Science.gov

Sample records for zone transport processes

  1. Defining a "Zone of Impact": Transport Processes and Patterns for Small-Scale Land Runoff.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.; Basdurak, B.

    2016-12-01

    Nearshore pollution is a well-recognized environmental problem, yet the pattern of this pollution is not well studied and it is little recognized in policy. Whether nutrients, pathogens or toxins, the highest concentrations of pollutants in the nearfield are controlled by transport and mixing, rather than decay of the constituent. Thus, this becomes a challenge to determine patterns of runoff (and tidal outflow) and to account for the dominant processes that control these patterns. Salinity and fecal indicator bacteria data exhibit coherent space-time patterns, indicating that a coherent "zone of impact" can be determined, i.e., a time-varying spatial zone in which the constituent of concern exceeds a reference concentration (level of concern). To explain field observations, modeling of small-scale runoff plumes and wave-driven transport can be used. In contrast to larger river plumes, wind forcing is a critical factor in plume behavior and the resultant pattern of pollution. This preliminary work suggests that coherent spatio-temporal patterns can explain the apparently not-so-well-behaved patterns of pollution that are reported when concentrations are under-sampled. And it throws out a challenge to nearshore oceanographers to better explain transport and mixing patterns for the benefit of reducing coastal pollution and its impacts.

  2. Expanding the role of reactive transport models in critical zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Li; Maher, Kate; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Druhan, Jennifer; Meile, Christof; Lawrence, Corey; Moore, Joel; Perdrial, Julia; Sullivan, Pamela; Thompson, Aaron; Jin, Lixin; Bolton, Edward W.; Brantley, Susan L.; Dietrich, William E.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Steefel, Carl; Valocchi, Albert J.; Zachara, John M.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; McIntosh, Jennifer; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Kumar, Mukesh; Sonnenthal, Eric; Bao, Chen; Beisman, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Models test our understanding of processes and can reach beyond the spatial and temporal scales of measurements. Multi-component Reactive Transport Models (RTMs), initially developed more than three decades ago, have been used extensively to explore the interactions of geothermal, hydrologic, geochemical, and geobiological processes in subsurface systems. Driven by extensive data sets now available from intensive measurement efforts, there is a pressing need to couple RTMs with other community models to explore non-linear interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Here we briefly review the history of RTM development, summarize the current state of RTM approaches, and identify new research directions, opportunities, and infrastructure needs to broaden the use of RTMs. In particular, we envision the expanded use of RTMs in advancing process understanding in the Critical Zone, the veneer of the Earth that extends from the top of vegetation to the bottom of groundwater. We argue that, although parsimonious models are essential at larger scales, process-based models offer tools to explore the highly nonlinear coupling that characterizes natural systems. We present seven testable hypotheses that emphasize the unique capabilities of process-based RTMs for (1) elucidating chemical weathering and its physical and biogeochemical drivers; (2) understanding the interactions among roots, micro-organisms, carbon, water, and minerals in the rhizosphere; (3) assessing the effects of heterogeneity across spatial and temporal scales; and (4) integrating the vast quantity of novel data, including “omics” data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics), elemental concentration and speciation data, and isotope data into our understanding of complex earth surface systems. With strong support from data-driven sciences, we are now in an exciting era where integration of RTM framework into other community models will facilitate process

  3. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  4. New insights into the transport processes controlling the sulfate-methane-transition-zone near methane vents.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sébastien; Ruffine, Livio

    2016-05-27

    Over the past years, several studies have raised concerns about the possible interactions between methane hydrate decomposition and external change. To carry out such an investigation, it is essential to characterize the baseline dynamics of gas hydrate systems related to natural geological and sedimentary processes. This is usually treated through the analysis of sulfate-reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Here, we model sulfate reduction coupled with AOM as a two-dimensional (2D) problem including, advective and diffusive transport. This is applied to a case study from a deep-water site off Nigeria's coast where lateral methane advection through turbidite layers was suspected. We show by analyzing the acquired data in combination with computational modeling that a two-dimensional approach is able to accurately describe the recent past dynamics of such a complex natural system. Our results show that the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ) is not a vertical barrier for dissolved sulfate and methane. We also show that such a modeling is able to assess short timescale variations in the order of decades to centuries.

  5. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  6. Imaging on a Shoestring: Cost-Effective Technologies for Probing Vadose Zone Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corkhill, C.; Bridge, J. W.; Barns, G.; Fraser, R.; Romero-Gonzalez, M.; Wilson, R.; Banwart, S.

    2010-12-01

    requirements. The critical limitations of UV-vis fluorescence imaging are the need for reliable fluorescent probes suited to the experimental objective, and the reliance on thin-bed (2D) transparent porous media. Autoradiographic techniques address some of these limitations permit imaging of key biogeochemical processes in opaque media using radioactive probes, without the need for specialised radiation sources. We present initial calibration data for the use of autoradiography to monitor transport parameters for radionuclides (99-technetium), and a novel application of a radioactive salt tracer as a probe for pore water content, in model porous media systems.

  7. Transport and fate of nitrate and pesticides: Hydrogeology and riparian zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.; Hughes, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    There is continuing concern over potential impacts of widespread application of nutrients and pesticides on ground- and surface-water quality. Transport and fate of nitrate and pesticides were investigated in a shallow aquifer and adjacent stream, Cow Castle Creek, in Orangeburg County, South Carolina. Pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations were detected in ground water with greatest frequency and largest concentrations directly beneath and downgradient from the corn (Zea mays L.) field where they were applied. In almost all samples in which they were detected, concentrations of pesticide degradates greatly exceeded those of parent compounds, and were still present in ground waters that were recharged during the previous 18 yr. The absence of both parent and degradate compounds in samples collected from deeper in the aquifer suggests that this persistence is limited or that the ground water had recharged before use of the pesticide. Concentrations of NO3- in ground water decreased with increasing depth and age, but denitrification was not a dominant controlling factor. Hydrologic and chemical data indicated that ground water discharges to the creek and chemical exchange takes place within the upper 0.7 m of the streambed. Ground water had its greatest influence on surface-water chemistry during low-flow periods, causing a decrease in concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, pesticides, and pesticide degradates. Conversely, shallow subsurface drainage dominates stream chemistry during high-flow periods, increasing stream concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, pesticides, and pesticide degradates. These results point out the importance of understanding the hydrogeologic setting when investigating transport and fate of contaminants in ground water and surface water. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  8. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  9. Hydrogeology, Chemical Characteristics, and Transport Processes in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in York, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, Matthew K.; Clark, Brian R.; McMahon, Peter B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Turco, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated a topical study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to PSW (public-supply wells). Local-scale and regional-scale TANC study areas were delineated within selected NAWQA study units for intensive study of processes effecting transport of contaminants to PSWs. This report describes results from a local-scale TANC study area at York, Nebraska, within the High Plains aquifer, including the hydrogeology and geochemistry of a 108-square-kilometer study area that contains the zone of contribution to a PSW selected for study (study PSW), and describes factors controlling the transport of selected anthropogenic and natural contaminants to PSWs. Within the local-scale TANC study area, the High Plains aquifer is approximately 75 m (meter) thick, and includes an unconfined aquifer, an upper confining unit, an upper confined aquifer, and a lower confining unit with lower confined sand lenses (units below the upper confining unit are referred to as confined aquifers) in unconsolidated alluvial and glacial deposits overlain by loess and underlain by Cretaceous shale. From northwest to southeast, land use in the local-scale TANC study area changes from predominantly irrigated agricultural land to residential and commercial land in the small community of York (population approximately 8,100). For the purposes of comparing water chemistry, wells were classified by degree of aquifer confinement (unconfined and confined), depth in the unconfined aquifer (shallow and deep), land use (urban and agricultural), and extent of mixing in wells in the confined aquifer with water from the unconfined aquifer (mixed and unmixed). Oxygen (delta 18O) and hydrogen (delta D) stable isotopic values indicated a clear isotopic contrast between shallow wells in the unconfined aquifer (hereinafter, unconfined shallow wells) and most monitoring wells in the confined

  10. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets tomore » validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated

  11. Port authority transportation reinvestment zone : executive summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-01

    The transportation reinvestment zone (TRZ) is a relatively new tool for infrastructure finance : that allows governmental entities with taxing authority to set aside funds for local match : contributions for transportation projects and capture the la...

  12. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of themore » past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.« less

  13. Transportation reinvestment zone training materials

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    A funding crisis exists for financing much needed transportation infrastructure projects : across the nation and Texas is no exception. The State of Texas has responded to the crisis by : passing several bills allowing innovative financing and altern...

  14. Impact of Scale-Dependent Coupled Processes on Solute Fate and Transport in the Critical Zone: Case Studies Involving Inorganic and Radioactive Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, P. M.; Gentry, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Soil, the thin veneer of matter covering the Earths surface that supports a web of living diversity, is often abused through anthropogenic inputs of toxic waste. This subsurface regime, coupled with life sustaining surface water and groundwater is known as the "Critical Zone". The disposal of radioactive and toxic organic and inorganic waste generated by industry and various government agencies has historically involved shallow land burial or the use of surface impoundments in unsaturated soils and sediments. Presently, contaminated sites have been closing rapidly and many remediation strategies have chosen to leave contaminants in-place. As such, contaminants will continue to interact with the geosphere and investigations on long term changes and interactive processes is imperative to verify risks. In this presentation we provide a snap-shot of subsurface science research from the past 25 y that seeks to provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of multi-scale contaminant fate and transport processes in heterogeneous unsaturated and saturated environments. Investigations focus on coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes that control reactive contaminant transport and that involve multi-scale fundamental research ranging from the molecular scale (e.g. synchrotrons, electron sources, arrays) to in situ plume interrogation strategies at the macroscopic scale (e.g. geophysics, field biostimulation, coupled processes monitoring). We show how this fundamental research is used to provide multi-process, multi-scale predictive monitoring and modeling tools that can be used at contaminated sites to (1) inform and improve the technical basis for decision making, and (2) assess which sites are amenable to natural attenuation and which would benefit from source zone remedial intervention.

  15. Vapor-phase transport of trichloroethene in an intermediate-scale vadose-zone system: retention processes and tracer-based prediction.

    PubMed

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Carlson, Tyson D; Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-02-01

    Gas-phase transport experiments were conducted using a large weighing lysimeter to evaluate retention processes for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water-unsaturated (vadose-zone) systems, and to test the utility of gas-phase tracers for predicting VOC retardation. Trichloroethene (TCE) served as a model VOC, while trichlorofluoromethane (CFM) and heptane were used as partitioning tracers to independently characterize retention by water and the air-water interface, respectively. Retardation factors for TCE ranged between 1.9 and 3.5, depending on water content. The results indicate that dissolution into the bulk water was the primary retention mechanism for TCE under all conditions studied, contributing approximately two-thirds of the total measured retention. Accumulation at the air-water interface comprised a significant fraction of the observed retention for all experiments, with an average contribution of approximately 24%. Sorption to the solid phase contributed approximately 10% to retention. Water contents and air-water interfacial areas estimated based on the CFM and heptane tracer data, respectively, were similar to independently measured values. Retardation factors for TCE predicted using the partitioning-tracer data were in reasonable agreement with the measured values. These results suggest that gas-phase tracer tests hold promise for characterizing the retention and transport of VOCs in the vadose-zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fracture process zone in granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. VAPOR-PHASE TRANSPORT OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN AN INTERMEDIATE-SCALE VADOSE-ZONE SYSTEM: RETENTION PROCESSES AND TRACER-BASED PREDICTION

    PubMed Central

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Carlson, Tyson D.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase miscible-displacement experiments were conducted using a large weighing lysimeter to evaluate retention processes for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water-unsaturated (vadoze-zone) systems, and to test the utility of gas-phase tracers for predicting VOC retardation. Trichloroethene (TCE) served as a model VOC, while trichlorofluoromethane (CFM) and heptane were used as partitioning tracers to independently characterize retention by water and the air-water interface, respectively. Retardation factors for TCE ranged between 1.9 and 3.5, depending on water content. The results indicate that dissolution into the bulk water was the primary retention mechanism for TCE under all conditions studied, contributing approximately two thirds of the total measured retention. Accumulation at the air-water interface comprised a significant fraction of the observed retention for all experiments, with an average contribution of approximately 24%. Sorption to the solid phase contributed approximately 10% to retention. Water contents and air-water interfacial areas estimated based on the CFM and heptane tracer data, respectively, were similar to independently measured values. Retardation factors for TCE predicted using the partitioning-tracer data were in reasonable agreement with the measured values. These results suggest that gas-phase tracer tests hold promise for characterizing the retention and transport of VOCs in the vadose-zone. PMID:23333418

  18. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model with a nitrogen transport module to study the spatial variation of carbon processes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Yuning; Eissenstat, David M.; He, Yuting; ...

    2018-05-12

    Terrestrial carbon processes are affected by soil moisture, soil temperature, nitrogen availability and solar radiation, among other factors. Most of the current ecosystem biogeochemistry models represent one point in space, and have limited characterization of hydrologic processes. Therefore these models can neither resolve the topographically driven spatial variability of water, energy, and nutrient, nor their effects on carbon processes. A spatially-distributed land surface hydrologic biogeochemistry model, Flux-PIHM-BGC, is developed by coupling the Biome-BGC model with a physically-based land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. In the coupled system, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D Biome-BGC model. In addition, a topographic solarmore » radiation module and an advection-driven nitrogen transport module are added to represent the impact of topography on nutrient transport and solar energy distribution. Because Flux-PIHM is able to simulate lateral groundwater flow and represent the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography, Flux-PIHM-BGC is capable of simulating the complex interaction among water, energy, nutrient, and carbon in time and space. The Flux-PIHM-BGC model is tested at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory. Model results show that distributions of carbon and nitrogen stocks and fluxes are strongly affected by topography and landscape position, and tree growth is nitrogen limited. The predicted aboveground and soil carbon distributions generally agree with the macro patterns observed. Although the model underestimates the spatial variation, the predicted watershed average values are close to the observations. Lastly, the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model provides an important tool to study spatial variations in terrestrial carbon and nitrogen processes and their interactions with environmental factors, and to predict the spatial structure of the responses of ecosystems to climate change.« less

  19. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model with a nitrogen transport module to study the spatial variation of carbon processes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yuning; Eissenstat, David M.; He, Yuting

    Terrestrial carbon processes are affected by soil moisture, soil temperature, nitrogen availability and solar radiation, among other factors. Most of the current ecosystem biogeochemistry models represent one point in space, and have limited characterization of hydrologic processes. Therefore these models can neither resolve the topographically driven spatial variability of water, energy, and nutrient, nor their effects on carbon processes. A spatially-distributed land surface hydrologic biogeochemistry model, Flux-PIHM-BGC, is developed by coupling the Biome-BGC model with a physically-based land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. In the coupled system, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D Biome-BGC model. In addition, a topographic solarmore » radiation module and an advection-driven nitrogen transport module are added to represent the impact of topography on nutrient transport and solar energy distribution. Because Flux-PIHM is able to simulate lateral groundwater flow and represent the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography, Flux-PIHM-BGC is capable of simulating the complex interaction among water, energy, nutrient, and carbon in time and space. The Flux-PIHM-BGC model is tested at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory. Model results show that distributions of carbon and nitrogen stocks and fluxes are strongly affected by topography and landscape position, and tree growth is nitrogen limited. The predicted aboveground and soil carbon distributions generally agree with the macro patterns observed. Although the model underestimates the spatial variation, the predicted watershed average values are close to the observations. Lastly, the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model provides an important tool to study spatial variations in terrestrial carbon and nitrogen processes and their interactions with environmental factors, and to predict the spatial structure of the responses of ecosystems to climate change.« less

  20. Modeling biogechemical reactive transport in a fracture zone

    SciTech Connect

    Molinero, Jorge; Samper, Javier; Yang, Chan Bing, and Zhang, Guoxiang

    2005-01-14

    A coupled model of groundwater flow, reactive solute transport and microbial processes for a fracture zone of the Aspo site at Sweden is presented. This is the model of the so-called Redox Zone Experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of tunnel construction on the geochemical conditions prevailing in a fracture granite. It is found that a model accounting for microbially-mediated geochemical processes is able to reproduce the unexpected measured increasing trends of dissolved sulfate and bicarbonate. The model is also useful for testing hypotheses regarding the role of microbial processes and evaluating the sensitivity of model results to changes inmore » biochemical parameters.« less

  1. Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: the need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachand, Philip A.M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Stephenson, Mark; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2014-01-01

    Concentration and mass balance analyses were used to quantify methylmercury (MeHg) loads from conventional (white) rice, wild rice, and fallowed fields in northern California's Yolo Bypass. These analyses were standardized against chloride to distinguish transport pathways and net ecosystem production (NEP). During summer, chloride loads were both exported with surface water and moved into the root zone at a 2:1 ratio. MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) behaved similarly with surface water and root zone exports at ~ 3:1 ratio. These trends reversed in winter with DOC, MeHg, and chloride moving from the root zone to surface waters at rates opposite and exceeding summertime root zone fluxes. These trends suggest that summer transpiration advectively moves constituents from surface water into the root zone, and winter diffusion, driven by concentration gradients, subsequently releases those constituents into surface waters. The results challenge a number of paradigms regarding MeHg. Specifically, biogeochemical conditions favoring microbial MeHg production do not necessarily translate to synchronous surface water exports; MeHg may be preserved in the soils allowing for release at a later time; and plants play a role in both biogeochemistry and transport. Our calculations show that NEP of MeHg occurred during both summer irrigation and winter flooding. Wild rice wet harvesting and winter flooding of white rice fields were specific practices that increased MeHg export, both presumably related to increased labile organic carbon and disturbance. Outflow management during these times could reduce MeHg exports. Standardizing MeHg outflow:inflow concentration ratios against natural tracers (e.g. chloride, EC) provides a simple tool to identify NEP periods. Summer MeHg exports averaged 0.2 to 1 μg m− 2 for the different agricultural wetland fields, depending upon flood duration. Average winter MeHg exports were estimated at 0.3 μg m− 2. These exports are

  2. Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: the need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone.

    PubMed

    Bachand, P A M; Bachand, S M; Fleck, J A; Alpers, C N; Stephenson, M; Windham-Myers, L

    2014-02-15

    Concentration and mass balance analyses were used to quantify methylmercury (MeHg) loads from conventional (white) rice, wild rice, and fallowed fields in northern California's Yolo Bypass. These analyses were standardized against chloride to distinguish transport pathways and net ecosystem production (NEP). During summer, chloride loads were both exported with surface water and moved into the root zone at a 2:1 ratio. MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) behaved similarly with surface water and root zone exports at ~3:1 ratio. These trends reversed in winter with DOC, MeHg, and chloride moving from the root zone to surface waters at rates opposite and exceeding summertime root zone fluxes. These trends suggest that summer transpiration advectively moves constituents from surface water into the root zone, and winter diffusion, driven by concentration gradients, subsequently releases those constituents into surface waters. The results challenge a number of paradigms regarding MeHg. Specifically, biogeochemical conditions favoring microbial MeHg production do not necessarily translate to synchronous surface water exports; MeHg may be preserved in the soils allowing for release at a later time; and plants play a role in both biogeochemistry and transport. Our calculations show that NEP of MeHg occurred during both summer irrigation and winter flooding. Wild rice wet harvesting and winter flooding of white rice fields were specific practices that increased MeHg export, both presumably related to increased labile organic carbon and disturbance. Outflow management during these times could reduce MeHg exports. Standardizing MeHg outflow:inflow concentration ratios against natural tracers (e.g. chloride, EC) provides a simple tool to identify NEP periods. Summer MeHg exports averaged 0.2 to 1 μg m(-2) for the different agricultural wetland fields, depending upon flood duration. Average winter MeHg exports were estimated at 0.3 μg m(-2). These exports are within the

  3. Port authority transportation reinvestment zone development and implementation guidebook.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-01

    Transportation reinvestment zones (TRZs) are a relatively new tool for infrastructure finance that allows governmental entities with taxing authority to set aside funds for local match contributions for transportation projects and capture the land va...

  4. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part II. Modeling the transport process.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, V I; Kashparov, V A; Levchuk, S E; Glukhovskiy, A S; Khomutinin, Yu V; Protsak, V P; Lundin, S M; Tschiersch, J

    2006-01-01

    To predict parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires, several model modules were developed and adapted. Experimental data of controlled burning of prepared experimental plots in the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been used to evaluate the prognostic power of the models. The predicted trajectories and elevations of the plume match with those visually observed during the fire experiments in the grassland and forest sites. Experimentally determined parameters could be successfully used for the calculation of the initial plume parameters which provide the tools for the description of various fire scenarios and enable prognostic calculations. In summary, the model predicts a release of some per thousand from the radionuclide inventory of the fuel material by the grassland fires. During the forest fire, up to 4% of (137)Cs and (90)Sr and up to 1% of the Pu isotopes can be released from the forest litter according to the model calculations. However, these results depend on the parameters of the fire events. In general, the modeling results are in good accordance with the experimental data. Therefore, the considered models were successfully validated and can be recommended for the assessment of the resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in contaminated territories.

  5. Suspended sand transport in surf zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Nobuhisa; Zhao, Haoyu; Tega, Yukiko

    2005-12-01

    Three tests were conducted in a wave flume to investigate time-averaged suspended sediment transport processes under irregular breaking waves on equilibrium beaches consisting of fine sand. Free surface elevations were measured at ten locations for each test. Velocities and concentrations were measured in the vicinity of the bottom at 94 elevations along 17 vertical lines. The relations among the three turbulent velocity variances are found to be similar to those for the boundary layer flow. The vertical variation of the mean velocity, which causes offshore transport, is fitted by a parabolic profile fairly well. The vertical variation of the mean concentration ? is fitted by the exponential and power-form distributions equally well. The ratio between the concentration standard deviation σC and the mean ? varies little vertically. The correlation coefficient γUC between the horizontal velocity and concentration, which results in onshore transport, is of the order of 0.1 and decreases upward linearly. The offshore and onshore transport rates of suspended sediment are estimated and expressed in terms of the suspended sediment volume ? per unit area. A time-averaged numerical model is developed to predict ? as well as the mean and standard deviation of the free surface elevation and horizontal velocity. The bottom slope effect on the wave energy dissipation rate DB due to wave breaking is included in the model. The computation can be made well above the still water shoreline with no numerical difficulty. Reflected waves from the shoreline are estimated from the wave energy flux remaining at the shoreline. The numerical model is in agreement with the statistical data except that the undertow current is difficult to predict accurately. The measured turbulent velocities are found to be more related to the turbulent velocity estimated from the energy dissipation rate Df due to bottom friction. The suspended sediment volume ? expressed in terms of DB and Df can be

  6. Development of Opportunity Zones Utilizing Transportation Assets

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-06-01

    Transportation, traditionally, is an afterthought when dealing with company site selection. : This way of thinking results in two broad problems: the states transportation network is not : marketed as an asset and desired infrastructure improvemen...

  7. Empowerment zones and transportation : the Baltimore example

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    Maps and geographical analyses are key to understanding what transportation does for and to us. For this reason, the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) has invested a significant share of its resources in the development of geographic informat...

  8. Use of intelligent transportation systems in rural work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    This project defined an approach to integrating data collected and traveler information displayed in a work zone : with a regional transportation management center and/or other state websites. The project conducted a literature : review to define the...

  9. The travel-time ellipse: An approximate zone of transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendinger, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    A zone of transport for a well is defined as the area in the horizontal plane bounded by a contour of equal ground-water travel time to the well. For short distances and ground-water travel times near a well, the potentiometric surface may be simulated analytically as that for a fully penetrating well in a uniform flow field. The zone of transport for this configuration is nearly elliptical. A simple method is derived to calculate a travel-time ellipse that approximates the zone of transport for a well in a uniform flow field. The travel-time ellipse was nearly congruent with the exact solution for the theoretical zone of transport for ground-water travel times of at least 10 years and for aquifer property values appropriate for southeastern Minnesota. For distances and travel times approaching infinity, however, the ellipse becomes slightly wider at its midpoint and narrower near its upgradient boundary than the theoretical zone of transport. The travel-time ellipse also may be used to simulate the plume area surrounding an injection well. However, the travel-time ellipse is an approximation that does not account for the effect of dispersion in enlarging the true area of an injection plume or zone of transport; hence, caution is advised in the use and interpretation of this simple construction.

