Science.gov

Sample records for zone project led

  1. Projecting LED product life based on application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei; Mou, Xi; Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Eshwarage, Oshadhi V. Madihe

    2016-09-01

    LED products have started to displace traditional light sources in many lighting applications. One of the commonly claimed benefits for LED lighting products is their long useful lifetime in applications. Today there are many replacement lamp products using LEDs in the marketplace. Typically, lifetime claims of these replacement lamps are in the 25,000-hour range. According to current industry practice, the time for the LED light output to reach the 70% value is estimated according to IESNA LM-80 and TM-21 procedures and the resulting value is reported as the whole system life. LED products generally experience different thermal environments and switching (on-off cycling) patterns when used in applications. Current industry test methods often do not produce accurate lifetime estimates for LED systems because only one component of the system, namely the LED, is tested under a continuous-on burning condition without switching on and off, and because they estimate for only one failure type, lumen depreciation. The objective of the study presented in this manuscript was to develop a test method that could help predict LED system life in any application by testing the whole LED system, including on-off power cycling with sufficient dwell time, and considering both failure types, catastrophic and parametric. The study results showed for the LED A-lamps tested in this study, both failure types, catastrophic and parametric, exist. The on-off cycling encourages catastrophic failure, and maximum operating temperature influences the lumen depreciation rate and parametric failure time. It was also clear that LED system life is negatively affected by on-off switching, contrary to commonly held belief. In addition, the study results showed that most of the LED systems failed catastrophically much ahead of the LED light output reaching the 70% value. This emphasizes the fact that life testing of LED systems must consider catastrophic failure in addition to lumen depreciation, and

  2. Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert G.; Evans, William; Murphy, Arthur T.

    For this report, PNNL / the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studied a series of past exterior lighting projects at Princeton, in order to document Princeton’s experiences with solid-state lighting (SSL) and the lessons learned along the way, and to show how their approach to SSL projects evolved as their own learning expanded and as the products available improved in performance and sophistication.

  3. Meeting the challenges of developing LED-based projection displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geißler, Enrico

    2006-04-01

    The main challenge in developing a LED-based projection system is to meet the brightness requirements of the market. Therefore a balanced combination of optical, electrical and thermal parameters must be reached to achieve these performance and cost targets. This paper describes the system design methodology for a digital micromirror display (DMD) based optical engine using LEDs as the light source, starting at the basic physical and geometrical parameters of the DMD and other optical elements through characterization of the LEDs to optimizing the system performance by determining optimal driving conditions. LEDs have a luminous flux density which is just at the threshold of acceptance in projection systems and thus only a fully optimized optical system with a matched set of LEDs can be used. This work resulted in two projection engines, one for a compact pocket projector and the other for a rear projection television, both of which are currently in commercialization.

  4. Compact LED based LCOS optical engine for mobile projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzi; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qinxiao; Yu, Feihong

    2009-11-01

    With the development of high power LED (light emitting diode) technology and color filter LCOS (liquid crystal on silicon) technology, the research on LED based micro optical engine for mobile projection has been a hot topic recently. In this paper one compact LED powered LCOS optical engine design is presented, which is intended to be embedded in cell phone, digital camera, and so on. Compared to DLP (digital light processor) and traditional color sequential LCOS technology, the color filter based LCOS panel is chosen for the compact optical engine, this is because only white LED is needed. To further decrease the size of the optical engine, only one specifically designed plastic free form lens is applied in the illumination part of the optical engine. This free form lens is designed so that it plays the roles of both condenser and integrator, by which the output light of LED is condensed and redistributed, and light illumination of high efficiency, high uniformity and small incident angle on LCOS is acquired. Besides PBS (polarization beam splitter), LCOS, and projection lens, the compact optical engine contains only this piece of free form plastic lens, which can be produced by plastic injection molding. Finally a white LED powered LCOS optical engine with a compact size of less than 6.6 cc can be acquired. With the ray tracing simulation result, the light efficiency analysis shows that the output flux is over 8.5 ANSI lumens and the ANSI uniformity of over 80%.

  5. Using UAVs to Conduct Student-led Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olds, S. E.; Lewis, P. M., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Recreational drones can inspire students to initiate research projects. These "toys" have a low cost (<$100), low weight (< 250 g, so do not require FAA registration), and an ability to carry small instrument packages, making them an ideal platform for conducting innovative investigations. This session describes an initiative by the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Education Committee to compile and distribute a free e-book that will encourage learners to use drones for science investigations. Our goal is to inspire learners to use UAVs to carry scientific instruments and/or capture imagery to conduct local-scale investigations. Experiments such as discovering their vehicle's maximum payload help learners understand what sensors they can use (or build) to conduct research. The e-book will encourage learners to practice UAV civility and safety through a pre-flight checklist and flying guidelines, and to consider science objectives and flight team roles in performing investigations. Activities also advocate for robust data and metadata-collection practices. Suggested activities encompass repeat photography investigations as well as engineering design skills such as designing a camera mount to obtain nadir or oblique imagery. Learners can also move to more sophisticated research using photogrammetric skills such as taking overlapping photographs to create 3D structure from motion (SfM) models. To encourage the use of onboard sensors, the team worked with an engineer to build a 33-gram prototype environmental logger called SABEL (Shelley [Olds] and Bob [Ellis]'s Environmental Logger). Assembled on an Arduino board, SABEL collects temperature, humidity, and GPS position. This presentation will provide examples of student-led investigations, instructions for building the SABEL sensor package, and the status of the new e-book compilation of student-focused activities using recreational drones to pursue science, math, engineering, and technology

  6. Engaging Students in Learning: Findings from a Study of Project-Led Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Sandra; Mesquita, Diana; Flores, Maria Assunção; Lima, Rui M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a three-year study of project-based learning implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme, at the University of Minho, Portugal. This particular model was inspired on project-led education (PLE), following Powell and Weenk's [2003. "Project-Led Engineering…

  7. Project Management Professional Development: An Industry Led Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Andrew; Brown, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Describes a modular master's program in project management. Explores relationships between return on investment, management competencies, and learning outcomes in the context of industry-academic partnerships. Discusses the managed learning environment using WebCT. (Contains 40 references.) (SK)

  8. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert G.; Evans, WIlliam E.; Murphy, Arthur

    This report focuses on four exterior solid-state lighting projects that have been completed at Princeton since 2008, when the University adopted a comprehensive sustainability plan. Through these initial projects – which include a parking garage, a pedestrian path, and two parking lot installations – the school’s facilities engineering staff learned important lessons about SSL technology and gained experience in dealing with the rapidly changing landscape of lighting manufacturers and their suppliers.

  9. Evaluation of an LED Retrofit Project at Princeton University’s Carl Icahn Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert G.; Murphy, Arthur L.; Perrin, Tess E.

    The LED lighting retrofit at the Carl Icahn Laboratory of the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics was the first building-wide interior LED project at Princeton University, following the University’s experiences from several years of exterior and small-scale interior LED implementation projects. The project addressed three luminaire types – recessed 2x2 troffers, cove and other luminaires using linear T8 fluorescent lamps, and CFL downlights - which combined accounted for over 564,000 kWh of annual energy, over 90% of the lighting energy used in the facility. The Princeton Facilities Engineering staff used a thorough process of evaluating product alternatives before selecting anmore » acceptable LED retrofit solution for each luminaire type. Overall, 815 2x2 luminaires, 550 linear fluorescent luminaires, and 240 downlights were converted to LED as part of this project. Based solely on the reductions in wattage in converting from the incumbent fluorescent lamps to LED retrofit kits, the annual energy savings from the project was over 190,000 kWh, a savings of 37%. An additional 125,000 kWh of energy savings is expected from the implementation of occupancy and task-tuning control solutions, which will bring the total savings for the project to 62%.« less

  10. LEDs on the threshold for use in projection systems: challenges, limitations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Bryce Anton

    2006-02-01

    The use of coloured LEDs as light sources in digital projectors depends on an optimal combination of optical, electrical and thermal parameters to meet the performance and cost targets needed to enable these products to compete in the marketplace. This paper describes the system design methodology for a digital micromirror display (DMD) based optical engine using LEDs as the light source, starting at the basic physical and geometrical parameters of the DMD and other optical elements through characterization of the LEDs to optimizing the system performance by determining optimal driving conditions. The main challenge in using LEDs is the luminous flux density, which is just at the threshold of acceptance in projection systems and thus only a fully optimized optical system with a uniformly bright set of LEDs can be used. As a result of this work we have developed two applications: a compact pocket projector and a rear projection television.

  11. Evaluation of an LED Retrofit Project at Princeton University's Carl Icahn Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert; Murphy, Arthur; Perrin, Tess

    At Princeton University’s Carl Icahn Laboratory, DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration Program documented the implementation of LED retrofit products for recessed troffers, linear cove lighting, and downlights – as part of Princeton’s first building-wide interior LED project. The conversion to LED enables more extensive use of lighting controls to tailor the lighting to the task and limit the operating hours based on occupancy, and the estimated energy savings including controls is 62% compared to the incumbent system.

  12. 75 FR 5511 - Safety Zone; AICW Closure Safety Zone for Ben Sawyer Bridge Replacement Project, Sullivan's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; AICW Closure Safety Zone for Ben Sawyer Bridge Replacement Project, Sullivan's Island... replacement of the old and new approach spans of the Ben Sawyer Swing Bridge. This regulation is necessary to... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) with respect to this rule because hazards associated with the bridge replacement...

  13. Moving towards Optimising Demand-Led Learning: The 2005-2007 ECUANET Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard; Howard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the key project learning points and outcomes as a guideline for the future quality management of demand-led learning and development. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology was based upon a corporate university blueprint architecture and browser toolkit developed by a member of the…

  14. Engaging students in learning: findings from a study of project-led education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Sandra; Mesquita, Diana; Assunção Flores, Maria; Lima, Rui M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a three-year study of project-based learning implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme, at the University of Minho, Portugal. This particular model was inspired on project-led education (PLE), following Powell and Weenk's [2003. Project-Led Engineering Education. Utrecht: Lemma] work. It aims to analyse students' perceptions of PLE as a learning device and its implications for faculty and students' role in teaching and learning. Data collection took place in two phases through individual surveys and focus groups to students. Findings suggest the importance of PLE as a device to enhance meaningful learning and provide evidence from students that it helps to increase their engagement in learning. Implications of PLE for faculty and students role in teaching and learning will be discussed in the paper.

  15. The Problem of Projects: Understanding the Theoretical Underpinnings of Project-Led PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanney, Roy; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2013-01-01

    For many years there has been a sharp division between project-based learning, and problem-based learning, with the former adopting a more technical rationalist approach while the latter adopts a more Socratic or dialogic approach. This article argues that current notions of project-based learning are too narrow and that combining the two…

  16. [The organizational projects management led by head nurses: qualitative study from an educational device.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Pierre-Philippe; Reverdy, Thomas; Valette, Annick; François, Patrice

    2017-09-01

    The work of operational coordination led by head nurses (HN) is more known than their abilities to change work organization, as well as, care practices. In this article, we explore organizational projects led by HN. Depending on the situations, they may concern their health care team or involve institutional hierarchy or other teams. We rely on an intervention study, which enabled us to follow 17 organizational projects led by HN for one year. The results of this study highlight as the main condition for success, the HN' efforts to enable mutual understanding with other interested actors. Managers, who engage their health care team in the development of solutions, bring sustainable results. When problems involve the hierarchy, the managers focus on the development of personal relationships. When problems involve other departments, which they depend on, then they engage themselves into integrative negotiations. These results invite to open discussion about work organization and to formalize organizational projects. This intervention study also points out that work - training at operational audit is relevant for HN. Activé par Editorial Manager® et ProduXion.

  17. Moving Parts in Imagined Spaces: Community Arts Zone's Movement Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsell, Jennifer; McQueen-Fuentes, Glenys

    2017-01-01

    Movement is relatively invisible in literacy theory and pedagogy. There has been more recent scholarship on the body and embodiment, but less on connections between movements, body and literacy. In this article, we present the Community Arts Zone movement project and ways that the study opened up spaces for creativity, experimentation, and…

  18. STEM-related, Student-led Service Learning / Community Engagement Projects: Examples and Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swap, R. J.; Wayland, K.

    2015-12-01

    Field-based, STEM-related service learning / community engagement projects present an opportunity for undergraduate students to demonstrate proficiencies related to the process of inquiry. These proficiencies include: appreciation of the larger project context, articulation of an informed question/hypothesis, project proposal development, interdisciplinary collaboration, project management (including planning, implementation reconfiguration and synthesis) and lastly the generation and handing off of acquired knowledge. Calls for these types of proficiencies have been expressed by governmental, non-governmental as well as the private sector. Accordingly, institutions of higher learning have viewed such activities as opportunities for enriching the learning experience for undergraduate students and for making such students more marketable, especially those from STEM-related fields. This institutional interest has provided an opportunity to support and expand field-based learning. Here we present examples of student-led/faculty-mentored international service learning and community engagement projects along the arc of preparation, implementation and post-field process. Representative examples that draw upon environmental science and engineering knowledge have been selected from more than 20 international undergraduate student projects over past decade and include: slow-sand water filtration, rainwater harvesting, methane biodigesters, water reticulation schemes and development and implementation of rocket stoves for communal cooking. We discuss these efforts in terms of the development of the aforementioned proficiencies, the utility of such proficiencies to the larger enterprise of STEM and the potential for transformative student learning outcomes. We share these experiences and lessons learned with the hope that others may intelligently borrow from our approach in a manner appropriate for their particular context.

  19. LED Surgical Task Lighting Scoping Study: A Hospital Energy Alliance Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    Tungsten-halogen (halogen) lamps have traditionally been used to light surgical tasks in hospitals, even though they are in many respects ill-suited to the application due to the large percentage of radiant energy outside the visible spectrum and issues with color rendering/quality. Light-emitting diode (LED) technology offers potential for adjustable color and improved color rendition/quality, while simultaneously reducing side-effects from non-visible radiant energy. It also has the potential for significant energy savings, although this is a fairly narrow application in the larger commercial building energy use sector. Based on analysis of available products and Hospital Energy Alliance member interest, it ismore » recommended that a product specification and field measurement procedure be developed for implementation in demonstration projects.« less

  20. Development of an open technology sensor suite for assisted living: a student-led research project

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Josephine A. E.; Bonner, Oliver; Amjad, Omar A.; Levdik, Vitaly; Hall, Richard D.; Baekelandt, Géraldine; Hutter, Tanya; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2016-01-01

    Many countries have a rapidly ageing population, placing strain on health services and creating a growing market for assistive technology for older people. We have, through a student-led, 12-week project for 10 students from a variety of science and engineering backgrounds, developed an integrated sensor system to enable older people, or those at risk, to live independently in their own homes for longer, while providing reassurance for their family and carers. We provide details on the design procedure and performance of our sensor system and the management and execution of a short-term, student-led research project. Detailed information on the design and use of our devices, including a door sensor, power monitor, fall detector, general in-house sensor unit and easy-to-use location-aware communications device, is given, with our open designs being contrasted with closed proprietary systems. A case study is presented for the use of our devices in a real-world context, along with a comparison with commercially available systems. We discuss how the system could lead to improvements in the quality of life of older users and increase the effectiveness of their associated care network. We reflect on how recent developments in open source technology and rapid prototyping increase the scope and potential for the development of powerful sensor systems and, finally, conclude with a student perspective on this team effort and highlight learning outcomes, arguing that open technologies will revolutionize the way in which technology will be deployed in academic research in the future. PMID:27499844

  1. Development of an open technology sensor suite for assisted living: a student-led research project.

    PubMed

    Manton, James D; Hughes, Josephine A E; Bonner, Oliver; Amjad, Omar A; Mair, Philip; Miele, Isabella; Wang, Tiesheng; Levdik, Vitaly; Hall, Richard D; Baekelandt, Géraldine; Vasconcellos, Fernando da Cruz; Hadeler, Oliver; Hutter, Tanya; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2016-08-06

    Many countries have a rapidly ageing population, placing strain on health services and creating a growing market for assistive technology for older people. We have, through a student-led, 12-week project for 10 students from a variety of science and engineering backgrounds, developed an integrated sensor system to enable older people, or those at risk, to live independently in their own homes for longer, while providing reassurance for their family and carers. We provide details on the design procedure and performance of our sensor system and the management and execution of a short-term, student-led research project. Detailed information on the design and use of our devices, including a door sensor, power monitor, fall detector, general in-house sensor unit and easy-to-use location-aware communications device, is given, with our open designs being contrasted with closed proprietary systems. A case study is presented for the use of our devices in a real-world context, along with a comparison with commercially available systems. We discuss how the system could lead to improvements in the quality of life of older users and increase the effectiveness of their associated care network. We reflect on how recent developments in open source technology and rapid prototyping increase the scope and potential for the development of powerful sensor systems and, finally, conclude with a student perspective on this team effort and highlight learning outcomes, arguing that open technologies will revolutionize the way in which technology will be deployed in academic research in the future.

  2. Project-Based Learning with an Online Peer Assessment System in a Photonics Instruction for Enhancing LED Design Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Hsuan; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Kuo, Yen-Kuang; You, Li-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a novel instructional approach, a two-stage LED simulation of Project-based learning (PBL) course with online peer assessment (OPA), and explored how to apply OPA to the different structured problems in a PBL course to enhance students' professional skills in LED design as well as meta-cognitive thinking. The participants of…

  3. 77 FR 25080 - Safety Zones; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... trestles and construction cranes involved in the construction of the TriMet Bridge on the Willamette River... project. These safety zones replace the prior safety zones established for the TriMet Bridge construction...

  4. A Simulation-Based LED Design Project in Photonics Instruction Based on Industry-University Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, S. -H.; Chen, M. -L.; Kuo, Y. -K.; Shen, Y. -C.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing industrial demand for light-emitting diode (LED) design professionals, based on industry-university collaboration in Taiwan, this paper develops a novel instructional approach: a simulation-based learning course with peer assessment to develop students' professional skills in LED design as required by industry as well as…

  5. Evaluation of a Peer-Led Drug Abuse Risk Reduction Project for Runaway/Homeless Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fors, Stuart W.; Jarvis, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the Drug Prevention in Youth risk reduction program that was implemented in shelters for runaway/homeless youths in the southeastern United States. An evaluation strategy was developed allowing for comparisons between peer-led, adult-led and nonintervention groups. Well-trained and motivated peer/near-peer leaders made particularly…

  6. 15 CFR 400.26 - Application for expansion or other modification to zone project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., including those for minor revisions of zone boundaries, grant of authority transfers, or time extensions... modification to zone project. 400.26 Section 400.26 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE...

  7. Climate-based seed zones for Mexico: guiding reforestation under observed and projected climate change

    Treesearch

    Dante Castellanos-Acuña; Kenneth W. Vance-Borland; J. Bradley St. Clair; Andreas Hamann; Javier López-Upton; Erika Gómez-Pineda; Juan Manuel Ortega-Rodríguez; Cuauhtémoc Sáenz-Romero

    2018-01-01

    Seed zones for forest tree species are a widely used tool in reforestation programs to ensure that seedlings are well adapted to their planting environments. Here, we propose a climate-based seed zone system for Mexico to address observed and projected climate change. The proposed seed zone classification is based on bands of climate variables often related to genetic...

  8. 76 FR 78157 - Safety Zone; Eisenhower Expressway Bridge Rehabilitation Project; Chicago River South Branch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Eisenhower Expressway Bridge Rehabilitation Project; Chicago River South Branch... the Eisenhower Expressway Bridge. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding... Bridge. Entry into this zone is prohibited unless specifically authorized by the Captain of the Port...

  9. Using historical crash data as part of traffic work zone safety planning and project management strategies.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    This funding enabled the project entitled, USING HISTORICAL CRASH DATA AS PART OF TRAFFIC WORK ZONE SAFETY : PLANNING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES to address the following: : Evaluate current organizational strategies with respect to w...

  10. Beginning an action research project to investigate the feasibility of a midwife-led normal birthing unit in China.

    PubMed

    Mander, Rosemary; Cheung, Ngai Fen; Wang, Xiaoli; Fu, Wei; Zhu, Junghong

    2010-02-01

    To explore issues arising during preliminary stages of a research project in order to consider the feasibility of a midwife-led normal birthing unit in mainland China. Midwife-led normal birthing units, as a route to ensuring normality, have become a feature of western maternity care, but are unknown in China. Action research, using a qualitative descriptive approach, was performed. Data were collected at meetings, by non-participant observation and by face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Observation was undertaken in the midwife-led normal birthing unit and a standard care setting. Data analysis was by thematic analysis using constant comparison techniques. In the labour ward of a large general hospital in a major city, stakeholders included midwifery staff, managers, university staff and researchers. Childbearing women proved keen to use this service, but were unable to participate in the planning. The midwife-led normal birthing unit sought to provide one-to-one care in labour and support by a birth companion. Routine interventions were to be avoided. The midwives in the midwife-led normal birthing unit created a more suitable environment for supportive care. The midwives demonstrated high-quality communication skills. The woman's choice of position/mobility was limited. Difficulties with staffing were identified. The preliminary findings suggest that continuation of the project is feasible. The woman's role demonstrates passivity. The perception of staff shortage has serious implications. This action research project suggests that a study of a midwife-led normal birthing unit in China is feasible, with some attention to staffing issues.

  11. Students in Possession of the Issues of Tomorrow: An Innovative Student-Led Course Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almlov, Maria; Moberg, Emilie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an educational experiment, a student-led course called "Learning in Sustainable Development" offered at the teacher training programme at Stockholm University, Sweden. Its purpose was to foster empowerment and action competence among teacher-students in the field of education for sustainable development (ESD). The…

  12. Frontiers of Crystallography: A Project-Based Research-Led Learning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Chick C.; Parkin, Andrew; Thomas, Lynne H.

    2012-01-01

    A highly interactive research-led learning session for chemistry undergraduates is described, which aims to lead students to an awareness of the applications of crystallography technique through a mentored hands-on crystal structure solution and refinement session. The research-based environment is inherent throughout the 4.5 h program and is…

  13. Developing a Zone of Relevance: Emergent Bilinguals' Use of Social, Linguistic, and Cognitive Support in Peer-Led Literacy Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Beltrán, Melinda; Daniel, Shannon; Peercy, Megan; Silverman, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how emergent bilinguals discursively support one another during literacy activities in a cross-aged peer-tutoring program in their elementary school. Drawing from Vygotskian sociocultural theory, we frame peer supports as developing a zone of relevance that fosters and sustains peer engagement in literacy discussions.…

  14. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0767] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast.... 165.T01-0767 Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA. (a...

  15. 76 FR 53054 - Safety Zone; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the TriMet Bridge on the Willamette River, in Portland, OR. This action is necessary to ensure the... Zone: TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR in the Federal Register (76 FR 86). We...

  16. Development of the RGB LEDs color mixing mechanism for stability the color temperature at different projection distances.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height. Thus, the effect of change in the color temperature on color determination by the humans' eyes was avoided. The success of the proposed method will allow medical personnel to choose suitable wavelengths and color temperatures according to the particular requirements of their medical-examination environments.

  17. Linking Weathering, Rock Moisture Dynamics, Geochemistry, Runoff, Vegetation and Atmospheric Processes through the Critical Zone: Graduate Student led Research at the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    In the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory lies Rivendell, a heavily-instrumented steep forested hillslope underlain by nearly vertically dipping argillite interbedded with sandstone. Under this convex hillslope lies "Zb", the transition to fresh bedrock, which varies from less than 6 m below the surface near the channel to 20 m at the divide. Rempe and Dietrich (2014, PNAS) show that the Zb profile can be predicted from the assumption that weathering occurs when drainage is induced in the uplifting fresh bedrock under hillslopes by lateral head gradients driven by channel incision at the hillslope boundary. Infiltrating winter precipitation is impeded at the lower conductivity boundary at Zb, generating perched groundwater that dynamically pulses water laterally to the channel, controlling stream runoff. Below the soil and above the water table lies an unsaturated zone through which all recharge to the perched groundwater (and thus all runoff to channels) occurs. It is this zone and the waters in them that profoundly affect critical zone processes. In our seasonally dry environment, the first rains penetrate past the soil and moisten the underlying weathered bedrock (Salve et al., 2012, WRR). It takes about 200 to 400 mm of cumulative rain, however, before the underlying groundwater rises significantly. Oshun et al (in review) show that by this cumulative rainfall the average of the wide-ranging isotopic signature of rain reaches a nearly constant average annual value. Consequently, the recharging perched groundwater shows only minor temporal isotopic variation. Kim et al, (2014, GCA) find that the winter high-flow groundwater chemistry is controlled by relatively fast-reacting cation exchange processes, likely occurring in transit in the unsaturated zone. Oshun also demonstrates that the Douglas fir rely on this rock moisture as a water source, while the broadleaf trees (oaks and madrone) use mostly soil moisture. Link et al (2014 WRR) show that Doug fir declines

  18. Evaluation of a peer-led drug abuse risk reduction project for runaway/homeless youths.

    PubMed

    Fors, S W; Jarvis, S

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Drug Prevention in Youth risk reduction program that was implemented in shelters for runaway/homeless youths in the Southeastern United States. The program focuses on knowledge, attitudes and skills that can help this group of high risk young people minimize the serious negative consequences of drug abuse. An evaluation strategy was developed so comparisons could be made between peer-led, adult-led and non-intervention groups. Dependent samples t tests and least squares ANCOVAS were used to measure pretest-posttest differences both within and between groups. Results indicate that the peer-led groups were more successful than the other two groups, and that program effects were the most powerful with the youngest group of shelter clients. Process evaluation revealed important factors related to group leader training and group management. It is concluded that well-trained and motivated peer/near peer leaders have particularly valuable contributions to make with regard to drug abuse risk reduction for shelter clients.

  19. A case study of autonomy and motivation in a student-led game development project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigmore, M.; Taylor, R.; De Luca, D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory case study into the relationship between student autonomy and motivation in project based learning, using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to frame the investigation. The case study explores how different forms of motivation affect the students' response to challenges and their intention to complete the project. Earlier studies have made little explicit use of theoretical perspectives on student autonomy and motivation, a weakness this study attempts to address. As an exploratory case study seeking to evaluate the suitability of a particular theoretical framework, we chose a small case: three students on a one-term computer games development project. Given the small scale, the approach is necessarily qualitative, drawing on project documentation and one-to-one interviews with the students. Our conclusion is that the concepts of SDT provide a useful framework for analysing students' motivations to undertake project work, and its predictions can offer useful guidance on how to initiate and supervise such projects.

  20. Frequency of work zone accidents on construction projects : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-08-01

    The overall objective of this research was to study work zone accidents in New York State, with particular attention to the : occurrence and mitigation of rear-end vehicle accidents. The specific objectives were to: : - Recommend changes to the NYSDO...

  1. Applied Linguistics Project: Student-Led Computer Assisted Research in High School EAL/EAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohát, Róbert; Rödlingová, Beata; Horáková, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The Applied Linguistics Project (ALP) started at the International School of Prague (ISP) in 2013. Every year, Grade 9 English as an Additional Language (EAL) students identify an area of learning in need of improvement and design a research method followed by data collection and analysis using basic computer software tools or online corpora.…

  2. Student-Teachers' Dialectically Developed Motivation for Promoting Student-Led Science Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Bowen, G. Michael

    2009-01-01

    School science systems tend to emphasize teaching and learning about achievements of science (such as laws and theories) at the expense of providing students with opportunities to develop realistic conceptions about science and science inquiry and expertise they could use to conduct their own science inquiry projects. Among reasons for such an…

  3. Teachers' Tendencies to Promote Student-Led Science Projects: Associations with Their Views about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Bowen, G. Michael; Alsop, Steve

    2006-01-01

    School science students can benefit greatly from participation in student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects. For various possible reasons, however, students tend not to be engaged in such inquiries. Among factors that may limit their opportunities to engage in open-ended inquiries of their design are teachers' conceptions about…

  4. NREL-Led Efforts Help Bring Financing to Solar Projects - Continuum

    Science.gov Websites

    public investment in solar power? "There's a large pool of money that does not invest in renewable Michael Mendelsohn. To help connect that pool of money with the solar projects that need low-cost

  5. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  6. A Case Study on Project Led Education in Engineering: Students' and Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Rui M.; Carvalho, Dinis; Flores, Maria Assuncao; Van Hattum-Janssen, Natascha

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which students and teachers are able to acknowledge the strengths and weaknesses of a shift in the approach to teaching and learning from a traditional, teacher-centred perspective towards project- and learner-centred education. It reports on a case study aimed at exploring students' and teachers' perceptions of a…

  7. A Case Study of Autonomy and Motivation in a Student-Led Game Development Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigmore, M.; Taylor, R.; De Luca, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory case study into the relationship between student autonomy and motivation in project based learning, using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to frame the investigation. The case study explores how different forms of motivation affect the students' response to challenges and their intention to…

  8. Transition, Inclusion and Partnership: Child-, Parent- and Professional-Led Approaches in a European Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John M.; Ravenscroft, John; Bizas, Nik

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises qualitative and quantitative findings from the Facilitating Inclusive Education and Supporting the Transition Agenda (FIESTA) project that carried out a survey of professionals and focus groups/interviews with parents and children to understand the context of transition, inclusion and collaborative working. The paper contrasts…

  9. Teachers' tendencies to promote student-led science projects: Associations with their views about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Bowen, G. Michael; Alsop, Steve

    2006-05-01

    School science students can benefit greatly from participation in student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects. For various possible reasons, however, students tend not to be engaged in such inquiries. Among factors that may limit their opportunities to engage in open-ended inquiries of their design are teachers' conceptions about science. To explore possible relationships between teachers' conceptions about science and the types of inquiry activities in which they engage students, instrumental case studies of five secondary science teachers were developed, using field notes, repertory grids, samples of lesson plans and student activities, and semistructured interviews. Based on constructivist grounded theory analysis, participating teachers' tendencies to promote student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects seemed to correspond with positions about the nature of science to which they indicated adherence. A tendency to encourage and enable students to carry out student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects appeared to be associated with adherence to social constructivist views about science. Teachers who opposed social constructivist views tended to prefer tight control of student knowledge building procedures and conclusions. We suggest that these results can be explained with reference to human psychological factors, including those associated with teachers' self-esteem and their relationships with knowledge-building processes in the discipline of their teaching.

  10. Confronting structural violence in sex work: lessons from a community-led HIV prevention project in Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Argento, Elena; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Robert; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M; Fathima, Mary; Sreeram, S V; Hafeezur, Rahman Syed; O'Neil, John

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from community-led HIV prevention projects suggests that structural interventions may result in reduced rates of HIV and STIs. The complex relationship between empowerment and confronting stigma, discrimination and physical abuse necessitates further investigation into the impact that such interventions have on the personal risks for sex workers. This article aims to describe lived experiences of members from a sex worker's collective in Mysore, India and how they have confronted structural violence. The narratives highlight experiences of violence and the development and implementation of strategies that have altered the social, physical, and emotional environment for sex workers. Building an enabling environment was key to reducing personal risks inherent to sex work, emphasizing the importance of community-led structural interventions for sex workers in India.

  11. 77 FR 63732 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard... from a portion of the Indiana Harbor Canal due to the Demolition Project on the Cline Avenue Bridge... vessels from the hazards associated with the demolition project on the Cline Avenue bridge, which are...

  12. 77 FR 65818 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard... from a portion of the Indiana Harbor Canal due to the Demolition Project on the Cline Avenue Bridge... demolition project on the Cline Avenue Bridge, which are discussed further below. Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3...

  13. 77 FR 72957 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard... from a portion of the Indiana Harbor Canal due to the demolition Project on the Cline Avenue Bridge... associated with the demolition project on the Cline Avenue bridge, which are discussed further below. Under 5...

  14. [Topical problems of sanitary and epidemiologic examination concerning projects of sanitary protection zones in airports].

    PubMed

    Isayeva, A M; Zibaryov, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on major errors in sanitary protection zones specification for civil airports, revealed through sanitary epidemiologic examination. The authors focus attention on necessity to develop unified methodic approach to evaluation of aviation noise effects, when justifying sanitary protection zone of airports and examining sanitary and epidemiologic project documents.

  15. 76 FR 25278 - Safety Zone; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... safety zone during the construction of the TriMet Bridge on the Willamette River, in Portland, OR. This..., will be starting construction of the new Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Bridge on July 1, 2011 (with in...

  16. 77 FR 15009 - Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zones to remain in effect throughout the duration of the construction and renewal of the Sellwood Bridge... safe distance from the construction area while transiting in the vicinity of the Sellwood Bridge...

  17. A Clinical Nurse Specialist-Led Interprofessional Quality Improvement Project to Reduce Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Fabbruzzo-Cota, Christina; Frecea, Monica; Kozell, Kathryn; Pere, Katalin; Thompson, Tamara; Tjan Thomas, Julie; Wong, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical nurse specialist-led interprofessional quality improvement project was to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) using evidence-based practice. Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (PUs) have been linked to morbidity, poor quality of life, and increasing costs. Pressure ulcer prevention and management remain a challenge for interprofessional teams in acute care settings. Hospital-acquired PU rate is a critical nursing quality indicator for healthcare organizations and ties directly with Mount Sinai Hospital's (MSH's) mission and vision, which mandates providing the highest quality care to patients and families. This quality improvement project, guided by the Donabedian model, was based on the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario Best Practice Guideline Risk Assessment & Prevention of Pressure Ulcers. A working group was established to promote evidence-based practice for PU prevention. Initiatives such as documentation standardization, development of staff education and patient and family educational resources, initiation of a hospital-wide inventory for support surfaces, and procurement of equipment were implemented to improve PU prevention and management across the organization. An 80% decrease in HAPUs has been achieved since the implementation of best practices by the Best Practice Guideline Pressure Ulcer working group. The implementation of PU prevention strategies led to a reduction in HAPU rates. The working group will continue to work on building interprofessional awareness and collaboration in order to prevent HAPUs and promote an organizational culture that supports staff development, teamwork and communication. This quality improvement project is a successful example of an interprofessional clinical nurse specialist-led initiative that impacts patient/family and organization outcomes through the identification and implementation of evidence-based nursing practice.

  18. Mobile Phone Diabetes Project Led To Improved Glycemic Control And Net Savings For Chicago Plan Participants

    PubMed Central

    Nundy, Shantanu; Dick, Jonathan J.; Chou, Chia-Hung; Nocon, Robert S.; Chin, Marshall H.; Peek, Monica E.

    2014-01-01

    Even with the best health care available, patients with chronic illnesses typically spend no more than a few hours a year in a health care setting, while their outcomes are largely determined by their activities during the remaining 5,000 waking hours of the year. As a widely available, low-cost technology, mobile phones are a promising tool to use in engaging patients in behavior change and facilitating self-care between visits. We examined the impact of a six-month mobile health (mHealth) demonstration project among adults with diabetes who belonged to an academic medical center’s employee health plan. In addition to pre-post improvements in glycemic control (p = 0.01) and patients’ satisfaction with overall care (p = 0.04), we observed a net cost savings of 8.8 percent. Those early results suggest that mHealth programs can support health care organizations’ pursuit of the triple aim of improving patients’ experiences with care, improving population health, and reducing the per capita cost of health care. PMID:24493770

  19. Nurse-led action research project for expanding nurses' role in patient education in Iran: Process, structure, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Parvaneh; Rassouli, Maryam; Parvizy, Soroor; Zagheri-Tafreshi, Mansoureh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Patient education is among the lowest met need of patients in Iran; therefore, expansion of that role can result in greater professional accountability. This study aimed to explain the practical science of the process, structure, and outcomes of a nurse-led action research project to expand the nurses' role in patient education in Iran. This study was part of a participatory action research. Daily communications and monthly joint meetings were held from January 2012 to February 2014 for planning and management. These were based on the research protocol, and the conceptual framework included the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships process by means of Leadership for Change skills. Data were produced and gathered through participant observations. Administrative data included project records, official documents, artifacts, news, and reports, which were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. A participatory project was established with three groups of participants organized from both academic and clinical fields. These consisted of a "core research support team," "two steering committees," and community representatives of clients and professionals as "feedback groups." A seven-stage process, named the "Nurse Educators: Al-Zahra Role Expansion Action Research" (NEAREAR) process, resulted from the project, in which strategic issues were gradually developed and implemented through 32 action plans and quality improvement cycles of action research. Audits and supervision evaluations showed meaningful changes in capacity building components. A nurse-led ad hoc structure with academic-clinical partnerships and strategic management process was suggested as a possible practical model for expanding nurses' educational role in similar contexts. Implications and practical science introduced in this action research could also be applicable for top managers and health system policy makers in a wider range of practice.

  20. Nurse-led action research project for expanding nurses’ role in patient education in Iran: Process, structure, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Parvaneh; Rassouli, Maryam; Parvizy, Soroor; Zagheri-Tafreshi, Mansoureh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient education is among the lowest met need of patients in Iran; therefore, expansion of that role can result in greater professional accountability. This study aimed to explain the practical science of the process, structure, and outcomes of a nurse-led action research project to expand the nurses’ role in patient education in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was part of a participatory action research. Daily communications and monthly joint meetings were held from January 2012 to February 2014 for planning and management. These were based on the research protocol, and the conceptual framework included the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships process by means of Leadership for Change skills. Data were produced and gathered through participant observations. Administrative data included project records, official documents, artifacts, news, and reports, which were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Results: A participatory project was established with three groups of participants organized from both academic and clinical fields. These consisted of a “core research support team,” “two steering committees,” and community representatives of clients and professionals as “feedback groups.” A seven-stage process, named the “Nurse Educators: Al-Zahra Role Expansion Action Research” (NEAREAR) process, resulted from the project, in which strategic issues were gradually developed and implemented through 32 action plans and quality improvement cycles of action research. Audits and supervision evaluations showed meaningful changes in capacity building components. Conclusions: A nurse-led ad hoc structure with academic–clinical partnerships and strategic management process was suggested as a possible practical model for expanding nurses’ educational role in similar contexts. Implications and practical science introduced in this action research could also be applicable for top managers and health system

  1. 75 FR 59078 - Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0806] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... District USACE Web site: http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/projects/me/bassharbor/bassharbor.htm . No...

  2. 77 FR 70684 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard... from a portion of the Indiana Harbor Canal due to the demolition Project on the Cline Avenue Bridge... bridge, which are discussed further below. Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3), the Coast Guard finds that good...

  3. 78 FR 2616 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard... from a portion of the Indiana Harbor Canal due to the demolition Project on the Cline Avenue Bridge... Bridge, which are discussed further below. Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3), the Coast Guard finds that good...

  4. 77 FR 38723 - Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... effect throughout the duration of the construction and renewal of the Sellwood Bridge located on the... the construction area while transiting in the vicinity of the Sellwood Bridge project; however, the...

  5. 77 FR 14970 - Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... effect throughout the duration of the construction and renewal of the Sellwood Bridge on the Willamette... construction area while transiting in the vicinity of the Sellwood Bridge project; however, the establishment...

  6. Estimates of projection overlap and zones of convergence within frontal-striatal circuits.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, Bruno B; Lehman, Julia; Jacobson, Moriah; Haber, Suzanne N

    2014-07-16

    Frontal-striatal circuits underlie important decision processes, and pathology in these circuits is implicated in many psychiatric disorders. Studies have shown a topographic organization of cortical projections into the striatum. However, work has also shown that there is considerable overlap in the striatal projection zones of nearby cortical regions. To characterize this in detail, we quantified the complete striatal projection zones from 34 cortical injection locations in rhesus monkeys. We first fit a statistical model that showed that the projection zone of a cortical injection site could be predicted with considerable accuracy using a cross-validated model estimated on only the other injection sites. We then examined the fraction of overlap in striatal projection zones as a function of distance between cortical injection sites, and found that there was a highly regular relationship. Specifically, nearby cortical locations had as much as 80% overlap, and the amount of overlap decayed exponentially as a function of distance between the cortical injection sites. Finally, we found that some portions of the striatum received inputs from all the prefrontal regions, making these striatal zones candidates as information-processing hubs. Thus, the striatum is a site of convergence that allows integration of information spread across diverse prefrontal cortical areas. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/339497-09$15.00/0.

  7. Three-dimensional imaging from a unidirectional hologram: wide-viewing-zone projection type.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, T; Oshima, K

    1976-04-01

    In ordinary holography reconstructing a virtual image, the hologram must be wider than either the visual field or the viewing zone. In this paper, an economical method of recording a wide-viewing-zone wide-visual-field 3-D holographic image is proposed. In this method, many mirrors are used to collect object waves onto a small hologram. In the reconstruction, a real image from the hologram is projected onto a horizontally direction-selective stereoscreen through the same mirrors. In the experiment, satisfactory 3-D images have been observed from a wide viewing zone. The optimum design and information reduction techniques are also discussed.

  8. The effect of a resident-led quality improvement project on improving communication between hospital-based and outpatient physicians.

    PubMed

    Kalanithi, Lucy; Coffey, Charles E; Mourad, Michelle; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Hollander, Harry; Ranji, Sumant R

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a resident-led quality improvement program to improve communication between inpatient internal medicine residents and their patients' primary care physicians (PCPs). The program included education on care transitions, standardization of documentation, audit and feedback of documented PCP communication rates with public reporting of performance, rapid-cycle data analysis and improvement projects, and a financial incentive. At baseline, PCP communication was documented in 55% of patients; after implementation of the intervention, communication was documented in 89.3% (2477 of 2772) of discharges during the program period. The program was associated with a significant increase in referring PCP satisfaction with communication at hospital admission (baseline, 27.7% "satisfied" or "very satisfied"; postintervention, 58.2%; P < .01) but not at discharge (baseline, 14.9%; postintervention, 21.8%; P = .41). Residents cited the importance of PCP communication for patient care and audit and feedback of their performance as the principal drivers of their engagement in the project.

  9. A Survey of Food Projects in the English NHS Regions and Health Action Zones in 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraher, Martin; Cowburn, Gill

    2004-01-01

    Background and Objective: This article sets out the findings from an analysis of food projects, with a particular emphasis on fruit and vegetables, from the 26 Health Action Zones (HAZs) in England and those taking place within the former NHS regional areas in 2001. The objective was to gather information on the existing practice to inform future…

  10. The Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP) - building the STEM workforce by providing exciting, multi-disciplinary, student-led suborbital flight projects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingwall, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) recognizes that suborbital carriers play a vital role in training our country's future science and technology leaders. SMD created the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP) to offer students the opportunity to design, build, and fly instruments on NASA's unique suborbital research platforms. This paper explores the projects, the impact, and the lessons learned of USIP. USIP required undergraduate teams to design, build, and fly a scientific instrument in 18 months or less. Students were required to form collaborative multidisciplinary teams to design, develop and build their instrument. Teams quickly learned that success required skills often overlooked in an academic environment. Teams quickly learned to share technical information in a clear and concise manner that could be understood by other disciplines. The aggressive schedule required team members to hold each other accountable for progress while maintaining team unity. Unanticipated problems and technical issues led students to a deeper understanding of the need for schedule and cost reserves. Students exited the program with a far deeper understanding of project management and team dynamics. Through the process of designing and building an instrument that will enable new research transforms students from textbook learners to developers of new knowledge. The initial USIP project funded 10 undergraduate teams that flew a broad range of scientific instruments on scientific balloons, sounding rockets, commercial rockets and aircraft. Students were required to prepare for and conduct the major reviews that are an integral part of systems development. Each project conducted a Preliminary Design Review, Critical Design Review and Mission Readiness review for NASA officials and flight platform providers. By preparing and presenting their designs to technical experts, the students developed a deeper understanding of the technical and programmatic project pieces that

  11. Viewing zone duplication of multi-projection 3D display system using uniaxial crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Park, Soon-Gi; Moon, Seokil; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    We propose a novel multiplexing technique for increasing the viewing zone of a multi-view based multi-projection 3D display system by employing double refraction in uniaxial crystal. When linearly polarized images from projector pass through the uniaxial crystal, two possible optical paths exist according to the polarization states of image. Therefore, the optical paths of the image could be changed, and the viewing zone is shifted in a lateral direction. The polarization modulation of the image from a single projection unit enables us to generate two viewing zones at different positions. For realizing full-color images at each viewing zone, a polarization-based temporal multiplexing technique is adopted with a conventional polarization switching device of liquid crystal (LC) display. Through experiments, a prototype of a ten-view multi-projection 3D display system presenting full-colored view images is implemented by combining five laser scanning projectors, an optically clear calcite (CaCO3) crystal, and an LC polarization rotator. For each time sequence of temporal multiplexing, the luminance distribution of the proposed system is measured and analyzed.

