surface. The Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory provides exceptional conditions to investigate an un-weathered, perfectly exposed clay fault zone architecture and to conduct fault activation experiments that allow explore the conditions for stability of such clay faults. Here we show first results from a detailed geological model of the Mont Terri Main Fault architecture, using GoCad software, a detailed structural analysis of 6 fully cored and logged 30-to-50m long and 3-to-15m spaced boreholes crossing the fault zone. These high-definition geological data were acquired within the Fault Slip (FS) experiment project that consisted in fluid injections in different intervals within the fault using the SIMFIP probe to explore the conditions for the fault mechanical and seismic stability. The Mont Terri Main Fault "core" consists of a thrust zone about 0.8 to 3m wide that is bounded by two major fault planes. Between these planes, there is an assembly of distinct slickensided surfaces and various facies including scaly clays, fault gouge and fractured zones. Scaly clay including S-C bands and microfolds occurs in larger zones at top and bottom of the Mail Fault. A cm-thin layer of gouge, that is known to accommodate high strain parts, runs along the upper fault zone boundary. The non-scaly part mainly consists of undeformed rock block, bounded by slickensides. Such a complexity as well as the continuity of the two major surfaces are hard to correlate between the different boreholes even with the high density of geological data within the relatively small volume of the experiment. This may show that a poor strain localization occurred during faulting giving some perspectives about the potential for

  2. Quantifying Uncertainty in Inverse Models of Geologic Data from Shear Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. R.; Titus, S.

    2016-12-01

    We use Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to quantify uncertainty in inverse models of geologic data. Although this approach can be applied to many tectonic settings, field areas, and mathematical models, we focus on transpressional shear zones. The underlying forward model, either kinematic or dynamic, produces a velocity field, which predicts the dikes, foliation-lineations, crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), shape preferred orientation (SPO), and other geologic data that should arise in the shear zone. These predictions are compared to data using modern methods of geometric statistics, including the Watson (for lines such as dike poles), isotropic matrix Fisher (for orientations such as foliation-lineations and CPO), and multivariate normal (for log-ellipsoids such as SPO) distributions. The result of the comparison is a likelihood, which is a key ingredient in the Bayesian approach. The other key ingredient is a prior distribution, which reflects the geologist's knowledge of the parameters before seeing the data. For some parameters, such as shear zone strike and dip, we identify realistic informative priors. For other parameters, where the geologist has no prior knowledge, we identify useful uninformative priors.We investigate the performance of this approach through numerical experiments on synthetic data sets. A fundamental issue is that many models of deformation exhibit asymptotic behavior (e.g., flow apophyses, fabric attractors) or periodic behavior (e.g., SPO when the clasts are rigid), which causes the likelihood to be too uniform. Based on our experiments, we offer rules of thumb for how many data, of which types, are needed to constrain deformation.

  3. In what root-zone N concentration does nitrate start to leach significantly? A reasonable answer from modeling Mediterranean field data and closed root-zone experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtzman, D.; Kanner, B.; Levy, Y.; Shapira, R. H.; Bar-Tal, A.

    2017-12-01

    Closed-root-zone experiments (e.g. pots, lyzimeters) reveal in many cases a mineral-nitrogen (N) concentration from which the root-N-uptake efficiency reduces significantly and nitrate leaching below the root-zone increases dramatically. A les-direct way to reveal this threshold concentration in agricultural fields is to calibrate N-transport models of the unsaturated zone to nitrate data of the deep samples (under the root-zone) by fitting the threshold concentration of the nitrate-uptake function. Independent research efforts of these two types in light soils where nitrate problems in underlying aquifers are common reviled: 1) that the threshold exists for most crops (filed, vegetables and orchards); 2) nice agreement on the threshold value between the two very different research methodologies; and 3) the threshold lies within 20-50 mg-N/L. Focusing on being below the threshold is a relatively simple aim in the way to maintain intensive agriculture with limited effects on the nitrate concentration in the underlying water resource. Our experience show that in some crops this threshold coincides with the end-of-rise of the N-yield curve (e.g. corn); in this case, it is relatively easy to convince farmers to fertilize below threshold. In other crops, although significant N is lost to leaching the crop can still use higher N concentration to increase yield (e.g. potato).

  4. Ignition and growth modeling of detonation reaction zone experiments on single crystals of PETN and HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bradley W.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that detonating single crystals of solid explosives have much larger failure diameters than those of heterogeneous charges of the same explosive pressed or cast to 98 - 99% theoretical maximum density (TMD). In 1957, Holland et al. demonstrated that PETN single crystals have failure diameters of about 8 mm, whereas heterogeneous PETN charges have failure diameters of less than 0.5 mm. Recently, Fedorov et al. quantitatively determined nanosecond time resolved detonation reaction zone profiles of single crystals of PETN and HMX by measuring the interface particle velocity histories of the detonating crystals and LiF windows using a PDV system. The measured reaction zone time durations for PETN and HMX single crystal detonations were approximately 100 and 260 nanoseconds, respectively. These experiments provided the necessary data to develop Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model parameters for the single crystal detonation reaction zones. Using these parameters, the calculated unconfined failure diameter of a PETN single crystal was 7.5 +/- 0.5 mm, close to the 8 mm experimental value. The calculated failure diameter of an unconfined HMX single crystal was 15 +/- 1 mm. The unconfined failure diameter of an HMX single crystal has not yet been determined precisely, but Fedorov et al. detonated 14 mm diameter crystals confined by detonating a HMX-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX) without initially overdriving the HMX crystals.

  5. Thermomechanical modeling of the Colorado Plateau-Basin and range transition zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Londe, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau (CP) basin and range (B & R) boundary is marked by a transition zone on the order of 75 to 150 km in width. As one moves westward across this transition from the CP interior to the B & R there is a variation in the surface topography, surface heat flow, Bouguer gravity, seismicity, and crustal structure. This transition extends eastward into the western CP from the Wastach-Hurricane fault line and is largely coincident with the high plateaus of Utah and the Wasatch Mountains. It has been suggested that this transition zone marks a thermal and tectonic encroachment of the CP by the B & R. A simple two dimensional numerical model of the thermal regime for the transition zone was constructed to test the hypothesis that the observed geophysical signatures across the transition are due to lateral heat conduction from steady state uniform extension within the B & R lithosphere. Surface heat flow, uplift due to flexure from thermal buoyant loading, and regional Bouguer gravity are computed for various extension rates, crustal structures, and compensation depths.

  6. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid migration through fault zones and fractures in the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.

  7. A Double Zone Dynamical Model For The Tidal Evolution Of The Obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Cilia

    2017-10-01

    It is debated wether close-in giants planets can form in-situ and if not, which mechanisms are responsible for their migration. One of the observable tests for migration theories is the current value of the obliquity. But after the main migration mechanism has ended, the combined effects of tidal dissipation and the magnetic braking of the star lead to the evolution of both the obliquity and the semi-major axis. The observed correlation between effective temperature and measured projected obliquity has been taken as evidence of such mechanisms being at play. Here I present an improved model for the tidal evolution of the obliquity. It includes all the components of the dynamical tide for circular misaligned systems. It uses an analytical formulation for the frequency-averaged dissipation for each mode, depending only on global stellar parameters, giving a measure of the dissipative properties of the convective zone of the host as it evolves in time. The model also includes the effect of magnetic braking in the framework of the double zone model. This results in the estimation of different tidal evolution timescales for the evolution of the planet's semi-major axis and obliquity depending on the properties of the stellar host. This model can be used to test migration theories, provided that a good determination of stellar radii, masses and ages can be obtained.

  8. Stress geomechanical model application: Stress tensor evaluation in recent Nankai subduction zone, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. Y.; Chan, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, IODP keeps investigating the scientific drilling in Nakai of southwest Japan from 2006. During this decade, we collected the massive logging data and core samples in this area for determining the stress evolution in this interseimic period after 1944 Tonakai earthquake. One of key assumption in Nankai seismogenic zone is the stress accumulation on the plate boundary should be the thrust-fault stress regime (SHmax>Shmin> Sv). In this research, the slip-deficit model is used to determine the wide scale stress field. The drilled IODP well sites are designed to be the fine control points. Based on the multiple ICDP expeditions near the Nankai trough (C0002A, F, and P) in different depths, the three dimensional stress estimation can be confirmed with the lateral boreholes loggings. Even the recently drilling did not reach the subduction zone, our model provides the considerable results by the reliable boundary conditions. This model simulated the stress orientation and magnitude generated by the slip-deficit model, area seismicity, and borehole loggings. Our results indicated that the stress state keeps in normal-faulting stress regime in our research area, even near the Nankai trough. Although the stress magnitude is increasing with the depth, one of horizontal principal stresses (Shmin) is hardly greater than the vertical stress (over-burden weight) in the reachable depth (>10km). This result implies the pore-pressure anomaly would happen during the slip and the stress state would be varied in different stages when event occurred

  9. Kinematics of the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States, based on stepover models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) of the central United States is generally attributed to a stepover structure in which the Reelfoot thrust fault transfers slip between parallel strike-slip faults. However, some arms of the seismic zone do not fit this simple model. Comparison of the NMSZ with an analog sandbox model of a restraining stepover structure explains all of the arms of seismicity as only part of the extensive pattern of faults that characterizes stepover structures. Computer models show that the stepover structure may form because differences in the trends of lower crustal shearing and inherited upper crustal faults make a step between en echelon fault segments the easiest path for slip in the upper crust. The models predict that the modern seismicity occurs only on a subset of the faults in the New Madrid stepover structure, that only the southern part of the stepover structure ruptured in the A.D. 1811–1812 earthquakes, and that the stepover formed because the trends of older faults are not the same as the current direction of shearing.

  10. Comparison with CLPX II airborne data using DMRT model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.; Liang, D.; Andreadis, K.M.; Tsang, L.; Josberger, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we considered a physical-based model which use numerical solution of Maxwell Equations in three-dimensional simulations and apply into Dense Media Radiative Theory (DMRT). The model is validated in two specific dataset from the second Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX II) at Alaska and Colorado. The data were all obtain by the Ku-band (13.95GHz) observations using airborne imaging polarimetric scatterometer (POLSCAT). Snow is a densely packed media. To take into account the collective scattering and incoherent scattering, analytical Quasi-Crystalline Approximation (QCA) and Numerical Maxwell Equation Method of 3-D simulation (NMM3D) are used to calculate the extinction coefficient and phase matrix. DMRT equations were solved by iterative solution up to 2nd order for the case of small optical thickness and full multiple scattering solution by decomposing the diffuse intensities into Fourier series was used when optical thickness exceed unity. It was shown that the model predictions agree with the field experiment not only co-polarization but also cross-polarization. For Alaska region, the input snow structure data was obtain by the in situ ground observations, while for Colorado region, we combined the VIC model to get the snow profile. ??2009 IEEE.

  11. AERIS - applications for the environment : real-time information synthesis : low emissions zone (LEZ) operational scenario modeling report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the analysis and modeling effort that was conducted to simulate the potential impacts of a Low Emissions Zone (LEZ) strategy. LEZs are designated areas within a metropolitan region where special measures are implemented with a v...

  12. Micro 3D ERT tomography for data assimilation modelling of active root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanella, Daniela; Busato, Laura; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Binley, Andrew; Putti, Mario; Consoli, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Within the soil-plant-atmosphere system, root activity plays a fundamental role, as it connects different domains and allows a large part of the water and nutrient exchanges necessary for plant sustenance. The understanding of these processes is not only useful from an environmental point of view, making a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the critical zone dynamics, but also plays a pivotal role in precision agriculture, where the optimisation of water resources exploitation is mandatory and often carried out through deficit irrigation techniques. In this work, we present the results of non-invasive monitoring of the active root zone of two orange trees (Citrus sinensis, cv Tarocco Ippolito) located in an orange orchard in eastern Sicily (Italy) and drip irrigated with two different techniques: partial root drying and 100% crop evapotranspiration. The main goal of the monitoring activity is to assess possible differences between the developed root systems and the root water uptake between the two irrigation strategies. The monitoring is conducted using 3D micro-electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) based on an apparatus composed of a number of micro-boreholes (about 1.2 m deep) housing 12 electrodes each, plus a number of surface electrodes. Time-lapse measurements conducted both with long-term periodicity and short-term repetition before and after irrigation clearly highlight the presence and distribution of root water uptake zone both at shallow and larger depth, likely to correspond to zones utilized during the irrigation period (shallow) and during the time when the crop is not irrigated (deep). Subsidiary information is available in terms of precipitation, sap flow measurements and micrometeorological evapotranspiration estimates. This data ensemble lends itself to the assimilation into a variably saturated flow model, where both soil hydraulic parameters and root distribution shall be identified. Preliminary results in this directions show

  13. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pourhiet, L.; Huet, B.; Labrousse, L.; Yao, K.; Agard, P.; Jolivet, L.

    2013-04-01

    We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr-Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes extremely penetrative but

  14. A coupled ice-ocean model of ice breakup and banding in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedstad, O. M.; Roed, L. P.

    1985-01-01

    A coupled ice-ocean numerical model for the marginal ice zone is considered. The model consists of a nonlinear sea ice model and a two-layer (reduced gravity) ocean model. The dependence of the upwelling response on wind stress direction is discussed. The results confirm earlier analytical work. It is shown that there exist directions for which there is no upwelling, while other directions give maximum upwelling in terms of the volume of uplifted water. The ice and ocean is coupled directly through the stress at the ice-ocean interface. An interesting consequence of the coupling is found in cases when the ice edge is almost stationary. In these cases the ice tends to break up a few tenths of kilometers inside of the ice edge.

  15. Spatial harmonics and pattern specification in early Drosophila development. Part II. The four colour wheels model.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, S A; Goodwin, B C

    1990-06-07

    We review the evidence presented in Part I showing that transcripts and protein products of maternal, gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes exhibit increasingly complex, multipeaked longitudinal waveforms in the early Drosophila embryo. The central problem we address in Part II is the use the embryo makes of these wave forms to specify longitudinal pattern. Based on the fact that mutants of many of these genes generate deletions and mirror symmetrical duplications of pattern elements on length scales ranging from about half the egg to within segments, we propose that position is specified by measuring a "phase angle" by use of the ratios of two or more variables. Pictorially, such a phase angle can be thought of as a colour on a colour wheel. Any such model contains a phaseless singularity where all or many phases, or colours, come together. We suppose as well that positional values sufficiently close to the singularity are meaningless, hence a "dead zone". Duplications and deletions are accounted for by deformation of the cycle of morphogen values occurring along the antero-posterior axis. If the cycle of values surrounds the singularity and lies outside the dead zone, pattern is normal. If the curve transects the dead zone, pattern elements are deleted. If the curve lies entirely on one side of the singularity, pattern elements are deleted and others are duplicated with mirror symmetry. The existence of different wavelength transcript patterns in maternal, gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes and the roles of those same genes in generating deletions and mirror symmetrical duplications on a variety of length scales lead us to propose that position is measured simultaneously on at least four colour wheels, which cycle different numbers of times along the anterior-posterior axis. These yield progressively finer grained positional information. Normal pattern specification requires a unique angle, outside of the dead zone, from each of the four wheels

  16. AN ANALYTIC MODEL OF DUSTY, STRATIFIED, SPHERICAL H ii REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C.; Lora, V.

    2016-12-20

    We study analytically the effect of radiation pressure (associated with photoionization processes and with dust absorption) on spherical, hydrostatic H ii regions. We consider two basic equations, one for the hydrostatic balance between the radiation-pressure components and the gas pressure, and another for the balance among the recombination rate, the dust absorption, and the ionizing photon rate. Based on appropriate mathematical approximations, we find a simple analytic solution for the density stratification of the nebula, which is defined by specifying the radius of the external boundary, the cross section of dust absorption, and the luminosity of the central star. Wemore » compare the analytic solution with numerical integrations of the model equations of Draine, and find a wide range of the physical parameters for which the analytic solution is accurate.« less

  17. Mechanical evolution of transpression zones affected by fault interactions: Insights from 3D elasto-plastic finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabavi, Seyed Tohid; Alavi, Seyed Ahmad; Mohammadi, Soheil; Ghassemi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical evolution of transpression zones affected by fault interactions is investigated by a 3D elasto-plastic mechanical model solved with the finite-element method. Ductile transpression between non-rigid walls implies an upward and lateral extrusion. The model results demonstrate that a, transpression zone evolves in a 3D strain field along non-coaxial strain paths. Distributed plastic strain, slip transfer, and maximum plastic strain occur within the transpression zone. Outside the transpression zone, fault slip is reduced because deformation is accommodated by distributed plastic shear. With progressive deformation, the σ3 axis (the minimum compressive stress) rotates within the transpression zone to form an oblique angle to the regional transport direction (∼9°-10°). The magnitude of displacement increases faster within the transpression zone than outside it. Rotation of the displacement vectors of oblique convergence with time suggests that transpression zone evolves toward an overall non-plane strain deformation. The slip decreases along fault segments and with increasing depth. This can be attributed to the accommodation of bulk shortening over adjacent fault segments. The model result shows an almost symmetrical domal uplift due to off-fault deformation, generating a doubly plunging fold and a 'positive flower' structure. Outside the overlap zone, expanding asymmetric basins subside to 'negative flower' structures on both sides of the transpression zone and are called 'transpressional basins'. Deflection at fault segments causes the fault dip fall to less than 90° (∼86-89°) near the surface (∼1.5 km). This results in a pure-shear-dominated, triclinic, and discontinuous heterogeneous flow of the transpression zone.

  18. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater mathematical models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. However, most integrated surface water-groundwater models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D shallow water equations to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection

  19. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid and methane migration through fault zones in shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherdangkoo, Reza; Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operation in shale gas reservoir has gained growing interest over the last few years. Groundwater contamination is one of the most important environmental concerns that have emerged surrounding shale gas development (Reagan et al., 2015). The potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing could be studied through the possible pathways for subsurface migration of contaminants towards overlying aquifers (Kissinger et al., 2013; Myers, 2012). The intent of this study is to investigate, by means of numerical simulation, two failure scenarios which are based on the presence of a fault zone that penetrates the full thickness of overburden and connect shale gas reservoir to aquifer. Scenario 1 addresses the potential transport of fracturing fluid from the shale into the subsurface. This scenario was modeled with COMSOL Multiphysics software. Scenario 2 deals with the leakage of methane from the reservoir into the overburden. The numerical modeling of this scenario was implemented in DuMux (free and open-source software), discrete fracture model (DFM) simulator (Tatomir, 2012). The modeling results are used to evaluate the influence of several important parameters (reservoir pressure, aquifer-reservoir separation thickness, fault zone inclination, porosity, permeability, etc.) that could affect the fluid transport through the fault zone. Furthermore, we determined the main transport mechanisms and circumstances in which would allow frack fluid or methane migrate through the fault zone into geological layers. The results show that presence of a conductive fault could reduce the contaminant travel time and a significant contaminant leakage, under certain hydraulic conditions, is most likely to occur. Bibliography Kissinger, A., Helmig, R., Ebigbo, A., Class, H., Lange, T., Sauter, M., Heitfeld, M., Klünker, J., Jahnke, W., 2013. Hydraulic fracturing in unconventional gas reservoirs: risks in the geological system, part 2. Environ Earth Sci 70, 3855

  20. Trace Elements in Basalts From the Siqueiros Fracture Zone: Implications for Melt Migration Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickle, R. C.; Forsyth, D. W.; Saal, A. E.; Nagle, A. N.; Perfit, M. R.

    2008-12-01

    Incompatible trace element (ITE) ratios in MORB from a variety of locations may provide insights into the melt migration process by constraining aggregated melt compositions predicted by mantle melting and flow models. By using actual plate geometries to create a 3-D thermodynamic mantle model, melt volumes and compositions at all depths and locations may be calculated and binned into cubes using the pHMELTS algorithm [Asimow et al., 2004]. These melts can be traced from each cube to the surface assuming several migration models, including a simplified pressure gradient model and one in which melt is guided upwards by a low permeability compacted layer. The ITE ratios of all melts arriving at the surface are summed, averaged, and compared to those of the actual sample compositions from the various MOR locales. The Siqueiros fracture zone at 8° 20' N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) comprises 4 intra-transform spreading centers (ITSCs) across 140 km of offset between two longer spreading ridges, and is an excellent study region for several reasons. First, an abundance of MORB data is readily available, and the samples retrieved from ITSCs are unlikely to be aggregated in a long-lived magma chamber or affected by along-axis transport, so they represent melts extracted locally from the mantle. Additionally, samples at Siqueiros span a compositional range from depleted to normal MORB within the fracture zone yet have similar isotopic compositions to samples collected from the 9-10° EPR. This minimizes the effect of assuming a uniform source composition in our melting model despite a heterogeneous mantle, allowing us to consistently compare the actual lava composition with that predicted by our model. Finally, it has been demonstrated with preliminary migration models that incipient melts generated directly below an ITSC may not necessarily erupt at that ITSC but migrate laterally towards a nearby ridge due to enhanced pressure gradients. The close proximity of the

  1. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones.

    PubMed

    Matejicek, Lubos; Janour, Zbynek; Benes, Ludek; Bodnar, Tomas; Gulikova, Eva

    2008-06-06

    Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust deposition at a

  2. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    PubMed Central

    Matejicek, Lubos; Janour, Zbynek; Benes, Ludek; Bodnar, Tomas; Gulikova, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust deposition at a

  3. Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.

    2012-11-01

    Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) basin on the overriding plate after initial collision. This "collisional mantle dynamic basin" (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing, material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also, during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate cause the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. Our modelled topography changes fit well with this observed uplift and subsidence.

  4. Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.

    2012-07-01

    Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle dynamic basin (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate causes the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. This uplift and subsidence pattern correlates well with our modelled topography changes.

  5. Subduction zone and crustal dynamics of western Washington; a tectonic model for earthquake hazards evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Dal; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley

    1999-01-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone is extremely complex in the western Washington region, involving local deformation of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate and complicated block structures in the crust. It has been postulated that the Cascadia subduction zone could be the source for a large thrust earthquake, possibly as large as M9.0. Large intraplate earthquakes from within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Puget Sound region have accounted for most of the energy release in this century and future such large earthquakes are expected. Added to these possible hazards is clear evidence for strong crustal deformation events in the Puget Sound region near faults such as the Seattle fault, which passes through the southern Seattle metropolitan area. In order to understand the nature of these individual earthquake sources and their possible interrelationship, we have conducted an extensive seismotectonic study of the region. We have employed P-wave velocity models developed using local earthquake tomography as a key tool in this research. Other information utilized includes geological, paleoseismic, gravity, magnetic, magnetotelluric, deformation, seismicity, focal mechanism and geodetic data. Neotectonic concepts were tested and augmented through use of anelastic (creep) deformation models based on thin-plate, finite-element techniques developed by Peter Bird, UCLA. These programs model anelastic strain rate, stress, and velocity fields for given rheological parameters, variable crust and lithosphere thicknesses, heat flow, and elevation. Known faults in western Washington and the main Cascadia subduction thrust were incorporated in the modeling process. Significant results from the velocity models include delineation of a previously studied arch in the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. The axis of the arch is oriented in the direction of current subduction and asymmetrically deformed due to the effects of a northern buttress mapped in the velocity models. This

  6. A coupled ice-ocean model of upwelling in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roed, L. P.; Obrien, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamical coupled ice-ocean numerical model for the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is suggested and used to study upwelling dynamics in the MIZ. The nonlinear sea ice model has a variable ice concentration and includes internal ice stress. The model is forced by stresses on the air/ocean and air/ice surfaces. The main coupling between the ice and the ocean is in the form of an interfacial stress on the ice/ocean interface. The ocean model is a linear reduced gravity model. The wind stress exerted by the atmosphere on the ocean is proportional to the fraction of open water, while the interfacial stress ice/ocean is proportional to the concentration of ice. A new mechanism for ice edge upwelling is suggested based on a geostrophic equilibrium solution for the sea ice medium. The upwelling reported in previous models invoking a stationary ice cover is shown to be replaced by a weak downwelling due to the ice motion. Most of the upwelling dynamics can be understood by analysis of the divergence of the across ice edge upper ocean transport. On the basis of numerical model, an analytical model is suggested that reproduces most of the upwelling dynamics of the more complex numerical model.

  7. Interfacial separation of a mature biofilm from a glass surface - A combined experimental and cohesive zone modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Safari, Ashkan; Tukovic, Zeljko; Cardiff, Philip; Walter, Maik; Casey, Eoin; Ivankovic, Alojz

    2016-02-01

    A good understanding of the mechanical stability of biofilms is essential for biofouling management, particularly when mechanical forces are used. Previous biofilm studies lack a damage-based theoretical model to describe the biofilm separation from a surface. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interfacial separation of a mature biofilm from a rigid glass substrate using a combined experimental and numerical modelling approach. In the current work, the biofilm-glass interfacial separation process was investigated under tensile and shear stresses at the macroscale level, known as modes I and II failure mechanisms respectively. The numerical simulations were performed using a Finite Volume (FV)-based simulation package (OpenFOAM®) to predict the separation initiation using the cohesive zone model (CZM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based retraction curve was used to obtain the separation properties between the biofilm and glass colloid at microscale level, where the CZM parameters were estimated using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model. In this study CZM is introduced as a reliable method for the investigation of interfacial separation between a biofilm and rigid substrate, in which a high local stress at the interface edge acts as an ultimate stress at the crack tip.This study demonstrated that the total interfacial failure energy measured at the macroscale, was significantly higher than the pure interfacial separation energy obtained by AFM at the microscale, indicating a highly ductile deformation behaviour within the bulk biofilm matrix. The results of this study can significantly contribute to the understanding of biofilm detachments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical modelling of wind effects on breaking waves in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhihua

    2017-10-01

    Wind effects on periodic breaking waves in the surf zone have been investigated in this study using a two-phase flow model. The model solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k - 𝜖 turbulence model simultaneously for the flows both in the air and water. Both spilling and plunging breakers over a 1:35 sloping beach have been studied under the influence of wind, with a focus during wave breaking. Detailed information of the distribution of wave amplitudes and mean water level, wave-height-to-water-depth ratio, the water surface profiles, velocity, vorticity, and turbulence fields have been presented and discussed. The inclusion of wind alters the air flow structure above water waves, increases the generation of vorticity, and affects the wave shoaling, breaking, overturning, and splash-up processes. Wind increases the water particle velocities and causes water waves to break earlier and seaward, which agrees with the previous experiment.

  9. Sensitivity studies with a coupled ice-ocean model of the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roed, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical coupled ice-ocean model is considered which is forced by a specified wind stress acting on the open ocean as well as the ice. The analysis supports the conjecture that the upwelling dynamics at ice edges can be understood by means of a simple analytical model. In similarity with coastal problems it is shown that the ice edge upwelling is determined by the net mass flux at the boundaries of the considered region. The model is used to study the sensitivity of the upwelling dynamics in the marginal ice zone to variation in the controlling parameters. These parameters consist of combinations of the drag coefficients used in the parameterization of the stresses on the three interfaces atmosphere-ice, atmosphere-ocean, and ice-ocean. The response is shown to be sensitive to variations in these parameters in that one set of parameters may give upwelling while a slightly different set of parameters may give downwelling.