  10. Aquifer Chemistry and Transport Processes in the Zone of Contribution to a Public-Supply Well in Woodbury, Connecticut, 2002-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Trombley, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    A glacial aquifer system in Woodbury, Connecticut, was studied to identify factors that affect the groundwater quality in the zone of contribution to a community public-supply well. Water samples were collected during 2002-06 from the public-supply well and from 35 monitoring wells in glacial stratified deposits, glacial till, and fractured bedrock. The glacial aquifer is vulnerable to contamination from a variety of sources due to the short groundwater residence times and the urban land use in the contributing recharge area to the public-supply well. The distribution and concentrations of pH, major and trace elements, stable isotope ratios, recharge temperatures, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions, were used to identify recharge source areas, aquifer source material, anthropogenic sources, chemical processes, and groundwater-flow paths from recharge areas to the public-supply well, PSW-1. The major chemical sources to groundwater and the tracers or conditions used to identify them and their processes throughout the aquifer system include (1) bedrock and glacial stratified deposits and till, characterized by high pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO42-), bicarbonate, uranium (U), radon-222, and arsenic (As) relative to those of other wells, reducing redox conditions, enriched delta sulfur-34 (d34S) and delta carbon-13 (d13C) values, depleted delta oxygen-18 (d18O) and delta deuterium (dD) values, calcite near saturation, low recharge temperatures, and groundwater ages of more than about 9 years; (2) natural organic matter, either in sediments or in an upgradient riparian zone, characterized by high concentrations of DOC or manganese (Mn), low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate (NO3-), enriched d34S values, and depleted d18O and dD values; (3) road salt (halite), characterized by high concentrations of sodium (Na), chloride (Cl-), and calcium (Ca), and indicative

  11. Hydrogeology, water chemistry, and transport processes in the zone of contribution of a public-supply well in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2007-9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Crilley, Dianna M.; Christenson, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of groundwater studies in 2001 in representative aquifers across the Nation in order to increase understanding of the factors that affect transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells. One of 10 regional-scale TANC studies was conducted in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, where a more detailed local-scale study subsequently investigated the hydrogeology, water chemistry, and factors affecting the transport of contaminants in the zone of contribution of one 363-meter (m) deep public-supply well in Albuquerque. During 2007 through 2009, samples were collected for the local-scale study from 22 monitoring wells and 3 public-supply (supply) wells for analysis of major and trace elements, arsenic speciation, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), dissolved gases, stable isotopes, and tracers of young and old water. To study groundwater chemistry and ages at various depths within the aquifer, the monitoring wells were divided into three categories: (1) each shallow well was screened across the water table or had a screen midpoint within 18.3 m of the water level in the well; (2) each intermediate well had a screen midpoint between about 27.1 and 79.6 m below the water level in the well; and (3) each deep well had a screen midpoint about 185 m or more below the water level in the well. The 24-square-kilometer study area surrounding the "studied supply well" (SSW), one of the three supply wells, consists of primarily urban land within the MRGB, a deep alluvial basin with an aquifer composed of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated deposits of sand, gravel, silt, and clay. Conditions generally are unconfined, but are semiconfined at depth. Groundwater withdrawals for public supply have substantially changed the primary direction of flow from northeast to southwest under predevelopment

  12. Significant alteration of Critical Zone processes in urban watersheds: shifting from a transport-limited to a weathering-limited regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J.; Bird, D. L.; Dobbis, S. K.; Woodward, G.

    2016-12-01

    Urban areas and associated impervious surface cover (ISC) are among the fastest growing land use types. Rapid growth of urban lands has significant implications for geochemical cycling and solute sources to streams, estuaries, and coastal waters. However, little work has been done to investigate the impacts of urbanization on Critical Processes, including on the export of solutes from urban watersheds. Despite observed elevated solute concentrations in urban streams in some previous studies, neither solute sources nor total solute fluxes have been quantified due to mixed bedrock geology, lack of a forested reference watershed, or the presence of point sources that confounded separation of anthropologic and natural sources. We investigated the geochemical signal of the urban built environment (e.g., roads, parking lots, buildings) in a set of five USGS-gaged watersheds across a rural (forested) to urban gradient in the Maryland Piedmont. These watersheds have ISC ranging from 0 to 25%, no point sources, and similar felsic bedrock chemistry. Weathering from the urban built environment and ISC produces dramatically higher solute concentrations in urban watersheds than in the forested watershed. Higher solute concentrations result in chemical weathering fluxes from urban watersheds that are 11-13 times higher than the forested watershed and are similar to fluxes from mountainous, weathering-limited watersheds rather than fluxes from transport-limited, dilute streams like the forested watershed. Weathering of concrete in urban watersheds produces geochemistry similar to weathering-limited watersheds with high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and DIC, which is similar to stream chemistry due to carbonate weathering. Road salt dissolution results in high Na+ and Cl- concentrations similar to evaporite weathering. Quantifying processes causing elevated solute fluxes from urban areas is essential to understanding cycling of Ca2+, Mg2+, and DIC in urban streams and in

  13. Antimatter Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, D. P.; Andresen G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Wilding, D.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2010-07-01

    The comparison of the 1S-2S energy levels of hydrogen and antihydrogen will yield a stringent test of CPT conservation. Necessarily, the antihydrogen atoms need to be trapped to perform high precision spectroscopy measurements. Therefore, an approximately 1 T deep neutral trap, about 0.7 K for ground state (anti)hydrogen atoms, has been superimposed on a Penning-Malmberg trap in which the antiatoms are formed. The antihydrogen atoms, which are required to have a low enough kinetic energy to be trapped, are produced following a number of steps. A bunch of antiprotons from the CERN Antiproton Decelerator are caught in a Penning-Malmberg trap and subsequently sympathetically cooled down and then compressed using rotating wall electric fields. A positron plasma, formed in a separate accumulator, is transported to the main system and also compressed. Antihydrogen atoms are then formed by mixing the antiprotons and positrons. The velocity of the antiatoms, and their binding energies, will strongly depend on the initial conditions of the constituent particles, for example their temperatures and densities, and on the details of the mixing process. In this talk the complete lifecycle of antihydrogen atoms will be presented, starting with the production of the constituent particles and the description of the manipulations necessary to prepare positrons and antiprotons appropriately for antihydrogen formation. The latter will also be described, as will the possible fates of the antiatoms.

  14. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  15. Review of unsaturated-zone transport and attenuation of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes leached from shallow source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivett, Michael O.; Wealthall, Gary P.; Dearden, Rachel A.; McAlary, Todd A.

    2011-04-01

    Reliable prediction of the unsaturated zone transport and attenuation of dissolved-phase VOC (volatile organic compound) plumes leached from shallow source zones is a complex, multi-process, environmental problem. It is an important problem as sources, which include solid-waste landfills, aqueous-phase liquid discharge lagoons and NAPL releases partially penetrating the unsaturated zone, may persist for decades. Natural attenuation processes operating in the unsaturated zone that, uniquely for VOCs includes volatilisation, may, however, serve to protect underlying groundwater and potentially reduce the need for expensive remedial actions. Review of the literature indicates that only a few studies have focused upon the overall leached VOC source and plume scenario as a whole. These are mostly modelling studies that often involve high strength, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) sources for which density-induced and diffusive vapour transport is significant. Occasional dissolved-phase aromatic hydrocarbon controlled infiltration field studies also exist. Despite this lack of focus on the overall problem, a wide range of process-based unsaturated zone — VOC research has been conducted that may be collated to build good conceptual model understanding of the scenario, particularly for the much studied aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). In general, the former group is likely to be attenuated in the unsaturated zone due to their ready aerobic biodegradation, albeit with rate variability across the literature, whereas the fate of the latter is far less likely to be dominated by a single mechanism and dependent upon the relative importance of the various attenuation processes within individual site — VOC scenarios. Analytical and numerical modelling tools permit effective process representation of the whole scenario, albeit with potential for inclusion of additional processes — e.g., multi-mechanistic sorption phase partitioning, and

  16. Vadose Zone Nitrate Transport Dynamics Resulting from Agricultural Groundwater Banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N. P.; McLaughlin, S.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, California's increased reliance on groundwater resources to meet agricultural and municipal demands has resulted in significant overdraft and water quality issues. Agricultural groundwater banking (AGB) has emerged as a promising groundwater replenishment opportunity in California; AGB is a form of managed aquifer recharge where farmland is flooded during the winter using excess surface water in order to recharge the underlying groundwater. Suitable farmland that is connected to water delivery systems is available for AGB throughout the Central Valley. However, questions remain how AGB could be implemented on fertilized agricultural fields such that nitrate leaching from the root zone is minimized. Here, we present results from field and soil column studies that investigate the transport dynamics of nitrogen in the root and deeper vadose zone during flooding events. We are specifically interested in estimating how timing and duration of flooding events affect percolation rates, leaching and nitrification/denitrification processes in three soil types within the Central Valley. Laboratory and field measurements include nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, N2O), redox potentials, total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, moisture content and EC. Soil cores are collected in the field before and after recharge events up to a depth of 4m, while other sensors monitor field conditions continuously. Preliminary results from the three field sites show that significant portions of the applied floodwater (12-62 cm) infiltrated below the root zone: 96.1% (Delhi), 88.6% (Modesto) and 76.8% (Orland). Analysis of the soil cores indicate that 70% of the residual nitrate was flushed from the sandy soil, while the fine sandy loam showed only a 5% loss and in some cores even an increase in soil nitrate (in the upper 20cm). Column experiments support these trends and indicate that increases in soil nitrate in the upper root zone might be due to organic nitrogen mineralization and

  17. Distribution of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system established

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuanchang; Yang, Huiqin; Wu, Linying

    2017-03-01

    Dilemma zone refers to an area where vehicles can neither clear the intersection during the yellow interval nor stop safely before the stop line. The purpose of this paper is to analyzing the distribution of two types of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system (ITS) established at Outer Ring Roads signalized intersections in Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center. To collect field data a drone aircraft was used. When calculating the type II dilemma zone's distribution, we considered the information of drivers' aggressiveness, which was classified by driving speed and type I dilemma zone as well. We also compared the two types dilemma zone's distribution before and after ITS established and analyzed the changes, which was brought by ITS.

  18. Processes in continental collision zones: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhang, Lifei; McClelland, William C.; Cuthbert, Simon

    2012-04-01

    Formation and exhumation of high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in continental subduction zones are the two fundamental geodynamic aspects of collisional orogensis. This volume is based on the Session 08c titled "Geochemical processes in continental collision zones" at Goldschmidt 2010 in Knoxville, USA. It focuses on micro- to macro-scale processes that are temporally and spatially linked to different depths of crustal subduction/exhumation and associated mineralogical changes. They are a key to understanding a wide spectrum of phenomena, involving HP/UHP metamorphism and syn-/post-collisional magmatism. Papers in this volume report progresses in petrological, geochronological and geochemical studies of UHP metamorphic rocks and their derivatives in China, with tectonic settings varying from arc-continent collision to continent-continent collision. Microbeam in-situ analyses of metamorphic and magmatic minerals are successfully utilized to solve various problems in the study of continental deep subduction and UHP metamorphism. In addition to their geochronological applications to dating of HP to UHP metamorphic events during continental collision, microbeam techniques have also served as an efficient means to recognize different generations of mineral growth during continental subduction-zone metamorphism. Furthermore, metamorphic dehydration and partial melting of UHP metamorphic rocks during subduction and exhumation are highlighted with respect to their effects on fluid action and element mobilization. These have provided new insights into chemical geodynamics in continental subduction zones.

  19. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  20. Simulated fate and transport of metolachlor in the unsaturated zone, Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E.R.; Capel, P.D.; Barbash, J.E.; Webb, R.M.T.; Hancock, T.L.C.; Lampe, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    An unsaturated-zone transport model was used to examine the transport and fate of metolachlor applied to an agricultural site in Maryland, USA. The study site was instrumented to collect data on soil-water content, soil-water potential, ground water levels, major ions, pesticides, and nutrients from the unsaturated zone during 2002-2004. The data set was enhanced with site-specific information describing weather, soils, and agricultural practices. The Root Zone Water Quality Model was used to simulate physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the unsaturated zone. Model calibration to bromide tracer concentrations indicated flow occurred through the soil matix. Simulated recharge rates were within the measured range of values. The pesticide transport model was calibrated to the intensive data collection period (2002-2004), and the calibrated model was then used to simulate the period 1984 through 2004 to examine the impact of sustained agricultural management practices on the concentrations of metolachlor and its degradates at the study site. Simulation results indicated that metolachlor degrades rapidly in the root zone but that the degradates are transported to depth in measurable quantities. Simulations indicated that degradate transport is strongly related to the duration of sustained use of metolachlor and the extent of biodegradation. 

  1. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    SciTech Connect

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology initiative was created in FY 1999 to reduce the uncertainty associated with vadose zone transport processes beneath waste sites at DOE's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This information is needed not only to evaluate the risks from transport, but also to support the adoption of measures for minimizing impacts to the groundwater and surrounding environment. The principal uncertainties in vadose zone transport are the current distribution of source contaminants and the natural heterogeneity of the soil in which the contaminants reside. Oversimplified conceptual models resulting from thesemore » uncertainties and limited use of hydrologic characterization and monitoring technologies have hampered the understanding contaminant migration through Hanford's vadose zone. Essential prerequisites for reducing vadose transport uncertainly include the development of accurate conceptual models and the development or adoption of monitoring techniques capable of delineating the current distributions of source contaminants and characterizing natural site heterogeneity. The Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS) was conceived as part of the initiative to address the major uncertainties confronting vadose zone fate and transport predictions at the Hanford Site and to overcome the limitations of previous characterization attempts. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is managing the VZTFS for DOE. The VZTFS will conduct field investigations that will improve the understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. Ideally, these methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing infrastructure (i.e., more than 1,300 steel-cased boreholes). The objectives of the VZTFS are to conduct controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field sites at Hanford

  2. TURBULENCE, TRANSPORT, AND WAVES IN OHMIC DEAD ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Gole, Daniel; Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.

    We use local numerical simulations to study a vertically stratified accretion disk with a resistive mid-plane that damps magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. This is an idealized model for the dead zones that may be present at some radii in protoplanetary and dwarf novae disks. We vary the relative thickness of the dead and active zones to quantify how forced fluid motions in the dead zone change. We find that the residual Reynolds stress near the mid-plane decreases with increasing dead zone thickness, becoming negligible in cases where the active to dead mass ratio is less than a few percent. This impliesmore » that purely Ohmic dead zones would be vulnerable to episodic accretion outbursts via the mechanism of Martin and Lubow. We show that even thick dead zones support a large amount of kinetic energy, but this energy is largely in fluid motions that are inefficient at angular momentum transport. Confirming results from Oishi and Mac Low, the perturbed velocity field in the dead zone is dominated by an oscillatory, vertically extended circulation pattern with a low frequency compared to the orbital frequency. This disturbance has the properties predicted for the lowest order r mode in a hydrodynamic disk. We suggest that in a global disk similar excitations would lead to propagating waves, whose properties would vary with the thickness of the dead zone and the nature of the perturbations (isothermal or adiabatic). Flows with similar amplitudes would buckle settled particle layers and could reduce the efficiency of pebble accretion.« less

  3. SENSITIVE PARAMETER EVALUATION FOR A VADOSE ZONE FATE AND TRANSPORT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information pertaining to quantitative evaluation of the potential impact of selected parameters on output of vadose zone transport and fate models used to describe the behavior of hazardous chemicals in soil. The Vadose 2one Interactive Processes (VIP) model...

  4. COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH THE VADOSE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Flury, Markus

    2003-09-14

    Contaminants have leaked into the vadose zone at the USDOE Hanford reservation. It is important to understand the fate and transport of these contaminants to design remediation strategies and long-term waste management plans at the Hanford reservation. Colloids may play an important role in fate and transport of strongly sorbing contaminants, such as Cs or Pu. This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. The specific objectives addressed are: (1) Determine the structure, composition, and surface charge characteristics of colloidal particles formed under conditions similar to those occurring duringmore » leakage of waste typical of Hanford tank supernatants into soils and sediments surrounding the tanks. (2) Characterize the mutual interactions between colloids, contaminant, and soil matrix in batch experiments under various ionic strength and pH conditions. We will investigate the nature of the solid-liquid interactions and the kinetics of the reactions. (3) Evaluate mobility of colloids through soil under different degrees of water saturation and solution chemistry (ionic strength and pH). (4) Determine the potential of colloids to act as carriers to transport the contaminant through the vadose zone and verify the results through comparison with field samples collected under leaking tanks. (5) Improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facilitated transport for implementation into reactive chemical transport models. This project was in part supported by an NSF-IGERT grant to Washington State University. The IGERT grant provided funding for graduate student research and education, and two graduate students were involved in the EMSP project. The IGERT program also supported undergraduate internships. The project is part of a larger EMSP program to study fate and transport of contaminants under leaking Hanford waste tanks. The

  5. Transport and transformation of genetic information in the critical zone: The case of antibiotic resistance genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    In addition to material and energy flows, the dynamics and functions of the Earth's critical zone are intensively mediated by biological actions performed by diverse organisms. These biological actions are modulated by the expression of functional genes and their translation into enzymes that catalyze geochemical reactions, such as nutrient turnover and pollutant biodegradation. Although geobiology, as an interdisciplinary research area, is playing and vital role in linking biological and geochemical processes at different temporal and spatial scales, the distribution and transport of functional genes have rarely been investigated from the Earth's critical zone perspectives. To illustrate the framework of studies on the transport and transformation of genetic information in the critical zone, antibiotic resistance is taken as an example. Antibiotic resistance genes are considered as a group of emerging contaminants, and their emergence and spread within the critical zone on one hand are induced by anthropogenic activities, and on other hand are threatening human health worldwide. The transport and transformation of antibiotic resistance genes are controlled by both horizontal gene transfer between bacterial cells and the movement of bacteria harboring antibiotic resistance genes. In this paper, the fate and behavior of antibiotic resistance genes will be discussed in the following aspects: 1) general overview of environmental antibiotic resistance; 2) high through quantification of the resistome in various environmental media; 3) pathways of resistance gene flow within the critical zone; and 4) potential strategies in mitigating antibiotic resistance, particularly from the critical zone perspectives.

  6. Implementation of Solute Transport in the Vadose Zone into the `HYDRUS Package for MODFLOW'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunek, J.; Beegum, S.; Szymkiewicz, A.; Sudheer, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The 'HYDRUS package for MODFLOW' was developed by Seo et al. (2007) and Twarakavi et al. (2008) to simultaneously evaluate transient water flow in both unsaturated and saturated zones. The package, which is based on the HYDRUS-1D model (Šimůnek et al., 2016) simulating unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone, was incorporated into MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) simulating saturated groundwater flow. The HYDRUS package in the coupled model can be used to represent the effects of various unsaturated zone processes, including infiltration, evaporation, root water uptake, capillary rise, and recharge in homogeneous or layered soil profiles. The coupled model is effective in addressing spatially-variable saturated-unsaturated hydrological processes at the regional scale, allowing for complex layering in the unsaturated zone, spatially and temporarily variable water fluxes at the soil surface and in the root zone, and with alternating recharge and discharge fluxes (Twarakavi et al., 2008). One of the major limitations of the coupled model was that it could not be used to simulate at the same time solute transport. However, solute transport is highly dependent on water table fluctuations due to temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge. This is an important concern when the coupled model is used for analyzing groundwater contamination due to transport through the unsaturated zone. The objective of this study is to integrate the solute transport model (the solute transport part of HYDRUS-1D for the unsaturated zone and MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999; Zheng, 2009) for the saturated zone) into an existing coupled water flow model. The unsaturated zone component of the coupled model can consider solute transport involving many biogeochemical processes and reactions, including first-order degradation, volatilization, linear or nonlinear sorption, one-site kinetic sorption, two-site sorption, and two-kinetic sites sorption (Šimůnek and van Genuchten, 2008

  7. On the bistable zone of milling processes

    PubMed Central

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. PMID:26303918

  8. Anomalous transport and stochastic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Balescu, R.

    1996-03-01

    The relation between kinetic transport theory and theory of stochastic processes is reviewed. The Langevin equation formalism provides important, but rather limited information about diffusive processes. A quite promising new approach to modeling complex situations, such as transport in incompletely destroyed magnetic surfaces, is provided by the theory of Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW), which is presented in some detail. An academic test problem is discussed in great detail: transport of particles in a fluctuating magnetic field, in the limit of infinite perpendicular correlation length. The well-known subdiffusive behavior of the Mean Square Displacement (MSD), proportional to t{sup 1/2}, ismore » recovered by a CTRW, but the complete density profile is not. However, the quasilinear approximation of the kinetic equation has the form of a non-Markovian diffusion equation and can thus be generated by a CTRW. 16 refs., 3 figs.« less

  9. Tools for port authority transportation reinvestment zones (TRZ) and TRZs for multimodal applications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-01

    In 2007, the Texas legislature created an innovative transportation funding mechanism called the transportation reinvestment zone (TRZ) that allows municipal and county governments to set aside local match contributions for the transportation project...

  10. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2000-06-23

    This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptualmore » models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.« less

  11. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  12. Vadose zone attenuation of organic compounds at a crude oil spill site - interactions between biogeochemical reactions and multicomponent gas transport.

    PubMed

    Molins, S; Mayer, K U; Amos, R T; Bekins, B A

    2010-03-01

    Contaminant attenuation processes in the vadose zone of a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN have been simulated with a reactive transport model that includes multicomponent gas transport, solute transport, and the most relevant biogeochemical reactions. Dissolution and volatilization of oil components, their aerobic and anaerobic degradation coupled with sequential electron acceptor consumption, ingress of atmospheric O(2), and the release of CH(4) and CO(2) from the smear zone generated by the floating oil were considered. The focus of the simulations was to assess the dynamics between biodegradation and gas transport processes in the vadose zone, to evaluate the rates and contributions of different electron accepting processes towards vadose zone natural attenuation, and to provide an estimate of the historical mass loss. Concentration distributions of reactive (O(2), CH(4), and CO(2)) and non-reactive (Ar and N(2)) gases served as key constraints for the model calibration. Simulation results confirm that as of 2007, the main degradation pathway can be attributed to methanogenic degradation of organic compounds in the smear zone and the vadose zone resulting in a contaminant plume dominated by high CH(4) concentrations. In accordance with field observations, zones of volatilization and CH(4) generation are correlated to slightly elevated total gas pressures and low partial pressures of N(2) and Ar, while zones of aerobic CH(4) oxidation are characterized by slightly reduced gas pressures and elevated concentrations of N(2) and Ar. Diffusion is the most significant transport mechanism for gases in the vadose zone; however, the simulations also indicate that, despite very small pressure gradients, advection contributes up to 15% towards the net flux of CH(4), and to a more limited extent to O(2) ingress. Model calibration strongly suggests that transfer of biogenically generated gases from the smear zone provides a major control on vadose zone gas distributions

  13. Vadose zone attenuation of organic compounds at a crude oil spill site - Interactions between biogeochemical reactions and multicomponent gas transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.U.; Amos, R.T.; Bekins, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Contaminant attenuation processes in the vadose zone of a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN have been simulated with a reactive transport model that includes multicomponent gas transport, solute transport, and the most relevant biogeochemical reactions. Dissolution and volatilization of oil components, their aerobic and anaerobic degradation coupled with sequential electron acceptor consumption, ingress of atmospheric O2, and the release of CH4 and CO2 from the smear zone generated by the floating oil were considered. The focus of the simulations was to assess the dynamics between biodegradation and gas transport processes in the vadose zone, to evaluate the rates and contributions of different electron accepting processes towards vadose zone natural attenuation, and to provide an estimate of the historical mass loss. Concentration distributions of reactive (O2, CH4, and CO2) and non-reactive (Ar and N2) gases served as key constraints for the model calibration. Simulation results confirm that as of 2007, the main degradation pathway can be attributed to methanogenic degradation of organic compounds in the smear zone and the vadose zone resulting in a contaminant plume dominated by high CH4 concentrations. In accordance with field observations, zones of volatilization and CH4 generation are correlated to slightly elevated total gas pressures and low partial pressures of N2 and Ar, while zones of aerobic CH4 oxidation are characterized by slightly reduced gas pressures and elevated concentrations of N2 and Ar. Diffusion is the most significant transport mechanism for gases in the vadose zone; however, the simulations also indicate that, despite very small pressure gradients, advection contributes up to 15% towards the net flux of CH4, and to a more limited extent to O2 ingress. Model calibration strongly suggests that transfer of biogenically generated gases from the smear zone provides a major control on vadose zone gas distributions and vadose zone carbon

  14. Hyporheic flow and transport processes: mechanisms, models, and biogeochemical implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boano, Fulvio; Harvey, Judson W.; Marion, Andrea; Packman, Aaron I.; Revelli, Roberto; Ridolfi, Luca; Anders, Wörman

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of hyporheic zone research have shown the important role played by the hyporheic zone as an interface between groundwater and surface waters. However, it is only in the last two decades that what began as an empirical science has become a mechanistic science devoted to modeling studies of the complex fluid dynamical and biogeochemical mechanisms occurring in the hyporheic zone. These efforts have led to the picture of surface-subsurface water interactions as regulators of the form and function of fluvial ecosystems. Rather than being isolated systems, surface water bodies continuously interact with the subsurface. Exploration of hyporheic zone processes has led to a new appreciation of their wide reaching consequences for water quality and stream ecology. Modern research aims toward a unified approach, in which processes occurring in the hyporheic zone are key elements for the appreciation, management, and restoration of the whole river environment. In this unifying context, this review summarizes results from modeling studies and field observations about flow and transport processes in the hyporheic zone and describes the theories proposed in hydrology and fluid dynamics developed to quantitatively model and predict the hyporheic transport of water, heat, and dissolved and suspended compounds from sediment grain scale up to the watershed scale. The implications of these processes for stream biogeochemistry and ecology are also discussed."