  12. 77 FR 64718 - Safety Zone; Steam Ship Col. James M. Schoonmaker Relocation Project, Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0939] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Steam Ship Col. James M. Schoonmaker Relocation Project, Maumee River, Toledo, OH...-0939 as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0939 Safety Zone; Steam Ship Col. James M. Schoonmaker relocation project...

  13. Engaging Key Stakeholders in Climate Change: A Community-Based Project for Youth-Led Participatory Climate Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Carlie D.

    Few studies have examined how youth think about, and take action on climate change and far fewer have sought to facilitate their engagement using participatory methods. This dissertation evaluated the impacts of Science, Camera, Action! (SCA), a novel after-school program that combined climate change education with participatory action through photovoice. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) Evaluate the impacts of SCA on youth participants' climate change knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; (2) Examine how SCA participation served to empower youth agency; and (3) Explore SCA's influence on youths' science engagement. Participants were 55 youths (ages 10 to 12) across three Boys and Girls Club sites in Northern Colorado. SCA's Science component used interactive activities to demonstrate the interrelationships between Earth's changing climate, ecosystems, and sustainable actions within communities. Photovoice, SCA's Camera component, was used to explore youths' climate change perspectives and to identify opportunities for their active engagement. Finally, SCA's Action component aimed to cultivate youth potential as agents of change in their families and communities through the development and implementation of youth-led action projects. Action projects included local policy advocacy, a tree-planting campaign, a photo gallery opening, development of a website, and the establishment of a Boys and Girls Club community garden. To evaluate SCA impacts, a combination of survey and focus group methods were used. Following the program, youth demonstrated increased knowledge of the scientific and social dimensions of the causes and consequences of climate change, as well as its solutions through human action. Though participants expressed a mix of positive (e.g., hope) and negative (e.g., sadness) emotions about climate change, they left the program with an increased sense of respect for nature, an enhanced sense of environmental responsibility, and a greater sense

  14. Analysis of projected climate change in the Carpathian Basin region based on Holdridge life zone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Sümegi, Pál

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays more and more environmental lobbyists believe that climate change must be demonstrated in a new form. The estimated temperature increase can be realized more easily, if the emphasis is on ecological effects of the predicted temperature. For this reason a bioclimatic classification method was used to analyse the projected changes for the Carpathian Basin region. We applied the Holdridge life zone system, which is relatively simple, so our results can be used to inform the population. Holdridge developed a geometric model for climate classification which declares the relationship between classes (life zones) and climate indices (mean annual biotemperature, average total annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration ratio). The necessary data for this study was derived from regional climate model (RCM) experiments of the ENSEMBLES project using the SRES A1B emission scenario. The temperature and precipitation data series were bias corrected for the selected RCM simulations. The target area of our investigations is the Carpathian Basin region. Life zones maps were created using the selected RCM simulations and their ensemble mean for the periods: 1961-1990 (T1), 2021-2050 (T2), 2061-2090 (T3). The spatial distribution of life zones and their temporal changes were investigated. According to our results the spatial pattern of life zones changes significantly from T1 to T3. It is possible that some types of life zones (e.g. boreal rain forest) will disappear; and some types (e.g. warm temperate thorn steppe) will appear in the target area. We determined those RCM simulations which predicted the maximum and minimum changes of the spatial pattern of life zones. Maps of T1 were compared to maps of T3 using Cohen's Kappa coefficient. Furthermore, relative extents, vertical distribution patterns and mean centres of life zones have been analysed. These parameters were defined for each decade and also for T1, T2 and T3. The temporal changes of the decadal values

  15. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, Stephen; Younker, Leland; Zobeck, Mark; Cooper, George; ,

    1994-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through an integrated program of coring, fluid sampling, in-situ and laboratory experimentation and long-term monitoring, we hope to provide fundamental constraints on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300??C; 2) continuous coring of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6 and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of seismicity and a broad range of physical and chemical properties over periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the regions of greatest scientific interest.

  16. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, we hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300°C; 2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

  17. A Hybrid Integrated Laboratory and Inquiry-Based Research Experience: Replacing Traditional Laboratory Instruction with a Sustainable Student-Led Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartings, Matthew R.; Fox, Douglas M.; Miller, Abigail E.; Muratore, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Chemistry at American University has replaced its junior- and senior-level laboratory curriculum with two, two-semester long, student-led research projects as part of the department's American Chemical Society-accredited program. In the first semester of each sequence, a faculty instructor leads the students through a set of…

  18. New gravity map of the western Galicia margin: The Spanish exclusive economic zone project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbó, A.; Muñoz, A.; Druet, M.; Llanes, P.; Álvarez, J.

    2004-12-01

    Since 1995, the most intensive mapping of the seafloor off the Spanish coast has been carried out in the framework of the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone Project (ZEEE). The main objectives of this project are to obtain improved multibeam bathymetric cartography of the areas off Spanish coastlines, and to perform a geophysical survey, well-suited with a 10-knot navigation velocity (some techniques requires lower navigation velocity). The geophysical survey includes gravity, geomagnetism, and low-penetration seismic techniques in order to infer the geological structure of the seafloor. Other oceanographic variables such as current, surface salinity, and temperature profiles, can be recorded without compromising this systematic survey effort.

  19. V1 projection zone signals in human macular degeneration depend on task, not stimulus.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yoichiro; Dumoulin, Serge O; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Wandell, Brian A

    2008-11-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess abnormal cortical signals in humans with juvenile macular degeneration (JMD). These signals have been interpreted as indicating large-scale cortical reorganization. Subjects viewed a stimulus passively or performed a task; the task was either related or unrelated to the stimulus. During passive viewing, or while performing tasks unrelated to the stimulus, there were large unresponsive V1 regions. These regions included the foveal projection zone, and we refer to them as the lesion projection zone (LPZ). In 3 JMD subjects, we observed highly significant responses in the LPZ while they performed stimulus-related judgments. In control subjects, where we presented the stimulus only within the peripheral visual field, there was no V1 response in the foveal projection zone in any condition. The difference between JMD and control responses can be explained by hypotheses that have very different implications for V1 reorganization. In controls retinal afferents carry signals indicating the presence of a uniform (zero-contrast) region of the visual field. Deletion of retinal input may 1) spur the formation of new cortical pathways that carry task-dependent signals (reorganization), or 2) unmask preexisting task-dependent cortical signals that ordinarily are suppressed by the deleted signals (no reorganization).

  20. V1 Projection Zone Signals in Human Macular Degeneration Depend on Task, not Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Dumoulin, Serge O.; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Wandell, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess abnormal cortical signals in humans with juvenile macular degeneration (JMD). These signals have been interpreted as indicating large-scale cortical reorganization. Subjects viewed a stimulus passively or performed a task; the task was either related or unrelated to the stimulus. During passive viewing, or while performing tasks unrelated to the stimulus, there were large unresponsive V1 regions. These regions included the foveal projection zone, and we refer to them as the lesion projection zone (LPZ). In 3 JMD subjects, we observed highly significant responses in the LPZ while they performed stimulus-related judgments. In control subjects, where we presented the stimulus only within the peripheral visual field, there was no V1 response in the foveal projection zone in any condition. The difference between JMD and control responses can be explained by hypotheses that have very different implications for V1 reorganization. In controls retinal afferents carry signals indicating the presence of a uniform (zero-contrast) region of the visual field. Deletion of retinal input may 1) spur the formation of new cortical pathways that carry task-dependent signals (reorganization), or 2) unmask preexisting task-dependent cortical signals that ordinarily are suppressed by the deleted signals (no reorganization). PMID:18250083

  1. Final Project Report: Imaging Fault Zones Using a Novel Elastic Reverse-Time Migration Imaging Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Chen, Ting; Tan, Sirui

    Imaging fault zones and fractures is crucial for geothermal operators, providing important information for reservoir evaluation and management strategies. However, there are no existing techniques available for directly and clearly imaging fault zones, particularly for steeply dipping faults and fracture zones. In this project, we developed novel acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion methods for high-resolution velocity model building. In addition, we developed acoustic and elastic reverse-time migration methods for high-resolution subsurface imaging of complex subsurface structures and steeply-dipping fault/fracture zones. We first evaluated and verified the improved capabilities of our newly developed seismic inversion and migration imaging methods using synthetic seismicmore » data. Our numerical tests verified that our new methods directly image subsurface fracture/fault zones using surface seismic reflection data. We then applied our novel seismic inversion and migration imaging methods to a field 3D surface seismic dataset acquired at the Soda Lake geothermal field using Vibroseis sources. Our migration images of the Soda Lake geothermal field obtained using our seismic inversion and migration imaging algorithms revealed several possible fault/fracture zones. AltaRock Energy, Inc. is working with Cyrq Energy, Inc. to refine the geologic interpretation at the Soda Lake geothermal field. Trenton Cladouhos, Senior Vice President R&D of AltaRock, was very interested in our imaging results of 3D surface seismic data from the Soda Lake geothermal field. He planed to perform detailed interpretation of our images in collaboration with James Faulds and Holly McLachlan of University of Nevada at Reno. Using our high-resolution seismic inversion and migration imaging results can help determine the optimal locations to drill wells for geothermal energy production and reduce the risk of geothermal exploration.« less

  2. An Opportunity to Lead Sustainably: The Benefits and Considerations of Student-Led Green Revolving Fund Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kononenko, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, energy- and resource-reduction projects have compelled student leaders to create sustainability projects on campuses across the country. This paper examines the role that students play in green revolving funds, including identification, approval, and management. After speaking with numerous students on a variety of campuses, it is…

  3. 77 FR 59551 - Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0767] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor... original provisions of that temporary final rule, but adds two additional safety zones necessary for the...

  4. CMIP5 ensemble-based spatial rainfall projection over homogeneous zones of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Javed; Das, Lalu; Deb, Argha

    2017-09-01

    Performances of the state-of-the-art CMIP5 models in reproducing the spatial rainfall patterns over seven homogeneous rainfall zones of India viz. North Mountainous India (NMI), Northwest India (NWI), North Central India (NCI), Northeast India (NEI), West Peninsular India (WPI), East Peninsular India (EPI) and South Peninsular India (SPI) have been assessed using different conventional performance metrics namely spatial correlation (R), index of agreement (d-index), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Ratio of RMSE to the standard deviation of the observations (RSR) and mean bias (MB). The results based on these indices revealed that majority of the models are unable to reproduce finer-scaled spatial patterns over most of the zones. Thereafter, four bias correction methods i.e. Scaling, Standardized Reconstruction, Empirical Quantile Mapping and Gamma Quantile Mapping have been applied on GCM simulations to enhance the skills of the GCM projections. It has been found that scaling method compared to other three methods shown its better skill in capturing mean spatial patterns. Multi-model ensemble (MME) comprising 25 numbers of better performing bias corrected (Scaled) GCMs, have been considered for developing future rainfall patterns over seven zones. Models' spread from ensemble mean (uncertainty) has been found to be larger in RCP 8.5 than RCP4.5 ensemble. In general, future rainfall projections from RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 revealed an increasing rainfall over seven zones during 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. The maximum increase has been found over southwestern part of NWI (12-30%), northwestern part of WPI (3-30%), southeastern part of NEI (5-18%) and northern and eastern part of SPI (6-24%). However, the contiguous region comprising by the southeastern part of NCI and northeastern part of EPI, may experience slight decreasing rainfall (about 3%) during 2020s whereas the western part of NMI may also receive around 3% reduction in rainfall during both 2050s and 2080s.

  5. Strengthening the STEM Education & Workforce Pipeline: Insights from the BHEF U.S. STEM Education Model Led to the STEM Higher Education and Workforce Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Business-Higher Education Forum ,Washington,DC,20036 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...Strengthening the STEM Education & Workforce Pipeline: Insights from the BHEF U.S. STEM Education Model Led to the STEM Higher Education and...Workforce Project Naval STEM Forum June 15, 2011 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of

  6. LED lamp

    DOEpatents

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  7. Seismic Reflection Transect across the Central Iberian Zone (Iberian Massif): The ALCUDIA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, R.; Simancas, F.; Martinez-Poyatos, D.; Ayarza, P.; Gonzalez, P.; Tejero, R.; Martín-Parra, L.; Matas, J.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.; Pérez-Estaún, A.; García-Lobon, J.; Mansilla, L.; Palomeras, I.

    2007-12-01

    The lithosphere of the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) differs from that of the southwestern Iberian Massif. They are limited by a suture zone. The seismic reflection profile IBERSEIS suggested that the activity of a Carboniferous mantle plume resulted in abundant intrusions of mafic magmas in the mid-to-lower crust which resulted in a singular crustal evolution. The current knowledge of the area based mostly in surface geological mapping suggests that basic magmatism continues further towards the north, indicating that the mantle plume may have affected a bigger area up to the Tajo depression. Furthermore, the existence of the Almadén mine, one of the largest mercury mine in the world within the CIZ, favour that the crust in this area is the result of anomalous lithospheric processes. Accordingly, the ALCUDIA project has been lauched aiming to study the structure and nature of the lithosphere of the CIZ. It includes the acquisition of a deep high resolution seismic reflection transect, detailed geological mapping, kinematic, petrologic and geochemical studies, and other geophysical studies (potential field methods). This new profile extends the previous IBERSEIS Transect towards the northeast, completing almost 600 km of deep seismic profiles, crossing the southern half of the Iberian Variscides. The transect crosses some important structures, such as the Toledo fault, Santa Elena Fault, Alcudia anticline, Almadén syncline, and some major magnetic anomalies. The preliminary results reveal that the crust is 30 km thick in average, with a horizontal Moho, a highly reflective mid-to-lower crust with a few mantle reflectors and well defined features in the upper crust with the indication of detachments zones that might link to the mid- crustal reflective zone.

  8. Reflections on a Post September 11 Student-Led Project: Teaching Strategies that Foster Tolerance and Emotional Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a service-learning project to build tolerance in the community as a result of their desire to do something or to make a difference after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Student reflection papers revealed an increase in student tolerance and feelings of competence after participating in the…

  9. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School--A Project Report.

    PubMed

    Bugaj, Till Johannes; Mücksch, Christine; Schmid, Carolin; Junne, Florian; Erschens, Rebecca; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning "on an equal footing", the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL) is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation. With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students) in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree). 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years). The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory) in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors' competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale). The seminar sessions' importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective. PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.

  10. Descending projections from the dysgranular zone of rat primary somatosensory cortex processing deep somatic input.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehee; Kim, Uhnoh

    2012-04-01

    In the mammalian somatic system, peripheral inputs from cutaneous and deep receptors ascend via different subcortical channels and terminate in largely separate regions of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). How these inputs are processed in SI and then projected back to the subcortical relay centers is critical for understanding how SI may regulate somatic information processing in the subcortex. Although it is now relatively well understood how SI cutaneous areas project to the subcortical structures, little is known about the descending projections from SI areas processing deep somatic input. We examined this issue by using the rodent somatic system as a model. In rat SI, deep somatic input is processed mainly in the dysgranular zone (DSZ) enclosed by the cutaneous barrel subfields. By using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) as anterograde tracer, we characterized the topography of corticostriatal and corticofugal projections arising in the DSZ. The DSZ projections terminate mainly in the lateral subregions of the striatum that are also known as the target of certain SI cutaneous areas. This suggests that SI processing of deep and cutaneous information may be integrated, to a certain degree, in this striatal region. By contrast, at both thalamic and prethalamic levels as far as the spinal cord, descending projections from DSZ terminate in areas largely distinguishable from those that receive input from SI cutaneous areas. These subcortical targets of DSZ include not only the sensory but also motor-related structures, suggesting that SI processing of deep input may engage in regulating somatic and motor information flow between the cortex and periphery. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. ODM2 Admin Pilot Project- a Data Management Application for Observations of the Critical Zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, M.; McDowell, W. H.; Mayorga, E.; Setiawan, L.; Hooper, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    ODM2 Admin is a tool to manage data stored in a relational database using the Observation Data Model 2 (ODM2) information model. Originally developed by the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) to manage a wide range of Earth observations, it has now been deployed at 6 projects: the Catalina Jemez CZO, the Dry Creek Experimental Forest, Au Sable and Manistee River sites managed by Michigan State, Tropical Response to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) and the Critical Zone Integrative Microbial Ecology Activity (CZIMEA) EarthCube project; most of these deployments are hosted on a Microsoft Azure cloud server managed by CUAHSI. ODM2 Admin is a web application built on the Python open-source Django framework and available for download from GitHub and DockerHub. It provides tools for data ingestion, editing, QA/QC, data visualization, browsing, mapping and documentation of equipment deployment, methods, and citations. Additional features include the ability to generate derived data values, automatically or manually create data annotations and create datasets from arbitrary groupings of results. Over 22 million time series values for more than 600 time series are being managed with ODM2 Admin across the 6 projects as well as more than 12,000 soil profiles and other measurements. ODM2 Admin links with external identifier systems through DOIs, ORCiDs and IGSNs, so cited works, details about researchers and earth sample meta-data can be accessed directly from ODM2 Admin. This application is part of a growing open source ODM2 application ecosystem under active development. ODM2 Admin can be deployed alongside other tools from the ODM2 ecosystem, including ODM2API and WOFpy, which provide access to the underlying ODM2 data through a Python API and Water One Flow web services.

  12. Viewing-zone control of integral imaging display using a directional projection and elemental image resizing method.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Piao, Mei-Lan; Bang, Le Thanh; Kim, Nam

    2013-10-01

    Viewing-zone control of integral imaging (II) displays using a directional projection and elemental image (EI) resizing method is proposed. Directional projection of EIs with the same size of microlens pitch causes an EI mismatch at the EI plane. In this method, EIs are generated computationally using a newly introduced algorithm: the directional elemental image generation and resizing algorithm considering the directional projection geometry of each pixel as well as an EI resizing method to prevent the EI mismatch. Generated EIs are projected as a collimated projection beam with a predefined directional angle, either horizontally or vertically. The proposed II display system allows reconstruction of a 3D image within a predefined viewing zone that is determined by the directional projection angle.

  13. Family physician-led, team-based, lifestyle intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome: results of a multicentre feasibility project

    PubMed Central

    Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Heyland, Daren K.; Leung, Roger; Day, Andrew G.; Brauer, Paula; Royall, Dawna; Tremblay, Angelo; Mutch, David M.; Pliamm, Lew; Rhéaume, Caroline; Klein, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a medical condition with major complications and health care costs. Previous research has shown that diet and exercise can improve and reverse this condition. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing the Canadian Health Advanced by Nutrition and Graded Exercise (CHANGE) program into diverse family medicine practices to improve MetS. Methods: In this longitudinal before-after study, 305 adult patients with MetS were recruited from 3 diverse family medicine team-based organizations to the CHANGE personalized diet and exercise program. Participants were followed for 12 months. Primary outcomes included feasibility and reversal of MetS. Secondary outcomes included improvement in MetS components, changes in diet quality, aerobic fitness and cardiovascular risk. Results: Participants attended 76% and 90% of the kinesiologist and dietitian visits, respectively. At 12 months, 19% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 14%-24%) showed reversal of MetS, VO2max increased by 16% (95% CI 13%-18%), and Healthy Eating Index and Mediterranean Diet Scores improved by 9.6% (95% CI 7.6%-11.6%) and 1.4% (1.1%-1.6%), respectively. In addition, the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) 10-year risk of acute coronary event decreased by 1.4%, from a baseline of 8.6%. Interpretation: A team-based program led by the family physician that educates patients about the risks of MetS, and with a dietitian and kinesiologist, empowers them to undertake an individualized supervised program of diet modification and exercise, is feasible, improves aerobic capacity and diet quality, reverses MetS and improves MetS components at 12 months. PMID:28401139

  14. Family physician-led, team-based, lifestyle intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome: results of a multicentre feasibility project.

    PubMed

    Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Heyland, Daren K; Leung, Roger; Day, Andrew G; Brauer, Paula; Royall, Dawna; Tremblay, Angelo; Mutch, David M; Pliamm, Lew; Rhéaume, Caroline; Klein, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a medical condition with major complications and health care costs. Previous research has shown that diet and exercise can improve and reverse this condition. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing the Canadian Health Advanced by Nutrition and Graded Exercise (CHANGE) program into diverse family medicine practices to improve MetS. In this longitudinal before-after study, 305 adult patients with MetS were recruited from 3 diverse family medicine team-based organizations to the CHANGE personalized diet and exercise program. Participants were followed for 12 months. Primary outcomes included feasibility and reversal of MetS. Secondary outcomes included improvement in MetS components, changes in diet quality, aerobic fitness and cardiovascular risk. Participants attended 76% and 90% of the kinesiologist and dietitian visits, respectively. At 12 months, 19% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 14%-24%) showed reversal of MetS, VO2max increased by 16% (95% CI 13%-18%), and Healthy Eating Index and Mediterranean Diet Scores improved by 9.6% (95% CI 7.6%-11.6%) and 1.4% (1.1%-1.6%), respectively. In addition, the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) 10-year risk of acute coronary event decreased by 1.4%, from a baseline of 8.6%. A team-based program led by the family physician that educates patients about the risks of MetS, and with a dietitian and kinesiologist, empowers them to undertake an individualized supervised program of diet modification and exercise, is feasible, improves aerobic capacity and diet quality, reverses MetS and improves MetS components at 12 months.

  15. The application of Fresnel zone plate based projection in optofluidic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jigang; Cui, Xiquan; Lee, Lap Man; Yang, Changhuei

    2008-09-29

    Optofluidic microscopy (OFM) is a novel technique for low-cost, high-resolution on-chip microscopy imaging. In this paper we report the use of the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) based projection in OFM as a cost-effective and compact means for projecting the transmission through an OFM's aperture array onto a sensor grid. We demonstrate this approach by employing a FZP (diameter = 255 microm, focal length = 800 microm) that has been patterned onto a glass slide to project the transmission from an array of apertures (diameter = 1 microm, separation = 10 microm) onto a CMOS sensor. We are able to resolve the contributions from 44 apertures on the sensor under the illumination from a HeNe laser (wavelength = 633 nm). The imaging quality of the FZP determines the effective field-of-view (related to the number of resolvable transmissions from apertures) but not the image resolution of such an OFM system--a key distinction from conventional microscope systems. We demonstrate the capability of the integrated system by flowing the protist Euglena gracilis across the aperture array microfluidically and performing OFM imaging of the samples.

  16. Fault Zone Resistivity Structure and Monitoring at the Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Project from AMT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.-W.; Unsworth, M. J.; Chen, C.-S.; Chen, C.-C.; Lin, A.-T.; Hsu, H.-L.

    2009-04-01

    The Chi-Chi earthquake occurred on September 21st, 1999 in the Western Foothills of central Taiwan. This Mw=7.6 earthquake produced a 90 km long surface rupture and caused severe damage across Taiwan. The coseismic displacement on the Chelungpu fault was one of the largest ever observed. The Taiwan Chelungpu drilling project (TCDP) began in 2003 and resulted in a 2,000 m well that recovered cores from the fault zone at A-hole and finished in 2005 with two boreholes (A-hole and B-hole) being completed. The Chelungpu fault that caused the Chi-Chi earthquake was observed in the core at a depth of 1,111 m (FAZ1111). Another fault zone (Sanyi Fault - FAZ1710) was observed at depths of 1,500~1,710 m. Since the electrical resistivity of rocks is sensitive to the presence of fluids, geophysical methods that remotely sense sub-surface resistivity, such as Magnetotellurics (MT), can be a powerful tool in investigating the fluid distribution in the shallow crust. The effectiveness of MT in imaging fault zones has been demonstrated by studies of the San Andreas Fault zone in California, the U.S. and elsewhere. In magnetotellurics, the depth of exploration increases as the signal frequency decreases. Thus for imaging shallow fault zone structure at the TCDP site, the higher frequency audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) method is the most suitable. In this paper, AMT data collected at the TCDP site from 2004 to 2006 are presented. Spatial and temporal variations are described and interpreted in terms of the tectonic setting. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) measurements were used to investigate electrical resistivity structure at the TCDP site from 2004~2006. These data show a geoelectric strike direction of N15°E to N30°E. Inversion and forward modeling of the AMT data were used to generate a 1-D resistivity model that has a prominent low resistivity zone (< 10 ohm-m) between depths of 1,100 and 1,500 m. When combined with porosity measurements, the AMT measurements imply that the ground

  17. Gridded population projections for the coastal zone under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.

    2016-10-01

    Existing quantifications of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) used for climate impact assessment do not account for subnational population dynamics such as coastward-migration that can be critical for coastal impact assessment. This paper extends the SSPs by developing spatial projections of global coastal population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of coastal migration drivers we develop coastal narratives for each SSP. These narratives account for differences in coastal and inland population developments in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population, we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates, which differ for coastal and inland as well as for urban and rural regions, to project coastal population for each SSP. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data and adjusted for each SSP based on the coastal narratives. Our results show that, compared to the year 2000 (638 million), the population living in the Low Elevated Coastal Zone (LECZ) increases by 58% to 71% until 2050 and exceeds one billion in all SSPs. By the end of the 21st century, global coastal population declines to 830-907 million in all SSPs except for SSP3, where coastal population growth continues and reaches 1.184 billion. Overall, the population living in the LECZ is higher by 85 to 239 million compared to the original IIASA projections. Asia expects the highest absolute growth (238-303 million), Africa the highest relative growth (153% to 218%). Our results highlight regions where high coastal population growth is expected and will therefore face an increased exposure to coastal flooding.

  18. Highway construction work zone safety performance and improvement in Louisiana : research project capsule.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-01

    While the number of : crashes in Louisiana : construction work zones : has decreased in recent : years, the total count of : work zone crashes is still : significant, warranting : research into how to reduce : crashes. An assessment : of risk factors...

  19. Project Hi-CLIMB: A Synoptic View of the Himalayan Collision Zone and Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nábělek, J. L.; Vergne, J.; Hetenyi, G.

    2005-12-01

    Project Hi-CLIMB is a broadband seismic experiment whose goal is to produce a high-resolution continuous profile across the Himalaya and southern Tibet. The centerpiece of the project is a closely spaced, linear array of broadband seismographs, extending from the Ganga lowland, across the Himalayas, and onto the central Tibetan plateau. A complementary array of sparsely spaced stations flanks the linear array. Over 270 sites were occupied during the experiment. The principal institutions involved in the field operations were the Oregon State U. and U. of Illinois (USA), Dept. of Mines and Geology (Nepal), Chinese Academy of Geol. Sci. and Peking U. (China) and the Inst. of Earth Sci. (Taiwan). The major funding for this project was provided by the NSF, Continental Dynamics program. We focus on the receiver function images from the main profile. We observe clear Moho and the upper-mantle discontinuities. The Moho, which in southern Nepal is at 45 km depth (relative to sea level), dips at a gentle angle under the Himalaya. Crossing the Himalaya, its depth rapidly increases, reaching the of 70 km near the Yarlung River. We have succeeded in imagining the Main Himalayan Trust (MHT) as it descends northward at a shallow depth from its surface expression, the Main Frontal Thrust in southern Nepal. In Nepal along the profile, MHT is expressed by a pronounced seismic low velocity zone, which we believe indicates a presence of trapped aqueous fluids in the fault zone, thus lowering the strength of the megathrust. The low velocity associated with the MHT disappears for a short distance north but reappears again as the MHT increases its dip under S. Tibet. We believe the characteristics of the low velocity associated with the MHT in S. Tibet indicate a presence of partial melt due to an increase in depth and frictional heating. A low-velocity wedge above the MHT suggests an accumulation of the melt. This could be an ongoing process of generation of the Himalayan granites. The

  20. Collaborative project optimises LED lighting.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Early 2013 saw Brandon Medical, which designs and manufactures equipment ranging from operating theatre lighting to medical AV and control systems, celebrate '20 years of innovation and growth', with a move to a new pounds 2 million, 50,000 ft2 headquarters in Morley near Leeds, twice the size of its former premises. A milestone year then for the entrepreneurial Yorkshire company, but, as HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, discovered, when he met with joint MD, Graeme Hall, 2014 should prove an equally exciting one for the medical technology specialist, with the launch of several new 'field-leading' medical lighting products designed for use in operating theatres and minor examination settings.

  1. Design of a lighting system with high-power LEDs, large area electronics, and light management structure in the LUMENTILE European project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, L.; Simonetta, M.; Benetti, G.; Tramonte, A.; Capelli, G.; Benedetti, M.; Randone, E. M.; Ylisaukko-oja, A.; Keränen, K.; Facchinetti, T.; Giuliani, G.

    2017-02-01

    LUMENTILE (LUMinous ElectroNic TILE) is a project funded by the European Commission with the goal of developing a luminous tile with novel functionalities, capable of changing its color and interact with the user. Applications include interior/exterior tile for walls and floors covering, high-efficiency luminaries, and advertising under the form of giant video screens. High overall electrical efficiency of the tile is mandatory, as several millions of square meters are foreseen to be installed each year. Demand is for high uniformity of the illumination of the top tile surface, and for high optical extraction efficiency. These features are achieved by smart light management, using a new approach based on light guiding slab and spatially selective light extraction obtained using both diffusion and/or reflection from the top and bottom interfaces of the optical layer. Planar and edge configurations for the RGB LEDs are considered and compared. A square shape with side length from 20cm to 60cm is considered for the tiles. The electronic circuit layout must optimize the electrical efficiency, and be compatible with low-cost roll-to-roll production on flexible substrates. LED heat management is tackled by using dedicated solutions that allow operation in thermally harsh environment. An approach based on OLEDs has also been considered, still needing improvement on emitted power and ruggedness.

  2. Assessment of projected climate change in the Carpathian Region using the Holdridge life zone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Kis, Anna; Pongrácz, Rita; Sümegi, Pál

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, expected changes in the spatial and altitudinal distribution patterns of Holdridge life zone (HLZ) types are analysed to assess the possible ecological impacts of future climate change for the Carpathian Region, by using 11 bias-corrected regional climate model simulations of temperature and precipitation. The distribution patterns of HLZ types are characterized by the relative extent, the mean centre and the altitudinal range. According to the applied projections, the following conclusions can be drawn: (a) the altitudinal ranges are likely to expand in the future, (b) the lower and upper altitudinal limits as well as the altitudinal midpoints may move to higher altitudes, (c) a northward shift is expected for most HLZ types and (d) the magnitudes of these shifts can even be multiples of those observed in the last century. Related to the northward shifts, the HLZ types warm temperate thorn steppe and subtropical dry forest can also appear in the southern segment of the target area. However, a large uncertainty in the estimated changes of precipitation patterns was indicated by the following: (a) the expected change in the coverage of the HLZ type cool temperate steppe is extremely uncertain because there is no consensus among the projections even in terms of the sign of the change (high inter-model variability) and (b) a significant trend in the westward/eastward shift is simulated just for some HLZ types (high temporal variability). Finally, it is important to emphasize that the uncertainty of our results is further enhanced by the fact that some important aspects (e.g. seasonality of climate variables, direct CO2 effect, etc.) cannot be considered in the estimating process.

  3. Life after hospital closure: users’ views of living in residential ‘resettlement’ projects. A case study in consumer‐led research

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Christine A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To conduct a user‐led and focused study of the views and experiences of former psychiatric hospital patients in community‐based residential projects four years after hospital closure. The aims of the study were to assess residents’ views about their current living arrangements, their opportunities to give their views and their interest in a formal user‐group such as a residents’ council or citizen advocacy scheme. Design A small‐scale, qualitative study designed to enable users to voice their own views and experiences in their own words, conducted by a project group of psychiatric service users/survivors. Setting and participants All eight residential ‘re‐provision’ projects in the area were included, with a total potential sample of 65 residents. All residents were invited to take part and a total of 26 were interviewed, although a larger number of residents together with residential care staff took part in initial ‘house’ meetings to discuss the study. Methods Semi‐structured, open‐ended interviews with all residents willing to participate, researcher participation in ‘house meetings’, researchers’ personal reflection and discussion. Results and conclusions On the whole, residents were content with community living arrangements and preferred these to hospital, although levels of satisfaction varied across different residential projects. Residents lacked awareness of rights to and means of voicing concerns and making choices about major issues in their lives. They showed greater interest in individualized rather than group advocacy. Ideally, research and evaluation, to be truly user‐focused, should be long‐term and continuous in order to involve participants more fully, and should anticipate the structures and processes needed to act on findings. PMID:11281929

  4. A youth-led social marketing intervention to encourage healthy lifestyles, the EYTO (European Youth Tackling Obesity) project: a cluster randomised controlled0 trial in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Llauradó, Elisabet; Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Tarro, Lucia; Papell-Garcia, Ignasi; Puiggròs, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Prades-Tena, Jordi; Montagut, Marta; Moragas-Fernández, Carlota M; Solà, Rosa; Giralt, Montse

    2015-07-03

    The encouragement of healthy lifestyles for obesity prevention in young people is a public health priority. The European Youth Tackling Obesity (EYTO) project is a multicentric intervention project with participation from the United Kingdom, Portugal, the Czech Republic and Spain. The general aim of the EYTO project is to improve lifestyles, including nutritional habits and physical activity practice, and to prevent obesity in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable adolescents. The EYTO project works through a peer-led social marketing intervention that is designed and implemented by the adolescents of each participating country. Each country involved in the project acts independently. This paper describes the "Som la Pera" intervention Spanish study that is part of the EYTO project. In Spain, the research team performed a cluster randomised controlled intervention over 2 academic years (2013-2015) in which 2 high-schools were designated as the control group and 2 high-schools were designated as the intervention group, with a minimum of 121 schoolchildren per group. From the intervention group, 5 adolescents with leadership characteristics, called "Adolescent Challenge Creators" (ACCs), were recruited. These 5 ACCs received an initial 4 h training session about social marketing principles and healthy lifestyle theory, followed by 24 sessions (1.30 h/session) divided in two academic years to design and implement activities presented as challenges to encourage healthy lifestyles among their peers, the approximately 180-200 high-school students in the intervention group. During the design of the intervention, it was essential that the ACCs used the 8 social marketing criteria (customer orientation, behaviour, theory, insight, exchange, competition, segmentation and methods mix). The expected primary outcomes from the Spanish intervention will be as follows: increases in the consumption of fruits and vegetables and physical activity practice along with

  5. The MOVIN' project (Mobilisation Of Ventilated Intensive care patients at Nepean): A quality improvement project based on the principles of knowledge translation to promote nurse-led mobilisation of critically ill ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anwar; Rajamani, Arvind; Fitzsimons, Fiona

    2017-10-01

    Prospective quality improvement project to evaluate the impact of a training programme to promote nurse-led mobilisation of intubated critically ill patients. This project involved an educational programme to upskill nurses and overcome the barriers/challenges to nurse-led mobilisation. Initial strategies focused on educating and upskilling nurses to attain competency in active mobilisation. Subsequent strategies focused on positive reinforcement to achieve a culture shift. A pre- and post-intervention audit was used to evaluate its effectiveness. A baseline audit showed that ∼9% of ventilated patients were mobilised. Several barriers were identified. Twenty-three nurses underwent training in actively mobilising ventilated patients. This increased their confidence levels and there was reduction in reported barriers. However, the rate of active mobilisation remained low (9.7%). Subsequently, a programme of positive reinforcement with rewards and visual reminders was introduced, which saw an increase in the number of nurse-led mobilisations of both ventilated patients (from 9.7% to 34.8%; p=0.0003), and non-ventilated patients (29.5% versus 62.9%; p=<0.0001). It is safe and feasible to train nurses to perform active mobilisation of ventilated patients. However, to promote a culture change, training and competency must be combined with a multi-pronged approach including reminders, positive reinforcement and rewards. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The development and evaluation of a multimedia resource for family carers of patients receiving palliative care: a consumer-led project.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kristina; Moore, Gaye

    2015-06-01

    Previous intervention research has shown that group education sessions for carers are effective but not always feasible due to the demands of the caregiving role and the difficulty in getting carers to attend. This project was a consumer-led research initiative to develop and evaluate a multimedia resource (DVD) providing information and support for carers of people receiving palliative care. Eight carers were recruited from a community palliative care service to form a steering committee for the project. In collaboration with two researchers, the committee discussed the topics that would be included in the resource, developed an interview guide, participated in the filmed interviews, and developed the evaluation program. The steering committee participated in a focus group as part of the evaluation to elicit their experiences of the project. An evaluation was conducted that included the following: questionnaires for 29 carers and 17 palliative care health professionals; follow-up telephone interviews with carers; a focus group with health professionals; and a focus group with the Carer Steering Committee. The carers and health professionals reported that the DVD was informative (93 and 94%, respectively), realistic (96 and 88%), supportive (93 and 88%), and helpful (83 and 100%). All health professionals and carers reported that they would recommend the resource to carers. Carers on the steering committee reported substantial benefits that involved the opportunity to help others and to openly discuss and reflect on their experiences. This is an important resource that can be utilized to support family carers and introduce palliative care. Currently, 1500 copies have been distributed to palliative care services and professionals nationwide and is available online at centreforpallcare.org/index.php/resources/carer_dvd/. Development of this DVD represents a strong collaboration between carers and researchers to produce a resource that is informative, supportive, and

  7. 0-6781 : improved nighttime work zone channelization in confined urban projects.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    Turning into and out of driveways in confined or : dense urban work zones can present significant : challenges to drivers, especially during nighttime : conditions when other visual cues about the : driveways may be masked in the dark. These : challe...

  8. 77 FR 59749 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... lines. C. Discussion of Rule With the aforementioned hazards in mind, the Captain of the Port, Sector... significant effect on the human environment. This rule involves the establishment of a safety zone and...

  9. Development and validation of a national data registry for midwife-led births: the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2.0 dataset.

    PubMed

    Cheyney, Melissa; Bovbjerg, Marit; Everson, Courtney; Gordon, Wendy; Hannibal, Darcy; Vedam, Saraswathi

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Midwives Alliance of North America's (MANA's) Division of Research developed a Web-based data collection system to gather information on the practices and outcomes associated with midwife-led births in the United States. This system, called the MANA Statistics Project (MANA Stats), grew out of a widely acknowledged need for more reliable data on outcomes by intended place of birth. This article describes the history and development of the MANA Stats birth registry and provides an analysis of the 2.0 dataset's content, strengths, and limitations. Data collection and review procedures for the MANA Stats 2.0 dataset are described, along with methods for the assessment of data accuracy. We calculated descriptive statistics for client demographics and contributing midwife credentials, and assessed the quality of data by calculating point estimates, 95% confidence intervals, and kappa statistics for key outcomes on pre- and postreview samples of records. The MANA Stats 2.0 dataset (2004-2009) contains 24,848 courses of care, 20,893 of which are for women who planned a home or birth center birth at the onset of labor. The majority of these records were planned home births (81%). Births were attended primarily by certified professional midwives (73%), and clients were largely white (92%), married (87%), and college-educated (49%). Data quality analyses of 9932 records revealed no differences between pre- and postreviewed samples for 7 key benchmarking variables (kappa, 0.98-1.00). The MANA Stats 2.0 data were accurately entered by participants; any errors in this dataset are likely random and not systematic. The primary limitation of the 2.0 dataset is that the sample was captured through voluntary participation; thus, it may not accurately reflect population-based outcomes. The dataset's primary strength is that it will allow for the examination of research questions on normal physiologic birth and midwife-led birth outcomes by intended place of birth.

  10. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  11. Photo radar speed enforcement in a state highway work zone : demonstration project Yeon Avenue.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    The 2007 Oregon legislative assembly passed House Bill 2466, allowing the Oregon Department of Transportation to use photo radar in ODOT work zones on non-interstate state highways and required ODOT to report back to them on the safety impacts of thi...

  12. 76 FR 78159 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River South Branch, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... negative way. In the event that this temporary safety zone affects shipping, commercial vessels may request... implications for federalism under Executive Order 13132, Federalism, if it has a substantial direct effect on... implications for federalism. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C...

  13. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Sujakhu, Nani M.; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A.; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops. PMID:27689354

  14. Project Work Plan 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    The 100-N Area Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) identified phyto¬remediation as a potential technology both for the removal of 90Sr from the soil of the riparian zone and as a filter for groundwater along the Columbia River. Recent greenhouse and growth chamber studies have demonstrated the viability of phytoextraction to remove 90Sr from this area’s soil/water; in conjunction with monitored natural attenuation and an apatite barrier the process would make an effective treatment for remediation of the 100-N Area 90Sr plume. All activities associated with the 100-NR-1 and 100-NR-2 Operable Units of the Hanford 100-N Area have had, andmore » continue to have, significant regulatory and stakeholder participation. Beginning in 1998 with the ITRD process, presentations to the ITRD TAG were heavily attended by EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology, and stakeholders. In addition, three workshops have been held to receive regulatory and stakeholder feedback on monitored natural attenuation, the apatite barrier, and phytoremediation; these were held in Richland in August 2003, December 2004, and August 2005. The apatite injection treatability test plan (DOE 2005) describes phytoremediation as a technology to be evaluated during the March 2008 evaluation milestone as described in the Tri-Party Agreement change request (M-16-06-01 Change Control Form). If, during this evaluation milestone, phytoremediation is favorably evaluated it would be incorporated into the treatability test plan. The phytoremediation treatability test described in this proposal is strongly supported by the Washington State Department of Ecology.« less

  15. Spanish economic exclusive zone (zeee) project: valencia trough and balearic sea (western mediterranean) results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Carrillo, F.; Palomo, C.; Martín Davila, J.; Carbó, A.; Acosta, J.; Catalán, M.; Herranz, P.; Muñoz Martín, A.; Muñoz Recio, A.; Marín, J. A.

    2003-04-01

    On 1993, the Spanish Government decided to perform a systematic hydrographic/oceanographic study of the so called "Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone" (ZEEE), that is, the marine area surrounding Spanish coast within the 200 nm limit. To achieve it, the oceanographic ship "Hespérides" would be at disposal of the Defense Ministry during one moth a year. A "ZEEE-Plan" was established on 1994 with the main objective to improve cartography of the ZEEE zone and acquire different geophysical parameters to characterize it. A "ZEEE-group" was conformed by personnel coming from the Hydrographic Institute of the Spanish Navy (IHM) and the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO), the Institutions responsible of the campaigns, as well as San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), University Complutense of Madrid (UCM), and others. From 1995 to 1997 systematic marine campaigns were carried out at the Valencia Trough and Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean), complemented by two additional campaigns, carried out on 1999 and 2000. As a result of those campaigns maps of Bathymetry, Geomagnetic Anomalies and Free Air/Bouguer Gravity Anomalies have been published, six maps of 1:200.000 scale and one additional map, of 1:500.000 scale, for the whole area (the maps are available at IEO: Juan.acosta@md.ieo.es, fax: +34 914135597, and IHM: fax: +34 956599396). In this work the above mentioned results will be presented, together with the main characteristics of the surveys.