  10. Finite element models of earthquake cycles in mature strike-slip fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, John Charles

    The research presented in this dissertation is on the subject of strike-slip earthquakes and the stresses that build and release in the Earth's crust during earthquake cycles. Numerical models of these cycles in a layered elastic/viscoelastic crust are produced using the finite element method. A fault that alternately sticks and slips poses a particularly challenging problem for numerical implementation, and a new contact element dubbed the "Velcro" element was developed to address this problem (Appendix A). Additionally, the finite element code used in this study was bench-marked against analytical solutions for some simplified problems (Chapter 2), and the resolving power was tested for the fault region of the models (Appendix B). With the modeling method thus developed, there are two main questions posed. First, in Chapter 3, the effect of a finite-width shear zone is considered. By defining a viscoelastic shear zone beneath a periodically slipping fault, it is found that shear stress concentrates at the edges of the shear zone and thus causes the stress tensor to rotate into non-Andersonian orientations. Several methods are used to examine the stress patterns, including the plunge angles of the principal stresses and a new method that plots the stress tensor in a manner analogous to seismic focal mechanism diagrams. In Chapter 4, a simple San Andreas-like model is constructed, consisting of two great earthquake producing faults separated by a freely-slipping shorter fault. The model inputs of lower crustal viscosity, fault separation distance, and relative breaking strengths are examined for their effect on fault communication. It is found that with a lower crustal viscosity of 1018 Pa s (in the lower range of estimates for California), the two faults tend to synchronize their earthquake cycles, even in the cases where the faults have asymmetric breaking strengths. These models imply that postseismic stress transfer over hundreds of kilometers may play a

  11. Estimated damage from the Cascadia Subduction Zone tsunami: A model comparisons using fragility curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, D. M.; Cox, D. T.; Chen, Y.; Weber, B. A.; Chen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Building damage from a hypothetical Cascadia Subduction Zone tsunami was estimated using two methods and applied at the community scale. The first method applies proposed guidelines for a new ASCE 7 standard to calculate the flow depth, flow velocity, and momentum flux from a known runup limit and estimate of the total tsunami energy at the shoreline. This procedure is based on a potential energy budget, uses the energy grade line, and accounts for frictional losses. The second method utilized numerical model results from previous studies to determine maximum flow depth, velocity, and momentum flux throughout the inundation zone. The towns of Seaside and Canon Beach, Oregon, were selected for analysis due to the availability of existing data from previously published works. Fragility curves, based on the hydrodynamic features of the tsunami flow (inundation depth, flow velocity, and momentum flux) and proposed design standards from ASCE 7 were used to estimate the probability of damage to structures located within the inundations zone. The analysis proceeded at the parcel level, using tax-lot data to identify construction type (wood, steel, and reinforced-concrete) and age, which was used as a performance measure when applying the fragility curves and design standards. The overall probability of damage to civil buildings was integrated for comparison between the two methods, and also analyzed spatially for damage patterns, which could be controlled by local bathymetric features. The two methods were compared to assess the sensitivity of the results to the uncertainty in the input hydrodynamic conditions and fragility curves, and the potential advantages of each method discussed. On-going work includes coupling the results of building damage and vulnerability to an economic input output model. This model assesses trade between business sectors located inside and outside the induction zone, and is used to measure the impact to the regional economy. Results highlight

  12. A compartmentalized solute transport model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers: 1. Theory and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper, the first of two parts [see Abrams and Loague, this issue], takes the compartmentalized approach for the geochemical evolution of redox zones presented by Abrams et al. [1998] and embeds it within a solute transport framework. In this paper the compartmentalized approach is generalized to facilitate the description of its incorporation into a solute transport simulator. An equivalent formulation is developed which removes any discontinuities that may occur when switching compartments. Rate‐limited redox reactions are modeled with a modified Monod relationship that allows either the organic substrate or the electron acceptor to be the rate‐limiting reactant. Thermodynamic constraints are used to inhibit lower‐energy redox reactions from occurring under infeasible geochemical conditions without imposing equilibrium on the lower‐energy reactions. The procedure used allows any redox reaction to be simulated as being kinetically limited or thermodynamically limited, depending on local geochemical conditions. Empirical reaction inhibition methods are not needed. The sequential iteration approach (SIA), a technique which allows the number of solute transport equations to be reduced, is adopted to solve the coupled geochemical/solute transport problem. When the compartmentalized approach is embedded within the SIA, with the total analytical concentration of each component as the dependent variable in the transport equation, it is possible to reduce the number of transport equations even further than with the unmodified SIA. A one‐dimensional, coupled geochemical/solute transport simulation is presented in which redox zones evolve dynamically in time and space. The compartmentalized solute transport (COMPTRAN) model described in this paper enables the development of redox zones to be simulated under both kinetic and thermodynamic constraints. The modular design of COMPTRAN facilitates the use of many different, preexisting solute transport and

  13. Nonstationary porosity evolution in mixing zone in coastal carbonate aquifer using an alternative modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Laabidi, Ezzeddine; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2015-07-01

    In the last few decades, hydrogeochemical problems have benefited from the strong interest in numerical modeling. One of the most recognized hydrogeochemical problems is the dissolution of the calcite in the mixing zone below limestone coastal aquifer. In many works, this problem has been modeled using a coupling algorithm between a density-dependent flow model and a geochemical model. A related difficulty is that, because of the high nonlinearity of the coupled set of equations, high computational effort is needed. During calcite dissolution, an increase in permeability can be identified, which can induce an increase in the penetration of the seawater into the aquifer. The majority of the previous studies used a fully coupled reactive transport model in order to model such problem. Romanov and Dreybrodt (J Hydrol 329:661-673, 2006) have used an alternative approach to quantify the porosity evolution in mixing zone below coastal carbonate aquifer at steady state. This approach is based on the analytic solution presented by Phillips (1991) in his book Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rock, which shows that it is possible to decouple the complex set of equation. This equation is proportional to the square of the salinity gradient, which can be calculated using a density driven flow code and to the reaction rate that can be calculated using a geochemical code. In this work, this equation is used in nonstationary step-by-step regime. At each time step, the quantity of the dissolved calcite is quantified, the change of porosity is calculated, and the permeability is updated. The reaction rate, which is the second derivate of the calcium equilibrium concentration in the equation, is calculated using the PHREEQC code (Parkhurst and Apello 1999). This result is used in GEODENS (Bouhlila 1999; Bouhlila and Laabidi 2008) to calculate change of the porosity after calculating the salinity gradient. For the next time step, the same protocol is used but using the updated porosity

  14. Antibody-directed neutralization of annexin II (ANX II) inhibits neoangiogenesis and human breast tumor growth in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena; Blackman, Marc R; Sharma, Mahesh C

    2012-02-01

    Activation of the fibrinolytic pathway has long been associated with human breast cancer. Plasmin is the major end product of the fibrinolytic pathway and is critical for normal physiological functions. The mechanism by which plasmin is generated in breast cancer is not yet fully described. We previously identified annexin II (ANX II), a fibrinolytic receptor, in human breast tumor tissue samples and observed a strong positive correlation with advanced stage cancer (Sharma et al., 2006a). We further demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) binds to ANX II in invasive breast cancer MDA-MB231cells, which leads to plasmin generation (Sharma et al., 2010). We hypothesize that ANX II-dependent plasmin generation in breast tumor is necessary to trigger the switch to neoangiogenesis, thereby stimulating a more aggressive cancer phenotype. Our immunohistochemical studies of human breast tumor tissues provide compelling evidence of a strong positive correlation between ANX II expression and neoangiogenesis, and suggest that ANX II is a potential target to slow or inhibit breast tumor growth by inhibiting neoangiogenesis. We now report that administration of anti-ANX II antibody potently inhibits the growth of human breast tumor in a xenograft model. Inhibition of tumor growth is at least partly due to attenuation of neoangiogenic activity within the tumor. In vitro studies demonstrate that anti-ANX II antibody inhibits angiogenesis on three dimensional matrigel cultures by eliciting endothelial cell (EC) death likely due to apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that selective disruption of the fibrinolytic activity of ANX II may provide a novel strategy for specific inhibition of neoangiogenesis in human breast cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Hot 'nough for ya?: Controls and Constraints on modeling flux melting in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M.; Wilson, C. R.; van Keken, P.; Kelemen, P. B.; Hacker, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    The qualitative concept of flux-melting in subduction zones is well established. Progressive dehydration reactions in the down-going slab release fluids to the hot overlying mantle wedge, causing flux melting and the migration of melts to the volcanic front. However, the quantitative details of fluid release, migration, melt generation and transport in the wedge remain poorly understood. In particular, there are two fundamental observations that defy quantitative modeling. The first is the location of the volcanic front with respect to intermediate depth earthquake (e.g. ˜ 100±40 km; England et al., 2004, Syracuse and Abers, 2006) which is remarkably robust yet insensitive to subduction parameters. This is particularly surprising given new estimates on the variability of fluid release in global subduction zones (e.g. van Keken et al. 2011) which show great sensitivity of fluid release to slab thermal conditions. Reconciling these results implies some robust mechanism for focusing fluids/melts toward the wedge corner. The second observation is the global existence of thermally hot erupted basalts and andesites that, if derived from flux melting of the mantle requires sub-arc mantle temperatures of ˜ 1300° C over shallow pressures of 1-2 GPa which are not that different from mid-ocean ridge conditions. These thermodynamic constraints are also implicit in recent parameterizations of wet melting (e.g. Kelley et al, 2010) which tend to produce significant amounts of melt only near the dry solidus. These observations impose significant challenges for geodynamic models of subduction zones, and in particular for those that don't include the explicit transport of fluids and melts. We present new high-resolution model results that suggest that a more complete description of coupled fluid/solid mechanics (allowing the fluid to interact with solid rheological variations) together with rheologically consistent solutions for temperature and solid flow, may provide the

  16. Modelling and analysis of the crush zone of a typical Australian passenger train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. Q.; Cole, C.; Dhanasekar, M.; Thambiratnam, D. P.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional nonlinear rigid body model has been developed for the investigation of the crashworthiness of a passenger train using the multibody dynamics approach. This model refers to a typical design of passenger cars and train constructs commonly used in Australia. The high-energy and low-energy crush zones of the cars and the train constructs are assumed and the data are explicitly provided in the paper. The crash scenario is limited to the train colliding on to a fixed barrier symmetrically. The simulations of a single car show that this initial design is only applicable for the crash speed of 35 km/h or lower. For higher speeds (e.g. 140 km/h), the crush lengths or crush forces or both the crush zone elements will have to be enlarged. It is generally better to increase the crush length than the crush force in order to retain the low levels of the longitudinal deceleration of the passenger cars.

  17. The three-zone composite productivity model for a multi-fractured horizontal shale gas well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Qian; Zhu, Weiyao

    2018-02-01

    Due to the nano-micro pore structures and the massive multi-stage multi-cluster hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs, the multi-scale seepage flows are much more complicated than in most other conventional reservoirs, and are crucial for the economic development of shale gas. In this study, a new multi-scale non-linear flow model was established and simplified, based on different diffusion and slip correction coefficients. Due to the fact that different flow laws existed between the fracture network and matrix zone, a three-zone composite model was proposed. Then, according to the conformal transformation combined with the law of equivalent percolation resistance, the productivity equation of a horizontal fractured well, with consideration given to diffusion, slip, desorption, and absorption, was built. Also, an analytic solution was derived, and the interference of the multi-cluster fractures was analyzed. The results indicated that the diffusion of the shale gas was mainly in the transition and Fick diffusion regions. The matrix permeability was found to be influenced by slippage and diffusion, which was determined by the pore pressure and diameter according to the Knudsen number. It was determined that, with the increased half-lengths of the fracture clusters, flow conductivity of the fractures, and permeability of the fracture network, the productivity of the fractured well also increased. Meanwhile, with the increased number of fractures, the distance between the fractures decreased, and the productivity slowly increased due to the mutual interfere of the fractures.

  18. Fe(II)- and Sulfide-Facilitated Reduction of 99Tc(VII)O4- in Microbially Reduced Hyporheic Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    Redox-reactive, biogeochemical phases generated by reductive microbial activity in hyporheic zone sediments from a dynamic groundwater-river interaction zone were evaluated for their ability to reduce soluble pertechnetate [99Tc(VII)O4-] to less soluble Tc(IV). The sediments were bioreduced by indigenous microorganisms that were stimulated by organic substrate addition in synthetic groundwater with or without sulfate. In most treatments, 20 µmol L-1 initial aqueous Tc(VII) was reduced to near or below detection (3.82×10-9 mol L-1) over periods of days to months in suspensions of variable solids concentrations. Native sediments containing significant lithogenic Fe(II) in various phases were, in contrast, unreactive with Tc(VII). Themore » reduction rates in the bioreduced sediments increased with increases in sediment mass, in proportion to weak acid-extractable Fe(II) and sediment-associated sulfide (AVS). The rate of Tc(VII) reduction was first order with respect to both aqueous Tc(VII) concentration and sediment mass, but correlations between specific reductant concentrations and reaction rate were not found. X-ray microprobe measurements revealed a strong correlation between Tc hot spots and Fe-containing mineral particles in the sediment. However, only a portion of Fe-containing particles were Tc-hosts. The Tc-hot spots displayed a chemical signature (by EDXRF) similar to pyroxene. The application of autoradiography and electron microprobe allowed further isolation of Tc-containing particles that were invariably found to be ca 100 µm aggregates of primary mineral material embedded within a fine-grained phyllosilicate matrix. EXAFS spectroscopy revealed that the Tc(IV) within these were a combination of a Tc(IV)O2-like phase and Tc(IV)-Fe surface clusters, with a significant fraction of a TcSx-like phase in sediments incubated with SO42-. AVS was implicated as a more selective reductant at low solids concentration even though its concentration was below

  19. Fe(II)- and sulfide-facilitated reduction of 99Tc(VII)O4- in microbially reduced hyporheic zone sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K.; Heald, Steve M.; McKinley, James P.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Resch, Charles T.; Moore, Dean A.

    2014-07-01

    Redox-reactive, biogeochemical phases generated by reductive microbial activity in hyporheic zone sediments from a dynamic groundwater-river interaction zone were evaluated for their ability to reduce soluble pertechnetate [99Tc(VII)O4-] to less soluble Tc(IV). The sediments were bioreduced by indigenous microorganisms that were stimulated by organic substrate addition in synthetic groundwater with or without sulfate. In most treatments, 20 μmol L-1 initial aqueous Tc(VII) was reduced to near or below detection (3.82 × 10-9 mol L-1) over periods of days to months in suspensions of variable solids concentrations. Native sediments containing significant lithogenic Fe(II) in various phases were, in contrast, unreactive with Tc(VII). The reduction rates in the bioreduced sediments increased with increases in sediment mass, in proportion to weak acid-extractable Fe(II) and sediment-associated sulfide (AVS). The rate of Tc(VII) reduction was first order with respect to both aqueous Tc(VII) concentration and sediment mass, but correlations between specific reductant concentrations and reaction rate were not found. X-ray microprobe measurements revealed a strong correlation between Tc hot spots and Fe-containing mineral particles in the sediment. However, only a portion of Fe-containing particles were Tc-hosts. The Tc-hot spots displayed a chemical signature (by EDXRF) similar to pyroxene. The application of autoradiography and electron microprobe allowed further isolation of Tc-containing particles that were invariably found to be ca 100 μm aggregates of primary mineral material embedded within a fine-grained phyllosilicate matrix. EXAFS spectroscopy revealed that the Tc(IV) within these were a combination of a Tc(IV)O2-like phase and Tc(IV)-Fe surface clusters, with a significant fraction of a TcSx-like phase in sediments incubated with SO42-. AVS was implicated as a more selective reductant at low solids concentration even though its concentration was below that

  20. Multiscale model of light harvesting by photosystem II in plants

    DOE PAGES

    Amarnath, Kapil; Bennett, Doran I. G.; Schneider, Anna R.; ...

    2016-01-19

    The first step of photosynthesis in plants is the absorption of sunlight by pigments in the antenna complexes of photosystem II (PSII), followed by transfer of the nascent excitation energy to the reaction centers, where long-term storage as chemical energy is initiated. Quantum mechanical mechanisms must be invoked to explain the transport of excitation within individual antenna. However, it is unclear how these mechanisms influence transfer across assemblies of antenna and thus the photochemical yield at reaction centers in the functional thylakoid membrane. In this paper, we model light harvesting at the several-hundred-nanometer scale of the PSII membrane, while preservingmore » the dominant quantum effects previously observed in individual complexes. We show that excitation moves diffusively through the antenna with a diffusion length of 50 nm until it reaches a reaction center, where charge separation serves as an energetic trap. The diffusion length is a single parameter that incorporates the enhancing effect of excited state delocalization on individual rates of energy transfer as well as the complex kinetics that arise due to energy transfer and loss by decay to the ground state. The diffusion length determines PSII’s high quantum efficiency in ideal conditions, as well as how it is altered by the membrane morphology and the closure of reaction centers. Finally, we anticipate that the model will be useful in resolving the nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms that PSII employs in conditions of high light stress.« less

  1. Scaling up: What coupled land-atmosphere models can tell us about critical zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, K. A.; Masarik, M. T.; Rudisill, W. J.; Gelb, L.; Flores, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    A significant limitation to extending our knowledge of critical zone (CZ) evolution and function is a lack of hydrometeorological information at sufficiently fine spatial and temporal resolutions to resolve topo-climatic gradients and adequate spatial and temporal extent to capture a range of climatic conditions across ecoregions. Research at critical zone observatories (CZOs) suggests hydrometeorological stores and fluxes exert key controls on processes such as hydrologic partitioning and runoff generation, landscape evolution, soil formation, biogeochemical cycling, and vegetation dynamics. However, advancing fundamental understanding of CZ processes necessitates understanding how hydrometeorological drivers vary across space and time. As a result of recent advances in computational capabilities it has become possible, although still computationally expensive, to simulate hydrometeorological conditions via high resolution coupled land-atmosphere models. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we developed a high spatiotemporal resolution dataset extending from water year 1987 to present for the Snake River Basin in the northwestern USA including the Reynolds Creek and Dry Creek Experimental Watersheds, both part of the Reynolds Creek CZO, as well as a range of other ecosystems including shrubland desert, montane forests, and alpine tundra. Drawing from hypotheses generated by work at these sites and across the CZO network, we use the resulting dataset in combination with CZO observations and publically available datasets to provide insights regarding hydrologic partitioning, vegetation distribution, and erosional processes. This dataset provides key context in interpreting and reconciling what observations obtained at particular sites reveal about underlying CZ structure and function. While this dataset does not extend to future climates, the same modeling framework can be used to dynamically downscale coarse global climate model output to scales

  2. Three-dimensional flexure modelling of seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone in the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Gook; Moon, Jai-Woon; Jung, Mee-Sook

    2009-04-01

    The geophysical data were obtained in 2000-2003 during a survey of seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone (OFZ) to the northwest of the Marshall Islands in the western Pacific. The OFZ is unique in that it is a wide rift zone showing 600-km-long right-lateral movement between the Pigafetta Basin (PB) and East Mariana Basin (EMB), and contains many seamounts (e.g. the Magellan Seamounts and the seamounts on the Dutton Ridge). Most seamounts in this study are newly mapped using modern multibeam echosounder (Seabeam 2000) and denoted sequentially by Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI). OSM2, OSM4, OSM7, OSM8-1 and OSM8-2 seamounts of the study area are located in the OFZ which formed by the spreading ridge between the Izanagi and Pacific plates, and OSM5-1, Seascan, OSM6-1 and OSM6-2 seamounts in the PB which is a part of the oldest oceanic crust in the Pacific. In this study, the densities of seamounts and the elastic thickness values of lithosphere are estimated by using 3-D flexure and gravity modelling by considering several boundary conditions and a constant sediment layer. The infinite model with two different elastic thickness values is the best-fitting model and it indicates that the OFZ was mechanically coupled with plate of different elastic thickness values, probably after the reorganization of Izanagi-Pacific spreading zone. Very low elastic thickness values (5-10 km), relatively young seamounts, and old lithosphere in the east study area suggest the possibility of the rejuvenation of the lithosphere by widespread volcanism pulses, whereas higher elastic thickness values (15-20 km), relatively younger lithosphere, and old seamounts of the west study area are comparable with a simple cooling plate model. It implies that the west study area is outside the rejuvenation range of the lithosphere. In the flexure and gravity modelling, the different residual pattern of OSM6-1 and OSM6-2, which are joined, suggests that they have different

  3. GPS measurements and finite element modeling of the earthquake cycle along the Middle America subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa Mora, Francisco

    We model surface deformation recorded by GPS stations along the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Central America to estimate the magnitude of and variations in frictional locking (coupling) along the subduction interface, toward a better understanding of seismic hazard in these earthquake-prone regions. The first chapter describes my primary analysis technique, namely 3-dimensional finite element modeling to simulate subduction and bounded-variable inversions that optimize the fit to the GPS velocity field. This chapter focuses on and describes interseismic coupling of the Oaxaca segment of the Mexican subduction zone and introduces an analysis of transient slip events that occur in this region. Our results indicate that coupling is strong within the rupture zone of the 1978 Ms=7.8 Oaxaca earthquake, making this region a potential source of a future large earthquake. However, we also find evidence for significant variations in coupling on the subduction interface over distances of only tens of kilometers, decreasing toward the outer edges of the 1978 rupture zone. In the second chapter, we study in more detail some of the slow slip events that have been recorded over a broad area of southern Mexico, with emphasis on their space-time behavior. Our modeling indicates that transient deformation beneath southern Mexico is focused in two distinct slip patches mostly located downdip from seismogenic areas beneath Guerrero and Oaxaca. Contrary to conclusions reached in one previous study, we find no evidence for a spatial or temporal correlation between transient slip that occurs in these two widely separated source regions. Finally, chapter three extends the modeling techniques to new GPS data in Central America, where subduction coupling is weak or zero and the upper plate deformation is much more complex than in Mexico. Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence beneath El Salvador and Nicaragua is accompanied by subduction and trench-parallel motion of the forearc. Our GPS

  4. A two-field modified Lagrangian formulation for robust simulations of extrinsic cohesive zone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazes, F.; Coret, M.; Combescure, A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the robust implementation of a cohesive zone model based on extrinsic cohesive laws (i.e. laws involving an infinite initial stiffness). To this end, a two-field Lagrangian weak formulation in which cohesive tractions are chosen as the field variables along the crack's path is presented. Unfortunately, this formulation cannot model the infinite compliance of the broken elements accurately, and no simple criterion can be defined to determine the loading-unloading change of state at the integration points of the cohesive elements. Therefore, a modified Lagrangian formulation using a fictitious cohesive traction instead of the classical cohesive traction as the field variable is proposed. Thanks to this change of variable, the cohesive law becomes an increasing function of the equivalent displacement jump, which eliminates the problems mentioned previously. The ability of the proposed formulations to simulate fracture accurately and without field oscillations is investigated through three numerical test examples.

  5. Evidence for self-refraction in a convergence zone: NPE (Nonlinear progressive wave equation) model results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, B. Edward; Plante, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear progressive wave equation (NPE) model was developed by the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity during 1982 to 1987 to study nonlinear effects in long range oceanic propagation of finite amplitude acoustic waves, including weak shocks. The NPE model was applied to propagation of a generic shock wave (initial condition provided by Sandia Division 1533) in a few illustrative environments. The following consequences of nonlinearity are seen by comparing linear and nonlinear NPE results: (1) a decrease in shock strength versus range (a well-known result of entropy increases at the shock front); (2) an increase in the convergence zone range; and (3) a vertical meandering of the energy path about the corresponding linear ray path. Items (2) and (3) are manifestations of self-refraction.

  6. Development and application of a screening model for evaluating bioenhanced dissolution in DNAPL source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Thomas J.; Abriola, Linda M.; Gibson, Jenny L.; Smits, Kathleen M.; Christ, John A.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ bioremediation, a widely applied treatment technology for source zones contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), has proven economical and reasonably efficient for long-term management of contaminated sites. Successful application of this remedial technology, however, requires an understanding of the complex interaction of transport, mass transfer, and biotransformation processes. The bioenhancement factor, which represents the ratio of DNAPL mass transfer under microbially active conditions to that which would occur under abiotic conditions, is commonly used to quantify the effectiveness of a particular bioremediation remedy. To date, little research has been directed towards the development and validation of methods to predict bioenhancement factors under conditions representative of real sites. This work extends an existing, first-order, bioenhancement factor expression to systems with zero-order and Monod kinetics, representative of many source-zone scenarios. The utility of this model for predicting the bioenhancement factor for previously published laboratory and field experiments is evaluated. This evaluation demonstrates the applicability of these simple bioenhancement factors for preliminary experimental design and analysis, and for assessment of dissolution enhancement in ganglia-contaminated source zones. For ease of application, a set of nomographs is presented that graphically depicts the dependence of bioenhancement factor on physicochemical properties. Application of these nomographs is illustrated using data from a well-documented field site. Results suggest that this approach can successfully capture field-scale, as well as column-scale, behavior. Sensitivity analyses reveal that bioenhanced dissolution will critically depend on in-situ biomass concentrations.

  7. Traffic analysis toolbox volume IX : work zone modeling and simulation, a guide for analysts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    This document is the second volume in the FHWA Traffic Analysis Toolbox: Work Zone Analysis series. Whereas the first volume provides guidance to decision-makers at agencies and jurisdictions considering the role of analytical tools in work zone plan...

  8. Velocity and Density Models Incorporating the Cascadia Subduction Zone for 3D Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.

    2007-01-01

    In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies in the Pacific Northwest, three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (3D Vp and Vs) and density (3D rho) models incorporating the Cascadia subduction zone have been developed for the region encompassed from about 40.2°N to 50°N latitude, and from about -122°W to -129°W longitude. The model volume includes elevations from 0 km to 60 km (elevation is opposite of depth in model coordinates). Stephenson and Frankel (2003) presented preliminary ground motion simulations valid up to 0.1 Hz using an earlier version of these models. The version of the model volume described here includes more structural and geophysical detail, particularly in the Puget Lowland as required for scenario earthquake simulations in the development of the Seattle Urban Hazards Maps (Frankel and others, 2007). Olsen and others (in press) used the model volume discussed here to perform a Cascadia simulation up to 0.5 Hz using a Sumatra-Andaman Islands rupture history. As research from the EarthScope Program (http://www.earthscope.org) is published, a wealth of important detail can be added to these model volumes, particularly to depths of the upper-mantle. However, at the time of development for this model version, no EarthScope-specific results were incorporated. This report is intended to be a reference for colleagues and associates who have used or are planning to use this preliminary model in their research. To this end, it is intended that these models will be considered a beginning template for a community velocity model of the Cascadia region as more data and results become available.