  15. Hyporheic flow and transport processes: Mechanisms, models, and biogeochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boano, F.; Harvey, J. W.; Marion, A.; Packman, A. I.; Revelli, R.; Ridolfi, L.; Wörman, A.

    2014-12-01

    Fifty years of hyporheic zone research have shown the important role played by the hyporheic zone as an interface between groundwater and surface waters. However, it is only in the last two decades that what began as an empirical science has become a mechanistic science devoted to modeling studies of the complex fluid dynamical and biogeochemical mechanisms occurring in the hyporheic zone. These efforts have led to the picture of surface-subsurface water interactions as regulators of the form and function of fluvial ecosystems. Rather than being isolated systems, surface water bodies continuously interact with the subsurface. Exploration of hyporheic zone processes has led to a new appreciation of their wide reaching consequences for water quality and stream ecology. Modern research aims toward a unified approach, in which processes occurring in the hyporheic zone are key elements for the appreciation, management, and restoration of the whole river environment. In this unifying context, this review summarizes results from modeling studies and field observations about flow and transport processes in the hyporheic zone and describes the theories proposed in hydrology and fluid dynamics developed to quantitatively model and predict the hyporheic transport of water, heat, and dissolved and suspended compounds from sediment grain scale up to the watershed scale. The implications of these processes for stream biogeochemistry and ecology are also discussed.

  16. Characterizing multiple timescales of stream and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Jungyill; Harvey, Judson W.; Conklin, Martha H.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in streams and rivers is affected by exchange and biogeochemical transformation in slowly moving or stagnant flow zones that interact with rapid flow in the main channel. In a typical stream, there are multiple types of slowly moving flow zones in which exchange and transformation occur, such as stagnant or recirculating surface water as well as subsurface hyporheic zones. However, most investigators use transport models with just a single storage zone in their modeling studies, which assumes that the effects of multiple storage zones can be lumped together. Our study addressed the following question: Can a single‐storage zone model reliably characterize the effects of physical retention and biogeochemical reactions in multiple storage zones? We extended an existing stream transport model with a single storage zone to include a second storage zone. With the extended model we generated 500 data sets representing transport of nonreactive and reactive solutes in stream systems that have two different types of storage zones with variable hydrologic conditions. The one storage zone model was tested by optimizing the lumped storage parameters to achieve a best fit for each of the generated data sets. Multiple storage processes were categorized as possessing I, additive; II, competitive; or III, dominant storage zone characteristics. The classification was based on the goodness of fit of generated data sets, the degree of similarity in mean retention time of the two storage zones, and the relative distributions of exchange flux and storage capacity between the two storage zones. For most cases (>90%) the one storage zone model described either the effect of the sum of multiple storage processes (category I) or the dominant storage process (category III). Failure of the one storage zone model occurred mainly for category II, that is, when one of the storage zones had a much longer mean retention time (ts ratio > 5.0) and when the dominance of

  17. Impact of Transport Zone Number in Simulation Models on Cost-Benefit Analysis Results in Transport Investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Jacek

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, feasibility studies need to be prepared for all planned transport investments, mainly those co-financed with UE grants. One of the fundamental aspect of feasibility study is the economic justification of an investment, evaluated in an area of so called cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The main goal of CBA calculation is to prove that a transport investment is really important for the society and should be implemented as economically efficient one. It can be said that the number of hours (PH - passengers hours) in trips and travelled kilometres (PK - passengers kilometres) are the most important for CBA results. The differences between PH and PK calculated for particular investment scenarios are the base for benefits calculation. Typically, transport simulation models are the best source for such data. Transport simulation models are one of the most powerful tools for transport network planning. They make it possible to evaluate forecast traffic volume and passenger flows in a public transport system for defined scenarios of transport and area development. There are many different transport models. Their construction is often similar, and they mainly differ in the level of their accuracy. Even models for the same area may differ in this matter. Typically, such differences come from the accuracy of supply side representation: road and public transport network representation. In many cases only main roads and a public transport network are represented, while local and service roads are eliminated as a way of reality simplification. This also enables a faster and more effective calculation process. On the other hand, the description of demand part of these models based on transport zones is often stable. Difficulties with data collection, mainly data on land use, resulted in the lack of changes in the analysed land division into so called transport zones. In this paper the author presents an influence of land division on the results of traffic analyses, and hence

  18. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-basedmore » mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.« less

  19. On MHD rotational transport, instabilities and dynamo action in stellar radiation zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Stéphane; Brun, A.-S.; Zahn, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic field and their related dynamical effects are thought to be important in stellar radiation zones. For instance, it has been suggested that a dynamo, sustained by a m = 1 MHD instability of toroidal magnetic fields (discovered by Tayler in 1973), could lead to a strong transport of angular momentum and of chemicals in such stable regions. We wish here to recall the different magnetic transport processes present in radiative zone and show how the dynamo can operate by recalling the conditions required to close the dynamo loop (BPol → BTor → BPol). Helped by high-resolution 3D MHD simulations using the ASH code in the solar case, we confirm the existence of the m = 1 instability, study its non-linear saturation, but we do not detect, up to a magnetic Reylnods number of 105, any dynamo action.

  20. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones.

    PubMed

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh

    2013-01-02

    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments.

  1. Introduction to the structures and processes of subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2017-09-01

    Subduction zones have been the focus of many studies since the advent of plate tectonics in 1960s. Workings within subduction zones beneath volcanic arcs have been of particular interest because they prime the source of arc magmas. The results from magmatic products have been used to decipher the structures and processes of subduction zones. In doing so, many progresses have been made on modern oceanic subduction zones, but less progresses on ancient oceanic subduction zones. On the other hand, continental subduction zones have been studied since findings of coesite in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal origin in 1980s. It turns out that high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens provide a direct target to investigate the tectonism of subduction zones, whereas oceanic and continental arc volcanic rocks in accretionary orogens provide an indirect target to investigate the geochemistry of subduction zones. Nevertheless, metamorphic dehydration and partial melting at high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure conditions are tectonically applicable to subduction zone processes at forearc to subarc depths, and crustal metasomatism is the physicochemical mechanism for geochemical transfer from the slab to the mantle in subduction channels. Taken together, these provide us with an excellent opportunity to find how the metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic products are a function of the structures and processes in both oceanic and continental subduction zones. Because of the change in the thermal structures of subduction zones, different styles of metamorphism, metasomatism and magmatism are produced at convergent plate margins. In addition, juvenile and ancient crustal rocks have often suffered reworking in episodes independent of either accretionary or collisional orogeny, leading to continental rifting metamorphism and thus rifting orogeny for mountain building in intracontinental settings. This brings complexity to distinguish the syn

  2. Introduction to the structures and processes of subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2017-09-01

    Subduction zones have been the focus of many studies since the advent of plate tectonics in 1960s. Workings within subduction zones beneath volcanic arcs have been of particular interest because they prime the source of arc magmas. The results from magmatic products have been used to decipher the structures and processes of subduction zones. In doing so, many progresses have been made on modern oceanic subduction zones, but less progresses on ancient oceanic subduction zones. On the other hand, continental subduction zones have been studied since findings of coesite in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal origin in 1980s. It turns out that high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens provide a direct target to investigate the tectonism of subduction zones, whereas oceanic and continental arc volcanic rocks in accretionary orogens provide an indirect target to investigate the geochemistry of subduction zones. Nevertheless, metamorphic dehydration and partial melting at high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure conditions are tectonically applicable to subduction zone processes at forearc to subarc depths, and crustal metasomatism is the physicochemical mechanism for geochemical transfer from the slab to the mantle in subduction channels. Taken together, these provide us with an excellent opportunity to find how the metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic products are a function of the structures and processes in both oceanic and continental subduction zones. Because of the change in the thermal structures of subduction zones, different styles of metamorphism, metasomatism and magmatism are produced at convergent plate margins. In addition, juvenile and ancient crustal rocks have often suffered reworking in episodes independent of either accretionary or collisional orogeny, leading to continental rifting metamorphism and thus rifting orogeny for mountain building in intracontinental settings. This brings complexity to distinguish the syn

  3. The Critical Zone: A Necessary Framework for Understanding Surface Earth Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.

    2016-12-01

    One definition of the critical zone is: the thin veneer of Earth that extends from the top of the vegetation to the base of weathered bedrock. With this definition we can envision the critical zone as a distinct entity with a well-defined top and a fairly well-defined bottom that is distributed across terrestrial earth landscapes. It is a zone of co-evolving processes and, importantly, much of this zone is well below the soil mantle (and commonly more than 10 times thicker than the soil). Weathering advance into fresh bedrock creates a hydrologically-conductive skin that mediates runoff and solute chemistry, stores water used by vegetation, releases water as baseflow to streams, influences soil production and hillslope evolution, and feeds gasses to the atmosphere. Especially in seasonally dry environments, rock moisture in the critical zone, i.e. moisture that is exchangeable and potentially mobile in the matrix and fractures of the bedrock, can be a significant source of water to plants and is a previously unrecognized large component of the water budget that matters to climate models. First observations on the systematic variation of the critical zone across hillslopes have led to four distinct theories representing four distinct processes for what controls the depth to fresh bedrock (and thus the thickness of this zone across a hillslope). These theories are motivating geophysical surveys, deep drilling, and other actions to parameterize and explore the power of these models. Studies at the NSF-supported Critical Zone Observatories have taught us that the critical zone is an entity and that enduring field studies reveal key processes. A challenge we now face is how to include this emerging understanding of the critical zone into models of reactive transport, hydrologic processes and water supply, critical zone structure, landscape evolution, and climate.

  4. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams

    temperature differences between the high and low furnace zones—200 and 300 ?C. During each experiment, the temperatures at selected locations around the crucible were measured and recorded to provide temperature profiles. Following each experiment, samples were collected and elemental analysis was done to determine the composition of iii the salt. Several models—non-mixed, well-mixed, Favier, and hybrid—were explored to describe the zone freezing process. For CsCl-LiCl-KCl system, experimental results indicate that through this process up to 90% of the used salt can be recycled, effectively reducing waste volume by a factor of ten. The optimal configuration was found to be a 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and a ?T of 200°C. The larger 400 g mixtures had recycle percentages similar to the 50 g mixtures; however, the throughput per time was greater for the 400 g case. As a result, the 400 g case is recommended. For the CeCl3-LiCl-KCl system, the result implies that it is possible to use this process to separate the rare-earth and transuranics chlorides. Different models were applied to only CsCl ternary system. The best fit model was the hybrid model as a result of a solute transport transition from non- mixed to well-mixed throughout the growing process.« less

  5. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.H.; Fruehan, R.J.; Elliott, J.F.

    1995-01-03

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal. 8 figures.

  6. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOEpatents

    Cox, James H.; Fruehan, Richard J.; Elliott, deceased, John F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal.

  7. DIN retention-transport through four hydrologically connected zones in a headwater catchment of the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Triska, F.J.; Duff, J.H.; Sheibley, R.W.; Jackman, A.P.; Avanzino, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) retention-transport through a headwater catchment was synthesized from studies encompassing four distinct hydrologic zones of the Shingobee River Headwaters near the origin of the Mississippi River. The hydrologic zones included: (1) hillslope ground water (ridge to bankside riparian); (2) alluvial riparian ground water; (3) ground water discharged through subchannel sediments (hyporheic zone); and (4) channel surface water. During subsurface hillslope transport through Zone 1, DIN, primarily nitrate, decreased from ???3 mg-N/l to <0.1 mg-N/l. Ambient seasonal nitrate:chloride ratios in hillslope flow paths indicated both dilution and biotic processing caused nitrate loss. Biologically available organic carbon controlled biotic nitrate retention during hillslope transport. In the alluvial riparian zone (Zone 2) biologically available organic carbon controlled nitrate depletion although processing of both ambient and amended nitrate was faster during the summer than winter. In the hyporheic zone (Zone 3) and stream surface water (Zone 4) DIN retention was primarily controlled by temperature. Perfusion core studies using hyporheic sediment indicated sufficient organic carbon in bed sediments to retain ground water DIN via coupled nitrification-denitrification. Numerical simulations of seasonal hyporheic sediment nitrification-denitrification rates from perfusion cores adequately predicted surface water ammonium but not nitrate when compared to 5 years of monthly field data (1989-93). Mass balance studies in stream surface water indicated proportionally higher summer than winter N retention. Watershed DIN retention was effective during summer under the current land use of intermittently grazed pasture. However, more intensive land use such as row crop agriculture would decrease nitrate retention efficiency and increase loads to surface water. Understanding DIN retention capacity throughout the system, including special channel

  8. Coupled effects of solution chemistry and hydrodynamics on the mobility and transport of quantum dot nanomaterials in the Vadose Zone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To investigate the coupled effects of solution chemistry and vadose zone processes on the mobility of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles, laboratory scale transport experiments were performed. The complex coupled effects of ionic strength, size of QD aggregates, surface tension, contact angle, infiltrat...

  9. Vadose Zone Fate and Transport Simulation of Chemicals Associated with Coal Seam Gas Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunek, J.; Mallants, D.; Jacques, D.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2017-12-01

    The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS (2D/3D) computer software packages are widely used finite element models for simulating the one-, and two- or three-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media, respectively. While the standard HYDRUS models consider only the fate and transport of individual solutes or solutes subject to first-order degradation reactions, several specialized HYDRUS add-on modules can simulate far more complex biogeochemical processes. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the HYDRUS models and their add-on modules, and to demonstrate applications of the software to the subsurface fate and transport of chemicals involved in coal seam gas extraction and water management operations. One application uses the standard HYDRUS model to evaluate the natural soil attenuation potential of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and their transformation products in case of an accidental release. By coupling the processes of retardation, first-order degradation and convective-dispersive transport of the biocide bronopol and its degradation products, we demonstrated how natural attenuation reduces initial concentrations by more than a factor of hundred in the top 5 cm of the vadose zone. A second application uses the UnsatChem module to explore the possible use of coal seam gas produced water for sustainable irrigation. Simulations with different irrigation waters (untreated, amended with surface water, and reverse osmosis treated) provided detailed results regarding chemical indicators of soil and plant health, notably SAR, EC and sodium concentrations. A third application uses the coupled HYDRUS-PHREEQC module to analyze trace metal transport involving cation exchange and surface complexation sorption reactions in the vadose zone leached with coal seam gas produced water following some accidental water release scenario. Results show that the main process responsible for trace metal migration is complexation of

  10. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nathan

    A REZ is a geographical area that enables the development of profitable, cost-effective, grid-connected renewable energy (RE). The REZ Transmission Planning Process is a proactive approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure connecting REZs to the power system which helps to increase the share of solar, wind and other RE resources in the power system while maintaining reliability and economics, and focuses on large-scale wind and solar resources that can be developed in sufficient quantities to warrant transmission system expansion and upgrades.

  11. Scheduling work zones in multi-modal networks phase 1: scheduling work zones in transportation service networks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the optimal scheduling of work zones so that they have minimum negative impact (e.g., travel delay, gas consumption, accidents, etc.) on transport service vehicle flows. In this project, a mixed integer linear ...

  12. Large-scale Atmospheric Transport Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Continuing earlier work, we continued an investigation of the seasonal behavior of the edges of the stratospheric surf zone. These edges form a barrier between the rapidly mixed surf zone and the relatively isolated tropics. In collaboration with Dr Lynn Sparling at GSFC, we used a statistical analysis of HALOE and CLAES trace gas data from UARS to identify and locate these edges during each UARS observing period. We found that the edges on both sides of the equator are present all year (a fact that is important for conceptual models of stratospheric transport), though that on the summer side of the equator is much less sharp than the winter edge. The edges migrate seasonally into the summer hemisphere. Their location also shows influence of the QBO, together with the SAO at higher altitudes. Comparisons with effective diffusivities, and the edge locations, suggest that the edge is sustained by surf zone entrainment during winter, but by the residual circulation during summer.

  13. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Victoria C.; Loughlin, Patrick C.; Day, David A.; Smith, Penelope M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The symbiosome membrane (SM) is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume:rhizobia symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate, and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologs of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides, and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome. PMID:25566274

  14. Tracing long-term vadose zone processes at the Nevada Test Site, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James R.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear weapons testing programme of the USA has released radionuclides to the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site. One of these tests has been used to study the hydrological transport of radionuclides for over 25 years in groundwater and the deep unsaturated zone. Ten years after the weapon’s test, a 16 year groundwater pumping experiment was initiated to study the mobility of radionuclides from that test in an alluvial aquifer. The continuously pumped groundwater was released into an unlined ditch where some of the water infiltrated into the 200 m deep vadose zone. The pumped groundwater had well-characterized tritium activities that were utilized to trace water migration in the shallow and deep vadose zones. Within the near-surface vadose zone, tritium levels in the soil water are modelled by a simple one-dimensional, analytical wetting front model. In the case of the near-surface soils at the Cambric Ditch experimental site, water flow and salt accumulation appear to be dominated by rooted vegetation, a mechanism not included within the wetting front model. Simulation results from a two-dimensional vadose groundwater flow model illustrate the dominance of vertical flow in the vadose zone and the recharge of the aquifer with the pumped groundwater. The long-time series of hydrological data provides opportunities to understand contaminant transport processes better in the vadose zone with an appropriate level of modelling. PMID:21785525

  15. Development of Opportunity Zones Utilizing Transportation Assets : Executive Summary Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-06-01

    The challenge that spurred this project is that transportation is traditionally an afterthought when it comes : to company site selection. This yields three chief problems: : 1. Ohios expansive transportation network (ex. roads, rails, ports, and ...

  16. Continuous monitoring of water flow and solute transport using vadose zone monitoring technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, O.

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater contamination is usually attributed to pollution events that initiate on land surface. These may be related to various sources such as industrial, urban or agricultural, and may appear as point or non point sources, through a single accidental event or a continuous pollution process. In all cases, groundwater pollution is a consequence of pollutant transport processes that take place in the vadose zone above the water table. Attempts to control pollution events and prevent groundwater contamination usually involve groundwater monitoring programs. This, however, can not provide any protection against contamination since pollution identification in groundwater is clear evidence that the groundwater is already polluted and contaminants have already traversed the entire vadose zone. Accordingly, an efficient monitoring program that aims at providing information that may prevent groundwater pollution has to include vadose-zone monitoring systems. Such system should provide real-time information on the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water and serve as an early warning system capable of detecting pollution events in their early stages before arrival of contaminants to groundwater. Recently, a vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) was developed to allow continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of percolating water in the deep vadose zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes for continuous tracking of water content profiles, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) for frequent sampling of the deep vadose pore water at multiple depths. The monitoring probes and sampling ports are installed through uncased slanted boreholes using a flexible sleeve that allows attachment of the monitoring devices to the borehole walls while achieving good contact between the sensors and the undisturbed sediment column. The system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and

  17. Hyporheic zone as a bioreactor: sediment heterogeneity influencing biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perujo, Nuria; Romani, Anna M.; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean fluvial systems are characterized by frequent periods of low flow or even drought. During low flow periods, water from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is proportionally large in fluvial systems. River water might be vertically transported through the hyporheic zone, and then porous medium acts as a complementary treatment system since, as water infiltrates, a suite of biogeochemical processes occurs. Subsurface sediment heterogeneity plays an important role since it influences the interstitial fluxes of the medium and drives biomass growing, determining biogeochemical reactions. In this study, WWTP water was continuously infiltrated for 3 months through two porous medium tanks: one consisting of 40 cm of fine sediment (homogeneous); and another comprised of two layers of different grain size sediments (heterogeneous), 20 cm of coarse sediment in the upper part and 20 cm of fine one in the bottom. Several hydrological, physicochemical and biological parameters were measured periodically (weekly at the start of the experiment and biweekly at the end). Analysed parameters include dissolved nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and oxygen all measured at the surface, and at 5, 20 and 40 cm depth. Variations in hydraulic conductivity with time were evaluated. Sediment samples were also analysed at three depths (surface, 20 and 40 cm) to determine bacterial density, chlorophyll content, extracellular polymeric substances, and biofilm function (extracellular enzyme activities and carbon substrate utilization profiles). Preliminary results suggest hydraulic conductivity to be the main driver of the differences in the biogeochemical processes occurring in the subsurface. At the heterogeneous tank, a low nutrient reduction throughout the whole medium is measured. In this medium, high hydraulic conductivity allows for a large amount of infiltrating water, but with a small residence time. Since some biological processes are largely time-dependent, small water

  18. Modeling critical zone processes in intensively managed environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Le, Phong; Woo, Dong; Yan, Qina

    2017-04-01

    Processes in the Critical Zone (CZ), which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biochemical, and many other domains over both short and long timescales. In addition, vegetation acclimation resulting from elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, along with response to increased temperature and altered rainfall pattern, is expected to result in emergent behaviors in ecologic and hydrologic functions, subsequently controlling CZ processes. We hypothesize that the interplay between micro-topographic variability and these emergent behaviors will shape complex responses of a range of ecosystem dynamics within the CZ. Here, we develop a modeling framework ('Dhara') that explicitly incorporates micro-topographic variability based on lidar topographic data with coupling of multi-layer modeling of the soil-vegetation continuum and 3-D surface-subsurface transport processes to study ecological and biogeochemical dynamics. We further couple a C-N model with a physically based hydro-geomorphologic model to quantify (i) how topographic variability controls the spatial distribution of soil moisture, temperature, and biogeochemical processes, and (ii) how farming activities modify the interaction between soil erosion and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. To address the intensive computational demand from high-resolution modeling at lidar data scale, we use a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture run over large supercomputing systems for simulations. Our findings indicate that rising CO2 concentration and air temperature have opposing effects on soil moisture, surface water and ponding in topographic depressions. Further, the relatively higher soil moisture and lower soil temperature contribute to decreased soil microbial activities in the low-lying areas due to anaerobic conditions and reduced temperatures. The decreased microbial relevant processes cause the reduction of nitrification rates, resulting in relatively lower nitrate

  19. Reactor Meltdown: Critical Zone Processes In Siliciclastics Unlikely To Be Directly Transferable To Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulley, J. D.; Cohen, M. J.; Kramer, M. G.; Martin, J. B.; Graham, W. D.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonate terrains cover 20% of Earth's ice-free land and are modified through interactions between rocks, water and biota that couple ecosystems processes to weathering reactions within the critical zone. Weathering in carbonate systems differs from the Critical Zone Reactor model developed for siliciclastic systems because reactions in siliciclastic critical zones largely consist of incongruent weathering (e.g., feldspar to secondary clay minerals) that typically occur in the soil zone within a few meters of the land surface. These incongruent reactions create regolith, which is removed by physical transport mechanisms that drive landscape denudation. In contrast, carbonate critical zones are mostly composed of homogeneous and soluble minerals, which dissolve congruently with the weathering products exported in solution, limiting regolith in the soil mantle to small amounts of insoluble residues. These reactions can extend to depths greater than 2 km below the surface. As water at the land surface drains preferentially through vertical joints and horizontal bedding planes of the carbonate critical zones, it is 'charged' with biologically-derived carbon dioxide, which decreases pH, dissolves carbonate rock, and enlarges subsurface flowpaths through feedbacks between flow and dissolution. Caves are extreme end products of this process and are key morphological features of carbonate critical zones. Caves link surface processes to the deep subsurface and serve as efficient delivery agents for oxygen, carbon and nutrients to zones within the critical zone that are deficient in all three, interrupting vertical and horizontal chemical gradients that would exist if caves were not present. We present select data from air and water-filled caves in the upper Floridan aquifer, Florida, USA, that demonstrate how caves, acting as very large preferential flow paths, alter processes in carbonate relative to siliciclastic critical zones. While caves represent an extreme end

  20. Hydrologic processes in deep vadose zones in interdrainage arid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Hogan, James F.; Phillips, Fred M.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2004-01-01

    A unifying theory for the hydrology of desert vadose zones is particularly timely considering the rising population and water stresses in arid and semiarid regions. Conventional models cannot reconcile the apparent discrepancy between upward flow indicated by hydraulic gradient data and downward flow suggested by environmental tracer data in deep vadose zone profiles. A conceptual model described here explains both hydraulic and tracer data remarkably well by incorporating the hydrologic role of desert plants that encroached former juniper woodland 10 to 15 thousand years ago in the southwestern United States. Vapor transport also plays an important role in redistributing moisture through deep soils, particularly in coarse-grained sediments. Application of the conceptual model to several interdrainage arid settings reproduces measured matric potentials and chloride accumulation by simulating the transition from downward flow to upward flow just below the root zone initiated by climate and vegetation change. Model results indicate a slow hydraulic drying response in deep vadose zones that enables matric potential profiles to be used to distinguish whether precipitation episodically percolated below the root zone or was completely removed via evapotranspiration during the majority of the Holocene. Recharge declined dramatically during the Holocene in interdrainage basin floor settings of arid and semiarid basins. Current flux estimates across the water table in these environmental settings, are on the order of 0.01 to 0.1 mm yr-1 and may be recharge (downward) or discharge (upward) depending on vadose zone characteristics, such as soil texture, geothermal gradient, and water table depth. In summary, diffuse recharge through the basin floor probably contributes only minimally to the total recharge in arid and semiarid basins.