  16. 33 CFR 165.T13-149 - Safety Zone; McNary-John Day Transmission Line Project, Columbia River, Hermiston, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Transmission Line Project, Columbia River, Hermiston, OR. 165.T13-149 Section 165.T13-149 Navigation and... Project, Columbia River, Hermiston, OR. (a) Location: The following is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia River between two lines with the first line starting at the north bank at 45° 56′ 16.5″ N/119° 19...

  17. Determining Columbia and Snake River Project Tailrace and Forebay Zones of Hydraulic Influence using MASS2 Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2010-12-01

    Although fisheries biology studies are frequently performed at US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects along the Columbia and Snake Rivers, there is currently no consistent definition of the ``forebay'' and ``tailrace'' regions for these studies. At this time, each study may use somewhat arbitrary lines (e.g., the Boat Restriction Zone) to define the upstream and downstream limits of the study, which may be significantly different at each project. Fisheries researchers are interested in establishing a consistent definition of project forebay and tailrace regions for the hydroelectric projects on the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The Hydraulic Extent of amore » project was defined by USACE (Brad Eppard, USACE-CENWP) as follows: The river reach directly upstream (forebay) and downstream (tailrace) of a project that is influenced by the normal range of dam operations. Outside this reach, for a particular river discharge, changes in dam operations cannot be detected by hydraulic measurement. The purpose of this study was to, in consultation with USACE and regional representatives, develop and apply a consistent set of criteria for determining the hydraulic extent of each of the projects in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. A 2D depth-averaged river model, MASS2, was applied to the Snake and Columbia Rivers. New computational meshes were developed most reaches and the underlying bathymetric data updated to the most current survey data. The computational meshes resolved each spillway bay and turbine unit at each project and extended from project to project. MASS2 was run for a range of total river flows and each flow for a range of project operations at each project. The modeled flow was analyzed to determine the range of velocity magnitude differences and the range of flow direction differences at each location in the computational mesh for each total river flow. Maps of the differences in flow direction and velocity magnitude were created. USACE fishery

  18. Physical rock properties in and around a conduit zone by well-logging in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikeda, R.; Kajiwara, T.; Omura, K.; Hickman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) is not only to reveal the structure and eruption history of the Unzen volcano but also to clarify the ascent and degassing mechanisms of the magma conduit. Conduit drilling (USDP-4) was conducted in 2004, which targeted the magma conduit for the 1990-95 eruption. The total drilled length of USDP-4 was 1995.75??m. Geophysical well logging, including resistivity, gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, sonic-wave velocity, density, neutron porosity, and Fullbore Formation MicroImager (FMI), was conducted at each drilling stage. Variations in the physical properties of the rocks were revealed by the well-log data, which correlated with not only large-scale formation boundaries but also small-scale changes in lithology. Such variations were evident in the lava dike, pyroclastic rocks, and breccias over depth intervals ranging from 1 to 40??m. These data support previous models for structure of the lava conduit, in that they indicate the existence of alternating layers of high-resistivity and high P-wave velocity rocks corresponding to the lava dikes, in proximity to narrower zones exhibiting high porosity, low resistivity, and low P-wave velocity. These narrow, low-porosity zones are presumably higher in permeability than the adjacent rocks and may form preferential conduits for degassing during magma ascent. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Comparing Mid-Century Climate Change Projections at Convective Resolving Scales (2-km) for Life Zones Within Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, J.; Wootten, A.; Terando, A. J.; Boyles, R.; Misra, V.; Bhardwaj, A.

    2016-12-01

    Puerto Rico is home to over 3.5 million people and numerous endemic plant and animal species that may be at risk as a result of anthropogenic climate change. This study downscales three CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) to a 2-km horizontal resolution using different regional climate models (RCMs) to resolve the island's climate. Here we compare projected climate change from a single GCM, CCSM4, from two RCMs centered on the mid-century, 2041-2060, for a high greenhouse gas emission scenario, RCP8.5. We will discuss similarities and differences in ecologically relevant climate variables, which were selected based on dialogue with experts who have knowledge about potential biological impacts of climate change for current life zones within Puerto Rico. Notable differences appear between the RCMs and include regions with critical ecosystems, such as the El Yunque National Forest in northeast Puerto Rico. This study helps to highlight RCMs structural uncertainty at convective resolving scales.

  20. LED-driven backlights for automotive displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Frank

    2007-09-01

    As a light source the LED has some advantage over the traditionally used fluorescence tube such as longer life or lower space consumption. Consequently customers are asking for the LED lighting design in their products. We introduced in a company owned backlight the white LED technology. This step opens the possibility to have access to the components in the display market. Instead of having a finalized display product which needs to be integrated in the head unit of a car we assemble the backlight, the glass, own electronics and the housing. A major advantage of this concept is the better control of the heat flow generated by the LEDs to the outer side because only a common housing is used for all the components. Also the requirement for slim products can be fulfilled. As always a new technology doesn't come with advantages only. An LED represents a point source compared to the well-known tube thus requiring a mixing zone for the multiple point sources when they enter a light guide. This zone can't be used in displays because of the lack of homogeneity. It's a design goal to minimize this zone which can be helped by the right choice of the LED in terms of slimness. A step ahead is the implementation of RGB LEDs because of their higher color rendering abilities. This allows for the control of the chromaticity point under temperature change but as a drawback needs a larger mixing zone.

  1. Deep Seismic Imaging of the Hellenic Subduction Zone with New MCS Data of the SISMED Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becel, A.; Mireille, L.; Hussni, S.; Dessa, J. X.; Schenini, L.; Sachpazi, M.; Vitard, C.

    2016-12-01

    The southwestern segment of the Hellenic subduction zone has generated a M>8 tsunamigenic earthquake in the past (365 AD), the largest event ever reported in Europe, but fundamental questions remain about the deep geometry and characteristics of the interplate fault and connected splay faults in the overriding plate that might be rooted in the megathrust. In the Fall 2012, the ULYSSE seismic program acquired deep penetration multichannel seismic (MCS) and OBS refraction profiles across a 300-km-wide section of the forearc domain. MCS data were acquired with a 4.5 km-long streamer on board the R/V Le Pourquoi Pas? from the French IFREMER facilities. The two 240 km-long seismic reflection dip profiles reveal a large and rough topography of the top of the forearc crust in both the outer and inner domains, including a several km thick forearc basin. Despite the thick Messinian evaporites at shallow depths, the 11000 cu.in airgun source reveal several discontinuous arcward-dipping reflections at 15 km depth beneath the outer forearc domain that could be related to the top of the subducting oceanic crust. Unfortunately, the 4.5 km-long streamer is too short for improving their lateral continuity and getting more detailed constraints on their geometry. In the Fall 2015, we chartered the R/V Marcus Langseth equipped with unmatched seismic facilities in the European academic fleet by means of a strong mobilization of the French and American involved laboratories (Géoazur, LDEO, ISTEP, ENS-Paris, EOST, LDO, Pau Univ.) and their research agencies (CNRS, NSF, OCA, and UCA). During the SISMED survey (Seismic Imaging inveStigation in MEDiterranean Sea for deep seismogenic faults), we collected with the R/V Marcus Langseth a 210 km-long profile coincident with the eastern ULYSSE transect with the 8 km-long streamer and a 6600 cu.in tuned airgun array shot every 50 meters. The source and the streamer were towed at a depth of 12 m to maximize low frequencies and deep imaging. Here

  2. [Development of a nurse-led family counseling program for families of the elderly: the first cycle of a Community-Based Action Research Project (CBPR)].

    PubMed

    Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Hediger, Hannele; Naef, Rahel; Bruylands, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    With the support of family members many elderly people can live an independent life at home. Accepting support respectively providing support might be a challenge for both elder and family member. Families often have little professional support to manage those challenges. Therefore, a nurse-led counseling program for families of the elders has been established. The counseling program was developed with community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology using individual and focus group interviews, as well as a written survey and tested in a pilot study. Managing disease in everyday life, helpful means of support at home, changes in family relations, information about services as well as information how to navigate the healthcare system have been themes to discuss in the counseling sessions. Participants in the pilot study showed a statistically not significant increase in well-being, and preparedness for care and were highly satisfied with the counseling program. Families of the elderly could actively participate in developing and researching a nurse-led family counseling program. Several family members still engage as co-researcher in the program and participate to improve the new service.

  3. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems : [technical summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  4. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  5. Structure of the active rift zone and margins of the northern Imperial Valley from Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livers, A.; Han, L.; Delph, J. R.; White-Gaynor, A. L.; Petit, R.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    First-arrival refraction data were used to create a seismic velocity model of the upper crust across the actively rifting northern Imperial Valley and its margins. The densely sampled seismic refraction data were acquired by the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) , which is investigating rift processes in the northern-most rift segment of the Gulf of California extensional province and earthquake hazards at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault system. A 95-km long seismic line was acquired across the northern Imperial Valley, through the Salton Sea geothermal field, parallel to the five Salton Butte volcanoes and perpendicular to the Brawley Seismic Zone and major strike-slip faults. Nineteen explosive shots were recorded with 100 m seismometer spacing across the valley and with 300-500 m spacing into the adjacent ranges. First-arrival travel times were picked from shot gathers along this line and a seismic velocity model was produced using tomographic inversion. Sedimentary basement and seismic basement in the valley are interpreted to be sediment metamorphosed by the very high heat flow. The velocity model shows that this basement to the west of the Brawley Seismic Zone is at ~4-km depth. The basement shallows to ~2-km depth in the active geothermal field and Salton Buttes volcanic field which locally coincide with the Brawley Seismic Zone. At the eastern edge of the geothermal field, the basement drops off again to ~3.5-km depth. The eastern edge of the valley appears to be fault bounded by the along-strike extension of the Sand Hills Fault, an inactive strike-slip fault. The seismic velocities to the east of the fault correspond to metamorphic rock of the Chocolate Mountains, different from the metamorphosed basement in the valley. The western edge of the valley appears to be fault bounded by the active Superstition Hills Fault. To the west of the valley, >4-km deep valley basement extends to the active Superstition Hills Fault. Basement then shallows

  6. Swiss Life Sciences - a science communication project for both schools and the wider public led by the foundation Science et Cité.

    PubMed

    Röthlisberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The foundation Science et Cité was founded 1998 with the aim to inform the wider Swiss public about current scientific topics and to generate a dialogue between science and society. Initiated as an independent foundation by the former State Secretary for Science and Research, Dr. Charles Kleiber, Science et Cité is now attached to the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences as a competence center for dialogue with the public. Due to its branches in all language regions of the country, the foundation is ideally suited to initiate and implement communication projects on a nationwide scale. These projects are subdivided into three categories: i) science communication for children/adolescents, ii) establishing a dialogue between science and the wider public, and iii) conducting the role of a national center of competence and networking in science communication. Swiss Life Sciences is a project that fits into all of these categories: a year-round program for schools is complemented with an annual event for the wider public. With the involvement of most of the major Swiss universities, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the foundation Gen Suisse and many other partners, Swiss Life Sciences also sets an example of national networking within the science communication community.

  7. Fostering Public Engagement in Local Land Use Planning and Zoning Recodification Projects: A Case Study from the University of Wisconsin--Extension, Lincoln County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwallader, Thomas K.; Lersch, Arthur D.

    2006-01-01

    This study outlines the processes used by University of Wisconsin--Extension, Lincoln County (UWELC), educators over an eight-year period to facilitate the development of a county land use plan and to guide committees through a review of the new proposed county zoning ordinances based on that plan. As a partner in these projects, UWELC helped…

  8. Using an intervention mapping approach for planning, implementing and assessing a community-led project towards malaria elimination in the Eastern Province of Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Kateera, Fredrick; Rulisa, Alexis; Van Den Borne, Bart; Nieuwold, Ingmar; Muvunyi, Claude; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Van Vugt, Michele; Mutesa, Leon; Alaii, Jane

    2016-12-16

    Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Guided by an intervention mapping approach, a needs assessment was conducted using household and entomological surveys and focus group interviews. Data related to behavioural, epidemiological, entomological and economical aspects were collected. Desired behavioural and environmental outcomes were identified concurrently with behavioural and environmental determinants. Theoretical methods and their practical applications were enumerated to guide programme development and implementation. An operational plan including the scope and sequence as well as programme materials was developed. Two project components were subsequently implemented following community trainings: (1) community malaria action teams (CMATs) were initiated in mid-2014 as platforms to deliver malaria preventive messages at village level, and (2) a mosquito larval source control programme using biological substances was deployed for a duration of 6 months, implemented from January to July 2015. Process and outcome evaluation has been conducted for both programme components to inform future scale up. The project highlighted malaria patterns in the area and underpinned behavioural and environmental factors contributing to malaria transmission. Active involvement of the community in collaboration with CMATs contributed to health literacy, particularly increasing ability to make knowledgeable decisions in regards to malaria prevention and control. A follow up survey conducted six months following the establishment of CMATs reported a reduction of presumed malaria cases at the end of 2014. The changes were related to an increase in the acceptance and use of available preventive measures, such as indoor residual spraying and

  9. Whole-Brain Mapping of Direct Inputs to and Axonal Projections from GABAergic Neurons in the Parafacial Zone.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun-Ting; Gu, Meng-Yang; Chu, Xi; Feng, Xiang; Yu, Yan-Qin

    2018-06-01

    The GABAergic neurons in the parafacial zone (PZ) play an important role in sleep-wake regulation and have been identified as part of a sleep-promoting center in the brainstem, but the long-range connections mediating this function remain poorly characterized. Here, we performed whole-brain mapping of both the inputs and outputs of the GABAergic neurons in the PZ of the mouse brain. We used the modified rabies virus EnvA-ΔG-DsRed combined with a Cre/loxP gene-expression strategy to map the direct monosynaptic inputs to the GABAergic neurons in the PZ, and found that they receive inputs mainly from the hypothalamic area, zona incerta, and parasubthalamic nucleus in the hypothalamus; the substantia nigra, pars reticulata and deep mesencephalic nucleus in the midbrain; and the intermediate reticular nucleus and medial vestibular nucleus (parvocellular part) in the pons and medulla. We also mapped the axonal projections of the PZ GABAergic neurons with adeno-associated virus, and defined the reciprocal connections of the PZ GABAergic neurons with their input and output nuclei. The newly-found inputs and outputs of the PZ were also listed compared with the literature. This cell-type-specific neuronal whole-brain mapping of the PZ GABAergic neurons may reveal the circuits underlying various functions such as sleep-wake regulation.

  10. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed. PMID:28649167

  11. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  12. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements.

    PubMed

    Eppeldauer, G P; Cooksey, C C; Yoon, H W; Hanssen, L M; Podobedov, V B; Vest, R E; Arp, U; Miller, C C

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  13. From Innovation Schools to an Innovation Zone in Denver, Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, Nithin; Lewis-LaMonica, Kate; Perigo, Mike

    2017-01-01

    This article is part of a Bridgespan Group research project that focuses on a new wave of district-led "innovation zones" that holds promise to overcome the challenges of turning around failing schools and deliver significant improvements in student outcomes. This new wave provides a subset of district schools with control over staffing,…

  14. The Feasibility of a Novel School Peer-Led Mentoring Model to Improve the Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Time of Adolescent Girls: The Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) Project.

    PubMed

    Owen, Michael B; Kerner, Charlotte; Taylor, Sarah L; Noonan, Robert J; Newson, Lisa; Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Curry, Whitney B; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2018-05-31

    Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous physical and psychological health benefits. Adolescents, specifically girls, are at risk of physical inactivity. To date, there is limited research on PA interventions involving peers, which could encourage more adolescent girls to engage in PA. The investigation aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel school three-tier peer-led mentoring model designed to improve PA levels and reduce sedentary time (ST) of adolescent girls. Two-hundred and forty-nine Year 9 adolescent girls (13⁻15 years old) from three UK secondary schools were invited to participate in a peer-led mentoring intervention (Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) project). The peer-led mentoring model was delivered in all three schools. Two of the schools received an additional after-school PA component. PA and ST were assessed through wrist-worn accelerometry. Girls who received an exercise class after-school component significantly increased their whole day moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (3.2 min, p = 0.009, d = 0.33). Girls who received no after-school component significantly decreased their MVPA (3.5 min, p = 0.016, d = 0.36) and increased their ST (17.2 min, p = 0.006, d = 0.43). The G-PACT intervention demonstrated feasibility of recruitment and data collection procedures for adolescent girls. The peer-led mentoring model shows promise for impacting girls' MVPA levels when combined with an after-school club PA opportunity.

  15. Construction Project Administration and Management for Mitigating Work Zone Accidents and Fatalities: An Integrated Risk Management Model

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this research is to mitigate the risk of highway accidents (crashes) and fatalities in work zones. The approach of this research has been to address the mitigation of work zone crashes through the creation of a formal risk management mode...

  16. Comparing Smoking Cessation Outcomes in Nurse-Led and Physician-Led Primary Care Visits.

    PubMed

    Byers, Marcia A; Wright, Patricia; Tilford, John Mick; Nemeth, Lynne S; Matthews, Ellyn; Mitchell, Anita

    Smoking is a significant public health concern in the United States, yet 50% of patients do not receive recommended tobacco use screening and counseling. This project compared smoking cessation rates in newly reimbursable nurse-led wellness visits with rates in physician-led visits. Although the findings were not statistically significant, they suggested that smoking cessation is at least equivalent in patients who attend nurse-led visits compared with physician-led visits and may be higher.

  17. LED roadway luminaires evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-02-01

    This research explores whether LED roadway luminaire technologies are a viable future solution to providing roadway lighting. Roadway lighting : enhances highway safety and traffic flow during limited lighting conditions. The purpose of this evaluati...

  18. White LED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2004-10-01

    Two life tests were conducted to compare the effects of drive current and ambient temperature on the degradation rate of 5 mm and high-flux white LEDs. Tests of 5 mm white LED arrays showed that junction temperature increases produced by drive current had a greater effect on the rate of light output degradation than junction temperature increases from ambient heat. A preliminary test of high-flux white LEDs showed the opposite effect, with junction temperature increases from ambient heat leading to a faster depreciation. However, a second life test is necessary to verify this finding. The dissimilarity in temperature effect among 5 mm and high-flux LEDs is likely caused by packaging differences between the two device types.

  19. Pilot project in rural western Madhya Pradesh, India, to assess the feasibility of using LED and solar-powered lanterns to remove kerosene lamps and related hazards from homes.

    PubMed

    Chamania, S; Chouhan, R; Awasthi, A; Bendell, R; Marsden, N; Gibson, J; Whitaker, I S; Potokar, T S

    2015-05-01

    Globally, 300,000 deaths are estimated to occur annually and the incidence is far greater as a large majority of burns are small and go unreported. Ninety-five percent of the global burden of burns is found in low- and middle-income countries; however, there is relatively little in the literature regarding effective primary prevention in these areas. Flame is the most common cause of burn in Madhya Pradesh, the central state of India. The most common demographic among the burn unit inpatient of Choithram hospital Indore, is young women from 21 to 40 years of age, whose burns are primarily caused by kerosene lamps. A non electrical source of illumination is essential for every household in rural areas due to the infrequent and poor power supply. At the baseline, 23 kerosene lamp burns were reported by villagers in the past 5 years among the study population of this pilot project. A pilot project to investigate the strategies for reducing the incidence of domestic burns in rural villages around the city of Indore was performed, by replacing kerosene lamps with safer and more sustainable alternatives, including solar-powered and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. A total of 1042 households were randomly chosen from 18 villages within the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh (population of 28,825) to receive the alternative light source (670 LED and 372 solar lamps). We investigated the efficacy of this strategy of reducing the incidence of burns, measured the social acceptance by villagers, and quantified the cost implications and availability of LED lamps in rural communities with a high incidence of burns. Replacing kerosene lamps with LED and solar alternatives was deemed socially acceptable by 99.34% of the participants and reduced the cost of lighting for impoverished rural villagers by 85% over 1 year. We successfully demonstrated a significant decrease in the use of kerosene lamps (p<0.01). More evidence is required to investigate the efficacy of this strategy in

  20. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  1. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  2. [LED lights in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Noé, C; Pelletier-Aouizerate, M; Cartier, H

    2017-04-01

    The use in dermatology of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to be surrounded by controversy. This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: rejuvenation, acne, wound healing, leg ulcers, and cutaneous inflammatory or autoimmune processes. Therapeutic LEDs can emit wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet, through visible light, to the near infrared (247-1300 nm), but only certain bands have so far demonstrated any real value. We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cryogenic characterization of LEDs for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, Jérôme; Philippon, Anne; How, Lip Sun; Delbergue, Audrey; Hassanzadeh, Sahar; Cillierre, David; Danto, Pascale; Boutillier, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    In the frame of EUCLID project, the Calibration Unit of the VIS (VISible Imager) instrument must provide an accurate and well characterized light source for in-flight instrument calibration without noise when it is switched off. The Calibration Unit consists of a set of LEDs emitting at various wavelengths in the visible towards an integrating sphere. The sphere's output provides a uniform illumination over the entire focal plane. Nine references of LEDs from different manufacturers were selected, screened and qualified under cryogenic conditions. Testing this large quantity of samples led to the implementation of automated testing equipment with complete in-situ monitoring of optoelectronic parameters as well as temperature and vacuum values. All the electrical and optical parameters of the LED have been monitored and recorded at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. These results have been compiled in order to show the total deviation of the LED electrical and electro-optical properties in the whole mission and to select the best suitable LED references for the mission. This qualification has demonstrated the robustness of COTS LEDs to operate at low cryogenic temperatures and in the space environment. Then 6 wavelengths were selected and submitted to an EMC sensitivity test at room and cold temperature by counting the number of photons when LEDs drivers are OFF. Characterizations were conducted in the full frequency spectrum in order to implement solutions at system level to suppress the emission of photons when the LED drivers are OFF. LEDs impedance was also characterized at room temperature and cold temperature.

  4. Materials and fabrication technology of modules intended for irradiation tests of blanket tritium-breeding zones in Russian fusion reactor projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapychev, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Ioltukhovskiy, A.; Kazennov, Yu; Tebus, V.; Frolov, V.; Shikov, A.; Shishkov, N.; Kovalenko, V.; Shishkin, N.; Strebkov, Yu

    2000-12-01

    This paper surveys the modules and materials of blanket tritium-breeding zones developed in the Russian Federation for fusion reactors. Synthesis of lithium orthosilicate, metasilicate and aluminate, fabrication of ceramic pellets and pebbles and experimental reactor units are described. Results of tritium extraction kinetics under irradiation in a water-graphite reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 5×10 13 neutron/(s cm2) are considered. At the present time, development and fabrication of lithium orthosilicate-beryllium modules of the tritium-breeding zone (TBZ), have been carried out within the framework of the ITER and DEMO projects. Two modules containing orthosilicate pellets, porous beryllium and beryllium pebbles are suggested for irradiation tests in the temperature range of 350-700°C. Technical problems associated with manufacturing of the modules are discussed.

  5. Flat Branch monitoring project: stream water temperature and sediment responses to forest cutting in the riparian zone

    Treesearch

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Dick L. Fowler

    2010-01-01

    Stream water protection during timber-harvesting activities is of primary interest to forest managers. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of riparian zone tree cutting on water temperature and total suspended solids. We monitored stream water temperature and total suspended solids before and after timber harvesting along a second-order tributary of the...

  6. LED Solar Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-18

    NASA Glenn's new LED solar simulator was developed by Angstrom Designs and UC Santa Barbara under a Small Business Innovative Research program to test the next generation of high-efficiency space solar cells for future missions. The new simulator contains over 1500 individually adjustable light sources, most of which emit light invisible to the human eye, to cover a 10 x10 foot area.

  7. LED Solar Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-16

    NASA Glenn's new LED solar simulator was developed by Angstrom Designs and UC Santa Barbara under a Small Business Innovative Research program to test the next generation of high-efficiency space solar cells for future missions. The new simulator contains over 1500 individually adjustable light sources, most of which emit light invisible to the human eye, to cover a 10 x10 foot area.

  8. Multiple LEDs luminous system in capsule endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, Ou-Yang; Huang, Shih-Wei; Lee, Hsin-Hung; Chen, Yung-Lin; Huang, Ko-Chih; Kuo, Yi-Ting

    2007-02-01

    Developing the luminous system in a capsule endoscope, it is difficult to obtain an uniform illumination[1] on the observed object because of several reasons: the light pattern of LED is sensitively depend on the driving current, location and projective angles; the optical path of LED light source is not parallel to the optical axis of the nearby imaging lenses; the strong reflection from the inner surface of the dome may saturate the CMOS sensors; the object plane of the observed intestine is not flat. Those reasons induce the over-blooming and deep-dark contrast in a picture and distort the original image strongly. The purpose of the article is to construct a photometric model to analyze the LED projection light pattern, and, furthermore, design a novel multiple LEDs luminous system for obtaining an uniform-brightness image. Several key parameters resulting as illumination uniformity has been taken under the model consideration and proven by experimental results. Those parameters include LED light pattern accuracy, choosing LED position relative to the imaging optical axis, LED numbers, arrangement, and the inner curvature of the dome. The novel structure improves the uniformity from 41% to 71% and reduces the light energy loss under 2%. The progress will help medical professionals to diagnose diseases and give treatment precisely based on the vivid image.

  9. Assessing the hydrological response from an ensemble of CMIP5 climate projections in the transition zone of the Atlantic region (Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaurio, Maite; Zabaleta, Ane; Boithias, Laurie; Epelde, Ane Miren; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, Jose-Miguel; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Antiguedad, Iñaki

    2017-05-01

    The climate changes projected for the 21st century will have consequences on the hydrological response of catchments. These changes, and their consequences, are most uncertain in the transition zones. The study area, in the Bay of Biscay, is located in the transition zone of the European Atlantic region, where hydrological impact of climate change was scarcely studied. In order to address this scarcity, the hydrological impacts of climate change on river discharge were assessed. To do so, a hydrological modelling was carried out considering 16 climate scenarios that include 5 General Circulation Models (GCM) from the 5th report of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), 2 statistical downscaling methods and 2 Representative Concentration Pathways. Projections for future discharge (2011-2100) were divided into three 30-year horizons (2030s, 2060s and 2090s) and a comparison was made between these time horizons and the baseline (1961-2000). The results show that the downscaling method used resulted in a higher source of uncertainty than GCM itself. In addition, the uncertainties inherent to the methods used at all the levels do not affect the results equally along the year. In spite of those uncertainties, general trends for the 2090s predict seasonal discharge decreases by around -17% in autumn, -16% in spring, -11% in winter and -7% in summer. These results are in line with those predicted for the Atlantic region (France and the Iberian Peninsula). Trends for extreme flows were also analysed: the most significant show an increase in the duration (days) of low flows. From an environmental point of view, and considering the need to meet the objectives established by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), this will be a major challenge for the future planning on water management.

  10. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project: Seismic velocity structure of the Brawley Seismic Zone, Salton Buttes and Geothermal Field, Salton Trough, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, J.; Hole, J. A.; Fuis, G. S.; Stock, J. M.; Rymer, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Salton Trough is an active rift in southern California in a step-over between the plate-bounding Imperial and San Andreas Faults. In March 2011, the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) investigated the rift's crustal structure by acquiring several seismic refraction and reflection lines. One of the densely sampled refraction lines crosses the northern-most Imperial Valley, perpendicular to the strike-slip faults and parallel to a line of small Quaternary rhyolitic volcanoes. The line crosses the obliquely extensional Brawley Seismic Zone and goes through one of the most geothermally productive areas in the United States. Well logs indicate the valley is filled by several kilometers of late Pliocene-recent lacustrine, fluvial, and shallow marine sediment. The 42-km long seismic line was comprised of eleven 110-460 kg explosive shots and receivers at a 100 m spacing. First arrival travel times were used to build a tomographic seismic velocity image of the upper crust. Velocity in the valley increases smoothly from <2 km/s to >5 km/s, indicating diagenesis and gradational metamorphism of rift sediments at very shallow depth due to an elevated geotherm. The velocity gradient is much smaller in the relatively low velocity (<6 km/s) crystalline basement comprised of recently metamorphosed sediment reaching greenschist to lower amphibolite facies. The depth of this basement is about 4-km below the aseismic region of the valley west of the Brawley Seismic Zone, but rises sharply to ~2 km depth beneath the seismically, geothermally, and volcanically active area of the Brawley Seismic Zone. The basement deepens to the northeast of the active tectonic zone and then is abruptly offset to shallower depth on the northeast side of the valley. This offset may be the subsurficial expression of a paleofault, most likely an extension of the Sand Hills Fault, which bounds the basin to the east. Basement velocity east of the fault is ~5.7 km/s, consistent with the granitic rocks

  11. High-power LED package requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Frank; Martin, Paul S.; Harbers, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Power LEDs have evolved from simple indicators into illumination devices. For general lighting applications, where the objective is to light up an area, white LED arrays have been utilized to serve that function. Cost constraints will soon drive the industry to provide a discrete lighting solution. Early on, that will mean increasing the power densities while quantum efficiencies are addressed. For applications such as automotive headlamps & projection, where light needs to be tightly collimated, or controlled, arrays of die or LEDs will not be able to satisfy the requirements & limitations defined by etendue. Ultimately, whether a luminaire requires a small source with high luminance, or light spread over a general area, economics will force the evolution of the illumination LED into a compact discrete high power package. How the customer interfaces with this new package should be an important element considered early on in the design cycle. If an LED footprint of adequate size is not provided, it may prove impossible for the customer, or end user, to get rid of the heat in a manner sufficient to prevent premature LED light output degradation. Therefore it is critical, for maintaining expected LED lifetime & light output, that thermal performance parameters be defined, by design, at the system level, which includes heat sinking methods & interface materials or methdology.

  12. Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project.

    PubMed

    d'Alquen, Daniela; De Boeck, Kris; Bradley, Judy; Vávrová, Věra; Dembski, Birgit; Wagner, Thomas O F; Pfalz, Annette; Hebestreit, Helge

    2012-02-06

    The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within

  13. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  14. Deep UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Schowalter, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photons interact strongly with a broad range of chemical and biological molecules; compact DUV light sources could enable a wide range of applications in chemi/bio-sensing, sterilization, agriculture, and industrial curing. The much shorter wavelength also results in useful characteristics related to optical diffraction (for lithography) and scattering (non-line-of-sight communication). The family of III-N (AlGaInN) compound semiconductors offers a tunable energy gap from infrared to DUV. While InGaN-based blue light emitters have been the primary focus for the obvious application of solid state lighting, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient UV and DUV light-emitting devices. In the past few years we have witnessed an increasing investment from both government and industry sectors to further the state of DUV light-emitting devices. The contributions in Semiconductor Science and Technology 's special issue on DUV devices provide an up-to-date snapshot covering many relevant topics in this field. Given the expected importance of bulk AlN substrate in DUV technology, we are pleased to include a review article by Hartmann et al on the growth of AlN bulk crystal by physical vapour transport. The issue of polarization field within the deep ultraviolet LEDs is examined in the article by Braut et al. Several commercial companies provide useful updates in their development of DUV emitters, including Nichia (Fujioka et al ), Nitride Semiconductors (Muramoto et al ) and Sensor Electronic Technology (Shatalov et al ). We believe these articles will provide an excellent overview of the state of technology. The growth of AlGaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, in contrast to the common organo-metallic vapour phase epitaxy, is discussed by Ivanov et al. Since hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has received much attention as both a UV and a two-dimensional electronic material, we believe it serves readers well to include the

  15. Scaling Critical Zone analysis tasks from desktop to the cloud utilizing contemporary distributed computing and data management approaches: A case study for project based learning of Cyberinfrastructure concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swetnam, T. L.; Pelletier, J. D.; Merchant, N.; Callahan, N.; Lyons, E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth science is making rapid advances through effective utilization of large-scale data repositories such as aerial LiDAR and access to NSF-funded cyberinfrastructures (e.g. the OpenTopography.org data portal, iPlant Collaborative, and XSEDE). Scaling analysis tasks that are traditionally developed using desktops, laptops or computing clusters to effectively leverage national and regional scale cyberinfrastructure pose unique challenges and barriers to adoption. To address some of these challenges in Fall 2014 an 'Applied Cyberinfrastructure Concepts' a project-based learning course (ISTA 420/520) at the University of Arizona focused on developing scalable models of 'Effective Energy and Mass Transfer' (EEMT, MJ m-2 yr-1) for use by the NSF Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) project. EEMT is a quantitative measure of the flux of available energy to the critical zone, and its computation involves inputs that have broad applicability (e.g. solar insolation). The course comprised of 25 students with varying level of computational skills and with no prior domain background in the geosciences, collaborated with domain experts to develop the scalable workflow. The original workflow relying on open-source QGIS platform on a laptop was scaled to effectively utilize cloud environments (Openstack), UA Campus HPC systems, iRODS, and other XSEDE and OSG resources. The project utilizes public data, e.g. DEMs produced by OpenTopography.org and climate data from Daymet, which are processed using GDAL, GRASS and SAGA and the Makeflow and Work-queue task management software packages. Students were placed into collaborative groups to develop the separate aspects of the project. They were allowed to change teams, alter workflows, and design and develop novel code. The students were able to identify all necessary dependencies, recompile source onto the target execution platforms, and demonstrate a functional workflow, which was further improved upon by one of the group leaders over

  16. The DSeis Project: Drilling into Seismogenic zones of M2.0 to M5.5 earthquakes in South African gold mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Y.; Ogasawara, H.; Ito, T.; van Aswegen, G.; Durrheim, R. J.; Cichowicz, A.; Onstott, T. C.; Kieft, T. L.; Boettcher, M. S.; Wiemer, S.; Ziegler, M.; Shapiro, S. A.; Gupta, H. K.; Dight, P.

    2017-12-01

    The DSeis project under ICDP consists of drilling in three mines; MK, TT and C4 mines. Common scientific targets among them are the stress state and the microstructure in the seismogenic zone. In addition to these targets, specific targets in individual mines are detailed below. A M5.5 earthquake occurred beneath the MK mine on 5 August 2014. The hypocenter of this event was 5km depth from the surface. In contrast to the normal faulting of induced earthquakes in mining horizons (<4km depth), the M5.5 event was a strike-slip one with an N-S striking, sub-vertical nodal plane along which aftershocks aligned. Aftershocks extend up to 3.5km depth. We established a drilling site at 2.8km depth in the mine, from where two boreholes 800m-long penetrate into the areas of high and low aftershock densities. Targets of these drilling are 1) to investigate a depth variation in the stress state from the normal faulting to the strike-slip one, 2) to know what controls the spatial variation in the aftershock activity, and 3) to explore a limit of deep life that might be trapped in Archean sediments. Our site in the TT mine is 50m under the hypocenter of a M3.2 earthquake which occurred on 28 January 2017 at 3.6km depth. Although aftershock activity recorded by the seismic network operated by the mine is low, the source fault looks to extend along or parallel to a pre-existing, N-S striking fault. Three boreholes go through the fault at the hypocenter and the northern and the southern margins of the fault to compare the stress states and the microfracture distributions. Further, monitoring of microseismicity down to M -4 and geochemistry is planned to evaluate how much is a ratio of microseismicity associated with creation of new fractures. In the C4 mine, there was the site of a previous project, in which the microseismicity monitoring and the stress measurement by the CCBO technique were carried out. A M2.8 earthquake occurred 1 year after the CCBO and its hypocenter was only

  17. Modeling Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diode (LED) Energy Propagation in Reactor Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    21 Table 4: UV Mercury Lamps , UV LED Bulbs, and Visible LED Bulb Advantages and Disadvantages...over low pressure mercury lamps include smaller size, minimal start up time, and no hazardous material. Projections show UV LEDs will follow similar

  18. What are the effects of Agro-Ecological Zones and land use region boundaries on land resource projection using the Global Change Assessment Model?

    SciTech Connect

    Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Kyle, Page; Collins, William D.

    Understanding potential impacts of climate change is complicated by spatially mismatched land representations between gridded datasets and models, and land use models with larger regions defined by geopolitical and/or biophysical criteria. Here in this study, we quantify the sensitivity of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) outputs to the delineation of Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs), which are normally based on historical (1961–1990) climate. We reconstruct GCAM's land regions using projected (2071–2100) climate, and find large differences in estimated future land use that correspond with differences in agricultural commodity prices and production volumes. Importantly, historically delineated AEZs experience spatially heterogeneous climate impacts overmore » time, and do not necessarily provide more homogenous initial land productivity than projected AEZs. Finally, we conclude that non-climatic criteria for land use region delineation are likely preferable for modeling land use change in the context of climate change, and that uncertainty associated with land delineation needs to be quantified.« less

  19. What are the effects of Agro-Ecological Zones and land use region boundaries on land resource projection using the Global Change Assessment Model?

    DOE PAGES

    Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Kyle, Page; Collins, William D.

    2016-09-03

    Understanding potential impacts of climate change is complicated by spatially mismatched land representations between gridded datasets and models, and land use models with larger regions defined by geopolitical and/or biophysical criteria. Here in this study, we quantify the sensitivity of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) outputs to the delineation of Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs), which are normally based on historical (1961–1990) climate. We reconstruct GCAM's land regions using projected (2071–2100) climate, and find large differences in estimated future land use that correspond with differences in agricultural commodity prices and production volumes. Importantly, historically delineated AEZs experience spatially heterogeneous climate impacts overmore » time, and do not necessarily provide more homogenous initial land productivity than projected AEZs. Finally, we conclude that non-climatic criteria for land use region delineation are likely preferable for modeling land use change in the context of climate change, and that uncertainty associated with land delineation needs to be quantified.« less

  20. Work zone and operation enhancements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-02-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  1. Nurse-led versus doctor-led care for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Kathryn; Royals, Karen; Carson-Chahhoud, Kristin V; Campbell, Fiona; Smith, Brian J

    2018-06-20

    Specialist nursing roles to manage stable disease populations are being used to meet the needs of both patients and health services. With increasing cost pressures on health departments, alternative models such as nurse-led care are gaining momentum as a substitute for traditional doctor-led care. This review evaluates the safety, effectiveness, and health outcomes of nurses practising in autonomous roles while using advanced practice skills, within the context of bronchiectasis management in subacute, ambulatory, and/or community care. To compare the effectiveness of nurse-led care versus doctor-led care in the management of stable bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register and bibliographies of selected papers in addition to grey literature such as electronic clinical trials registries. Searches were current as of March 2018. Randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the review. Two reviewers extracted and entered data from included studies. Primary outcomes were numbers of exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics, hospital admissions, and emergency department attendances. We included one United Kingdom (UK) study in the review. In this randomised controlled trial, a total of 80 participants, with a mean age of 58 years, were treated for 12 months by a specialist nurse or doctor, then were crossed over to the other clinician for the next 12 months. Two participants died during the study period. Six participants failed to cross over to nurse-led care because of unstable bronchiectasis. Overall, the level of study completion was high.Data show no difference in the numbers of exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics (rate ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 1.30, 80 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). Investigators reported more hospital admissions in the nurse-led care group (rate ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.23, 80 participants, moderate-certainty evidence) and did not

  2. Catalogue of Coordinates and B-Magnitudes in -20° - +2° Zone Based on the Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute Part of the Fon Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuldoshev, Q. X.; Muminov, M. M.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Relke, H.; Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Kovylianska, O. E.; Protsyuk, S. V.; Andruk, V. M.

    Catalogue of 13.4 million stars down to 17.5m was obtained in 2017 by using plates from the Kitab Observatory of Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute (UBAI) of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences. Kitab's part of Photographic Sky Survey (Russian abbreviation is FON, in next contexts) project include more than 2600 photographic plates, exposed on the Double Astrograph of Zeiss (DAZ, D/F = 40/300, 69"/mm) from 1981 to 1996. Digitization of these plates was made by using Epson Expression 10000XL scanner with the 1200 dpi resolution. Catalogue includes objects from the 1963 plates in declination zone between -20° and +2° for middle epoch 1984.97. The equatorial coordinates of objects were determined in the Tycho-2 reference system and the B-magnitudes in the system of the photoelectric standards. Five participants from Uzbekistan, Germany and Ukraine have taken part in the processing of the digitized images. The average internal accuracy of the catalogue for one observation are 0.23″ and 0.15m for the equatorial coordinates and B-magnitudes respectively. For the stars brighter than 14m the errors are 0.09″ and 0.05m respectively. The analysis of the catalogue and its comparison with the several astrometric catalogues was done.

  3. Zone lines

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  4. Standardization of UV LED measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Larason, T. C.; Yoon, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally used source spectral-distribution or detector spectral-response based standards cannot be applied for accurate UV LED measurements. Since the CIE standardized rectangular-shape spectral response function for UV measurements cannot be realized with small spectral mismatch when using filtered detectors, the UV measurement errors can be several times ten percent or larger. The UV LEDs produce broadband radiation and both their peaks or spectral bandwidths can change significantly. The detectors used for the measurement of these LEDs also have different spectral bandwidths. In the discussed example, where LEDs with 365 nm peak are applied for fluorescent crack-recognition using liquid penetrant (non-destructive) inspection, the broadband radiometric LED (signal) measurement procedure is standardized. A UV LED irradiance-source was calibrated against an FEL lamp standard to determine its spectral irradiance. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a reference UV meter was also calibrated. The output signal of the reference UV meter was calculated from the spectral irradiance of the UV source and the spectral irradiance responsivity of the reference UV meter. From the output signal, both the integrated irradiance (in the reference plane of the reference meter) and the integrated responsivity of the reference meter were determined. Test UV meters calibrated for integrated responsivity against the reference UV meter, can be used to determine the integrated irradiance from a field UV source. The obtained 5 % (k=2) measurement uncertainty can be decreased when meters with spectral response close to a constant value are selected.

  5. NASA Ames UV-LED Poster Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2015-01-01

    UV-LED is a small satellite technology demonstration payload being flown on the Saudisat-4 spacecraft that is demonstrating non-contacting charge control of an isolated or floating mass using new solid-state ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). Integrated to the rest of the spacecraft and launched on a Dnepr in June 19, 2014, the project is a collaboration between the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Stanford University, and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Beginning with its commissioning in December, 2015, the data collected by UV-LED have validated a novel method of charge control that will improve the performance of drag-free spacecraft allowing for concurrent science collection during charge management operations as well as reduce the mass, power and volume required while increasing lifetime and reliability of a charge management subsystem. UV-LED continues to operate, exploring new concepts in non-contacting charge control and collecting data crucial to understanding the lifetime of ultra-violet light emitting diodes in space. These improvements are crucial to the success of ground breaking missions such as LISA and BBO, and demonstrates the ability of low cost small satellite missions to provide technological advances that far exceed mission costs.