  9. Field testing model predictions of foam coverage and bubble content in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T.; Ma, G.; Holman, R. A.; Chickadel, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    Field-scale modeling of surfzone bubbles and foam coverage is challenging in terms of the computational intensity of multi-phase bubble models based on Navier-Stokes/VOF formulation. In this study, we developed the NHWAVE-bubble package, which includes a 3D non-hydrostatic wave model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012), a multi-phase bubble model and a foam model. NHWAVE uses a surface and bottom following sigma coordinate system, making it more applicable to 3D modeling of nearshore waves and circulation in a large-scale field domain. It has been extended to include a multiphase description of polydisperse bubble populations following the approach applied in a 3D VOF model by Ma et al. (2012). A model of a foam layer on the water surface is specified in the model package using a shallow water formulation based on a balance of drag forces due to wind and water column motion. Foam mass conservation includes source and sink terms representing outgassing of the water column, direct foam generation due to surface agitation, and erosion due to bubble bursting. The model is applied in a field scale domain at FRF, Duck, NC where optical data in either visible band (ARGUS) or infrared band were collected during 2010 Surf Zone Optics experiments. The decay of image brightness or intensity following the passage of wave crests is presumably tied to both decay of bubble populations and foam coverage after passage of a broken wave crest. Infrared imagery is likely to provide more detailed information which could separate active breaking from passive foam decay on the surface. Model results will be compared with the measurements with an attention to distinguishing between active generation and passive decay of the foam signature on the water surface.

  10. Measurements and modelling of beach groundwater flow in the swash-zone: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane P.

    2006-04-01

    This paper reviews research on beach groundwater dynamics and identifies research questions which will need to be answered before swash zone sediment transport and beach profile evolution can be successfully modelled. Beach groundwater hydrodynamics are a result of combined forcing from the tide and waves at a range of frequencies, and a large number of observations exist which describe the shape and elevation of the beach watertable in response to tidal forcing at diurnal, semi-diurnal and spring-neap tidal frequencies. Models of beach watertable response to tidal forcing have been successfully validated; however, models of watertable response to wave forcing are less well developed and require verification. Improved predictions of swash zone sediment transport and beach profile evolution cannot be achieved unless the complex fluid and sediment interactions between the surface flow and the beach groundwater are better understood, particularly the sensitivity of sediment transport processes to flow perpendicular to the permeable bed. The presence of a capillary fringe, particularly when it lies just below the sand surface, has influences on beach groundwater dynamics. The presence of a capillary fringe can have a significant effect on the exchange of water between the ocean and the coastal aquifer, particularly in terms of the storage capacity of the aquifer. Field and laboratory observations have also shown that natural groundwater waves usually propagate faster and decay more slowly in aquifers with a capillary fringe, and observations which suggest that horizontal flows may also occur in the capillary zone have been reported. The effects of infiltration and exfiltration are generally invoked to explain why beaches with a low watertable tend to accrete and beaches with a high watertable tend to erode. However, the relative importance of processes such as infiltration losses in the swash, changes in the effective weight of the sediment, and modified shear stress

  11. The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model for Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aziz, E.; James, S. C.; Arnold, B. W.; Zyvoloski, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation provides a reinterpreted conceptual model of the Yucca Mountain site-scale flow system subject to all quality assurance procedures. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, which is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. This effort started from the ground up with a revised and updated hydrogeologic framework model, which incorporates the latest lithology data, and increased grid resolution that better resolves the hydrogeologic framework, which was updated throughout the model domain. In addition, faults are much better represented using the 250× 250- m2 spacing (compared to the previous model's 500× 500-m2 spacing). Data collected since the previous model calibration effort have been included and they comprise all Nye County water-level data through Phase IV of their Early Warning Drilling Program. Target boundary fluxes are derived from the newest (2004) Death Valley Regional Flow System model from the US Geologic Survey. A consistent weighting scheme assigns importance to each measured water-level datum and boundary flux extracted from the regional model. The numerical model is calibrated by matching these weighted water level measurements and boundary fluxes using parameter estimation techniques, along with more informal comparisons of the model to hydrologic and geochemical information. The model software (hydrologic simulation code FEHM~v2.24 and parameter estimation software PEST~v5.5) and model setup facilitates efficient calibration of multiple conceptual models. Analyses evaluate the impact of these updates and additional data on the modeled potentiometric surface and the flowpaths emanating from below the repository. After examining the heads and permeabilities obtained from the calibrated models, we present particle pathways from the proposed repository and compare them to those from the

  12. Existing and potential infection risk zones of yellow fever worldwide: a modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Freya M; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Marinho, Fatima; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Fullman, Nancy; Ray, Sarah E; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S; Reiner, Robert C; Moyes, Catherine L; Hay, Simon I; Golding, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Yellow fever cases are under-reported and the exact distribution of the disease is unknown. An effective vaccine is available but more information is needed about which populations within risk zones should be targeted to implement interventions. Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Brazil, coupled with the global expansion of the range of its main urban vector, Aedes aegypti, suggest that yellow fever has the propensity to spread further internationally. The aim of this study was to estimate the disease's contemporary distribution and potential for spread into new areas to help inform optimal control and prevention strategies. We assembled 1155 geographical records of yellow fever virus infection in people from 1970 to 2016. We used a Poisson point process boosted regression tree model that explicitly incorporated environmental and biological explanatory covariates, vaccination coverage, and spatial variability in disease reporting rates to predict the relative risk of apparent yellow fever virus infection at a 5 × 5 km resolution across all risk zones (47 countries across the Americas and Africa). We also used the fitted model to predict the receptivity of areas outside at-risk zones to the introduction or reintroduction of yellow fever transmission. By use of previously published estimates of annual national case numbers, we used the model to map subnational variation in incidence of yellow fever across at-risk countries and to estimate the number of cases averted by vaccination worldwide. Substantial international and subnational spatial variation exists in relative risk and incidence of yellow fever as well as varied success of vaccination in reducing incidence in several high-risk regions, including Brazil, Cameroon, and Togo. Areas with the highest predicted average annual case numbers include large parts of Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and South Sudan, where vaccination coverage in 2016

  13. Computational modeling and simulation of spall fracture in polycrystalline solids by an atomistic-based interfacial zone model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liqiang; Zeng, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this work is to investigate spall fracture in polycrystalline materials under high-speed impact loading by using an atomistic-based interfacial zone model. We illustrate that for polycrystalline materials, increases in the potential energy ratio between grain boundaries and grains could cause a fracture transition from intergranular to transgranular mode. We also found out that the spall strength increases when there is a fracture transition from intergranular to transgranular. In addition, analysis of grain size, crystal lattice orientation and impact speed reveals that the spall strength increases as grain size or impact speed increases. PMID:26435546

  14. 76 FR 38297 - Safety Zone; Marine Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Sault Sainte Marie Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...'' W [DATUM: NAD 83]. (ii) Enforcement Period. This safety zone will be enforced on July 4, 2011 from 9...'' N, 086[deg]39'08.52'' W [DATUM: NAD 83]. (ii) Enforcement Period. This safety zone will be enforced...: NAD 83], with the West Bay shoreline forming the South and West boundaries of the zone. (ii...

  15. Study of the model of calibrating differences of brightness temperature from geostationary satellite generated by time zone differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weidong; Shan, Xinjian; Qu, Chunyan

    2010-11-01

    In comparison with polar-orbiting satellites, geostationary satellites have a higher time resolution and wider field of visions, which can cover eleven time zones (an image covers about one third of the Earth's surface). For a geostationary satellite panorama graph at a point of time, the brightness temperature of different zones is unable to represent the thermal radiation information of the surface at the same point of time because of the effect of different sun solar radiation. So it is necessary to calibrate brightness temperature of different zones with respect to the same point of time. A model of calibrating the differences of the brightness temperature of geostationary satellite generated by time zone differences is suggested in this study. A total of 16 curves of four positions in four different stages are given through sample statistics of brightness temperature of every 5 days synthetic data which are from four different time zones (time zones 4, 6, 8, and 9). The above four stages span January -March (winter), April-June (spring), July-September (summer), and October-December (autumn). Three kinds of correct situations and correct formulas based on curves changes are able to better eliminate brightness temperature rising or dropping caused by time zone differences.

  16. A standardised graphic method for describing data privacy frameworks in primary care research using a flexible zone model.

    PubMed

    Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Ohmann, Christian; Verheij, Robert A; van Veen, Evert-Ben; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan C

    2014-12-01

    To develop a model describing core concepts and principles of data flow, data privacy and confidentiality, in a simple and flexible way, using concise process descriptions and a diagrammatic notation applied to research workflow processes. The model should help to generate robust data privacy frameworks for research done with patient data. Based on an exploration of EU legal requirements for data protection and privacy, data access policies, and existing privacy frameworks of research projects, basic concepts and common processes were extracted, described and incorporated into a model with a formal graphical representation and a standardised notation. The Unified Modelling Language (UML) notation was enriched by workflow and own symbols to enable the representation of extended data flow requirements, data privacy and data security requirements, privacy enhancing techniques (PET) and to allow privacy threat analysis for research scenarios. Our model is built upon the concept of three privacy zones (Care Zone, Non-care Zone and Research Zone) containing databases, data transformation operators, such as data linkers and privacy filters. Using these model components, a risk gradient for moving data from a zone of high risk for patient identification to a zone of low risk can be described. The model was applied to the analysis of data flows in several general clinical research use cases and two research scenarios from the TRANSFoRm project (e.g., finding patients for clinical research and linkage of databases). The model was validated by representing research done with the NIVEL Primary Care Database in the Netherlands. The model allows analysis of data privacy and confidentiality issues for research with patient data in a structured way and provides a framework to specify a privacy compliant data flow, to communicate privacy requirements and to identify weak points for an adequate implementation of data privacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  17. One-zone synchrotron self-Compton model for the core emission of Centaurus A revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, M.; Lefa, E.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the role of the second synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) photon generation to the multiwavelength emission from the compact regions of sources that are characterized as misaligned blazars. For this, we focus on the nearest high-energy emitting radio galaxy Centaurus A and we revisit the one-zone SSC model for its core emission. Methods: We have calculated analytically the peak luminosities of the first and second SSC components by first deriving the steady-state electron distribution in the presence of synchrotron and SSC cooling, and then by using appropriate expressions for the positions of the spectral peaks. We have also tested our analytical results against those derived from a numerical code where the full emissivities and cross-sections were used. Results: We show that the one-zone SSC model cannot account for the core emission of Centaurus A above a few GeV, where the peak of the second SSC component appears. We thus propose an alternative explanation for the origin of the high-energy (≳0.4 GeV) and TeV emission, where these are attributed to the radiation emitted by a relativistic proton component through photohadronic interactions with the photons produced by the primary leptonic component. We show that the required proton luminosities are not extremely high, i.e. ~1043 erg/s, provided that the injection spectra are modelled by a power law with a high value of the lower energy cutoff. Finally, we find that the contribution of the core emitting region of Cen A to the observed neutrino and ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluxes is negligible.

  18. Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of Surf Zone Injury Occurrence along the Delaware Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doelp, M.; Puleo, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Beebe Healthcare in Lewes, DE collected along the DE coast surf zone injury (SZI) data for seven summer seasons from 2010 through 2016. Data include, but are not limited to, time of injury, gender, age, and activity. Over 2000 injuries were recorded over the seven year period, including 116 spinal injuries and three fatalities. These injuries are predominantly wave related incidents including wading (41%), bodysurfing (26%), and body-boarding (20%). Despite the large number of injuries, beach associated hazards do not receive the same level of awareness that rip currents receive. Injury population statistics revealed those between the ages of 11 and 15 years old suffered the greatest proportion of injuries (18.8%). Male water users were twice as likely to sustain injury as their female counterparts. Also, non-locals were roughly six times more likely to sustain injury than locals. In 2016, five or more injuries occurred for 18.5% of the days sampled, and no injuries occurred for 31.4% of the sample days. The episodic nature of injury occurrence and population statistics indicate the importance of environmental conditions and human behavior on surf zone injuries. Higher order statistics are necessary to effectively assess SZI cause and likelihood of occurrence on a particular day. A Bayesian network using Netica software (Norsys) was constructed to model SZI and predict changes in injury likelihood on an hourly basis. The network incorporates environmental data collected by weather stations, NDBC buoy #44009, USACE buoy at Bethany Beach, and by researcher personnel on the beach. The Bayesian model includes prior (e.g., historic) information to infer relationships between provided parameters. Sensitivity analysis determined the most influential variables to injury likelihood are population, water temperature, nearshore wave height, beach slope, and the day of the week. Forecasting during the 2017 summer season will test model ability to predict injury likelihood.

  19. Groundwater and solute transport modeling at Hyporheic zone of upper part Citarum River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, Irwan; Farazi, Hendy; Fadhilah, Rahmat; Purnandi, Cipto; Notosiswoyo, Sudarto

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater and surface water interaction is an interesting topic to be studied related to the water resources and environmental studies. The study of interaction between groundwater and river water at the Upper Part Citarum River aims to know the contribution of groundwater to the river or reversely and also solute transport of dissolved ions between them. Analysis of drill logs, vertical electrical sounding at the selected sections, measurement of dissolved ions, and groundwater modeling were applied to determine the flow and solute transport phenomena at the hyporheic zone. It showed the hyporheic zone dominated by silt and clay with hydraulic conductivity range from 10-4∼10-8 m/s. The groundwater flowing into the river with very low gradient and it shows that the Citarum River is a gaining stream. The groundwater modeling shows direct seepage of groundwater into the Citarum River is only 186 l/s, very small compared to the total discharge of the river. Total dissolved ions of the groundwater ranged from 200 to 480 ppm while the river water range from 200 to 2,000 ppm. Based on solute transport modeling it indicates dissolved ions dispersion of the Citarum River into groundwater may occur in some areas such as Bojongsoang-Dayeuh Kolot and Nanjung. This situation would increase the dissolved ions in groundwater in the region due to the contribution of the Citarum River. The results of the research can be a reference for further studies related to the mechanism of transport of the pollutants in the groundwater around the Citarum River.

  20. Non-invasive monitoring and modelling of the root active zones: progresses, caveats and outlook.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassiani, G.; Putti, M.; Boaga, J.; Busato, L.; Vanella, D.; Consoli, S.

    2016-12-01

    Roots play a fundamental role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions as they not only control water and nutrient exchanges necessary for plant sustenance, but also largely contribute, through the plant system, to the mass and energy exchanges between soil and atmosphere. Therefore understanding root zone processes is of major importance not only for crop management but also for wider scale catchment and global issues. Geophysical methods can greatly contribute to imaging the root zone geometry and processes, provided that high-resolution, time-lapse measurements are set up, and provided that the survey design takes into due considerations the expected processes to be imaged. In this respect, modelling and monitoring go hand in hand not only a-posteriori to try and interpret the data, but also a-priori in the attempt to optimise monitoring strategies. In this work we present a few case studies concerning root monitoring using ERT with the support of ancillary data of hydrological and physiological nature. Different degrees of integration with modelling will be presented, with the aim of showing how a full Data Assimilation scheme can be built. In addition, the results will help address fundamental questions such as: (a) is root growth controlled by optimality principles under the constraints posed by soil hydraulic and mechanical properties, by water and nutrient availability and by plant competition? (b) is the optimality above also controlling the dynamic processing of root adaptation to changing constraints? (c) to what extent can these processes of soil-plant interaction be monitored in controlled conditions as well as in true-life environments? These questions, and the availability of ever advancing modelling and monitoring capabilities, are likely to develop into a growing and exciting field of research.

  1. How Models Simulate the Radiative Effect in the Transition Zone of the Aerosol-Cloud Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Angrill, J.; González, J. A.; Long, C. N.; McComiskey, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have pointed towards dealing with clouds and aerosols as two manifestations of what is essentially the same physical phenomenon: a suspension of tiny particles in the air. Although the two extreme cases (i.e., pure aerosol and well-defined cloud) are easily distinguished, and obviously produce different radiative effects, there are many situations in the transition (or "twilight") zone. In a recent paper [Calbó et al., Atmos. Res. 2017, j.atmosres.2017.06.010], the authors of the current communication estimated that about 10% of time there might be a suspension of particles in the air that is difficult to distinguish as either cloud or aerosol. Radiative transfer models, however, simulate the effect of clouds and aerosols with different modules, routines, or parameterizations. In this study, we apply a sensitivity analysis approach to assess the ability of two radiative transfer models (SBDART and RRTM) in simulating the radiative effect of a suspension of particles with characteristics in the boundary between cloud and aerosol. We simulate this kind of suspension either in "cloud mode" or in "aerosol mode" and setting different values of optical depth, droplet size, water path, aerosol type, cloud height, etc. Irradiances both for solar and infrared bands are studied, both at ground level and at the top of the atmosphere, and all analyses are repeated for different solar zenith angles. We obtain that (a) water clouds and ice clouds have similar radiative effects if they have the same optical depth; (b) the spread of effects regarding different aerosol type/aerosol characteristics is remarkable; (c) radiative effects of an aerosol layer and of a cloud layer are different, even if they have similar optical depth; (d) for a given effect on the diffuse component, the effect on the direct component is usually greater (more extinction of direct beam) by aerosols than by clouds; (e) radiative transfer models are somewhat limited when simulating the

  2. MIZEX. A Program for Mesoscale Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction Experiments in Arctic Marginal Ice Zones. III. Modeling the Marginal Ice Zone,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Ii TS C]r.I2 TAB 0] Unzanro’ unoed 0 justi fica ~r: 0 April 1984 vs - ASValabilitY Codes lvyall and/or U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering...coupled model. Fig. 1. Annual average simulated velocity fields. 3 192 Aloka 190 / 902 190+ WOO S’,. o Ice OnlY Mod" D"’, 55*w F~tth Yea’ Ice Ocean Model...A more precise delinga- inflow boundary conditions. 12 4- a. [ o ll ii traspert 00 0 0- 0e a I " i i , - - I I 1161 63 15 67 69 Ti 73 75 77 1980 *= 4h

  3. CO2 migration in the vadose zone: experimental and numerical modelling of controlled gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gasparini, andrea; credoz, anthony; grandia, fidel; garcia, david angel; bruno, jordi

    2014-05-01

    The mobility of CO2 in the vadose zone and its subsequent transfer to the atmosphere is a matter of concern in the risk assessment of the geological storage of CO2. In this study the experimental and modelling results of controlled CO2 injection are reported to better understanding of the physical processes affecting CO2 and transport in the vadose zone. CO2 was injected through 16 micro-injectors during 49 days of experiments in a 35 m3 experimental unit filled with sandy material, in the PISCO2 facilities at the ES.CO2 centre in Ponferrada (North Spain). Surface CO2 flux were monitored and mapped periodically to assess the evolution of CO2 migration through the soil and to the atmosphere. Numerical simulations were run to reproduce the experimental results, using TOUGH2 code with EOS7CA research module considering two phases (gas and liquid) and three components (H2O, CO2, air). Five numerical models were developed following step by step the injection procedure done at PISCO2. The reference case (Model A) simulates the injection into a homogeneous soil(homogeneous distribution of permeability and porosity in the near-surface area, 0.8 to 0.3 m deep from the atmosphere). In another model (Model B), four additional soil layers with four specific permeabilities and porosities were included to predict the effect of differential compaction on soil. To account for the effect of higher soil temperature, an isothermal simulation called Model C was also performed. Finally, the assessment of the rainfall effects (soil water saturation) on CO2 emission on surface was performed in models called Model D and E. The combined experimental and modelling approach shows that CO2 leakage in the vadose zone quickly comes out through preferential migration pathways and spots with the ranges of fluxes in the ground/surface interface from 2.5 to 600 g·m-2·day-1. This gas channelling is mainly related to soil compaction and climatic perturbation. This has significant implications to

  4. Mono-component versus binary isotherm models for Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorption from binary metal solution by the green alga Pithophora oedogonia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Singh, Alpana; Gaur, J P

    2008-11-01

    The sorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) by Pithophora markedly decreased as the concentration of the secondary metal ion, Cu(II) or Pb(II), increased in the binary metal solution. However, the test alga showed a greater affinity to sorb Cu(II) than Pb(II) from the binary metal solution. Mono-component Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms successfully predicted the sorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) from both single and binary metal solutions. None of the tested binary sorption isotherms could realistically predict Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorption capacity and affinity of the test alga for the binary metal solutions of varying composition, which mono-component isotherms could very well accomplish. Hence, mono-component isotherm modeling at different concentrations of the secondary metal ion seems to be a better option than binary isotherms for metal sorption from binary metal solution.

  5. Assessment of vulnerability zones for ground water pollution using GIS-DRASTIC-EC model: A field-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantha Rao, D.; Naik, Pradeep K.; Jain, Sunil K.; Vinod Kumar, K.; Dhanamjaya Rao, E. N.

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution is an essential pre-requisite for better planning of an area. We present the groundwater vulnerability assessment in parts of the Yamuna Nagar District, Haryana State, India in an area of about 800 km2, considered to be a freshwater zone in the foothills of the Siwalik Hill Ranges. Such areas in the Lower Himalayas form good groundwater recharge zones, and should always be free from contamination. But, the administration has been trying to promote industrialization along these foothill zones without actually assessing the environmental consequences such activities may invite in the future. GIS-DRASTIC model has been used with field based data inputs for studying the vulnerability assessment. But, we find that inclusion electrical conductivity (EC) as a model parameter makes it more robust. Therefore, we rename it as GIS-DRASTIC-EC model. The model identifies three vulnerability zones such as low, moderate and high with an areal extent of 5%, 80% and 15%, respectively. On the basis of major chemical parameters alone, the groundwater in the foothill zones apparently looks safe, but analysis with the help of GIS-DRASTIC-EC model gives a better perspective of the groundwater quality in terms of identifying the vulnerable areas.

  6. Spatially explicit modeling of conflict zones between wildlife and snow sports: prioritizing areas for winter refuges.

    PubMed

    Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2011-04-01

    Outdoor winter recreation exerts an increasing pressure upon mountain ecosystems, with unpredictable, free-ranging activities (e.g., ski mountaineering, snowboarding, and snowshoeing) representing a major source of stress for wildlife. Mitigating anthropogenic disturbance requires the spatially explicit prediction of the interference between the activities of humans and wildlife. We applied spatial modeling to localize conflict zones between wintering Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a declining species of Alpine timberline ecosystems, and two free-ranging winter sports (off-piste skiing [including snow-boarding] and snowshoeing). Track data (snow-sports and birds' traces) obtained from aerial photographs taken over a 585-km transect running along the timberline, implemented within a maximum entropy model, were used to predict the occurrence of snow sports and Black Grouse as a function of landscape characteristics. By modeling Black Grouse presence in the theoretical absence of free-ranging activities and ski infrastructure, we first estimated the amount of habitat reduction caused by these two factors. The models were then extrapolated to the altitudinal range occupied by Black Grouse, while the spatial extent and intensity of potential conflict were assessed by calculating the probability of human-wildlife co-occurrence. The two snow-sports showed different distribution patterns. Skiers' occurrence was mainly determined by ski-lift presence and a smooth terrain, while snowshoers' occurrence was linked to hiking or skiing routes and moderate slopes. Wintering Black Grouse avoided ski lifts and areas frequented by free-ranging snow sports. According to the models, Black Grouse have faced a substantial reduction of suitable wintering habitat along the timberline transect: 12% due to ski infrastructure and another 16% when adding free-ranging activities. Extrapolating the models over the whole study area results in an overall habitat loss due to ski infrastructure of

  7. Dynamic rupture models of subduction zone earthquakes with off-fault plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollherr, S.; van Zelst, I.; Gabriel, A. A.; van Dinther, Y.; Madden, E. H.; Ulrich, T.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling tsunami-genesis based on purely elastic seafloor displacement typically underpredicts tsunami sizes. Dynamic rupture simulations allow to analyse whether plastic energy dissipation is a missing rheological component by capturing the complex interplay of the rupture front, emitted seismic waves and the free surface in the accretionary prism. Strike-slip models with off-fault plasticity suggest decreasing rupture speed and extensive plastic yielding mainly at shallow depths. For simplified subduction geometries inelastic deformation on the verge of Coulomb failure may enhance vertical displacement, which in turn favors the generation of large tsunamis (Ma, 2012). However, constraining appropriate initial conditions in terms of fault geometry, initial fault stress and strength remains challenging. Here, we present dynamic rupture models of subduction zones constrained by long-term seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling (STM) without any a priori assumption of regions of failure. The STM model provides self-consistent slab geometries, as well as stress and strength initial conditions which evolve in response to tectonic stresses, temperature, gravity, plasticity and pressure (van Dinther et al. 2013). Coseismic slip and coupled seismic wave propagation is modelled using the software package SeisSol (www.seissol.org), suited for complex fault zone structures and topography/bathymetry. SeisSol allows for local time-stepping, which drastically reduces the time-to-solution (Uphoff et al., 2017). This is particularly important in large-scale scenarios resolving small-scale features, such as the shallow angle between the megathrust fault and the free surface. Our dynamic rupture model uses a Drucker-Prager plastic yield criterion and accounts for thermal pressurization around the fault mimicking the effect of pore pressure changes due to frictional heating. We first analyze the influence of this rheology on rupture dynamics and tsunamigenic properties, i.e. seafloor

  8. Cohesive zone modelling of wafer bonding and fracture: effect of patterning and toughness variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubair, D. V.; Spearing, S. M.

    2006-03-01

    Direct wafer bonding has increasingly become popular in the manufacture of microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor microelectronics components. The success of the bonding process is controlled by variables such as wafer flatness and surface preparation. In order to understand the effects of these variables, spontaneous planar crack propagation simulations were performed using the spectral scheme in conjunction with a cohesive zone model. The fracture-toughness on the bond interface is varied to simulate the effect of surface roughness (nanotopography) and patterning. Our analysis indicated that the energetics of crack propagation is sensitive to the local surface property variations. The patterned wafers are tougher (well bonded) than the unpatterned ones of the same average fracture-toughness.

  9. Parameterization and Modeling of Coupled Heat and Mass Transport in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, B.; Yang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The coupled heat and mass transport in the vadose zone is essentially a multiphysics issue. Addressing this issue appropriately has remarkable impacts on soil physical, chemical and biological processes. To data, most coupled heat and water transport modeling has focused on the interactions between liquid water, water vapor and heat transport in homogeneous and layered soils. Comparatively little work has been done on structured soils where preferential infiltration and evaporation flow occurs. Moreover, the traditional coupled heat and water model usually neglects the nonwetting phase air flow, which was found to be significant in the state-of-the-art modeling framework for coupled heat and water transport investigation. However, the parameterizations for the nonwetting phase air permeability largely remain elusive so far. In order to address the above mentioned limitations, this study aims to develop and validate a predictive multiphysics modeling framework for coupled soil heat and water transport in the heterogeneous shallow subsurface. To this end, the following research work is specifically conducted: (a) propose an improved parameterization to better predict the nonwetting phase relative permeability; (b) determine the dynamics, characteristics and processes of simultaneous soil moisture and heat movement in homogeneous and layered soils; and (c) develop a nonisothermal dual permeability model for heterogeneous structured soils. The results of our studies showed that: (a) the proposed modified nonwetting phase relative permeability models are much more accurate, which can be adopted for better parameterization in the subsequent nonisothermal two phase flow models; (b) the isothermal liquid film flow, nonwetting phase gas flow and liquid-vapor phase change non-equilibrium effects are significant in the arid and semiarid environments (Riverside, California and Audubon, Arizona); and (c) the developed nonisothermal dual permeability model is capable of

  10. An overview of the recent approaches to terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, E.; Costantini, E.; Jones, G. V.; Mocali, S.