  1. Float-zone processing in a weightless environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowle, A. A.; Haggerty, J. S.; Perron, R. R.; Strong, P. F.; Swanson, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results were reported of investigations to: (1) test the validity of analyses which set maximum practical diameters for Si crystals that can be processed by the float zone method in a near weightless environment, (2) determine the convective flow patterns induced in a typical float zone, Si melt under conditions perceived to be advantageous to the crystal growth process using flow visualization techniques applied to a dimensionally scaled model of the Si melt, (3) revise the estimates of the economic impact of space produced Si crystal by the float zone method on the U.S. electronics industry, and (4) devise a rational plan for future work related to crystal growth phenomena wherein low gravity conditions available in a space site can be used to maximum benefit to the U.S. electronics industry.

  2. Surface transport processes in charged porous media

    DOE PAGES

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-03-03

    Surface transport processes are important in chemistry, colloidal sciences, engineering, biology, and geophysics. Natural or externally produced charges on surfaces create electrical double layers (EDLs) at the solid-liquid interface. The existence of the EDLs produces several complex processes including bulk and surface transport of ions. In this work, a model is presented to simulate bulk and transport processes in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations inmore » the limit of thin electrical double layers. Description of the EDL between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is accomplished using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model. The surface transport terms enter into the average equations due to the use of boundary conditions for diffuse interfaces. Two extra surface transports terms appear in the closed average equations. One is a surface diffusion term equivalent to the transport process in non-charged porous media. The second surface transport term is a migration term unique to charged porous media. The effective bulk and transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems.« less

  3. Surface transport processes in charged porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    Surface transport processes are important in chemistry, colloidal sciences, engineering, biology, and geophysics. Natural or externally produced charges on surfaces create electrical double layers (EDLs) at the solid-liquid interface. The existence of the EDLs produces several complex processes including bulk and surface transport of ions. In this work, a model is presented to simulate bulk and transport processes in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations inmore » the limit of thin electrical double layers. Description of the EDL between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is accomplished using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model. The surface transport terms enter into the average equations due to the use of boundary conditions for diffuse interfaces. Two extra surface transports terms appear in the closed average equations. One is a surface diffusion term equivalent to the transport process in non-charged porous media. The second surface transport term is a migration term unique to charged porous media. The effective bulk and transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems.« less

  4. Residence-time framework for modeling multicomponent reactive transport in stream hyporheic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, S. L.; Coon, E. T.; Brooks, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based models for transport and transformation of nutrients and contaminants in streams require tractable representations of solute exchange between the stream channel and biogeochemically active hyporheic zones. Residence-time based formulations provide an alternative to detailed three-dimensional simulations and have had good success in representing hyporheic exchange of non-reacting solutes. We extend the residence-time formulation for hyporheic transport to accommodate general multicomponent reactive transport. To that end, the integro-differential form of previous residence time models is replaced by an equivalent formulation based on a one-dimensional advection dispersion equation along the channel coupled at each channel location to a one-dimensional transport model in Lagrangian travel-time form. With the channel discretized for numerical solution, the associated Lagrangian model becomes a subgrid model representing an ensemble of streamlines that are diverted into the hyporheic zone before returning to the channel. In contrast to the previous integro-differential forms of the residence-time based models, the hyporheic flowpaths have semi-explicit spatial representation (parameterized by travel time), thus allowing coupling to general biogeochemical models. The approach has been implemented as a stream-corridor subgrid model in the open-source integrated surface/subsurface modeling software ATS. We use bedform-driven flow coupled to a biogeochemical model with explicit microbial biomass dynamics as an example to show that the subgrid representation is able to represent redox zonation in sediments and resulting effects on metal biogeochemical dynamics in a tractable manner that can be scaled to reach scales.

  5. The Influence Of Highway Transportation Infrastructure Condition Toward Commodity Production Generation for The Resilience Needs at Regional Internal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbardin, Juang; Parikesit, Danang; Riyanto, Bambang; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2018-02-01

    The poultry commodity consumption and requirement is one of the main commodities that must be fulfilled in a region to maintain the availability of meat from poultry. Poultry commodity production is one of the production sectors that have a clean environment resistance. An increasing of poultry commodity generation production requires a smooth distribution to arrive at the processing. The livestock location as a commodity production is placed at a considerable far distance from residential and market locations. Zones that have poultry commodity production have an excess potential to supply other zones that are lacking in production to the consumption of these commodities. The condition of highway transportation infrastructure that is very diverse with the damage level availability in a zone has an influence in the supply and demand of poultry commodity requirement in the regional internal of Central Java province. In order to know the effect of highway transportation infrastructure condition toward the poultry commodity movement, demography factor and availability of freight vehicles will be reviewed to estimate the amount of poultry commodity movement generation production. Thus the poultry commodity consumption requirement that located in the internal - regional zone of central java province can be adequated from the zone. So it can be minimized the negative impacts that affect the environment at the zone in terms of comparison of the movement attraction and generation production at poultry commodity in Central Java.

  6. Transport of environmental tracers through a karst system with a thick unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Tobias; Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Eichinger, Florian; Sauter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The transport of the environmental tracers tritium (3H), krypton-85 (85Kr) and helium (3He) in a karst system is investigated. Differences between mean tracer ages determined in spring water are explained by slow percolation of water through the thick unsaturated zone reflecting the importance of slow and diffuse unsaturated flow processes in these systems. Mean tracer ages on the Gallusquelle spring (Swabian Alb) were determined with lumped parameter modeling and decrease in the following order: 3H >> 85Kr > 3He. Since 3H is part of the water molecule it enters a karst system via precipitation, i.e. the mean 3H age is a measure of water flow through the whole karst system, including the unsaturated and saturated zone. The mean 85Kr age and 3H/3He age are measures of time since groundwater recharge arrived at the water table. Therefore our results indicate a long travel time of 3H through the unsaturated zone of the karst system. The interpretation is supported by a two-dimensional numerical simulation of flow and transport in a fissured matrix block that contains a thick unsaturated zone (ca. 100 m) and is drained by a conduit. Transport simulation is performed in the sense of backtracking, i.e. the flow field is reversed, and the boundary conditions are adapted accordingly. At any position in the model domain, the time required for a water molecule to reach the outlet is estimated corresponding to the "life expectancy" (Cornaton and Perrochet 2006), i.e. the life expectancy on the outlet is zero. The simulation of life expectancy of water in the matrix block shows (1) the importance of heterogeneities for interpretation of groundwater ages, (2) the location of stagnant zones in areas of low hydraulic permeability and/or low hydraulic gradient and (3) that flow through unsaturated fissured matrix blocks may cause a considerable travel time of water through a karst system. The travel time of water from the recharge area to the discharge point for the shown example

  7. Aqueous Silicate Polymers: An Alternative to `Supercritical' Fluids as Transport Agents in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannig, C. E.

    2005-12-01

    The chemistry of subduction-zone fluids is complicated by melt-vapor miscibility and the existence of critical end-points in rock-H2O systems. It is commonly assumed that fluids in subduction zones attain properties intermediate in composition between hydrous silicate liquid and H2O, and that such fluids possess enhanced material transport capabilities. However, the relevance of supercritical, intermediate fluids to subduction zones presents four problems. (1) Albite-H2O is typically used as an analogue system, but the favorable position of its critical curve is not representative; critical curves for polymineralic subduction-zone lithologies lie at substantially higher P. (2) Even if albite-H2O is relevant, jadeite may interfere because of its different solubility and the positive clapeyron slope of its solidus, which points to liquid-structure changes that could cause reappearance of the liquid+vapor field. (3) Critical curves are features of very H2O-rich compositions; low-porosity, H2O-poor natural systems will coexist with intermediate fluids only over a narrow PT interval. (4) Intermediate fluids are expected only over short length scales because their migration will likely result in compositional shifts via reaction and mineral precipitation in the mantle wedge. Although supercritical, intermediate fluids are probably relatively unimportant in subduction zones, they reflect a chemical process that may hold the key to understanding high- P mass transfer. Miscibility in melt-vapor systems is a consequence of polymerization of dissolved components, primarily Si ± Al, Na and Ca. This behavior yields, e.g., aqueous Si-Si, Si-Al, Si-Na-Al, and Si-Ca oxide dimers and other multimers of varying stoichiometry (silicate polymers), even in subcritical, dilute, H2O-rich vapor. Silicate polymers in subcritical aqueous solutions have been inferred from high- P mineral-solubility experiments. The abundance of these species at high P shows that the chemistry of aqueous

  8. Parameterization and Modeling of Coupled Heat and Mass Transport in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, B.; Yang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The coupled heat and mass transport in the vadose zone is essentially a multiphysics issue. Addressing this issue appropriately has remarkable impacts on soil physical, chemical and biological processes. To data, most coupled heat and water transport modeling has focused on the interactions between liquid water, water vapor and heat transport in homogeneous and layered soils. Comparatively little work has been done on structured soils where preferential infiltration and evaporation flow occurs. Moreover, the traditional coupled heat and water model usually neglects the nonwetting phase air flow, which was found to be significant in the state-of-the-art modeling framework for coupled heat and water transport investigation. However, the parameterizations for the nonwetting phase air permeability largely remain elusive so far. In order to address the above mentioned limitations, this study aims to develop and validate a predictive multiphysics modeling framework for coupled soil heat and water transport in the heterogeneous shallow subsurface. To this end, the following research work is specifically conducted: (a) propose an improved parameterization to better predict the nonwetting phase relative permeability; (b) determine the dynamics, characteristics and processes of simultaneous soil moisture and heat movement in homogeneous and layered soils; and (c) develop a nonisothermal dual permeability model for heterogeneous structured soils. The results of our studies showed that: (a) the proposed modified nonwetting phase relative permeability models are much more accurate, which can be adopted for better parameterization in the subsequent nonisothermal two phase flow models; (b) the isothermal liquid film flow, nonwetting phase gas flow and liquid-vapor phase change non-equilibrium effects are significant in the arid and semiarid environments (Riverside, California and Audubon, Arizona); and (c) the developed nonisothermal dual permeability model is capable of

  9. Sediment transport processes in estuaries: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Lavelle, J. William

    1989-10-01

    Research on estuarine sediment transport processes has received increasing attention in recent years, attention related to concerns about water clarity, pollutant distribution and transport, dredge spoil disposal, creation and maintenance of channels and basins for navigational purposes, and shoreline erosion. Still, the geophysical community that addresses these concerns and the underlying fundamentals of sediment transport in an estuary is widely but relatively sparsely distributed around the world. The need to draw these researchers together to discuss ideas and outlooks led to the AGU Chapman Conference on Sediment Transport Processes in Estuaries that was held at the Universidad Nacional del Sur in Bahía Bianca, Argentina, from June 13 to June 17, 1988 [Perillo and Lavelle, 1988]. The meeting sought to provide a timely impetus to further progress in sediment transport research in estuaries, promote communication among researchers using different investigatory approaches, and develop collaborations among estuarine scientists in developed and developing nations.

  10. NAFTA II : California border zone land transportation issues

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-09-01

    This report constitutes Phase II of a study of the impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1992 on border areas and determines transportation infrastructure access. Reviews status of NAFTA impact issues; identifies new issues; d...

  11. Processes and Parameters Controlling the Extent of Methanogenic Conditions in the Unsaturated Zone of a Crude Oil Spill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.

    2007-12-01

    Gas concentrations measured in the vadose zone at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN, show that a large area near the oil body is currently dominated by methanogenic conditions. Away from the oil body methane concentrations decrease as it is degraded by methanotrophic bacteria under aerobic conditions. Numerical simulations have been conducted to quantify the contributions of the relevant transport and reaction processes to the production and attenuation of methane in the vadose zone. Methane is generated in the vadose zone by anaerobic degradation of oil and is also added by fluxes from the capillary fringe and the saturated zone. Gas diffusion and advection contribute to the transport of methane in the lateral direction and towards the ground surface. Attenuation of methane concentrations occurs through aerobic oxidation in the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Critical parameters were varied within bounds provided by field data and previous studies. Simulation results confirm that the layered sediment structure present at the site plays a significant role in explaining the observed distribution of gases in the vadose zone. The presence of a low permeability lens in the area upgradient from the source results in higher moisture contents, limiting diffusion of oxygen into the zone of methane production, and contributes to the spread of methane. Diffusion was identified as the most significant transport mechanism for gases in the vadose zone. However, field-observed zones of depleted and enriched N2 and Ar concentrations could only be explained by the development of advective fluxes induced by reactive processes (methanogenesis and methanotrophy). The zones of gas production are characterized by slightly increased total gas pressures and low concentrations of N2 and Ar, while zones of gas consumption show slightly depressed total gas pressures and high concentrations of N2 and Ar. The simulations suggest that the advective flux that develops between these

  12. Removal ratio of gaseous toluene and xylene transported from air to root zone via the stem by indoor plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, K J; Kim, H J; Khalekuzzaman, M; Yoo, E H; Jung, H H; Jang, H S

    2016-04-01

    This work was designed to investigate the removal efficiency as well as the ratios of toluene and xylene transported from air to root zone via the stem and by direct diffusion from the air into the medium. Indoor plants (Schefflera actinophylla and Ficus benghalensis) were placed in a sealed test chamber. Shoot or root zone were sealed with a Teflon bag, and gaseous toluene and xylene were exposed. Removal efficiency of toluene and total xylene (m, p, o) was 13.3 and 7.0 μg·m(-3)·m(-2) leaf area over a 24-h period in S. actinophylla, and was 13.0 and 7.3 μg·m(-3)·m(-2) leaf area in F. benghalensis. Gaseous toluene and xylene in a chamber were absorbed through leaf and transported via the stem, and finally reached to root zone, and also transported by direct diffusion from the air into the medium. Toluene and xylene transported via the stem was decreased with time after exposure. Xylene transported via the stem was higher than that by direct diffusion from the air into the medium over a 24-h period. The ratios of toluene transported via the stem versus direct diffusion from the air into the medium were 46.3 and 53.7% in S. actinophylla, and 46.9 and 53.1% in F. benghalensis, for an average of 47 and 53% for both species. The ratios of m,p-xylene transported over 3 to 9 h via the stem versus direct diffusion from the air into the medium was 58.5 and 41.5% in S. actinophylla, and 60.7 and 39.3% in F. benghalensis, for an average of 60 and 40% for both species, whereas the ratios of o-xylene transported via the stem versus direct diffusion from the air into the medium were 61 and 39%. Both S. actinophylla and F. benghalensis removed toluene and xylene from the air. The ratios of toluene and xylene transported from air to root zone via the stem were 47 and 60 %, respectively. This result suggests that root zone is a significant contributor to gaseous toluene and xylene removal, and transported via the stem plays an important role in this process.

  13. Biogeochemical reactive transport of carbon, nitrogen and iron in the hyporheic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Newcomer, M. E.; Arora, B.; Spycher, N.; Hammond, G. E.; Moulton, J. D.; Fox, P. M.; Nico, P. S.; Williams, K. H.; Dafflon, B.; Carroll, R. W. H.

    2017-12-01

    To understand how biogeochemical processes in the hyporheic zone influence carbon and nitrogen cycling as well as stream biogeochemistry, we developed a biotic and abiotic reaction network and integrated it into a reactive transport simulator - PFLOTRAN. Three-dimensional reactive flow and transport simulations were performed to describe the hyporheic exchange of fluxes from and within an intra-meander region encompassing two meanders of East River in the East Taylor watershed, Colorado. The objectives of this study were to quantify (1) the effect of transience on the export of carbon, nitrogen, and iron; and (2) the biogeochemical transformation of nitrogen and carbon species as a function of the residence time. The model was able to capture reasonably well the observed trends of nitrate and dissolved oxygen values that decreased as well as iron (Fe (II)) values that increased along the meander centerline away from the stream. Hyporheic flow paths create lateral redox zonation within intra-meander regions, which considerably impact nitrogen export into the stream system. Simulation results further demonstrated that low water conditions lead to higher levels of dissolved iron in groundwater, which (Fe (II)> 80%) is exported to the stream on the downstream side during high water conditions. An important conclusion from this study is that reactive transport models representing spatial and temporal heterogeneities are required to identify important factors that contribute to the redox gradients at riverine scales.

  14. Coupled Modeling of Rhizosphere and Reactive Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roque-Malo, S.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    The rhizosphere, as a bio-diverse plant root-soil interface, hosts many hydrologic and biochemical processes, including nutrient cycling, hydraulic redistribution, and soil carbon dynamics among others. The biogeochemical function of root networks, including the facilitation of nutrient cycling through absorption and rhizodeposition, interaction with micro-organisms and fungi, contribution to biomass, etc., plays an important role in myriad Critical Zone processes. Despite this knowledge, the role of the rhizosphere on watershed-scale ecohydrologic functions in the Critical Zone has not been fully characterized, and specifically, the extensive capabilities of reactive transport models (RTMs) have not been applied to these hydrobiogeochemical dynamics. This study uniquely links rhizospheric processes with reactive transport modeling to couple soil biogeochemistry, biological processes, hydrologic flow, hydraulic redistribution, and vegetation dynamics. Key factors in the novel modeling approach are: (i) bi-directional effects of root-soil interaction, such as simultaneous root exudation and nutrient absorption; (ii) multi-state biomass fractions in soil (i.e. living, dormant, and dead biological and root materials); (iii) expression of three-dimensional fluxes to represent both vertical and lateral interconnected flows and processes; and (iv) the potential to include the influence of non-stationary external forcing and climatic factors. We anticipate that the resulting model will demonstrate the extensive effects of plant root dynamics on ecohydrologic functions at the watershed scale and will ultimately contribute to a better characterization of efflux from both agricultural and natural systems.

  15. KINEMATIC MODELING OF MULTIPHASE SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN THE VADOSE ZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research was the development of a computationally efficient simulation model for multiphase flow of organic hazardous waste constituents in the shallow soil environment. Such a model is appropriate for investigation of fate and transport of organic chemicals intr...

  16. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater

  17. Modeling Raw Sewage Leakage and Transport in the Unsaturated Zone of Carbonate Aquifer Using Carbamazepine as an Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Livshitz, Y.; Gasser, G.; Pankratov, I.; Lev, O.; Adar, E.; Dvory, N. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Fast contamination of groundwater in karstic aquifers can be caused due to leaky sewers, for example, or overflow from sewer networks. When flowing through a karst system, wastewater has the potential to reach the aquifer in a relatively short time. The Western Mountain Aquifer (Yarkon-Taninim) of Israel is one of the country's major water resources. During late winter 2013, maintenance actions were performed on a central sewage pipe that caused raw sewage to leak into the creek located in the study area. The subsequent infiltration of sewage through the thick ( 100 m) fractured/karst unsaturated zone led to a sharp increase in contaminant concentrations in the groundwater, which was monitored in a well located 29 meters from the center of the creek. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was used as an indicator for the presence of untreated raw sewage and its quantification in groundwater. The ultimate research goal was to develop a mathematical model for quantifying flow and contaminant transport processes in the fractured-porous unsaturated zone and karstified groundwater system. A quasi-3D dual permeability numerical model, representing the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system, was developed by a series of 1D equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow and transport equation in groundwater. The 1D and 3D equations were coupled at the moving phreatic surface. The model was calibrated and applied to a simulated water flow scenario and CBZ transport during and after the observed sewage leakage event. The results of simulation showed that after the leakage stopped, significant amounts of CBZ were retained in the porous matrix of the unsaturated zone below the creek. Water redistribution and slow recharge during the dry summer season contributed to elevated CBZ concentrations in the groundwater in the vicinity of the creek and tens of meters downstream. The resumption of autumn rains enhanced flushing of CBZ from the unsaturated zone and led to an increase in

  18. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones.

    PubMed

    Matejicek, Lubos; Janour, Zbynek; Benes, Ludek; Bodnar, Tomas; Gulikova, Eva

    2008-06-06

    Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust deposition at a

  19. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    PubMed Central

    Matejicek, Lubos; Janour, Zbynek; Benes, Ludek; Bodnar, Tomas; Gulikova, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust deposition at a

  20. Pore-Scale Transport of Strontium During Dynamic Water Content Changes in the Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, W.; Kibbey, T. C. G.; Papelis, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic water content changes in the unsaturated zone caused by natural and manmade processes, such as evaporation, rainfall, and irrigation, have an effect on contaminant mobility. In general, in the unsaturated zone, evaporation causes an increase in contaminant concentrations, potentially leading to sorption of contaminants on aquifer materials or precipitation of crystalline or amorphous phases. On the other hand, increase of water content may result in dissolution of precipitated phases and increased mobility of contaminants. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative model for the transport of strontium through sand under dynamic water content conditions, as a function of strontium concentration, pH, and ionic strength. Strontium was selected as a surrogate for strontium-90, a by-product of nuclear reactions. The dynamic water content was determined using an automated device for rapidly measuring the hysteretic capillary pressure—saturation relationship, followed by ambient air evaporation, and gravimetric water content measurement. Strontium concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow interruption experiments were conducted to determine whether equilibrium conditions existed for a given flowrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize the treated quartz sand particles and the distribution of strontium on sand grains was determined using elemental maps created by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Strontium behavior appears to be pH dependent as well as ionic strength dependent under these conditions.

  1. Biogeochemical Factors Influencing the Transport and Fate of Colloids and Colloid-Associated Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The vadose zone exhibits large spatial and temporal variability in many physical, chemical, and biological factors that strongly influence the transport and fate of colloids (e.g., microbes, nanoparticles, clays, and dissolved organic matter) and colloid-associated contaminants (e.g., heavy metals, radionuclides, pesticides, and antibiotics). This presentation highlights our research activities to better understand and predict the influence of specific biogeochemical processes on colloid and colloid-facilitated transport. Results demonstrate the sensitivity of colloid transport, retention, release, and clogging to transients in solution chemistry (e.g., ionic strength, pH, cation and anion type, and surfactants), water velocity and saturation, and preferential flow. Mathematical modeling at interface-, pore-, and continuum-scales is shown to be a critical tool to quantify the relative importance and coupling of these biogeochemical factors on colloid and contaminant transport and fate, which otherwise might be experimentally intractable. Existing gaps in knowledge and model limitations are identified.

  2. Linking Plagioclase Zoning Patterns to Active Magma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Neill, O. K.; Shcherbakov, V.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Plechov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Plagioclase, one of the most common and abundant mineral phases in volcanic products, will vary in composition in response to changes in temperature, pressure, composition of the ambient silicate melt, and melt H2O concentration. Changes in these parameters may cause dissolution or growth of plagioclase crystals, forming characteristic textural and compositional variations (zoning patterns), the complete core-to-rim sequence of which describes events experienced by an individual crystal from its nucleation to the last moments of its growth. Plagioclase crystals in a typical volcanic rock may look drastically dissimilar despite their spatial proximity and the fact that they have erupted together. Although they shared last moments of their growth during magma ascent and eruption, their prior experiences could be very different, as plagioclase crystals often come from different domains of the same magma system. Distinguishing similar zoning patterns, correlating them across the entire population of plagioclase crystals, and linking these patterns to specific perturbations in the magmatic system may provide additional perspective on the variety, extent, and timing of magma processes at active volcanic systems. Examples of magma processes, which may be distinguished based on plagioclase zoning patterns, include (1) cooling due to heat loss, (2) heating and/or pressure build up due to an input of new magmatic material, (3) pressure drop in response to magma system depressurization, and (4) crystal transfer between different magma domains/bodies. This review will include contrasting examples of zoning patters from recent eruptions of Augustine and Cleveland Volcanoes in Alaska, Sakurajima Volcano in Japan, Karymsky, Bezymianny, and Tolbachik Volcanoes in Kamchatka, as well as from the drilling into an active magma body at Krafla, Iceland.