  6. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    the river’s edge. Less than two weeks later (March 21), the river began the spring rise. Periodic (daily) or continuous flooding occurred at the site over the next 3 to 4 months. River levels at times were over the top of the enclosure’s fence. This same pattern was repeated for the next 2 years. It was however evident that even submerged for part, or all of the day, that the plants continued to flourish. There were no indications of herbivory or animal tracks observed within the plot although animals were present in the area. Biomass production over the three years followed a typical growth curve with a yield of about 1 kg for the first year when the trees were establishing themselves, 4 kg for the second, and over 20 kg for the third when the trees were entering the exponential phase of growth. On a metric Ton per hectare (mT/ha) basis this would be 0.2 mT/ha in 2007, 0.87 mT/ha in 2008, and 4.3 mT/ha in 2009. Growth curve extrapolation predicts 13.2 mT/ha during a fourth year and potentially 29.5 mT/ha following a fifth year. Using the observed Ca and Sr concentrations found in the plant tissues, and Sr CR’s calculated from groundwater analysis, projected biomass yields suggest the trees could prove effective in removing the contaminant from the 100-NR-2 riparian zone.« less

  7. Progress in extremely high brightness LED-based light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Antonis, Piet; de Boer, Dick; Koole, Rolf; Kadijk, Simon; Li, Yun; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van De Voorde, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Although the maximum brightness of LEDs has been increasing continuously during the past decade, their luminance is still far from what is required for multiple applications that still rely on the high brightness of discharge lamps. In particular for high brightness applications with limited étendue, e.g. front projection, only very modest luminance values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps or lasers. With dedicated architectures, phosphor-converted green LEDs for projection may achieve luminance values up to 200-300 Mnit. In this paper we report on the progress made in the development of light engines based on an elongated luminescent concentrator pumped by blue LEDs. This concept has recently been introduced to the market as ColorSpark High Lumen Density LED technology. These sources outperform the maximum brightness of LEDs by multiple factors. In LED front projection, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green modules, we now have achieved peak luminance values of 2 Gnit, enabling LED-based projection systems with over 4000 ANSI lm. Extension of this concept to yellow and red light sources is presented. The light source efficiency has been increased considerably, reaching 45-60 lm/W for green under practical application conditions. The module architecture, beam shaping, and performance characteristics are reviewed, as well as system aspects. The performance increase, spectral range extensions, beam-shaping flexibility, and cost reductions realized with the new module architecture enable a breakthrough in LED-based projection systems and in a wide variety of other high brightness applications.

  8. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets tomore » validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated

  9. Tradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate-Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin; Migliorati, Massimiliano De Antoni; Cammarano, Davide; Pruneddu, Giovanni; Giunta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over

  10. Factors Effecting the Fate and Transport of CL-20 in the Vadose Zone and Groundwater: Final Report 2002 - 2004 SERDP Project CP-1255

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Riley, Robert G.; Devary, Brooks J.

    2005-06-01

    This SERDP-funded project was initiated to investigate the fate of CL-20 in the subsurface environment, with a focus on identification and quantification of geochemical and microbial reactions of CL-20. CL-20 can be released to the surface and subsurface terrestrial environment by: a) manufacturing processes, b) munition storage, and c) use with low order detonation or unexploded ordnance. The risk of far-field subsurface migration was assessed through labora-tory experiments with a variety of sediments and subsurface materials to quantify processes that control CL-20 sorption-limited migration and degradation. Results of this study show that CL-20 will exhibit differing behavior in the subsurfacemore » terrestrial environment: 1. CL-20 on the sediment surface will photodegrade and interact with plants/animals (described in other SERDP projects CU 1254, 1256). CL-20 will exhibit greater sorption in humid sediments to organic matter. Transport will be solubility limited (i.e., low CL-20 aqueous solubility). 2. CL-20 infiltration into soils (<2 m) from spills will be subject to sorption to soil organic matter (if present), and low to high biodegradation rates (weeks to years) depending on the microbial population (greater in humid environment). 3. CL-20 in the vadose zone (>2 m) will be, in most cases, subject to low sorption and low degradation rates, so would persist in the subsurface environment and be at risk for deep migration. Low water content in arid regions will result in a decrease in both sorption and the degradation rate. Measured degradation rates in unsaturated sediments of years would result in significant subsurface migration distances. 4. CL-20 in groundwater will be subject to some sorption but likely very slow degradation rates. CL-20 sorption will be greater than RDX. Most CL-20 degradation will be abiotic (ferrous iron and other transition metals), because most deep subsurface systems have extremely low natural microbial populations

  11. Research notes : helping businesses in work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-03-01

    Many business owners fear that highway construction projects will significantly reduce traffic to their businesses. Customers complain about the difficulty in finding business driveways in work zones. Drivers are guided through most work zone using o...

  12. Integrated parabolic nanolenses on MicroLED color pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demory, Brandon; Chung, Kunook; Katcher, Adam; Sui, Jingyang; Deng, Hui; Ku, Pei-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    A parabolic nanolens array coupled to the emission of a nanopillar micro-light emitting diode (LED) color pixel is shown to reduce the far field divergence. For a blue wavelength LED, the total emission is 95% collimated within a 0.5 numerical aperture zone, a 3.5x improvement over the same LED without a lens structure. This corresponds to a half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) line width reduction of 2.85 times. Using a resist reflow and etchback procedure, the nanolens array dimensions and parabolic shape are formed. Experimental measurement of the far field emission shows a HWHM linewidth reduction by a factor of 2x, reducing the divergence over the original LED.

  13. Integrated parabolic nanolenses on MicroLED color pixels.

    PubMed

    Demory, Brandon; Chung, Kunook; Katcher, Adam; Sui, Jingyang; Deng, Hui; Ku, Pei-Cheng

    2018-04-20

    A parabolic nanolens array coupled to the emission of a nanopillar micro-light emitting diode (LED) color pixel is shown to reduce the far field divergence. For a blue wavelength LED, the total emission is 95% collimated within a 0.5 numerical aperture zone, a 3.5x improvement over the same LED without a lens structure. This corresponds to a half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) line width reduction of 2.85 times. Using a resist reflow and etchback procedure, the nanolens array dimensions and parabolic shape are formed. Experimental measurement of the far field emission shows a HWHM linewidth reduction by a factor of 2x, reducing the divergence over the original LED.

  14. A Youth-Led, Social Marketing Intervention Run by Adolescents to Encourage Healthy Lifestyles among Younger School Peers (EYTO-Kids Project): A Protocol for Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Papell-Garcia, Ignasi; Arola, Lluís; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The EYTO-kids (European Youth Tackling Obesity in Adolescents and Children) study aims to increase fruit and/or vegetable consumption and physical activity, decrease sedentary lifestyles, and reduce the intake of sugary drinks and fast food using an innovative methodology based on social marketing and youth involvement. Methods: This study is a pilot school-based cluster randomized controlled 10-month intervention spanning two academic years (2015–2016 and 2016–2017), with eight primary schools and three high schools randomized into and designated the control group and eight primary schools and four high schools designated the intervention group in Reus, Spain. At least 301 younger school peers per group should be included. At the intervention high schools, the adolescent creators (ACs) receive an initial 16-h training session. In total, 26–32 high school ACs (12–14 years) from the four high schools will design and implement four health-promotion activities (1 h/each) for their younger (8–10 years), primary school peers. The control group will not receive any intervention. The outcomes (fruit, vegetable, fast food and sugary drink consumption; physical activity; and sedentary behaviors) of the control and intervention groups will be measured pre- and post-intervention. Conclusion: This study describes a protocol for pilot, peer-led, social marketing and youth-involved intervention, where adolescents design and implement activities for their younger peers to promote healthy lifestyles.

  15. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  16. LED lamp color control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  17. Improving the effectiveness of smart work zone technologies.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-11-01

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of sensor network systems for work zone traffic estimation. The comparative analysis is : performed on a work zone modeled in microsimulation and calibrated with field data from two Illinois work zones. Realis...

  18. LED instrument approach instruction display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Crouch, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A display employing light emitting diodes (LED's) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for presenting landing and navigation information to reduce the workload of general aviation pilots during IFR flight. The display consists of a paper tape reader, digital memory, control electronics, digital latches, and LED alphanumeric displays. A presentable digital countdown clock-timer is included as part of the system to provide a convenient means of monitoring time intervals for precise flight navigation. The system is a limited capability prototype assembled to test pilot reaction to such a device under simulated IFR operation. Pilot opinion indicates that the display is helpful in reducing the IFR pilots workload when used with a runway approach plate. However, the development of a compact, low power second generation display was recommended which could present several instructions simultaneously and provide information update capability. A microprocessor-based display could fulfill these requirements.

  19. Nurse-led multidisciplinary initiatives to improve outcomes and reduce hospital admissions for older adults: The Care coordination through Emergency Department, Residential Aged Care and Primary Health Collaboration project.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Elizabeth; Craswell, Alison; Taylor, Andrea; Coates, Kaye; Crilly, Julia; Broadbent, Marc; Glenwright, Amanda; Johnston, Colleen; Wallis, Marianne

    2018-04-03

    This article describes the Care coordination through Emergency Department, Residential Aged Care and Primary Health Collaboration (CEDRiC) project. CEDRiC is designed to improve the health outcomes for older people with an acute illness. It attempts this via enhanced primary care in residential aged care facilities, focused and streamlined care in the emergency department and enhanced intersectoral communication and referral. Implementing this approach has the potential to decrease inappropriate hospital admissions while improving care for older people in residential aged care and community settings. This article discusses an innovative way of caring for older adults in an ageing population utilising the existing evidence. A formal evaluation is currently underway. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  20. I-15 North Project

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-05

    Goals of this project were as follows: (1) Conduct a comprehensive evaluation study on Nevada's I-15 North Design Build Project; (2) Analyze project implementation with respect to construction zone rules by which the contractor had to abide; (3) Anal...

  1. Synthesis of research on work zone delays and simplified application of QuickZone analysis tool.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to synthesize the latest information on work zone safety and management and identify case studies in which FHWAs decision support tool QuickZone or other appropriate analysis tools could be applied. The results ...

  2. UV LED lighting for automated crystal centring

    PubMed Central

    Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Hiraki, Masahiko; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2011-01-01

    A direct outcome of the exponential growth of macromolecular crystallography is the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. As more and more projects entail screening a profusion of sample crystals, fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments are being implemented at all synchrotron facilities. One of the major obstacles to achieving such automation lies in the sample recognition and centring in the X-ray beam. The capacity of UV light to specifically react with aromatic residues present in proteins or with DNA base pairs is at the basis of UV-assisted crystal centring. Although very efficient, a well known side effect of illuminating biological samples with strong UV sources is the damage induced on the irradiated samples. In the present study the effectiveness of a softer UV light for crystal centring by taking advantage of low-power light-emitting diode (LED) sources has been investigated. The use of UV LEDs represents a low-cost solution for crystal centring with high specificity. PMID:21169682

  3. Developing Successful International Faculty Led Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Rosete, Rodrigo Tello

    2012-01-01

    Faculty Led Programs are study abroad experiences led by university professors. Faculty Led Programs are considered as an opportunity for college students, especially in the United States to attend a short-term international experience (Mills, 2010). Faculty Led Program is an international experience which is different from the traditional…

  4. Safety performance functions for freeway merge zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    This report documents the results of a research project to support CDOT in the area of Safety : Performance Function (SPF) development. The project involved collecting data and developing SPFs for : ramp-freeway merge zones categorized as isolated, n...

  5. Work Zone Design and Operations Enhancements

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-02-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  6. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Philadelphia International Airport Apron Lighting: LED System Performance in a Trial Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert G.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.

    This report documents a trial installation of LED apron lighting that replaced the existing high-pressure sodium luminaires at Philadelphia International Airport. Such high-mast applications remain challenging for LED technology, and the lessons learned from this project may help facility managers and LED product manufacturers better meet those challenges.

  7. Developing a nurse-led clinic using transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Gousy, Mamood; Green, Kim

    2015-03-25

    Nurses are at the forefront of implementing and managing change, given constantly changing healthcare services and the increase in demand for health care. Therefore, it is important to identify the best style of leadership to engage nurses in implementing service-led improvements. This article explores the effects of transformational leadership in bringing about service-led improvements in health care, using the example of setting up a nurse-led acupuncture clinic to optimise the care of patients with chronic pain. Transformational leadership was used throughout the project - from the initial local planning, training and development, through to liaising with the appropriate staff and deciding on an evaluation strategy. Transformational leadership proved to be an effective way to engage and empower nurses and other members of the chronic pain team to enable them to achieve the project aims.

  8. Evaluation of LED vehicular and pedestrian modules.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to verify the compliance of vehicular and pedestrian LED traffic signal modules with the Institute : of Transportation Engineers specifications; and to assess drivers preferences of the LED modules. Four vehicular modules ...

  9. Design of LED projector based on gradient-index lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Liyong; Zhu, Xiangbing; Cui, Haitian; Wang, Yuanhang

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new type of projector light path is designed to eliminate the deficits of existing projection systems, such as complex structure and low collection efficiency. Using a three-color LED array as the lighting source, by means of the special optical properties of a gradient-index lens, the complex structure of the traditional projector is simplified. Traditional components, such as the color wheel, relay lens, and mirror, become unnecessary. In this way, traditional problems, such as low utilization of light energy and loss of light energy, are solved. With the help of Zemax software, the projection lens is optimized. The optimized projection lens, LED, gradient-index lens, and digital micromirror device are imported into Tracepro. The ray tracing results show that both the utilization of light energy and the uniformity are improved significantly.

  10. LED-based endoscopic light source for spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Craig M.; Mayes, Samuel; Favreau, Peter; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the United States 3rd leading cancer in death rates.1 The current screening for colorectal cancer is an endoscopic procedure using white light endoscopy (WLE). There are multiple new methods testing to replace WLE, for example narrow band imaging and autofluorescence imaging.2 However, these methods do not meet the need for a higher specificity or sensitivity. The goal for this project is to modify the presently used endoscope light source to house 16 narrow wavelength LEDs for spectral imaging in real time while increasing sensitivity and specificity. The process to do such was to take an Olympus CLK-4 light source, replace the light and electronics with 16 LEDs and new circuitry. This allows control of the power and intensity of the LEDs. This required a larger enclosure to house a bracket system for the solid light guide (lightpipe), three new circuit boards, a power source and National Instruments hardware/software for computer control. The results were a successfully designed retrofit with all the new features. The LED testing resulted in the ability to control each wavelength's intensity. The measured intensity over the voltage range will provide the information needed to couple the camera for imaging. Overall the project was successful; the modifications to the light source added the controllable LEDs. This brings the research one step closer to the main goal of spectral imaging for early detection of colorectal cancer. Future goals will be to connect the camera and test the imaging process.

  11. Novel Coatings for Enhancement of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-28

    quantum efficiency of LEDs. SAIC’s strength is this area is a proprietary nonimaging optics code. In consultation with Lumileds, SAIC developed designs for...five different optical ele- ments that collect and project light from a LED. The simulations showed that the designs achieve a significant improvement... optical microscope at 100x power the coating is not visible. Fire sample 6DecO4P1 in tube furnace As a first test, sample 6Dec04P1 was progressively

  12. Novel wafer stepper with violet LED light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yung-Chiang; Shy, Shyi-Long

    2014-03-01

    Novel wafer stepper by using contact or proximity printing will be developed, using violet LED light source to replace Hg Arc. lamp or laser. Mirror, filter and condenser lens for Hg Arc. Lamp or laser and reduction lens for projection printing can be discarded. Reliability and manufacturing cost of wafer stepper can be improved. Exposure result by using IP3600 resist and wafer stepper with violet LED light source (wave-length 360nm to 410 nm) will be obtained. This novel wafer stepper can be used for 3DIC, MEMS and bio-chip lithography application by using thin and thick resist with sub-micron to 100 micron thickness.

  13. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOEpatents

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  14. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extractmore » 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the

  15. Constraints on Shallow Crustal Structure across the San Andreas Fault Zone, Coachella Valley, Southern California: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, A.; Persaud, P.; Bauer, K.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Hole, J. A.; Goldman, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strong influence of basin structure and crustal heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation suggests that these factors should be included in calculations of strong ground shaking. Knowledge of the shallow subsurface is thus essential for an accurate seismic hazard estimate for the densely populated Coachella Valley, the region north of the potential M7.8 rupture near the Salton Sea. Using SSIP data, we analyzed first arrivals from nine 65-911 kg explosive shots recorded along a profile in the Coachella Valley in order to evaluate the interpretation of our 2D tomographic results and give added details on the structural complexity of the shallow crust. The line extends 37 km from the Peninsular Ranges to the Little San Bernardino Mountains crossing the major strands of the San Andreas Fault Zone. We fit traveltime curves to our picks with forward modeling ray tracing, and determined 1D P-wave velocity models for traveltime arrivals east and west of each shot, and a 2D model for the line. We also inferred the geometry of near-vertical faults from the pre-stack line migration method of Bauer et al. (2013). In general, the 1D models east of individual shots have deeper basement contacts and lower apparent velocities, ~5 km/s at 4 km depth, whereas the models west of individual shots have shallower basement and velocities up to 6 km/s at 2 km depth. Mismatches in basement depths (assuming 5-6 km/s) between individual 1D models indicate a shallowly dipping basement, deepening eastward towards the Banning Fault and shoaling abruptly farther east. An east-dipping structure in the 2D model also gives a better fit than horizontal layers. Based on high velocity zones derived from traveltimes at 9-20 km from the western end of the line, we included an offset from ~2 km to 4 km depth near the middle of the line, which significantly improved the 2D model fit. If fault-related, this offset could represent the Garnet Hill Fault if it continues southward in the subsurface.

  16. 24 CFR 200.72 - Zoning, deed and building restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zoning, deed and building... Zoning, deed and building restrictions. The project when completed shall not violate any material zoning or deed restrictions applicable to the project site, and shall comply with all applicable building...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM PROJECT NUMBER 87016 CO-PRECIPITATION OF TRACE METALS IN GROUNDWATER AND VADOSE ZONE CALCITE: IN SITU CONTAINMENT AND STABILIZATION OF STRONTIUM-90 AND OTHER DIVALENT METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES AT ARID WESTERN DOE SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, F. Grant; Fujita, Yoshiko; Smith, Robert W.

    2004-06-15

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants are present in the vadose zone and groundwater throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants in vadose zones or groundwater is a cost-effective treatment strategy. Our facilitated approach relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal coprecipitation) by increasing groundwater pH and alkalinity (Fujita et al., 2000; Warren et al., 2001). Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface ureamore » hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation processes are irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from groundwater. The rate at which trace metals are incorporated into calcite is a function of calcite precipitation kinetics, adsorption interactions between the calcite surface and the trace metal in solution (Zachara et al., 1991), solid solution properties of the trace metal in calcite (Tesoriero and Pankow, 1996), and also the surfaces upon which the calcite is precipitating. A fundamental understanding of the coupling of calcite precipitation and trace metal partitioning, and how this occurs in aquifers and vadose environments is lacking. This report summarizes work undertaken during the second year of this project.« less

  18. ENVIRONMENTALMANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM PROJECT NUMBER 87016 CO-PRECIPITATION OF TRACEMETALS INGROUNDWATER AND VADOSE ZONE CALCITE: IN SITU CONTAINMENT AND STABILIZATION OF STRONTIUM-90 ANDOTHER DIVALENT METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES AT ARIDWESTERN DOE SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, F. Grant; Fujita, Yoshiko; Smith, Robert W.

    2004-06-15

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants are present in the vadose zone and groundwater throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants in vadose zones or groundwater is a cost-effective treatment strategy. Our facilitated approach relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal coprecipitation) by increasing groundwater pH and alkalinity (Fujita et al., 2000; Warren et al., 2001). Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface ureamore » hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation processes are irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from groundwater. The rate at which trace metals are incorporated into calcite is a function of calcite precipitation kinetics, adsorption interactions between the calcite surface and the trace metal in solution (Zachara et al., 1991), solid solution properties of the trace metal in calcite (Tesoriero and Pankow, 1996), and also the surfaces upon which the calcite is precipitating. A fundamental understanding of the coupling of calcite precipitation and trace metal partitioning, and how this occurs in aquifers and vadose environments is lacking. This report summarizes work undertaken during the second year of this project.« less

  19. White LED sources for vehicle forward lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Derlofske, John F.; McColgan, Michele W.

    2002-11-01

    Considerations for the use of white light emitting diode (LED) sources to produce illumination for automotive forward lighting is presented. Due to their reliability, small size, lower consumption, and lower heat generation LEDs are a natural choice for automotive lighting systems. Currently, LEDs are being sucessfully employed in most vehicle lighting applications. In these applications the light levels, distributions, and colors needed are achievable by present LED technologies. However, for vehicle white light illumination applications LEDs are now only being considered for low light level applications, such as back-up lamps. This is due to the relatively low lumen output that has been available up to now in white LEDs. With the advent of new higher lumen packages, and with the promise of even higher light output in the near future, the use of white LEDs sources for all vehicle forward lighting applications is beginning to be considered. Through computer modeling and photometric evaluation this paper examines the possibilities of using currently available white LED technology for vehicle headlamps. It is apparent that optimal LED sources for vehicle forward lighting applications will be constructed with hereto undeveloped technology and packaging configurations. However, the intent here in exploring currently available products is to begin the discussion on the design possibilities and significant issues surrounding LEDs in order to aid in the design and development of future LED sources and systems. Considerations such as total light output, physical size, optical control, power consumption, color appearance, and the effects of white LED spectra on glare and peripheral vision are explored. Finally, conclusions of the feasibility of current LED technology being used in these applications and recommendations of technology advancements that may need to occur are made.

  20. A brief history of LED photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Jandt, Klaus D; Mills, Robin W

    2013-06-01

    The majority of modern resin-based oral restorative biomaterials are cured via photopolymerization processes. A variety of light sources are available for this light curing of dental materials, such as composites or fissure sealants. Quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) light curing units (LCUs) have dominated light curing of dental materials for decades and are now almost entirely replaced by modern light emitting diode light curing units (LED LCUs). Exactly 50 years ago, visible LEDs were invented. Nevertheless, it was not before the 1990s that LEDs were seriously considered by scientists or manufactures of commercial LCUs as light sources to photopolymerize dental composites and other dental materials. The objective of this review paper is to give an overview of the scientific development and state-of-the-art of LED photopolymerization of oral biomaterials. The materials science of LED LCU devices and dental materials photopolymerized with LED LCU, as well as advantages and limits of LED photopolymerization of oral biomaterials, are discussed. This is mainly based on a review of the most frequently cited scientific papers in international peer reviewed journals. The developments of commercial LED LCUs as well as aspects of their clinical use are considered in this review. The development of LED LCUs has progressed in steps and was made possible by (i) the invention of visible light emitting diodes 50 years ago; (ii) the introduction of high brightness blue light emitting GaN LEDs in 1994; and (iii) the creation of the first blue LED LCUs for the photopolymerization of oral biomaterials. The proof of concept of LED LCUs had to be demonstrated by the satisfactory performance of resin based restorative dental materials photopolymerized by these devices, before LED photopolymerization was generally accepted. Hallmarks of LED LCUs include a unique light emission spectrum, high curing efficiency, long life, low energy consumption and compact device form factor. By

  1. Can homogeneous harvest zones magnify the terroir effect of every vintage? The three year project VignaCRU in Chianti D.O.C.G. (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, Simone; Bianconi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Mocali, Stefano; Pellegrini, Sergio; Leprini, Marco; Perria, Rita; Storchi, Paolo; Ciambotti, Aldo; Dell'Oro, Valentina; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Grape composition, which affects the wine sensory qualities, depends on vine features (rootstock, scion, vine health) and vineyard management as much as environmental factors. Mapping soil at the vineyard scale, in particular, helps in optimizing the terroir expression of the wine. The terroir effect however varies year by year, depending on the interaction of several factors, such as climate and soil. Aim of this research work was to set up a methodology to delineate homogeneous harvest zones (HZ) in the vineyard and to evaluate the vintage effect in them. Four terroir macro-units suitable for premium Sangiovese wine, which is the main cultivar of Chianti D.O.C.G., were selected within a wide farm of Chianti Classico district (Siena, Central Italy). The selected macro-units are representative of the most common and suitable viticultural environments of the Chianti Classico D.O.C.G. and include: 1) hills of high altitude (450-500 m a.s.l.) on feldspathic sandstones, with shallow sandy soils; 2) hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on calcareous flysches, with stony, clayey and calcareous soils; 3) hills of moderate altitude (250-350 m a.s.l.) on Pliocene sandy marine deposits; 4) hills and fluvial terraces of moderate altitude (200-300 m a.s.l., 50-100 m above the present river valley) on ancient fluvial deposits. Each terroir macro-unit was surveyed by soil proximal sensing, to define two homogeneous zones (HZs) in terms of soil physics and hydrology. The proximal sensors used to map the HZs were: i) γ-ray spectrometer, to map the variability of soil surface in terms of parent material, texture and stoniness; ii) electromagnetic induction sensor (EMI) to determine the spatial variability of texture and soil moisture in the sub-surface horizons. Thus, the soil moisture of each HZ was monitored during spring shoot growth (beginning of April), berries veraison (end of July-beginning of August) and final ripening phase before harvest (September). Three

  2. White LED visible light communication technology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  3. Thermoresponsive scattering coating for smart white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jurica; Verbunt, Paul P C; Lin, Wan-Yu; Han, Yang; Van, My-Phung; Cornelissen, Hugo J; Yu, Joan J H; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Broer, Dirk J

    2014-12-15

    White light emitting diode (LED) systems, capable of lowering the color temperature of emitted light on dimming, have been reported in the literature. These systems all use multiple color LEDs and complex control circuitry. Here we present a novel responsive lighting system based on a single white light emitting LED and a thermoresponsive scattering coating. The coated LED automatically emits light of lower correlated color temperature (CCT) when the power is reduced. We also present results on the use of multiple phosphors in the white light LED allowing for the emission of warm white light in the range between 2900 K and 4150 K, and with a chromaticity complying with the ANSI standards (C78.377). This responsive warm white light LED-system with close-to-ideal emission characteristics is highly interesting for the lighting industry.

  4. Miniature LED endoilluminators for vitreoretinal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessling, M.; Koelbl, P. S.; Lingenfelder, C.; Koch, F.

    2015-07-01

    Two innovative approaches for intraocular illumination during vitreoretinal surgery by application of white LEDs are being developed. Both techniques are less harmful to the patient, more convenient for the surgeon and smaller and cheaper compared to conventional illumination by Xenon light sources and optical fibers. These two novel approaches are: I) The miniature LED chandelier endoilluminator consisting of a single white LED with a "light probe" on top of the LED housing that fits in a small incision in the wall of the eye. II) The alternative transscleral LED endoilluminator is integrated into an eye speculum that presses the flat LED top against the eye. The intraocular space is only illuminated by light transmitted through the sclera. In contrast to conventional illumination techniques for vitreoretinal surgery no incision is necessary. Both approaches are evaluated with regard to potential photochemical and thermal risks for the patient's retina and they are tested on porcine eyes.

  5. What are the effects of Agro-Ecological Zones and land use region boundaries on land resource projection using the Global Change Assessment Model?

    SciTech Connect

    Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Kyle, Page; Collins, William D.

    Understanding the potential impacts of climate change is complicated by mismatched spatial representations between gridded Earth System Models (ESMs) and Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), whose regions are typically larger and defined by geopolitical and biophysical criteria. In this study we address uncertainty stemming from the construction of land use regions in an IAM, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), whose regions are currently based on historical climatic conditions (1961-1990). We re-define GCAM’s regions according to projected climatic conditions (2070-2099), and investigate how this changes model outcomes for land use, agriculture, and forestry. By 2100, we find potentially large differences inmore » projected global and regional area of biomass energy crops, fodder crops, harvested forest, and intensive pasture. These land area differences correspond with changes in agricultural commodity prices and production. These results have broader implications for understanding policy scenarios and potential impacts, and for evaluating and comparing IAM and ESM simulations.« less

  6. Nurse-led treatment for occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Pike, Denise; Amphlett, Alexander; Weatherby, Stuart

    Occipital neuralgia is a headache resulting from dysfunction of the occipital nerves. Medically resistant occipital neuralgia is treated by greater occipital nerve injection, which is traditionally performed by neurologists. A nurse-led clinic was developed to try to improve the service. Patient feedback showed that the clinic was positively perceived by patients, with most stating the nurse-led model was more efficient than the previous one, which had been led by consultants.

  7. Refrigerated display case lighting with LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2002-11-01

    The rapid development of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs) has triggered many applications, especially in the area of display lighting. This paper focuses on the application of white LEDs in refrigerated display cases. The fluorescent lighting presently used in commercial refrigerators is inefficient in the application and also it provides poor lighting for merchandising. A laboratory human factors experiment was conducted to assess the preference for the different lighting systems, namely, fluorescent and LED. Two refrigerated display cases, one with the traditional fluorescent lighting system and the other with a prototype LED lighting system, were placed side-by-side in a laboratory setting. Illuminance measurements made within the two display cases showed that the lighting was more uniform with the LED system compared to the traditional fluorescent system. Sixteen human subjects participated in this study and rated their preference for the two lighting systems. The results show that human subjects strongly preferred the display case with the LED lighting. The authors of this manuscript believe a field study would be greatly beneficial to further confirm these results and to understand the relationship between preference and sales. Considering the luminous efficacy of white LEDs presently available in the marketplace, it is possible to develop a LED based lighting system for commercial refrigerators that is competitive with fluorescent lighting system in terms of energy use. The LED based lighting would provide better lighting than traditional fluorescent lighting.

  8. LED lighting efficacy: Status and directions

    DOE PAGES

    Morgan Pattison, Paul; Hansen, Monica; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    2017-12-28

    A monumental shift from conventional lighting technologies (incandescent, fluorescent, high intensity discharge) to LED lighting is currently transpiring. The primary driver for this shift has been energy and associated cost savings. LED lighting is now more efficacious than any of the conventional lighting technologies with room to still improve. Near term, phosphor converted LED packages have the potential for efficacy improvement from 160 lm/W to 255 lm/W. Longer term, color-mixed LED packages have the potential for efficacy levels conceivably as high as 330 lm/W, though reaching these performance levels requires breakthroughs in green and amber LED efficiency. LED package efficacymore » sets the upper limit to luminaire efficacy, with the luminaire containing its own efficacy loss channels. In this paper, based on analyses performed through the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Lighting Program, various LED and luminaire loss channels are elucidated, and critical areas for improvement identified. Beyond massive energy savings, LED technology enables a host of new applications and added value not possible or economical with previous lighting technologies. These include connected lighting, lighting tailored for human physiological responses, horticultural lighting, and ecologically conscious lighting. Finally, none of these new applications would be viable if not for the high efficacies that have been achieved, and are themselves just the beginning of what LED lighting can do.« less

  9. LED Illuminators for the SNAP Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Amit; Baptista, B.; Mufson, S.; Mostek, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Supernova Acceleration Probe, or SNAP, is a proposed satellite mission that will study dark energy to better understand what is driving the universe's accelerated expansion. One of the goals of SNAP is to control systematic color uncertainties to less than 2%. The work described here is directed at the development of a flight calibration illumination system for SNAP that minimizes systematic errors in color. The system is based on LEDs as the illumination lamps. LEDs are compact, long-lived, and low power illuminators, which make them attractive for space missions lasting several years. This poster discusses optical measurements of pulsed, thermally controlled LEDs obtained from commercial vendors. Measurements over short (over the span of one day) and long (over the span of weeks) time scales have shown that the irradiance of the LEDs we tested is constant at the 0.3% level. In these measurements we paid particular attention to the influence of junction heating. Measurements of LED irradiance versus the duty cycle of the pulsed LED show that in general the LED irradiance increases as the junction temperature increases. Additionally, the FWHM of the spectrum also increases as the temperature increases. However, measurements of LED irradiance versus temperature as regulated a by a thermal controller circuit, show that the LED irradiance decreases as the temperature increases. This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation under grant AST-0452975 (REU-Site to Indiana U.).

  10. LED lighting efficacy: Status and directions

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan Pattison, Paul; Hansen, Monica; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    A monumental shift from conventional lighting technologies (incandescent, fluorescent, high intensity discharge) to LED lighting is currently transpiring. The primary driver for this shift has been energy and associated cost savings. LED lighting is now more efficacious than any of the conventional lighting technologies with room to still improve. Near term, phosphor converted LED packages have the potential for efficacy improvement from 160 lm/W to 255 lm/W. Longer term, color-mixed LED packages have the potential for efficacy levels conceivably as high as 330 lm/W, though reaching these performance levels requires breakthroughs in green and amber LED efficiency. LED package efficacymore » sets the upper limit to luminaire efficacy, with the luminaire containing its own efficacy loss channels. In this paper, based on analyses performed through the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Lighting Program, various LED and luminaire loss channels are elucidated, and critical areas for improvement identified. Beyond massive energy savings, LED technology enables a host of new applications and added value not possible or economical with previous lighting technologies. These include connected lighting, lighting tailored for human physiological responses, horticultural lighting, and ecologically conscious lighting. Finally, none of these new applications would be viable if not for the high efficacies that have been achieved, and are themselves just the beginning of what LED lighting can do.« less

  11. Solution of multi-element LED light sources development automation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Peretyagin, Vladimir S.

    2014-09-01

    The intensive development of LED technologies resulted in the creation of multicomponent light sources in the form of controlled illumination devices based on usage of mentioned LED technologies. These light sources are used in different areas of production (for example, in the food industry for sorting products or in the textile industry for quality control, etc.). The use of LED lighting products in the devices used in specialized lighting, became possible due to wide range of colors of light, LED structures (which determines the direction of radiation, the spatial distribution and intensity of the radiation, electrical, heat, power and other characteristics), and of course, the possibility of obtaining any shade in a wide dynamic range of brightness values. LED-based lighting devices are notable for the diversity of parameters and characteristics, such as color radiation, location and number of emitters, etc. Although LED technologies have several advantages, however, they require more attention if you need to ensure a certain character of illumination distribution and/or distribution of the color picture at a predetermined distance (for example, at flat surface, work zone, area of analysis or observation). This paper presents software designed for the development of the multicomponent LED light sources. The possibility of obtaining the desired color and energy distribution at the zone of analysis by specifying the spatial parameters of the created multicomponent light source and using of real power, spectral and color parameters and characteristics of the LEDs is shown as well.

  12. Effects of fluid-rock interactions on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from fault rock samples retrieved from international drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Yabe, Y.; Sulem, J.; Dresen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical and mechanical effects of fluids influence the fault mechanical behavior. We analyzed fresh fault rocks from several scientific drilling projects to study the effects of fluids on fault strength. For example, in drill core samples on a rupture plane of an Mw 2.2 earthquake in a deep gold mine in South Africa the main shock occurred on a preexisting plane of weakness that was formed by fluid-rock interaction (magnesiohornblende was intensively altered to chlinochlore). The plane acted as conduit for hydrothermal fluids at some time in the past. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault core samples from SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes and healing were initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. Newly formed phyllosilicates growing into open pore spaces likely reduced the fluid permeability. The mechanical influence of fluids is indicated by TEM observations, which document open pores that formed in-situ in the gouge material during or after deformation. Pores were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting elevated fluid pressure preventing pore collapse. Fluid-driven healing of fractures in samples from SAFOD and the DGLab Gulf of Corinth project is visible in cementation. Cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL) reveals different generations of calcite veins. Differences in CL-colors suggest repeated infiltration of fluids with different chemical composition from varying sources (formation and meteoric water).

  13. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Marginal Zone Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Yolanda; Turner, Jennifer J.; Paltiel, Ora; Slager, Susan L.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Norman, Aaron D.; Cerhan, James R.; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Becker, Nikolaus; Cocco, Pierluigi; Dogan, Ahmet; Nieters, Alexandra; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Kane, Eleanor V.; Smedby, Karin E.; Maynadié, Marc; Spinelli, John J.; Roman, Eve; Glimelius, Bengt; Wang, Sophia S.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), comprised of nodal, extranodal, and splenic subtypes, accounts for 5%–10% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. A detailed evaluation of the independent effects of risk factors for MZL and its subtypes has not been conducted. Methods Data were pooled from 1052 MZL cases (extranodal [EMZL] = 633, nodal [NMZL] = 157, splenic [SMZL] = 140) and 13766 controls from 12 case–control studies. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Novel findings for MZL subtypes include increased risk for B-cell activating autoimmune conditions (EMZL OR = 6.40, 95% CI = 4.24 to 9.68; NMZL OR = 7.80, 95% CI = 3.32 to 18.33; SMZL OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 1.49 to 12.14), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (EMZL OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 2.48 to 11.28), self-reported peptic ulcers (EMZL OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.35 to 2.49), asthma without other atopy (SMZL OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.23 to 4.23), family history of hematologic cancer (EMZL OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.37 to 2.62) and of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NMZL OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.98), permanent hairdye use (SMZL OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 1.54 to 28.17), and occupation as a metalworker (NMZL OR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.67 to 7.58). Reduced risks were observed with consumption of any alcohol (EMZL fourth quartile OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.82) and lower consumption of wine (NMZL first to third quartile ORs < 0.45) compared with nondrinkers, and occupation as a teacher (EMZL OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.88). Conclusion Our results provide new data suggesting etiologic heterogeneity across MZL subtypes although a common risk of MZL associated with B-cell activating autoimmune conditions was found. PMID:25174026

  14. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for marginal zone lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Paige M; Benavente, Yolanda; Turner, Jennifer J; Paltiel, Ora; Slager, Susan L; Vajdic, Claire M; Norman, Aaron D; Cerhan, James R; Chiu, Brian C H; Becker, Nikolaus; Cocco, Pierluigi; Dogan, Ahmet; Nieters, Alexandra; Holly, Elizabeth A; Kane, Eleanor V; Smedby, Karin E; Maynadié, Marc; Spinelli, John J; Roman, Eve; Glimelius, Bengt; Wang, Sophia S; Sampson, Joshua N; Morton, Lindsay M; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), comprised of nodal, extranodal, and splenic subtypes, accounts for 5%-10% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. A detailed evaluation of the independent effects of risk factors for MZL and its subtypes has not been conducted. Data were pooled from 1052 MZL cases (extranodal [EMZL] = 633, nodal [NMZL] = 157, splenic [SMZL] = 140) and 13766 controls from 12 case-control studies. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Novel findings for MZL subtypes include increased risk for B-cell activating autoimmune conditions (EMZL OR = 6.40, 95% CI = 4.24 to 9.68; NMZL OR = 7.80, 95% CI = 3.32 to 18.33; SMZL OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 1.49 to 12.14), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (EMZL OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 2.48 to 11.28), self-reported peptic ulcers (EMZL OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.35 to 2.49), asthma without other atopy (SMZL OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.23 to 4.23), family history of hematologic cancer (EMZL OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.37 to 2.62) and of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NMZL OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.98), permanent hairdye use (SMZL OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 1.54 to 28.17), and occupation as a metalworker (NMZL OR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.67 to 7.58). Reduced risks were observed with consumption of any alcohol (EMZL fourth quartile OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.82) and lower consumption of wine (NMZL first to third quartile ORs < 0.45) compared with nondrinkers, and occupation as a teacher (EMZL OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.88). Our results provide new data suggesting etiologic heterogeneity across MZL subtypes although a common risk of MZL associated with B-cell activating autoimmune conditions was found. Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  15. Balancing the costs of mobility investments in work zones : phase 1 final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-06-01

    Work zone safety and mobility continue to be critical transportation concerns in Michigan and elsewhere. : Previous research has led to the development of a variety of tools, performance measures and decision-making frameworks to analyze work zone sa...

  16. Materials and Designs for High-Efficacy LED Light Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James; Gresback, Ryan

    Cree, Inc. conducted a narrow-band downconverter (NBD) materials development and implementation program which will lead to warm-white LED light engines with enhanced efficacy via improved spectral efficiency with respect to the human eye response. New red (600-630nm) NBD materials could result in as much as a 20% improvement in warm-white efficacy at high color quality relative to conventional phosphor-based light sources. Key program innovations included: high quantum yield; narrow peak width; minimized component-level losses due to “cross-talk” and light scattering among red and yellow-green downconverters; and improved reliability to reach parity with conventional phosphors. NBD-enabled downconversion efficiency gains relative tomore » conventional phosphors yielded an end-of-project LED light engine efficacy of >160 lm/W at room temperature and 35 A/cm2, with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of ~3500K and >90 CRI (Color Rending Index). NBD-LED light engines exhibited equivalent luminous flux and color point maintenance at >1,000 hrs. of highly accelerated reliability testing as conventional phosphor LEDs. A demonstration luminaire utilizing an NBD-based LED light engine had a steady-state system efficacy of >150 lm/W at ~3500K and >90 CRI, which exceeded the 2014 DOE R&D Plan luminaire milestone for FY17 of >150 lm/W at just 80 CRI.« less

  17. Understanding and controlling chromaticity shift in LED devices

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael

    Chromaticity shift in light-emitting diode (LED) devices arises from multiple mechanisms, and at least five different chromaticity shift modes (CSMs) have been identified to date. This paper focuses on the impacts of irreversible phosphor degradation as a cause of chromaticity shifts in LED devices. The nitride phosphors used to produce warm white LEDs are especially vulnerable to degradation due to thermal and chemical effects such as reactions with oxygen and water. As a result, LED devices utilizing these phosphors were found to undergo either a green shift or, less commonly, a red shift depending on the phosphor mix in themore » LED devices. These types of chromaticity shifts are classified as CSM-2 (green shift) and CSM-5 (red shift). This paper provides an overview of the kinetic processes responsible for green and red chromaticity shifts along with examples from accelerated stress testing of 6” downlights. Both CSMs appear to proceed through analogous mechanisms that are initiated at the surface of the phosphor. A green shift is produced by the surface oxidation of the nitride phosphor that changes the emission profile to lower wavelengths. As the surface oxidation reaction proceeds, reactant limitations slow the rate and bulk oxidation processes become more prevalent. We found that a red chromaticity shift arises from quenching of the green phosphor, also possibly due to surface reactions of oxygen, which shift the emission chromaticity in the red direction. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings on projecting chromaticity.« less

  18. Work zone positive protection guidelines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this project was to develop implementation guidance that the Texas Department of : Transportation (TxDOT) can use to make better decisions regarding when and where to use positive : protection in work zones and when to consider exposure c...

  19. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators,…

  20. LED traffic signal lamp characteristics : executive summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-05-01

    LED traffic signal lamps are being used to replace incandescent traffic signal lamps because of the long-term cost saving associated with reduced energy consumption and longer service life. The are reasons to believe that the use of LED traffic signa...

  1. LED traffic signal lamp characteristics : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-05-01

    LED traffic signal lamps are being used to replace incandescent traffic signal lamps because of : the long-term cost saving associated with reduced energy consumption and longer service life. The are reasons to believe that the use of LED traffic sig...