    2015-03-01

    Notions of terroir and their conceptualization through agro-environmental sciences have become popular in many parts of world. Originally developed for wine, terroir now encompasses many other crops including fruits, vegetables, cheese, olive oil, coffee, cacao and other crops, linking the uniqueness and quality of both beverages and foods to the environment where they are produced, giving the consumer a sense of place. Climate, geology, geomorphology and soil are the main environmental factors which make up the terroir effect on different scales. Often considered immutable culturally, the natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Due to both a greater need to better understand regional-to-site variations in crop production and the growth in spatial analytic technologies, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field. Furthermore, the explosion of spatial data availability and sensing technologies has made the within-field scale of study more valuable to the individual grower. The result has been greater adoption of these technologies but also issues associated with both the spatial and temporal scales required for practical applications, as well as the relevant approaches for data synthesis. Moreover, as soil microbial communities are known to be of vital importance for terrestrial processes by driving the major soil geochemical cycles and supporting healthy plant growth, an intensive investigation of the microbial organization and their function is also required. Our objective is to present an overview of existing data and modelling approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning on local and regional scales. This review will focus on two main areas of recent terroir research: (1) using new tools to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of both

  11. Phase II Testing of Liquid Cooling Garments Using a Sweating Manikin, Controlled by a Human Physiological Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Trevino, Luis; Bue,Grant; Rugh, John

    2006-01-01

    An Advanced Automotive Manikin (ADAM) developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is used to evaluate NASA's liquid cooling garments (LCGs) used in advanced space suits for extravehicular applications. The manikin has 120 separate heated/sweating zones and is controlled by a finite element physiological model of the human thermoregulatory system. Previous testing showed the thermal sensation and comfort followed the expected trends as the LCG inlet fluid temperature was changed. The Phase II test data demonstrates the repeatability of ADAM by retesting the baseline LCG. Skin and core temperature predictions using ADAM in an LCG/Arctic suit combination are compared to NASA physiological data to validate the manikin/model. Additional LCG configurations are assessed using the manikin and compared to the baseline LCG. Results can extend to other personal protective clothing, including HAZMAT suits, nuclear/biological/chemical protective suits, and fire protection suits.

  12. SCREENING MODEL FOR NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID TRANS- PORT IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING GREEN-AMPT AND KINEMATIC WAVE THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, a screening model for flow of a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and associated chemical transport in the vadose zone is developed. The model is based on kinematic approximation of the governing equations for both the NAPL and a partitionable chemical constituent. Th...

  13. SCREENING MODEL FOR NONAQUEOUS PHASE-LIQUID TRANSPORT IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING GREEN-AMPT AND KINEMATIC WAVE THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, a screening model for flow of a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and associated chemical transport in the vadose zone is developed. he model is based on kinematic approximation of the governing equations for both the NAPL and a partitionable chemical constituent. he ...

  14. Interactions of Twisted Ω-loops in a Model Solar Convection Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, L.; Brun, A. S.; Aulanier, G.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the ability of strong interactions between magnetic field concentrations during their rise through the convection zone to produce complex active regions at the solar surface. To do so, we perform numerical simulations of buoyant magnetic structures evolving and interacting in a model solar convection zone. We first produce a 3D model of rotating convection and then introduce idealized magnetic structures close to the bottom of the computational domain. These structures possess a certain degree of field line twist and they are made buoyant on a particular extension in longitude. The resulting twisted Ω-loops will thus evolve inside a spherical convective shell possessing large-scale mean flows. We present results on the interaction between two such loops with various initial parameters (mainly buoyancy and twist) and on the complexity of the emerging magnetic field. In agreement with analytical predictions, we find that if the loops are introduced with opposite handedness and same axial field direction or the same handedness but opposite axial field, they bounce against each other. The emerging region is then constituted of two separated bipolar structures. On the contrary, if the loops are introduced with the same direction of axial and peripheral magnetic fields and are sufficiently close, they merge while rising. This more interesting case produces complex magnetic structures with a high degree of non-neutralized currents, especially when the convective motions act significantly on the magnetic field. This indicates that those interactions could be good candidates to produce eruptive events like flares or CMEs.

  15. User's Guide To CHEAP0 II-Economic Analysis of Stand Prognosis Model Outputs

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Horn; E. Lee Medema; Ervin G. Schuster

    1986-01-01

    CHEAP0 II provides supplemental economic analysis capability for users of version 5.1 of the Stand Prognosis Model, including recent regeneration and insect outbreak extensions. Although patterned after the old CHEAP0 model, CHEAP0 II has more features and analytic capabilities, especially for analysis of existing and uneven-aged stands....

  16. Longitudinal Stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II: A Latent Trait-State-Occasion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    In a six-wave longitudinal study with two cohorts (660 adolescents and 630 young adults), this study investigated the longitudinal stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) using the Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) model. The results revealed that the full TSO model was the best fitting representation of the depression measured by the…

  17. The Geodetic Signature of the Earthquake Cycle at Subduction Zones: Model Constraints on the Deep Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govers, R.; Furlong, K. P.; van de Wiel, L.; Herman, M. W.; Broerse, T.

    2018-03-01

    Recent megathrust events in Tohoku (Japan), Maule (Chile), and Sumatra (Indonesia) were well recorded. Much has been learned about the dominant physical processes in megathrust zones: (partial) locking of the plate interface, detailed coseismic slip, relocking, afterslip, viscoelastic mantle relaxation, and interseismic loading. These and older observations show complex spatial and temporal patterns in crustal deformation and displacement, and significant differences among different margins. A key question is whether these differences reflect variations in the underlying processes, like differences in locking, or the margin geometry, or whether they are a consequence of the stage in the earthquake cycle of the margin. Quantitative models can connect these plate boundary processes to surficial and far-field observations. We use relatively simple, cyclic geodynamic models to isolate the first-order geodetic signature of the megathrust cycle. Coseismic and subsequent slip on the subduction interface is dynamically (and consistently) driven. A review of global preseismic, coseismic, and postseismic geodetic observations, and of their fit to the model predictions, indicates that similar physical processes are active at different margins. Most of the observed variability between the individual margins appears to be controlled by their different stages in the earthquake cycle. The modeling results also provide a possible explanation for observations of tensile faulting aftershocks and tensile cracking of the overriding plate, which are puzzling in the context of convergence/compression. From the inversion of our synthetic GNSS velocities we find that geodetic observations may incorrectly suggest weak locking of some margins, for example, the west Aleutian margin.

  18. Forecast model for great earthquakes at the Nankai Trough subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    An earthquake instability model is formulated for recurring great earthquakes at the Nankai Trough subduction zone in southwest Japan. The model is quasistatic, two-dimensional, and has a displacement and velocity dependent constitutive law applied at the fault plane. A constant rate of fault slip at depth represents forcing due to relative motion of the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. The model simulates fault slip and stress for all parts of repeated earthquake cycles, including post-, inter-, pre- and coseismic stages. Calculated ground uplift is in agreement with most of the main features of elevation changes observed before and after the M=8.1 1946 Nankaido earthquake. In model simulations, accelerating fault slip has two time-scales. The first time-scale is several years long and is interpreted as an intermediate-term precursor. The second time-scale is a few days long and is interpreted as a short-term precursor. Accelerating fault slip on both time-scales causes anomalous elevation changes of the ground surface over the fault plane of 100 mm or less within 50 km of the fault trace. ?? 1988 Birkha??user Verlag.

  19. Time-varying mixed logit model for vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Du, Gang; Li, Dan; Yu, Yao

    2018-08-01

    This study aims to develop a time-varying mixed logit model for the vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas during the merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. From the safety perspective, vehicle crash probability and severity between the merging vehicle and its surrounding vehicles are regarded as major factors influencing vehicle merging decisions. Model results show that the model with the use of vehicle crash risk probability and severity could provide higher prediction accuracy than previous models with the use of vehicle speeds and gap sizes. It is found that lead vehicle type, through lead vehicle type, through lag vehicle type, crash probability of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lag vehicle, crash severities of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles could exhibit time-varying effects on the merging behavior. One important finding is that the merging vehicle could become more and more aggressive in order to complete the merging maneuver as quickly as possible over the elapsed time, even if it has high vehicle crash risk with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. E-Area LLWF Vadose Zone Model: Probabilistic Model for Estimating Subsided-Area Infiltration Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.; Flach, G.

    A probabilistic model employing a Monte Carlo sampling technique was developed in Python to generate statistical distributions of the upslope-intact-area to subsided-area ratio (Area UAi/Area SAi) for closure cap subsidence scenarios that differ in assumed percent subsidence and the total number of intact plus subsided compartments. The plan is to use this model as a component in the probabilistic system model for the E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), contributing uncertainty in infiltration estimates.

  1. A New Paradigm For Modeling Fault Zone Inelasticity: A Multiscale Continuum Framework Incorporating Spontaneous Localization and Grain Fragmentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbanna, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The brittle portion of the crust contains structural features such as faults, jogs, joints, bends and cataclastic zones that span a wide range of length scales. These features may have a profound effect on earthquake nucleation, propagation and arrest. Incorporating these existing features in modeling and the ability to spontaneously generate new one in response to earthquake loading is crucial for predicting seismicity patterns, distribution of aftershocks and nucleation sites, earthquakes arrest mechanisms, and topological changes in the seismogenic zone structure. Here, we report on our efforts in modeling two important mechanisms contributing to the evolution of fault zone topology: (1) Grain comminution at the submeter scale, and (2) Secondary faulting/plasticity at the scale of few to hundreds of meters. We use the finite element software Abaqus to model the dynamic rupture. The constitutive response of the fault zone is modeled using the Shear Transformation Zone theory, a non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamic framework for modeling plastic deformation and localization in amorphous materials such as fault gouge. The gouge layer is modeled as 2D plane strain region with a finite thickness and heterogeenous distribution of porosity. By coupling the amorphous gouge with the surrounding elastic bulk, the model introduces a set of novel features that go beyond the state of the art. These include: (1) self-consistent rate dependent plasticity with a physically-motivated set of internal variables, (2) non-locality that alleviates mesh dependence of shear band formation, (3) spontaneous evolution of fault roughness and its strike which affects ground motion generation and the local stress fields, and (4) spontaneous evolution of grain size and fault zone fabric.

  2. A nested pre-operational model for the Egyptian shelf zone: Model configuration and validation/calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, H.; Elgindy, A.; Pinardi, N.; Zavatarelli, M.; Oddo, P.

    2017-12-01

    We explored the variability of the Egyptian shelf zone circulation connected to atmospheric forcing by means of a numerical simulation of the general circulation. A high resolution model grid was used at 1/60° horizontal resolution and 25 sigma layers. The simulation was carried out using the most recent version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The initialised model was run the whole year of 2006 using the analysis forcing data for the same year obtained from ECMWF and MFS (Mediterranean Forecasting System, Pinardi et al., 2003). The model skills were evaluated by means of the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlations. The Egyptian Shelf Model (EGYSHM) simulation suggests the presence of an Egyptian Shelf Slope Current (ESSC), which is flowing eastward at different depths in the domain. We found that the maximum velocity of the ESSC [0.25 m/s] is located near the continental slope during the summer time, while in winter the velocity of ESSC is weaker [0.12 m/s] in the same location. The ESSC appears to be directly affected by Mersa-Matruh gyre system. EGYSHM reproduced the main region circulation patterns, especially after adding the Nile River outflow. We found that wind stress is crucial to force the circulation of the Egyptian shelf zone. EGYSHM SST was significantly correlated to satellite SST in all months at a 95% confidence limit, with a maximum of 0.9743 which was obtained in May 2006. The RMSE between EGYSHM and Argo floats salinity data was about 0.09. We compared our results with satellite altimetry to verify the positions and shapes of mesoscale features.

  3. Passive Electroreception in Fish: AN Analog Model of the Spike Generation Zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, James Robert

    Sensory transduction begins in receptor cells specialized to the sensory modality involved and proceeds to the more generalized stage of the first afferent fiber, converting the initial sensory information into neural spikes for transmittal to the central nervous system. We have developed a unique analog electronic model of the generalized step (also known as the spike generation zone (SGZ)) using a tunnel diode, an operational amplifier, resistors, and capacitors. With no externally applied simulated postsynaptic input current, our model represents a 10^{-3}cm^2 patch (100 times the typical in vivo area) of tonically active, nonadaptive, postsynaptic neural membrane that behaves as a pacemaker cell. Similar to the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations, our model is shown to be a simplification of the Hodgkin-Huxley parallel conductance model and can be analyzed by the methods of van der Pol. Measurements using the model yield results which compare favorably to physiological stimulus-response data gathered by Murray for elasmobranch electroreceptors. We then use the model to show that the main contribution to variance in the rate of neural spike output is provided by coincident inputs to the SGZ oscillator (i.e., by synaptic input noise) and not by inherent instability of the SGZ oscillator. Configured for maximum sensitivity, our model is capable of detecting stimulus changes as low as 50 fA in less than a second and this corresponds to a fractional frequency change of Delta f/f ~ 2 times 10^{-3}. Much data exists implying that in vivo detection of Delta f/f is limited to the range of one to ten percent (Weber-Fechner criterion). We propose the variance induced by the synaptic input noise provides a plausible physiological basis for the Weber-Fechner criterion.

  4. Monitoring well utility in a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone area: Insights from proximal multilevel sampler wells and sampling capture-zone modelling.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Wealthall, Gary P; Zeeb, Peter; Dumble, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater-quality assessment at contaminated sites often involves the use of short-screen (1.5 to 3 m) monitoring wells. However, even over these intervals considerable variation may occur in contaminant concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the well screen. This is especially true in heterogeneous dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, where cm-scale contamination variability may call into question the effectiveness of monitoring wells to deliver representative data. The utility of monitoring wells in such settings is evaluated by reference to high-resolution multilevel sampler (MLS) wells located proximally to short-screen wells, together with sampling capture-zone modelling to explore controls upon well sample provenance and sensitivity to monitoring protocols. Field data are analysed from the highly instrumented SABRE research site that contained an old trichloroethene source zone within a shallow alluvial aquifer at a UK industrial facility. With increased purging, monitoring-well samples tend to a flow-weighted average concentration but may exhibit sensitivity to the implemented protocol and degree of purging. Formation heterogeneity adjacent to the well-screen particularly, alongside pump-intake position and water level, influence this sensitivity. Purging of low volumes is vulnerable to poor reproducibility arising from concentration variability predicted over the initial 1 to 2 screen volumes purged. Marked heterogeneity may also result in limited long-term sample concentration stabilization. Development of bespoke monitoring protocols, that consider screen volumes purged, alongside water-quality indicator parameter stabilization, is recommended to validate and reduce uncertainty when interpreting monitoring-well data within source zone areas. Generalised recommendations on monitoring well based protocols are also developed. A key monitoring well utility is their proportionately greater sample draw from permeable horizons constituting

  5. Monitoring well utility in a heterogeneous DNAPL source zone area: Insights from proximal multilevel sampler wells and sampling capture-zone modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Lindsay A.; Rivett, Michael O.; Wealthall, Gary P.; Zeeb, Peter; Dumble, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater-quality assessment at contaminated sites often involves the use of short-screen (1.5 to 3 m) monitoring wells. However, even over these intervals considerable variation may occur in contaminant concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the well screen. This is especially true in heterogeneous dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, where cm-scale contamination variability may call into question the effectiveness of monitoring wells to deliver representative data. The utility of monitoring wells in such settings is evaluated by reference to high-resolution multilevel sampler (MLS) wells located proximally to short-screen wells, together with sampling capture-zone modelling to explore controls upon well sample provenance and sensitivity to monitoring protocols. Field data are analysed from the highly instrumented SABRE research site that contained an old trichloroethene source zone within a shallow alluvial aquifer at a UK industrial facility. With increased purging, monitoring-well samples tend to a flow-weighted average concentration but may exhibit sensitivity to the implemented protocol and degree of purging. Formation heterogeneity adjacent to the well-screen particularly, alongside pump-intake position and water level, influence this sensitivity. Purging of low volumes is vulnerable to poor reproducibility arising from concentration variability predicted over the initial 1 to 2 screen volumes purged. Marked heterogeneity may also result in limited long-term sample concentration stabilization. Development of bespoke monitoring protocols, that consider screen volumes purged, alongside water-quality indicator parameter stabilization, is recommended to validate and reduce uncertainty when interpreting monitoring-well data within source zone areas. Generalised recommendations on monitoring well based protocols are also developed. A key monitoring well utility is their proportionately greater sample draw from permeable horizons constituting a

  6. Numerical modeling of fluid flow in a fault zone: a case of study from Majella Mountain (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2017-04-01

    The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a numerical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). This fault zone is considered a good analogue for the massive presence of fluid migration in the form of tar. Faults are mechanical features and cause permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead the fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier, or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing information and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., type of fractures, statistical properties, geometrical and petro-physical characteristics). In our model the damage zones of the fault are described as discretely fractured medium, while the core of the fault as a porous one. Our model utilizes the dfnWorks code, a parallelized computational suite, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), that generates three dimensional Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) of the damage zones of the fault and characterizes its hydraulic parameters. The challenge of the study is the coupling between the discrete domain of the damage zones and the continuum one of the core. The field investigations and the basic computational workflow will be described, along with preliminary results of fluid flow simulation at the scale of the fault.

  7. Modeling of macrosegregation caused by volumetric deformation in a coherent mushy zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolli, Lilia C.; Mo, Asbjørn; M'hamdi, Mohammed

    2005-02-01

    A two-phase volume-averaged continuum model is presented that quantifies macrosegregation formation during solidification of metallic alloys caused by deformation of the dendritic network and associated melt flow in the coherent part of the mushy zone. Also, the macrosegregation formation associated with the solidification shrinkage (inverse segregation) is taken into account. Based on experimental evidence established elsewhere, volumetric viscoplastic deformation (densification/dilatation) of the coherent dendritic network is included in the model. While the thermomechanical model previously outlined (M. M’Hamdi, A. Mo, and C.L. Martin: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2002, vol. 33A, pp. 2081-93) has been used to calculate the temperature and velocity fields associated with the thermally induced deformations and shrinkage driven melt flow, the solute conservation equation including both the liquid and a solid volume-averaged velocity is solved in the present study. In modeling examples, the macrosegregation formation caused by mechanically imposed as well as by thermally induced deformations has been calculated. The modeling results for an Al-4 wt pct Cu alloy indicate that even quite small volumetric strains (≈2 pct), which can be associated with thermally induced deformations, can lead to a macroscopic composition variation in the final casting comparable to that resulting from the solidification shrinkage induced melt flow. These results can be explained by the relatively large volumetric viscoplastic deformation in the coherent mush resulting from the applied constitutive model, as well as the relatively large difference in composition for the studied Al-Cu alloy in the solid and liquid phases at high solid fractions at which the deformation takes place.

  8. Expanding the role of reactive transport models in critical zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Li; Maher, Kate; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Druhan, Jennifer; Meile, Christof; Lawrence, Corey; Moore, Joel; Perdrial, Julia; Sullivan, Pamela; Thompson, Aaron; Jin, Lixin; Bolton, Edward W.; Brantley, Susan L.; Dietrich, William E.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Steefel, Carl; Valocchi, Albert J.; Zachara, John M.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; McIntosh, Jennifer; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Kumar, Mukesh; Sonnenthal, Eric; Bao, Chen; Beisman, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Models test our understanding of processes and can reach beyond the spatial and temporal scales of measurements. Multi-component Reactive Transport Models (RTMs), initially developed more than three decades ago, have been used extensively to explore the interactions of geothermal, hydrologic, geochemical, and geobiological processes in subsurface systems. Driven by extensive data sets now available from intensive measurement efforts, there is a pressing need to couple RTMs with other community models to explore non-linear interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Here we briefly review the history of RTM development, summarize the current state of RTM approaches, and identify new research directions, opportunities, and infrastructure needs to broaden the use of RTMs. In particular, we envision the expanded use of RTMs in advancing process understanding in the Critical Zone, the veneer of the Earth that extends from the top of vegetation to the bottom of groundwater. We argue that, although parsimonious models are essential at larger scales, process-based models offer tools to explore the highly nonlinear coupling that characterizes natural systems. We present seven testable hypotheses that emphasize the unique capabilities of process-based RTMs for (1) elucidating chemical weathering and its physical and biogeochemical drivers; (2) understanding the interactions among roots, micro-organisms, carbon, water, and minerals in the rhizosphere; (3) assessing the effects of heterogeneity across spatial and temporal scales; and (4) integrating the vast quantity of novel data, including “omics” data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics), elemental concentration and speciation data, and isotope data into our understanding of complex earth surface systems. With strong support from data-driven sciences, we are now in an exciting era where integration of RTM framework into other community models will facilitate process

  9. Modeling field-scale cosolvent flooding for DNAPL source zone remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hailian; Falta, Ronald W.

    2008-02-01

    A three-dimensional, compositional, multiphase flow simulator was used to model a field-scale test of DNAPL removal by cosolvent flooding. The DNAPL at this site was tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the flooding solution was an ethanol/water mixture, with up to 95% ethanol. The numerical model, UTCHEM accounts for the equilibrium phase behavior and multiphase flow of a ternary ethanol-PCE-water system. Simulations of enhanced cosolvent flooding using a kinetic interphase mass transfer approach show that when a very high concentration of alcohol is injected, the DNAPL/water/alcohol mixture forms a single phase and local mass transfer limitations become irrelevant. The field simulations were carried out in three steps. At the first level, a simple uncalibrated layered model is developed. This model is capable of roughly reproducing the production well concentrations of alcohol, but not of PCE. A more refined (but uncalibrated) permeability model is able to accurately simulate the breakthrough concentrations of injected alcohol from the production wells, but is unable to accurately predict the PCE removal. The final model uses a calibration of the initial PCE distribution to get good matches with the PCE effluent curves from the extraction wells. It is evident that the effectiveness of DNAPL source zone remediation is mainly affected by characteristics of the spatial heterogeneity of porous media and the variable (and unknown) DNAPL distribution. The inherent uncertainty in the DNAPL distribution at real field sites means that some form of calibration of the initial contaminant distribution will almost always be required to match contaminant effluent breakthrough curves.

  10. Modeling field-scale cosolvent flooding for DNAPL source zone remediation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hailian; Falta, Ronald W

    2008-02-19

    A three-dimensional, compositional, multiphase flow simulator was used to model a field-scale test of DNAPL removal by cosolvent flooding. The DNAPL at this site was tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the flooding solution was an ethanol/water mixture, with up to 95% ethanol. The numerical model, UTCHEM accounts for the equilibrium phase behavior and multiphase flow of a ternary ethanol-PCE-water system. Simulations of enhanced cosolvent flooding using a kinetic interphase mass transfer approach show that when a very high concentration of alcohol is injected, the DNAPL/water/alcohol mixture forms a single phase and local mass transfer limitations become irrelevant. The field simulations were carried out in three steps. At the first level, a simple uncalibrated layered model is developed. This model is capable of roughly reproducing the production well concentrations of alcohol, but not of PCE. A more refined (but uncalibrated) permeability model is able to accurately simulate the breakthrough concentrations of injected alcohol from the production wells, but is unable to accurately predict the PCE removal. The final model uses a calibration of the initial PCE distribution to get good matches with the PCE effluent curves from the extraction wells. It is evident that the effectiveness of DNAPL source zone remediation is mainly affected by characteristics of the spatial heterogeneity of porous media and the variable (and unknown) DNAPL distribution. The inherent uncertainty in the DNAPL distribution at real field sites means that some form of calibration of the initial contaminant distribution will almost always be required to match contaminant effluent breakthrough curves.

  11. Seismic Anisotropy in Mantle Transition Zone: Constraints from Observations and Synthetic Modeling of SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Q.; Schmerr, N. C.; Waszek, L.; Beghein, C.; Weidner, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Mantle transition zone (MTZ) is delineated by the 410 and 660 km discontinuities and plays an important role in mantle convection. Mineral physics experiments predict that wadsleyite and ringwoodite can have 13% and 2% single-crystal anisotropy respectively, indicating that seismic anisotropy is likely to exist in the upper part of the MTZ when MTZ minerals are aligned by mantle flow (e.g. subducting slabs). Here we use the SS precursors to study the topography change and seismic anisotropy in the vicinity of MTZ discontinuities. An up-to-date SS precursor dataset consisting of 45,624 records was collected to investigate MTZ topography and anisotropy. We stacked the whole dataset into 9 geographical caps to obtain the global topography of 410 and 660 km discontinuities. The MTZ is thickened by 15 km beneath subduction zones (e.g. Japan and South America) and also thinned by 15 km beneath mantle plume regions (e.g. Bowie and Iceland hotspots), which is consistent with thermal heterogeneity in the mid-mantle. We identify four locations with sufficient bounce point density and azimuthal coverage of SS precursors to study azimuthal anisotropy in MTZ; the central Pacific, the northwest Pacific, Greenland and the central Atlantic. We stack the data by the azimuth of SS bounce points falling within the range of 2000 km in these four locations. The goal is to detect the azimuthal dependence of travel time and amplitude of SS precursors, thus to constrain azimuthal anisotropy in MTZ. The central Pacific bin has fast direction at 110° for both S410S and S660S azimuthal stacks, which is interpreted as seismic anisotropy in the overlying upper mantle. We also stack data in subduction zones by the relative azimuths of bounce points compared to mantle flow directions to test the hypothesis that subducting slabs can cause azimuthal anisotropy in MTZ. A trench-parallel fast direction is observed for both S410S and S660S travel times and amplitudes, but not for their differential

  12. Determination of the relationship between major fault and zinc mineralization using fractal modeling in the Behabad fault zone, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, Ahmad; Afzal, Peyman; Mirzaei Ilani, Shapour; Aliyari, Farhang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine a relationship between zinc mineralization and a major fault in the Behabad area, central Iran, using the Concentration-Distance to Major Fault (C-DMF), Area of Mineralized Zone-Distance to Major Fault (AMZ-DMF), and Concentration-Area (C-A) fractal models for Zn deposit/mine classification according to their distance from the Behabad fault. Application of the C-DMF and the AMZ-DMF models for Zn mineralization classification in the Behabad fault zone reveals that the main Zn deposits have a good correlation with the major fault in the area. The distance from the known zinc deposits/mines with Zn values higher than 29% and the area of the mineralized zone of more than 900 m2 to the major fault is lower than 1 km, which shows a positive correlation between Zn mineralization and the structural zone. As a result, the AMZ-DMF and C-DMF fractal models can be utilized for the delineation and the recognition of different mineralized zones in different types of magmatic and hydrothermal deposits.