  3. Linking Plagioclase Zoning Patterns to Active Magma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Neill, O. K.; Shcherbakov, V.; Plechov, P.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Plagioclase, one of the most common and abundant mineral phases in volcanic products, will vary in composition in response to changes in temperature, pressure, composition of the ambient silicate melt, and melt H2O concentration. Changes in these parameters may cause dissolution or growth of plagioclase crystals, forming characteristic textural and compositional variations (zoning patterns), the complete core-to-rim sequence of which describes events experienced by an individual crystal from its nucleation to the last moments of its growth. Plagioclase crystals in a typical volcanic rock may look drastically dissimilar despite their spatial proximity and the fact that they have erupted together. Although they shared last moments of their growth during magma ascent and eruption, their prior experiences could be very different, as plagioclase crystals often come from different domains of the same magma system. Distinguishing similar zoning patterns, correlating them across the entire population of plagioclase crystals, and linking these patterns to specific perturbations in the magmatic system may provide additional perspective on the variety, extent, and timing of magma processes at active volcanic systems. Examples of magma processes, which may be distinguished based on plagioclase zoning patterns, include (1) cooling due to heat loss, (2) heating and/or pressure build up due to an input of new magmatic material, (3) pressure drop in response to magma system depressurization, and (4) crystal transfer between different magma domains/bodies. This review will include contrasting examples of zoning patters from recent eruptions of Karymsky, Bezymianny, and Tolbachik Volcanoes in Kamchatka, Augustine and Cleveland Volcanoes in Alaska, as well as from the drilling into an active magma body at Krafla, Iceland.

  4. Surf zone entrainment, along-shore transport, and human health implications of pollution from tidal outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, S. B.; Kim, J. H.; Jones, B. H.; Jenkins, S. A.; Wasyl, J.; Cudaback, C.

    2005-10-01

    Field experiments and modeling studies were carried out to characterize the surf zone entrainment and along-shore transport of pollution from two tidal outlets that drain into Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, popular public beaches in southern California. The surf zone entrainment and near-shore transport of pollutants from these tidal outlets appears to be controlled by prevailing wave conditions and coastal currents, and fine-scale features of the flow field around the outlets. An analysis of data from dye experiments and fecal indicator bacteria monitoring studies reveals that the along-shore flux of surf zone water is at least 50 to 300 times larger than the cross-shore flux of surf zone water. As a result, pollutants entrained in the surf zone hug the shore, where they travel significant distances parallel to the beach before diluting to extinction. Under the assumption that all surf zone pollution at Huntington Beach originates from two tidal outlets, the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets, models of mass and momentum transport in the surf zone approximately capture the observed tidal phasing and magnitude of certain fecal indicator bacteria groups (total coliform) but not others (Escherichia coli and enterococci), implying the existence of multiple sources of, and/or multiple transport pathways for, fecal pollution at this site. The intersection of human recreation and near-shore pollution pathways implies that, from a human health perspective, special care should be taken to reduce the discharge of harmful pollutants from land-side sources of surface water runoff, such as tidal outlets and storm drains.

  5. Signs of lateral transport of CO2 and CH4 in freshwater systems in boreal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojala, A.; Pumpanen, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The numerous waterbodies and their riparian zones in the boreal zone are important to lateral carbon transport of terrestrial origin. These freshwater systems are also significant for carbon cycling on the landscape level. However, the lateral signals of carbon gases can be difficult to detect and thus, we used here different approaches to verify the phenomenon. We installed continuous measurement systems with CO2 probes in the riparian zone soil matrix around a small pristine headwater lake, in the lake, and in the outflowing stream and followed up the seasonal variation in CO2 concentration and in rain event-driven changes. We also used the probes in a second-order stream discharging a catchment of managed forest. The conventional weekly sampling protocol on water column CO2 and CH4 concentrations as well as gas fluxes was applied in three lakes surrounded by managed forests and some crop land but having different size and water quality. In two of the lakes most drastic changes in gas fluxes occurred not in spring but during or just after the summer rains when the clear water lake changed from a small carbon sink to carbon source and in the humic lake almost half of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes occurred during or just after the rainy period. Gas concentrations in the water columns revealed that the high surface water concentrations resulting in peak fluxes were not due to transport from hypolimnia rich in gases, but were due to soil processes and export from the flooded catchments. In the third lake, seasonal peak fluxes took place just after ice out, but again this was not a result of carbon gases accumulated under the ice, but gases originated from the surrounding catchment. In this lake, ca. 30 % of the annual CO2 flux occurred in May and 13 % of CH4 was emitted during one single week in May. In general, CH4 appeared as a good tracer for lateral transport. In the soil-lake-stream continuum, seasonal variation in CO2 was greatest and concentrations highest deep in

  6. Seismic evidence for water transport out of the mantle transition zone beneath the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2018-01-01

    The mantle transition zone has been considered a major water reservoir in the deep Earth. Mass transfer across the transition-zone boundaries may transport water-rich minerals from the transition zone into the water-poor upper or lower mantle. Water release in the mantle surrounding the transition zone could cause dehydration melting and produce seismic low-velocity anomalies if some conditions are met. Therefore, seismic observations of low-velocity layers surrounding the transition zone could provide clues of water circulation at mid-mantle depths. Below the Alpine orogen, a depressed 660-km discontinuity has been imaged clearly using seismic tomography and receiver functions, suggesting downwellings of materials from the transition zone. Multitaper-correlation receiver functions show prominent ∼0.5-1.5% velocity reductions at ∼750-800-km depths, possibly caused by partial melting in the upper part of lower mantle. The gap between the depressed 660-km discontinuity and the low-velocity layers is consistent with metallic iron as a minor phase in the topmost lower mantle reported by laboratory studies. Velocity drops atop the 410-km discontinuity are observed surrounding the Alpine orogeny, suggesting upwelling of water-rich rock from the transition zone in response to the downwelled materials below the orogeny. Our results provide evidence that convective penetration of the mantle transition zone pushes hydrated minerals both upward and downward to add hydrogen to the surrounding mantle.

  7. Which key properties controls the preferential transport in the vadose zone under transient hydrological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J.; Vanderborght, J.; Puetz, T.; Gerke, H. H.; Rupp, H.; Wollschlaeger, U.; Stumpp, C.; Priesack, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone is of great importance for an appropriate land use management strategy. The quantification and prediction of water and solute fluxes through the vadose zone can help to improve management practices in order to limit potential risk on our fresh water resources. Water related solute transport and residence time is strongly affected by preferential flow paths in the soil. Water flow in soils depends on soil properties and site factors (climate or experiment conditions, land use) and are therefore important factors to understand preferential solute transport in the unsaturated zone. However our understanding and knowledge of which on-site properties or conditions define and enhance preferential flow and transport is still poor and mostly limited onto laboratory experimental conditions (small column length and steady state boundary conditions). Within the TERENO SOILCan lysimeter network, which was designed to study the effects of climate change on soil functions, a bromide tracer was applied on 62 lysimeter at eight different test sites between Dec. 2013 and Jan. 2014. The TERENO SOILCan infrastructure offers the unique possibility to study the occurrence of preferential flow and transport of various soil types under different natural transient hydrological conditions and land use (crop, bare and grassland) at eight TERENO SOILCan observatories. Working with lysimeter replicates at each observatory allows defining the spatial variability of preferential transport and flow. Additionally lysimeters in the network were transferred within and between observatories in order to subject them to different rainfall and temperature regimes and enable us to relate the soil type susceptibility of preferential flow and transport not only to site specific physical and land use properties, but also to different transient boundary conditions. Comparison and statistical analysis between preferential flow indicators 5

  8. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  9. Gravity-dependent transport in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    Gravity-dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to address a broader range of microgravity phenomena and to develop new applications of microgravity. A number of important topics are identified and analyzed in detail. The present article describes results on coating flow, zeolite growth, and rotating electrochemical system.

  10. Fault zone hydrogeologic properties and processes revealed by borehole temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution borehole temperature monitoring can provide valuable insight into the hydrogeologic structure of fault zones and transient processes that affect fault zone stability. Here we report on results from a subseafloor temperature observatory within the Japan Trench plate boundary fault. In our efforts to interpret this unusual dataset, we have developed several new methods for probing hydrogeologic properties and processes. We illustrate how spatial variations in the thermal recovery of the borehole after drilling and other spectral characteristics provide a measure of the subsurface permeability architecture. More permeable zones allow for greater infiltration of cool drilling fluids, are more greatly thermally disturbed, and take longer to recover. The results from the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) observatory are consistent with geophysical logs, core data, and other hydrologic observations and suggest a permeable damage zone consisting of steeply dipping faults and fractures overlays a low-permeability clay-rich plate boundary fault. Using high-resolution time series data, we have also developed methods to map out when and where fluid advection occurs in the subsurface over time. In the JFAST data, these techniques reveal dozens of transient earthquake-driven fluid pulses that are spatially correlated and consistently located around inferred permeable areas of the fault damage zone. These observations are suspected to reflect transient fluid flow driven by pore pressure changes in response to dynamic and/or static stresses associated with nearby earthquakes. This newly recognized hydrologic phenomenon has implications for understanding subduction zone heat and chemical transport as well as the redistribution of pore fluid pressure which influences fault stability and can trigger other earthquakes.

  11. Transport processes near coastal ocean outfalls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Sherwood, C.R.; Lee, Hooi-Ling; Xu, Jie; Dartnell, P.; Robertson, G.; Martini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The central Southern California Bight is an urbanized coastal ocean where complex topography and largescale atmospheric and oceanographic forcing has led to numerous sediment-distribution patterns. Two large embayments, Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays, are connected by the short, very narrow shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula. Ocean-sewage outfalls are located in the middle of Santa Monica Bay, on the Palos Verdes shelf and at the southeastern edge of San Pedro Bay. In 1992, the US Geological Survey, together with allied agencies, began a series of programs to determine the dominant processes that transport sediment and associated pollutants near the three ocean outfalls. As part of these programs, arrays of instrumented moorings that monitor currents, waves, water clarity, water density and collect resuspended materials were deployed on the continental shelf and slope information was also collected on the sediment and contaminant distributions in the region. The data and models developed for the Palos Verdes shelf suggest that the large reservoir of DDT/DDE in the coastal ocean sediments will continue to be exhumed and transported along the shelf for a long time. On the Santa Monica shelf, very large internal waves, or bores, are generated at the shelf break. The near-bottom currents associated with these waves sweep sediments and the associated contaminants from the shelf onto the continental slope. A new program underway on the San Pedro shelf will determine if water and contaminants from a nearby ocean outfall are transported to the local beaches by coastal ocean processes. The large variety of processes found that transport sediments and contaminants in this small region of the continental margin suggest that in regions with complex topography, local processes change markedly over small spatial scales. One cannot necessarily infer that the dominant transport processes will be similar even in adjacent regions.

  12. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  13. A compartmentalized solute transport model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers: 1. Theory and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper, the first of two parts [see Abrams and Loague, this issue], takes the compartmentalized approach for the geochemical evolution of redox zones presented by Abrams et al. [1998] and embeds it within a solute transport framework. In this paper the compartmentalized approach is generalized to facilitate the description of its incorporation into a solute transport simulator. An equivalent formulation is developed which removes any discontinuities that may occur when switching compartments. Rate‐limited redox reactions are modeled with a modified Monod relationship that allows either the organic substrate or the electron acceptor to be the rate‐limiting reactant. Thermodynamic constraints are used to inhibit lower‐energy redox reactions from occurring under infeasible geochemical conditions without imposing equilibrium on the lower‐energy reactions. The procedure used allows any redox reaction to be simulated as being kinetically limited or thermodynamically limited, depending on local geochemical conditions. Empirical reaction inhibition methods are not needed. The sequential iteration approach (SIA), a technique which allows the number of solute transport equations to be reduced, is adopted to solve the coupled geochemical/solute transport problem. When the compartmentalized approach is embedded within the SIA, with the total analytical concentration of each component as the dependent variable in the transport equation, it is possible to reduce the number of transport equations even further than with the unmodified SIA. A one‐dimensional, coupled geochemical/solute transport simulation is presented in which redox zones evolve dynamically in time and space. The compartmentalized solute transport (COMPTRAN) model described in this paper enables the development of redox zones to be simulated under both kinetic and thermodynamic constraints. The modular design of COMPTRAN facilitates the use of many different, preexisting solute transport and

  14. Water transport to circumprimary habitable zones from icy planetesimal disks in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, D.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Maindl, T. I.; Bazsó, Á.

    2017-03-01

    So far, more than 130 extrasolar planets have been found in multiple stellar systems. Dynamical simulations show that the outcome of the planetary formation process can lead to different planetary architectures (i.e. location, size, mass, and water content) when the star system is single or double. In the late phase of planetary formation, when embryo-sized objects dominate the inner region of the system, asteroids are also present and can provide additional material for objects inside the habitable zone (HZ). In this study, we make a comparison of several binary star systems and aim to show how efficient they are at moving icy asteroids from beyond the snow line into orbits crossing the HZ. We also analyze the influence of secular and mean motion resonances on the water transport towards the HZ. Our study shows that small bodies also participate in bearing a non-negligible amount of water to the HZ. The proximity of a companion moving on an eccentric orbit increases the flux of asteroids to the HZ, which could result in a more efficient water transport on a short timescale, causing a heavy bombardment. In contrast to asteroids moving under the gravitational perturbations of one G-type star and a gas giant, we show that the presence of a companion star not only favors a faster depletion of our disk of planetesimals, but can also bring 4-5 times more water into the whole HZ. However, due to the secular resonance located either inside the HZ or inside the asteroid belt, impacts between icy planetesimals from the disk and big objects in the HZ can occur at high impact speed. Therefore, real collision modeling using a GPU 3D-SPH code show that in reality, the water content of the projectile is greatly reduced and therefore, also the water transported to planets or embryos initially inside the HZ.

  15. Quantifying Hydro-biogeochemical Model Sensitivity in Assessment of Climate Change Effect on Hyporheic Zone Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Chen, X.; Dai, H.; Hammond, G. E.; Song, H. S.; Stegen, J.

    2016-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is an active region for biogeochemical processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling, where the groundwater and surface water mix and interact with each other with distinct biogeochemical and thermal properties. The biogeochemical dynamics within the hyporheic zone are driven by both river water and groundwater hydraulic dynamics, which are directly affected by climate change scenarios. Besides that, the hydraulic and thermal properties of local sediments and microbial and chemical processes also play important roles in biogeochemical dynamics. Thus for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in the hyporheic zone, a coupled thermo-hydro-biogeochemical model is needed. As multiple uncertainty sources are involved in the integrated model, it is important to identify its key modules/parameters through sensitivity analysis. In this study, we develop a 2D cross-section model in the hyporheic zone at the DOE Hanford site adjacent to Columbia River and use this model to quantify module and parametric sensitivity on assessment of climate change. To achieve this purpose, We 1) develop a facies-based groundwater flow and heat transfer model that incorporates facies geometry and heterogeneity characterized from a field data set, 2) derive multiple reaction networks/pathways from batch experiments with in-situ samples and integrate temperate dependent reactive transport modules to the flow model, 3) assign multiple climate change scenarios to the coupled model by analyzing historical river stage data, 4) apply a variance-based global sensitivity analysis to quantify scenario/module/parameter uncertainty in hierarchy level. The objectives of the research include: 1) identifing the key control factors of the coupled thermo-hydro-biogeochemical model in the assessment of climate change, and 2) quantify the carbon consumption in different climate change scenarios in the hyporheic zone.

  16. Evaluating Transport and Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone for Aqueous Waste Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    An approach was developed for evaluating vadose zone transport and attenuation of aqueous wastes containing inorganic (non-volatile) contaminants that were disposed of at the land surface (i.e., directly to the ground in cribs, trenches, tile fields, etc.) and their effect on the underlying groundwater. The approach provides a structured method for estimating transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the resulting temporal profile of groundwater contaminant concentrations. The intent of the approach is also to provide a means for presenting and explaining the results of the transport analysis in the context of the site-specific waste disposal conditions and sitemore » properties, including heterogeneities and other complexities. The document includes considerations related to identifying appropriate monitoring to verify the estimated contaminant transport and associated predictions of groundwater contaminant concentrations. While primarily intended for evaluating contaminant transport under natural attenuation conditions, the approach can also be applied to identify types of, and targets for, mitigation approaches in the vadose zone that would reduce the temporal profile of contaminant concentrations in groundwater, if needed.« less

  17. Experimental and modeling of the unsaturated transports of S-metolachlor and its metabolites in glaciofluvial vadose zone solids.

    PubMed

    Sidoli, Pauline; Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Baran, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    The transport of pesticides to groundwater is assumed to be impacted by flow processes and geochemical interactions occurring in the vadose zone. In this study, the transport of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its two metabolites ESA-metolachlor (MESA) and OXA-metolachlor (MOXA) in vadose zone materials of a glaciofluvial aquifer is studied at laboratory scale. Column experiments are used to study the leaching of a conservative tracer (bromide) and SMOC, MESA and MOXA under unsaturated conditions in two lithofacies, a bimodal gravel (Gcm,b) and a sand (S-x). Tracer experiments showed water fractionation into mobile and immobile compartments more pronounced in bimodal gravel columns. In both lithofacies columns, SMOC outflow is delayed (retardation factor>2) and mass balance reveals depletion (mass balance of 0.59 and 0.77 in bimodal gravel and sand, respectively). However, complete mass elution associated with retardation factors close to unity shows that there is no adsorption of MESA and MOXA in either lithofacies. SMOC transport is characterized by non-equilibrium sorption and sink term in both bimodal gravel and sand columns. Batch experiments carried out using agitation times consistent with column water residence times confirmed a time-dependence of SMOC sorption and high adsorption rates (>80%) of applied concentrations. Desorption experiments confirm the irreversibility of a major part of the SMOC adsorption onto particles, corresponding to the sink term in columns. In the bimodal gravel column, SMOC adsorption occurs mainly on reactive particles in contact with mobile water because of flow regionalization whereas in the sand column, there is pesticide diffusion to the immobile water. Such results clearly show that sorption mechanisms in the vadose zone solids below the soil are both solute and contact-time-dependent and are impacted by hydrodynamic conditions. The more rapid transport of MESA and MOXA to the aquifer would be controlled mainly by water flow

  18. Critical zone architecture and processes: a geophysical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    The "critical zone (CZ)," Earth's near-surface layer that reaches from treetop to bedrock, sustains terrestrial life by storing water and producing nutrients. Despite is central importance, however, the CZ remains poorly understood, due in part to the complexity of interacting biogeochemical and physical processes that take place there, and in part due to the difficulty of measuring CZ properties and processes at depth. Major outstanding questions include: What is the architecture of the CZ? How does that architecture vary across scales and across gradients in climate, lithology, topography, biology and regional states of stress? What processes control the architecture of the CZ? At what depth does weathering initiate, and what controls the rates at which it proceeds? Based on recent geophysical campaigns at seven Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) sites and several other locations, a geophysical perspective on CZ architecture and processes is emerging. CZ architecture can be usefully divided into four layers, each of which has distinct geophysical properties: soil, saprolite, weathered bedrock and protolith. The distribution of those layers across landscapes varies depending on protolith composition and internal structure, topography, climate (P/T) and the regional state of stress. Combined observations from deep CZ drilling, geophysics and geochemistry demonstrate that chemical weathering initiates deep in the CZ, in concert with mechanical weathering (fracturing), as chemical weathering appears concentrated along fractures in borehole walls. At the Calhoun CZO, the plagioclase weathering front occurs at nearly 40 m depth, at the base of a 25-m-thick layer of weathered bedrock. The principal boundary in porosity, however, occurs at the saprolite/weathered bedrock boundary: porosity decreases over an order of magnitude, from 50% to 5% over an 8-m-thick zone at the base of saprolite. Porosity in weathered bedrock is between 2-5%. Future progress will depend on (1

  19. Arsenic transport between surface and groundwater in a moderately reducing zone: Geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Verdoux, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic contamination represents a major risk to human health as one of the most prominent environmental causes of cancer mortality. Mining activities, particularly those involving arsenic rich ores have an impact on the environment and on human health that may persist for many decades after mine closure. The relationships between As released from alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of the sulfide-rich mine dumps was demonstrated with geochemical and isotopic tracers (major and traces elements, 87Sr/86Sr, 18O, 2H). Strontium isotopes were used to trace the transport of As downstream from a As rich tailing dam. Increasing As and Fe concentrations in surface water are explained by As release associated with alluvial groundwater discharge to the stream. This process occurs in a moderately reduced section of the stream downgradient from the sulfide-rich tailing dam. High As, total Fe and low Eh in groundwater confirm the discharge of alluvial groundwater and explain its impact on surface water. Transport of As between surface and groundwater can be described as follows: 1- Subsurface moderately reducing conditions prevail in groundwater downgradient from the tailing dams. This suggests a flux of reduced water from sulfide-rich tailing dams which is characterized by its high As and Fe content resulting from the reduction of Fe-sulfides. 2- Upon mixing with surface water, oxidizing conditions prevails and precipitate as Fe hydroxide on the stream bed. As and Sr subsequently adsorbed on the Fe -oxyhydroxide surface. This process contributes to the immobilization of As in surface water. Remaining dissolved As in surface water can be re-introduced in alluvial groundwater downstream of the reducing zone.

  20. Field-scale sulfur hexafluoride tracer experiment to understand long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Green, Christopher T.; Stonestrom, David A.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    A natural gradient SF6 tracer experiment provided an unprecedented evaluation of long distance gas transport in the deep unsaturated zone (UZ) under controlled (known) conditions. The field-scale gas tracer test in the 110-m-thick UZ was conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. A history of anomalous (theoretically unexpected) contaminant gas transport observed at the ADRS, next to the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the United States, provided motivation for the SF6 tracer study. Tracer was injected into a deep UZ borehole at depths of 15 and 48 m, and plume migration was observed in a monitoring borehole 9 m away at various depths (0.5–109 m) over the course of 1 yr. Tracer results yielded useful information about gas transport as applicable to the spatial scales of interest for off-site contaminant transport in arid unsaturated zones. Modeling gas diffusion with standard empirical expressions reasonably explained SF6 plume migration, but tended to underpredict peak concentrations for the field-scale experiment given previously determined porosity information. Despite some discrepancies between observations and model results, rapid SF6 gas transport commensurate with previous contaminant migration was not observed. The results provide ancillary support for the concept that apparent anomalies in historic transport behavior at the ADRS are the result of factors other than nonreactive gas transport properties or processes currently in effect in the undisturbed UZ.

  1. Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steve

    2010-05-01

    Through unsustainable land use practices, mining, deforestation, urbanisation and degradation by industrial pollution, soil losses are now hypothesized to be much faster (100 times or more) than soil formation - with the consequence that soil has become a finite resource. The crucial challenge for the international research community is to understand the rates of processes that dictate soil mass stocks and their function within Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). The CZ is the environment where soils are formed, degrade and provide their essential ecosystem services. Key among these ecosystem services are food and fibre production, filtering, buffering and transformation of water, nutrients and contaminants, storage of carbon and maintaining biological habitat and genetic diversity. We have initiated a new research project to address the priority research areas identified in the European Union Soil Thematic Strategy and to contribute to the development of a global network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) committed to soil research. Our hypothesis is that the combined physical-chemical-biological structure of soil can be assessed from first-principles and the resulting soil functions can be quantified in process models that couple the formation and loss of soil stocks with descriptions of biodiversity and nutrient dynamics. The objectives of this research are to 1. Describe from 1st principles how soil structure influences processes and functions of soils, 2. Establish 4 European Critical Zone Observatories to link with established CZOs, 3. Develop a CZ Integrated Model of soil processes and function, 4. Create a GIS-based modelling framework to assess soil threats and mitigation at EU scale, 5. Quantify impacts of changing land use, climate and biodiversity on soil function and its value and 6. Form with international partners a global network of CZOs for soil research and deliver a programme of public outreach and research transfer on soil sustainability. The

  2. Alternative Methods for Assessing Contaminant Transport from the Vadose Zone to Indoor Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylor, K. J.; Lee, A.; Reddy, P.; Plate, M.

    2010-12-01

    Vapor intrusion, which is the transport of contaminant vapors from groundwater and the vadose zone to indoor air, has emerged as a significant human health risk near hazardous waste sites. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) can volatilize from groundwater and from residual sources in the vadose zone and enter homes and commercial buildings through cracks in the slab, plumbing conduits, or other preferential pathways. Assessment of the vapor intrusion pathway typically requires collection of groundwater, soil gas, and indoor air samples, a process which can be expensive and time-consuming. We evaluated three alternative vapor intrusion assessment methods, including 1) use of radon as a surrogate for vapor intrusion, 2) use of pressure differential measurements between indoor/outdoor and indoor/subslab to assess the potential for vapor intrusion, and 3) use of passive, longer-duration sorbent methods to measure indoor air VOC concentrations. The primary test site, located approximately 30 miles south of San Francisco, was selected due to the presence of TCE (10 - 300 ug/L) in shallow groundwater (5 to 10 feet bgs). At this test site, we found that radon was not a suitable surrogate to asses vapor intrusion and that pressure differential measurements are challenging to implement and equipment-intensive. More significantly, we found that the passive, longer-duration sorbent methods are easy to deploy and compared well quantitatively with standard indoor air sampling methods. The sorbent technique is less than half the cost of typical indoor air methods, and also provides a longer duration sample, typically 3 to 14 days rather than 8 to 24 hours for standard methods. The passive sorbent methods can be a reliable, cost-effective, and easy way to sample for TCE, PCE and other VOCs as part of a vapor intrusion investigation.