  2. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  3. Infrastructure and mechanical properties of a fault zone in sandstone as an outcrop analogue of a potential geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, J. F.; Meier, S.; Philipp, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Due to high drilling costs of geothermal projects, it is economically sensible to assess the potential suitability of a reservoir prior to drilling. Fault zones are of particular importance, because they may enhance fluid flow, or be flow barriers, respectively, depending on their particular infrastructure. Outcrop analogue studies are useful to analyze the fault zone infrastructure and thereby increase the predictability of fluid flow behavior across fault zones in the corresponding deep reservoir. The main aims of the present study are to 1) analyze the infrastructure and the differences of fracture system parameters in fault zones and 2) determine the mechanical properties of the faulted rocks. We measure fracture frequencies as well as orientations, lengths and apertures and take representative rock samples for each facies to obtain Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths in the laboratory. Since fractures reduce the stiffnesses of in situ rock masses we use an inverse correlation of the number of discontinuities to calculate effective (in situ) Young's moduli to investigate the variation of mechanical properties in fault zones. In addition we determine the rebound hardness, which correlates with the compressive strength measured in the laboratory, with a 'Schmidt-Hammer' in the field because this allows detailed maps of mechanical property variations within fault zones. Here we present the first results for a fault zone in the Triassic Lower Bunter of the Upper Rhine Graben in France. The outcrop at Cleebourg exposes the damage zone of the footwall and a clear developed fault core of a NNW-SSE-striking normal fault. The approximately 15 m wide fault core consists of fault gouge, slip zones, deformation bands and host rock lenses. Intensive deformation close to the core led to the formation of a distal fault core, a 5 m wide zone with disturbed layering and high fracture frequency. The damage zone also contains more fractures than the host rock

  4. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  5. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants

    Treesearch

    Andrew D. Bower; J. Bradley St.Clair; Vicky Erickson

    2014-01-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum...

  6. Work zone performance monitoring application development.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires state transportation agencies to (a) collect and analyze safety and mobility data to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects during construction and (b) improve overall agency processes a...

  7. Port authority transportation reinvestment zone : executive summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-01

    The transportation reinvestment zone (TRZ) is a relatively new tool for infrastructure finance : that allows governmental entities with taxing authority to set aside funds for local match : contributions for transportation projects and capture the la...

  8. Remote monitoring of LED lighting system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2016-09-01

    The concept of connected lighting systems using LED lighting for the creation of intelligent buildings is becoming attractive to building owners and managers. In this application, the two most important parameters include power demand and the remaining useful life of the LED fixtures. The first enables energy-efficient buildings and the second helps building managers schedule maintenance services. The failure of an LED lighting system can be parametric (such as lumen depreciation) or catastrophic (such as complete cessation of light). Catastrophic failures in LED lighting systems can create serious consequences in safety critical and emergency applications. Therefore, both failure mechanisms must be considered and the shorter of the two must be used as the failure time. Furthermore, because of significant variation between the useful lives of similar products, it is difficult to accurately predict the life of LED systems. Real-time data gathering and analysis of key operating parameters of LED systems can enable the accurate estimation of the useful life of a lighting system. This paper demonstrates the use of a data-driven method (Euclidean distance) to monitor the performance of an LED lighting system and predict its time to failure.

  9. Thermal management of LEDs: package to system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, Mehmet; Becker, Charles A.; Weaver, Stanton E.; Petroski, James

    2004-01-01

    Light emitting diodes, LEDs, historically have been used for indicators and produced low amounts of heat. The introduction of high brightness LEDs with white light and monochromatic colors have led to a movement towards general illumination. The increased electrical currents used to drive the LEDs have focused more attention on the thermal paths in the developments of LED power packaging. The luminous efficiency of LEDs is soon expected to reach over 80 lumens/W, this is approximately 6 times the efficiency of a conventional incandescent tungsten bulb. Thermal management for the solid-state lighting applications is a key design parameter for both package and system level. Package and system level thermal management is discussed in separate sections. Effect of chip packages on junction to board thermal resistance was compared for both SiC and Sapphire chips. The higher thermal conductivity of the SiC chip provided about 2 times better thermal performance than the latter, while the under-filled Sapphire chip package can only catch the SiC chip performance. Later, system level thermal management was studied based on established numerical models for a conceptual solid-state lighting system. A conceptual LED illumination system was chosen and CFD models were created to determine the availability and limitations of passive air-cooling.

  10. Clinician-led, peer-led, and internet-delivered dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs: Acute effectiveness of these delivery modalities.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M

    2017-09-01

    Because independent trials have provided evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of the dissonance-based Body Project eating disorder prevention program, the present trial tested whether clinicians produce the largest intervention effects, or whether delivery can be task-shifted to less expensive undergraduate peer educators or to Internet delivery without effect size attenuation, focusing on acute effects. In this study, 680 young women (M age = 22.2 years, SD = 7.1) recruited at colleges in 2 states were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups, peer-led Body Project groups, the Internet-based eBody Project, or an educational video control condition. Participants in all 3 variants of the Body Project intervention showed significantly greater reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms than did educational video controls. Participants in clinician-led and peer-led Body Project groups showed significantly greater reductions in risk factors than did eBody Project participants, but effects for the 2 types of groups were similar. Eating disorder onset over 7-month follow-up was significantly lower for peer-led Body Project group participants versus eBody Project participants (2.2% vs. 8.4%) but did not differ significantly between other conditions. The evidence that all 3 dissonance-based prevention programs outperformed an educational video condition, that both group-based interventions outperformed the Internet-based intervention in risk factor reductions, and that the peer-led groups showed lower eating disorder onset over follow-up than did the Internet-based intervention is novel. These acute-effects data suggest that both group-based interventions produce superior eating disorder prevention effects than does the Internet-based intervention and that delivery can be task-shifted to peer leaders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. R&D100: LED Pulser

    ScienceCinema

    Pickett, Lyle; Manin, Julien; Eagle, Ethan

    2018-06-12

    A Sandia National Laboratories' light emitting diode (LED) driver is generating light pulses with shorter duration higher repetition frequency and higher brightness than anything on the market. The Sandia LED Pulser uses custom electronic circuitry to drive high-power LEDs to generate short, bright, high frequency light pulses. A single device can emit up to four different colors - each with independent pulse timing - crucial for light-beam forming in many optical applications and is more economical than current light sources such as lasers.

  12. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  13. "Use Condoms for Safe Sex!" Youth-Led Video Making and Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa; MacEntee, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Situated at the intersection between child-led visual methods and sex education, this paper focuses on the potential of youth-led video making to enable young people to develop guiding principles to inform their own sexual behaviour. It draws on findings from a video-making project carried out with a group of South African young people, which…

  14. Developing Sustainable Farmer-Led Extension Groups: Lessons from a Bangladeshi Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Md. Mofakkarul; Gray, David; Reid, Janet; Kemp, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The limited effectiveness and fiscal unsustainability of professional-led public sector extension systems in developing countries have aroused considerable interest in Farmer-led Extension (FLE) approaches in the recent decades. A key challenge facing these initiatives is a lack of sustainability of the farmer groups developed through project or…

  15. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This fact sheet reviews the major design and specification concerns for outdoor area lighting, and discusses the potential for LED luminaires to save energy while providing high quality lighting for outdoor areas.

  16. Adapting radio technology to LED feedback systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsbury, Marc; Ashdown, Ian

    2007-09-01

    Superheterodyne techniques were originally developed for radio transmission and reception nearly a century ago. In this paper we explore the adaptation of this technology to the problem of simultaneously monitoring the intensities of multiple LED channels with a single photosensor. The use of superheterodyne techniques obviates the need for multiple photosensors filters and tristimulus color filters to monitor the relative intensities of red, green, and blue LEDs. In addition, they alleviate the problems of electrical and optical noise, as well as the influence of ambient illumination on the photosensors. They can also be used to advantage with phosphor-coated white light LEDs in solid state lighting systems. Taking a broader view, the use of such techniques demonstrates the value of looking outside the realm of conventional LED power and control technologies when designing solid state lighting systems.

  17. LED traffic signal management system : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    This research originated from the opportunity to develop a methodology to assess when LED (Light Emitting Diode) traffic signal modules begin to fail to meet the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) performance specification for luminous inten...

  18. Significant growth in. LED use predicted.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Mike

    2012-03-01

    Although LED lighting has its critics, a number of whom (see article 'LED--panacea or marketing hype', HEJ--February 2012) are concerned about what they claim are some manufacturers' 'exaggerated claims' about lighting efficiency and lamp lifetime, Philips Lighting believes that, such are the advances being made in this innovative lighting technology, that LED's overall share of the European lighting market will have risen from around 7% in 2008 to 25% by 2020 and that, a decade later, it will account for a remarkable 75% of lighting sales. In the UK, Philips' technical and design director for Lighting, Mike Simpson, told HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, healthcare estates and facilities managers are increasingly recognising the potential to save energy, reduce carbon emissions, and cut maintenance costs, using LED.

  19. Controllable light beam shaper in LED lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nessemon, K. D.; Popov, I. V.; Belyaev, V. V.; Belyaev, A. A.; Velichko, V. K.

    2018-03-01

    A design of an LED lamp with controllable shape and intensity of the light beam formed is described. The effect is achieved by dividing the light irradiating area for four section and their special fixation and fastening.

  20. Methods for converting industrial zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, L.; Kosyakov, E.; Polyakova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    In this article, industrial zones of Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong were considered. Competitive projects aimed at developing the grey belt of Saint Petersburg were considered. The methodology of the survey of reconstruction of the industrial zone of Hong Kong is also analyzed. The potential of the city’s grey belt lies in its location on the border of the city’s historical centre. Rational use of this potential will make it possible to achieve numerous objectives, including development of the city’s transport infrastructure, positioning of business functions, and organization of housing and the city’s system of green public spaces.

  1. LED luminaire longevity strategy models comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Hugo; Thibault, Simon; Martel, Alain A.

    2010-08-01

    As energy efficiency becomes more and more important, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a promising alternative to traditional lighting. Indeed, the energy efficiency of LEDs is still improving as their luminosity is modulated by current. Moreover, for applications such as exterior lamp posts, their small size, directionality, colors and high frequency response allow to combine them and provide design possibilities which are impossible with any other light source. However, as any lamp, LEDs have a lumen depreciation which is a function of both current and temperature. Thus, to take advantage of the full characteristics of LEDs, LED luminaire longevity strategies must be carefully studied and planned, especially since the IES and CIE guidelines state clearly that the luminaire must maintain the rated recommended light level until the end of the system's operating life. The recommended approach for LED luminaire specification is therefore to use the end-of-life light level when evaluating the luminaire. Different power supply strategies have been simulated to determine which one maximizes energy saving and lifetime. With these results, it appears that active control can save at least 25% in energy, but the best strategy cannot be determined because of uncertainties in luminosity degradation models.

  2. Side-emitting illuminators using LED sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Van Derlofske, John F.

    2003-11-01

    This study investigates illuminators composed of light emitting diode (LED) array sources and side-emitting light guides to provide efficient general illumination. Specifically, new geometries are explored to increase the efficiency of current systems while maintaining desired light distribution. LED technology is already successfully applied in many illumination applications, such as traffic signals and liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting. It provides energy-efficient, small-package, long-life, and color-adjustable illumination. However, the use of LEDs in general illumination is still in its early stages. Current side-emitting systems typically use a light guide with light sources at one end, an end-cap surface at the other end, and light releasing sidewalls. This geometry introduces efficiency loss that can be as high as 40%. The illuminators analyzed in this study use LED array sources along the longitude of a light guide to increase the system efficiency. These new geometries also provide the freedom of elongating the system without sacrificing system efficiency. In addition, alternative geometries can be used to create white light with monochromatic LED sources. As concluded by this study, the side-emitting illuminators using LED sources gives the possibility of an efficient, distribution-controllable linear lighting system.

  3. Investigation of Passive Filter for LED Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwono, Edi; Facta, Mochammad; Handoko, Susatyo

    2017-04-01

    Light Emitting Diode lamp or LED lamp is one of the energy saving lamps nowadays widely used by consumers. However, LED lamp has contained harmonics caused by the rectifier circuit inside the lamp. Harmonics cause a quality problem in power system. As the harmonics present in current or voltage, the waveforms are distorted. Harmonics can lead to overheating in magnetic core of electrical equipments. In this paper, several tests are carried out to investigate the harmonic content of voltage and currents, and also the level of light intensity of the two brands of LED lamps. Measurements in this study are conducted by using HIOKI Power Quality Analyzer 3197. The test results show that the total harmonic distortion or THD of voltage on various brands of LED lamps did not exceed 5% as in compliance to the limit of IEEE standard 519-1992. The largest harmonic voltage is 2.9%, while maximum harmonic current for tested brands of LED lamp is 170.6%. The use of low pass filter in the form of LC filter was proposed. Based on experimental results, the application of LC filter at input side of LED lamp has successfully reduced THD current in the range of 85%-88%.

  4. Estimation of traffic impacts at work zones : state of the practice.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the safety and mobility impacts of work zones across the project development phases of road construction and maintenance projects is an emphasis area of the Federal Highway Administration's Final Rule on Work Zone Safety and Mobility1 (Fina...

  5. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  6. The Equatorial Coordinates and B-Magnitudes of the Stars in the Southern Hemisphere Zones Based on the Digitized Astronegatives of FON Project at the Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuldoshev, Q. X.; Muminov, M. M.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Usmanov, O. U.; Relke, H.; Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Kovylianska, O. E.; Protsyuk, S. V.; Andruk, V. N.

    FON (Russian abbreviation of the Photographic Sky Survey) were carried out at 6 observatories. The Kitab Observatory (KO) of Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute (UBAI) of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences (UzAS) was involved in this project from 1981 to 1996. For the observations the Double Astrograph of Zeiss (DAZ, D/F = 40/300, 69"/mm) was used. On the FON project about 2600 photographic plates were exposed. In October, 2015 digitization of these astroplates were started using EPSON Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner with the spatial resolution of 1200 dpi and completed in June, 2016. The first stage of the work is the processing of the 2000 photographic plates in zones of the southern hemisphere with the declination between 0 and -20 degrees. The 1704 plates have already been processed. The equatorial coordinates α, δ of stars and galaxies were determined in the system of the Tycho2 catalogue and the Bmagnitudes in the system of the photoelectric standards. UBAI UzAS, Tashkent (Uzbekistan), ASU, Andijan (Uzbekistan), WHO, Essen (Germany), RI NAO, Nikolaev (Ukraine), MAO NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine) have taken part in the processing of the digitized images. For the data reduction the MIDAS package and software, developed in the MAO NASU were used. Based on the results of the processing of the astronegatives in the sectors of right ascension from 0 hours to 24 hours and declination from - 20° to 0° the internal errors of the catalogue were estimated. The errors calculated for all stars are 0.17" and 0.18m respectively. For the stars brighter than 14 magnitude the errors are 0.08" and 0.07m for the equatorial coordinates and B-magnitudes respectively.

  7. Thermal Analysis of LED Phosphor Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Ukwatte Lokuliyanage Indika Upendra

    Solid-state lighting technology has progressed to a level where light-emitting diode (LED) products are either on par or better than their traditional lighting technology counterparts with respect to efficacy and lifetime. At present, the most common method to create "white" light from LEDs for illumination applications is by using the LED primary radiation and wavelength-converting materials. In this method, the re-emission from the wavelength-converting materials excited by the LED primary radiation is combined with the LED primary radiation to create the "white" light. During this conversion process, heat is generated as a result of conversion inefficiencies and other loss mechanisms in the LED and the wavelength-converting materials. This generated heat, if not properly dissipated, increases the operating temperature, thereby increasing the light output degradation of the system over both the short and long term. The heat generation of the LED and thermal management of the LED have been studied extensively. Methods to effectively dissipate heat from the LEDs and maintain lower LED operating temperature are well understood. However, investigation of factors driving heat generation, the resulting temperature distribution in the phosphor layer, and the influence of the phosphor layer temperature on LED performance and reliability have not received the same focus. The goal of this dissertation was to understand the main factors driving heat and light generation and the transport of light and heat in the wavelength-converting layer of an LED system. Another goal was to understand the interaction between heat and light in the system and to develop and analyze a solution to reduce the wavelength-converting layer operating temperature, thereby improving light output and reliability. Even though past studies have explored generation and transfer separately for light and heat, to the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first study that has analyzed both factors

  8. Design of axisymmetrical tailored concentrators for LED light source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Giel, Bart; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2006-04-01

    In our contribution we present a solution to an important question in the design of a LED-based illumination engine for projection systems: the collimation of the LED light. We tested the principle in the modification of a common device in non-imaging optics, the compound Parabolic Concentrator. This CPC-like achieves a collection of 72% (ideal reflective coating presumed). This CPC-like was tailored by numerically solving an differential equation. This approach has some serious drawbacks. For a compact collection device with high collimation, an other approach is required. A more elegant design strategy will rely fully on geometrical principles. The result of our work is a compound collection lens that achieves a collection efficiency of 87%, assuming an ideal reflective coating and neglecting Fresnel losses. We study the performance of this device in detail. Further enhancements are suggested.

  9. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  10. Modeling the radiation pattern of LEDs.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ivan; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2008-02-04

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) come in many varieties and with a wide range of radiation patterns. We propose a general, simple but accurate analytic representation for the radiation pattern of the light emitted from an LED. To accurately render both the angular intensity distribution and the irradiance spatial pattern, a simple phenomenological model takes into account the emitting surfaces (chip, chip array, or phosphor surface), and the light redirected by both the reflecting cup and the encapsulating lens. Mathematically, the pattern is described as the sum of a maximum of two or three Gaussian or cosine-power functions. The resulting equation is widely applicable for any kind of LED of practical interest. We accurately model a wide variety of radiation patterns from several world-class manufacturers.

  11. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-09-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode Laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED"s for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  12. Choosing surgical lighting in the LED era.

    PubMed

    Knulst, Arjan J; Stassen, Laurents P S; Grimbergen, Cornelis A; Dankelman, Jenny

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the illumination characteristics of LED lights objectively to ease the selection of surgical lighting. The illuminance distributions of 5 main and 4 auxiliary lights were measured in 8 clinically relevant scenarios. For each light and scenario, the maximum illuminance E(c) (klux) and the size of the light field d(10) (mm) were computed. The results showed: that large variations for both E(c) (25-160 klux) and d(10) (109-300 mm) existed; that using auxiliary lights reduced both E(c) and d(10) by up to 80% and 30%; that with segmented lights, uneven light distributions occurred; and that with colored LED lights shadow edges on the surgical field became colored. Objective illuminance measurements show a wide variation between lights and a superiority of main over auxiliary lights. Uneven light distributions and colored shadows indicate that LED lights still need to converge to an optimal design.

  13. 15 CFR 400.23 - Criteria for grants of authority for zones and subzones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... whether to issue a grant of authority for a zone project: (1) The need for zone services in the port of entry area, taking into account existing as well as projected international trade related activities and... government support, as indicated by the compatibility of the zone project with the community's master plan or...

  14. LED Device Illuminates New Path to Healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Among NASA s research goals is increased understanding of factors affecting plant growth, including the effects of microgravity. Impeding such studies, traditional light sources used to grow plants on Earth are difficult to adapt to space flight, as they require considerable amounts of power and produce relatively large amounts of heat. As such, an optimized experimental system requires much less energy and reduces temperature variance without negatively affecting plant growth results. Ronald W. Ignatius, founder and chairman of the board at Quantum Devices Inc. (QDI), of Barneveld, Wisconsin, proposed using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the photon source for plant growth experiments in space. This proposition was made at a meeting held by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, a NASA-sponsored research center that facilitates the commercialization of robotics, automation, and other advanced technologies. The Wisconsin group teamed with QDI to determine whether an LED system could provide the necessary wavelengths and intensities for photosynthesis, and the resultant system proved successful. The center then produced the Astroculture3, a plant growth chamber that successfully incorporated this LED light source, which has now flown on several space shuttle missions. NASA subsequently identified another need that could be addressed with the use of LEDs: astronaut health. A central concern in astronaut health is maintaining healthy growth of cells, including preventing bone and muscle loss and boosting the body s ability to heal wounds all adversely affected by prolonged weightlessness. Thus, having determined that LEDs can be used to grow plants in space, NASA decided to investigate whether LEDs might be used for photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT).

  15. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  16. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  17. LED module with high index lens

    SciTech Connect

    Bierhuizen, Serge J.; Wang, Nanze Patrick; Eng, Gregory W.

    2016-07-05

    An array of housings with housing bodies and lenses is molded, or an array of housing bodies is molded and bonded with lenses to form an array of housings with housing bodies and lenses. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are attached to the housings in the array. An array of metal pads may be bonded to the back of the array or insert molded with the housing array to form bond pads on the back of the housings. The array is singulated to form individual LED modules.

  18. Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Jia; Wang, Te-Yuan; Huang, Kuang-Lung; Liu, Te-Shu; Tsai, Ming-Da; Lin, Chin-Tang

    2012-05-07

    We present a simple freeform lens design method for an application to LED collimating illumination. The method is derived from a basic geometric-optics analysis and construction approach. By using this method, a highly collimating lens with LED chip size of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm and optical simulation efficiency of 86.5% under a view angle of ± 5 deg is constructed. To verify the practical performance of the lens, a prototype of the collimator lens is also made, and an optical efficiency of 90.3% with a beam angle of 4.75 deg is measured.

  19. An LED solar simulator for student labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Manuel I.

    2017-05-01

    Measuring voltage-current and voltage-power curves of a photovoltaic module is a nice experiment for high school and undergraduate students. In labs where real sunlight is not available this experiment requires a solar simulator. A prototype of a simulator using LED lamps has been manufactured and tested, and a comparison with classical halogen simulators has been performed. It is found that LED light offers lower levels of irradiance, but much better performance in terms of module output for a given irradiance.

  20. Use of intelligent transportation systems in rural work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    This project defined an approach to integrating data collected and traveler information displayed in a work zone : with a regional transportation management center and/or other state websites. The project conducted a literature : review to define the...

  1. Work zone design and operation enhancements : final report, March 2010.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-02-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  2. Design of an Oximeter Based on LED-LED Configuration and FPGA Technology

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovic, Radovan; Karadaglic, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel SpO2 measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption. PMID:23291575

  3. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results inmore » the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.« less

  4. Dimming LEDs with Phase-Cut Dimmers: The Specifier's Process for Maximizing Success

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2013-10-01

    This report reviews how phase-cut dimmers work, how LEDs differ from the incandescent lamps that the dimmers were historically designed to control, and how these differences can lead to complications when trying to dim LEDs. Compatibility between a specific LED source and a specific phase-cut dimmer is often unknown and difficult to assess, and ensuring compatibility adds complexity to the design, specification, bidding, and construction observation phases for new buildings and major remodel projects. To maximize project success, this report provides both general guidance and step-by-step procedures for designing phase-controlled LED dimming on both new and existing projects, as wellmore » as real-world examples of how to use those procedures.« less

  5. Engineering a "Contact Zone" through Translanguaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Francesca; Dabre, Tejane

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot project which uses a translanguaging approach in order to subvert the power dynamics whereby language learners, refugees and migrants are positioned as defective or ineffective communicators of a target language. The project seeks to create a space, an engineered "contact zone" in which the negative,…

  6. Comparison of instructor-led versus peer-led debriefing in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Kelly, Michelle; Ha, Eun Ho

    2016-06-01

    Despite its widespread support, the most effective simulation-based debriefing method has little evidence to support its efficacy. In this study, we compared the effect of peer-led and instructor-led debriefing among nursing students. The study was conducted with a non-equivalent control group using a pretest-post-test design. A convenience sample of third-year nursing students was used for the study, where 65 students enrolled in a 2-week clinical placement rotation were randomly assigned to the instructor-led group or peer-led group. The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills, satisfaction with simulation, and quality of debriefing in the peer-led group were compared to those in the instructor-led group. Group differences at each testing interval were analyzed using independent t-test. Nursing students in the instructor-led debriefing group showed better subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance, more satisfaction with simulation experience, and higher debriefing scores compared to the peer-led group. From our study, instructor-led debriefing is an effective method in improving skills performance, inducing favorable satisfaction, and providing better quality of debriefing among nursing students. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. LED traffic signal management system : tech summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    The light source of a signal module is comprised of an array of multiple individual light emitting diodes (LEDs). : Fading of the array over its operational life is a serious concern of traffic engineers throughout the nation. The : Institute of Tran...

  8. Child-Led Enquiry in Primary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Lynda; Compton, Kirsty; Clarke, Linda; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and evaluates the application of a child-led approach to scientific enquiry (the Community of Scientific Enquiry, CoSE) to children aged 8-11 (Key Stage 2) in Northern Ireland. Primary teachers were introduced to CoSE at a workshop and asked to evaluate its implementation with their class. Results from children (n = 364)…

  9. Portrait of a Teacher-Led School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazareno, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a school with no principal and with a leadership structure that holds teachers accountable for the learning of all students. About 50 such teacher-led schools currently operate across the United States, and this article tells the story of one of them. The Mathematics and Science Leadership Academy (MSLA) in Denver, Colorado, serves about…

  10. Photomatrix LED therapy of extensive cutaneous pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharova, I. Z.; Leviev, Dmitry O.; Tsarev, V. N.; Sarantsev, V. P.; Krusic, Joze

    2000-05-01

    Standard sources of radiation have not sufficient efficiency at treating spatially extended pathology, especially when pathologic areas involve opposite sides of the human being's body or when they are uneven in shape. The typical examples of such pathology are extensive burns, oedema, inflammatory processes, infectious wounds, actinic keratosis, psoriasis, arthritis and neurological diseases. Superbright LEDs gathered in a matrix and grasping the area of irradiation are the most suitable sources of radiation. This article presents the result of investigation of the effectiveness of various types of the blue-to-infrared spectrum range LED array that allow irradiating a surface with an area from several cm2 to several thousand cm2 including the whole human being's body with the intensity varying from 1 to 100 mW/cm2. Besides the matrixes, composed of separate light diodes, modular systems with separate monolithic hybrid chips with a high density of positioning the sources of radiation are considered. The peculiarities and results of applying such systems to treat oedema, cancer, weight regulation, neurological diseases, different infections diseases in combination with PDT, stomatitis and paradontosis are analyzed. The parameters of the photomatrix LED for different spectral regions and different geometry from flat shape to semispherical and cylindrical are presented. The perspective combination photomatrix LED with another therapeutical devices including photovacuum and photomagnetic therapy are considered.

  11. LED firm rejects Nobel laureate's olive branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Nobel laureate Shuji Nakamura says that he is not going to try and improve relations with his former employer, which he sued in 2001 over his development of the blue light-emitting diode (LED), after receiving a snub from them last month.

  12. An LED Solar Simulator for Student Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González, Manuel I.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring voltage-current and voltage-power curves of a photovoltaic module is a nice experiment for high school and undergraduate students. In labs where real sunlight is not available this experiment requires a solar simulator. A prototype of a simulator using LED lamps has been manufactured and tested, and a comparison with classical halogen…

  13. Student-Led Conferences: Students Taking Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauss, Sherri A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the many challenges that face middle grade students, parents, and teachers is the student's lack of ownership of their academic achievements. Student-led conferences are a unique way to engage the student and the parent in the academic progress. Parents and teachers discuss the student's attitude toward the work, the student's work ethic in…

  14. Business-led efforts to control costs.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, P J

    1991-07-29

    Business-led initiatives to compare medical quality and prices are becoming commonplace as employers seek ways to cap medical expenses. But employers are meeting with varying degrees of cooperation from hospitals. The tale of two cities' efforts to pry open the secrets of controlling costs provides a vivid contrast in the way purchasers have tried to solve the cost-containment puzzle.

  15. LED Lighting in a Performing Arts Building

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N. J.; Kaye, S. M.; Coleman, P. M.

    At the University of Florida in Gainesville, the DOE Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY program evaluated LED architectural and theatrical lighting in four academic/performance-related spaces within the Nadine McGuire Theatre + Dance Pavilion. Due to a wise choice of products and luminaire light distributions, the change brought significant quality improvements including improved controllability and color.

  16. Faculty-led Teams: Key Success Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dance-Bennink, Terry; Kincaid, Kate; Groombridge, Tracy

    Sir Sandford Fleming College in Ontario, Canada is in the process of transforming itself from a teaching-based college to a student-centered organization. Faculty-led teams are a critical element in this transformation. With active support from its faculty union, Fleming has reduced its administrative ranks by one-third and created a host of teams…

  17. Electrical efficiency and droop in MQW LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutenko, V. K.

    2014-02-01

    It is believed that low power conversion efficiency in commercial MQW LEDs occurs as a result of efficiency droop, current-induced dynamic degradation of the internal quantum efficiency, injection efficiency, and extraction efficiency. Broadly speaking, all these "quenching" mechanisms could be referred to as the optical losses. The vast advances of high-power InGaN and AlGaInP MQW LEDs have been achieved by addressing these losses. In contrast to these studies, in this paper we consider an alternative approach to make high-power LEDs more efficient. We identify current-induced electrical efficiency degradation (EED) as a strong limiting factor of power conversion efficiency. We found that EED is caused by current crowding followed by an increase in current-induced series resistance of a device. By decreasing the current spreading length, EED also causes the optical efficiency to degrade and stands for an important aspect of LED performance. This paper gives scientists the opportunity to look for different attributes of EED.

  18. Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borba, John A.; Olvera, Cherise M.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the six-stage process used at Gustine Middle School for student-led parent-teacher conferences. Discusses how this encourages students to participate actively in evaluating their own progress, which motivates them toward personal initiatives to inspire learning, and improves student communication about learning with both parents and…

  19. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer andmore » adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.« less

  20. LED solution for E14 candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Ye; Boonekamp, Erik P.; Shi, Lei; Mei, Yi; Jiang, Tan; Guo, Qing; Wu, Huarong

    2009-08-01

    On a short to medium term, energy efficient retrofit LED products can offer an attractive solution for traditional lamps replacement in existing fixtures. To comply with user expectations, LED retrofit lamps should not only have the same mechanical interface to fit (socket and shape), but also have the similar light effect as the lamps they replace. The decorative lighting segment shows the best conditions to meet these requirements on short term. In 2008, Philips Lighting Shanghai started with the development of an LED candle lamp for the replacement of a 15W Candle shape (B35 E14) incandescent bulb, which is used in e.g. chandeliers. In this decorative application the main objective is not to generate as much light as possible, but the application requires the lamp to have a comparable look and, primarily, the same light effect as the incandescent candle lamp. This effect can be described as sparkling light, and it has to be directed sufficiently downwards (i.e., in the direction of the base of the lamp). These requirements leave very limited room for optics, electronics, mechanics and thermal design to play with in the small outline of this lamp. The main voltage AC LED concept is chosen to save the space for driver electronics. However the size of the AC LED is relatively big, which makes the optical design challenging. Several optical solutions to achieve the required light effect, to improve the optical efficiency, and to simplify the system are discussed. A novel prismatic lens has been developed which is capable of transforming the Lambertian light emission from typical high power LEDs into a butter-fly intensity distribution with the desired sparkling light effect. Thanks to this lens no reflecting chamber is needed, which improves the optical efficiency up to 70%, while maintaining the compact feature of the original optics. Together with advanced driver solution and thermal solution, the resulting LED candle lamp operates at 230V, consumes 1.8W, and

  1. LED mini-lidar as minimum setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tatsuo

    2014-10-01

    The LED mini-lidar has been designed and demonstrated as the near range atmosphere monitoring, dust and gas detections. The LED lamp is used as a lidar light source. It is not a special one, and just used as a small status indicator or a spot luminaire. For the atmospheric monitoring in the near range of a few hundreds meters, the energy of 1nJ (=100mW/10ns) is enough for lidar observation in the nighttime. The LED lamp is excited at the high repetition frequency of < 1MHz. The signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by this high frequency even if the receiving photons are a little at each pulse. It is adequate because the spatiotemporal scale of the low-altitude atmosphere is small of a ten seconds and a few tens meters. To pursue such quick motion of the atmosphere and dust, the high-speed photon counter has been developed. It can act with BIN width of 4ns (Spatial resolution 0.6m) at the repetition frequency of <500kHz. The LED mini-lidar has been demonstrated to monitor the actual atmosphere of the observation range of <500m in the nighttime and <100m in the daytime with the receiving lens of 200mmφ. The interest approach is tired to distinguish the dust characteristics by using the counting rate of dust echoes. It is effective in the case that the dust material is given. And for trial, the LED mini-Raman-lidar is developed to monitor certain gas detection in near distance, too.

  2. Contact Zone: Missoula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-23

    A rock outcrop dubbed "Missoula," near Marias Pass on Mars, is seen in this image mosaic taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager on NASA's Curiosity rover. Pale mudstone (bottom of outcrop) meets coarser sandstone (top) in this geological contact zone, which has piqued the interest of Mars scientists. White mineral veins that fill fractures in the lower rock unit abruptly end when they meet the upper rock unit. Such clues help scientists understand the possible timing of geological events. First, the fine sediment that now forms the lower unit would have hardened into rock. It then would have fractured, and groundwater would have deposited calcium sulfate minerals into the fractures. Next, the coarser sediment that forms the upper unit would have been deposited. The area pictured is about 16 inches (40 centimeters) across. The image was taken on the 1,031st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 1, 2015). MAHLI was built by Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19829

  3. The ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the sub-polar front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone; ECO-MAR project strategy and description of the sampling programme 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priede, Imants G.; Billett, David S. M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Inall, Mark; Miller, Peter I.; Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Fujii, Toyonobu

    2013-12-01

    The ECOMAR project investigated photosynthetically-supported life on the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between the Azores and Iceland focussing on the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone area in the vicinity of the sub-polar front where the North Atlantic Current crosses the MAR. Repeat visits were made to four stations at 2500 m depth on the flanks of the MAR in the years 2007-2010; a pair of northern stations at 54°N in cold water north of the sub-polar front and southern stations at 49°N in warmer water influenced by eddies from the North Atlantic Current. At each station an instrumented mooring was deployed with current meters and sediment traps (100 and 1000 m above the sea floor) to sample downward flux of particulate matter. The patterns of water flow, fronts, primary production and export flux in the region were studied by a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements. Sonar, tow nets and profilers sampled pelagic fauna over the MAR. Swath bathymetry surveys across the ridge revealed sediment-covered flat terraces parallel to the axis of the MAR with intervening steep rocky slopes. Otter trawls, megacores, baited traps and a suite of tools carried by the R.O.V. Isis including push cores, grabs and a suction device collected benthic fauna. Video and photo surveys were also conducted using the SHRIMP towed vehicle and the R.O.V. Isis. Additional surveying and sampling by landers and R.O.V. focussed on the summit of a seamount (48°44‧N, 28°10‧W) on the western crest of the MAR between the two southern stations.

  4. Perceived Learning Effectiveness of a Course Facebook Page: Teacher-Led versus Student-Led Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tugrul, Tugba Orten

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to compare the perceived effectiveness of teacher-led and student-led content management approaches embraced in a course Facebook page designed to enhance traditional classroom learning. Eighty-five undergraduate marketing course students voluntarily completed a questionnaire composed of two parts; a depiction of a course…

  5. EDITORIAL: Micro-pixellated LEDs for science and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Martin D.; Neil, Mark A. A.

    2008-05-01

    This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics highlights micro-pixellated gallium nitride light-emitting diodes or `micro-LEDs', an emerging technology offering considerable attractions for a broad range of scientific and instrumentation applications. It showcases the results of a Research Councils UK (RCUK) Basic Technology Research programme (http://bt-onethousand.photonics.ac.uk), running from 2004-2008, which has drawn together a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional research partnership to develop these devices and explore their potential. Images of LEDs Examples of GaN micro-pixel LEDs in operation. Images supplied courtesy of the Guest Editors. The partnership, of physicists, engineers and chemists drawn from the University of Strathclyde, Heriot-Watt University, the University of Sheffield and Imperial College London, has sought to move beyond the established mass-market uses of gallium nitride LEDs in illumination and lighting. Instead, it focuses on specialised solid-state micro-projection devices the size of a match-head, containing up to several thousand individually-addressable micro-pixel elements emitting light in the ultraviolet or visible regions of the spectrum. Such sources are pattern-programmable under computer control and can project into materials fixed or high-frame rate optical images or spatially-controllable patterns of nanosecond excitation pulses. These materials can be as diverse as biological cells and tissues, biopolymers, photoresists and organic semiconductors, leading to new developments in optical microscopy, bio-sensing and chemical sensing, mask-free lithography and direct writing, and organic electronics. Particular areas of interest are multi-modal microscopy, integrated forms of organic semiconductor lasers, lab-on-a-chip, GaN/Si optoelectronics and hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor structures. This Cluster Issue contains four invited papers and ten contributed papers. The invited papers serve to set

  6. Improved InGaN LED System Efficacy and Cost via Droop Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wildeson, Isaac

    Efficiency droop is a non-thermal process intrinsic to indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) in which the external quantum efficiency (EQE) decreases with increasing drive current density. Mitigating droop would allow one to reduce the size of LEDs driven at a given current or to drive LEDs of given size at higher current while maintaining high efficiencies. In other words, droop mitigation can lead to significant gains in light output per dollar and/or light output per watt of input power. This project set an EQE improvement goal at high drive current density which was to be attained by improvingmore » the LED active region design and growth process following a droop mitigation strategy. The interactions between LED active region design parameters and efficiency droop were studied by modeling and experiments. The crystal defects that tend to form in more complex LED designs intended to mitigate droop were studied with advanced characterization methods that provided insight into the structural and electronic properties of the material. This insight was applied to improve the epitaxy process both in terms of active region design and optimization of growth parameters. The final project goals were achieved on schedule and an epitaxy process leading to LEDs with EQE exceeding the project target was demonstrated.« less

  7. Internationalization and Faculty-Led Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Geoffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, Madison Area Technical College (Madison College), a comprehensive community college in Madison, Wisconsin, was selected by the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs (ECA) to head a consortium project to expand the capacity of community colleges to offer study-abroad programs. The project focuses on…

  8. The Black Mountain tectonic zone--a reactivated northeast-trending crustal shear zone in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: Chapter D in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Day, Warren C.; Alienikoff, John N.; Saltus, Richard W.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Mountain tectonic zone in the YukonTanana terrane of east-central Alaska is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can been traced across Black Mountain in the southeast corner of the Big Delta 1°×3° degree quadrangle. Geologic mapping in the larger scale B1 quadrangle of the Big Delta quadrangle, in which Black Mountain is the principal physiographic feature, has revealed a continuous zone of normal and left-lateral strikeslip high-angle faults and shear zones, some of which have late Tertiary to Quaternary displacement histories. The tectonic zone includes complexly intruded wall rocks and intermingled apophyses of the contiguous mid-Cretaceous Goodpaster and Mount Harper granodioritic plutons, mafic to intermediate composite dike swarms, precious metal mineralization, early Tertiary volcanic activity and Quaternary fault scarps. These structures define a zone as much as 6 to 13 kilometers (km) wide and more than 40 km long that can be traced diagonally across the B1 quadrangle into the adjacent Eagle 1°×3° quadrangle to the east. Recurrent activity along the tectonic zone, from at least mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary, suggests the presence of a buried, fundamental tectonic feature beneath the zone that has influenced the tectonic development of this part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The tectonic zone, centered on Black Mountain, lies directly above a profound northeast-trending aeromagnetic anomaly between the Denali and Tintina fault systems. The anomaly separates moderate to strongly magnetic terrane on the northwest from a huge, weakly magnetic terrane on the southeast. The tectonic zone is parallel to the similarly oriented left-lateral, strike-slip Shaw Creek fault zone 85 km to the west.

  9. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-05-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED's for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  10. Optical design of a LED searchlight system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chen; Xu, Haiping; Liang, Jinhua; Liu, Yunfei; Yuan, Zengquan

    2018-01-01

    A 1200m visible searchlight system is designed based on photometry and application of geometric optics. To generate intensity distribution of this relatively powerful light beam we propose to use a high power LED and several refractive optical elements, which are composed of two plane-convex lenses and a conventional Fresnel lens. Two plane-convex lenses enable refraction of the side rays from the LED to the front direction which incident on the Fresnel lens. Fresnel lens, in its turn, concentrate the light flux and provide a nearly collimated beam to meet the requirement of forming a well-illuminated area across the road in the far field. Simulation data shows that this searchlight allow generating an appropriate illumination distribution for the long range requirements. A proof-of-concept prototype producing acceptable illuminance is developed.

  11. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2016-11-01

    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  12. Nurse-led management of contraceptive services.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emma

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the role of the practice nurse (PN) in the provision of health assessment for contraceptive choices. PNs who have an extended role as an independent nurse prescriber must demonstrate the principles of safe prescribing practice, with appropriate and informed assessment of the patient's needs and risk within the limited time of a general practice appointment. With continued professional development, PNs are well placed to provide comprehensive, independent nurse-led contraceptive services.

  13. LED downlights with non-circular spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkyn, William A.; Pelka, David G.

    2005-09-01

    The ubiquitous downlight inhabits our ceilings by the millions. Hot, inefficient, and electrically wasteful, it is next in line for replacement by the latest high-brightness, high-efficacy white LEDs. The conventional downlight configuration of a large incandescent spotlight in a low-cost, ceiling-recessed metal can, represents the culmination of old technology, fated never to improve significantly. Incandescent downlights add greatly both to direct and indirect electrical consumption, with the lamps requiring relatively frequent replacement. The small size of LED emitters means small optical elements can produce much higher-quality beams than incandescent spotlight-lamps can produce. Herein we introduce compact high-luminosity LED downlights with lenses that deliver uniform illumination to delimited targets such as tables. One version utilizes circular lenses and micro-diffuser films to deliver square outputs. The other uses lenses cut to the target shape. In particular, one of these lenses is the first to offer a semicircular spot suitable for gambling tables.

  14. Landscape ecological security response to land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runsen; Pu, Lijie; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    As coastal development becomes a national strategy in Eastern China, land use and landscape patterns have been affected by reclamation projects. In this study, taking Rudong County, China as a typical area, we analyzed land use change and its landscape ecological security responses in the tidal flat reclamation zone. The results show that land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone is characterized by the replacement of natural tidal flat with agricultural and construction land, which has also led to a big change in landscape patterns. We built a landscape ecological security evaluation system, which consists of landscape interference degree and landscape fragile degree, and then calculated the landscape ecological security change in the tidal flat reclamation zone from 1990 to 2008 to depict the life cycle in tidal flat reclamation. Landscape ecological security exhibited a W-shaped periodicity, including the juvenile stage, growth stage, and maturation stage. Life-cycle analysis demonstrates that 37 years is required for the land use system to transform from a natural ecosystem to an artificial ecosystem in the tidal flat reclamation zone.

  15. A new approach to preparation of standard LEDs for luminous intensity and flux measurement of LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung-Nam; Park, Seongchong; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2006-09-01

    This work presents an alternative approach for preparing photometric standard LEDs, which is based on a novel functional seasoning method. The main idea of our seasoning method is simultaneously monitoring the light output and the junction voltage to obtain quantitative information on the temperature dependence and the aging effect of the LED emission. We suggested a general model describing the seasoning process by taking junction temperature variation and aging effect into account and implemented a fully automated seasoning facility, which is capable of seasoning 12 LEDs at the same time. By independent measurements of the temperature dependence, we confirmed the discrepancy of the theoretical model to be less than 0.5 % and evaluate the uncertainty contribution of the functional seasoning to be less than 0.5 % for all the seasoned samples. To demonstrate assigning the reference value to a standard LED, the CIE averaged LED intensity (ALI) of the seasoned LEDs was measured with a spectroradiometer-based instrument and the measurement uncertainty was analyzed. The expanded uncertainty of the standard LED prepared by the new approach amounts to be 4 % ~ 5 % (k=2) depending on color without correction of spectral stray light in the spectroradiometer.

  16. Tedese Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buforn, E.; Davila, J. Martin; Bock, G.; Pazos, A.; Udias, A.; Hanka, W.