  13. Periodic-Zone Model Predictive Control for Diurnal Closed-Loop Operation of an Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gondhalekar, Ravi; Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard C.; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this research is an artificial pancreas (AP) that performs automatic regulation of blood glucose levels in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This article describes a control strategy that performs algorithmic insulin dosing for maintaining safe blood glucose levels over prolonged, overnight periods of time and furthermore was designed with outpatient, multiday deployment in mind. Of particular concern is the prevention of nocturnal hypoglycemia, because during sleep, subjects cannot monitor themselves and may not respond to alarms. An AP intended for prolonged and unsupervised outpatient deployment must strategically reduce the risk of hypoglycemia during times of sleep, without requiring user interaction. Methods A diurnal insulin delivery strategy based on predictive control methods is proposed. The so-called “periodic-zone model predictive control” (PZMPC) strategy employs periodically time-dependent blood glucose output target zones and furthermore enforces periodically time-dependent insulin input constraints to modulate its behavior based on the time of day. Results The proposed strategy was evaluated through an extensive simulation-based study and a preliminary clinical trial. Results indicate that the proposed method delivers insulin more conservatively during nighttime than during daytime while maintaining safe blood glucose levels at all times. In clinical trials, the proposed strategy delivered 77% of the amount of insulin delivered by a time-invariant control strategy; specifically, it delivered on average 1.23 U below, compared with 0.31 U above, the nominal basal rate overnight while maintaining comparable, and safe, blood glucose values. Conclusions The proposed PZMPC algorithm strategically prevents nocturnal hypoglycemia and is considered a significant step toward deploying APs into outpatient environments for extended periods of time in full closed-loop operation. PMID:24351171

  14. Clinical activity of everolimus in relapsed/refractory marginal zone B-cell lymphomas: results of a phase II study of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Conconi, Annarita; Raderer, Markus; Franceschetti, Silvia; Devizzi, Liliana; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Magagnoli, Massimo; Arcaini, Luca; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Martinelli, Giovanni; Vitolo, Umberto; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Porro, Elena; Stathis, Anastasios; Gaidano, Gianluca; Cavalli, Franco; Zucca, Emanuele

    2014-07-01

    The International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group coordinated a phase II trial to evaluate the activity and safety of everolimus in marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs). Thirty patients with relapsed/refractory MZLs received everolimus for six cycles or until dose-limiting toxicity or progression. Median age was 71 years (range, 51-88 years). Twenty patients had extranodal, six splenic, four nodal MZL. Twenty-four patients had stage III-IV. Median number of prior therapies was two (range 1-5). Seventeen patients had early treatment discontinuation, in most cases due to toxicity. Median number of cycles was 4.5 (range, 1-16). Among the 24 assessable patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 25% (95% confidence interval: 10-47). Grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia (17% of patients, each), infections (17%), mucositis and odontogenic infections (13%) and lung toxicity (3%). The median response duration was 6.8 months (range, 1.4-11.1+). After a median follow-up of 14.5 months, five deaths were reported: four deaths were due to lymphoma, one was due to toxicity. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the projected median progression-free survival was 14 months. The moderate antitumour activity of everolimus in relapsed/refractory MZLs and the observed toxicity limit its therapeutical applicability in these indolent entities. Lower doses of the drug and, perhaps, different strategies including combination with additional agents need to be explored. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Modeling the influence of coupled mass transfer processes on mass flux downgradient of heterogeneous DNAPL source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lurong; Wang, Xinyu; Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Abriola, Linda M.

    2018-04-01

    Sequestered mass in low permeability zones has been increasingly recognized as an important source of organic chemical contamination that acts to sustain downgradient plume concentrations above regulated levels. However, few modeling studies have investigated the influence of this sequestered mass and associated (coupled) mass transfer processes on plume persistence in complex dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. This paper employs a multiphase flow and transport simulator (a modified version of the modular transport simulator MT3DMS) to explore the two- and three-dimensional evolution of source zone mass distribution and near-source plume persistence for two ensembles of highly heterogeneous DNAPL source zone realizations. Simulations reveal the strong influence of subsurface heterogeneity on the complexity of DNAPL and sequestered (immobile/sorbed) mass distribution. Small zones of entrapped DNAPL are shown to serve as a persistent source of low concentration plumes, difficult to distinguish from other (sorbed and immobile dissolved) sequestered mass sources. Results suggest that the presence of DNAPL tends to control plume longevity in the near-source area; for the examined scenarios, a substantial fraction (43.3-99.2%) of plume life was sustained by DNAPL dissolution processes. The presence of sorptive media and the extent of sorption non-ideality are shown to greatly affect predictions of near-source plume persistence following DNAPL depletion, with plume persistence varying one to two orders of magnitude with the selected sorption model. Results demonstrate the importance of sorption-controlled back diffusion from low permeability zones and reveal the importance of selecting the appropriate sorption model for accurate prediction of plume longevity. Large discrepancies for both DNAPL depletion time and plume longevity were observed between 2-D and 3-D model simulations. Differences between 2- and 3-D predictions increased in the presence of

  16. Three-dimensional models of elastostatic deformation in heterogeneous media, with applications to the Eastern California Shear Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbot, Sylvain; Fialko, Yuri; Sandwell, David

    2009-10-01

    We present a semi-analytic iterative procedure for evaluating the 3-D deformation due to faults in an arbitrarily heterogeneous elastic half-space. Spatially variable elastic properties are modelled with equivalent body forces and equivalent surface traction in a `homogenized' elastic medium. The displacement field is obtained in the Fourier domain using a semi-analytic Green function. We apply this model to investigate the response of 3-D compliant zones (CZ) around major crustal faults to coseismic stressing by nearby earthquakes. We constrain the two elastic moduli, as well as the geometry of the fault zones by comparing the model predictions to Synthetic Aperture Radar inferferometric (InSAR) data. Our results confirm that the CZ models for the Rodman, Calico and Pinto Mountain faults in the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) can explain the coseismic InSAR data from both the Landers and the Hector Mine earthquakes. For the Pinto Mountain fault zone, InSAR data suggest a 50 per cent reduction in effective shear modulus and no significant change in Poisson's ratio compared to the ambient crust. The large wavelength of coseismic line-of-sight displacements around the Pinto Mountain fault requires a fairly wide (~1.9 km) CZ extending to a depth of at least 9 km. Best fit for the Calico CZ, north of Galway Dry Lake, is obtained for a 4km deep structure, with a 60 per cent reduction in shear modulus, with no change in Poisson's ratio. We find that the required effective rigidity of the Calico fault zone south of Galway Dry Lake is not as low as that of the northern segment, suggesting along-strike variations of effective elastic moduli within the same fault zone. The ECSZ InSAR data is best explained by CZ models with reduction in both shear and bulk moduli. These observations suggest pervasive and widespread damage around active crustal faults.

  17. Single-arm phase II trial design under parametric cure models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The current practice of designing single-arm phase II survival trials is limited under the exponential model. Trial design under the exponential model may not be appropriate when a portion of patients are cured. There is no literature available for designing single-arm phase II trials under the parametric cure model. In this paper, a test statistic is proposed, and a sample size formula is derived for designing single-arm phase II trials under a class of parametric cure models. Extensive simulations showed that the proposed test and sample size formula perform very well under different scenarios. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Integrating biogeochemistry with multiomic sequence information in a model oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Louca, Stilianos; Hawley, Alyse K; Katsev, Sergei; Torres-Beltran, Monica; Bhatia, Maya P; Kheirandish, Sam; Michiels, Céline C; Capelle, David; Lavik, Gaute; Doebeli, Michael; Crowe, Sean A; Hallam, Steven J

    2016-10-04

    Microorganisms are the most abundant lifeform on Earth, mediating global fluxes of matter and energy. Over the past decade, high-throughput molecular techniques generating multiomic sequence information (DNA, mRNA, and protein) have transformed our perception of this microcosmos, conceptually linking microorganisms at the individual, population, and community levels to a wide range of ecosystem functions and services. Here, we develop a biogeochemical model that describes metabolic coupling along the redox gradient in Saanich Inlet-a seasonally anoxic fjord with biogeochemistry analogous to oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The model reproduces measured biogeochemical process rates as well as DNA, mRNA, and protein concentration profiles across the redox gradient. Simulations make predictions about the role of ubiquitous OMZ microorganisms in mediating carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling. For example, nitrite "leakage" during incomplete sulfide-driven denitrification by SUP05 Gammaproteobacteria is predicted to support inorganic carbon fixation and intense nitrogen loss via anaerobic ammonium oxidation. This coupling creates a metabolic niche for nitrous oxide reduction that completes denitrification by currently unidentified community members. These results quantitatively improve previous conceptual models describing microbial metabolic networks in OMZs. Beyond OMZ-specific predictions, model results indicate that geochemical fluxes are robust indicators of microbial community structure and reciprocally, that gene abundances and geochemical conditions largely determine gene expression patterns. The integration of real observational data, including geochemical profiles and process rate measurements as well as metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic sequence data, into a biogeochemical model, as shown here, enables holistic insight into the microbial metabolic network driving nutrient and energy flow at ecosystem scales.

  19. Modeling pH-zone refining countercurrent chromatography: a dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Kotland, Alexis; Chollet, Sébastien; Autret, Jean-Marie; Diard, Catherine; Marchal, Luc; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-04-24

    A model based on mass transfer resistances and acid-base equilibriums at the liquid-liquid interface was developed for the pH-zone refining mode when it is used in countercurrent chromatography (CCC). The binary separation of catharanthine and vindoline, two alkaloids used as starting material for the semi-synthesis of chemotherapy drugs, was chosen for the model validation. Toluene/CH3CN/water (4/1/5, v/v/v) was selected as biphasic solvent system. First, hydrodynamics and mass transfer were studied by using chemical tracers. Trypan blue only present in the aqueous phase allowed the determination of the parameters τextra and Pe for hydrodynamic characterization whereas acetone, which partitioned between the two phases, allowed the determination of the transfer parameter k0a. It was shown that mass transfer was improved by increasing both flow rate and rotational speed, which is consistent with the observed mobile phase dispersion. Then, the different transfer parameters of the model (i.e. the local transfer coefficient for the different species involved in the process) were determined by fitting experimental concentration profiles. The model accurately predicted both equilibrium and dynamics factors (i.e. local mass transfer coefficients and acid-base equilibrium constant) variation with the CCC operating conditions (cell number, flow rate, rotational speed and thus stationary phase retention). The initial hypotheses (the acid-base reactions occurs instantaneously at the interface and the process is mainly governed by mass transfer) are thus validated. Finally, the model was used as a tool for catharanthine and vindoline separation prediction in the whole experimental domain that corresponded to a flow rate between 20 and 60 mL/min and rotational speeds from 900 and 2100 rotation per minutes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrating biogeochemistry with multiomic sequence information in a model oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Alyse K.; Katsev, Sergei; Torres-Beltran, Monica; Bhatia, Maya P.; Kheirandish, Sam; Michiels, Céline C.; Capelle, David; Lavik, Gaute; Doebeli, Michael; Crowe, Sean A.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are the most abundant lifeform on Earth, mediating global fluxes of matter and energy. Over the past decade, high-throughput molecular techniques generating multiomic sequence information (DNA, mRNA, and protein) have transformed our perception of this microcosmos, conceptually linking microorganisms at the individual, population, and community levels to a wide range of ecosystem functions and services. Here, we develop a biogeochemical model that describes metabolic coupling along the redox gradient in Saanich Inlet—a seasonally anoxic fjord with biogeochemistry analogous to oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The model reproduces measured biogeochemical process rates as well as DNA, mRNA, and protein concentration profiles across the redox gradient. Simulations make predictions about the role of ubiquitous OMZ microorganisms in mediating carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling. For example, nitrite “leakage” during incomplete sulfide-driven denitrification by SUP05 Gammaproteobacteria is predicted to support inorganic carbon fixation and intense nitrogen loss via anaerobic ammonium oxidation. This coupling creates a metabolic niche for nitrous oxide reduction that completes denitrification by currently unidentified community members. These results quantitatively improve previous conceptual models describing microbial metabolic networks in OMZs. Beyond OMZ-specific predictions, model results indicate that geochemical fluxes are robust indicators of microbial community structure and reciprocally, that gene abundances and geochemical conditions largely determine gene expression patterns. The integration of real observational data, including geochemical profiles and process rate measurements as well as metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic sequence data, into a biogeochemical model, as shown here, enables holistic insight into the microbial metabolic network driving nutrient and energy flow at ecosystem scales. PMID:27655888

  1. Adapting Better Interpolation Methods to Model Amphibious MT Data Along the Cascadian Subduction Zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Livelybrooks, D.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) is an electromagnetic technique used to model the inner Earth's electrical conductivity structure. MT data can be analyzed using iterative, linearized inversion techniques to generate models imaging, in particular, conductive partial melts and aqueous fluids that play critical roles in subduction zone processes and volcanism. For example, the Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment provides amphibious data useful for imaging subducted fluids from trench to mantle wedge corner. When using MOD3DEM(Egbert et al. 2012), a finite difference inversion package, we have encountered problems inverting, particularly, sea floor stations due to the strong, nearby conductivity gradients. As a work-around, we have found that denser, finer model grids near the land-sea interface produce better inversions, as characterized by reduced data residuals. This is partly to be due to our ability to more accurately capture topography and bathymetry. We are experimenting with improved interpolation schemes that more accurately track EM fields across cell boundaries, with an eye to enhancing the accuracy of the simulated responses and, thus, inversion results. We are adapting how MOD3DEM interpolates EM fields in two ways. The first seeks to improve weighting functions for interpolants to better address current continuity across grid boundaries. Electric fields are interpolated using a tri-linear spline technique, where the eight nearest electrical field estimates are each given weights determined by the technique, a kind of weighted average. We are modifying these weights to include cross-boundary conductivity ratios to better model current continuity. We are also adapting some of the techniques discussed in Shantsev et al (2014) to enhance the accuracy of the interpolated fields calculated by our forward solver, as well as to better approximate the sensitivities passed to the software's Jacobian that are used to generate a new

  2. Detailed Velocity and Density models of the Cascadia Subduction Zone from Prestack Full-Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Mallick, S.; Everson, E. D.; Tobin, H. J.; Keranen, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the geologic composition of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) is critically important in assessing seismic hazards in the Pacific Northwest. Despite being a potential earthquake and tsunami threat to millions of people, key details of the structure and fault mechanisms remain poorly understood in the CSZ. In particular, the position and character of the subduction interface remains elusive due to its relative aseismicity and low seismic reflectivity, making imaging difficult for both passive and active source methods. Modern active-source reflection seismic data acquired as part of the COAST project in 2012 provide an opportunity to study the transition from the Cascadia basin, across the deformation front, and into the accretionary prism. Coupled with advances in seismic inversion methods, this new data allow us to produce detailed velocity models of the CSZ and accurate pre-stack depth migrations for studying geologic structure. While still computationally expensive, current computing clusters can perform seismic inversions at resolutions that match that of the seismic image itself. Here we present pre-stack full waveform inversions of the central seismic line of the COAST survey offshore Washington state. The resultant velocity model is produced by inversion at every CMP location, 6.25 m laterally, with vertical resolution of 0.2 times the dominant seismic frequency. We report a good average correlation value above 0.8 across the entire seismic line, determined by comparing synthetic gathers to the real pre-stack gathers. These detailed velocity models, both Vp and Vs, along with the density model, are a necessary step toward a detailed porosity cross section to be used to determine the role of fluids in the CSZ. Additionally, the P-velocity model is used to produce a pre-stack depth migration image of the CSZ.

  3. Currency target-zone modeling: An interplay between physics and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lera, Sandro Claudio; Sornette, Didier

    2015-12-01

    We study the performance of the euro-Swiss franc exchange rate in the extraordinary period from September 6, 2011 to January 15, 2015 when the Swiss National Bank enforced a minimum exchange rate of 1.20 Swiss francs per euro. Within the general framework built on geometric Brownian motions and based on the analogy between Brownian motion in finance and physics, the first-order effect of such a steric constraint would enter a priori in the form of a repulsive entropic force associated with the paths crossing the barrier that are forbidden. Nonparametric empirical estimates of drift and volatility show that the predicted first-order analogy between economics and physics is incorrect. The clue is to realize that the random-walk nature of financial prices results from the continuous anticipation of traders about future opportunities, whose aggregate actions translate into an approximate efficient market with almost no arbitrage opportunities. With the Swiss National Bank's stated commitment to enforce the barrier, traders' anticipation of this action leads to a vanishing drift together with a volatility of the exchange rate that depends on the distance to the barrier. This effect is described by Krugman's model [P. R. Krugman, Target zones and exchange rate dynamics, Q. J. Econ. 106, 669 (1991), 10.2307/2937922]. We present direct quantitative empirical evidence that Krugman's theoretical model provides an accurate description of the euro-Swiss franc target zone. Motivated by the insights from the economic model, we revise the initial economics-physics analogy and show that, within the context of hindered diffusion, the two systems can be described with the same mathematics after all. Using a recently proposed extended analogy in terms of a colloidal Brownian particle embedded in a fluid of molecules associated with the underlying order book, we derive that, close to the restricting boundary, the dynamics of both systems is described by a stochastic differential

  4. Currency target-zone modeling: An interplay between physics and economics.

    PubMed

    Lera, Sandro Claudio; Sornette, Didier

    2015-12-01

    We study the performance of the euro-Swiss franc exchange rate in the extraordinary period from September 6, 2011 to January 15, 2015 when the Swiss National Bank enforced a minimum exchange rate of 1.20 Swiss francs per euro. Within the general framework built on geometric Brownian motions and based on the analogy between Brownian motion in finance and physics, the first-order effect of such a steric constraint would enter a priori in the form of a repulsive entropic force associated with the paths crossing the barrier that are forbidden. Nonparametric empirical estimates of drift and volatility show that the predicted first-order analogy between economics and physics is incorrect. The clue is to realize that the random-walk nature of financial prices results from the continuous anticipation of traders about future opportunities, whose aggregate actions translate into an approximate efficient market with almost no arbitrage opportunities. With the Swiss National Bank's stated commitment to enforce the barrier, traders' anticipation of this action leads to a vanishing drift together with a volatility of the exchange rate that depends on the distance to the barrier. This effect is described by Krugman's model [P. R. Krugman, Target zones and exchange rate dynamics, Q. J. Econ. 106, 669 (1991)]. We present direct quantitative empirical evidence that Krugman's theoretical model provides an accurate description of the euro-Swiss franc target zone. Motivated by the insights from the economic model, we revise the initial economics-physics analogy and show that, within the context of hindered diffusion, the two systems can be described with the same mathematics after all. Using a recently proposed extended analogy in terms of a colloidal Brownian particle embedded in a fluid of molecules associated with the underlying order book, we derive that, close to the restricting boundary, the dynamics of both systems is described by a stochastic differential equation with a very

  5. Gravity modelling of the Hellenic subduction zone — a regional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casten, U.; Snopek, K.

    2006-05-01

    The Hellenic subduction zone is clearly expressed in the arc-shaped distribution of earthquake epicenters and gravity anomalies, which connect the Peloponnesos with Crete and Anatolia. In this region, oceanic crust of the African plate collides northward with continental crust of the Aegean microplate, which itself is pushed apart to the south-west by the Anatolian plate and, at the same time, is characterised by crustal extension. The result is an overall collision rate of up to 4 cm/year and a retreating subduction process. Recent passive and active seismic studies on and around Crete gave first, but not in all details consistent, structural results useful for supporting gravity modelling. This was undertaken with the aim of presenting the first 3D density structure of the entire subduction zone. Gravity interpretation was based on a Bouguer map, newly compiled using data from land, marine and satellite sources. The anomalies range from + 170 mGal (Cretan Sea) to - 10 mGal (Mediterranean Ridge). 3D gravity modelling was done applying the modelling software IGMAS. The computed Bouguer map fits the low frequency part of the observed one, which is controlled by variations in Moho depth (less than 20 km below the Cretan Sea and extending 30 km below Crete) and the extremely thick sedimentary cover (partly up to 18 km) of the Mediterranean Ridge. The southernmost edge of the Eurasian plate, with its more triangular-shaped backstop area, was traced south off Crete. Only 50 to 100 km further to the south, the edge of the African continent was traced as well. In between these boundaries there is African oceanic crust, which has a clear arc-shaped detachment line situated at the Eurasian continental edge. The subduction arc is open towards the north, its slab separates hotter mantle material (lower density) below the updoming Moho of the Cretan Sea from colder one (higher density) in the south. Subjacent to the upper continental crust of Crete is a thickened layer of

  6. Structure and Tectonics of the Andaman Subduction Zone from Modeling of Seismological and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemalikanti, P. R.; Rao, N.; Hazarika, P.; Tiwari, V. M.; Mangalampally, R.; Singh, A.

    2012-12-01

    The 10 August 2009 Andaman earthquake of Mw 7.5 occurred to the north of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands at 14o N and 93o E which interestingly, coincides with the northern periphery of the rupture of the Sumatra-Andaman giant mega-thrust earthquake of Mw 9.1 that occurred on 26 December 2004. The event was followed by aftershocks with a peculiar vertical distribution at the same location which was earlier devoid of any significant seismicity. Waveform modeling of five of these events recorded by ISLANDS - the broadband seismic network deployed along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, indicates that the main shock and two of its aftershocks have a normal fault mechanism with shallow focal depths within 18 km while two others have a strike-slip mechanism occurring deeper, down to 26 km. The computed Bouger gravity anomalies in this region indicate the steepest gradient of 1.5 mgal/km exactly centered over this zone of vertical seismic distribution that characterizes a region of lithospheric split or tear which is devoid of a subducting slab. This is in contrast to a clear subduction trend visible in the southern Andaman and Sunda arcs further south, as evidenced by tomographic images. Joint inversion of waveforms of these five events simultaneously, provides the best fitting P wave velocity structure of this region, given by a Moho at a depth of 30 km and a high crustal Vp/Vs ratio of 1.81. We infer an oceanic double crustal column corresponding to a thickness of about 21 km of Burmese crust including a 5 km thick sedimentary column, underlain by a thinner Indian crust which apparently has a thickness of about 9 km, a model that is also confirmed independently by gravity modeling. We interpret the mechanism of shallow normal fault earthquakes as an intra-plate relaxation phenomenon following the buckling of the overriding Burmese plate in the accretionary wedge of the fore-arc basin, in response to the 2004 mega-thrust subduction event. The deeper strike slip events

  7. Rate-distortion analysis of dead-zone plus uniform threshold scalar quantization and its application--part II: two-pass VBR coding for H.264/AVC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Duan, Yizhou; Li, Jiangtao; Liu, Jiaying; Guo, Zongming

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, we derive a source model describing the relationship between the rate, distortion, and quantization steps of the dead-zone plus uniform threshold scalar quantizers with nearly uniform reconstruction quantizers for generalized Gaussian distribution. This source model consists of rate-quantization, distortion-quantization (D-Q), and distortion-rate (D-R) models. In this part, we first rigorously confirm the accuracy of the proposed source model by comparing the calculated results with the coding data of JM 16.0. Efficient parameter estimation strategies are then developed to better employ this source model in our two-pass rate control method for H.264 variable bit rate coding. Based on our D-Q and D-R models, the proposed method is of high stability, low complexity and is easy to implement. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves: 1) average peak signal-to-noise ratio variance of only 0.0658 dB, compared to 1.8758 dB of JM 16.0's method, with an average rate control error of 1.95% and 2) significant improvement in smoothing the video quality compared with the latest two-pass rate control method.

  8. MEAN-FIELD SOLAR DYNAMO MODELS WITH A STRONG MERIDIONAL FLOW AT THE BOTTOM OF THE CONVECTION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Pipin, V. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a study of kinematic axisymmetric mean-field dynamo models for the case of meridional circulation with a deep-seated stagnation point and a strong return flow at the bottom of the convection zone. This kind of circulation follows from mean-field models of the angular momentum balance in the solar convection zone. The dynamo models include turbulent sources of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field production due to kinetic helicity and a combined effect due to the Coriolis force and large-scale electric current. In these models the toroidal magnetic field, which is responsible for sunspot production, is concentrated at the bottommore » of the convection zone and is transported to low-latitude regions by a meridional flow. The meridional component of the poloidal field is also concentrated at the bottom of the convection zone, while the radial component is concentrated in near-polar regions. We show that it is possible for this type of meridional circulation to construct kinematic dynamo models that resemble in some aspects the sunspot magnetic activity cycle. However, in the near-equatorial regions the phase relation between the toroidal and poloidal components disagrees with observations. We also show that the period of the magnetic cycle may not always monotonically decrease with the increase of the meridional flow speed. Thus, for further progress it is important to determine the structure of the meridional circulation, which is one of the critical properties, from helioseismology observations.« less

  9. 3D geodynamic models for the development of opposing continental subduction zones: The Hindu Kush-Pamir example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie; Gerya, Taras; Thielmann, Marcel; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Yin, An

    2017-12-01

    The development of opposing continental subduction zones remains scantly explored in three dimensions. The Hindu Kush-Pamir orogenic system at the western end of the Himalayan orogen provides a rare example of continental collision linked to two opposing intra-continental subduction zones. The subducted plates feature a peculiar 3D geometry consisting of two distinct lithospheric fragments with different polarities, subduction angles and slab-curvatures beneath the Hindu Kush and Pamir, respectively. Using 3D geodynamic modeling, we simulate possible development of two opposing continental subduction zones to understand the dynamic evolution of the Hindu Kush-Pamir orogenic system. Our geodynamic model reproduces the major tectonic elements observed: (1) the deeper subduction depth, the steeper dip angle and the southward offset of the Hindu Kush subduction zone relative to the Pamir naturally occur if convergence direction of the subducting Indian plate and dip-direction of the Hindu Kush subduction zone match. (2) The formation of the highly asymmetrically curved Pamir region and the south-dipping subduction is promoted by the initial geometry of the indenting Indian lithosphere together with the existence of a major strike-slip fault on the eastern margin of the Pamir region. (3) Subduction of only the lower continental crust during continental collision can occur if the coupling between upper and lower crusts is weak enough to allow a separation of these two components, and that (4) the subduction of mainly lower crust then facilitates that conditions for intermediate-depth seismicity can be reached. (5) The secondary tectonic features modeled here such as strike-slip-fault growth, north-northwest striking extension zone, and lateral flow of the thickened ductile upper crust are comparable to the current tectonics of the region. (6) Model results are further compared to the potentially similar orogenic system, i.e., the Alpine orogen, in terms of the curved

  10. E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility Vadose Zone Model: Confirmation of Water Mass Balance for Subsidence Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J. A.

    In preparation for the next revision of the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) Performance Assessment (PA), a mass balance model was developed in Microsoft Excel to confirm correct implementation of intact- and subsided-area infiltration profiles for the proposed closure cap in the PORFLOW vadose-zone model. The infiltration profiles are based on the results of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model simulations for both intact and subsided cases.

  11. Multiple spike initiation zones in a neuron implicated in learning in the leech: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Kevin M

    2009-03-01

    Sensitization of the defensive shortening reflex in the leech has been linked to a segmentally repeated tri-synaptic positive feedback loop. Serotonin from the R-cell enhances S-cell excitability, S-cell impulses cross an electrical synapse into the C-interneuron, and the C-interneuron excites the R-cell via a glutamatergic synapse. The C-interneuron has two unusual characteristics. First, impulses take longer to propagate from the S soma to the C soma than in the reverse direction. Second, impulses recorded from the electrically unexcitable C soma vary in amplitude when extracellular divalent cation concentrations are elevated, with smaller impulses failing to induce synaptic potentials in the R-cell. A compartmental, computational model was developed to test the sufficiency of multiple, independent spike initiation zones in the C-interneuron to explain these observations. The model displays asymmetric delays in impulse propagation across the S-C electrical synapse and graded impulse amplitudes in the C-interneuron in simulated high divalent cation concentrations.