  3. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr−1 (11.7 gal. yr−1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m−2 yr−1(1.45 × 10−3 and 1.51 × 10−3 gal. ft.−2yr−1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  4. Processing α-mercuric iodide by zone refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, A.; Morgan, S. H.; Henderson, D. O.; Biao, Y.; Zhang, K.; Silberman, E.; Nason, D.; van den Berg, L.; Ortale-Baccash, C.; Cross, E.

    1993-03-01

    An investigation is being conducted on zone refining α-mercuric iodide. Analytical studies using differential scanning calorimetry and anion chromatography indicate that impurities are accumulated mainly at the end where zone travel terminates. Early results indicate that single crystals can be readily grown from zone-refined material.

  5. Polar transport of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of calcium across the elongation zone of gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured using 45Ca2+. Radioactive calcium was applied to one side of the elongation zone about 4 mm back from the root tip and the distribution of radioactivity across the root in the region of application was determined using scintillation spectrometry. The movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone was non-polar in vertically oriented roots. In gravistimulated roots the movement of label was polarized with about twice as much label moving from top to bottom as from bottom to top. A variety of treatments which interfere with gravitropism was found to eliminate the polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. In maize cultivars which require light for gravitropic competency, dark grown roots exhibited neither gravitropism nor polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Upon illumination the roots developed but gravitropic competency and gravity-induced polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Similarly, roots of light-grown seedlings lost both gravitropic competency and 45Ca2+ transport polarity upon transfer to the dark. The results indicate a close correlation between calcium movement and gravitropism in primary roots in maize.

  6. Transport processes in intertidal sand flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Christy

    2010-05-01

    Methane rich sulfate depleted seeps are observed along the low water line of the intertidal sand flat Janssand in the Wadden Sea. It is unclear where in the flat the methane is formed, and how it is transported to the edge of the sand flat where the sulfidic water seeps out. Methane and sulfate distributions in pore water were determined along transects from low water line toward the central area of the sand flat. The resulting profiles showed a zone of methane-rich and sulfate-depleted pore water below 2 m sediment depth. Methane production and sulfate reduction are monitored over time for surface sediments collected from the upper flat and seeping area. Both activities were at 22 C twice as high as at 15 C. The rates in sediments from the central area were higher than in sediments from the methane seeps. Methanogenesis occurred in the presence of sulfate, and was not significantly accelerated when sulfate was depleted. The observations show a rapid anaerobic degradation of organic matter in the Janssand. The methane rich pore water is obviously transported with a unidirectional flow from the central area of the intertidal sand flat toward the low water line. This pore water flow is driven by the pressure head caused by elevation of the pore water relative to the sea surface at low tide (Billerbeck et al. 2006a). The high methane concentration at the low water line accumulates due to a continuous outflow of pore water at the seepage site that prevents penetration of electron acceptors such as oxygen and sulfate to reoxidize the reduced products of anaerobic degradation (de Beer et al. 2006). It is, however, not clear why no methane accumulates or sulfate is depleted in the upper 2 m of the flats.

  7. 75 FR 15413 - Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1671] Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal Navigation Devices), Fort Worth... & Electronics, an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone 196, has requested processing authority within FTZ 196 in Fort...

  8. Generation of dendrite fragments and their transport from within the mushy zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shan

    Five steps have been identified for the grain structure evolution of a casting by an intrinsic mechanism: (i) fragmentation of dendrites in the mushy region; (ii) transport of these dendrite fragments from within this region; (iii) their survival in the bulk liquid; (iv) growth of the survivors; and (v) blockage of the columnar crystal growth front and formation of the equiaxed grains in a casting. Of these, the first two steps remain unclear and are explored in this study. It is found that deceleration of the growth interface leads to fragmentation of side arms from primary stems. This process can be characterized by the Fragmentation Percentage which is related to the magnitude and range of the deceleration, time, and the alloy composition. With decelerations, though temperature gradient at the interface does not change, the dendrite array exhibits important microstructural variations: the dendrite, tip restabilizes rather rapidly (<10 min) and correlates well with the instantaneous tip velocity; and the primary arm spacing restabilization takes ˜5 times longer than the tip readjustment. The difference between the rates of restabilization of the tip radius and primary arm spacing causes slight solute enrichment in the interdendritic region, resulting in side arm detachment. Through a comparative study with the steady state growth process, the magnitude of this solute enrichment is estimated. Further analysis for the dissolution kinetics shows that the excessive solute can only cause a partial dissolution at the neck of a side arm, but this is sufficient to upset the curvature balance between the different sections of a dendritic structure and the continual dissolution at the neck is subsequently driven by the curvature difference until a side arm is detached from the primary stalk. The solidification interface of most castings generally proceeds in a decelerated manner; therefore dendrite fragments already exist in the mushy region. These dendrite fragments can

  9. Littoral transport in the surf zone elucidated by an Eulerian sediment tracer.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duane, D.B.; James, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    An Eulerian, or time integration, sand tracer experiment was designed and carried out in the surf zone near Pt. Mugu, California on April 19, 1972. Data indicate that conditions of stationarity and finite boundaries required for proper application of Eulerian tracer theory exist for short time periods in the surf zone. Grain counts suggest time required for tracer sand to attain equilibrium concentration is on the order of 30-60 minutes. Grain counts also indicate transport (discharge) was strongly dependent upon grain size, with the maximum rate occurring in the size 2.5-2.75 phi, decreasing to both finer and coarser sizes. The measured instantaneous transport was at the annual rate of 2.4 x 106 m3/yr.- Authors

  10. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  11. Removing volatile contaminants from the unsaturated zone by inducing advective air-phase transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, A.L.; Hoag, G.E.; Marley, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Organic liquids inadvertently spilled and then distributed in the unsaturated zone can pose a long-term threat to ground water. Many of these substances have significant volatility, and thereby establish a premise for contaminant removal from the unsaturated zone by inducing advective air-phase transport with wells screened in the unsaturated zone. In order to focus attention on the rates of mass transfer from liquid to vapour phases, sand columns were partially saturated with gasoline and vented under steady air-flow conditions. The ability of an equilibrium-based transport model to predict the hydrocarbon vapor flux from the columns implies an efficient rate of local phase transfer for reasonably high air-phase velocities. Thus the success of venting remediations will depend primarily on the ability to induce an air-flow field in a heterogeneous unsaturated zone that will intersect the distributed contaminant. To analyze this aspect of the technique, a mathematical model was developed to predict radially symmetric air flow induced by venting from a single well. This model allows for in-situ determinations of air-phase permeability, which is the fundamental design parameter, and for the analysis of the limitations of a single well design. A successful application of the technique at a site once contaminated by gasoline supports the optimism derived from the experimental and modeliing phases of this study, and illustrates the well construction and field methods used to document the volatile contaminant recovery. ?? 1989.

  12. A compartmentalized solute transport model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers: 2. Field‐scale simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper, the second of two parts [see Abrams and Loague, this issue], reports the field‐scale application of COMPTRAN (compartmentalized solute transport model) for simulating the development of redox zones. COMPTRAN is fully developed and described in the companion paper. Redox zones, which are often delineated by the relative concentrations of dissolved oxygen, have been observed around the globe. The distribution of other redox‐sensitive species is affected by redox zonation. At the U.S. Geological Survey's Cape Cod research site, an anoxic zone containing high concentrations of dissolved iron has been observed. Field data were abstracted from the Cape Cod site for the one‐dimensional and two‐dimensional COMPTRAN simulations reported in this paper. The purpose of the concept‐development simulations was to demonstrate that the compartmentalized approach reported by Abrams et al. [1998] can be linked with a solute transport model to simulate field‐scale phenomena. The results presented in this paper show that COMPTRAN successfully simulated the development of redox zones at the field scale, including trends in pH and alkalinity. Thermodynamic constraints were used to prevent lower‐energy redox reactions from occurring under infeasible geochemical conditions without imposing equilibrium among all redox species. Empirical methods of reaction inhibition were not needed for the simulations conducted for this study. COMPTRAN can be extended easily to include additional compartments and reactions and is capable of handling complex velocity fields in more than one dimension.

  13. Preferential Flow and Transport of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts Through Vadose Zone: Experiments and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnault, C. J.; Darnault, C. J.; Garnier, P.; Kim, Y.; Oveson, K.; Jenkins, M.; Ghiorse, W.; Baveye, P.; Parlange, J.; Steenhuis, T.

    2001-12-01

    Oocysts of the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum, when they contaminate drinking water supplies, can cause outbreaks of Cryptosporidiosis, a common waterborne disease. Of the different pathways by which oocysts can wind up in drinking water, one has received very little attention to date; because soils are often considered to be perfect filters, the transport of oocysts through the subsoil to groundwater by preferential flow is generally ignored. To evaluate its significance, three set of laboratory experiments investigated transport of oocysts through vadose zone. Experiment set I was carried out in a vertical 50 cm-long column filled with silica sand, under conditions known to foster fingered flow. Experiment set II investigates the effect of gas-water interfaces by modifying the hydrodynamical conditions in the sand columns with water-repellent sand barriers. Experiment III involved undisturbed soil columns subjected to macropores flow. The sand and soil columns were subjected to artificial rainfall and were allowed to reach steady-state. At that point, feces of contaminated calves were applied at the surface, along with a known amount of KCl to serve as tracer, and rainfall was continued at the same rate. The breakthrough of oocysts and Cl-, monitored in the effluent, demonstrate the importance of preferential flow - fingered flow and macropore flow - on the transport of oocysts through vadose zone. Peak oocyst concentrations were not appreciably delayed, compared to Cl-, and in some cases, occurred even before the Cl- peak. However, the numbers of oocysts present in the effluents were still orders of magnitude higher than the 5 to 10 oocysts per liter that are considerable sufficient to cause cryptosporidiosis in healthy adults. The transport of oocysts was simulated based on a partitioning the soil profile in both a distribution zone and a preferential zone, In particular, the model simulates accurately the markedly asymmetric breakthrough patterns, and the

  14. Analysing the mechanisms of soil water and vapour transport in the desert vadose zone of the extremely arid region of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chaoyang; Yu, Jingjie; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Yichi

    2018-03-01

    The transport of water and vapour in the desert vadose zone plays a critical role in the overall water and energy balances of near-surface environments in arid regions. However, field measurements in extremely dry environments face many difficulties and challenges, so few studies have examined water and vapour transport processes in the desert vadose zone. The main objective of this study is to analyse the mechanisms of soil water and vapour transport in the desert vadose zone (depth of ∼350 cm) by using measured and modelled data in an extremely arid environment. The field experiments are implemented in an area of the Gobi desert in northwestern China to measure the soil properties, daily soil moisture and temperature, daily water-table depth and temperature, and daily meteorological records from DOYs (Days of Year) 114-212 in 2014 (growing season). The Hydrus-1D model, which simulates the coupled transport of water, vapour and heat in the vadose zone, is employed to simulate the layered soil moisture and temperature regimes and analyse the transport processes of soil water and vapour. The measured results show that the soil water and temperatures near the land surface have visible daily fluctuations across the entire soil profile. Thermal vapour movement is the most important component of the total water flux and the soil temperature gradient is the major driving factor that affects vapour transport in the desert vadose zone. The most active water and heat exchange occurs in the upper soil layer (depths of 0-25 cm). The matric potential change from the precipitation mainly re-draws the spatio-temporal distribution of the isothermal liquid water in the soil near the land surface. The matric potential has little effect on the isothermal vapour and thermal liquid water flux. These findings offer new insights into the liquid water and vapour movement processes in the extremely arid environment.

  15. Evaluation of factors that influence estimated zones of transport for six municipal wells in Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orzol, L.L.; Truini, Margot

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity of the zones of transport to change in the discharge rate of the selected well, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity, as well as to the presence or absence of interfering wells, was evaluated at six well sites to evaluate the effect of uncertainties in these factors on the size and shape of zones of transport. Uncertainty in porosity contributed the most to the uncertainty in delineating the zones of transport. Uncertainty in other factors, such as well discharge rate and horizontal hydraulic conductivity, had measurable effects on the zones of transport, but errors introduced through these factors were less significant. Insight into the causes of the changes in the size and shape of the zones of transport to varying conditions was gained by evaluating the simulated water budget and ground-water levels in the vicinity of the well. Changes in the simulated water budget and ground-water levels provided information to better understand the effects of uncertainties in the data on simulation results.The results of this study suggest that ground-water velocity is the underlying control on the size of the zones of transport. The regional hydraulic gradient is the most significant factor controlling the shape and orientation of the zones of transport. Spatial variation in recharge, discharge, and hydraulic properties can also affect the shape of the zones of transport, however. Underestimation of porosity or overestimation of horizontal hydraulic conductivity leads to overestimation of ground-water velocity and overestimation of the size of zones of transport. Overestimation of porosity or underestimation of horizontal hydraulic conductivity leads to underestimation of ground-water velocity and underestimation of the size of zones of transport. Well discharge rate affects ground-water velocities near the well. Underestimation of discharge (and therefore velocities) will result in underestimation of the size of the zones of transport. The sensitivity of

  16. Observations on preferential flow and horizontal transport of nitrogen fertilizer in the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, D.H.; Blevins, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    A study site underlain by a claypan soil was instrumented to examine the transport of fertilizer nitrogen (N) under corn (Zea mays L.) cultivation. The study was designed to examine N transport within the unsaturated zone and in interflow (the saturated flow of water on top of the claypan). A 15N- labeled fertilizer (labeled N), bromide (Br), and chloride (Cl) were used as field tracers. Rapid or prolonged infiltration events allowed water and dissolved solutes to perch on the claypan for brief periods. However, a well- developed network of preferential flow paths quickly diverted water and solutes through the claypan and into the underlying glacial till aquifer. Excess fertilizer N in the unsaturated zone supplied a continuous, but declining input of N to ground water for a period of 15 mo after a single fertilizer application. Calculated solute velocities through the claypan matrix (6.4 x 10-6 cm s-1) were similar to horizontal transport rates along the claypan (3.5 to 7.3 x 10-6 cm s-1) but much slower than infiltration rates determined for preferential flow paths (1.67 x 10-3 cm s-1). These flow paths accounted for 35% of the transport. A seasonally variable, dual mode of transport (matrix and preferential flow) prevented the claypan from being an effective barrier to vertical transport. Simulations of selected field observations, conducted using the variably saturated two- dimensional flow and transport model, VS2DT, confirmed the presence of a dual flow regime in the claypan.

  17. Transport of Carbon Tetrachloride in a Fractured Vadose Zone due to Atmospheric Pressure Fluctuations, Diffusion, and Vapor Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, J. E.; Downs, W.; Falta, R. W.; Housley, T.

    2005-12-01

    DNAPL sources of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vapors are of interest at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The site is underlain by thick fractured basalt that includes sedimentary interbeds, each are a few meters thick. Daily atmospheric pressure fluctuations serve as driving forces for CT vapor transport in the subsurface. Other important transport processes for vapor movement include gas-phase diffusion and density-driven transport. The objective of this research is to investigate the influence and relative importance of these processes on gaseous transport of CT. Gas pressure and vapor concentration measurements were conducted at various depths in two wells. A numerical multiphase flow model (TOUGH2), calibrated to field pressure data, is used to conduct sensitivity analyses to elucidate the importance of the different transport mechanisms. Results show that the basalt is highly permeable to vertical air flow. The pressure dampening occurs mainly in the sedimentary interbeds. Model-calibrated permeability values for the interbeds are similar to those obtained in a study by the U.S. Geological Survey for shallow sediments, and an order of magnitude higher than column-scale values obtained by previous studies conducted by INEEL scientists. The transport simulations indicate that considering the effect of barometric pressure changes is critical to simulating transport of pollutants in the vadose zone above the DNAPL source. Predicted concentrations can be orders of magnitude smaller than actual concentrations if the effect is not considered. Below the DNAPL vapor source, accounting for density and diffusion alone would yield acceptable results provided that a 20% error in concentrations are acceptable, and that simulating concentrations trends (and not actual concentrations) is the primary goal.

  18. Chill Down Process of Hydrogen Transport Pipelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Renwei; Klausner, James

    2006-01-01

    A pseudo-steady model has been developed to predict the chilldown history of pipe wall temperature in the horizontal transport pipeline for cryogenic fluids. A new film boiling heat transfer model is developed by incorporating the stratified flow structure for cryogenic chilldown. A modified nucleate boiling heat transfer correlation for cryogenic chilldown process inside a horizontal pipe is proposed. The efficacy of the correlations is assessed by comparing the model predictions with measured values of wall temperature in several azimuthal positions in a well controlled experiment by Chung et al. (2004). The computed pipe wall temperature histories match well with the measured results. The present model captures important features of thermal interaction between the pipe wall and the cryogenic fluid, provides a simple and robust platform for predicting pipe wall chilldown history in long horizontal pipe at relatively low computational cost, and builds a foundation to incorporate the two-phase hydrodynamic interaction in the chilldown process.

  19. Pesticide fate and transport throughout unsaturated zones in five agricultural settings, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hancock, T.C.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Vogel, J.R.; Webb, R.M.T.; Bayless, E.R.; Barbash, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide transport through the unsaturated zone is a function of chemical and soil characteristics, application, and water recharge rate. The fate and transport of 82 pesticides and degradates were investigated at five different agricultural sites. Atrazine and metolachlor, as well as several of the degradates of atrazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, and alachlor, were frequently detected in soil water during the 2004 growing season, and degradates were generally more abundant than parent compounds. Metolachlor and atrazine were applied at a Nebraska site the same year as sampling, and focused recharge coupled with the short time since application resulted in their movement in the unsaturated zone 9 m below the surface. At other sites where the herbicides were applied 1 to 2 yr before sampling, only degradates were found in soil water. Transformations of herbicides were evident with depth and during the 4-mo sampling time and reflected the faster degradation of metolachlor oxanilic acid and persistence of metolachor ethanesulfonic acid. The fraction of metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid relative to metolachlor and metolachlor oxanilic acid increased from 0.3 to > 0.9 at a site in Maryland where the unsaturated zone was 5 m deep and from 0.3 to 0.5 at the shallowest depth. The flux of pesticide degradates from the deepest sites to the shallow ground water was greatest (3.0–4.9 μmol m−2 yr−1) where upland recharge or focused flow moved the most water through the unsaturated zone. Flux estimates based on estimated recharge rates and measured concentrations were in agreement with fluxes estimated using an unsaturated-zone computer model (LEACHM).

  20. Modeling water infiltration and pesticides transport in unsaturated zone of a sedimentary aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoli, Pauline; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Baran, Nicole; Lassabatère, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality monitoring has become an important environmental, economic and community issue since increasing needs drinking water at the same time with high anthropic pressure on aquifers. Leaching of various contaminants as pesticide into the groundwater is closely bound to water infiltration in the unsaturated zone which whom solute transport can occur. Knowledge's about mechanisms involved in the transfer of pesticides in the deep unsaturated zone are lacking today. This study aims to evaluate and to model leaching of pesticides and metabolites in the unsaturated zone, very heterogeneous, of a fluvio-glacial aquifer, in the South-East of France, where contamination of groundwater resources by pesticides is frequently observed as a consequence of intensive agricultural activities. Water flow and pesticide transport were evaluated from column tests under unsaturated conditions and from adsorption batch experiments onto the predominant lithofacies collected, composed of a mixture of sand and gravel. A maize herbicide, S-metolachlor, applied on the study site and worldwide and its two major degradation products (metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid and metolachlor oxanilic acid) were studied here. A conservative tracer, bromide ion, was used to determine water dispersive parameters of porous media. Elution curves were obtained from pesticide concentrations analyzed by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography system interfaced to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and from bromide concentrations measured by ionic chromatography system. Experimental data were implemented into Hydrus to model flow and solute transfer through a 1D profile in the vadose zone. Nonequilibrium solute transport model based on dual-porosity model with mobile and immobile water is fitting correctly elution curves. Water dispersive parameters show flow pattern realized in the mobile phase. Exchanges between mobile and immobile water are very limited. Because of low adsorptions onto

  1. Wave-induced bedload transport - a study of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Gic-Grusza, Gabriela

    2017-03-01

    The wave-induced bedload transport and spatial distribution of its magnitude in the southern Baltic coastal zone of Poland are estimated. The vicinity of Lubiatowo was selected as a representative part of the Polish coast. It was assumed that transport is a function of shear stress; alternative approaches, based on force balances and discharge relationships, were not considered in the present study. Four models were studied and compared over a wide range of bottom shear stress and wind-wave conditions. The set of models comprises classic theories that assume a simplified influence of turbulence on sediment transport (e.g., advocated by authors such as Du Boys, Meyer-Peter and Müller, Ribberink, Engelund and Hansen). It is shown that these models allow to estimate transport comparable to measured values under similar environmental conditions. A united general model for bedload transport is proposed, and a set of maps of wave bedload transport for various wind conditions in the study area is presented.

  2. Evidence of linked biogeochemical and hydrological processes in homogeneous and layered vadose zone systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D. J.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding chemical fate and transport in the vadose zone is critical to protect groundwater resources and preserve ecosystem health. However, prediction can be challenging due to the dynamic hydrologic and biogeochemical nature of the vadose zone. Additional controls on hydrobiogeochemical processes are added by subsurface structural heterogeneity. This study uses repacked soil column experiments to quantify linkages between microbial activity, geochemical cycling and hydrologic flow. Three “short” laboratory soil columns were constructed to evaluate the effects of soil layering: a homogenized medium-grained sand, homogenized organic-rich loam, and a sand-over-loam layered column. In addition, two “long” columns were constructed using either gamma-irradiated (sterilized) or untreated sediments to evaluate the effects of both soil layers and the presence of microorganisms. The long columns were packed identically; a medium-grained sand matrix with two vertically separated and horizontally offset lenses of organic-rich loam. In all 5 columns, downward and upward infiltration of water was evaluated to simulate rainfall and rising water table events respectively. In-situ colocated probes were used to measure soil water content, matric potential, Eh, major anions, ammonium, Fe2+, and total sulfide. Enhanced biogeochemical cycling was observed in the short layered column versus the short, homogeneous columns, and enumerations of iron and sulfate reducing bacteria were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater. In the long columns, microbial activity caused mineral bands and produced insoluble gases that impeded water flow through the pores of the sediment. Capillary barriers, formed around the lenses due to soil textural differences, retarded water flow rates through the lenses. This allowed reducing conditions to develop, evidenced by the production of Fe2+ and S2-. At the fringes of the lenses, Fe2+ oxidized to form Fe(III)-oxide bands that further retarded water

  3. Howard Brenner's Legacy for Biological Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    This talk discusses the manner in which Howard Brenner's theoretical contributions have had, and long will have, strong and direct impact on the understanding of transport processes occurring in biological systems. His early work on low Reynolds number resistance/mobility coefficients of arbitrarily shaped particles, and particles near walls and in pores, is an essential component of models of hindered diffusion through many types of membranes and tissues, and convective transport in microfluidic diagnostic systems. His seminal contributions to macrotransport (coarse-graining, homogenization) theory presaged the growing discipline of multiscale modeling. For biological systems they represent the key to infusing diffusion models of a wide variety of tissues with a sound basis in their microscopic structure and properties, often over a hierarchy of scales. Both scientific currents are illustrated within the concrete context of diffusion models of drug/chemical diffusion through the skin. This area of theory, which is key to transdermal drug development and risk assessment of chemical exposure, has benefitted very directly from Brenner's contributions. In this as in other areas, Brenner's physicochemical insight, mathematical virtuosity, drive for fully justified analysis free of ad hoc assumptions, quest for generality, and impeccable exposition, have consistently elevated the level of theoretical understanding and presentation. We close with anecdotes showing how his personal qualities and warmth helped to impart high standards of rigor to generations of grateful research students. Authors are Johannes M. Nitsche, Ludwig C. Nitsche and Gerald B. Kasting.

  4. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone: U TRANSPORT IN A GROUNDWATER-SURFACE WATER TRANSITION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris

    A tightly spaced well-field within a groundwater uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a three year period for groundwater elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from mountain snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time series trendsmore » for Uaq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal well-to well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common temporal behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Concentration hot spots were observed in groundwater that varied in location with increasing water table elevation. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized U was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While uranium time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year to year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of the river water intrusion event.« less

  5. Reactive transport simulations of alternative flow pathways in the ambient unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, L.; Murphy, W.; Manepally, C.; Fedors, R.

    2003-04-01

    Uncertainties in simulated ambient system unsaturated zone flow could have a significant impact on performance evaluations of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In addition to determining variations in the quantity of water available to corrode engineered materials and transport radionuclides, model assumptions regarding flow pathways may significantly affect estimates of groundwater chemistry. The manner and extent to which groundwater compositions evolve along a flow pathway are determined mainly by thermohydrologic conditions, the types of reactive materials encountered, and the interaction times with those materials. Simulated groundwater compositions can thus vary significantly depending on whether or not the flow model includes lateral diversion of infiltrating waters, or preferential flow pathways in variably-saturated materials. To assist a regulatory review of a potential license application for a geologic repository for high-level waste, we developed a reactive transport model for the ambient hydrogeochemical system at Yucca Mountain. The model simulates two phase, nonisothermal, advective and diffusive flow and transport through a one dimensional, matrix and fracture continua (dual permeability) containing ten kinetically reactive hydrostatigraphic layers in the vicinity of the SD-9 borehole at Yucca Mountain. In this presentation, we describe how the model was used to evaluate alternative ambient unsaturated zone flow pathways proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy. This abstract is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views or regulatory position of the NRC.