    The TEDESE (Terremotos y Deformacion Cortical en el Sur de España) project is a joint project of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) and Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando, Cadiz (ROA) supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia with the participation of the GeoforschungZen- trum, Potsdam (GFZ). The aim is to carry out a study of the characteristics of the oc- currence and mechanism of earthquakes together with measurements of crustal struc- ture and deformations in order to obtain an integrated evaluation of seismic risk in southern Spain from. As part of this project a temporal network of 10 broad-band seismological stations, which will complete those already existing in the zone, have been installed in southern Spain and northern Africa for one year beginning in October 2001. The objectives of the project are the study in detail of the focal mechanisms of earthquakes in this area, of structural in crust and upper mantle, of seismic anisotropy in crust and mantle as indicator for tectonic deformation processed and the measure- ments of crustal deformations using techniques with permanent GPS and SLR stations and temporary GPS surveys. From these studies, seismotectonic models and maps will be elaborated and seismic risk in the zone will be evaluated.

  17. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  18. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  19. Complexity analysis of the cost effectiveness of PI-led NASA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, J.; Cowdin, M.; Mize, T.; Kellogg, R.; Bearden, D.

    For the last 20 years, NASA has allowed Principal Investigators (PIs) to manage the development of many unmanned space projects. Advocates of PI-led projects believe that a PI-led implementation can result in a project being developed at lower cost and shorter schedule than other implementation modes. This paper seeks to test this hypothesis by comparing the actual costs of NASA and other comparable projects developed under different implementation modes. The Aerospace Corporation's Complexity-Based Risk Assessment (CoBRA) analysis tool is used to normalize the projects such that the cost can be compared for equivalent project complexities. The data is examined both by complexity and by launch year. Cost growth will also be examined for any correlation with implementation mode. Defined in many NASA Announcements of Opportunity (AOs), a PI-led project is characterized by a central, single person with full responsibility for assembling a team and for the project's scientific integrity and the implementation and integrity of all other aspects of the mission, while operating under a cost cap. PIs have larger degrees of freedom to achieve the stated goals within NASA guidelines and oversight. This study leverages the definitions and results of previous National Research Council studies of PI-led projects. Aerospace has defined a complexity index, derived from mission performance, mass, power, and technology choices, to arrive at a broad representation of missions for purposes of comparison. Over a decade of research has established a correlation between mission complexity and spacecraft development cost and schedule. This complexity analysis, CoBRA, is applied to compare a PI-led set of New Frontiers, Discovery, Explorers, and Earth System Science Pathfinder missions to the overall NASA mission dataset. This reveals the complexity trends against development costs, cost growth, and development era.

  20. Wheat Under LED's (Light Emitting Diodes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants, and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  1. LED-technologies for bright light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhta, M. S.; Sidorenko, E. V.; Simutkin, G. G.; Khomushku, O. M.; Glushkov, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    The significance of the LED-based medical equipment design is caused by the need to make up for the sunshine shortfall in many areas of Russia (Siberia, the Far East, the Extreme North) that will allow reducing dramatically the risk of seasonal affective disorders. The sunshine is the essential synchronizer of the human biological rhythms, the abnormality of which plays an important role in the seasonal affective disorder nature. The study allows proving the object database development able to meet the human demand for a comfortable and high-quality placemaking as well as the health potential recoverability.

  2. Child-led enquiry in primary science

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Lynda; Compton, Kirsty; Clarke, Linda; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and evaluates the application of a child-led approach to scientific enquiry (the Community of Scientific Enquiry, CoSE) to children aged 8–11 (Key Stage 2) in Northern Ireland. Primary teachers were introduced to CoSE at a workshop and asked to evaluate its implementation with their class. Results from children (n = 364) and teachers (n = 19) found that CoSE engaged children with their science learning, and also developed confidence and oracy. However, teachers require more experience developing facilitation skills and in fitting science into a thematic teaching unit. PMID:27152060

  3. 77 FR 27021 - Foreign-Trade Zone 129-Bellingham, WA; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... FTZ 131 zone projects under FTZ 129. FTZ 130 was approved by the Board on September 4, 1986 (51 FR... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [(B-32-2012)] Foreign-Trade Zone 129--Bellingham... to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by the Port of Bellingham, grantee of FTZ 129...

  4. LED Context Lighting System in Residential Areas

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyoung-Mi

    2014-01-01

    As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one's life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user's surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context. PMID:25101325

  5. Studying Light Color using White LED Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Misako; Yamaba, Kazuo; Nagata, Manori; Kubo, Chiho; Nokura, Kunihiro

    Recently, white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are receiving attention worldwide as new lighting devices. This study examined effects of a lighting application on performance using white LEDs. The light color—the correlated color temperature (CCT) —was assessed. It affected to psychological states and physiological conditions. Three CCT conditions were respectively set for the experiment: 2500 K, 5000 K, and 8200 K. In all, 20 younger subjects (20-30 years old), 15 middle-aged to elderly subjects (45-60 years old) and 12 elderly subjects (over 65 years-old) participated. They were presented a Numerical Verification (NV) task for performance measurement. The psychological states on performance were evaluated using the lighting assessment questionnaire. The physiological conditions were recorded using an electrocardiograph. Results show that the effects of CCT differ among age groups. Especially, the performance of younger subjects might differ from CCT conditions; elderly subjects are affected by CCT condition because of their visual acuity or response to contrast of objects.

  6. Miniaturized LEDs for flat-panel displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radauscher, Erich J.; Meitl, Matthew; Prevatte, Carl; Bonafede, Salvatore; Rotzoll, Robert; Gomez, David; Moore, Tanya; Raymond, Brook; Cok, Ronald; Fecioru, Alin; Trindade, António Jose; Fisher, Brent; Goodwin, Scott; Hines, Paul; Melnik, George; Barnhill, Sam; Bower, Christopher A.

    2017-02-01

    Inorganic light emitting diodes (LEDs) serve as bright pixel-level emitters in displays, from indoor/outdoor video walls with pixel sizes ranging from one to thirty millimeters to micro displays with more than one thousand pixels per inch. Pixel sizes that fall between those ranges, roughly 50 to 500 microns, are some of the most commercially significant ones, including flat panel displays used in smart phones, tablets, and televisions. Flat panel displays that use inorganic LEDs as pixel level emitters (μILED displays) can offer levels of brightness, transparency, and functionality that are difficult to achieve with other flat panel technologies. Cost-effective production of μILED displays requires techniques for precisely arranging sparse arrays of extremely miniaturized devices on a panel substrate, such as transfer printing with an elastomer stamp. Here we present lab-scale demonstrations of transfer printed μILED displays and the processes used to make them. Demonstrations include passive matrix μILED displays that use conventional off-the shelf drive ASICs and active matrix μILED displays that use miniaturized pixel-level control circuits from CMOS wafers. We present a discussion of key considerations in the design and fabrication of highly miniaturized emitters for μILED displays.

  7. Virtual reality to simulate large lighting with high efficiency LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandet, Thierry; Coutelier, Gilles; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    When a city or a local authority wishes to emphasize its historical heritage, for the lighting of its streets, setting up lights during the festive season, they call upon the skills of a lighting designer. The lighting designer proposes concepts, ideas, lighting, and to be able to present them, he makes use of simulation. On the other hand lighting technologies are evolving very rapidly and new lighting systems offer features that lighting designers are now integrating their projects. The street lights consume lot of energy; light projects are now taking into account the energy saving aspect. Lighting systems based on LEDs today provide good lighting needs, taking into account sustainable development issues while enabling new creative dimension. The lighting simulation can handle these parameters. Images or video simulation are no longer sufficient: stereoscopy and virtual reality techniques allow better communication and better understanding of projects. Virtual reality offers new possibilities of interaction, the freedom of movement in a scene, the presentation of variants or interactive simulations.

  8. Zircon growth in shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaulina, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of direct dating of the deformation process is critical for understanding of orogenic belts evolution. Establishing the age of deformation by isotopic methods is indispensable in the case of uneven deformation overlapping, when later deformation inherits the structural plan of the early strains, and to distinguish them on the basis of the structural data only is impossible. A good example of zircon from the shear zones is zircon formed under the eclogite facies conditions. On the one hand, the composition of zircon speaks about its formation simultaneously to eclogitic paragenesis (Rubatto, Herman, 1999; Rubatto et al., 2003). On the other hand, geological studies show that mineral reactions of eclogitization are often held only in areas of shear deformations, which provides access of fluid to the rocks (Austrheim, 1987; Jamtveit et al., 2000; Bingen et al., 2004). Zircons from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Tanaelv and Kolvitsa belts (Kola Peninsula, the Baltic Shield) have showed that the metamorphic zircon growth is probably controlled by the metamorphic fluid regime, as evidenced by an increase of zircon quantity with the degree of shearing. The internal structure of zircon crystals can provide an evidence of zircon growth synchronous with shearing. The studied crystals have a sector zoning and often specific "patchy" zoning (Fig. 1), which speaks about rapid change of growth conditions. Such internal structure can be compared with the "snowball" garnet structure reflecting the rotation of crystals during their growth under a shift. Rapidly changing crystallization conditions can also be associated with a small amount of fluid, where supersaturation is changing even at a constant temperature. Thus, the growth of metamorphic zircon in shear zones is more likely to occur in the fluid flow synchronous with deformation. A distinctive feature of zircons in these conditions is isometric shape and sector "patchy" zoning. The work was supported by

  9. EDITORIAL: LED light sources (light for the future) LED light sources (light for the future)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, N.

    2010-09-01

    Generating white light from electricity with maximum efficacy has been a long quest since the first incandescent lamp was invented by Edison at the end of the 19th century. Nowadays, semiconductors are making reality the holy grail of converting electrons into photons with 100% efficiency and with colours that can be mixed for white light illumination. The revolution in solid-state lighting (SSL) dates to 1994 when Nakamura reported the first high-brightness blue LED based on GaN semiconductors. Then, white light was produced by simply combining a blue dye with a yellow phosphor. After more than a decade of intensive research the performance of white LEDs is quite impressive, beating by far the luminous efficacy of compact fluorescent lamps. We are likely close to replacing our current lighting devices by SSL lamps. However, there are still technological and fabrication cost issues that could delay large market penetration of white LEDs. Interestingly, SSL may create novel ways of using light that could potentially limit electricity saving. Whatever the impact of SSL, it will be significant on our daily life. The purpose of this special cluster issue is to produce a snapshot of the current situation of SSL from different viewing angles. In an introductory paper, Tsao and co-workers from Sandia National Laboratories, present an energy-economics perspective of SSL considering societal changes and SSL technology evolution. In a second article, Narukawa et al working at Nichia Corporation—the pioneer and still the leading company in SSL—describe the state of the art of current research products. They demonstrate record performance with white LEDs exhibiting luminous efficacy of 183 lm W-1 at high-current injection. Then, a series of topical papers discuss in detail various aspects of the physics and technology of white LEDs Carrier localization in InGaN quantum wells has been considered the key to white LEDs' success despite the huge density of defects. A

  10. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    structure of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, detailed description of the deep structure of Caspian zone, Kur and Caspian megadepressions, identification of nappe-folded structure of the Absheron Peninsula and the Absheron threshold at the border of Middle and South Caspian, justification of the possible hydrocarbon concentration at the tectonically stratified substantial complexes of mountain and foothill areas, etc. Based on the outcomes of implemented researches, some general conclusions and schemes were drawn for some parts of the project region within the plate tectonics conceptual frameworks, to include the territories of Lesser Caucasus and South Caspian. Analysis and comparison of these data with macroseismic and instrumental data allowed us to conduct seismotectonic studies in a region and develop a new scheme of seismotectonic map with outlined recent and forecasted seismic activity. There also correlated foci zones of earthquakes with subhorizontal and subvertical borders in earth crust, which shows their structure-dynamic relationship. In the one hand, the earthquake foci zones belong to the faults of the basement which extend to sedimentary cover and their intersection knots. On the other hand, there appearing inner-block seismogenic levels, namely, in seismic generation acts all the earth crust: tectonic stress results on movements along fault zones, as well as lateral displacements along non-stable contacts of the structure-substance complexes of different competency.

  11. Are nurse-led chemotherapy clinics really nurse-led? An ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Carole; Walshe, Catherine; Molassiotis, Alex

    2017-04-01

    The number of patients requiring ambulatory chemotherapy is increasing year on year, creating problems with capacity in outpatient clinics and chemotherapy units. Although nurse-led chemotherapy clinics have been set up to address this, there is a lack of evaluation of their effectiveness. Despite a rapid expansion in the development of nursing roles and responsibilities in oncology, there is little understanding of the operational aspects of nurses' roles in nurse-led clinics. To explore nurses' roles within nurse-led chemotherapy clinics. A focused ethnographic study of nurses' roles in nurse-led chemotherapy clinics, including semi-structured interviews with nurses. Four chemotherapy units/cancer centres in the UK PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sampling was used to select four cancer centres/units in different geographical areas within the UK operating nurse-led chemotherapy clinics. Participants were 13 nurses working within nurse-led chemotherapy clinics at the chosen locations. Non-participant observation of nurse-led chemotherapy clinics, semi-structured interviews with nurse participants, review of clinic protocols and associated documentation. 61 nurse-patient consultations were observed with 13 nurses; of these 13, interviews were conducted with 11 nurses. Despite similarities in clinical skills training and prescribing, there were great disparities between clinics run by chemotherapy nurses and those run by advanced nurse practitioners. This included the number of patients seen within each clinic, operational aspects, nurses' autonomy, scope of practice and clinical decision-making abilities. The differences highlighted four different levels of nurse-led chemotherapy clinics, based on nurses' autonomy and scope of clinical practice. However, this was heavily influenced by medical consultants. Several nurses perceived they were undertaking holistic assessments, however they were using medical models/consultation styles, indicating medicalization of nurses' roles

  12. Employing a youth-led adult-guided framework: "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Marko, Terry-Lynne; Watt, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    The "Drugged Driving Kills project: Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign was developed and implemented by youth leaders and adult facilitators from public and community health to increase youth awareness of the adverse effects of marijuana on driving. The youth-led adult-guided project was founded on the Holden's youth empowerment conceptual model. This article reports on the results of the focus group evaluation, conducted to determine to what extent the tailored youth-led adult-guided framework for the "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign provided an environment for youth leadership development.

  13. Online and offline peer led models against bullying and cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Benedetta Emanuela; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe and evaluate an ongoing peer-led model against bullying and cyberbullying carried out with Italian adolescents. The evaluation of the project was made through an experimental design consisting of a pre-test and a post-test. Participants in the study were 375 adolescents (20.3% males), enrolled in 9th to 13th grades. The experimental group involved 231 students with 42 peer educators, and the control group involved 144 students. Results showed a significant decrease in the experimental group as compared to the control group for all the variables except for cyberbullying. Besides, in the experimental group we found a significant increase in adaptive coping strategies like problem solving and a significant decrease in maladaptive coping strategies like avoidance: these changes mediate the changes in the behavioural variables. In particular, the decrease in avoidance predicts the decrease in victimization and cybervictimization for peer educators and for the other students in the experimental classes whereas the increase in problem solving predicts the decrease in cyberbullying only in the peer educators group. Results are discussed following recent reviews on evidence based efficacy of peer led models.

  14. Student-led leadership training for undergraduate healthcare students.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Ibrahim Hasanyn Naim; Ahmed, Faheem; Jivraj, Naheed; Wan, Jonathan C M; Sampford, Jade; Ahmed, Na'eem

    2017-10-02

    Purpose Effective clinical leadership is crucial to avoid failings in the delivery of safe health care, particularly during a period of increasing scrutiny and cost-constraints for the National Health Service (NHS). However, there is a paucity of leadership training for health-care students, the future leaders of the NHS, which is due in part to overfilled curricula. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of student-led leadership training for the benefit of fellow students. Design/methodology/approach To address this training gap, a group of multiprofessional students organised a series of large-group seminars and small-group workshops given by notable health-care leaders at a London university over the course of two consecutive years. Findings The majority of students had not previously received any formal exposure to leadership training. Feedback post-events were almost universally positive, though students expressed a preference for experiential teaching of leadership. Working with university faculty, an inaugural essay prize was founded and student members were given the opportunity to complete internships in real-life quality improvement projects. Originality/value Student-led teaching interventions in leadership can help to fill an unmet teaching need and help to better equip the next generation of health-care workers for future roles as leaders within the NHS.

  15. A customer-insight led approach to building operational resilience.

    PubMed

    Passey, Fi

    2018-01-01

    High-profile failures over the past few years have led to the disruption of banking services in the UK, with some banks' customers left unable to make or receive payments, check balances or access cash for days or weeks. Technological advances and a push towards remote channels have increased customer expectations of 'always on' - any time, any place, anywhere - and with disruptions lasting anything from a few minutes to nearly a month, the regulator is also taking an interest. Nationwide Building Society has responded positively to this challenge by defining its operational resilience strategy, a long-term plan aimed at minimising the likelihood and impact of future disruptions. Customer research was used in order to understand customer expectations, as well as define and prioritise its end-to-end customer journeys, known as business service lines. A comprehensive mapping exercise facilitated the development of strategies and investment projects to address identified vulnerabilities and increase resilience.

  16. LED--panacea or marketing hype?

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    With energy efficiency and carbon reduction, and the importance of a relaxing, therapeutic patient environment, ever more in the spotlight, LED lighting's proponents claim the technology offers healthcare estates personnel many of the answers on both fronts. However some observers believe its benefits are being over-sold, often to the detriment of other high-performing types of more 'conventional lighting', and to a sometimes uninitiated audience too easily swayed by slick sales patter. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie spoke to one highly experienced lighting professional, Nicholas Bukorović, a former employee of Thorn, Cooper, and Thorlux Lighting, and the principal author of the last CIBSE/Society of Light and Lighting (SLL) Guide LG2 on healthcare lighting, to seek some expert illumination.

  17. Scandium oxide antireflection coatings for superluminescent LEDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.; Zanzucchi, P. J.; Andrews, J. T.; Kane, J.; Depiano, E.

    1986-01-01

    For an employment of laser diodes as superluminescent LEDs (SLDs) or amplifiers, the facets of the diodes must be coated with antireflection films. In the work reported, scandium oxide was evaporated from an e-beam source onto Supersil II fused silica substrates. The obtained samples were used for measurements of absorption and reflectivity. Results of index measurements on e-beam evaporated films are presented. It is shown that excellent coatings with reflectivities of 0.00025 can be obtained using these films. Attention is given to the refractive indices for scandium oxide films as a function of wavelength, the power output vs current for laser before coating and after coating with Sc2O3.

  18. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  19. Measurement of g Using a Flashing LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzella, T.; Sundermier, J.; Sinacore, J.; Owen, C.; Takai, H.

    2008-10-01

    In one of the classic free-fall experiments, a small mass is attached to a strip of paper tape and both are allowed to fall through a spark timer, where sparks are generated at regular time intervals. Students analyze marks (dots) left on the tape by the timer, thereby generating distance-versus-time data, which they analyze to extract the acceleration due to gravity g with good results. The apparatus, however, is cumbersome and often frustrating for students. High-tech versions of this experiment are done with an object dropped and followed by a motion sensor connected to a computer. The sensor relies on ultrasonic ranging to record distance and time data, which may then be displayed graphically. Students inspect the graphs to determine the value of g. Although the results are excellent, the emphasis on the computer's ability to collect and analyze data leaves little analysis for the students to perform.2 Furthermore, neither technique gives an intuitive display of what is happening. The motivation for our work was to overcome these issues by developing an innovative method for measuring g. In our version of the experiment, students drop a flashing LED at a known frequency and record its trajectory using long exposure photography with a digital camera. Proper choice of flashing LED timing parameters produces an image that allows for an accurate measurement of g and at the same time helps to explain what happens during free fall. The experiment remains high-tech in the sense that students learn to use updated equipment to record data and to carry out the analysis.

  20. 76 FR 16726 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, WI; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...-acre activation limit for a general-purpose zone project. The application was submitted pursuant to the..., 1996 (Board Order 818, 61 FR 21157, 5/9/1996). The current zone project includes the following sites... port of entry. The applicant is requesting authority to reorganize its existing zone project to include...

  1. 76 FR 65171 - Foreign-Trade Zone 272-Counties of Lehigh and Northampton, PA; Application for Reorganization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...'' in the context of the Board's standard 2,000-acre activation limit for a general-purpose zone project... 29975-29976, 05/28/10). The current zone project includes the following sites: Site 1 (727 acres... entry. The applicant is requesting authority to reorganize its existing zone project to remove Sites 2-4...

  2. LEDsats: LEO CubeSats with LEDs for Optical Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, P.; Cutler, J.; Piergentili, F.; Santoni, F.; Arena, L.; Cardona, T.; Cowardin, H.; Lee, C.; Sharma, S.

    2016-09-01

    We describe a project to launch 1U CubeSats equipped with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for optical tracking with ground-based telescopes. Active illumination on the satellites increases tremendously the number of passes where the LEO satellite is visible when the ground-based telescope is in darkness. The restriction that the satellite is in direct Sun is removed, and so tracking can take place all night long rather than just in twilight. The inspiration for this project came from the Japanese CubeSat FITSAT-1 that carried red and green high-powered LED arrays, and was clearly visible from the ground with small telescopes. There are two goals: 1) increase the accuracy and precision of LEO orbits by increasing the number and length of passes that satellite is visible, and 2) minimize the confusion between objects in the case of multiple CubeSats being launched at the same time. Technical issues to be discussed include the power level required for detection by small (20 - 40 cm) ground based telescopes, the optimum flash pattern for astrometry against star fields, and the timing of the flash pattern to millisecond or better accuracy and precision. We propose to deploy two such LEDsats simultaneously from the International Space Station: the first to be built at the University of Michigan, and the second to be built at Sapienza University Rome. One experiment is to see how we can distinguish these two CubeSats shortly after deployment solely from optical tracking, and so the CubeSats will have different flash patterns.

  3. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  4. Stakeholder perceptions of a nurse led walk-in centre.

    PubMed

    Parker, Rhian M; Desborough, Jane L; Forrest, Laura E

    2012-11-05

    As many countries face primary care medical workforce shortages and find it difficult to provide timely and affordable care they seek to find new ways of delivering first point of contact health care through developing new service models. In common with other areas of rural and regional Australia, the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) is currently experiencing a general practitioner (GP) workforce shortage which impacts significantly on the ability of patients to access GP led primary care services. The introduction of a nurse led primary care Walk-in Centre in the ACT aimed to fulfill an unmet health care need in the community and meet projected demand for health care services as well as relieve pressure on the hospital system. Stakeholders have the potential to influence health service planning and policy, to advise on the potential of services to meet population health needs and to assess how acceptable health service innovation is to key stakeholder groups. This study aimed to ascertain the views of key stakeholders about the Walk-in Centre. Stakeholders were purposively selected through the identification of individuals and organisations which had organisational or professional contact with the Walk-in Centre. Semi structured interviews around key themes were conducted with seventeen stakeholders. Stakeholders were generally supportive of the Walk-in Centre but identified key areas which they considered needed to be addressed. These included the service's systems, full utilisation of the nurse practitioner role and adequate education and training. It was also suggested that a doctor could be available to the Centre as a source of referral for patients who fall outside the nurses' scope of practice. The location of the Centre was seen to impact on patient flows to the Emergency Department. Nurse led Walk-in Centres are one response to addressing primary health care medical workforce shortages. Whilst some stakeholders have reservations about the model others

  5. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting, I-35W Bridge, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, B. R.; Myer, M. A.

    2009-08-01

    On the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the GATEWAY program conducted a two-phase demonstration of LED roadway lighting on the main span, which is one of the country's oldest continuously operated exterior LED lighting installations. The Phase I report provides an overview of initial project results including lighting performance, economic performance, and potential energy savings.

  6. Implementing speed reductions at specific interstate work zones from 65 mph to 35 mph : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-02-01

    Interstate preservation projects are commonly conducted at night and often require working in close proximity to ongoing traffic. Vehicle speed and speed variability in work zones is inextricably connected to the work zone design and the selected tra...

  7. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of normal fault zones: Thal Fault Zone, Suez Rift, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppard, Christopher William

    The evolution of linkage of normal fault populations to form continuous, basin bounding normal fault zones is recognised as an important control on the stratigraphic evolution of rift-basins. This project aims to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of normal fault populations and associated syn-rift deposits from the initiation of early-formed, isolated normal faults (rift-initiation) to the development of a through-going fault zone (rift-climax) by documenting the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Sarbut EI Gamal segment of the exceptionally well-exposed Thai fault zone, Suez Rift, Egypt. A number of dated stratal surfaces mapped around the syn-rift depocentre of the Sarbut El Gamal segment allow constraints to be placed on the timing and style of deformation, and the spatial variability of facies along this segment of the fault zone. Data collected indicates that during the first 3.5 My of rifting the structural style was characterised by numerous, closely spaced, short (< 3 km), low displacement (< 200 m) synthetic and antithetic normal faults within 1 - 2 km of the present-day fault segment trace, accommodating surface deformation associated with the development of a fault propagation monocline above the buried, pre-cursor strands of the Sarbut El Gamal fault segment. The progressive localisation of displacement onto the fault segment during rift-climax resulted in the development of a major, surface-breaking fault 3.5 - 5 My after the onset of rifting and is recorded by the death of early-formed synthetic and antithetic faults up-section, and thickening of syn-rift strata towards the fault segment. The influence of intrabasinal highs at the tips of the Sarbut EI Gamal fault segment on the pre-rift sub-crop level, combined with observations from the early-formed structures and coeval deposits suggest that the overall length of the fault segment was fixed from an early stage. The fault segment is interpreted to have grown through rapid lateral

  8. LED street lighting evaluation -- phase II : LED specification and life-cycle cost analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-01-01

    Phase II of this study focused on developing a draft specification for LED luminaires to be used by IDOT : and a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool for solid state lighting technologies. The team also researched the : latest developments related to...

  9. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  10. Novel aplanatic designs for LED concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Melissa; Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun

    2014-09-01

    Aplanats make great concentrators because of their near perfect imaging. Aplanatic conditions can be satisfied using two surface curves (generally mirrored surfaces) in two dimensions (see Figure 1) which are constructed by successive approximation to create a highly efficient concentrator for both concentration and illumination. For concentration purposes, having a two mirror system would be impossible because the front mirror would block incoming light (see figure 2) so the idea is to replace the front mirror with a "one-way" mirror. Light from a lower index can be transmitted, so if the aplanat surface is a higher index light is allowed to enter, and be trapped. In the Jellyfish design, TIR takes place except for light striking the surface within the range of critical angles. To combat that, a small area of reflective coating is applied to the central top part of the Jellyfish, where TIR fails (In the middle) to keep the light there from directly escaping (see figure 3). The design works in both forwards and reverse. Light entering can be focused to a collecter, or the collecter can be replaced with a light source to concentrate light out. In this case, LEDs are used for their highly efficienct properties.

  11. Local Positioning System Using Flickering Infrared LEDs

    PubMed Central

    Raharijaona, Thibaut; Mawonou, Rodolphe; Nguyen, Thanh Vu; Colonnier, Fabien; Boyron, Marc; Diperi, Julien; Viollet, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    A minimalistic optical sensing device for the indoor localization is proposed to estimate the relative position between the sensor and active markers using amplitude modulated infrared light. The innovative insect-based sensor can measure azimuth and elevation angles with respect to two small and cheap active infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs) flickering at two different frequencies. In comparison to a previous lensless visual sensor that we proposed for proximal localization (less than 30 cm), we implemented: (i) a minimalistic sensor in terms of small size (10 cm3), light weight (6 g) and low power consumption (0.4 W); (ii) an Arduino-compatible demodulator for fast analog signal processing requiring low computational resources; and (iii) an indoor positioning system for a mobile robotic application. Our results confirmed that the proposed sensor was able to estimate the position at a distance of 2 m with an accuracy as small as 2-cm at a sampling frequency of 100 Hz. Our sensor can be also suitable to be implemented in a position feedback loop for indoor robotic applications in GPS-denied environment. PMID:29099743

  12. Body Buffer Zone and Proxemics in Blocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, John C.; Bahs, Clarence W.

    This paper investigates the effect of personal body buffer zones on compositional arrangements staged by novice directors. Relationships between directors' concepts of personal space and their projection of its dimensions into staging are studied through the use of a variety of proximity measures--distance, area angles of approach, and physical…

  13. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  14. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  15. Work zone safety analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  16. California tree seed zones

    Treesearch

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  17. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  18. Longleaf pine site zones

    Treesearch

    Phillip J. Craul; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    2005-01-01

    The authors delineate six major climatic areas of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) region. They subdivide these areas into 21 site zones, each of which is deemed homogenous with respect to climate, physiography, and soils. The site zones are mapped and their climate, physiography, and soils described. The authors recommend that plantings of...

  19. Iowa Work Zone Fatalities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    From March through November, the Iowa DOT may have up to 500 road construction work zones, and each of the department's maintenance garages may establish one or more short-term work zones per day. Couple that with the work of cities and counties, and...

  20. Nurses' perceptions of nurse-led healthy lifestyle clinics.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Bob; Floyd, Sue; Forrest, Rachel

    2011-12-01

    Nineteen Nurse-Led Healthy Lifestyle Clinics (NLHLCs) were implemented and targeted Maori, Pacific and people living in high deprivation areas. The general focus of the clinics was on lifestyle issues and much of the nursing was educative and preventative care. The aim of this project was to assess nurses' experiences and opinions of their participation in the clinics. Nurses participating in the clinics were asked to complete a monthly narrative report over five reporting periods, and these were collated and evaluated for emergent themes. Sixteen nurses were subsequently interviewed and the transcripts analysed to identify major themes and sub-themes. In total, 167 narrative reports were collected from 53 of the 115 participating nurses. Almost all the nurses either strongly agreed or agreed that they enjoyed working in an NLHLC. This enjoyment was the result of: increased time for in-depth consultations, being able to provide enhanced holistic patient care, developing knowledge, gaining experience, receiving positive patient feedback and the satisfaction of seeing patient improvements. Nurses reported that the opportunity and responsibility of providing holistic nursing care, and the skills and knowledge gained from participating in the project, were extremely valuable. NLHLCs provide benefits for both patient and nurse. For the nurse, job satisfaction is increased through positive patient feedback, opportunities for professional development and a greater feeling of empowerment.

  1. Design of LED fish lighting attractors using horizontal/vertical LIDC mapping method.

    PubMed

    Shen, S C; Huang, H J

    2012-11-19

    This study employs a sub-module concept to develop high-brightness light-emitting diode (HB-LED) fishing light arrays to replace traditional fishing light attractors. The horizontal/vertical (H/V) plane light intensity distribution curve (LIDC) of a LED light source are mapped to assist in the design of a non-axisymmetric lens with a fish-attracting light pattern that illuminates sufficiently large areas and alternates between bright and dark. These LED fishing light attractors are capable of attracting schools of fish toward the perimeter of the luminous zone surrounding fishing boats. Three CT2 boats (10 to 20 ton capacity) were recruited to conduct a field test for 1 y on the sea off the southwestern coast of Taiwan. Field tests show that HB-LED fishing light array installed 5 m above the boat deck illuminated a sea surface of 5 × 12 m and achieved an illuminance of 2000 lx. The test results show that the HB-LED fishing light arrays increased the mean catch of the three boats by 5% to 27%. In addition, the experimental boats consumed 15% to 17% less fuel than their counterparts.

  2. Validating Community-Led Forest Biomass Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Michelle; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, Will; Bird, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of capacity to monitor forest carbon stocks in developing countries is undermining global efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Involving local people in monitoring forest carbon stocks could potentially address this capacity gap. This study conducts a complete expert remeasurement of community-led biomass inventories in remote tropical forests of Papua New Guinea. By fully remeasuring and isolating the effects of 4,481 field measurements, we demonstrate that programmes employing local people (non-experts) can produce forest monitoring data as reliable as those produced by scientists (experts). Overall, non-experts reported lower biomass estimates by an average of 9.1%, equivalent to 55.2 fewer tonnes of biomass ha-1, which could have important financial implications for communities. However, there were no significant differences between forest biomass estimates of expert and non-expert, nor were there significant differences in some of the components used to calculate these estimates, such as tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tree counts and plot surface area, but were significant differences between tree heights. At the landscape level, the greatest biomass discrepancies resulted from height measurements (41%) and, unexpectedly, a few large missing trees contributing to a third of the overall discrepancies. We show that 85% of the biomass discrepancies at the tree level were caused by measurement taken on large trees (DBH ≥50cm), even though they consisted of only 14% of the stems. We demonstrate that programmes that engage local people can provide high-quality forest carbon data that could help overcome barriers to reducing forest carbon emissions in developing countries. Nonetheless, community-based monitoring programmes should prioritise reducing errors in the field that lead to the most important discrepancies, notably; overcoming challenges to accurately measure large trees. PMID:26126186

  3. Validating Community-Led Forest Biomass Assessments.

    PubMed

    Venter, Michelle; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, Will; Bird, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    The lack of capacity to monitor forest carbon stocks in developing countries is undermining global efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Involving local people in monitoring forest carbon stocks could potentially address this capacity gap. This study conducts a complete expert remeasurement of community-led biomass inventories in remote tropical forests of Papua New Guinea. By fully remeasuring and isolating the effects of 4,481 field measurements, we demonstrate that programmes employing local people (non-experts) can produce forest monitoring data as reliable as those produced by scientists (experts). Overall, non-experts reported lower biomass estimates by an average of 9.1%, equivalent to 55.2 fewer tonnes of biomass ha(-1), which could have important financial implications for communities. However, there were no significant differences between forest biomass estimates of expert and non-expert, nor were there significant differences in some of the components used to calculate these estimates, such as tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tree counts and plot surface area, but were significant differences between tree heights. At the landscape level, the greatest biomass discrepancies resulted from height measurements (41%) and, unexpectedly, a few large missing trees contributing to a third of the overall discrepancies. We show that 85% of the biomass discrepancies at the tree level were caused by measurement taken on large trees (DBH ≥50 cm), even though they consisted of only 14% of the stems. We demonstrate that programmes that engage local people can provide high-quality forest carbon data that could help overcome barriers to reducing forest carbon emissions in developing countries. Nonetheless, community-based monitoring programmes should prioritise reducing errors in the field that lead to the most important discrepancies, notably; overcoming challenges to accurately measure large trees.

  4. Voice: Reflections on an Artist-Led Program at the Met

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valladares, Maya

    2017-01-01

    This article explores an education project in which artist Fred Wilson, poets from Lincoln Center's Poet-Linc program, and the Met Museum Education Department collaborated to produce a teen-led spoken-word poetry performance in the Met's galleries. Wilson drew from his own knowledge of the collection to facilitate a group dialogue about objects…

  5. Advanced LED warning system for rural intersections : phase 2 (ALERT-2) : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-02-01

    This report presents findings of the second phase of the Advanced LED Warning System for Rural : Intersections (ALERT) project. Since it is the next generation of the same system, the second phase : system is referred to as the ALERT-2 system while t...

  6. Developing an On-Line Textbook: Question-led Teaching and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Roger A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a demonstration project of a textbook chapter created with a vision for an active and interactive question-led textbook commenting on the content of the demonstration chapter, using HTML and Javascript in creating it, and aspects of the chapter as it is actually experienced. Includes reactions by Michael K. Salemi and Kailash Khandke.…

  7. Fort Meade demonstration test LEDS in freezer rooms, fiber optics in display cases

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Steven; Parker, Graham B.

    2008-10-25

    Demonstration projects at Fort George G. Meade, MD, substituted LED lighting for incandescent bulbs in commisary wal-in freezers and fiber optic lighting in reach-in display cases. The goal was to reduce energy consumption and the results were positive. Journal article published in Public Works Digest

  8. Peer-Led Team Learning: A Prospective Method for Increasing Critical Thinking in Undergraduate Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Brahler, C. Jayne; Crouch, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) is a specific form of small group learning recognized by Project Kaleidoscope as best practice pedagogy (Varma-Nelson, 2004). PLTL was first developed by Woodward, Gosser, and Weiner (1993) as an integrated method that promoted discourse and creative problem solving in chemistry at the City College of New York. It is…

  9. 24 CFR 242.78 - Zoning, deed, and building restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zoning, deed, and building... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.78 Zoning, deed, and building... to the project site, and shall comply with all applicable building and other governmental codes...

  10. Design of lane merges at rural freeway construction work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this project is to evaluate unconventional lane-drop merge configurations in the vicinity of construction work zones on rural freeways to comparatively assess the conditions of the various designs that impact delay, flow, and safety throu...

  11. Calibration of work zone impact analysis software for Missouri.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    This project calibrated two software programs used for estimating the traffic impacts of work zones. The WZ Spreadsheet : and VISSIM programs were recommended in a previous study by the authors. The two programs were calibrated using : field data fro...

  12. Traffic incident management in construction and maintenance work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the Federal Highway Administration published updated rules governing work zone safety and mobility; all highway construction and maintenance projects using federal-aid highway funds are required to develop transportation management plans (TM...

  13. Using modeling and simulation tools for work zone analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-05-01

    Work Zone Planning and Management have become more challenging because of increasing travel demand and an aging roadway network infrastructure facing more frequent maintenance and major rehabilitation projects, while still needing to transport people...

  14. Port authority transportation reinvestment zone development and implementation guidebook.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-01

    Transportation reinvestment zones (TRZs) are a relatively new tool for infrastructure finance that allows governmental entities with taxing authority to set aside funds for local match contributions for transportation projects and capture the land va...

  15. Habitable Zone Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, D.; Lota, J.

    2012-12-01

    The location of the habitable zone around a star depends upon stellar luminosity and upon the properties of a potentially habitable planet such as its mass and near-surface volatile inventory. Stellar luminosity generally increases as a star ages whilst planetary properties change through time as a consequence of biological and geological evolution. Hence, the location of the habitable zone changes through time as a result of both stellar evolution and planetary evolution. Using the Earth's Phanerozoic temperature history as a constraint, it is shown that changes in our own habitable zone over the last 540 My have been dominated by planetary evolution rather than solar evolution. Furthermore, sparse data from earlier times suggests that planetary evolution may have dominated habitable zone development throughout our biosphere's history. Hence, the existence of a continuously habitable zone depends upon accidents of complex bio-geochemical evolution more than it does upon relatively simple stellar-evolution. Evolution of the inner margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations. Evolution of the outer margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations.

  16. Peer-led prenatal breast-feeding education: a viable alternative to nurse-led education.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Lynn A; Moore, Katrina C J

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate a prenatal breast-feeding class developed and facilitated by peer Breast-feeding Buddies. Non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study comparing participants of the peer-led class (PLC) to those attending an established hospital-based breast-feeding nurse-led class (NLC). A brief questionnaire was completed immediately prior to the class, and telephone interviews were conducted approximately one week following the class, and one and six months post partum. 54 expectant mothers who registered for the community PLC and 55 expectant mothers who registered for the NLC. Breast-feeding intentions were measured at all time-points. Class evaluations, breast-feeding experiences, and breast-feeding support were measured at all post-class interviews. Both classes were considered worthwhile, but the PLC class was rated as more helpful and participants appreciated learning from the peers' personal experiences. Mothers taught by peers were more likely to access peer breast-feeding support. PLC participants initially decreased their prenatal breast-feeding duration intentions but had significantly stronger intentions to continue breast feeding at six months than did NLC mothers. A peer-led prenatal breast-feeding class is as effective as a traditional model of breast-feeding education and is a valuable tool to promote and support successful breast feeding. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Peer-led breast-feeding classes should be provided to enhance the accessibility of breast-feeding education and support for expectant mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  18. Integration of organic LEDs with inorganic LEDs for a hybrid lighting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, H. J.; Park, J. W.; Kim, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that a surface-emitting hybrid light source can be realized by a combination of organic and inorganic light-emitting devices (LEDs). To this end, a blue inorganic LED bar is deployed at one side of a transparent light guide plate (LGP), and a yellow organic LED (OLED) is in contact with the rear surface of the LGP. In such a configuration, it is found that the overall luminance is almost equivalent to the sum of the luminances measured from each light source, and the overall luminance uniformity is determined mainly by the luminance uniformity of the OLED panel at high luminances. We have achieved a white color showing the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (x = 0.34, y = 0.33), the power efficiency of 9.3 lm/W, the luminance uniformity of 63% at the luminance of 3100 cd m-2, the color rendering index as high as 89.3, and the correlated color temperature finely tunable within the range between 3000 and 8000 K. Such a system facilitates color tuning by adjusting their luminous intensities and hence the implementation of the emotional lighting system.

  19. Investigating the LED's dark side. Novel LED Model Offers New Insights

    DOE PAGES

    Chow, Weng Wah

    2014-07-01

    A revolution in lighting is well on its way. Rewind the clock a year or so and the prices of LED bulbs made many shoppers wince. But now it is possible to get a high-quality 60 W equivalent for well under $10, and that’s allowing sales of LED bulbs incorporating chips from the likes of Cree and Philips Lumileds to take off. Although these solid-state bulbs are much more pricey than incandescents, which have largely disappeared from shelves due to legislation, they more than make up for that additional up-front cost with a substantial trimming of the electricity bill. Itmore » is a more tricky decision, however, whether it makes more sense to buy an LED bulb or a cheaper compact fluorescent (CFL). In terms of durability, adaptability and environmental impact, the solid-state bulb is the clear winner. But both types of light are similar in the efficiency stakes, and thus the running costs.« less

  20. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene DNAPL source zones: source zone architecture versus electron donor availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, M.; Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of dense-non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface has led practitioners and regulatory agencies to turn towards low-maintenance, low-cost remediation methods. Biological degradation has been suggested as a possible solution, based on the well-proven ability of certain microbial species to break down dissolved chlorinated ethenes under favorable conditions. However, the biodegradation of pure phase chlorinated ethenes is subject to additional constraints: the continuous release of electron acceptor at a rate governed by mass transfer kinetics, and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of DNAPL source zones which leads to spatially and temporally variable availability of the reactants for reductive dechlorination. In this work, we investigate the relationship between various DNAPL source zone characteristics and reaction kinetics using COMPSIM, a multiphase groundwater model that considers non-equilibrium mass transfer and Monod-type kinetics for reductive dechlorination. Numerical simulations are performed for simple, homogeneous trichloroethene DNAPL source zones to demonstrate the effect of single source zone characteristics, as well as for larger, more realistic heterogeneous source zones. It is shown that source zone size, and mass transfer kinetics may have a decisive effect on the predicted bio-enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the performance of DNAPL bioremediation for realistic, thermodynamically constrained, concentrations of electron donor. Our results indicate that the latter may be the most important limitation for the success of DNAPL bioremediation, leading to reduced bio-enhancement and, in many cases, comparable performance with water flooding.

  1. Modular design of the LED vehicle projector headlamp system.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Chang; Li, Yan-Huei; Hung, Chih-Ching

    2013-07-20

    A well designed headlamp for a vehicle lighting system is very important as it provides drivers with safe and comfortable driving conditions at night or in dark places. With the advances of the semiconductor technology, the LED has become the fourth generation lighting source in the auto industry. In this study, we will propose a LED vehicle projector headlamp system. This headlamp system contains several LED headlamp modules, and every module of it includes four components: focused LEDs, asymmetric metal-based plates, freeform surfaces, and condenser lenses. By optimizing the number of LED headlamp modules, the proposed LED vehicle projector headlamp system has only five LED headlamp modules. It not only provides the low-beam cutoff without a shield, but also meets the requirements of the ECE R112 regulation. Finally, a prototype of the LED vehicle projector headlamp system was assembled and fabricated to create the correct light pattern.