  12. Three-dimensional modelling of thermal stress in floating zone silicon crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plate, Matiss; Krauze, Armands; Virbulis, Jānis

    2018-05-01

    During the growth of large diameter silicon single crystals with the industrial floating zone method, undesirable level of thermal stress in the crystal is easily reached due to the inhomogeneous expansion as the crystal cools down. Shapes of the phase boundaries, temperature field and elastic material properties determine the thermal stress distribution in the solid mono crystalline silicon during cylindrical growth. Excessive stress can lead to fracture, generation of dislocations and altered distribution of intrinsic point defects. Although appearance of ridges on the crystal surface is the decisive factor of a dislocation-free growth, the influence of these ridges on the stress field is not completely clear. Here we present the results of thermal stress analysis for 4” and 5” diameter crystals using a quasi-stationary three dimensional mathematical model including the material anisotropy and the presence of experimentally observed ridges which cannot be addressed with axis-symmetric models. The ridge has a local but relatively strong influence on thermal stress therefore its relation to the origin of fracture is hypothesized. In addition, thermal stresses at the crystal rim are found to increase for a particular position of the crystal radiation reflector.

  13. A root zone modelling approach to estimating groundwater recharge from irrigated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Skaggs, T. H.; van Genuchten, M. Th.; Candela, L.

    2009-03-01

    SummaryIn irrigated semi-arid and arid regions, accurate knowledge of groundwater recharge is important for the sustainable management of scarce water resources. The Campo de Cartagena area of southeast Spain is a semi-arid region where irrigation return flow accounts for a substantial portion of recharge. In this study we estimated irrigation return flow using a root zone modelling approach in which irrigation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture dynamics for specific crops and irrigation regimes were simulated with the HYDRUS-1D software package. The model was calibrated using field data collected in an experimental plot. Good agreement was achieved between the HYDRUS-1D simulations and field measurements made under melon and lettuce crops. The simulations indicated that water use by the crops was below potential levels despite regular irrigation. The fraction of applied water (irrigation plus precipitation) going to recharge ranged from 22% for a summer melon crop to 68% for a fall lettuce crop. In total, we estimate that irrigation of annual fruits and vegetables produces 26 hm 3 y -1 of groundwater recharge to the top unconfined aquifer. This estimate does not include important irrigated perennial crops in the region, such as artichoke and citrus. Overall, the results suggest a greater amount of irrigation return flow in the Campo de Cartagena region than was previously estimated.

  14. [Theoretical and methodological research on the comprehensive development of agricultural model zone in waterlogged area].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaohai; Huang, Yongping; Huang, Zhimin; Lei, Weici; Higata, Shugo

    2003-10-01

    The searching for a proper land reclamation and utilization method adapted to the regional natural conditions and economical level is a prime subject in the waterlogged area of Southern China. Choosing a dish-like micro-zone, one of the typical waterlogged areas deprived from a reclaimed lake as the studying region, its biophysical characteristics and developmental models was investigated, aiming at making a comprehensive development plan to this area. The results showed that with the successive change in altitude across the sector of the land, the soil type, soil profile structure, underground water level, and soil temperature were characterized by five step divergence steps. The analysis on the site and area of the individual divergences showed that the low land was unsuitable for rice planting, and the land between upland and paddy should be increased for rotation and needed to be reclaimed better. After an engineering consolidation to the land, the original five divergence steps were rehabilitated into four steps, and a utilization model of "development in a step way" focused on comprehensively agricultural development and improvement in farming systems was developed, which leaded to a great advance in economic profit of this area.

  15. Developing hydrological model for water quality in Iraq marshes zone using Landsat-TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghany, Maged; Hasab, Hashim Ali; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Bin Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    The Mesopotamia marshlands constitute the largest wetland ecosystem in the Middle East and Western Eurasia. These wetlands are located at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in southern Iraq. However, there are series reductions in the wetland zones because of neighbor countries, i.e. Turkey, Syria built dams upstream of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In addition, the first Gulf war of the 1980s had damaged majority of the marches resources. In fact,the marshes had been reduced in size to less than 7% since 1973 and had deteriorated in water quality parameters. The study integrates Hydrological Model of RMA-2 with Geographic Information System, and remote sensing techniques to map the water quality in the marshlands south of Iraq. This study shows that RMA-2 shows the two dimensional water flow pattern and water quality quantities in the marshlands. It can be said that the integration between Hydrological Model of RMA-2, Geographic Information System, and remote sensing techniques can be used to monitor water quality in the marshlands south of Iraq.

  16. Plant zonation in a tropical irregular estuary: can large occurrence zones be explained by a tradeoff model?

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J P N; Matsumoto, R S; Takao, L K; Lima, M I S

    2015-08-01

    Estuaries present an environmental gradient that ranges from almost fresh water conditions to almost marine conditions. Salinity and flooding are the main abiotic drivers for plants. Therefore, plant zonation in estuaries is closely related to the tidal cycles. It is expected that the competitive abilities of plants would be inversely related to the tolerance toward environmental stress (tradeoff). Thus, in estuaries, plant zonation tends to be controlled by the environment near the sandbar and by competition away from it. This zonation pattern has been proposed for regular non-tropical estuaries. For tropical estuaries, the relative importance of rain is higher, and it is not clear to what extent this model can be extrapolated. We measured the tidal influence along the environmental gradient of a tropical irregular estuary and quantified the relative importance of the environment and the co-occurrence degree. Contrary to the narrow occurrence zone that would be expected for regular estuaries, plants presented large occurrence zones. However, the relative importance of the environment and competition followed the same patterns proposed for regular estuaries. The environmental conditions allow plants to occur in larger zones, but these zones arise from smaller and infrequent patches distributed across a larger area, and most species populations are concentrated in relatively narrow zones. Thus, we concluded that the zonation pattern in the Massaguaçu River estuary agrees with the tradeoff model.

  17. Using an Integrated Hydrologic Model to Assess the Ecohydrological Impacts of Change on a Mountain Headwaters Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C.; Maxwell, R. M.; Visser, A.

    2016-12-01

    The critical zone is the region of the Earth's crust where hydrogeology, ecology, and climate interact. As many critical zone processes are fundamental, the significance of studying critical zone processes goes beyond understanding the local ecohydrological setting. Therefore studying critical zone governing processes requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates simulation and observation. In this study, a high-resolution integrated hydrologic model, ParFlow-CLM, was developed for the Providence Creek watershed. Providence Creek is a highly instrumented critical zone observatory (CZO) located in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, a region currently experiencing a range of short-term responses (i.e. tree mortality) to a severe four-year drought. Sources of plant water use, pathways and residence times of water through the subsurface are identified using a suite of isotopic signatures and numerical particle tracking. Implications of using a fully coupled integrated hydrologic model accompanied by tracer analysis include better understanding of water partitioning and water storage in the regolith and vegetation water use during drought time conditions. The importance of subsurface storage, plant available water and lateral flow during the 2012-2015 drought to mitigate vegetation stress are addressed and verified against observed tree mortality. The stream flow response to tree mortality in the aftermath of the drought, analogous to the Colorado Mountain Pine Beetle case, provides insight into the potential effects of proposed forest management practices.

  18. Molecular Models of Ruthenium(II) Organometallic Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the featured molecules for the month of March, which appear in the paper by Ozerov, Fafard, and Hoffman, and which are related to the study of the reactions of a number of "piano stool" complexes of ruthenium(II). The synthesis of compound 2a offers students an alternative to the preparation of ferrocene if they are only…

  19. Numerical Modeling of Water Fluxes in the Root Zone of Irrigated Pecan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, M. K.; Deb, S.

    2010-12-01

    Information is still limited on the coupled liquid water, water vapor, heat transport and root water uptake for irrigated pecan. Field experiments were conducted in a sandy loam mature pecan field in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Three pecan trees were chosen to monitor diurnal soil water content under the canopy (approximately half way between trunk and the drip line) and outside the drip line (bare spot) along a transect at the depths of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 cm using TDR sensors. Soil temperature sensors were installed at an under-canopy locations and bare spot to monitor soil temperature data at depths of 5, 10, 20, and 40 cm. Simulations of the coupled transport of liquid water, water vapor, and heat with and without root water uptake were carried out using the HYDRUS-1D code. Measured soil hydraulic and thermal properties, continuous meteorological data, and pecan characteristics, e.g. rooting depth, leaf area index, were used in the model simulations. Model calibration was performed for a 26-day period from DOY 204 through DOY 230, 2009 based on measured soil water content and soil temperature data at different soil depths, while the model was validated for a 90-day period from DOY 231 through DOY 320, 2009 at bare spot. Calibrated parameters were also used to apply the model at under-canopy locations for a 116-day period from DOY 204 to 320. HYDRUS-1D simulated water contents and soil temperatures correlated well with the measured data at each depth. Numerical assessment of various transport mechanisms and quantitative estimates of isothermal and thermal water fluxes with and without root water uptake in the unsaturated zone within canopy and bare spot is in progress and will be presented in the conference.

  20. Chlorine-36 data at Yucca Mountain: Statistical tests of conceptual models for unsaturated-zone flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, K.; Wolfsberg, A.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Sweetkind, D.

    2003-01-01

    An extensive set of chlorine-36 (36Cl) data has been collected in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), an 8-km-long tunnel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the purpose of developing and testing conceptual models of flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at this site. At several locations, the measured values of 36Cl/Cl ratios for salts leached from rock samples are high enough to provide strong evidence that at least a small component of bomb-pulse 36Cl, fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s, was measured, implying that some fraction of the water traveled from the ground surface through 200-300 m of unsaturated rock to the level of the ESF during the last 50 years. These data are analyzed here using a formal statistical approach based on log-linear models to evaluate alternative conceptual models for the distribution of such fast flow paths. The most significant determinant of the presence of bomb-pulse 36Cl in a sample from the welded Topopah Spring unit (TSw) is the structural setting from which the sample was collected. Our analysis generally supports the conceptual model that a fault that cuts through the nonwelded Paintbrush tuff unit (PTn) that overlies the TSw is required in order for bomb-pulse 36Cl to be transmitted to the sample depth in less than 50 years. Away from PTn-cutting faults, the ages of water samples at the ESF appear to be a strong function of the thickness of the nonwelded tuff between the ground surface and the ESF, due to slow matrix flow in that unit. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New Conceptual Model for Soil Treatment Units: Formation of Multiple Hydraulic Zones during Unsaturated Wastewater Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Geza, Mengistu; Lowe, Kathryn S; Huntzinger, Deborah N; McCray, John E

    2013-07-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems are commonly used in the United States to reclaim domestic wastewater. A distinct biomat forms at the infiltrative surface, causing resistance to flow and decreasing soil moisture below the biomat. To simulate these conditions, previous modeling studies have used a two-layer approach: a thin biomat layer (1-5 cm thick) and the native soil layer below the biomat. However, the effect of wastewater application extends below the biomat layer. We used numerical modeling supported by experimental data to justify a new conceptual model that includes an intermediate zone (IZ) below the biomat. The conceptual model was set up using Hydrus 2D and calibrated against soil moisture and water flux measurements. The estimated hydraulic conductivity value for the IZ was between biomat and the native soil. The IZ has important implications for wastewater treatment. When the IZ was not considered, a loading rate of 5 cm d resulted in an 8.5-cm ponding. With the IZ, the same loading rate resulted in a 9.5-cm ponding. Without the IZ, up to 3.1 cm d of wastewater could be applied without ponding; with the IZ, only up to 2.8 cm d could be applied without ponding. The IZ also plays a significant role in soil moisture distribution. Without the IZ, near-saturation conditions were observed only within the biomat, whereas near-saturation conditions extended below the biomat with the IZ. Accurate prediction of ponding is important to prevent surfacing of wastewater. The degree of water and air saturation influences pollutant treatment efficiency through residence time, volatility, and biochemical reactions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Structure and Deformation in the Transpressive Zone of Southern California Inferred from Seismicity, Velocity, and Qp Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.

    2004-12-01

    We synthesize relocated regional seismicity and 3D velocity and Qp models to infer structure and deformation in the transpressive zone of southern California. These models provide a comprehensive synthesis of the tectonic fabric of the upper to middle crust, and the brittle ductile transition zone that in some cases extends into the lower crust. The regional seismicity patterns in southern California are brought into focus when the hypocenters are relocated using the double difference method. In detail, often the spatial correlation between background seismicity and late Quaternary faults is improved as the hypocenters become more clustered, and the spatial patterns are more sharply defined. Along some of the strike-slip faults the seismicity clusters decrease in width and form alignments implying that in many cases the clusters are associated with a single fault. In contrast, the Los Angeles Basin seismicity remains mostly scattered, reflecting a 3D distribution of the tectonic compression. We present the results of relocating 327,000 southern California earthquakes that occurred between 1984 and 2002. In particular, the depth distribution is improved and less affected by layer boundaries in velocity models or other similar artifacts, and thus improves the definition of the brittle ductile transition zone. The 3D VP and VP/VS models confirm existing tectonic interpretations and provide new insights into the configuration of the geological structures in southern California. The models extend from the US-Mexico border in the south to the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada in the north, and have 15 km horizontal grid spacing and an average vertical grid spacing of 4 km, down to 22 km depth. The heterogeneity of the crustal structure as imaged in both the VP and VP/VS models is larger within the Pacific than the North America plate, reflecting regional asymmetric variations in the crustal composition and past tectonic processes. Similarly, the relocated seismicity is

  3. Carbon footprint estimator, phase II : volume I - GASCAP model & volume II - technical appendices [technical brief].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    This study resulted in the development of the GASCAP model (the Greenhouse Gas Assessment : Spreadsheet for Transportation Capital Projects). This spreadsheet model provides a user-friendly interface for determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...

  4. Logistic regression model for diagnosis of transition zone prostate cancer on multi-parametric MRI.

    PubMed

    Dikaios, Nikolaos; Alkalbani, Jokha; Sidhu, Harbir Singh; Fujiwara, Taiki; Abd-Alazeez, Mohamed; Kirkham, Alex; Allen, Clare; Ahmed, Hashim; Emberton, Mark; Freeman, Alex; Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart; Atkinson, David; Punwani, Shonit

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to develop logistic regression (LR) models for classifying prostate cancer within the transition zone on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI). One hundred and fifty-five patients (training cohort, 70 patients; temporal validation cohort, 85 patients) underwent mp-MRI and transperineal-template-prostate-mapping (TPM) biopsy. Positive cores were classified by cancer definitions: (1) any-cancer; (2) definition-1 [≥Gleason 4 + 3 or ≥ 6 mm cancer core length (CCL)] [high risk significant]; and (3) definition-2 (≥Gleason 3 + 4 or ≥ 4 mm CCL) cancer [intermediate-high risk significant]. For each, logistic-regression mp-MRI models were derived from the training cohort and validated internally and with the temporal cohort. Sensitivity/specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC-AUC) curve were calculated. LR model performance was compared to radiologists' performance. Twenty-eight of 70 patients from the training cohort, and 25/85 patients from the temporal validation cohort had significant cancer on TPM. The ROC-AUC of the LR model for classification of cancer was 0.73/0.67 at internal/temporal validation. The radiologist A/B ROC-AUC was 0.65/0.74 (temporal cohort). For patients scored by radiologists as Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (Pi-RADS) score 3, sensitivity/specificity of radiologist A 'best guess' and LR model was 0.14/0.54 and 0.71/0.61, respectively; and radiologist B 'best guess' and LR model was 0.40/0.34 and 0.50/0.76, respectively. LR models can improve classification of Pi-RADS score 3 lesions similar to experienced radiologists. • MRI helps find prostate cancer in the anterior of the gland • Logistic regression models based on mp-MRI can classify prostate cancer • Computers can help confirm cancer in areas doctors are uncertain about.

  5. Models and observations of foam coverage and bubble content in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Holman, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    column motion. Preliminary steps to calibrate and verify the resulting models will be taken based on results to be collected during the Surf Zone Optics experiment at Duck, NC in September 2010. Initial efforts will focus on an examination of breaking wave patterns and persistent foam distributions, using ARGUS imagery.

  6. Detection of mesoscale zones of atmospheric instabilities using remote sensing and weather forecasting model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnicki, I.; Jasinski, J.; Kroszczynski, K.; Pietrek, S.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents elements of research conducted in the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy of the Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland, concerning application of mesoscale models and remote sensing data to determining meteorological conditions of aircraft flight directly related with atmospheric instabilities. The quality of meteorological support of aviation depends on prompt and effective forecasting of weather conditions changes. The paper presents a computer module for detecting and monitoring zones of cloud cover, precipitation and turbulence along the aircraft flight route. It consists of programs and scripts for managing, processing and visualizing meteorological and remote sensing databases. The application was developed in Matlab® for Windows®. The module uses products of COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) mesoscale non-hydrostatic model of the atmosphere developed by the US Naval Research Laboratory, satellite images acquisition system from the MSG-2 (Meteosat Second Generation) of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and meteorological radars data acquired from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Warsaw, Poland. The satellite images acquisition system and the COAMPS model are run operationally in the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy. The mesoscale model is run on an IA64 Feniks multiprocessor 64-bit computer cluster. The basic task of the module is to enable a complex analysis of data sets of miscellaneous information structure and to verify COAMPS results using satellite and radar data. The research is conducted using uniform cartographic projection of all elements of the database. Satellite and radar images are transformed into the Lambert Conformal projection of COAMPS. This facilitates simultaneous interpretation and supports decision making process for safe execution of flights. Forecasts are based on horizontal

  7. Constructing an everywhere and locally relevant predictive model of the West-African critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Pellarin, T.; Maxwell, R. M.; Cappelaere, B.; Demarty, J.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Lebel, T.; Mamadou, O.; Mougin, E.; Panthou, G.; Peugeot, C.; Vandervaere, J. P.; Vischel, T.; Vouillamoz, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Considering water resources and hydrologic hazards, West Africa is among the most vulnerable regions to face both climatic (e.g. with the observed intensification of precipitation) and anthropogenic changes. With +3% of demographic rate, the region experiences rapid land use changes and increased pressure on surface and groundwater resources with observed consequences on the hydrological cycle (water table rise result of the sahelian paradox, increase in flood occurrence, etc.) Managing large hydrosystems (such as transboundary aquifers or rivers basins as the Niger river) requires anticipation of such changes. However, the region significantly lacks observations, for constructing and validating critical zone (CZ) models able to predict future hydrologic regime, but also comprises hydrosystems which encompass strong environmental gradients (e.g. geological, climatic, ecological) with highly different dominating hydrological processes. We address these issues by constructing a high resolution (1 km²) regional scale physically-based model using ParFlow-CLM which allows modeling a wide range of processes without prior knowledge on their relative dominance. Our approach combines multiple scale modeling from local to meso and regional scales within the same theoretical framework. Local and meso-scale models are evaluated thanks to the rich AMMA-CATCH CZ observation database which covers 3 supersites with contrasted environments in Benin (Lat.: 9.8°N), Niger (Lat.: 13.3°N) and Mali (Lat.: 15.3°N). At the regional scale the lack of relevant map of soil hydrodynamic parameters is addressed using remote sensing data assimilation. Our first results show the model's ability to reproduce the known dominant hydrological processes (runoff generation, ET, groundwater recharge…) across the major West-African regions and allow us to conduct virtual experiments to explore the impact of global changes on the hydrosystems. This approach is a first step toward the construction of

  8. Improved work zone design guidelines and enhanced model of travel delays in work zones : Phase I, portability and scalability of interarrival and service time probability distribution functions for different locations in Ohio and the establishment of impr

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-01-01

    The project focuses on two major issues - the improvement of current work zone design practices and an analysis of : vehicle interarrival time (IAT) and speed distributions for the development of a digital computer simulation model for : queues and t...

  9. Modeling of tropospheric NO2 column over different climatic zones and land use/land cover types in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Rana, Asim Daud; Tariq, Salman; Mahmood, Khalid; Ali, Muhammad; Bashir, Iqra

    2018-03-01

    We have applied regression analyses for the modeling of tropospheric NO2 (tropo-NO2) as the function of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and some important meteorological parameters such as temperature (Temp), precipitation (Preci), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WS), cloud fraction (CLF) and outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) over different climatic zones and land use/land cover types in South Asia during October 2004-December 2015. Simple linear regression shows that, over South Asia, tropo-NO2 variability is significantly linked to AOD, WS, NOx, Preci and CLF. Also zone-5, consisting of tropical monsoon areas of eastern India and Myanmar, is the only study zone over which all the selected parameters show their influence on tropo-NO2 at statistical significance levels. In stepwise multiple linear modeling, tropo-NO2 column over landmass of South Asia, is significantly predicted by the combination of RH (standardized regression coefficient, β = - 49), AOD (β = 0.42) and NOx (β = 0.25). The leading predictors of tropo-NO2 columns over zones 1-5 are OLR, AOD, Temp, OLR, and RH respectively. Overall, as revealed by the higher correlation coefficients (r), the multiple regressions provide reasonable models for tropo-NO2 over South Asia (r = 0.82), zone-4 (r = 0.90) and zone-5 (r = 0.93). The lowest r (of 0.66) has been found for hot semi-arid region in northwestern Indus-Ganges Basin (zone-2). The highest value of β for urban area AOD (of 0.42) is observed for megacity Lahore, located in warm semi-arid zone-2 with large scale crop-residue burning, indicating strong influence of aerosols on the modeled tropo-NO2 column. A statistical significant correlation (r = 0.22) at the 0.05 level is found between tropo-NO2 and AOD over Lahore. Also NOx emissions appear as the highest contributor (β = 0.59) for modeled tropo-NO2 column over megacity Dhaka.

  10. Prediction of groundwater flowing well zone at An-Najif Province, central Iraq using evidential belief functions model and GIS.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater flowing well zone potential in An-Najif Province of Iraq in a data-driven evidential belief function model developed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. An inventory map of 68 groundwater flowing wells was prepared through field survey. Seventy percent or 43 wells were used for training the evidential belief functions model and the reset 30 % or 19 wells were used for validation of the model. Seven groundwater conditioning factors mostly derived from RS were used, namely elevation, slope angle, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, lithological units, and distance to the Euphrates River in this study. The relationship between training flowing well locations and the conditioning factors were investigated using evidential belief functions technique in a GIS environment. The integrated belief values were classified into five categories using natural break classification scheme to predict spatial zoning of groundwater flowing well, namely very low (0.17-0.34), low (0.34-0.46), moderate (0.46-0.58), high (0.58-0.80), and very high (0.80-0.99). The results show that very low and low zones cover 72 % (19,282 km(2)) of the study area mostly clustered in the central part, the moderate zone concentrated in the west part covers 13 % (3481 km(2)), and the high and very high zones extended over the northern part cover 15 % (3977 km(2)) of the study area. The vast spatial extension of very low and low zones indicates that groundwater flowing wells potential in the study area is low. The performance of the evidential belief functions spatial model was validated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A success rate of 0.95 and a prediction rate of 0.94 were estimated from the area under relative operating characteristics curves, which indicate that the developed model has excellent capability to predict groundwater flowing well zones. The produced map of groundwater

  11. Advanced computation for modeling fluid-solid dynamics in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, Marc; Wilson, Cian; van Keken, Peter; Kelemen, Peter; Hacker, Bradley

    2014-05-01

    Arc volcanism associated with subduction is generally considered to occur by a process where hydrous fluids are released from the slab, interact with the overlying mantle wedge to produce silicate rich magmas which are then transported to the arc. However, the quantitative details of fluid release, migration, melt generation and transport in the wedge remain poorly understood. In particular, there are two fundamental observations that defy quantitative modeling. The first is the location of the volcanic front with respect to intermediate depth earthquakes (e.g. 100 ± 40 km). This observation is remarkably robust yet insensitive to subduction parameters. This contrasts with new estimates on the variability of fluid release in global subduction zones which suggest a significant sensitivity of fluid release to slab thermal conditions. Reconciling these results implies some mechanism for focusing fluids and/or melts toward the wedge corner. The second observation is the global existence of thermally hot erupted basalts and andesites that, if derived from flux melting of the mantle requires sub-arc mantle temperatures of 1300 degrees C over shallow pressures of 1-2 GPa comparable to P-T estimates for the dry solidus beneath mid-ocean ridges. These observations impose significant challenges for geodynamic models of subduction zones, and in particular for those that do not include the explicit transport of fluids and melts. We present a range of high-resolution models that include a more complete description of coupled fluid and solid mechanics (allowing the fluid to interact with solid rheological variations) together with rheologically consistent solution for temperature and solid flow. We discuss how successful these interactions are at focusing both fluids and hot solids to sub-arc regions worldwide. We also evaluate the efficacy of current wet melting parameterizations in these models. When driven by buoyancy alone, fluid migrates through the mantle wedge along

  12. Protection zone in a diffusive predator-prey model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao; Zheng, Sining

    2017-07-01

    In any reaction-diffusion system of predator-prey models, the population densities of species are determined by the interactions between them, together with the influences from the spatial environments surrounding them. Generally, the prey species would die out when their birth rate is too low, the habitat size is too small, the predator grows too fast, or the predation pressure is too high. To save the endangered prey species, some human interference is useful, such as creating a protection zone where the prey could cross the boundary freely but the predator is prohibited from entering. This paper studies the existence of positive steady states to a predator-prey model with reaction-diffusion terms, Beddington-DeAngelis type functional response and non-flux boundary conditions. It is shown that there is a threshold value [Formula: see text] which characterizes the refuge ability of prey such that the positivity of prey population can be ensured if either the prey's birth rate satisfies [Formula: see text] (no matter how large the predator's growth rate is) or the predator's growth rate satisfies [Formula: see text], while a protection zone [Formula: see text] is necessary for such positive solutions if [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] properly large. The more interesting finding is that there is another threshold value [Formula: see text], such that the positive solutions do exist for all [Formula: see text]. Letting [Formula: see text], we get the third threshold value [Formula: see text] such that if [Formula: see text], prey species could survive no matter how large the predator's growth rate is. In addition, we get the fourth threshold value [Formula: see text] for negative [Formula: see text] such that the system admits positive steady states if and only if [Formula: see text]. All these results match well with the mechanistic derivation for the B-D type functional response recently given by Geritz and Gyllenberg (J Theoret Biol 314:106-108, 2012

  13. An overview of the recent approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, E.; Costantini, E.; Jones, G. V.; Mocali, S.