  6. Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler processingtransport through chill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When market age broilers are transported to processing plants, feces from individual birds in a Campylobacter positive flock can contaminate transport containers (1). Feces, and therefore Campylobacter, is deposited on the floor surface of transport cages. When placed in soiled transport cages pr...

  7. Manufacturing work and organizational stresses in export processing zones.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2009-10-01

    In the light of global industrialization, much attention has been focused on occupational factors and their influence on the health and welfare of workers. This was a cross sectional study using stratified sampling technique based on industry sizes. The study sampled 24 industries, 6 were small scale industries and 9 each for medium and large scale industries. From the 24 industries, a total of 500 respondents for the questionnaire was taken. For occupational health and safety standards that industries have to comply with, there was low compliance among small-scale industries relative to the medium and large scale industries. Only one industry had an air cleaning device for cleaning contaminated air prior to emission into the external community. Among the 500 respondents, majority were female (88.8%), single (69.6%) and worked in the production or assembly-line station (87.4%). Sickness absenteeism was relative high among the workers in this study accounting for almost 54% among females and 48% among males. Many of the workers also reported of poor performance at work, boredom, tardiness and absenteeism. For association between work factors and personal factors, the following were found to be statistically significant at p=0.05. Boredom was associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotion, disincentives for sick leaves, poor relationship with boss and poor relationships with employers. On the other hand, poor performance was also associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotions, job insecurity, and poor relationship with employers. From the data generated, important issues that must be dealt with in work organizations include the quality of work life, and health and safety issues. Based on these findings, we can conclude that there are still issues on occupational health and safety (OHS) in the target site of export processing zones in the Philippines. There must be an active campaign for OHS in industries that are produce for the global market

  8. Transport and time lag of chlorofluorocarbon gases in the unsaturated zone, Rabis Creek, Denmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engesgaard, Peter; Højberg, Anker L.; Hinsby, Klaus; Jensen, Karsten H.; Laier, Troels; Larsen, Flemming; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, Niel

    2004-01-01

    Transport of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases through the unsaturated zone to the water table is affected by gas diffusion, air–water exchange (solubility), sorption to the soil matrix, advective–dispersive transport in the water phase, and, in some cases, anaerobic degradation. In deep unsaturated zones, this may lead to a time lag between entry of gases at the land surface and recharge to groundwater. Data from a Danish field site were used to investigate how time lag is affected by variations in water content and to explore the use of simple analytical solutions to calculate time lag. Numerical simulations demonstrate that either degradation or sorption of CFC-11 takes place, whereas CFC-12 and CFC-113 are nonreactive. Water flow did not appreciably affect transport. An analytical solution for the period with a linear increase in atmospheric CFC concentrations (approximately early 1970s to early 1990s) was used to calculate CFC profiles and time lags. We compared the analytical results with numerical simulations. The time lags in the 15-m-deep unsaturated zone increase from 4.2 to between 5.2 and 6.1 yr and from 3.4 to 3.9 yr for CFC-11 and CFC-12, respectively, when simulations change from use of an exponential to a linear increase in atmospheric concentrations. The CFC concentrations at the water table before the early 1990s can be estimated by displacing the atmospheric input function by these fixed time lags. A sensitivity study demonstrates conditions under which a time lag in the unsaturated zone becomes important. The most critical parameter is the tortuosity coefficient. The analytical approach is valid for the low range of tortuosity coefficients (τ = 0.1–0.4) and unsaturated zones greater than approximately 20 m in thickness. In these cases the CFC distribution may still be from either the exponential or linear phase. In other cases, the use of numerical models, as described in our work and elsewhere, is an option.

  9. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  10. Experimental quantification of solute transport through the vadose zone under dynamic boundary conditions with dye tracers and optical methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to investigate e.g. groundwater contamination, nutrient uptake by plant roots and to implement remediation strategies. Beside field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. Atmospheric forcings, such as erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles, subject the shallow subsurface to local and temporal variations in water content and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing porous media. Those variations in material properties can cause flow paths to differ between upward and downward flow periods. Thereby, the unsaturated subsurface presents a highly complicated, dynamic system. Following an extensive systematical numerical investigation of flow and transport through bimodal, unsaturated porous media under dynamic boundary conditions (Cremer et al., 2016), we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell where we introduce structural heterogeneity in the form sharp material interfaces between different porous media. In all experiments, a constant pressure head is implemented at the lower boundary, while cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases are applied at the soil surface. As a reference case a stationary infiltration with a rate corresponding to the cycle-averaged infiltration rate is applied. By initial application of dye tracers, solute transport within the domain is visualized such that transport paths and redistribution processes can be observed in a qualitative manner. Solute leaching is quantified at the bottom outlet, where breakthrough curves are obtained via spectroscopy. Liquid and vapor flow in and out of the domain is obtained from multiple balances. Thereby, the interplay of material structural heterogeneity and alternating flow (transport) directions and flow (transport) paths is investigated. Results show lateral

  11. Modeling the influence of coupled mass transfer processes on mass flux downgradient of heterogeneous DNAPL source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lurong; Wang, Xinyu; Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Abriola, Linda M.

    2018-04-01

    Sequestered mass in low permeability zones has been increasingly recognized as an important source of organic chemical contamination that acts to sustain downgradient plume concentrations above regulated levels. However, few modeling studies have investigated the influence of this sequestered mass and associated (coupled) mass transfer processes on plume persistence in complex dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. This paper employs a multiphase flow and transport simulator (a modified version of the modular transport simulator MT3DMS) to explore the two- and three-dimensional evolution of source zone mass distribution and near-source plume persistence for two ensembles of highly heterogeneous DNAPL source zone realizations. Simulations reveal the strong influence of subsurface heterogeneity on the complexity of DNAPL and sequestered (immobile/sorbed) mass distribution. Small zones of entrapped DNAPL are shown to serve as a persistent source of low concentration plumes, difficult to distinguish from other (sorbed and immobile dissolved) sequestered mass sources. Results suggest that the presence of DNAPL tends to control plume longevity in the near-source area; for the examined scenarios, a substantial fraction (43.3-99.2%) of plume life was sustained by DNAPL dissolution processes. The presence of sorptive media and the extent of sorption non-ideality are shown to greatly affect predictions of near-source plume persistence following DNAPL depletion, with plume persistence varying one to two orders of magnitude with the selected sorption model. Results demonstrate the importance of sorption-controlled back diffusion from low permeability zones and reveal the importance of selecting the appropriate sorption model for accurate prediction of plume longevity. Large discrepancies for both DNAPL depletion time and plume longevity were observed between 2-D and 3-D model simulations. Differences between 2- and 3-D predictions increased in the presence of

  12. Modeling tritium transport through a deep unsaturated zone in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayers, C.J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding transport of tritium (3H) in unsaturated zones is critical to evaluating options for waste isolation. Tritium typically is a large component of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in Nevada investigate 3H transport from a closed LLRW facility. Two boreholes are 100 and 160 m from the nearest waste trench and extend to the water table at 110 m. Soil-water vapor samples from the deep boreholes show elevated levels of 3H at all depths. The objectives of this study were to (i) test source thermal and gas-advection mechanisms driving 3H transport and (ii) evaluate model sensitivity to these mechanisms and to selected physical and hydraulic properties including porosity, tortuosity, and anisotropy. A two-dimensional numerical model incorporated a non-isothermal, heterogeneous domain of the unsaturated zone and instantaneous isotopic equilibrium. The TOUGH2 code was used; however, it required modification to account for temperature dependence of both the Henry's law equilibrium constant and isotopic fractionation with respect to tritiated water. Increases in source temperature, pressure, and porosity enhanced 3H migration, but failed to match measured 3H distributions. All anisotropic simulations with a source pressure component resembled, in shape, the upper portion of the 3H distribution of the nearest borehole. Isotopic equilibrium limited migration of 3H, while effects of radioactive decay were negligible. A 500 Pa pressure increase above ambient pressure in conjunction with a high degree of anisotropy (1:100) was necessary for simulated 3H transport to reach the nearest borehole.

  13. Groundwater and solute transport modeling at Hyporheic zone of upper part Citarum River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, Irwan; Farazi, Hendy; Fadhilah, Rahmat; Purnandi, Cipto; Notosiswoyo, Sudarto

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater and surface water interaction is an interesting topic to be studied related to the water resources and environmental studies. The study of interaction between groundwater and river water at the Upper Part Citarum River aims to know the contribution of groundwater to the river or reversely and also solute transport of dissolved ions between them. Analysis of drill logs, vertical electrical sounding at the selected sections, measurement of dissolved ions, and groundwater modeling were applied to determine the flow and solute transport phenomena at the hyporheic zone. It showed the hyporheic zone dominated by silt and clay with hydraulic conductivity range from 10-4∼10-8 m/s. The groundwater flowing into the river with very low gradient and it shows that the Citarum River is a gaining stream. The groundwater modeling shows direct seepage of groundwater into the Citarum River is only 186 l/s, very small compared to the total discharge of the river. Total dissolved ions of the groundwater ranged from 200 to 480 ppm while the river water range from 200 to 2,000 ppm. Based on solute transport modeling it indicates dissolved ions dispersion of the Citarum River into groundwater may occur in some areas such as Bojongsoang-Dayeuh Kolot and Nanjung. This situation would increase the dissolved ions in groundwater in the region due to the contribution of the Citarum River. The results of the research can be a reference for further studies related to the mechanism of transport of the pollutants in the groundwater around the Citarum River.

  14. The California general plan process and sustainable transportation planning

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-05-01

    This research project assesses California's General Plan process as a tool for implementing sustainable development, with particular emphasis on transportation systems at the local level, including the relationship of local transportation systems to ...

  15. Modeling vadose zone processes during land application of food-processing waste water in California's Central Valley.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gretchen R; Rubin, Yoram; Mayer, K Ulrich; Benito, Pascual H

    2008-01-01

    Land application of food-processing waste water occurs throughout California's Central Valley and may be degrading local ground water quality, primarily by increasing salinity and nitrogen levels. Natural attenuation is considered a treatment strategy for the waste, which often contains elevated levels of easily degradable organic carbon. Several key biogeochemical processes in the vadose zone alter the characteristics of the waste water before it reaches the ground water table, including microbial degradation, crop nutrient uptake, mineral precipitation, and ion exchange. This study used a process-based, multi-component reactive flow and transport model (MIN3P) to numerically simulate waste water migration in the vadose zone and to estimate its attenuation capacity. To address the high variability in site conditions and waste-stream characteristics, four food-processing industries were coupled with three site scenarios to simulate a range of land application outcomes. The simulations estimated that typically between 30 and 150% of the salt loading to the land surface reaches the ground water, resulting in dissolved solids concentrations up to sixteen times larger than the 500 mg L(-1) water quality objective. Site conditions, namely the ratio of hydraulic conductivity to the application rate, strongly influenced the amount of nitrate reaching the ground water, which ranged from zero to nine times the total loading applied. Rock-water interaction and nitrification explain salt and nitrate concentrations that exceed the levels present in the waste water. While source control remains the only method to prevent ground water degradation from saline wastes, proper site selection and waste application methods can reduce the risk of ground water degradation from nitrogen compounds.

  16. Readiness of freight transportation system at special economic zone of Lhokseumawe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fithra, Herman; Sirojuzilam, Saleh, Sofyan M.; Erlina

    2017-11-01

    Geo-economic advantages of Lhokseumawe and Aceh Utara District lies on the geographical location of Aceh crossed by Sea Lane of Communication (Sloc), the Malacca Strait. Located at the Malacca Strait, the Special Economic Zone (Kawasan Ekonomi Khusus/ KEK) of Arun Lhokseumawe has a comparative advantage to be part of the global production network or the global value chain. This study aims to determine freight transportation system to support KEK Lhokseumawe, especially the availability of multimodal transport and multimodal infrastructure. The result shows that KEK Lhokseumawe driven by SOEs in Lhokseumawe and Aceh Utara is urgent to be realized for economic acceleration and to grow new economic growth in Aceh. Multimodal transport in KEK Lhokseumawe is also available, including Ro-Ro ships, train availability from Dewantara sub-district to Muara Batu Sub-district, various types of truck with small, medium and large capacity. The available multimodal infrastructure includes international sea ports, road network connectivity with structure pavement rating of 94.62%, and railroad tracks indicating that multimodal transportation in KEK Lhokseumawe are ready to utilize. Regulatory requirements relating to the operation of all ports in KEK Lhokseumawe as export / import gate are required and serve the loading and loading activities of Containers, and as a place of origin of goods on the east coast of Aceh.

  17. Transport and degradation of perchlorate in deep vadose zone: implications from direct observations during bioremediation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, Ofer; Katz, Idan; Avishai, Lior; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-08-01

    An in situ bioremediation experiment of a deep vadose zone ( ˜ 40 m) contaminated with a high concentration of perchlorate (> 25 000 mg L-1) was conducted through a full-scale field operation. Favourable environmental conditions for microbiological reduction of perchlorate were sought by infiltrating an electron donor-enriched water solution using drip irrigation underlying an airtight sealing liner. A vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) was used for real-time tracking of the percolation process, the penetration depth of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the variation in perchlorate concentration across the entire soil depth. The experimental conditions for each infiltration event were adjusted according to insight gained from data obtained by the VMS in previous stages. Continuous monitoring of the vadose zone indicated that in the top 13 m of the cross section, perchlorate concentration is dramatically reduced from thousands of milligrams per litre to near-detection limits with a concurrent increase in chloride concentration. Nevertheless, in the deeper parts of the vadose zone (< 17 m), perchlorate concentration increased, suggesting its mobilization down through the cross section. Breakthrough of DOC and bromide at different depths across the unsaturated zone showed limited migration capacity of biologically consumable carbon and energy sources due to their enhanced biodegradation in the upper soil layers. Nevertheless, the increased DOC concentration with concurrent reduction in perchlorate and increase in the chloride-to-perchlorate ratio in the top 13 m indicate partial degradation of perchlorate in this zone. There was no evidence of improved degradation conditions in the deeper parts where the initial concentrations of perchlorate were significantly higher.

  18. Charge Transport Processes in Molecular Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher Eugene

    Molecular electronics (ME) has evolved into a rich area of exploration that combines the fields of chemistry, materials, electronic engineering and computational modeling to explore the physics behind electronic conduction at the molecular level. Through studying charge transport properties of single molecules and nanoscale molecular materials the field has gained the potential to bring about new avenues for the miniaturization of electrical components where quantum phenomena are utilized to achieve solid state molecular device functionality. Molecular junctions are platforms that enable these studies and consist of a single molecule or a small group of molecules directly connected to electrodes. The work presented in this thesis has built upon the current understanding of the mechanisms of charge transport in ordered junctions using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular thin films. Donor and acceptor compounds were synthesized and incorporated into SAMs grown on metal substrates then the transport properties were measured with conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). In addition to experimentally measured current-voltage (I-V) curves, the transport properties were addressed computationally and modeled theoretically. The key objectives of this project were to 1) investigate the impact of molecular structure on hole and electron charge transport, 2) understand the nature of the charge carriers and their structure-transport properties through long (<4 nm) conjugated molecular wires, and 3) quantitatively extract interfacial properties characteristic to macroscopic junctions, such as energy level alignment and molecule-contact electronic coupling from experimental I-V curves. Here, we lay ground work for creating a more complete picture of charge transport in macroscopically ordered molecular junctions of controlled architecture, length and charge carrier. The polaronic nature of hopping transport has been predicted in long, conjugated molecular wires

  19. Approach for delineation of contributing areas and zones of transport to selected public-supply wells using a regional ground-water flow model, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, R.A.; Patterson, R.D.; Orzol, L.L.; Dixon, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Rapid urban development and population growth in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been accompanied with the need for additional freshwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system. To maintain water quality, County officials protect capture areas and determine zones of transport of municipal supply wells. A multistep process was used to help automate the delineation of wellhead protection areas. A modular ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) Telescopic Mesh Refinement program (MODTMR) was used to construct an embedded flow model and combined with particle tracking to delineate zones of transport to supply wells; model output was coupled with a geographic information system. An embedded flow MODFLOW model was constructed using input and output file data from a preexisting three-dimensional, calibrated model of the surficial aquifer system. Three graphical user interfaces for use with the geographic information software, ArcView, were developed to enhance the telescopic mesh refinement process. These interfaces include AvMODTMR for use with MODTMR; AvHDRD to build MODFLOW river and drain input files from dynamically segmented linear (canals) data sets; and AvWELL Refiner, an interface designed to examine and convert well coverage spatial data layers to a MODFLOW Well package input file. MODPATH (the U.S. Geological Survey particle-tracking postprocessing program) and MODTOOLS (the set of U.S. Geological Survey computer programs to translate MODFLOW and MODPATH output to a geographic information system) were used to map zones of transport. A steady-state, five-layer model of the Boca Raton area was created using the telescopic mesh refinement process and calibrated to average conditions during January 1989 to June 1990. A sensitivity analysis of various model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive to changes in recharge rates, hydraulic conductivity for layer 1, and leakance for layers 3 and 4 (Biscayne aquifer). Recharge (58 percent); river (canal

  20. Fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth: Analysis of the floating zone and vertical Bridgman processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    This research program focuses on analysis of the transport mechanisms in solidification processes, especially one of interest to the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Program of NASA. Research during the last year has focused on analysis of the dynamics of the floating zone process for growth of small-scale crystals, on studies of the effect of applied magnetic fields on convection and solute segregation in directional solidification, and on the dynamics of microscopic cell formation in two-dimensional solidification of binary alloys. Significant findings are given.

  1. Financially Constrained Transportation Planning and Programming Process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-03-01

    This case study report is intended to provide metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), state departments of transportation and transit agencies with a greater understanding of the important role that financial information plays in the planning and...

  2. Incorporating security into the transportation planning process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    The transportation system is an important network established to ensure the mobility of people and goods between destinations. In addition, it also serves a vital role in responding to disasters, and therefore deserves special attention when those di...

  3. Transport of europium colloids in vadose zone lysimeters at the semiarid Hanford site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziru; Flury, Markus; Zhang, Z Fred; Harsh, James B; Gee, Glendon W; Strickland, Chris E; Clayton, Ray E

    2013-03-05

    The objective of this study was to quantify transport of Eu colloids in the vadose zone at the semiarid Hanford site. Eu-hydroxy-carbonate colloids, Eu(OH)(CO3), were applied to the surface of field lysimeters, and migration of the colloids through the sediments was monitored using wick samplers. The lysimeters were exposed to natural precipitation (145-231 mm/year) or artificial irrigation (124-348 mm/year). Wick outflow was analyzed for Eu concentrations, supplemented by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Small amounts of Eu colloids (<1%) were detected in the deepest wick sampler (2.14 m depth) 2.5 months after application and cumulative precipitation of only 20 mm. We observed rapid transport of Eu colloids under both natural precipitation and artificial irrigation; that is, the leading edge of the Eu colloids moved at a velocity of 3 cm/day within the first 2 months after application. Episodic infiltration (e.g., Chinook snowmelt events) caused peaks of Eu in the wick outflow. While a fraction of Eu moved consistent with long-term recharge estimates at the site, the main mass of Eu remained in the top 30 cm of the sediments. This study illustrates that, under field conditions, near-surface colloid mobilization and transport occurred in Hanford sediments.

  4. Fault zone processes in mechanically layered mudrock and chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrill, David A.; Evans, Mark A.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Morris, Alan P.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Gulliver, Kirk D. H.; Lehrmann, Daniel; de Zoeten, Erich; Sickmann, Zach

    2017-04-01

    A 1.5 km long natural cliff outcrop of nearly horizontal Eagle Ford Formation in south Texas exposes northwest and southeast dipping normal faults with displacements of 0.01-7 m cutting mudrock, chalk, limestone, and volcanic ash. These faults provide analogs for both natural and hydraulically-induced deformation in the productive Eagle Ford Formation - a major unconventional oil and gas reservoir in south Texas, U.S.A. - and other mechanically layered hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fault dips are steep to vertical through chalk and limestone beds, and moderate through mudrock and clay-rich ash, resulting in refracted fault profiles. Steeply dipping fault segments contain rhombohedral calcite veins that cross the fault zone obliquely, parallel to shear segments in mudrock. The vertical dimensions of the calcite veins correspond to the thickness of offset competent beds with which they are contiguous, and the slip parallel dimension is proportional to fault displacement. Failure surface characteristics, including mixed tensile and shear segments, indicate hybrid failure in chalk and limestone, whereas shear failure predominates in mudrock and ash beds - these changes in failure mode contribute to variation in fault dip. Slip on the shear segments caused dilation of the steeper hybrid segments. Tabular sheets of calcite grew by repeated fault slip, dilation, and cementation. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope geochemistry analyses of fault zone cements indicate episodic reactivation at 1.4-4.2 km depths. The results of these analyses document a dramatic bed-scale lithologic control on fault zone architecture that is directly relevant to the development of porosity and permeability anisotropy along faults.

  5. Hybrid zone studies: An interdisciplinary approach for the analysis of evolutionary processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Kim T.

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the ecological and evolutionary literature over the relative importance and rate by which microevolutionary processes operating at the population level result in separation and differentiation of lineages and populations, and ultimately in speciation. Our understanding of evolutionary processes have need greatly enhances through the study of hybridization and hybrid zones. Indeed, hybrid zones have been described as “natural laboratories” (Barton, N. H., and G .M. Hewitt, 189. Adaptation, speciation, and hybrid zones. Nature 341:497-503) or as “windows on the evolutionary processes” (Harrison, R. G. 1990. Hybrid zones: windows on the evolutionary process. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 7:69-128). Hybrid zones greatly facilitate analyses of evolutionary dynamics because differences in factors such as mating preference, fertility, and viability are likely to be magnified, making the consequences easier to document over short periods of time.

  6. Regulation of transport processes across the tonoplast

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Trentmann, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the vacuole builds up the cellular turgor and represents an important component in cellular responses to diverse stress stimuli. Rapid volume changes of cells, particularly of motor cells, like guard cells, are caused by variation of osmolytes and consequently of the water contents in the vacuole. Moreover, directed solute uptake into or release out of the large central vacuole allows adaptation of cytosolic metabolite levels according to the current physiological requirements and specific cellular demands. Therefore, solute passage across the vacuolar membrane, the tonoplast, has to be tightly regulated. Important principles in vacuolar transport regulation are changes of tonoplast transport protein abundances by differential expression of genes or changes of their activities, e.g., due to post-translational modification or by interacting proteins. Because vacuolar transport is in most cases driven by an electro-chemical gradient altered activities of tonoplast proton pumps significantly influence vacuolar transport capacities. Intense studies on individual tonoplast proteins but also unbiased system biological approaches have provided important insights into the regulation of vacuolar transport. This short review refers to selected examples of tonoplast proteins and their regulation, with special focus on protein phosphorylation. PMID:25309559

  7. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  8. Maximizing transportation efficiencies and economic impact of the Southwest Missouri foreign-trade zone.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    Overview of Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ or Zone) and their impact on economic development, goods : movement jobs creation and retention. Zones provide a competitive advantage for multi-national : manufacturing and distribution firms resulting in the ret...

  9. Modeling transport phenomena and uncertainty quantification in solidification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fezi, Kyle S.

    Direct chill (DC) casting is the primary processing route for wrought aluminum alloys. This semicontinuous process consists of primary cooling as the metal is pulled through a water cooled mold followed by secondary cooling with a water jet spray and free falling water. To gain insight into this complex solidification process, a fully transient model of DC casting was developed to predict the transport phenomena of aluminum alloys for various conditions. This model is capable of solving mixture mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation equations during multicomponent solidification. Various DC casting process parameters were examined for their effect on transport phenomena predictions in an alloy of commercial interest (aluminum alloy 7050). The practice of placing a wiper to divert cooling water from the ingot surface was studied and the results showed that placement closer to the mold causes remelting at the surface and increases susceptibility to bleed outs. Numerical models of metal alloy solidification, like the one previously mentioned, are used to gain insight into physical phenomena that cannot be observed experimentally. However, uncertainty in model inputs cause uncertainty in results and those insights. The analysis of model assumptions and probable input variability on the level of uncertainty in model predictions has not been calculated in solidification modeling as yet. As a step towards understanding the effect of uncertain inputs on solidification modeling, uncertainty quantification (UQ) and sensitivity analysis were first performed on a transient solidification model of a simple binary alloy (Al-4.5wt.%Cu) in a rectangular cavity with both columnar and equiaxed solid growth models. This analysis was followed by quantifying the uncertainty in predictions from the recently developed transient DC casting model. The PRISM Uncertainty Quantification (PUQ) framework quantified the uncertainty and sensitivity in macrosegregation, solidification

  10. Characteristics of diffusion zone in changing glass-metal composite processing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, O. N.; Morkovin, A. V.; Andreev, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of manufacturing technology on the characteristics of the glass and steel contact zone in manufacturing new structural material - glass-metal composite is studied theoretically and experimentally. Different types of structures in the contact zone and its dimensions affect the strength characteristics of the composite. Knowledge about changing the width of the glass and steel contact zone after changing such parameters of the technological regime as temperature, holding time and use of solders will allow one to control the structure and characteristics of the glass-metal composite. Experimental measurements of the width of the diffusion zone in the glass-metal composite for different regimes and their statistical processing according to the full factor experiment are presented in this article. The results of analysis of some mechanical characteristics of the diffusion zone are presented: microhardness and modulus of elasticity for samples, prepared according to different processing regimes.