  2. Purification of Germanium Crystals by Zone Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Kyler; Yang, Gang; Mei, Dongming

    2016-09-01

    Germanium zone refining is one of the most important techniques used to produce high purity germanium (HPGe) single crystals for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors. During zone refining the impurities are isolated to different parts of the ingot. In practice, the effective isolation of an impurity is dependent on many parameters, including molten zone travel speed, the ratio of ingot length to molten zone width, and number of passes. By studying the theory of these influential factors, perfecting our cleaning and preparation procedures, and analyzing the origin and distribution of our impurities (aluminum, boron, gallium, and phosphorous) identified using photothermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS), we have optimized these parameters to produce HPGe. We have achieved a net impurity level of 1010 /cm3 for our zone-refined ingots, measured with van der Pauw and Hall-effect methods. Zone-refined ingots of this purity can be processed into a detector grade HPGe single crystal, which can be used to fabricate detectors for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay detection. This project was financially supported by DOE Grant (DE-FG02-10ER46709) and the State Governor's Research Center.

  3. Short Course on Implementation of Zone Technology in the Repair and Overhaul Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    Pier Zone & Sys Pier/DD/Staging Zone Management Approach Varies Function to Project Project/Matrix Project/Matrix Project Project Fig. 9-3. Nature of...intractable problems that currently exist. Nature can give us many clues. If only we could harness the material that makes the dolphin’s outer shell so smooth...the natural effect of requiring peak manning and confined outfitting schedules. Through the application of system oriented logic to actual work accom

  4. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  5. Speeds in school zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  6. The Employer-Led Health Care Revolution.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Patricia A; Mecklenburg, Robert S; Martin, Lindsay A

    2015-01-01

    To tame its soaring health care costs, intel tried many popular approaches: "consumer-driven health care" offerings such as high-deductible/low-premium plans, on-site clinics and employee wellness programs. But by 2009 intel realized that those programs alone would not enable the company to solve the problem, because they didn't affect its root cause: the steadily rising cost of the care employees and their families were receiving. Intel projected that its health care expenditures would hit a whopping $1 billion by 2012. So the company decided to try a novel approach. As a large purchaser of health services and with expertise in quality improvement and supplier management, intel was uniquely positioned to drive transformation in its local health care market. The company decided that it would manage the quality and cost of its health care suppliers with the same rigor it applied to its equipment suppliers by monitoring quality and cost. It spearheaded a collaborative effort in Portland, Oregon, that included two health systems, a plan administrator, and a major government employer. So far the Portland collaborative has reduced treatment costs for certain medical conditions by 24% to 49%, improved patient satisfaction, and eliminated over 10,000 hours worth of waste in the two health systems' business processes.

  7. Investigation of internally finned LED heat sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Xiong, Lun; Lai, Chuan; Tang, Yumei

    2018-03-01

    A novel heat sink is proposed, which is composed of a perforated cylinder and internally arranged fins. Numerical studies are performed on the natural convection heat transfer from internally finned heat sinks; experimental studies are carried out to validate the numerical results. To compare the thermal performances of internally finned heat sinks and externally finned heat sinks, the effects of the overall diameter, overall height, and installation direction on maximum temperature, air flow and heat transfer coefficient are investigated. The results demonstrate that internally finned heat sinks show better thermal performance than externally finned heat sinks; the maximum temperature of internally finned heat sinks decreases by up to 20% compared with the externally finned heat sinks. The existence of a perforated cylinder and the installation direction of the heat sink affect the thermal performance significantly; it is shown that the heat transfer coefficient of the heat sink with the perforated cylinder is improved greater than that with the imperforated cylinder by up to 34%, while reducing the mass of the heat sink by up to 13%. Project supported by the Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Provincial Education Department (No. 18ZB0516) and the Sichuan University of Arts and Science (No. 2016KZ009Y).

  8. LEDs: DOE Programs Add Credibility to a Developing Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conbere, Susan

    2009-01-01

    LED (light-emitting diode) technology is moving fast, and with justification, some facility managers have viewed it with a wary eye. Some LEDs on the market do not perform as promised, and the technology is changing rapidly. But new developments from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) now make it easier for facility managers to find LEDs that…

  9. Computer-Based Experiment for Determining Planck's Constant Using LEDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Feng; Cloninger, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been widely used as power indicators. However, after the power is switched off, it takes a while for the LED to go off. Many students were fascinated by this simple demonstration. In this paper, by making use of computer-based data acquisition and modeling, we show the voltage across the LED undergoing an…

  10. Mapping Student-Led Peer Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led academic learning has increased in importance, but there is little sense of how many institutions support it, how they understand its purposes or what peer-led learning best practice is. This report examines the provision of peer-led learning in the UK. It identifies challenges and opportunities, including international perspectives and…

  11. EC-LEDS Supports the Low-Carbon Transition

    SciTech Connect

    2016-09-01

    EC-LEDS is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries to create and implement low emission development strategies, or LEDS -- development frameworks that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing greenhouse gas emissions over the medium to long term.

  12. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  13. Scalable screen-size enlargement by multi-channel viewing-zone scanning holography.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Nakaoka, Mitsuki

    2016-08-08

    Viewing-zone scanning holographic displays can enlarge both the screen size and the viewing zone. However, limitations exist in the screen size enlargement process even if the viewing zone is effectively enlarged. This study proposes a multi-channel viewing-zone scanning holographic display comprising multiple projection systems and a planar scanner to enable the scalable enlargement of the screen size. Each projection system produces an enlarged image of the screen of a MEMS spatial light modulator. The multiple enlarged images produced by the multiple projection systems are seamlessly tiled on the planar scanner. This screen size enlargement process reduces the viewing zones of the projection systems, which are horizontally scanned by the planar scanner comprising a rotating off-axis lens and a vertical diffuser to enlarge the viewing zone. A screen size of 7.4 in. and a viewing-zone angle of 43.0° are demonstrated.

  14. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Treesearch

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  15. Three-Dimensional Topographic Surface Changes in Response to Compartmental Volumization of the Medial Cheek: Defining a Malar Augmentation Zone.

    PubMed

    Stern, Carrie S; Schreiber, Jillian E; Surek, Chris C; Garfein, Evan S; Jelks, Elizabeth B; Jelks, Glenn W; Tepper, Oren M

    2016-05-01

    Given the widespread use of facial fillers and recent identification of distinct facial fat compartments, a better understanding of three-dimensional surface changes in response to volume augmentation is needed. Advances in three-dimensional imaging technology now afford an opportunity to elucidate these morphologic changes for the first time. A cadaver study was undertaken in which volumization of the deep medial cheek compartment was performed at intervals up to 4 cc (n = 4). Three-dimensional photographs were taken after each injection to analyze the topographic surface changes, which the authors define as the "augmentation zone." Perimeter, diameter, and projection were studied. The arcus marginalis of the inferior orbit consistently represented a fixed boundary of the augmentation zone, and additional cadavers underwent similar volumization following surgical release of this portion of the arcus marginalis (n = 4). Repeated three-dimensional computer analysis was performed comparing the augmentation zone with and without arcus marginalis release. Volumization of the deep medial cheek led to unique topographic changes of the malar region defined by distinct boundaries. Interestingly, the cephalic border of the augmentation zone was consistently noted to be at the level of the arcus marginalis in all specimens. When surgical release of the arcus marginalis was performed, the cephalic border of the augmentation zone was no longer restricted. Using advances in three-dimensional photography and computer analysis, the authors demonstrate characteristic surface anatomy changes in response to volume augmentation of facial compartments. This novel concept of the augmentation zone can be applied to volumization of other distinct facial regions. Therapeutic, V.

  16. Injection molding of high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Christian; Röbig, Malte

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED) conquer the growing global market of lighting technologies. Due to their advantages, they are increasingly used in consumer products, in lighting applications in the home and in the mobility sector as well as in industrial applications. Particularly, with regard to the increasing use of high-power LED (HP-LED) the materials in the surrounding area of the light emitting semiconductor chip are of utmost importance. While the materials behind the semiconductor chip are optimized for maximum heat dissipation, the materials currently used for the encapsulation of the semiconductor chip (primary optics) and the secondary optics encounter their limitsmore » due to the high temperatures. In addition certain amounts of blue UV radiation degrade the currently used materials such as epoxy resins or polyurethanes for primary optics. In the context of an ongoing joint research project with various partners from the industry, an innovative manufacturing method for high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) is analyzed at the Institut of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen. The aim of this project is to utilize the material-specific advantages of high transparent LSR, especially the excellent high temperature resistance and the great freedom in design. Therefore, a high integrated injection molding process is developed. For the production of combined LED primary and secondary optics a LED board is placed in an injection mold and overmolded with LSR. Due to the integrated process and the reduction of subcomponents like the secondary optics the economics of the production process can be improved significantly. Furthermore combined LED optics offer an improved effectiveness, because there are no losses of the light power at the transition of the primary and secondary optics.« less

  17. Implementation of a Nurse-Led Family Meeting in a Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huixin; Ren, Dianxu; Zinsmeister, Glenn R; Zewe, Gretchen E; Tuite, Patricia K

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop, implement, and evaluate the impact of early intensive care unit (ICU) nurse-led family meetings on nurse-family communication, family decision making, and satisfaction of family members. Intensive care unit nurses are in an ideal position to meet family needs, and family members may cope better with the crisis of an ICU admission if consistent honest information is provided by nurses; however, there are no early ICU family meetings led by bedside nurses. This quality improvement project was implemented in a 10-bed neuroscience ICU over a 3-month period. A convenience sample of 23 nurses participated in the project. Following development of a communication protocol to facilitate nurse-led meetings, the nurses received education and then implemented the protocol. Thirty-one family members participated in the project. Family members were surveyed before and after the meetings. Mean meeting time was 26 (SD, 14) minutes. Following implementation of the meetings, findings demonstrated that families felt that communication improved (P = .02 and P = .008), they had appropriate information for decision making allowing them to feel in control (P = .002), and there was an increase in family satisfaction (P = .001). Early ICU nurse-led family meetings were feasible, improved communication between ICU nurses and family members, facilitated decision making in ICU families, and increased satisfaction of family members.

  18. A review of passive thermal management of LED module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huaiyu, Ye; Koh, Sau; van Zeijl, Henk; Gielen, A. W. J.; Guoqi, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the high-brightness LEDs have begun to be designed for illumination application. The increased electrical currents used to drive LEDs lead to thermal issues. Thermal management for LED module is a key design parameter as high operation temperature directly affects their maximum light output, quality, reliability and life time. In this review, only passive thermal solutions used on LED module will be studied. Moreover, new thermal interface materials and passive thermal solutions applied on electronic equipments are discussed which have high potential to enhance the thermal performance of LED Module.

  19. Influencing of various phosphor parameters on the LED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi Ping; Zhang, Shu Qin; Jin, Shang-zhong; Shi, Chang Shou; Li, Liang; Yu, RenYong

    2012-10-01

    In this paper ,the advantages and disadvantages of the methods to achieve White LED are reviewed, and phosphor-converted white LEDs are discussed in detail. In the case of blue chip exciting YAG phosphor to get white LED, use Mie scattering theory to construct physical model, then analyze how the package, concentration, thickness and particle size of phosphor work on extraction efficiency, spatial Chroma uniformity and color temperature of white LED. The conclusion of this paper advances the application of LED solid-state light source. In the end, the paper puts forward the direction and focus of phosphor research.

  20. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15more » minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.« less

  1. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15more » minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.« less

  2. 76 FR 61075 - Foreign-Trade Zone 127-Columbia, SC; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Board on July 2, 1986 (Board Order 333, 51 FR 25075, 7/10/86). The current zone project includes the... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 57-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone 127--Columbia... submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by the Richland-Lexington Airport District...

  3. 78 FR 57618 - Foreign-Trade Zone 39-Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-84-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 39--Dallas/Fort... Framework An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board by the Dallas/Fort Worth... Order 1660, 75 FR 4355, 1/27/10). The zone project currently has a service area that includes Dallas...

  4. Reflective Optics Design for an LED High Beam Headlamp of Motorbikes

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Peng; Wang, Xiang; Li, Yang; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We propose a reflective optics design for an LED motorbike high beam lamp. We set the measuring screen as an elliptical zone and divide it into many small lattices and divide the spatial angle of the LED source into many parts and make relationships between them. According to the conservation law of energy and the Snell's law, the reflector is generated by freeform optics design method. Then the optical system is simulated by Monte Carlo method using ASAP software. Light pattern of simulation could meet the standard. The high beam headlamp is finally fabricated and assembled into a physical object. Experiment results can fully comply with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) vehicle regulations R113 revision 2 (Class C). PMID:25961073

  5. Reflective optics design for an LED high beam headlamp of motorbikes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Peng; Wang, Xiang; Li, Yang; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We propose a reflective optics design for an LED motorbike high beam lamp. We set the measuring screen as an elliptical zone and divide it into many small lattices and divide the spatial angle of the LED source into many parts and make relationships between them. According to the conservation law of energy and the Snell's law, the reflector is generated by freeform optics design method. Then the optical system is simulated by Monte Carlo method using ASAP software. Light pattern of simulation could meet the standard. The high beam headlamp is finally fabricated and assembled into a physical object. Experiment results can fully comply with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) vehicle regulations R113 revision 2 (Class C).

  6. Life of LED-Based White Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Gu, Yimin

    2005-09-01

    Even though light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may have a very long life, poorly designed LED lighting systems can experience a short life. Because heat at the p-n-junction is one of the main factors that affect the life of the LED, by knowing the relationship between life and heat, LED system manufacturers can design and build long-lasting systems. In this study, several white LEDs from the same manufacturer were subjected to life tests at different ambient temperatures. The exponential decay of light output as a function of time provided a convenient method to rapidly estimate life by data extrapolation. The life of these LEDs decreases in an exponential manner with increasing temperature. In a second experiment,several high-power white LEDs from different manufacturers were life-tested under similar conditions. Results show that the different products have significantly different life values.

  7. Development of optics with micro-LED arrays for improved opto-electronic neural stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudet, Lionel; Neil, Mark; Degenaar, Patrick; Mehran, Kamyar; Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Corbet, Brian; Maaskant, Pleun; Rogerson, David; Lanigan, Peter; Bamberg, Ernst; Roska, Botond

    2013-03-01

    The breakthrough discovery of a nanoscale optically gated ion channel protein, Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2), and its combination with a genetically expressed ion pump, Halorhodopsin, allowed the direct stimulation and inhibition of individual action potentials with light alone. This work reports developments of ultra-bright elec­ tronically controlled optical array sources with enhanced light gated ion channels and pumps for use in systems to further our understanding of both brain and visual function. This work is undertaken as part of the European project, OptoNeuro. Micro-LED arrays permit spatio-temporal control of neuron stimulation on sub-millisecond timescales. However they are disadvantaged by their broad spatial light emission distribution and low fill factor. We present the design and implementation of a projection and micro-optics system for use with a micro-LED array consisting of a 16x16 matrix of 25 μm diameter micro-LEDs with 150 μm centre-to-centre spacing and an emission spectrum centred at 470 nm overlapping the peak sensitivity of ChR2 and its testing on biological samples. The projection system images the micro-LED array onto micro-optics to improve the fill-factor from ~2% to more than 78% by capturing a larger fraction of the LED emission and directing it correctly to the sample plane. This approach allows low fill factor arrays to be used effectively, which in turn has benefits in terms of thermal management and electrical drive from CMOS backplane electronics. The entire projection system is integrated into a microscope prototype to provide stimulation spots at the same size as the neuron cell body (μ10 pm).

  8. 23 CFR 630.1012 - Project-level procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1012 Project-level procedures. (a) This section provides guidance and establishes procedures for States to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects. (b) Transportation Management Plan (TMP). A TMP consists of strategies to manage the work zone...

  9. 23 CFR 630.1012 - Project-level procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1012 Project-level procedures. (a) This section provides guidance and establishes procedures for States to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects. (b) Transportation Management Plan (TMP). A TMP consists of strategies to manage the work zone...

  10. 23 CFR 630.1012 - Project-level procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1012 Project-level procedures. (a) This section provides guidance and establishes procedures for States to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects. (b) Transportation Management Plan (TMP). A TMP consists of strategies to manage the work zone...

  11. 23 CFR 630.1012 - Project-level procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1012 Project-level procedures. (a) This section provides guidance and establishes procedures for States to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects. (b) Transportation Management Plan (TMP). A TMP consists of strategies to manage the work zone...

  12. Ocean color imagery: Coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations into the feasibility of sensing ocean color from high altitude for determination of chlorophyll and sediment distributions were carried out using sensors on NASA aircraft, coordinated with surface measurements carried out by oceanographic vessels. Spectrometer measurements in 1971 and 1972 led to development of an imaging sensor now flying on a NASA U-2 and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to fly on Nimbus G in 1978. Results of the U-2 effort show the imaging sensor to be of great value in sensing pollutants in the ocean.

  13. Progress and prospects of GaN-based LEDs using nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Xia; Yu, Zhi-Guo; Sun, Bo; Zhu, Shi-Chao; An, Ping-Bo; Yang, Chao; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Jin-Min

    2015-06-01

    Progress with GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) that incorporate nanostructures is reviewed, especially the recent achievements in our research group. Nano-patterned sapphire substrates have been used to grow an AlN template layer for deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs. One efficient surface nano-texturing technology, hemisphere-cones-hybrid nanostructures, was employed to enhance the extraction efficiency of InGaN flip-chip LEDs. Hexagonal nanopyramid GaN-based LEDs have been fabricated and show electrically driven color modification and phosphor-free white light emission because of the linearly increased quantum well width and indium incorporation from the shell to the core. Based on the nanostructures, we have also fabricated surface plasmon-enhanced nanoporous GaN-based green LEDs using AAO membrane as a mask. Benefitting from the strong lateral SP coupling as well as good electrical protection by a passivation layer, the EL intensity of an SP-enhanced nanoporous LED was significantly enhanced by 380%. Furthermore, nanostructures have been used for the growth of GaN LEDs on amorphous substrates, the fabrication of stretchable LEDs, and for increasing the 3-dB modulation bandwidth for visible light communication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61334009), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015AA03A101 and 2014BAK02B08), China International Science and Technology Cooperation Program (Grant No. 2014DFG62280), the “Import Outstanding Technical Talent Plan” and “Youth Innovation Promotion Association Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Mushy zone modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Smith, Richard N.; Marsh, Steven P.; Kuklinski, Robert

    A key element of mushy zone modeling is the description of the microscopic evolution of the lengthscales within the mushy zone and the influence of macroscopic transport processes. This paper describes some recent progress in developing a mean-field statistical theory of phase coarsening in adiabatic mushy zones. The main theoretical predictions are temporal scaling laws that indicate that average lengthscale increases as time 1/3, a self-similar distribution of mushy zone lengthscales based on spherical solid particle shapes, and kinetic rate constants which provide the dependences of the coarsening process on material parameters and the volume fraction of the solid phase. High precision thermal decay experiments are described which verify aspects of the theory in pure material mushy zones held under adiabatic conditions. The microscopic coarsening theory is then integrated within a macroscopic heat transfer model of one-dimensional alloy solidification, using the Double Integral Method. The method demonstrates an ability to predict the influence of macroscopic heat transfer on the evolution of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings in Al-Cu alloys. Finally, some suggestions are made for future experimental and theoretical studies required in developing comprehensive solidification processing models.

  15. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  16. Freeway work zone lane capacity.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this report is a capacity analysis of two long-term urban freeway Work Zones. Work Zone #1 : tapered four mainline lanes to two, using two separate tapers; Work Zone #2 tapered two mainline lanes to one. : Work Zone throughput was analyz...

  17. Medical Applications of White LEDs for Surgical Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Kawakami, Yoichi

    Everywhere in the world, the highest quality and quantity of lighting is required during the surgical operations. However, the surgical approach has had many types and various angles, common ceiling surgical halogen lighting system cannot provide an adequate amount of beams because the surgeons' heads hinder the illuminations from reaching the operation field. The evolution of solid-state-lighting is currently going to be developed due to the progress of white light emitting diodes (LEDs). We proposed and developed the new lighting equipment that is a surgical lighting goggle composed of InGaN-YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet):Ce3+-based white LEDs. Here, we newly design surgical lighting system composed of white LEDs equipped on both sides of goggles. In fact, we have succeeded in the first internal shunt operation in the left forearm using the surgical LED lighting system on 11th Sept 2000. Since the white LEDs used were composed of InGaN-blue-emitters and YAG-yellow-phosphors, the color rendering property was not sufficient in the reddish colors. After our first challenge for medical application of white LEDs, we have been trying to improve the luminance power of white LED, the color rendering in red colors and the spectral distribution of white LED to render inherent color of raw flesh such as skin, blood, fat tissue and internal organs. We have produced new concepts for LED lighting sources and new several generations of LED lighting goggles.

  18. ZnO-nanorods: A possible white LED phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Sachindra Nath; T., Arun; Ray, Dinseh K.; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Nozaki, Shinji; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Uchida, Kazuo

    2017-05-01

    The white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn much attention to replace conventional lighting sources because of low energy consumption, high light efficiency and long lifetime. Although the most common approach to produce white light is to combine a blue LED chip and a yellow phosphor, such a white LED cannot be used for a general lighting application, which requires a broad luminescence spectrum in the visible wavelength range. We have successfully chemically synthesized the ZnO nanorods showing intense broad luminescence in the visible wavelength range and made a white LED using the ZnO nanorods as phosphor excited with a blue LED. Their lengths and diameters were 2 - 10 μm and 200 - 800 nm, respectively. The wurtzite structure was confirmed by the x-ray diffraction measurement. The PL spectrum obtained by exciting the ZnO nanorods with the He-Cd laser has two peaks, one associated with the near band-edge recombination and the other with recombination via defects. The peak intensity of the near band-edge luminescence at 388 nm is much weaker than that of the defect-related luminescence. The latter luminescence peak ranges from 450 to 850 nm and broad enough to be used as a phosphor for a white LED. A white LED has been fabricated using a blue LED with 450 nm emission and ZnO nanorod powders. The LED performances show a white light emission and the electroluminescence measurement shows a stiff increase in white light intensity with increasing blue LED current. The Commission International de1'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity colour coordinates of 450 nm LED pumped white emission shows a coordinate of (0.31, 0.32) for white LED at 350 mA. These results indicate that ZnO nanorods provides an alternate and effective approach to achieve high-performance white LEDs and also other optoelectronic devices.

  19. 78 FR 67086 - Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations, Kent Island Narrows; Queen Anne's County, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Submarine Cable Replacement Operations, Kent Island Narrows; Queen Anne's County... Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone encompassing certain waters of Kent Island Narrows... potential safety hazards associated with the bridge project. Entry into this zone would be prohibited unless...

  20. 23 CFR 630.1006 - Work zone safety and mobility policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work zone safety and mobility policy. 630.1006 Section... policy. Each State shall implement a policy for the systematic consideration and management of work zone impacts on all Federal-aid highway projects. This policy shall address work zone impacts throughout the...

  1. 76 FR 50455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, Puerto Rico Application for Expansion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ..., Puerto Rico Application for Expansion An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board... Ponce, Puerto Rico. The application was submitted pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign-Trade Zones.../19/10). The zone project currently consists of fifteen sites (917.70 acres total) in Puerto Rico...

  2. 75 FR 13232 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake Mead's Intake 3. This safety zone is... for the placement of an Intake Pipe from Lake Mead throughout 2010. This safety zone is necessary to...

  3. Evaluation Of Traffic Control Devices For Rural High-Speed Maintenance Work Zones

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-10-01

    This report documents the first year activities of a two-year project in which various work zone traffic control devices, treatments, and practices were implemented and evaluated. The focus was on rural high-speed work zones. Nine work zones were stu...

  4. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip LEDs and top-emitting LEDs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingtong; Zhou, Shengjun; Gao, Yilin; Hu, Hongpo; Liu, Yingce; Gui, Chengqun; Liu, Sheng

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate a GaN-based flip-chip LED (FC-LED) with a highly reflective indium-tin oxide (ITO)/distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) ohmic contact. A transparent ITO current spreading layer combined with Ta 2 O 5 /SiO 2 double DBR stacks is used as a reflective p-type ohmic contact in the FC-LED. We develop a strip-shaped SiO 2 current blocking layer, which is well aligned with a p-electrode, to prevent the current from crowding around the p-electrode. Our combined numerical simulation and experimental results revealed that the FC-LED with ITO/DBR has advantages of better current spreading and superior heat dissipation performance compared to top-emitting LEDs (TE-LEDs). As a result, the light output power (LOP) of the FC-LED with ITO/DBR was 7.6% higher than that of the TE-LED at 150 mA, and the light output saturation current was shifted from 130.9  A/cm 2 for the TE-LED to 273.8  A/cm 2 for the FC-LED with ITO/DBR. Owing to the high reflectance of the ITO/DBR ohmic contact, the LOP of the FC-LED with ITO/DBR was 13.0% higher than that of a conventional FC-LED with Ni/Ag at 150 mA. However, because of the better heat dissipation of the Ni/Ag ohmic contact, the conventional FC-LED with Ni/Ag exhibited higher light output saturation current compared to the FC-LED with ITO/DBR.

  5. Hydraulic properties of samples retrieved from the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project Hole-1 (WFSD-1) and the surface rupture zone: Implications for coseismic slip weakening and fault healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianye; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Yang, Tao; Niemeijer, André

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the hydraulic properties of samples recovered from the first borehole of the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling and from outcrops associated with the surface rupture zone of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Compositional and microstructural analyses have also been performed on selected samples. Using the pore pressure oscillation method, the permeability measurements show that (1) fault gouge samples have low permeabilities, decreasing from 2 × 10-18 m2 at an effective pressure (Pe) of 10 MPa (equivalent to an in situ depth of 600 m) to 9 × 10-21 m2 at 155 MPa. (2) Intact and cemented samples are impermeable with permeabilities less than 2 × 10-20 m2 at 10 MPa. (3) Fractured samples have variable permeabilities, ranging from 3 × 10-15 to 1 × 10-20 m2 at 10 MPa, and are most insensitive to changes in the effective pressure. (4) Granitic cataclasites have a moderate permeability at low pressure (i.e., 10-16 to 10-17 m2 at 10 MPa); which decreases rapidly with increasing Pe. Hydraulic conduction of the fault is believed to be influenced by the permeability of the fractures developed, which is controlled by the density, aperture, and/or connectivity of the fractures. Microstructural and compositional analyses of the samples indicate that the fault zone heals through chemically mediated fracture closure related to mineral precipitation, possibly assisted by pressure solution of stressed fracture asperities. Although other weakening mechanisms remain possible, our laboratory measurements combined with numerical modeling reveal that thermal/thermochemical pressurization, perhaps leading to gouge fluidization, played an important role in the dynamic weakening of the Wenchuan earthquake, at least in the study area.

  6. Visualising higher order Brillouin zones with applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, R. C.; Salagaram, T.; Chetty, N.

    2017-05-01

    A key concept in material science is the relationship between the Bravais lattice, the reciprocal lattice and the resulting Brillouin zones (BZ). These zones are often complicated shapes that are hard to construct and visualise without the use of sophisticated software, even by professional scientists. We have used a simple sorting algorithm to construct BZ of any order for a chosen Bravais lattice that is easy to implement in any scientific programming language. The resulting zones can then be visualised using freely available plotting software. This method has pedagogical value for upper-level undergraduate students since, along with other computational methods, it can be used to illustrate how constant-energy surfaces combine with these zones to create van Hove singularities in the density of states. In this paper we apply our algorithm along with the empirical pseudopotential method and the 2D equivalent of the tetrahedron method to show how they can be used in a simple software project to investigate this interaction for a 2D crystal. This project not only enhances students’ fundamental understanding of the principles involved but also improves transferable coding skills.

  7. Temperature increase inside LED-based illuminators for in vitro aPDT photodamage studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, A.; Morici, P.; Tortora, G.; Menciassi, A.; Checcucci, G.; Ghetti, F.; Sgarbossa, A.

    2018-06-01

    Antimicrobial PhotoDynamic Therapy (aPDT) is an emerging strategy aimed at the eradication of bacterial infections, with a special focus on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This method is easy to apply, not expensive and particularly interesting in case of bacteria that spontaneously produce the required photosensitizers. In the framework of a project aimed at the development of an ingestible pill for the application of aPDT to gastric infections by Helicobacter pylori, a LED-based illuminating prototype (LED-BIP) was purposely designed in order to evaluate the photodamage induced by light of different wavelengths on porphyrin-producing bacteria. This short paper reports about temperature tests performed to assess the maximum exposure time and light dose that can be administered to bacterial cultures inside LED-BIP without reaching temperatures exceeding the physiological range.

  8. Evaluating the impact of LED bulb development on the economic viability of ultraviolet technology for disinfection.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A S; MacAdam, Jitka; Autin, Olivier; Jefferson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) technologies have been very successful in disinfection applications due to their ability to inactivate microorganisms without producing harmful disinfection by-products. However, there have been a number of concerns associated with the use of conventional UV systems such as hazardous mercury content, high capital investment and reduced electrical efficiency. These concerns have set limitations for the use of UV processes. The study evaluates the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology as an alternative UV source over the last 5 years, analyses the projections provided by the researchers and UV LED manufacturers and presents the information in a cost model with the aim to predict the timeline at which UV LED will compete with traditional UV low pressure high output technology in the commercial market at full-scale residential and industrial disinfection applications.

  9. Dike zones on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  10. Evaluation of modified work zone traffic control devices at business accesses

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    Modified work zone traffic control devices at business accesses were evaluated on two Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) projects in 1999 and 2000. On one section project, blue Temporary Business Access" signs were used at business accesses d...

  11. Utilization of remote traffic monitoring devices for urban freeway work zone assessment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to promote and facilitate analysis and evaluation of the impacts of road construction activities in Smart : Work Zone Deployment Initiative (SWZDI) states. : The two primary objectives of this project were to assess ...

  12. Characteristics of white LED transmission through a smoke screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Yang, Aiying; Feng, Lihui; Guo, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of white LED transmission through a smoke screen is critical for visible light communication through a smoke screen. Based on the Mie scattering theory, the Monte Carlo transmission model is established. Based on the probability density function, the white LED sampling model is established according to the measured spectrum of a white LED and the distribution angle of the lambert model. The sampling model of smoke screen particle diameter is also established according to its distribution. We simulate numerically the influence the smoke thickness, the smoke concentration and the angle of irradiance of white LED on transmittance of the white LED. We construct a white LED smoke transmission experiment system. The measured result on the light transmittance and the smoke concentration agreed with the simulated result, and demonstrated the validity of simulation model for visible light transmission channel through a smoke screen.

  13. An overview of LED applications for general illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelka, David G.; Patel, Kavita

    2003-11-01

    This paper begins by reviewing the current state of development of LEDs, their existing markets as well as their potential for energy conservation and their potential for gaining market share in the general illumination market. It discusses LED metrics such as chip size, lumens per watt, thermal resistance, and the recommended maximum current rating. The paper then goes on to consider the importance of non-imaging optics for both optically efficient and extremely compact LED lighting systems. Finally, microstructures useful for controlling the fields-of-view of LED lighting systems are considered and described in some detail. An extremely efficient and cost effective microstructure, called kinoform diffusers, is shown to have very unique properties that make this technology almost ideal for shaping the output beams of LED lighting systems. It concludes by illustrating some general illumination LED lighting systems

  14. Laser-zone growth in a Ribbon-To-Ribbon (RTR) process. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtler, R. W.; Baghdadi, A.; Legge, R.; Sopori, B.; Ellis, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Ribbon-to-Ribbon (RTR) approach to silicon ribbon growth is investigated. An existing RTR apparatus is to be upgraded to its full capabilities and operated routinely to investigate and optimize the effects of various growth parameters on growth results. A new RTR apparatus was constructed to incorporate increased capabilities and improvements over the first apparatus and to be capable of continuous growth. New high power lasers were implemented and this led to major improvements in growth velocity -- 4 inch/min. growth has been demonstrated. A major step in demonstration of the full feasibility of the RTR process is reported in the demonstration of RTR growth from CVD polyribbon rather than sliced polyribbon ingots. Average solar cell efficiencies of greater than 9% and a best cell efficiency of 11.7% are reported. Processing was shown to provide a substantial improvement in material minority carrier diffusion length. An economic analysis is reported which treats both the polyribbon fabrication and RTR processes.

  15. Interior LED Lighting Technology. Navy Energy Technology Validation (Techval) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    usually on most of the time. • Consider replacing existing CFL, high-intensity discharge (HID), or halogen lamp light fixtures/ lamps with LED fixtures... lamps . What is the Technology? An LED is a semiconductor-diode that emits light when power is applied. A driver is used, much as a ballast, to...available in integrated luminaires that can be used to replace existing luminaires. LEDs are also available as direct replacement lamps for many

  16. A novel amblyopia treatment system based on LED light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qingshan; Wang, Xiaoling

    2011-05-01

    A novel LED (light emitting diode) light source of five different colors (white, red, green, blue and yellow) is adopted instead of conventional incandescent lamps for an amblyopia treatment system and seven training methods for rectifying amblyopia are incorporated so as for achieving an integrated therapy. The LED light source is designed to provide uniform illumination, adjustable light intensity and alterable colors. Experimental tests indicate that the LED light source operates steadily and fulfills the technical demand of amblyopia treatment.

  17. A novel amblyopia treatment system based on LED light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qingshan; Wang, Xiaoling

    2010-12-01

    A novel LED (light emitting diode) light source of five different colors (white, red, green, blue and yellow) is adopted instead of conventional incandescent lamps for an amblyopia treatment system and seven training methods for rectifying amblyopia are incorporated so as for achieving an integrated therapy. The LED light source is designed to provide uniform illumination, adjustable light intensity and alterable colors. Experimental tests indicate that the LED light source operates steadily and fulfills the technical demand of amblyopia treatment.

  18. Theoretical and experimental luminous characteristics of white LEDs composed of multiphosphors and near-UV LED for lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Yuji; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    2003-07-01

    We have performed theoretical studies on the luminous characeristics of white LED light source which composed of multi phosphors and near ultraviolet (UV) LED for general lighting. White LED source for general lighting applications requires the conditions that have high-flux, high luminous efficacy of radiation (> 100 lm/W) in addition to high color rendering index (Ra > 90) and variable color temperatures. Recently, we have proposed a novel type white LED based on multi phosphors and near UV LED system in order to high-Ra (>93). We will describe the excellent luminescence properties of white LED consisting of orange (O), yellow (Y), green (G) and blue (B) phosphor materials, and near UV LED. The color spectral contributions of individual phosphor-coated LED are theoretically analyzed using our multi LED lighting theory calculated the maximum luminous efficacy can be estimated to be approximately 300 lm/W having a high Ra of about 90 taking into account individual radiation spectrum. Illuminance distribution of white LED is in fairly good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Minimizing traffic-related work zone crashes in Illinois.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a research project to study and develop recommendations to minimize work : zone crashes in Illinois. The objectives of this project were (1) to provide in-depth comprehensive review of the : latest literature on t...

  20. Improved business driveway delineation in urban work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-04-01

    This report documents the efforts and results of a two-year research project aimed at improving driveway : delineation in work zones. The first year of the project included a closed-course study to identify the most : promising driveway delineation a...

  1. High-Modulation-Speed LEDs Based on III-Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong

    III-nitride InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) enable wide range of applications in solid-state lighting, full-color displays, and high-speed visible-light communication. Conventional InGaN quantum well LEDs grown on polar c-plane substrate suffer from quantum confined Stark effect due to the large internal polarization-related fields, leading to a reduced radiative recombination rate and device efficiency, which limits the performance of InGaN LEDs in high-speed communication applications. To circumvent these negative effects, non-trivial-cavity designs such as flip-chip LEDs, metallic grating coated LEDs are proposed. This oral defense will show the works on the high-modulation-speed LEDs from basic ideas to applications. Fundamental principles such as rate equations for LEDs/laser diodes (LDs), plasmonic effects, Purcell effects will be briefly introduced. For applications, the modal properties of flip-chip LEDs are solved by implementing finite difference method in order to study the modulation response. The emission properties of highly polarized InGaN LEDs coated by metallic gratings are also investigated by finite difference time domain method.

  2. A synthetic method of solar spectrum based on LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-qiang; Su, Shi; Zhang, Guo-yu; Zhang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    A synthetic method of solar spectrum which based on the spectral characteristics of the solar spectrum and LED, and the principle of arbitrary spectral synthesis was studied by using 14 kinds of LED with different central wavelengths.The LED and solar spectrum data were selected by Origin Software firstly, then calculated the total number of LED for each center band by the transformation relation between brightness and illumination and Least Squares Curve Fit in Matlab.Finally, the spectrum curve of AM1.5 standard solar spectrum was obtained. The results met the technical indexes of the solar spectrum matching with ±20% and the solar constant with >0.5.

  3. Surface photonic crystal structures for LED emission modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherek, Frantisek; Škriniarová, Jaroslava; Kuzma, Anton; Šušlik, Łuboš; Lettrichova, Ivana; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Application of photonic crystal structures (PhC) can be attractive for overall and local enhancement of light from patterned areas of the light emitting diode (LED) surface. We used interference and near-field scanning optical microscope lithography for patterning of the surface of GaAs/AlGaAs based LEDs emitted at 840 nm. Also new approach with patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane applied directly on the surface of red emitting LED was investigated. The overall emission properties of prepared LED with patterned structure show enhanced light extraction efficiency, what was documented from near- and far-field measurements.

  4. Warm white LEDs lighting over Ra=95 and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, Katsuya; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    2007-02-01

    We have for the first time developed warm white LEDs lighting using a combination of near ultraviolet LED and three-band (red, green and blue) white phosphors. This LED has the average color-rendering index Ra=96. Moreover, special color-rendering index R9 (red) and R15 (face color of Japanese) are estimated to be 95 and 97, respectively. We will describe the results of evaluation on the medical lighting applications such as operation, treatment and endoscope experiments, application to the LED fashions and application to the Japanese antique art (ink painting) lighting.

  5. Effects of Cryogenic Temperatures on LEDs and Optical Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantel, Erica R.

    2005-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) may provide a simple, low powered light source for future space missions. However, the effects of cryogenic temperatures on LEDs and optical fibers are largely unknown. Tests were performed on a selection of commercially-available LEDs, with wavelengths varying from 468 nm to 950 nm, as well as "white" LEDs. Dry ice and liquid nitrogen (LN2) were used to bring the LEDs to the desired temperatures. The optical fibers were tested using a specially-machined brass cylinder that would allow the fibers to be cooled slowly and evenly in an LN2 dewer. An optical fiber coupled to a spectrometer was used to acquired spectra of a calibration light source (wavelength range 253-922 nm) at various temperatures. Examination of the LED spectra has shown several different effects, depending on the LED in question. Those with wavelengths above 590 nm tend to show a "blue shift" in their peak wavelength and an increase in intensity. Other LEDs developed secondary or tertiary peaks, or showed no peak shift at all, although all LEDs did show an increase in observed intensity. The optical fiber showed a slight non-uniform decrease in transmission as the temperature cooled to -195 C.

  6. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  7. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  8. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  9. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  10. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  11. Implementing speed reductions at specific interstate work zones from 65 mph to 35 mph : appendices to final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-02-01

    Interstate preservation projects are commonly conducted at night and often require working in close proximity to ongoing traffic. Vehicle speed and speed variability in work zones is inextricably connected to the work zone design and the selected tra...

  12. Study on the mechanism of color coordinate shift of LED package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yunyi; Wang, Yong; Yang, Bobo; Li, Zhanguo; Yang, Lei; Zou, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In the paper, the influences of the chip, silicone and phosphors on the color coordinate shift of LED were studied. In the process of LED baking, it was found that the effect of the chip and silicone on the color coordinate drift is less than 3% through the analysis of each influencing factor. But the influence of the phosphors is large and accounted for 11.11% of the overall impact factors. Therefore, it is important to select the better green phosphors in thermal stability for the LED package and it has a guiding significance to the color coordinate of LED distribution. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11474036), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (No. 12ZR1430900), the Shanghai Institute of Technology Talents Scheme (No. YJ2014-04), the Shanghai Municipal Alliance Program (Nos. Lm201514, Lm201505, Lm201455), the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (CN) (No. 14500503300), the Shanghai Cooperative Project (No. ShanghaiCXY-2013-61), and the Jiashan County Technology Program (No. 20141316).

  13. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  14. Arid Zone Hydrology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  15. Zone of intrusion study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-15

    The Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) performed an analysis using LS-DYNA simulation to investigate the zone of intrusion (ZOI) of an NCHRP Report No. 350 2000p pickup truck when impacting a 40-in. high F-shape parapet. : The ZOI for the 40-in...

  16. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  18. Crossing Comfort Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, D. Soyini

    1993-01-01

    Offers a narrative based on a real event, in the form of a "docustory," describing that moment when teaching worked--when, in an instructional setting, communication was "perfect" or "excellent." Describes how three very different students, in a course on the cultures of women of color, moved beyond comfort zones while working together on a class…

  19. Scheduling work zones in multi-modal networks phase 1: scheduling work zones in transportation service networks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the optimal scheduling of work zones so that they have minimum negative impact (e.g., travel delay, gas consumption, accidents, etc.) on transport service vehicle flows. In this project, a mixed integer linear ...

  20. "Light-box" accelerated growth of poinsettias: LED-only illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasuriya, Charitha; Detez, Stewart; Hock Ng, Soon; Hughes, Andrew; Callaway, Michael; Harrison, Iain; Katkus, Tomas; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2018-01-01

    For the current commercialized agricultural industry which requires a reduced product lead time to customer and supply all year round, an artificial light emitting diodes (LEDs)-based illumination has high potential due to high efficiency of electrical-to-light conversion. The main advantage of the deployed Red Green Blue Amber LED lighting system is colour mixing capability, which means ability to generate all the colours in the spectrum by using three or four primary colours LEDs. The accelerated plant growth was carried out in a "light-box" which was made to generate an artificial day/night cycle by moving the colour mixing ratio along the colour temperature curve of the chromaticity diagram. The control group of plants form the same initial batch was grown on the same shelf in a greenhouse at the same conditions with addition of artificial illumination by incandescent lamps for few hours. Costs and efficiency projections of LED lamps for horticultural applications is discussed together with required capital investment. The total cost of the "light-box" including LED lamps and electronics was 850 AUD.

  1. Efficient conceptual design for LED-based pixel light vehicle headlamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Marcel Philipp; Lachmayer, Roland

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution vehicle headlamps represent a future-oriented technology that can be used to increase traffic safety and driving comfort. As a further development to the current Matrix Beam headlamps, LED-based pixel light systems enable ideal lighting functions (e.g. projection of navigation information onto the road) to be activated in any given driving scenario. Moreover, compared to other light-modulating elements such as DMDs and LCDs, instantaneous LED on-off toggling provides a decisive advantage in efficiency. To generate highly individualized light distributions for automotive applications, a number of approaches using an LED array may be pursued. One approach is to vary the LED density in the array so as to output the desired light distribution. Another notable approach makes use of an equidistant arrangement of the individual LEDs together with distortion optics to formulate the desired light distribution. The optical system adjusts the light distribution in a manner that improves resolution and increases luminous intensity of the desired area. An efficient setup for pixel generation calls for one lens per LED. Taking into consideration the limited space requirements of the system, this implies that the luminous flux, efficiency and resolution image parameters are primarily controlled by the lens dimensions. In this paper a concept for an equidistant LED array arrangement utilizing distortion optics is presented. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the influence of lens geometry on the system efficiency whereas the second part investigates the correlation between resolution and luminous flux based on the lens dimensions.