    2014-11-01

    Notions of terroir and their conceptualization through agri-environmental sciences have become popular in many parts of world. Originally developed for wine, terroir now encompasses many other crops including fruits, vegetables, cheese, olive oil, coffee, cacao and other crops, linking the uniqueness and quality of both beverages and foods to the environment where they are produced, giving the consumer a sense of place. Climate, geology, geomorphology, and soil are the main environmental factors which compose the terroir effect at different scales. Often considered immutable at the cultural scale, the natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Due to both a greater need to better understand regional to site variations in crop production and the growth in spatial analytic technologies, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field. Furthermore, the explosion of spatial data availability and sensing technologies has made the within-field scale of study more valuable to the individual grower. The result has been greater adoption but also issues associated with both the spatial and temporal scales required for practical applications, as well as the relevant approaches for data synthesis. Moreover, as soil microbial communities are known to be of vital importance for terrestrial processes by driving the major soil geochemical cycles and supporting healthy plant growth, an intensive investigation of the microbial organization and their function is also required. Our objective is to present an overview of existing data and modelling approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning at local and regional scales. This review will focus on three main areas of recent terroir research: (1) quantifying the influences of terroir components on plant growth

  14. An overview of the recent approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Emmanuelle, Vaudour; Jones, Gregory; Mocali, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Notions of terroir and their conceptualization through agri-environmental sciences have become popular in many parts of world. Originally developed for wine, terroir is now investigated for fruits, vegetables, cheese, olive oil, coffee, cacao and other crops, linking the uniqueness and quality of both beverages and foods to the environment where they are produced, giving the consumer a sense of place. Climate, geology, geomorphology, and soil are the main environmental factors which compose the terroir effect at different scales. Often considered immutable at the cultural scale, the natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Due to both a greater need to better understand regional to site variations in crop production and the growth in spatial analytic technologies, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field. Furthermore, the explosion of spatial data availability and elaboration technologies have made the scale of study more valuable to the individual grower, resulting in greater adoption and application. Moreover, as soil microbial communities are known to be of vital importance for terrestrial processes by driving the major soil geochemical cycles and supporting healthy plant growth, an intensive investigation of the microbial organization and their function is also required. Our objective is to present an overview of existing data and modeling approaches for terroir functional modeling, footprinting and zoning at local and regional scales. This review will focus on four main areas of recent terroir research: 1) quantifying the influences of terroir components on plant growth, fruit composition and quality, mostly examining climate-soil-water relationships; 2) the metagenomic approach as new tool to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of both macro- and

  15. 2-dimensional triplicated waveform modeling of the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y.; Chen, L.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ) of Northeast Asia has long been investigated by geoscientists for its critical importance where the subducted Pacific slab is stagnant above the 660km discontinuity, accompanied by complicated mantle processes. Taking advantages of the frequent occurrent deep earthquakes in subduction zone and dense seismic arrays in Northeast China, we successfully constructed the fine-scale P and SH velocity structure of a narrow azimuthal fan area based on 2-Dimensional (2D) triplicated waveform modeling for three deep close earthquakes, in which the triplicated waveforms are very sensitive to MTZ velocity structure in general, particularly the morphology of the stagnant slab in Northeast Asia. In our 2D triplication study, for the first time, we show a quite consistent feature of a high velocity layer for both Vp and Vs with the thickness of 140km and the length of 1200km just atop the 660km discontinuity, the western edge of the stagnant slab intersect with the North-South Gravity Lineament in China and has the subducting age of 30 Ma. Compared with a quite normal Vp, the Shear wave velocity reduction of -0.5% in the slab and -2.5% in the upper MTZ is required to reconcile the SH waves featured by the broad BOD. The high Vp/Vs ratio beneath Northeast Asia may imply a water-rich MTZ with the H2O content of 0.1-0.3 wt%. Particularly, a low velocity anomaly of about 150km wide was detected in the overall high-velocity stagnant slab by both P and SH triplicated waveform modeling, with the velocity anomaly value of -1% and -3%, respectively. The gap/window in the stagnant slab may provide a passage for hot deeper mantle materials to penetrate through the thick slab and feed the surface Changbaishan volcano. We also speculate that the existence of such a gap can be the manifestation of the original heterogeneity in the subducted slab and will further exacerbatethe impending gravitational instability and speed up mantle avalanche.

  16. Development and evaluation of a semi-empirical two-zone dust exposure model for a dusty construction trade.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Simmons, Catherine; Boelter, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Drywall finishing is a dusty construction activity. We describe a mathematical model that predicts the time-weighted average concentration of respirable and total dusts in the personal breathing zone of the sander, and in the area surrounding joint compound sanding activities. The model represents spatial variation in dust concentrations using two-zones, and temporal variation using an exponential function. Interzone flux and the relationships between respirable and total dusts are described using empirical factors. For model evaluation, we measured dust concentrations in two field studies, including three workers from a commercial contracting crew, and one unskilled worker. Data from the field studies confirm that the model assumptions and parameterization are reasonable and thus validate the modeling approach. Predicted dust C(twa) were in concordance with measured values for the contracting crew, but under estimated measured values for the unskilled worker. Further characterization of skill-related exposure factors is indicated.

  17. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  18. Inside The Zone of Proximal Development: Validating A Multifactor Model Of Learning Potential With Gifted Students And Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanevsky, Lannie; Geake, John

    2004-01-01

    Kanevsky (1995b) proposed a model of learning potential based on Vygotsky?s notions of "good learning" and the zone of proximal development. This study investigated the contributions of general knowledge, information processing efficiency, and metacognition to differences in the learning potential of 5 gifted nongifted students.…

  19. Modeling Raw Sewage Leakage and Transport in the Unsaturated Zone of Carbonate Aquifer Using Carbamazepine as an Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Livshitz, Y.; Gasser, G.; Pankratov, I.; Lev, O.; Adar, E.; Dvory, N. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Fast contamination of groundwater in karstic aquifers can be caused due to leaky sewers, for example, or overflow from sewer networks. When flowing through a karst system, wastewater has the potential to reach the aquifer in a relatively short time. The Western Mountain Aquifer (Yarkon-Taninim) of Israel is one of the country's major water resources. During late winter 2013, maintenance actions were performed on a central sewage pipe that caused raw sewage to leak into the creek located in the study area. The subsequent infiltration of sewage through the thick ( 100 m) fractured/karst unsaturated zone led to a sharp increase in contaminant concentrations in the groundwater, which was monitored in a well located 29 meters from the center of the creek. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was used as an indicator for the presence of untreated raw sewage and its quantification in groundwater. The ultimate research goal was to develop a mathematical model for quantifying flow and contaminant transport processes in the fractured-porous unsaturated zone and karstified groundwater system. A quasi-3D dual permeability numerical model, representing the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system, was developed by a series of 1D equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow and transport equation in groundwater. The 1D and 3D equations were coupled at the moving phreatic surface. The model was calibrated and applied to a simulated water flow scenario and CBZ transport during and after the observed sewage leakage event. The results of simulation showed that after the leakage stopped, significant amounts of CBZ were retained in the porous matrix of the unsaturated zone below the creek. Water redistribution and slow recharge during the dry summer season contributed to elevated CBZ concentrations in the groundwater in the vicinity of the creek and tens of meters downstream. The resumption of autumn rains enhanced flushing of CBZ from the unsaturated zone and led to an increase in

  20. Job Aids: Descriptive Authoring Flowcharts for Phase II--DESIGN of the Instructional Systems Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.; Farrell, Jean R.

    This resource guide for the use of job aids ("how-to-do-it" guidance) for activities identified in the second phase of the Instructional Systems Development Model (ISD) contains an introduction to the use of job aids, as well as descriptive authoring flowcharts for Blocks II.1 through II.4. The introduction includes definitions;…

  1. Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    While slab pull is considered the dominant force controlling plate motion and speed, its magnitude is controlled by slab behavior in the mantle, where tomographic studies show a wide range of possibilities from direct penetration to folding, or stagnation directly above the lower mantle (e.g. Fukao et al., 2009). Geodynamic studies have investigated various parameters, such as plate age and two phase transitions, to recreate observed behavior (e.g. Běhounková and Cízková, 2008). However, past geodynamic models have left out known slab characteristics that may have a large impact on slab behavior and our understanding of subduction processes. Mineral experiments and seismic observations have indicated the existence of additional phase transitions in the mantle transition zone that may produce buoyancy forces large enough to affect the descent of a subducting slab (e.g. Ricard et al., 2005). The current study systematically tests different common assumptions used in geodynamic models: kinematic versus free-slip boundary conditions, the effects of adiabatic heating, viscous dissipation and latent heat, compositional layering and a more complete suite of phase transitions. Final models have a complete energy equation, with eclogite, harzburgite and pyrolite lithosphere compositional layers, and seven composition-dependent phase transitions within the olivine, pyroxene and garnet polymorph minerals. Results show important feedback loops between different assumptions and new behavior from the most complete models. Kinematic models show slab weakening or breaking above the 660 km boundary and between compositional layers. The behavior in dynamic models with a free-moving trench and overriding plate is compared to the more commonly found kinematic models. The new behavior may have important implications for the depth distribution of deep earthquakes within the slab. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, their presence and

  2. Generation of 3-D hydrostratigraphic zones from dense airborne electromagnetic data to assess groundwater model prediction error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Nikolaj K; Minsley, Burke J.; Christensen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We present a new methodology to combine spatially dense high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data and sparse borehole information to construct multiple plausible geological structures using a stochastic approach. The method developed allows for quantification of the performance of groundwater models built from different geological realizations of structure. Multiple structural realizations are generated using geostatistical Monte Carlo simulations that treat sparse borehole lithological observations as hard data and dense geophysically derived structural probabilities as soft data. Each structural model is used to define 3-D hydrostratigraphical zones of a groundwater model, and the hydraulic parameter values of the zones are estimated by using nonlinear regression to fit hydrological data (hydraulic head and river discharge measurements). Use of the methodology is demonstrated for a synthetic domain having structures of categorical deposits consisting of sand, silt, or clay. It is shown that using dense AEM data with the methodology can significantly improve the estimated accuracy of the sediment distribution as compared to when borehole data are used alone. It is also shown that this use of AEM data can improve the predictive capability of a calibrated groundwater model that uses the geological structures as zones. However, such structural models will always contain errors because even with dense AEM data it is not possible to perfectly resolve the structures of a groundwater system. It is shown that when using such erroneous structures in a groundwater model, they can lead to biased parameter estimates and biased model predictions, therefore impairing the model's predictive capability.

  3. Generation of 3-D hydrostratigraphic zones from dense airborne electromagnetic data to assess groundwater model prediction error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, N. K.; Minsley, B. J.; Christensen, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present a new methodology to combine spatially dense high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data and sparse borehole information to construct multiple plausible geological structures using a stochastic approach. The method developed allows for quantification of the performance of groundwater models built from different geological realizations of structure. Multiple structural realizations are generated using geostatistical Monte Carlo simulations that treat sparse borehole lithological observations as hard data and dense geophysically derived structural probabilities as soft data. Each structural model is used to define 3-D hydrostratigraphical zones of a groundwater model, and the hydraulic parameter values of the zones are estimated by using nonlinear regression to fit hydrological data (hydraulic head and river discharge measurements). Use of the methodology is demonstrated for a synthetic domain having structures of categorical deposits consisting of sand, silt, or clay. It is shown that using dense AEM data with the methodology can significantly improve the estimated accuracy of the sediment distribution as compared to when borehole data are used alone. It is also shown that this use of AEM data can improve the predictive capability of a calibrated groundwater model that uses the geological structures as zones. However, such structural models will always contain errors because even with dense AEM data it is not possible to perfectly resolve the structures of a groundwater system. It is shown that when using such erroneous structures in a groundwater model, they can lead to biased parameter estimates and biased model predictions, therefore impairing the model's predictive capability.

  4. Diffusion in coronas around clinopyroxene: modelling with local equilibrium and steady state, and a non-steady-state modification to account for zoned actinolite-hornblende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, J. R.; Birdi, J. J.; Emmett, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Retrograde coronas of Caledonian age, between clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the Jotun Nappe Complex, Norway, illustrate the effects of diffusion kinetics on mineral distributions among layers and on the compositions of hornblende-actinolite. One corona type comprises a symplectite of epidote + quartz adjacent to plagioclase, and a less well-organized intergrowth of amphibole + quartz replacing clinopyroxene. The observed mineral proportions imply an open-system reaction, but the similarity of Al/Si ratios in reactant plagioclase and product symplectite indicates approximate conservation of Al2O3 and SiO2. The largest inferred open-system flux is a loss of CaO, mostly derived from consumption of clinopyroxene. The approximate layer structure, Pl|Ep + Qtz|Hbl + Qtz|Act±Hbl + Qtz|Cpx, is modelled using the theory of steady-state diffusion-controlled growth with local equilibrium. To obtain a solution, it is necessary to use a reactant plagioclase composition which takes into account aluminous (epidote) inclusions. The results indicate that, in terms of Onsager diffusion coefficients L ii , Ca is more mobile than AL ( L CaCa/ L AlAl≳3.) (where ≳ means greater than or approximately equal to). This behaviour of Ca is comparable with that of Mg in previously studied coronas around olivine. Si is non-diffusing in the present modelling, because of silica saturation. Oxidation of some Fe2+ to Fe3+ occurs within the corona. Mg diffuses towards its source (clinopyroxene) to maintain local equilibrium. Other coronas consist of two layers, hornblende adjacent to plagioclase and zoned amphibole + quartz adjacent to clinopyroxene. In the zoned layer, actinolitic hornblende forms relict patches, separated from quartz blebs by more aluminous hornblende. A preliminary steady-state, local-equilibrium model of grain-boundary diffusion explains the formation of low-Al and high-Al layers as due to Al immobility. Zoning and replacement are qualitatively explained in terms of

  5. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.

  6. Hydrological modelling over different scales on the edge of the permafrost zone: approaching model realism based on experimentalists' knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, Natalia; Makarieva, Olga; Lebedeva, Lyudmila

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative experimentalists' data helps to advance both understanding of the runoff generation and modelling strategies. There is significant lack of such information for the dynamic and vulnerable cold regions. The aim of the study is to make use of historically collected experimental hydrological data for modelling poorly-gauged river basins on larger scales near the southern margin of the permafrost zone in Eastern Siberia. Experimental study site "Mogot" includes the Nelka river (30.8 km2) and its three tributaries with watersheds area from 2 to 5.8 km2. It is located in the upper elevated (500 - 1500 m a.s.l.) part of the Amur River basin. Mean annual temperature and precipitation are -7.5°C and 555 mm respectively. Top of the mountains with weak vegetation has well drained soil that prevents any water accumulation. Larch forest on the northern slopes has thick organic layer. It causes shallow active layer and relatively small subsurface water storage. Soil in the southern slopes has thinner organic layer and thaws up to 1.6 m depth. Flood plains are the wettest landscape with highest water storage capacity. Measured monthly evaporation varies from 9 to 100 mm through the year. Experimental data shows importance of air temperature and precipitation changes with the elevation. Their gradient was taken into account for hydrological simulations. Model parameterization was developed according to available quantitative and qualitative data in the Mogot station. The process-based hydrological Hydrograph model was used in the study. It explicitly describes hydrological processes in different permafrost environments. Flexibility of the Hydrograph model allows take advantage from the experimental data for model set-up. The model uses basic meteorological data as input. The level of model complexity is suitable for a remote, sparsely gauged region such as Southern Siberia as it allows for a priori assessment of the model parameters. Model simulation

  7. Modeling MgII Absorbers from SDSS Spectroscopic and Imaging Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimoldini, L. G.; Menard, B.; Nestor, D. B.; Rao, S. M.; Sheth, R. K.; Turnshek, D. A.; Zibetti, S.; Feather, S.; Quider, A.

    2005-12-01

    The detection of more than 14,000 MgII absorption doublets along the sight-lines to SDSS DR4 QSOs (pursued by Turnshek, Nestor, Rao, and collaborators) has produced the largest sample of MgII absorbers to date in the redshift interval 0.37 < z < 2.30. The statistical relation between galaxies and MgII systems is investigated by cross-correlating the spectroscopic MgII catalog with the SDSS imaging catalog of galaxies in the neighborhood of QSO sight-lines. A model for MgII absorbers is derived to account for the measured MgII rest equivalent width distribution and the absorbing galaxy properties (e.g., luminosity, impact parameter, and morphological type). Some preliminary results of our analysis are presented. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation. L.G.R. acknowledges further support from the Z. Daniel's Predoctoral Fellowship.

  8. Impacts of Quaternary History on Critical Zone Structure and Processes: Examples and a Conceptual Model from the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Alison M.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Grimley, David A.; Stumpf, Andrew J.; Kumar, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The concept of a critical zone (CZ) supporting terrestrial life has fostered groundbreaking interdisciplinary science addressing complex interactions among water, soil, rock, air and life near Earth’s surface. Pioneering work has focused on the CZ in areas with residual soils and steady-state or erosional topography. CZ evolution in these areas is conceptualized as progressive weathering of local bedrock (e.g. in the flow-through reactor model). However, this model is not applicable to areas in which weathering profiles form in transported materials including the formerly glaciated portion of the Central Lowland of North America. We present a new conceptual model of CZ evolution in landscapes impacted by continental glaciation based on investigations at three study sites in the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO) The IML-CZO is devoted to the study of CZ processes in a region characterized by thick surficial deposits resulting from multiple continental glaciations, with bedrock at depths of up to 150 m. Here the physical (glacial ice, loess, developing soil profiles) and biological (microbes, tundra, forest, prairie) components of the CZ vary significantly in time. Moreover, the spatial relationships between mineral components of the CZ record a history of glacial-interglacial cycles and landscape evolution. We present cross-sections from IML-CZO sites to provide specific examples of how environmental change is recorded by the structure of the mineral components of the CZ. We build on these examples to create an idealized model of CZ evolution through a glacial cycle that represents the IML-CZO sites and other areas of low relief that have experienced continental glaciation. In addition, we identify two main characteristics of CZ structure which should be included in a conceptual model of CZ development in the IML-CZO and similar settings: (1) mineral components have diverse origins and transport trajectories including alteration in

  9. Modelling Ecosystem Dynamics of the Oxygen Minimum Zones in the Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Eggert, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System are two major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of different kind connected by the system of African Eastern Boundary Currents. We discuss results from a 3-dimensional coupled biogeochemical model covering both oxygen-deficient systems. The biogeochemical model component comprises trophic levels up to zooplankton. Physiological properties of organisms are parameterized from field data gained mainly in the course of the project "Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling System" (GENUS). The challenge of the modelling effort is the different nature of both systems. The Angola Gyre, located in a "shadow zone" of the tropical Atlantic, has a low productivity and little ventilation, hence a long residence time of water masses. In the northern Benguela Upwelling System, trade winds drive an intermittent, but permanent nutrient supply into the euphotic zone which fuels a high coastal productivity, large particle export and high oxygen consumption from dissimilatory processes. In addition to the local processes, oxygen-deficient water formed in the Angola Gyre is one of the source water masses of the poleward undercurrent, which feeds oxygen depleted water into the Benguela system. In order to simulate the oxygen distribution in the Benguela system, both physical transport as well as local biological processes need to be carefully adjusted in the model. The focus of the analysis is on the time scale and the relative contribution of the different oxygen related processes to the oxygen budgets in both the oxygen minimum zones. Although these are very different in both the OMZ, the model is found as suitable to produce oxygen minimum zones comparable with observations in the Benguela and the Angola Gyre as well. Variability of the oxygen concentration in the Angola Gyre depends strongly on organismic oxygen consumption, whereas the variability of the oxygen concentration on the Namibian shelf is governed mostly by

  10. Geophysical Characterization of Some Terranes and the Geophysical Modeling of Candidate Suture Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravat, D.

    1997-01-01

    Indian participation in this project was terminated during the last year by a sudden withdrawal of support by the Department of Science and Technology, India, to the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Bombay. As a result, significant changes in the project focus had to be undertaken. Much of the work carried out at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale during the first year of the project anticipated the Indian participation and included development of computer programs to be used on gravity and magnetic data from the Indian subcontinent and preparations for fieldwork, tutorials, and workshops in India. Despite these setbacks, which were beyond our control, a number of significant tasks have been accomplished during the project period. These include: (1) Completion of digitization of the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly map of India and the regional ground total intensity magnetic anomaly map of India at an overdetermined spacing of 0.05 degrees. (2) We investigated and assessed the limitations of the Euler method using environmental examples because detailed aeromagnetic maps of parts of India were not available for interpretation by this method. (3) We also undertook an assessment of a suture zone between the Nyaza Craton (Archean) and the Mozambique Belt (Pan African) in the Kenya Rift, Africa, using gravity anomalies and the lithospheric seismological models. (4) We studied Magsat and high-altitude (approx. 4 km) aeromagnetic data over Canada.

  11. European Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Chris

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency gas-burning hot water heating takes advantage of a condensing heat exchanger to deliver improved combustion efficiency over a standard non-condensing configuration. The water heating is always lower than the gas heating value. In contrast, Gas Absorption Heat Pump (GAHP) hot water heating combines the efficiency of gas burning with the performance increase from a heat pump to offer significant gas energy savings. An ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system can maintain higher coefficients of performance in coldermore » climates. In this work, a GAHP commercial water heating system was compared to a condensing gas storage system for a range of locations and climate zones across Europe. The thermodynamic performance map of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system was used in a building energy modeling software that could also incorporate the changing ambient air temperature and water mains temperature for a specific location, as well as a full-service restaurant water draw pattern.« less

  12. Waveform Modeling Reveals Important Features of the Subduction Zone Seismic Structure Beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luccio, F.; Persaud, P.; Pino, N. A.; Clayton, R. W.; Helmberger, D. V.; Li, D.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic images of the slab in southern Italy indicate a complex geodynamic system, although these images are strongly affected by limitations due to instrumental coverage, in terms of depth resolution and lateral extent. To help improve our knowledge of the structure of the Calabrian subduction zone, we analyze waveforms of regional events that occurred between 2001 and 2015 beneath the Tyrrhenian sea in the western Mediterranean. The selected events are deeper than 200 km and they were recorded at the Italian seismic network managed by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Italy. We have also included recordings at ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones, which were installed for a few months in 2000-2001, 2004-2005 and 2007-2008. Accurate selection of the source-to receiver raypaths can reveal significant differences at receivers, which are perpendicular to the trench with respect to other stations. P-wave complexity, converted phases and frequency content are some of the features we have observed for selected events. To investigate the slab structure, we model the waveforms using the 2D staggered grid Finite Difference method on graphics processing units developed by Li et al. (Geophys. J. Int., 2014).

  13. Modeling earthquake sequences along the Manila subduction zone: Effects of three-dimensional fault geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongyu; Liu, Yajing; Yang, Hongfeng; Ning, Jieyuan

    2018-05-01

    To assess the potential of catastrophic megathrust earthquakes (MW > 8) along the Manila Trench, the eastern boundary of the South China Sea, we incorporate a 3D non-planar fault geometry in the framework of rate-state friction to simulate earthquake rupture sequences along the fault segment between 15°N-19°N of northern Luzon. Our simulation results demonstrate that the first-order fault geometry heterogeneity, the transitional-segment (possibly related to the subducting Scarborough seamount chain) connecting the steeper south segment and the flatter north segment, controls earthquake rupture behaviors. The strong along-strike curvature at the transitional-segment typically leads to partial ruptures of MW 8.3 and MW 7.8 along the southern and northern segments respectively. The entire fault occasionally ruptures in MW 8.8 events when the cumulative stress in the transitional-segment is sufficiently high to overcome the geometrical inhibition. Fault shear stress evolution, represented by the S-ratio, is clearly modulated by the width of seismogenic zone (W). At a constant plate convergence rate, a larger W indicates on average lower interseismic stress loading rate and longer rupture recurrence period, and could slow down or sometimes stop ruptures that initiated from a narrower portion. Moreover, the modeled interseismic slip rate before whole-fault rupture events is comparable with the coupling state that was inferred from the interplate seismicity distribution, suggesting the Manila trench could potentially rupture in a M8+ earthquake.

  14. SP Response to a Line Source Infiltration for Characterizing the Vadose Zone: Forward Modeling and Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailhac, P.

    2004-05-01

    Field estimation of soil water flux has direct application for water resource management. Standard hydrologic methods like tensiometry or TDR are often difficult to apply because of the heterogeneity of the subsurface, and non invasive tools like ERT, NMR or GPR are limited to the estimation of the water content. Electrical Streaming Potential (SP) monitoring can provide a cost-effective tool to help estimate the nature of the hydraulic transfers (infiltration or evaporation) in the vadose zone. Indeed this technique has improved during the last decade and has been shown to be a useful tool for quantitative groundwater flow characterization (see the poster of Marquis et al. for a review). We now account for our latest development on the possibility of using SP for estimating hydraulic parameters of unsaturated soils from in situ SP measurements during infiltration experiments. The proposed method consists in SP profiling perpendicularly to a line source of steady-state infiltration. Analytic expressions for the forward modeling show a sensitivity to six parameters: the electrokinetic coupling parameter at saturation CS, the soil sorptive number α , the ratio of the constant source strength to the hydraulic conductivity at saturation q/KS, the soil effective water saturation prior to the infiltration experiment Se0, Mualem parameter m, and Archie law exponent n. In applications, all these parameters could be constrained by inverting electrokinetic data obtained during a series of infiltration experiments with varying source strength q.

  15. NSLS-II: Nonlinear Model Calibration for Synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, J.

    This tech note is essentially a summary of a lecture we delivered to the Acc. Phys. Journal Club Apr, 2010. However, since the estimated accuracy of these methods has been naive and misleading in the field of particle accelerators, i.e., ignores the impact of noise, we will elaborate on this in some detail. A prerequisite for a calibration of the nonlinear Hamiltonian is that the quadratic part has been understood, i.e., that the linear optics for the real accelerator has been calibrated. For synchrotron light source operations, this problem has been solved by the interactive LOCO technique/tool (Linear Optics frommore » Closed Orbits). Before that, in the context of hadron accelerators, it has been done by signal processing of turn-by-turn BPM data. We have outlined how to make a basic calibration of the nonlinear model for synchrotrons. In particular, we have shown how this was done for LEAR, CERN (antiprotons) in the mid-80s. Specifically, our accuracy for frequency estimation was {approx} 1 x 10{sup -5} for 1024 turns (to calibrate the linear optics) and {approx} 1 x 10{sup -4} for 256 turns for tune footprint and betatron spectrum. For a comparison, the estimated tune footprint for stable beam for NSLS-II is {approx}0.1. Since the transverse damping time is {approx}20 msec, i.e., {approx}4,000 turns. There is no fundamental difference for: antiprotons, protons, and electrons in this case. Because the estimated accuracy for these methods in the field of particle accelerators has been naive, i.e., ignoring the impact of noise, we have also derived explicit formula, from first principles, for a quantitative statement. For e.g. N = 256 and 5% noise we obtain {delta}{nu} {approx} 1 x 10{sup -5}. A comparison with the state-of-the-arts in e.g. telecomm and electrical engineering since the 60s is quite revealing. For example, Kalman filter (1960), crucial for the: Ranger, Mariner, and Apollo (including the Lunar Module) missions during the 60s. Or Claude Shannon et

  16. Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Methane HCCI Engine Ignition Timing and Emissions Using a Multi-zone Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-han; Wang, Chun-mei; Tang, Hua-xin; Zuo, Cheng-ji; Xu, Hong-ming

    2009-06-01

    Ignition timing control is of great importance in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. The effect of hydrogen addition on methane combustion was investigated using a CHEMKIN multi-zone model. Results show that hydrogen addition advances ignition timing and enhances peak pressure and temperature. A brief analysis of chemical kinetics of methane blending hydrogen is also performed in order to investigate the scope of its application, and the analysis suggests that OH radical plays an important role in the oxidation. Hydrogen addition increases NOx while decreasing HC and CO emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) also advances ignition timing; however, its effects on emissions are generally the opposite. By adjusting the hydrogen addition and EGR rate, the ignition timing can be regulated with a low emission level. Investigation into zones suggests that NOx is mostly formed in core zones while HC and CO mostly originate in the crevice and the quench layer.

  17. A structural model for apolipoprotein C-II amyloid fibrils: experimental characterization and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Chai Lean; Pham, Chi L L; Todorova, Nevena; Hung, Andrew; Lincoln, Craig N; Lees, Emma; Lam, Yuen Han; Binger, Katrina J; Thomson, Neil H; Radford, Sheena E; Smith, Trevor A; Müller, Shirley A; Engel, Andreas; Griffin, Michael D W; Yarovsky, Irene; Gooley, Paul R; Howlett, Geoffrey J

    2011-02-04

    The self-assembly of specific proteins to form insoluble amyloid fibrils is a characteristic feature of a number of age-related and debilitating diseases. Lipid-free human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) forms characteristic amyloid fibrils and is one of several apolipoproteins that accumulate in amyloid deposits located within atherosclerotic plaques. X-ray diffraction analysis of aligned apoC-II fibrils indicated a simple cross-β-structure composed of two parallel β-sheets. Examination of apoC-II fibrils using transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy indicated that the fibrils are flat ribbons composed of one apoC-II molecule per 4.7-Å rise of the cross-β-structure. Cross-linking results using single-cysteine substitution mutants are consistent with a parallel in-register structural model for apoC-II fibrils. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of apoC-II fibrils labeled with specific fluorophores provided distance constraints for selected donor-acceptor pairs located within the fibrils. These findings were used to develop a simple 'letter-G-like' β-strand-loop-β-strand model for apoC-II fibrils. Fully solvated all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the model contained a stable cross-β-core with a flexible connecting loop devoid of persistent secondary structure. The time course of the MD simulations revealed that charge clusters in the fibril rearrange to minimize the effects of same-charge interactions inherent in parallel in-register models. Our structural model for apoC-II fibrils suggests that apoC-II monomers fold and self-assemble to form a stable cross-β-scaffold containing relatively unstructured connecting loops. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time ultrasound imaging of irreversible electroporation in a porcine liver model adequately characterizes the zone of cellular necrosis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Carl R; Shires, Peter; Mootoo, Mary

    2012-02-01

      Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a largely non-thermal method for the ablation of solid tumours. The ability of ultrasound (US) to measure the size of the IRE ablation zone was studied in a porcine liver model.   Three normal pig livers were treated in vivo with a total of 22 ablations using IRE. Ultrasound was used within minutes after ablation and just prior to liver harvest at either 6 h or 24 h after the procedure. The area of cellular necrosis was measured after staining with nitroblue tetrazolium and the percentage of cell death determined by histomorphometry.   Visible changes in the hepatic parenchyma were apparent by US after all 22 ablations using IRE. The mean maximum diameter of the ablation zone measured by US during the procedure was 20.1 ± 2.7 mm. This compared with a mean cellular necrosis zone maximum diameter of 20.3 ± 2.9 mm as measured histologically. The mean percentage of dead cells within the ablation zone was 77% at 6 h and 98% at 24 h after ablation.   Ultrasound is a useful modality for measuring the ablation zone within minutes of applying IRE to normal liver tissue. The area of parenchymal change measured by US correlates with the area of cellular necrosis. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  19. Alternative Models of Service, Centralized Machine Operations. Phase II Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Management Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was conducted to determine if the centralization of playback machine operations for the national free library program would be feasible, economical, and desirable. An alternative model of playback machine services was constructed and compared with existing network operations considering both cost and service. The alternative model was…

  20. Modeling Venus-like Worlds Through Time and Implications for the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, M.; Del Genio, A. D.; Amundsen, D. S.; Sohl, L. E.; Kiang, N. Y.; Aleinov, I. D.; Kelley, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent work [1] we demonstrated that the climatic history of Venus may have allowed for surface liquid water to exist for several billion years using a 3D GCM [2]. Model resolution was 4x5 latitude x longitude, 20 atmospheric layers and a 13 layer fully coupled ocean. Several assumptions were made based on what data we have for early Venus: a.) Used a solar spectrum from 2.9 billion years ago, and 715 million years ago for the incident radiation. b.) Assumed Venus had the same slow modern retrograde rotation throughout the 2.9 to 0.715 Gya history explored, although one simulation at faster rotation rate was shown not to be in the HZ. c.) Used atmospheric constituents similar to modern Earth: 1 bar N2, 400ppmv CO2, 1ppmv CH4. d.) Gave the planet a shallow 310m deep ocean constrained by published D/H ratio observations. e.) Used present day Venus topography and one run with Earth topography.In all cases except the faster rotating one the planet was able to maintain surface liquid water. We have now inserted the SOCRATES [3] radiation scheme into our 3D GCM to more accurately calculate heating fluxes for different atmospheric constituents. Using SOCRATES we have explored a number of other possible early histories for Venus including: f.) An aquaplanet configuration at 2.9Gya with present day rotation period.g.) A Land planet configuration at 2.9Gya with the equivalent of 10m of water in soil and lakes. h.) A synchronously rotating version of a, f, and g (supported by recent work of [4] and older work of [5]) i.) A Venus topography with a 310m ocean, but using present day insolation (1.9 x Earth). j.) Versions of most of the worlds above but with solar insolations >1.9 to explore more Venus-like exoplanetary worlds around G-type stars. In these additional cases the planet still resides in the liquid water habitable zone. Studies such as these should help Astronomers better understand whether exoplanets found in the Venus zone [6] are capable of hosting liquid water

  1. Numerical modeling of marine Gravity data for tsunami hazard zone mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porwal, Nipun

    2012-07-01

    Tsunami is a series of ocean wave with very high wavelengths ranges from 10 to 500 km. Therefore tsunamis act as shallow water waves and hard to predict from various methods. Bottom Pressure Recorders of Poseidon class considered as a preeminent method to detect tsunami waves but Acoustic Modem in Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) sensors placed in the vicinity of trenches having depth of more than 6000m fails to propel OBP data to Surface Buoys. Therefore this paper is developed for numerical modeling of Gravity field coefficients from Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) which do not play a central role in the study of geodesy, satellite orbit computation, & geophysics but by mathematical transformation of gravity field coefficients using Normalized Legendre Polynomial high resolution ocean bottom pressure (OBP) data is generated. Real time sea level monitored OBP data of 0.3° by 1° spatial resolution using Kalman filter (kf080) for past 10 years by Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) has been correlated with OBP data from gravity field coefficients which attribute a feasible study on future tsunami detection system from space and in identification of most suitable sites to place OBP sensors near deep trenches. The Levitus Climatological temperature and salinity are assimilated into the version of the MITGCM using the ad-joint method to obtain the sea height segment. Then TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter, surface momentum, heat, and freshwater fluxes from NCEP reanalysis product and the dynamic ocean topography DOT_DNSCMSS08_EGM08 is used to interpret sea-bottom elevation. Then all datasets are associated under raster calculator in ArcGIS 9.3 using Boolean Intersection Algebra Method and proximal analysis tools with high resolution sea floor topographic map. Afterward tsunami prone area and suitable sites for set up of BPR as analyzed in this research is authenticated by using Passive microwave radiometry system for Tsunami Hazard Zone

  2. Modeling Costal Zone Responses to Sea-Level Rise Using MoCCS: A Model of Complex Coastal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, H.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Ye, M.; Saha, B.; Donoghue, J. F.; Kish, S.

    2011-12-01

    Large-scale coastal systems consisting of several morphological components (e.g. beach, surf zone, dune, inlet, shoreface, and estuary) can be expected to exhibit complex and interacting responses to changes in the rate of sea level rise and storm climate. We have developed a numerical model of complex coastal systems (MoCCS), derived from earlier morphdynamic models, to represent the large-scale time-averaged physical processes that shape each component and govern the component interactions. These control the ongoing evolution of the barrier islands, beach and dune erosion, shoal formation and sand withdrawal at tidal inlets, depth changes in the bay, and changes in storm flooding. The model has been used to study the response of an idealized coastal system with physical characteristics and storm climatology similar to Santa Rosa Island on the Florida Panhandle coast. Five SLR scenarios have been used, covering the range of recently published projections for the next century. Each scenario has been input with a constant and then a time-varying storm climate. The results indicate that substantial increases in the rate of beach erosion are largely due to increased sand transfer to inlet shoals with increased rates of sea level rise. The barrier island undergoes cycles of dune destruction and regrowth, leading to sand deposition. This largely maintains island freeboard but is progressively less effective in offsetting bayside inundation and marsh habitat loss at accelerated sea level rise rates.

  3. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  4. Developing an Agro-Ecological Zoning Model for Tumbleweed (Salsola kali), as Energy Crop in Drylands of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; Ulberich, Ana

    2016-12-01

    Salsola kali is considered extremely valuable as an energy crop worldwide because it adapts easily to environments with strong abiotic stresses (hydric, saline and alkaline) and produces large amounts of biomass in drylands. This species is categorized as an important weed in Argentina. The aim of this work was to design an agro-ecological zoning model for tumbleweed in Argentina, employing a Geography Information System. Based on the bioclimatic requirements for the species and the climatic data for Argentina (1981-2010 period), an agro-climatic suitability map was drawn. This map was superimposed on the saline and alkaline soil maps delineated by the Food and Agriculture Organization for dry climates, generating the agro-ecological zoning on a scale of 1 : 500 000. This zoning revealed very suitable and suitable cultivation areas on halomorphic soils. The potential growing areas extend from N of the Salta province (approximately 22° S) to the Santa Cruz province (50° S). The use of tumbleweed on halomorphic soils under semi-arid to arid conditions, for the dual purpose of forage use and source of lignocellulosic material for bioenergy, could improve agricultural productivity in these lands. Furthermore, it could also contribute to their environmental sustainability, since the species can be used to reclaim saline soils over the years. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented here.

  5. Decomposition of groundwater level fluctuations using transfer modelling in an area with shallow to deep unsaturated zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, J. C.; van Geer, F. C.; de Vries, J. J.

    1994-05-01

    Time series analysis of the fluctuations in shallow groundwater levels in the Netherlands lowlands have revealed a large-scale decline in head during recent decades as a result of an increase in land drainage and groundwater withdrawal. The situation is more ambiguous in large groundwater bodies located in the eastern part of the country, where the unsaturated zone increases from near zero along the edges to about 40 m in the centre of the area. As depth of the unsaturated zone increases, groundwater level reacts with an increasing delay to fluctuations in climate and influences of human activities. The aim of the present paper is to model groundwater level fluctuations in these areas using a linear stochastic transfer function model, relating groundwater levels to estimated precipitation excess, and to separate artificial components from the natural groundwater regime. In this way, the impact of groundwater withdrawal and the reclamation of a 1000 km 2 polder area on the groundwater levels in the adjoining higher ground could be assessed. It became evident that the linearity assumption of the transfer functions becomes a serious drawback in areas with the deepest groundwater levels, because of non-linear processes in the deep unsaturated zone and the non-synchronous arrival of recharge in the saturated zone. Comparison of the results from modelling the influence of reclamation with an analytical solution showed that the lowering of groundwater level is partly compensated by reduced discharge and therefore is less than expected.

  6. 3D geostatistical modelling for identifying sinkhole disaster potential zones around the Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J. J.; Litaudon, J.; Filippov, L. O.; Lyubimova, T.; Maximovich, N.

    2017-07-01

    This work results from a cooperative scientific program between the Perm State University (Russia) and the University of Lorraine (France). Its objectives are to integrate modern 3D geomodeling in order to improve sustainable mining extraction, especially for predicting and avoiding the formation of sinkholes disaster potential zones. Systematic exploration drill holes performed in the Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit (Perm region, Russia) have been used to build a comprehensive 3D model for better understanding the spatial repartition of the ore quality (geometallurgy). A precise modelling of the mineralized layers allows an estimation of the in-situ ore reserves after interpolating by kriging the potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) contents at the node of a regular centred grid (over a million cells). Total resources in potassium vary according to the cut-off between 4.7Gt @ 16.1 % K2O; 0.32 % MgCl2 for a cut-off grade at 13.1% K2O and 2.06 Gt @ 18.2 % K2O; 0.32 % MgCl2 at a cut-off of 16.5% K2O. Most of reserves are located in the KPI, KPII and KPIII layers, the KPI being the richest, and KPIII the largest in terms of tonnage. A systematic study of the curvature calculated along the roof of the mineralized layers points out the location of potential main faults which play a major role in the formation of sinkhole during exploitation. A risk map is then derived from this attribute.

  7. Hydraulic containment: analytical and semi-analytical models for capture zone curve delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, John A.; Goltz, Mark N.

    2002-05-01

    We present an efficient semi-analytical algorithm that uses complex potential theory and superposition to delineate the capture zone curves of extraction wells. This algorithm is more flexible than previously published techniques and allows the user to determine the capture zone for a number of arbitrarily positioned extraction wells pumping at different rates. The algorithm is applied to determine the capture zones and optimal well spacing of two wells pumping at different flow rates and positioned at various orientations to the direction of regional groundwater flow. The algorithm is also applied to determine capture zones for non-colinear three-well configurations as well as to determine optimal well spacing for up to six wells pumping at the same rate. We show that the optimal well spacing is found by minimizing the difference in the stream function evaluated at the stagnation points.

  8. A Model to Predict the Breathing Zone Concentrations of Particles Emitted from Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perfo...

  9. ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY AT DEAD ZONE BOUNDARIES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL GLOBAL MODELS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark, E-mail: wlyra@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org

    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulatemore » the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the {alpha} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.« less

  10. Low-mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - II. Flow-locked and runaway migration, and a torque prescription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2018-07-01

    We examine the migration of low-mass planets in laminar protoplanetary discs, threaded by large-scale magnetic fields in the dead zone that drive radial gas flows. As shown in Paper I, a dynamical corotation torque arises due to the flow-induced asymmetric distortion of the corotation region and the evolving vortensity contrast between the librating horseshoe material and background disc flow. Using simulations of laminar torqued discs containing migrating planets, we demonstrate the existence of the four distinct migration regimes predicted in Paper I. In two regimes, the migration is approximately locked to the inward or outward radial gas flow, and in the other regimes the planet undergoes outward runaway migration that eventually settles to fast steady migration. In addition, we demonstrate torque and migration reversals induced by mid-plane magnetic stresses, with a bifurcation dependent on the disc surface density. We develop a model for fast migration, and show why the outward runaway saturates to a steady speed, and examine phenomenologically its termination due to changing local disc conditions. We also develop an analytical model for the corotation torque at late times that includes viscosity, for application to discs that sustain modest turbulence. Finally, we use the simulation results to develop torque prescriptions for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation.

  11. Phenology of forest-grassland transition zones in the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, K.; Fisher, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Forest-grassland transition zones (savannas, woodlands, wooded grasslands, and shrublands) are highly sensitive to climate and may already be changing due to warming, changes in precipitation patterns, and/or CO2 fertilization. Shifts between closed canopy forest and open grassland, as well as shifts in phenology, could have large impacts on the global carbon cycle, water balance, albedo, and on the humans and other animals that depend on these regions. From an earth system perspective these impacts may then feed back into the climate system and impact how, when, and where climate change occurs. Here we compare 29 years of monthly leaf area index (LAI) outputs from several offline versions of the Community Land Model (CLM), the land component of the Community Earth System Model, to LAI derived from the AVHRR NDVI3g product (LAI3g). Specifically, we focus on seasonal patterns in regions dominated by tropical broadleaved deciduous trees (T-BDT), broadleaved deciduous shrubs (BDS) and grasslands (C3 and C4) in CLM, all of which follow a 'stress deciduous' phenological algorithm. We consider and compare two versions of CLM (v. 4CN and v. 4.5BGC) to the satellite derived product. We found that both versions of CLM were able to capture seasonal variations in grasslands relatively well at the regional scale, but that the 'stress deciduous' phenology algorithm did not perform well in areas dominated by T-BDT or BDS. When we compared the performance of the models at single points we found slight improvements in CLM4.5BGC over CLM4CN, but generally that the magnitude of seasonality was too low in CLM as compared to the LAI3g satellite product. To explore the parameters within CLM that had the most leverage on seasonality of LAI, we used a Latin hypercube approach to vary values for critical soil water potential (threshold at which plants drop leaves), the critical number of days that soil water potential must be too low for leaves to drop, and the carbon allocation scheme

  12. PRZM-2, A MODEL FOR PREDICTING PESTICIDE FATE IN THE CROP ROOT AND UNSATURATED SOIL ZONES: USERS MANUAL FOR RELEASE 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    PRZM-2 links two subordinate models--PRZM and VADOFT--in order to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zones. RZM is a one-dimensional, finite difference model that accounts for pesticide fate in the crop root zone. his release...

  13. Determination of crystal residence timescales in magma reservoirs by diffusion modeling of dendritic phosphorus zoning patterns in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Potrafke, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deciphering the early stages of crystallization and the chronological evolution of phenocrysts in magma reservoirs is one of the main goals in volcanology. Established approaches that model the concentration evolution of fast diffusing elements like Fe/Mg carry limited information on timescales once the concentration gradients are homogenized. Elements that diffuse more slowly, such as P and Al, become useful in these cases. We present a novel modeling tool that combines high-resolution EMP mapping of slow diffusing phosphorus in olivine with 2D kinetic modeling of the diffusive relaxation of initial chemical zoning pattern of P as well as Fe/Mg. The modeling approach offers a new possibility for determining crystal residence times in magma reservoirs. P diffusion coefficients from the experimental determination of [1] and Fe/Mg diffusion coefficients from [2] were used. The method yields a time-bracket between the minimum time required to homogenize the zoning of fast-diffusing Fe/Mg and the maximum time period for which details of chemical zoning of slow-diffusing P may be retained. To illustrate the approach we have studied the compositional zoning patterns of 7 olivine crystals from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion. All crystals show a narrow range of forsterite contents (=Fo82-84) with fully homogenized Fe/Mg distribution, whereas P-mapping reveals oscillatory to dendritic zoning patterns [3]. P concentrations scatter in the range of 0.4 wt-% to below detection limit. Revealed phosphorus zoning patterns were considered to display the initial crystal architecture, whereas Fe and Mg zoning has been wiped out due to faster diffusion. For La Réunion magmas at 1453 K, timescales between few days to weeks were determined to be the time brackets for growth and residence of the olivine crystals in the magmas. These short residence times combined with knowledge of very fast developing dendritic crystals that have recently been revealed worldwide [e.g. 3

  14. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  15. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at amore » substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.« less

  16. Kinetics of Cd(ii) adsorption and desorption on ferrihydrite: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuzhen; Tian, Lei; Lu, Yang; Peng, Lanfang; Wang, Pei; Lin, Jingyi; Cheng, Tao; Dang, Zhi; Shi, Zhenqing

    2018-05-15

    The kinetics of Cd(ii) adsorption/desorption on ferrihydrite is an important process affecting the fate, transport, and bioavailability of Cd(ii) in the environment, which was rarely systematically studied and understood at quantitative levels. In this work, a combination of stirred-flow kinetic experiments, batch adsorption equilibrium experiments, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and mechanistic kinetic modeling were used to study the kinetic behaviors of Cd(ii) adsorption/desorption on ferrihydrite. HR-TEM images showed the open, loose, and sponge-like structure of ferrihydrite. The batch adsorption equilibrium experiments revealed that higher pH and initial metal concentration increased Cd(ii) adsorption on ferrihydrite. The stirred-flow kinetic results demonstrated the increased adsorption rate and capacity as a result of the increased pH, influent concentration, and ferrihydrite concentration. The mechanistic kinetic model successfully described the kinetic behaviors of Cd(ii) during the adsorption and desorption stages under various chemistry conditions. The model calculations showed that the adsorption rate coefficients varied as a function of solution chemistry, and the relative contributions of the weak and strong ferrihydrite sites for Cd(ii) binding varied with time at different pH and initial metal concentrations. Our model is able to quantitatively assess the contributions of each individual ferrihydrite binding site to the overall Cd(ii) adsorption/desorption kinetics. This study provided insights into the dynamic behavior of Cd(ii) and a predictive modeling tool for Cd(ii) adsorption/desorption kinetics when ferrihydrite is present, which may be helpful for the risk assessment and management of Cd contaminated sites.

  17. A Linear Stochastic Dynamical Model of ENSO. Part II: Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C. J.; Battisti, D. S.

    2001-02-01

    In this study the behavior of a linear, intermediate model of ENSO is examined under stochastic forcing. The model was developed in a companion paper (Part I) and is derived from the Zebiak-Cane ENSO model. Four variants of the model are used whose stabilities range from slightly damped to moderately damped. Each model is run as a simulation while being perturbed by noise that is uncorrelated (white) in space and time. The statistics of the model output show the moderately damped models to be more realistic than the slightly damped models. The moderately damped models have power spectra that are quantitatively quite similar to observations, and a seasonal pattern of variance that is qualitatively similar to observations. All models produce ENSOs that are phase locked to the annual cycle, and all display the `spring barrier' characteristic in their autocorrelation patterns, though in the models this `barrier' occurs during the summer and is less intense than in the observations (inclusion of nonlinear effects is shown to partially remedy this deficiency). The more realistic models also show a decadal variability in the lagged autocorrelation pattern that is qualitatively similar to observations.Analysis of the models shows that the greatest part of the variability comes from perturbations that project onto the first singular vector, which then grow rapidly into the ENSO mode. Essentially, the model output represents many instances of the ENSO mode, with random phase and amplitude, stimulated by the noise through the optimal transient growth of the singular vectors.The limit of predictability for each model is calculated and it is shown that the more realistic (moderately damped) models have worse potential predictability (9-15 months) than the deterministic chaotic models that have been studied widely in the literature. The predictability limits are strongly correlated with the stability of the models' ENSO mode-the more highly damped models having much shorter

  18. Development of a model to compute the extension of life supporting zones for Earth-like exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, David; Vrtala, Aron; Leitner, Johannes J; Firneis, Maria G; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2011-12-01

    A radiative convective model to calculate the width and the location of the life supporting zone (LSZ) for different, alternative solvents (i.e. other than water) is presented. This model can be applied to the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in the solar system as well as (hypothetical, Earth-like) terrestrial exoplanets. Cloud droplet formation and growth are investigated using a cloud parcel model. Clouds can be incorporated into the radiative transfer calculations. Test runs for Earth, Mars and Titan show a good agreement of model results with observations.

  19. Evolution of fault zones in carbonates with mechanical stratigraphy - Insights from scale models using layered cohesive powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gent, Heijn W.; Holland, Marc; Urai, Janos L.; Loosveld, Ramon

    2010-09-01

    We present analogue models of the formation of dilatant normal faults and fractures in carbonate fault zones, using cohesive hemihydrate powder (CaSO 4·½H 2O). The evolution of these dilatant fault zones involves a range of processes such as fragmentation, gravity-driven breccia transport and the formation of dilatant jogs. To allow scaling to natural prototypes, extensive material characterisation was done. This showed that tensile strength and cohesion depend on the state of compaction, whereas the friction angle remains approximately constant. In our models, tensile strength of the hemihydrate increases with depth from 9 to 50 Pa, while cohesion increases from 40 to 250 Pa. We studied homogeneous and layered material sequences, using sand as a relatively weak layer and hemihydrate/graphite mixtures as a slightly stronger layer. Deformation was analyzed by time-lapse photography and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to calculate the evolution of the displacement field. With PIV the initial, predominantly elastic deformation and progressive localization of deformation are observed in detail. We observed near-vertical opening-mode fractures near the surface. With increasing depth, dilational shear faults were dominant, with releasing jogs forming at fault-dip variations. A transition to non-dilatant shear faults was observed near the bottom of the model. In models with mechanical stratigraphy, fault zones are more complex. The inferred stress states and strengths in different parts of the model agree with the observed transitions in the mode of deformation.

  20. Complex Modeling of the Seismic Structure of the Trans-European Suture Zone's Margin from Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde-Piorko, M.; Chrapkiewicz, K.; Lepore, S.; Polkowski, M.; Grad, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) is one of the most prominent suture zones in Europe separating the young Paleozoic Platform from the much older Precambrian East European Craton. The data recorded by "13 BB Star" broadband seismic stations (Grad et al., 2015) are analyzed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of the margin of the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in northern Poland. Receiver function (RF) locally provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and information about the shear wave (S-wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. Recorded seismograms are rotated from ZNE to LQT system with method using the properties of RF (Wilde-Piórko, 2015). Different techniques of receiver function interpretation are applied, including 1-D inversion of RF, 1-D forward modeling of RF, 2.5D forward modeling of RF, 1-D join inversion of RF and dispersion curves of surface wave, to find the best S-wave velocity model of the TESZ margin. A high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model in the area of Poland (Grad et al. 2016) are used as a starting model. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  1. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  2. A detached eddy simulation model for the study of lateral separation zones along a large canyon-bound river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Laura V.; Schmeeckle, Mark W.; Grams, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral flow separation occurs in rivers where banks exhibit strong curvature. In canyon-bound rivers, lateral recirculation zones are the principal storage of fine-sediment deposits. A parallelized, three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model was developed to study the flow structures along lateral separation zones located in two pools along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon. The model employs the detached eddy simulation (DES) technique, which resolves turbulence structures larger than the grid spacing in the interior of the flow. The DES-3D model is validated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler flow measurements taken during the 2008 controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. A point-to-point validation using a number of skill metrics, often employed in hydrological research, is proposed here for fluvial modeling. The validation results show predictive capabilities of the DES model. The model reproduces the pattern and magnitude of the velocity in the lateral recirculation zone, including the size and position of the primary and secondary eddy cells, and return current. The lateral recirculation zone is open, having continuous import of fluid upstream of the point of reattachment and export by the recirculation return current downstream of the point of separation. Differences in magnitude and direction of near-bed and near-surface velocity vectors are found, resulting in an inward vertical spiral. Interaction between the recirculation return current and the main flow is dynamic, with large temporal changes in flow direction and magnitude. Turbulence structures with a predominately vertical axis of vorticity are observed in the shear layer becoming three-dimensional without preferred orientation downstream.

  3. A detached eddy simulation model for the study of lateral separation zones along a large canyon-bound river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Laura V.; Schmeeckle, Mark W.; Grams, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral flow separation occurs in rivers where banks exhibit strong curvature. In canyon-boundrivers, lateral recirculation zones are the principal storage of fine-sediment deposits. A parallelized,three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model was developed to study the flow structures along lateralseparation zones located in two pools along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon. The model employs thedetached eddy simulation (DES) technique, which resolves turbulence structures larger than the grid spacingin the interior of the flow. The DES-3D model is validated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler flowmeasurements taken during the 2008 controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. A point-to-pointvalidation using a number of skill metrics, often employed in hydrological research, is proposed here forfluvial modeling. The validation results show predictive capabilities of the DES model. The model reproducesthe pattern and magnitude of the velocity in the lateral recirculation zone, including the size and position ofthe primary and secondary eddy cells, and return current. The lateral recirculation zone is open, havingcontinuous import of fluid upstream of the point of reattachment and export by the recirculation returncurrent downstream of the point of separation. Differences in magnitude and direction of near-bed andnear-surface velocity vectors are found, resulting in an inward vertical spiral. Interaction between therecirculation return current and the main flow is dynamic, with large temporal changes in flow direction andmagnitude. Turbulence structures with a predominately vertical axis of vorticity are observed in the shearlayer becoming three-dimensional without preferred orientation downstream.

  4. Driver-vehicle effectiveness model : volume II : appendices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-12-01

    The Driver-Vehicle Effectiveness Model (DRIVEM) is a Monte Carlo simulation model intended for use by NHTSA to evaluate alternative vehicle subsystems or effects of legislative actions proposed to reduce the probability and severity of highway traffi...

  5. Available for the Apple II: FIRM: Florida InteRactive Modeler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, C. Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Apple II microcomputer program described allows instructors with minimal programing experience to construct computer models of psychological phenomena for students to investigate. Use of these models eliminates need to maintain/house/breed animals or purchase sophisticated laboratory equipment. Several content models are also described,…

  6. Modelling nitrite dynamics and associated feedback processes in the Benguela oxygen minimum zone

    N