  2. Compositional zoning of the bishop tuff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Wilson, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Compositional data for >400 pumice clasts, organized according to eruptive sequence, crystal content, and texture, provide new perspectives on eruption and pre-eruptive evolution of the >4600 km3 of zoned rhyolitic magma ejected as the BishopTuff during formation of Long Valley caldera. Proportions and compositions of different pumice types are given for each ignimbrite package and for the intercalated plinian pumice-fall layers that erupted synchronously. Although withdrawal of the zoned magma was less systematic than previously realized, the overall sequence displays trends toward greater proportions of less evolved pumice, more crystals (0-5 24 wt %), and higher FeTi-oxide temperatures (714-818??C). No significant hiatus took place during the 6 day eruption of the BishopTuff, nearly all of which issued from an integrated, zoned, unitary reservoir. Shortly before eruption, however, the zoned melt-dominant portion of the chamber was invaded by batches of disparate lower-silica rhyolite magma, poorer in crystals than most of the resident magma but slightly hotter and richer in Ba, Sr, andTi. Interaction with resident magma at the deepest levels tapped promoted growth ofTi-rich rims on quartz, Ba-rich rims on sanidine, and entrapment of near-rim melt inclusions relatively enriched in Ba and CO2.Varied amounts of mingling, even in higher parts of the chamber, led to the dark gray and swirly crystal-poor pumices sparsely present in all ashflow packages. As shown by FeTi-oxide geothermometry, the zoned rhyolitic chamber was hottest where crystal-richest, rendering any model of solidification fronts at the walls or roof unlikely.The main compositional gradient (75-195 ppm Rb; 0.8-2.2 ppm Ta; 71-154 ppm Zr; 0.40-1.73% FeO*) existed in the melt, prior to crystallization of the phenocryst suite observed, which included zircon as much as 100 kyr older than the eruption.The compositions of crystals, though themselves largely unzoned, generally reflect magma temperature and

  3. Teaching the Manhattan Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibuk, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a nuclear chemistry unit on the Manhattan Project, a research effort that led to the development of the world's first nuclear weapons during World War II. The unit is appropriate for an introductory high school chemistry or physics course and takes from four to six weeks. The unit poses this essential question: "Over…

  4. Development of an antimicrobial blended white LED system containing pulsed 405nm LEDs for decontamination applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Jonathan B.; Maclean, Michelle; Wilson, Mark P.; Given, Martin J.; MacGregor, Scott J.

    2017-03-01

    This study details the design, build and testing of a prototype antimicrobial blended white light unit containing pulsed red, yellow, green and 405nm LEDs. With a push for alternative methods of disinfection, optical methods have become a topic of interest. Ultra-violet (UV) light is widely known for its antimicrobial properties however; 405nm light has demonstrated significant antimicrobial properties against many common hospital acquired pathogens. In this study, a pulsed, blended, white-light prototype with a high content of 405 nm antimicrobial light, was designed, built and tested. Antimicrobial efficacy testing of the prototype was conducted using Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas. aeruginosa, two bacteria which are common causes of hospital acquired infections. These were exposure to 3 different light outputs from the prototype and the surviving bacteria enumerated. Results showed that the mixed light output provided a much better CRI and light output under which to work. Also, the light output containing 405 nm light provided an antimicrobial effect, with decontamination of 103 CFUml-1 populations of both bacterial species. The other light content (red, yellow, green) had no beneficial or adverse effects on the antimicrobial properties of the 405nm light. The results suggest that with further development, it could be possible to produce an antimicrobial blended white light containing pulsed 405nm light that could supplement or even replace standard white lighting in certain environments.

  5. Design a light pattern of multiple concentric circles for LED fishing lamps using Fourier series and an energy mapping method.

    PubMed

    Shen, S C; Li, J S; Huang, M C

    2014-06-02

    Fourier series and an energy mapping method were used in this study to design a lens that produces a light pattern of multiple concentric circles (LPMCC) for a light-emitting diode (LED) fishing lamp. Fourier series were used to represent the light intensity distribution curve (LIDC) of the LPMCC light pattern. Energy mapping involves performing angular energy mapping based on the LIDCs of an LED light source and LPMCC to design a freeform lens. Type I and Type II LPMCC lenses were designed according to the phototaxis behavior of fish to create a LPMCC light pattern of interleaving light-dark zones that attracts fish shoals to stay in an area for a long period. The experimental results indicated that, in comparing the LIDCs of the Type I and II lenses with the respective simulation values, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) value reached 96%. According to a 24-hour observation of the phototaxis of Poecilia reticulata to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed light pattern to attract fish, when a fish shoal was habituated to a light source that emitted constant illumination light, it gradually moved away from the intense light zone and hovered around the junction of the light and dark zones. In the future, the design used in this study can be applied to LED fishing lamps to replace traditional fishing lamps.

  6. Issues and solutions: opportunities for European LED manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearsall, T. P.

    2007-09-01

    Marketing studies by EPIC show significant revenue opportunities by 2012 for UHB-LEDs in the automotive, LCD backlighting, and architectural lighting sectors. The goal of this workshop on manufacturing issues is to consider five key issues for UHB-LED manufacturing and to propose solutions that will pave the way to full exploitation of the opportunities.

  7. LED roadway lighting, volume 2 : field evaluations and software comparisons.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-10-01

    The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for roadway lighting can potentially save energy costs and reduce the frequency of maintenance. The objective of this study is to explore the current state of the art in LED roadway lighting technology. Three s...

  8. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  9. Determination of LEDs degradation with entropy generation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadras, Angel; Yao, Jiaqiang; Quilez, Marcos

    2017-10-01

    We propose a method to assess the degradation and aging of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on irreversible entropy generation rate. We degraded several LEDs and monitored their entropy generation rate ( S ˙ ) in accelerated tests. We compared the thermoelectrical results with the optical light emission evolution during degradation. We find a good relationship between aging and S ˙ (t), because S ˙ is both related to device parameters and optical performance. We propose a threshold of S ˙ (t) as a reliable damage indicator of LED end-of-life that can avoid the need to perform optical measurements to assess optical aging. The method lays beyond the typical statistical laws for lifetime prediction provided by manufacturers. We tested different LED colors and electrical stresses to validate the electrical LED model and we analyzed the degradation mechanisms of the devices.

  10. High-luminance LEDs replace incandescent lamps in new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David L.

    1997-04-01

    The advent of high luminance AlInGaP and InGaN LED technologies has prompted the use of LED devices in new applications formally illuminated by incandescent lamps. The luminous efficiencies of these new LED technologies equals or exceeds that attainable with incandescent sources, with reliability factors that far exceed those of incandescent sources. The need for a highly efficient, dependable, and cost effective replacement for incandescent lamps is being fulfilled with high luminance LED lamps. This paper briefly described some of the new applications incorporating high luminance LED lamps, traffic signals and roadway signs for traffic management, automotive exterior lighting, active matrix and full color displays for commercial advertising, and commercial aircraft panel lighting and military aircraft NVG compatible lighting.

  11. Automated platform for determination of LEDs spatial radiation pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladescu, Marian; Vuza, Dan Tudor

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays technologies lead to remarkable properties of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs), making them attractive for more and more applications, such as: interior and exterior lighting, outdoor LED panels, traffic signals, automotive (tail and brake lights, backlighting in dashboard and switches), backlighting of display panels, LCD displays, symbols on switches, keyboards, graphic boards and measuring scales. Usually, LEDs are small light sources consisting of a chip placed into a package, which may bring additional optics to this encapsulated ensemble, resulting in a less or more complex spatial distribution of the light intensity, with particular radiation patterns. This paper presents an automated platform designed to allow a quick and accurate determination of the spatial radiation patterns of LEDs encapsulated in various packages. Keywords: LED, luminous

  12. Thermal management methods for compact high power LED arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Adam; Ha, Minseok; Graham, Samuel

    2007-09-01

    The package and system level temperature distributions of a high power (>1W) light emitting diode (LED) array has been investigated using numerical heat flow models. For this analysis, a thermal resistor network model was combined with a 3D finite element submodel of an LED structure to predict system and die level temperatures. The impact of LED array density, LED power density, and active versus passive cooling methods on device operation were calculated. In order to help understand the role of various thermal resistances in cooling such compact arrays, the thermal resistance network was analyzed in order to estimate the contributions from materials as well as active and passive cooling schemes. An analysis of thermal stresses and residual stresses in the die are also calculated based on power dissipation and convection heat transfer coefficients. Results show that the thermal stress in the GaN layer are compressive which can impact the band gap and performance of the LEDs.

  13. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  14. Metagenomic insights into important microbes from the Dead Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrash, C.; Baker, B.; Seitz, K.; Temperton, B.; Gillies, L.; Rabalais, N. N.; Mason, O. U.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal regions of eutrophication-driven oxygen depletion are widespread and increasing in number. Also known as dead zones, these regions take their name from the deleterious effects of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L) on shrimp, demersal fish, and other animal life. Dead zones result from nutrient enrichment of primary production, concomitant consumption by chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms, and strong stratification that prevents ventilation of bottom water. One of the largest dead zones in the world occurs seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), where hypoxia can reach up to 22,000 square kilometers. While this dead zone shares many features with more well-known marine oxygen minimum zones, it is nevertheless understudied with regards to the microbial assemblages involved in biogeochemical cycling. We performed metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on six samples from the 2013 nGOM dead zone from both hypoxic and oxic bottom waters. Assembly and binning led to the recovery of over fifty partial to nearly complete metagenomes from key microbial taxa previously determined to be numerically abundant from 16S rRNA data, such as Thaumarcheaota, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, SAR406, SAR324, Synechococcus spp., and Planctomycetes. These results provide information about the roles of these taxa in the nGOM dead zone, and opportunities for comparing this region of low oxygen to others around the globe.

  15. Exploring the use of student-led simulated practice learning in pre-registration nursing programmes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jo; Collins, Guy; Gratton, Olivia

    2017-09-20

    Simulated practice learning is used in pre-registration nursing programmes to replicate situations that nursing students are likely to encounter in clinical practice, but in a safe and protected academic environment. However, lecturer-led simulated practice learning has been perceived as detached from contemporary nursing practice by some nursing students. Therefore, a pilot project was implemented in the authors' university to explore the use of student-led simulated practice learning and its potential benefits for nursing students. To evaluate the effectiveness of student-led simulated practice learning in pre-registration nursing programmes. The authors specifically wanted to: enhance the students' skills; improve their critical thinking and reflective strategies; and develop their leadership and management techniques. A literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence supporting student-led simulated practice learning. A skills gap analysis was then conducted with 35 third-year nursing students to identify their learning needs, from which suitable simulated practice learning scenarios and sessions were developed and undertaken. These sessions were evaluated using debriefs following each of the sessions, as well as informal discussions with the nursing students. The pilot project identified that student-led simulated learning: developed nursing students' ability to plan and facilitate colleagues' practice learning; enabled nursing students to develop their mentoring skills; reinforced the nursing students' self-awareness, which contributed to their personal development; and demonstrated the importance of peer feedback and support through the debriefs. Challenges included overcoming some students' resistance to the project and that some lecturers were initially concerned that nursing students may not have the clinical expertise to lead the simulated practice learning sessions effectively. This pilot project has demonstrated how student-led simulated

  16. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  17. Aeration Zone Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, B.

    The International Symposium on Recent Investigations in the Zone of Aeration (RIZA) was organized by the Institute for Hydrogeology and Hydrochemistry of the Technical University of Munich and held October 1-5, 1984, in the lecture halls of the Grosshadern Klinik in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). P. Udluft, B. Merkel, and K.-H. Prüsl, all of the university, were responsible for the organization of the symposium, which was under the patronage of K.-E. Quentin. There were over 200 participants from 22 different countries, among them Australia, Canada, China, India, and the United States. The topics of the symposium were the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes in the unsaturated zone, the region between the surface and the groundwater level. Here a number of complex processes occur that on the one hand are of natural origin and on the other hand are influenced by human activities in a number of ways.

  18. Parent, Student, and Teacher Perceptions of Student-Led Conferences and Strategies to Host Effective Student-Led Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    This is a mixed-methods case study designed to examine the perceptions parents, students and teachers have about student-led conferences with the purpose of informing practices at the researcher's school as well as sharing strategies used to host effective student-led conferences. Parents and students were interviewed and surveyed. Teachers were…

  19. Peer-led and professional-led group interventions for people with co-occurring disorders: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Pallaveshi, Luljeta; Balachandra, Krishna; Subramanian, Priya; Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    This pilot study evaluated the experience of people with co-occurring disorders (mental illness and addiction) in relation to peer-led and professional-led group interventions. The study used a qualitative (phenomenological) approach to evaluate the experience of a convenience sample of 6 individuals with co-occurring disorders who participated in up to 8 sessions each of both peer-led and professional-led group interventions (with a similar rate of attendance in both groups). The semi-structured interview data were coded and thematically analyzed. We found 5 themes within and across the 2 interventions. In both groups, participants experienced a positive environment and personal growth, and learned, albeit different things. They were more comfortable in the peer-led group and acquired more knowledge and skills in the professional-led group. Offering both peer-led and professional-led group interventions to people with co-occurring disorders may be better than offering either alone.

  20. Crash characteristics at work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    Work zones tend to cause hazardous conditions for drivers and construction workers since they generate conflicts between construction activities and traffic. A clear understanding of the characteristics of work zone crashes will enhance the selection...

  1. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  2. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  3. Work zone intrusion alarm effectiveness.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    16. Abstract : The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) commissioned a study to evaluate how : effective a work zone safety device known as the SonoBlaster! Work Zone Intrusion Alarm would be : in protecting maintenance workers fro...

  4. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets."

  5. Fabrication and characteristics of excellent current spreading GaN-based LED by using transparent electrode-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chenglin; Huang, Yang; Zhan, Teng; Wang, Qinjin; Yi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-01

    GaN-based vertical light-emitting-diodes (V-LEDs) with an improved current injection pattern were fabricated and a novel current injection pattern of LEDs which consists of electrode-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure was proposed. The EIS structure was achieved by an insulator layer (20-nm Ta2O5) deposited between the p-GaN and the ITO layer. This kind of EIS structure works through a defect-assisted tunneling mechanism to realize current injection and obtains a uniform current distribution on the chip surface, thus greatly improving the current spreading ability of LEDs. The appearance of this novel current injection pattern of V-LEDs will subvert the impression of the conventional LEDs structure, including simplifying the chip manufacture technology and reducing the chip cost. Under a current density of 2, 5, 10, and 25 A/cm2, the luminous uniformity was better than conventional structure LEDs. The standard deviation of power density distribution in light distribution was 0.028, which was much smaller than that of conventional structure LEDs and illustrated a huge advantage on the current spreading ability of EIS-LEDs. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306051, 61306050) and the National High Technology Program of China (No. 2014AA032606).

  6. Trace Metals in Groundwater and Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment and Stabilization of Stronthium-90 and Other Divalent Metals and Radionuclides at Arid Western DOE Sites: Final Report for Award Number DE-FG07-02ER63486 to the University of Idaho (RW Smith) Environmental Management Science Program Project Number 87016

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert W.; Fujita, Yoshiko

    2007-11-07

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants are present in the vadose zone and groundwater throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) energy research and weapons complex. In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants represents a cost-effective treatment strategy that minimizes workers’ exposure to hazardous substances, does not require removal or transport of contaminants, and generally does not generate a secondary waste stream. We have investigated an in situ bioremediation approach that immobilizes radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their microbially facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Calcite, a common mineral in many aquifers and vadosemore » zones in the arid west, can incorporate divalent metals such as strontium, cadmium, lead, and cobalt into its crystal structure by the formation of a solid solution. Collaborative research undertaken by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), University of Idaho, and University of Toronto as part of this Environmental Management Science Program project has focused on in situ microbially-catalyzed urea hydrolysis, which results in an increase in pH, carbonate alkalinity, ammonium, calcite precipitation, and co-precipitation of divalent cations. In calcite-saturated aquifers, microbially facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate represents a potential long-term contaminant sequestration mechanism. Key results of the project include: **Demonstrating the linkage between urea hydrolysis and calcite precipitation in field and laboratory experiments **Observing strontium incorporation into calcite precipitate by urea hydrolyzers with higher distribution coefficient than in abiotic **Developing and applying molecular methods for characterizing microbial urease activity in groundwater including a quantitative PCR method for enumerating ureolytic bacteria **Applying the suite of developed molecular methods to assess the

  7. In the Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Carla

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project that was inspired by the Chinese Festival of Lanterns. In this project, students had the opportunity and challenge of using a variety of media to represent a range of values to create form from shape. The lanterns proved to be an interesting subject for the drawings, as well as a way to increase students' knowledge…

  8. New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wu, Dan; Qin, Zong; Chen, Fei; Luo, Xiaobing; Liu, Sheng

    2011-07-04

    In light-emitting diode (LED) applications, it is becoming a big issue that how to optimize light intensity distribution curve (LIDC) and design corresponding optical component to achieve uniform illumination when distance-height ratio (DHR) is given. A new reversing design method is proposed to solve this problem, including design and optimization of LIDC to achieve high uniform illumination and a new algorithm of freeform lens to generate the required LIDC by LED light source. According to this method, two new LED modules integrated with freeform lenses are successfully designed for slim direct-lit LED backlighting with thickness of 10mm, and uniformities of illuminance increase from 0.446 to 0.915 and from 0.155 to 0.887 when DHRs are 2 and 3 respectively. Moreover, the number of new LED modules dramatically decreases to 1/9 of the traditional LED modules while achieving similar uniform illumination in backlighting. Therefore, this new method provides a practical and simple way for optical design of LED uniform illumination when DHR is much larger than 1.

  9. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  10. Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis; Ou, Yiyu; Poulsen, Peter B.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are penetrating into the huge market of general lighting because they are energy saving and environmentally friendly. The big advantage of LED light sources, compared to traditional incandescent lamps and fluorescent light tubes, is the flexible spectral design to make white light using different color mixing schemes. The spectral design flexibility of white LED light sources will promote them for novel applications to improve the life quality of human beings. As an initial exploration to make use of the spectral design flexibility, we present an example: 'no blue' white LED light source for sufferers of disease Porphyria. An LED light source prototype, made of high brightness commercial LEDs applying an optical filter, was tested by a patient suffering from Porphyria. Preliminary results have shown that the sufferer could withstand the light source for much longer time than the standard light source. At last future perspectives on spectral design flexibility of LED light sources improving human being's life will be discussed, with focus on the light and health. The good health is ensured by the spectrum optimized so that vital hormones (melatonin and serotonin) are produced during times when they support human daily rhythm.

  11. Visual color matching system based on RGB LED light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Huang, Qingmei; Feng, Chen; Li, Wei; Wang, Chaofeng

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the property and performance of LED as RGB primary color light sources on color mixture in visual psychophysical experiments, and to find out the difference between LED light source and traditional light source, a visual color matching experiment system based on LED light sources as RGB primary colors has been built. By simulating traditional experiment of metameric color matching in CIE 1931 RGB color system, it can be used for visual color matching experiments to obtain a set of the spectral tristimulus values which we often call color-matching functions (CMFs). This system consists of three parts: a monochromatic light part using blazed grating, a light mixing part where the summation of 3 LED illuminations are to be visually matched with a monochromatic illumination, and a visual observation part. The three narrow band LEDs used have dominant wavelengths of 640 nm (red), 522 nm (green) and 458 nm (blue) respectively and their intensities can be controlled independently. After the calibration of wavelength and luminance of LED sources with a spectrophotometer, a series of visual color matching experiments have been carried out by 5 observers. The results are compared with those from CIE 1931 RGB color system, and have been used to compute an average locus for the spectral colors in the color triangle, with white at the center. It has been shown that the use of LED is feasible and has the advantages of easy control, good stability and low cost.

  12. [Study on the safety of blue light leak of LED].

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong-Yu; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Su-Ling; Huang, Qing-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the blue light properties of LED illumination devices have been investigated. Against the status quo of China's LED lighting, we measured the spectrum component of LED lamps and analyzed the photobiological safety under the current domestic and international standards GB/T 20145-2006/CIE S009/E: 2002 and IEC62471: 2006 standards as well as CTL-0744_2009-laser resolution, which provides the reference to the manufacture of LED lighting lamps as well as related safety standards and laws. If the radiance intensity of blue light in LED is lower than 100 W x m(-2) x Sr(-1), there is no harm to human eyes. LEDs will not cause harm to human eyes under normal use, but we should pay attention to the protection of special populations (children), and make sure that they avoid looking at a light source for a long time. The research has found that the blue-rich lamps can affect the human rule of work and rest, and therefore, the LED lamps with color temperature below 4 000 K and color rendering index of 80 are suitable for indoor use. At the same time, the lamps with different parameters should be selected according to the different distances.

  13. Dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Pavlenko, Nikita A.

    2017-09-01

    Scientific and technological progress of recent years in the production of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) has led to the expansion of areas of their application from the simplest systems to high precision lighting devices used in various fields of human activity. However, development and production (especially mass production) of LED lighting devices are impossible without a thorough analysis of its parameters and characteristics. There are many ways and devices for analysis the spatial, energy and colorimetric parameters of LEDs. The most methods are intended for definition only one parameter (for example, luminous flux) or one characteristic (for example, the angular distribution of energy or the spectral characteristics). Besides, devices used these methods are intended for measuring parameters in only one point or plane. This problem can be solved by using a dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs, developed by specialists of the department OEDS chair of ITMO University in Russia. The paper presents the theoretical aspects of the analysis of LED's spatial (angular), energy and color parameters by using mentioned of diagnostics system. The article also presents the results of spatial), energy and color parameters measurements of some LEDs brands.

  14. Design of a cylindrical LED substrate without radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fan; Guo, Zhenning

    2017-12-01

    To reduce the weight and production costs of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps, we applied the principle of the chimney effect to design a cylindrical LED substrate without a radiator. We built a 3D model by using Solidworks software and applied the flow simulation plug-in to conduct model simulation, thereby optimizing the heat source distribution and substrate thickness. The results indicate that the design achieved optimal cooling with a substrate with an upper extension length of 35 mm, a lower extension length of 8 mm, and a thickness of 1 mm. For a substrate of those dimensions, the highest LED chip temperature was 64.78 °C, the weight of the substrate was 35.09 g, and R jb = 7.00 K/W. If the substrate is powered at 8, 10, and 12 W, its temperature meets LED safety requirements. In physical tests, the highest temperature for a physical 8 W cylindrical LED substrate was 66 °C, which differed by only 1.22 °C from the simulation results, verifying the validity of the simulation. The designed cylindrical LED substrate can be used in high-power LED lamps that do not require radiators. This design is not only excellent for heat dissipation, but also for its low weight, low cost, and simplicity of manufacture.

  15. NACA documents database project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ruth S.

    1991-01-01

    The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

  16. Latitudinal Variations of Auroral-Zone Ionization Distribution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Robert M. Robinson F49620-80-C-0014 Roland T. Tsunoda 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT , PROJECT...scanned. A. Auroral Zone Ionospheric Conductivity A key element in modelling the magnetosphere-ionosphere circuit is the auroral zone ionospheric...while the maximum conductivity for the evening eastward electro- jet was less than 20 mho in our data set . In other words, both the south- ward field and

  17. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study evaluated ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together for their efficacy at inactivating Escherichia. coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores; research included an evaluation of genomic damage. Inactivation by the LEDs was compared with the efficacy of conventional UV sources, the low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury vapor lamps. The work also calculated the electrical energy per order of reduction of the microorganisms by the five UV sources.For E. coli, all five UV sources yielded similar inactivation rates. For MS2 coliphage, the 260 nm LED was most effective. For HAdV2 and B. pumilus, the MP UV lamp was significantly more effective than the LP UV and UVC LED sources. When considering electrical energy per order of reduction, the LP UV lamp was the most efficient for E. coli and MS2, and the MPUV and LPUV were equally efficient for HAdV2 and B. pumilus spores. Among the UVC LEDs, the 280 nm LED unit required the least energy per log reduction of E. coli and HAdV2. The 280 nm and 260|280 nm LED units were equally efficient per log reduction of B. pumilus spores, and the 260 nm LED unit required the lowest energy per order of reduction of MS2 coliphage. The combination of the 260 nm and 280 nm UV LED wavelengths was also evaluated for potential synergistic effects. No dual-wavelength synergy was detected for inactivation of

  18. Essentials for Successful and Widespread LED Lighting Adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Nisa

    2011-03-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL), with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the light source, is a growing and essential field, particularly in regard to the heightened need for global energy efficiency. In recent years, SSL has experienced remarkable advances in efficiency, light output magnitude and quality. Thus such diverse applications as signage, message centers, displays, and special lighting are now adopting LEDs, taking 2010's market to 9.1 billion - 68% growth from the previous year! While this is promising, future growth in both display and lighting applications will rely upon unveiling deeper understanding and key innovations in LED lighting science and technologies. In this presentation, some LED lighting fundamentals, engineering challenges and novel solutions will be discussed to address reduction in efficiency (a.k.a. droop) at high currents, and to obtain uniform light distribution for overcoming LEDs' directional nature. The droop phenomenon has been a subject of much controversy in the industry and despite several studies and claims, a widely-accepted explanation still lacks because of counter arguments and experiments. Recently several research studies have identified that the droop behavior in nitride-based LEDs beyond certain current density ranges can only be comprehensively explained if the current leaking beyond the LED active region is included. Although such studies have identified a few useful current leakage mechanisms outside the active region, no one has included current leakage, due to non-ideal, 3-D device structures that create undesirable current distribution inside and outside the active region. This talk will address achieving desirable current distributions from optimized 3-D device structures that should reduce current leakage and hence the droop behavior. In addition to novel LED design solutions for droop reduction and uniform light distribution, the talk will address cost and yield concerns as they pertain to core material scarcity

  19. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  20. RGB LED with smart control in the backlight and lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Johnson C. S.; Lee, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    To improve the LED (Light Emitting Diode) efficacy is the major consideration when the backlight and lighting system are implemented. An important source of poor efficacy come from the chip process or heat dissipation. White LED used blue chip with phosphor is the current solution and inadequate for the tunable color temperature system. The use of RGB (Red, Green and Blue) LED with smart control is presented in this study. The resulting coupled optical and thermal shows the better performance when it is synthesized in conjunction with a degree of color mixing technology.

  1. The possible ocular hazards of LED dental illumination applications.

    PubMed

    Stamatacos, Catherine; Harrison, Janet L

    2014-04-01

    The use of high-intensity illumination via Light-Emitting Diode (LED) headlamps is gaining in popularity with dentists and student dentists. Practitioners are using LED headlamps together with magnifying loupes, overhead LED illumination and fiber-optic dental handpieces for long periods of time. Although most manufacturers of these LED illuminators advertise that their devices emit "white" light, these still consist of two spectral bands - the blue spectral band, with its peak at 445 nm, and the green with its peak at 555 nm. While manufacturers suggest that their devices emit "white" light, spectral components of LED lights from different companies are significantly different. Dental headlamp manufacturers strive to create a white LED, and they advertise that this type of light emitted from their product offers bright white-light illumination. However, the manufacturing of a white LED light is done through selection of a white LED-type based on the peak blue strength in combination with the green peak strength and thus creating a beam-forming optic, which determines the beam quality. Some LED illuminators have a strong blue-light component versus the green-light component. Blue-light is highly energized and is close in the color spectrum to ultraviolet-light. The hazards of retinal damage with the use of high-intensity blue-lights has been well-documented. There is limited research regarding the possible ocular hazards of usage of high-intensity illuminating LED devices. Furthermore, the authors have found little research, standards, or guidelines examining the possible safety issues regarding the unique dental practice setting consisting of the combined use of LED illumination systems. Another unexamined component is the effect of high-intensity light reflective glare and magnification back to the practitioner's eyes due to the use of water during dental procedures. Based on the result of Dr. Janet Harrison's observations of beginning dental students in a

  2. The possible ocular hazards of LED dental illumination applications.

    PubMed

    Stamatacos, Catherine; Harrison, Janet L

    2013-01-01

    The use of high-intensity illumination via Light-Emitting Diode (LED) headlamps is gaining in popularity with dentists and student dentists. Practitioners are using LED headlamps together with magnifying loupes, overhead LED illumination and fiber-optic dental handpieces for long periods of time. Although most manufacturers of these LED illuminators advertise that their devices emit "white" light, these still consist of two spectral bands--the blue spectral band, with its peak at 445 nm, and the green with its peak at 555 nm. While manufacturers suggest that their devices emit "white" light, spectral components of LED lights from different companies are significantly different. Dental headlamp manufacturers strive to create a white LED, and they advertise that this type of light emitted from their product offers bright white-light illumination. However, the manufacturing of a white LED light is done through selection of a white LED-type based on the peak blue strength in combination with the green peak strength and thus creating a beam-forming optic, which determines the beam quality. Some LED illuminators have a strong blue-light component versus the green-light component. Blue-light is highly energized and is close in the color spectrum to ultraviolet-light. The hazards of retinal damage with the use of high-intensity blue-lights has been well-documented. There is limited research regarding the possible ocular hazards of usage of high-intensity illuminating LED devices. Furthermore, the authors have found little research, standards, or guidelines examining the possible safety issues regarding the unique dental practice setting consisting of the combined use of LED illumination systems. Another unexamined component is the effect of high-intensity light reflective glare and magnification back to the practitioner's eyes due to the use of water during dental procedures. Based on the result of Dr. Janet Harrison's observations of beginning dental students in a

  3. Monolithic LED arrays, next generation smart lighting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, Alexandre; Bono, Hubert; Templier, François

    2016-03-01

    LED have become the main light sources of the future as they open the path for intelligent use of light in time, intensity and color. In many usages, strong energy economy is done by adjusting these properties. The smart lighting has three dimensions, energy efficiency brought by GaN blue emitting LEDs, integration of electronics, sensors, microprocessors in the lighting system and development of new functionalities and services provided by the light. Monolithic LED arrays allow two major innovations, the spatial control of light emission and the adjustment of the electrical properties of the source.

  4. Surviving Nuclear Winter Towards a Service-Led Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Michael; Chou, Timothy

    During the tech-led recession in 2001 a little known transformation occurred at the world's largest business software company. This transformation was led by a realization that existing customers of mature software need service of the products they purchased more than just purchasing new products. Organizing around the installed base of customers both defined new organizations, as well as new technology to power the specialists. This paper both gives a glimpse of the Oracle transformation as well as lays out some fundamental tenants of anyone interested in a service-led business.

  5. Light Emitting Diode (LED) circular traffic signal lifetime management system.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this research is to build lifetime curves for red, yellow, and green LED circular traffic signals through 20,000-hr. accelerated stress testing of samples operating under Louisianas environmental conditions.

  6. LED traffic signal replacement schedules : facilitating smooth freight flows.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-11-01

    This research details a field study of LED traffic signals in Missouri and develops a replacement schedule based on key findings. : Rates of degradation were statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results of this research will pro...

  7. Flat-panel video resolution LED display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wareberg, P. G.; Kennedy, D. I.

    The system consists of a 128 x 128 element X-Y addressable LED array fabricated from green-emitting gallium phosphide. The LED array is interfaced with a 128 x 128 matrix TV camera. Associated electronics provides for seven levels of grey scale above zero with a grey scale ratio of square root of 2. Picture elements are on 0.008 inch centers resulting in a resolution of 125 lines-per-inch and a display area of approximately 1 sq. in. The LED array concept lends itself to modular construction, permitting assembly of a flat panel screen of any desired size from 1 x 1 inch building blocks without loss of resolution. A wide range of prospective aerospace applications exist extending from helmet-mounted systems involving small dedicated arrays to multimode cockpit displays constructed as modular screens. High-resolution LED arrays are already used as CRT replacements in military film-marking reconnaissance applications.

  8. Toward blue emission in ZnO based LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Bruno; Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Le Bahers, Tangui; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2012-03-01

    The bandgap engineering of ZnO nanowires by doping is of great importance for tunable light emitting diode (LED) applications. We present a combined experimental and computational study of ZnO doping with Cd or Cu atoms in the nanomaterial. Zn1-xTMxO (TM=Cu, Cd) nanowires have been epitaxially grown on magnesium-doped p-GaN by electrochemical deposition. The Zn1-xTMxO/p-GaN heterojunction was integrated in a LED structure. Nanowires act as the light emitters and waveguides. At room temperature, TM-doped ZnO based LEDs exhibit low-threshold emission voltage and electroluminescence emission shifted from ultraviolet to violet-blue spectral region compared to pure ZnO LEDs. The emission wavelength can be tuned by changing the transition metal (TM) content in the ZnO nanomaterial and the shift is discussed, including insights from DFT computational investigations.

  9. Fibonacci-like zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shubo; Liu, Mengsi; Xia, Tian; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    We present a new family of diffractive lenses, Fibonacci-like zone plates, generated with a modified Fibonacci sequence. The focusing properties and the evolution of transverse diffraction pattern for the Fibonacci-like zone plates have been analytically investigated both theoretically and experimentally and compared with the corresponding Fresnel zone plates of the same resolution. The results demonstrate that the Fibonacci-like zone plates possess the self-similar property and the multifocal behavior. Furthermore, the Fibonacci-like zone plate beams are found to possess the self-reconstruction property, and would be promising for 3D optical tweezers, laser machining, and optical imaging.

  10. The generalized mean zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    In this paper a generalized mean zone plate is proposed, which generates twin foci located at the positions satisfying the expression of the generalized mean, which includes the m-golden mean, precious mean, and so on. The generalized mean zone plate can be designed to generate twin foci with various position ratios. The diffraction properties of the generalized mean zone plates have been investigated with simulations and experiments. The results show that the ratio of the positions of the twin foci for the generalized mean zone plate can be designed with the selected zone plate parameters.

  11. Integrated LED-based luminaire for general lighting

    DOEpatents

    Dowling, Kevin J.; Lys, Ihor A.; Williamson, Ryan C.; Roberge, Brian; Roberts, Ron; Morgan, Frederick; Datta, Michael Jay; Mollnow, Tomas Jonathan

    2016-08-30

    Lighting apparatus and methods employing LED light sources are described. The LED light sources are integrated with other components in the form of a luminaire or other general purpose lighting structure. Some of the lighting structures are formed as Parabolic Aluminum Reflector (PAR) luminaires, allowing them to be inserted into conventional sockets. The lighting structures display beneficial operating characteristics, such as efficient operation, high thermal dissipation, high output, and good color mixing.

  12. Integrated LED-based luminare for general lighting

    DOEpatents

    Dowling, Kevin J.; Lys, Ihor A.; Roberge, Brian; Williamson, Ryan C.; Roberts, Ron; Datta, Michael; Mollnow, Tomas; Morgan, Frederick M.

    2013-03-05

    Lighting apparatus and methods employing LED light sources are described. The LED light sources are integrated with other components in the form of a luminaire or other general purpose lighting structure. Some of the lighting structures are formed as Parabolic Aluminum Reflector (PAR) luminaires, allowing them to be inserted into conventional sockets. The lighting structures display beneficial operating characteristics, such as efficient operation, high thermal dissipation, high output, and good color mixing.

  13. Protection against methanol-induced retinal toxicity by LED photostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.; Eells, Janis T.

    2002-06-01

    We have initiated experiments designed to test the hypothesis that 670-nm Light-Emitting Diode (LED) exposure will attenuate formate-induced retinal dysfunction in a rodent model of methanol toxicity. Methanol intoxication produces toxic injury to the retina. The toxic metabolite formed in methanol intoxication is formic acid, a mitochondrial toxin known to inhibit cytochrome oxidase activity. 670-nm LED light has been hypothesized to act by stimulating cytochrome oxidase activity. To test this hypothesis, one group of animals was intoxicated with methanol, a second group was intoxicated with methanol and LED-treated and a third group was untreated. LED treatment (670 nm for 1 min 45 seconds equals 50 mW/cm2, 4 joules/cm2) was administered at 5, 25, and 50 hours after the initial dose of methanol. At 72 hours of methanol intoxication, retinal function was assessed by measurement of ERG responses and retinas were prepared for histologic analysis. ERG responses recorded in methanol-intoxicated animals revealed profound attenuation of both rod-dominated and UV-cone mediated responses. In contrast, methanol- intoxicated animals exposed to LED treatment exhibited a nearly complete recovery of rod-dominated ERG responses and a slight improvement of UV-cone mediated ERG responses. LED treatment also protected the retina against the histopathologic changes produced by formate in methanol intoxication. These data provide evidence that LED phototherapy protects the retina against the cytotoxic actions of formate and are consistent with the hypothesis that LED photostimulation improves mitochondrial respiratory chain function.

  14. LEDs Illuminate Bulbs for Better Sleep, Wake Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Life on the International Space Station (ISS) wreaks havoc on an astronaut’s biological rhythms, and one way NASA mitigates the problem is through the use of LED lighting to alternately stimulate energy and focus and induce relaxation. Satellite Beach, Florida-based Lighting Science partnered with Kennedy Space Center to commercialize an LED system designed for the ISS, resulting in its DefinityDigital product line of light bulbs now used in numerous homes, hotel chains, and resorts.

  15. Testing high brightness LEDs relative to application environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Jeffrey; Mangum, Scott; Lundberg, John

    2006-08-01

    Application of light emitting diodes is expanding as the luminous output and efficiencies of these devices improve. At the same time, the number of LED package types is increasing, making it challenging to determine the appropriate device for use in lighting product designs. A range of factors should be considered when selecting a LED for an application including color coordinates, luminous efficacy, cost, lumen maintenance, application life, packaging and manufacturability. Additional complexities can be introduced as LED packages become obsolete and replacement parts must be selected. The replacement LED characteristics must be understood and assessed against the parameters of the original device, in order to determine if the change will be relatively simple or will force other end-product changes. While some characteristics are readily measured and compared, other factors, such as lumen maintenance, are difficult to verify. This paper will discuss the characteristics of a LED that should be considered during the design process as well as methods to validate these characteristics, particularly those which are not typically on data sheets or, are critical to the design and warrant additional validation. Particular attention will be given to LED lumen maintenance. While published manufacturer data typically provides temperature versus performance curves, the data may not be useful depending upon the application's operating environment. Models must be created to estimate the LED's junction temperature and degradation curve at the applied temperature in order to develop a more precise life estimate. This paper presents one approach to a LED device life and performance study designed with application environments in mind.

  16. Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) - Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Caron, Allison

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Research in Canisters - LED (BRIC-LED) is a biological research system that is being designed to complement the capabilities of the existing BRIC-Petri Dish Fixation Unit (PDFU) for the Space Life and Physical Sciences (SLPS) Program. A diverse range of organisms can be supported, including plant seedlings, callus cultures, Caenorhabditis elegans, microbes, and others. In the event of a launch scrub, the entire assembly can be replaced with an identical back-up unit containing freshly loaded specimens.

  17. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting in Leavenworth, KS

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Michael; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Curry, Ku'uipo

    2011-05-06

    costs. However, when the life-cycle costs from energy and maintenance were factored into the scenario, the LED system had lower costs at the end of a 10-year analysis period. The LED system had a 6.1 year payback compared to the 1000W PMH system and a 7.5 year payback versus the 400W PMH system. The costs reflect high initial cost for the LED luminaire, plus more luminaires and (subsequently) more poles for the LED system. The other major issue affecting cost effectiveness was that Leavenworth, Kansas has very low electricity costs. The melded rate for this site was $0.056 per kWh for electricity. However, if the national electricity rate of $0.1022/kWh was used the payback would change to between four and five years for the LED system. This demonstration met the GATEWAY requirements of saving energy, matching or improving illumination, and being cost effective. The project also demonstrated that the Commercial Building Energy Alliance (CBEA) specification works in practice. Walmart appreciated having an entire site lighted by LEDs to gain more experience with the technology. Walmart is reviewing the results of the demonstration as they consider their entire real estate portfolio.« less

  18. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    the unsaturated zone including enhanced bioremediation of contaminated deep vadose zone (40 m depth). Manipulating subsurface conditions for enhanced bioremediation was demonstrated through two remediation projects. One site is characterized by 20 m deep vadose zone that is contaminated with gasoline products and the other is a 40 m deep vadose zone that is contaminated with perchlorate. In both cases temporal variation of the sediment water content as well as the variations in the vadose zone chemical and isotopic composition allowed real time detection of water flow velocities, contaminants transport rates and bio-degradation degree. Results and conclusions from each wetting cycle were used to improve the following wetting cycles in order to optimize contaminants degradation conditions while minimizing leaching of contaminants to the groundwater.

  19. Human-water interactions in Myanmar's Dry Zone under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    Understanding human-water interactions is particularly essential in countries where the economy and the people's well-being and income strongly depend on the availability and quality of sufficient water resources. Such a strong dependency on water is existent in Myanmar's Dry Zone located in the central Ayeyarwady River basin. In this area, rainfall is associated with high heterogeneity across space and time. Precipitation amounts in the Dry Zone (500-1000 mm annually) are generally less compared to other regions in Myanmar (up to 4000-6000 mm). Following the Global Climate Risk Index, Myanmar is one of the countries which were most affected by extreme weather events between 1994 and 2013. Severe drought periods e.g in the years 1997-1998, 2010 and 2014 led to crop failures and water shortage in the Dry Zone, where more than 14 mio people predominantly practice agriculture. Due to the high variability of rainfalls, farming is only possible with irrigation, mainly conducted by canal systems from the rivers and groundwater withdrawal. Myanmar is recently facing big challenges which result from comprehensive political and economic reforms since 2011. These may also include increasing water use by new industrial zones and urbanization. However, not only policy and economy modify the need for water. Variability of river runoff and changes in seasonality are expected as a result of climate change. The overarching goal of the study is to understand and increase the knowledge on human-water-climate interactions and to elaborate possible future scenarios for Myanmar's Dry Zone. It is not well studied yet how current and future climate change and increasing human impact will influence the country's abundant water resources including groundwater. Therefore, the first step of this study is to identify the major drivers within the central Ayeyarwady River basin. We are in the process of collecting and analyzing data sets and information including hydrologic and eco

  20. Thermophotonics for ultra-high efficiency visible LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Rajeev J.

    2017-02-01

    The wall-plug efficiency of modern light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has far surpassed all other forms of lighting and is expected to improve further as the lifetime cost of a luminaire is today dominated by the cost of energy. The drive towards higher efficiency inevitably opens the question about the limits of future enhancement. Here, we investigate thermoelectric pumping as a means for improving efficiency in wide-bandgap GaN based LEDs. A forward biased diode can work as a heat pump, which pumps lattice heat into the electrons injected into the active region via the Peltier effect. We experimentally demonstrate a thermally enhanced 450 nm GaN LED, in which nearly fourfold light output power is achieved at 615 K (compared to 295 K room temperature operation), with virtually no reduction in the wall-plug efficiency at bias V < ℏω/q. This result suggests the possibility of removing bulky heat sinks in high power LED products. A review of recent high-efficiency GaN LEDs suggests that Peltier thermal pumping plays a more important role in a wide range of modern LED structures that previously thought - opening a path to even higher efficiencies and lower lifetime costs for future lighting.