  11. Stationary transport processes with unbounded collision operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, William; van der Mee, C. V. M.

    1984-01-01

    An abstract Hilbert space equation is studied, which models many of the stationary, one-dimensional transport equations with partial-range boundary conditions. In particular, the collision term may be unbounded and nondissipative. A complete existence and uniqueness theory is presented.

  12. Large-Scale Stratospheric Transport Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. Alan

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: 1. The Brewer-Dobson circulation: tropical upwelling. 2. Mixing into polar vortices. 3. The latitudinal structure of "age" in the stratosphere. 4. The subtropical "tracer edges". 5. Transport in the lower troposphere. 6. Tracer modeling during SOLVE. 7. 3D modeling of "mean age". 8. Models and measurements II.

  13. Theories of transporting processes of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Su, Chunhua; Zhu, Sixi; Wu, Yunjie; Zhou, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted along with the rapid development of industry and population size, and understanding the transporting progresses of pollutants is essential to pollution control. In order to better understanding the transporting progresses of pollutants in marine, this paper carried on a comprehensive research of the theories of transporting processes of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay. Results showed that the transporting processes of Cu in this bay could be summarized into seven key theories including homogeneous theory, environmental dynamic theory, horizontal loss theory, source to waters transporting theory, sedimentation transporting theory, migration trend theory and vertical transporting theory, respectively. These theories helpful to better understand the migration progress of pollutants in marine bay.

  14. Recycling and transport of continental material through the mantle wedge above subduction zones: A Caribbean example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Kemp, Anthony; Kröner, Alfred; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Lázaro, Concepción; Liu, Dunyi

    2016-02-01

    Estimates of global growth rates of continental crust critically depend upon knowledge of the rate at which crustal material is delivered back into the mantle at subduction zones and is then returned to the crust as a component of mantle-derived magma. Quantification of crustal recycling by subduction-related magmatism relies on indirect chemical and isotopic tracers and is hindered by the large range of potential melt sources (e.g., subducted oceanic crust and overlying chemical and clastic sediment, sub-arc lithospheric mantle, arc crust), whose composition may not be accurately known. There is also uncertainty about how crustal material is transferred from subducted lithosphere and mixed into the mantle source of arc magmas. We use the resilient mineral zircon to track crustal recycling in mantle-derived rocks of the Caribbean (Greater Antilles) intra-oceanic arc of Cuba, whose inception was triggered after the break-up of Pangea. Despite juvenile Sr and Nd isotope compositions, the supra-subduction zone ophiolitic and volcanic arc rocks of this Cretaceous (∼135-70 Ma) arc contain old zircons (∼200-2525 Ma) attesting to diverse crustal inputs. The Hf-O isotope systematics of these zircons suggest derivation from exposed crustal terranes in northern Central America (e.g. Mexico) and South America. Modeling of the sedimentary component in the most mafic lavas suggests a contribution of no more than 2% for the case of source contamination or less than 4% for sediment assimilation by the magma. We discuss several possibilities for the presence of inherited zircons and conclude that they were transported as detrital grains into the mantle beneath the Caribbean Plate via subduction of oceanic crust. The detrital zircons were subsequently entrained by mafic melts that were rapidly emplaced into the Caribbean volcanic arc crust and supra-subduction mantle. These findings suggest transport of continental detritus, through the mantle wedge above subduction zones, in

  15. Geophysical study of the structure and processes of the continental convergence zones: Alpine-Himalayan belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.; Molnar, P.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the structure of the continental collision zones using seismic and body waves, theoretical modelling of the thermal regime of the convergence processes, and studies of earthquake mechanisms and deformation aspects of the model are covered.

  16. Moditored unsaturated soil transport processes as a support for large scale soil and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    The current societal demand for sustainable soil and water management is very large. The drivers of global and climate change exert many pressures on the soil and water ecosystems, endangering appropriate ecosystem functioning. The unsaturated soil transport processes play a key role in soil-water system functioning as it controls the fluxes of water and nutrients from the soil to plants (the pedo-biosphere link), the infiltration flux of precipitated water to groundwater and the evaporative flux, and hence the feed back from the soil to the climate system. Yet, unsaturated soil transport processes are difficult to quantify since they are affected by huge variability of the governing properties at different space-time scales and the intrinsic non-linearity of the transport processes. The incompatibility of the scales between the scale at which processes reasonably can be characterized, the scale at which the theoretical process correctly can be described and the scale at which the soil and water system need to be managed, calls for further development of scaling procedures in unsaturated zone science. It also calls for a better integration of theoretical and modelling approaches to elucidate transport processes at the appropriate scales, compatible with the sustainable soil and water management objective. Moditoring science, i.e the interdisciplinary research domain where modelling and monitoring science are linked, is currently evolving significantly in the unsaturated zone hydrology area. In this presentation, a review of current moditoring strategies/techniques will be given and illustrated for solving large scale soil and water management problems. This will also allow identifying research needs in the interdisciplinary domain of modelling and monitoring and to improve the integration of unsaturated zone science in solving soil and water management issues. A focus will be given on examples of large scale soil and water management problems in Europe.

  17. Transport Studies at the Vadose Zone Research Park, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory: Results of Initial Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roback, R. C.; Jones, C. L.; Hull, L. C.; McLing, T. L.; Baker, K. E.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.; Adams, J. D.; Nichols, E. M.

    2003-12-01

    The Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) provides a unique opportunity to investigate flow and transport in a thick, fractured and layered vadose zone. The VZRP includes two newly constructed percolation ponds each approximately 160000 square ft in area, which receive roughly 1.0 to 1.5 million gallons/day of uncontaminated process water. Monitoring wells and instrumented boreholes surround the percolation ponds. These are distributed in nested sets that allow continuous monitoring and sample collection along two important hydrologic contacts; one located at roughly 60' bls along a contact between alluvium and basalt and the other at 125' bls, along a sedimentary interbed in basalt. Both of these contacts support perched water zones. Hydraulic data have been collected nearly continuously since the first use of the percolation ponds in August 2002. Samples for geochemical studies were also collected during the first few weeks of discharge to the south pond to observe geochemical trends during initial wetting of the subsurface. During the summer of 2003, two tracer tests were performed. The first test consisted of injecting a conservative tracer (2,4,5-trifluorobenzoic acid) into the south pond, which had been receiving water for almost 10 months prior and for which hydraulic data indicated a steady state hydraulic system. The second tracer test was conducted in the north pond and consisted of simultaneous injection of two conservative tracers with different diffusion coefficients (2,4-difluorobenzoic acid, and Br- ion). Tracer injection coincided with the switching of water from the south to the north pond, which had been dry for 10 months prior. Thus, this test afforded us the opportunity to evaluate transport behavior in a relatively dry vadose zone, and to compare this to observed transport behavior under the earlier steady state, more saturated flow condition. Results from the first tracer test show tracer breakthrough in a shallow well, close to the south pond

  18. High rates of organic carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Ryan M; Rutlidge, Helen; Bond, Nick R; Eberhard, Stefan M; Auhl, Alexandra; Andersen, Martin S; Valdez, Dominic G; Kennard, Mark J

    2017-10-16

    Organic carbon cycling is a fundamental process that underpins energy transfer through the biosphere. However, little is known about the rates of particulate organic carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams, which is often the only wetted environment remaining when surface flows cease. We used leaf litter and cotton decomposition assays, as well as rates of microbial respiration, to quantify rates of organic carbon processing in surface and hyporheic environments of intermittent and perennial streams under a range of substrate saturation conditions. Leaf litter processing was 48% greater, and cotton processing 124% greater, in the hyporheic zone compared to surface environments when calculated over multiple substrate saturation conditions. Processing was also greater in more saturated surface environments (i.e. pools). Further, rates of microbial respiration on incubated substrates in the hyporheic zone were similar to, or greater than, rates in surface environments. Our results highlight that intermittent streams are important locations for particulate organic carbon processing and that the hyporheic zone sustains this fundamental process even without surface flow. Not accounting for carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams may lead to an underestimation of its local ecological significance and collective contribution to landscape carbon processes.

  19. Impact of material heterogeneity on solute transport behavior in the unsaturated zone of the Calcaire de Beauce aquifer (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viel, Emelie; Coquet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Since a few decades, the Calcaire de Beauce aquifer is contaminated with nitrate. The nitrate dynamics in the aquifer and in the surface soil are quite well understood, but its transport through the vadose zone remains largely unknown. When models fail to simulate nitrate concentrations in wells, preferential flow or physical non-equilibrium transport in soil and in the vadose zone is usually put forward to explain this failure. To study transport processes in the vadose zone of the Calcaire de Beauce aquifer, undisturbed cores (30 cm length and 20 cm diameter) have been taken below the deepest soil horizon. At the field scale, the vadose zone is composed of powdery limestone spatially very heterogeneous, and including a variable amount of coarse elements. Two columns were selected: column "6" is made of very fine homogeneous limestone whereas column "8" is very heterogeneous with a large proportion of coarse elements. Elution experiments have been performed on both columns. A tracer (Br- or DFBA) in a solution of 5 mM CaCl2 was spread as a pulse on the top of the column with a rainfall simulator. Input flow rate was kept constant for steady state cases, or suddenly closed for flux interruption cases. Outflow was collected as a function of time for tracer concentration measurement. The collected fractions were analyzed by HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography) with a UV detector. Three types of experiments took place: • For steady state experiments, three rainfall rates, respectively 4, 8, and 16 mm/h, have been used to study the occurrence of immobile water in the columns. The tracer was injected during 120 min followed by CaCl2 tracer-free solution at same flow rate. • For flux-interruption experiments, only the 4 and 8 mm/h rainfall rates were used. The tracer was injected during 120 min, input and output fluxes were then stopped and restarted seven days later with the same flow rate. • For drainage experiments, only the 4 and 8 mm/h rainfall rates

  20. Strategies for Processing Semen from Subfertile Stallions for Cooled Transport.

    PubMed

    Varner, Dickson D

    2016-12-01

    Subfertility can be a confusing term because some semen of good quality can have reduced fertility following cooled transport if the semen is processed in an improper manner. General procedures aimed at processing stallion semen for cooled transport are well described. An array of factors could exist in reduced fertility of cool-transported semen. This article focuses on centrifugation techniques that can be used to maximize sperm quality of stallions whose semen is intended for cooled transport. Clinical cases are also provided for practical application of techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris

    In this study, a well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (U aq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time seriesmore » trends for U aq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in U aq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized U aq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While U aq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.« less

  2. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    DOE PAGES

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris; ...

    2016-03-04

    In this study, a well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (U aq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time seriesmore » trends for U aq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in U aq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized U aq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While U aq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.« less

  3. Ultrasonic probing of the fracture process zone in rock using surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, P. L.; Spetzler, H.

    1984-01-01

    A microcrack process zone is frequently suggested to accompany macrofractures in rock and play an important role in the resistance to fracture propagation. Attenuation of surface waves propagating through mode I fractures in wedge-loaded double-cantilever beam specimens of Westerly granite has been recorded in an attempt to characterize the structure of the fracture process zone. The ultrasonic measurements do not support the generally accepted model of a macroscopic fracture that incrementally propagates with the accompaniment of a cloud of microcracks. Instead, fractures in Westerly granite appear to form as gradually separating surfaces within a zone having a width of a few millimeters and a length of several tens of millimeters. A fracture process zone of this size would necessitate the use of meter-sized specimens in order for linear elastic fracture mechanics to be applicable.

  4. Unlocking the Secrets of the Mantle Wedge: New Insights Into Melt Generation Processes in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, T. L.

    2007-05-01

    Recent laboratory studies of the melting and crystallization behavior of mantle peridotite and subduction zone lavas have led to new insights into melting processes in island arc settings. Melting of the mantle wedge in the presence of H2O begins at much lower temperatures than previously thought. The solidus of mantle peridotite at 3 GPa is ~ 800 °C, which is 200 °C below previous estimates. At pressures greater than 2.4 GPa chlorite becomes a stable phase on the solidus and it remains stable until ~ 3.5 GPa. Therefore, melting over this pressure range occurs in the presence of chlorite, which contains ~ 12 wt. % H2O. Chlorite stabilized on the peridotite solidus by slab-derived H2O may be the ultimate source of H2O for subduction zone magmatism. Thus, chlorite could transport large amounts of H2O into the descending mantle wedge to depths where it can participate in melting to generate hydrous arc magmas. Our ability to identify primitive mantle melts at subduction zones has led to the following observations. 1) Primitive mantle melts show evidence of final equilibration at shallow depths near the mantle - crust boundary. 2) They contain variable amounts of dissolved H2O (up to 6 wt. %). 3) They record variable extents of melting (up to > 25 wt. %). To produce melts with such variable characteristics requires more than one melting process and requires consideration of a new type of melting called hydrous flux melting. Flux melting occurs when the H2O - rich melt initially produced on the solidus near the base of the mantle wedge ascends and continuously reacts with overlying hotter, shallower mantle. The mantle melts and magmatic H2O content is constantly diluted as the melt ascends and reacts with shallower, hotter mantle. Anhydrous mantle melts are also found in close temporal and spatial proximity to hydrous flux melts. These melts are extracted at similar depths near the top of the mantle wedge when mantle is advected up and into the wedge corner and melted

  5. Description of algorithms for processing Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zion, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The algorithms for processing coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data to geophysical units (pigment concentration) are described. Current public domain information for processing these data is summarized. Calibration, atmospheric correction, and bio-optical algorithms are presented. Three CZCS data processing implementations are compared.

  6. Influences of the unsaturated, saturated, and riparian zones on the transport of nitrate near the Merced River, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Phillips, S.P.; Bayless, E.R.; Zamora, C.; Kendall, C.; Wildman, R.A.; Hering, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Transport and transformation of nitrate was evaluated along a 1-km groundwater transect from an almond orchard to the Merced River, California, USA, within an irrigated agricultural setting. As indicated by measurements of pore-water nitrate and modeling using the root zone water quality model, about 63% of the applied nitrogen was transported through a 6.5-m unsaturated zone. Transport times from recharge locations to the edge of a riparian zone ranged from approximately 6 months to greater than 100 years. This allowed for partial denitrification in horizons having mildly reducing conditions, and essentially no denitrification in horizons with oxidizing conditions. Transport times across a 50-100-m-wide riparian zone of less than a year to over 6 years and more strongly reducing conditions resulted in greater rates of denitrification. Isotopic measurements and concentrations of excess N2 in water were indicative of denitrification with the highest rates below the Merced River. Discharge of water and nitrate into the river was dependent on gradients driven by irrigation or river stage. The results suggest that the assimilative capacity for nitrate of the groundwater system, and particularly the riverbed, is limiting the nitrate load to the Merced River in the study area. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  7. 78 FR 30270 - Foreign-Trade Zone 247-Erie, Pennsylvania, Application for Subzone, GE Transportation, Grove City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ..., Pennsylvania, Application for Subzone, GE Transportation, Grove City, Pennsylvania An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the Erie-Western Pennsylvania Port Authority..., located in Grove City, Pennsylvania. The application was submitted pursuant to the provisions of the...

  8. SCREENING MODEL FOR NONAQUEOUS PHASE-LIQUID TRANSPORT IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING GREEN-AMPT AND KINEMATIC WAVE THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, a screening model for flow of a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and associated chemical transport in the vadose zone is developed. he model is based on kinematic approximation of the governing equations for both the NAPL and a partitionable chemical constituent. he ...

  9. Littoral transport rates in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell: a process-based model analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, E. P. L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Brocatus, John

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sediment transport patterns and pathways is essential for sustainable coastal zone management of the heavily modified coastline of Santa Barbara and Ventura County (California, USA). A process-based model application, based on Delft3D Online Morphology, is used to investigate the littoral transport potential along the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (between Point Conception and Mugu Canyon). An advanced optimalization procedure is applied to enable annual sediment transport computations by reducing the ocean wave climate in 10 wave height - direction classes. Modeled littoral transport rates compare well with observed dredging volumes, and erosion or sedimentation hotspots coincide with the modeled divergence and convergence of the transport gradients. Sediment transport rates are strongly dependent on the alongshore variation in wave height due to wave sheltering, diffraction and focusing by the Northern Channel Islands, and the local orientation of the geologically-controlled coastline. Local transport gradients exceed the net eastward littoral transport, and are considered a primary driver for hot-spot erosion.

  10. Formation and transport of deethylatrazine in the soil and vadose zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, C.D.; Thurman, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and two degradation products were monitored at seven depths in the soil and vadose zone throughout the growing season in two experimental plots in which corn (Zea mays L.) was grown. The soils in these plots were a Kimo silty clay loam (clayey over loamy, montmorillonitic, mesic, Fluvaquentic Hapludoll) and a Eudora silt loam (course, silty, mixed, mesic, Fluventic Hapludoll). The purpose this field study was to identify and quantify the mobile and persistent degradation products of atrazine that comprise the input, or “source term,” to groundwater resulting from the application of atrazine to the soils. The formation of deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and deisopropylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) was monitored at vurious depths using suction lysimeters to determine the relative proportions at which these compounds enter the aquifer. Deethylatrazine was the major degradation product of atrazine identified in the soil water and appeared to enter the underlying aquifer at a concentration of 5.0 µg/L, which was greater than the concentration of atrazine entering the aquifer. Deisopropylatrazine also was detected in the soil water, bnt only in minor concentrations relative to atrazine and deethylatrazine. Because deethylatrazine was the major degradation product in the unsaturated zone, the deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) may be a good indicator of transport of atrazine through the soil. The hypothesis is proposed that the DAR may be used to distinguish point-source from nonpoint-source contamination of an aquifer.

  11. Iron-titanium oxyhydroxides which transport water into the deep upper mantle and mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukage, K. N.; Nishihara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally discovered a new hydrous phase in the system FeOOH-TiO2 at pressures of 10-16 GPa and temperatures of 1000-1600°C which corresponds to conditions of the deep upper mantle and the Earth's mantle transition zone. Seven different compositions in the FeOOH-TiO2 system having molar ratios of x = Ti/(Fe + Ti) = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5, 0.75 that were prepared by mixing reagent grade a-FeOOH (goethite) and TiO2 (anatase) powders were used as starting materials. High-pressure and high-temperature experiments were carried out using Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus (Orange-1000 at Ehime University and SPI-1000 at Tokyo Institute of Technology). In this system, we identified two stable iron-titanium oxyhydroxide phases whose estimated composition is expressed by (FeH)1 - xTixO2 . One is the Fe-rich solid solution (x < 0.23) with e-FeOOH type crystal structure (e-phase, orthorhombic, P21nm) that was described by the previous studies (e.g., Suzuki 2010), and the other is the more Ti-rich solid solution (x > 0.35) with a-PbO2 type structure (a-phase, orthorhombic, Pbcn). The a-phase is stable up to 1500ºC for a composition of x = 0.5 and at least to 1600ºC for x = 0.75. Our result means that this phase is stable at average mantle temperature in the Earth's mantle transition zone. The Iron-titanium-rich hydrous phases was possible to stable in basalt + H2O system (e.g., Hashimoto and Matsukage 2013). Therefore our findings suggest that water transport in the Earth's deep interior is probably much more efficient than had been previously thought.

  12. Physical processes in the transition zone between North Sea and Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Lu, Xi; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics in the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea are analyzed here using data from a 22-year-long climatic simulation with a focus on the periods 1992-1994 and 2001-2003 when two recent major inflow events occurred. Observations from gauges and in situ measurements are used to validate the model. Parameters, which cannot be easily measured, such as water and salt transports through straits, have been compared against similar previous estimates. The good performance of simulations is attributed to the finer resolution of the model compared to earlier set ups. The outflow in the Kattegat, which is an analogue of the tidal outflows, tends to propagate to the North over the shallows without showing a substantial deflection to the right due to the Earth's rotation. The inflow follows the topography. The different inflow and outflow pathways are explained as a consequence of the specific combination of bathymetry, axial and lateral processes. The circulation in Kattegat is persistently clockwise with an eastern intensification during inflow and a western one during outflow regimes. The tidal wave there propagates as Kelvin wave, keeping the coast on its right. The flows in the two main straits reveal very different responses to tides, which are also highly asymmetric during inflow and outflow conditions. The circulation has a typical two-layer structure, the correlation between salinity and velocity tends to increase the salt transport in the salinity conveyor belt. The transversal circulation in the entrance of the Sound enhances the vertical mixing of the saltier North Sea water. The long-term averaged ratio of the water transports through the Great Belt and the Sound is ∼2.6-2.7 but this number changes reaching lower values during the major inflow in 1993. The transports in the straits are asymmetric. During inflow events the repartition of water penetrating the Baltic Sea is strongly in favor of the pathway through the Sound, which provides

  13. Localized traveling ionization zones and their importance for the high power impulse magnetron sputtering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maszl, Christian

    2016-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is a technique to deposit thin films with superior quality. A high ionization degree up to 90% and the natural occurence of high energetic metal ions are the reason why HiPIMS exceeds direct current magnetron sputtering in terms of coating quality. On the other hand HiPIMS suffers from a reduced efficiency, especially if metal films are produced. Therefore, a lot of research is done by experimentalists and theoreticians to clarify the transport mechanisms from target to substrate and to identify the energy source of the energetic metal ions. Magnetron plasmas are prone to a wide range of wave phenomena and instabilities. Especially, during HiPIMS at elevated power/current densities, symmetry breaks and self-organization in the plasma torus are observed. In this scenario localized travelling ionization zones with certain quasi-mode numbers are present which are commonly referred to as spokes. Because of their high rotation speed compared to typical process times of minutes their importance for thin film deposition was underestimated at first. Recent investigations show that spokes have a strong impact on particle transport, are probably the source of the high energetic metal ions and are therefore the essence of HiPIMS plasmas. In this contribution we will describe the current understanding of spokes, discuss implications for thin film synthesis and highlight open questions. This project is supported by the DFG (German Science Foundation) within the framework of the Coordinated Research Center SFB-TR 87 and the Research Department ``Plasmas with Complex Interactions'' at Ruhr-University Bochum.

  14. Groundwater flow path dynamics and nitrogen transport potential in the riparian zone of an agricultural headwater catchment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stream riparian zones are often thought of as areas that provide natural remediation for groundwater contaminants, especially agricultural nitrogen (N). While denitrification and vegetative uptake tend to be efficient N removal processes in slow moving shallow groundwater, these mechanisms decrease ...

  15. Microstructure characterization of the stir zone of submerged friction stir processed aluminum alloy 2219

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiuli, E-mail: feng.97@osu.edu; State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001; Liu, Huijie, E-mail: liuhj@hit.edu.cn

    Aluminum alloy 2219-T6 was friction stir processed using a novel submerged processing technique to facilitate cooling. Processing was conducted at a constant tool traverse speed of 200 mm/min and spindle rotation speeds in the range from 600 to 800 rpm. The microstructural characteristics of the base metal and processed zone, including grain structure and precipitation behavior, were studied using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microhardness maps were constructed on polished cross sections of as-processed samples. The effect of tool rotation speed on the microstructure and hardness of the stir zone was investigated. Themore » average grain size of the stir zone was much smaller than that of the base metal, but the hardness was also lower due to the formation of equilibrium θ precipitates from the base metal θ′ precipitates. Stir zone hardness was found to decrease with increasing rotation speed (heat input). The effect of processing conditions on strength (hardness) was rationalized based on the competition between grain refinement strengthening and softening due to precipitate overaging. - Highlights: • SZ grain size (∼ 1 μm) is reduced by over one order of magnitude relative to the BM. • Hardness in the SZ is lower than that of the precipitation strengthened BM. • Metastable θ′ in the base metal transforms to equilibrium θ in the stir zone. • Softening in the SZ results from a decrease of precipitation strengthening.« less

  16. Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes : a TPCB Peer Exchange

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-20

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes Peer Exchange held on September 9-10, 2015 in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. This event was sponsored ...

  17. Integrating transportation/transit planning in the overall planning process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to produce recommendations that will foster more transportation : and land use integration throughout the overall planning process in Delaware. A trend of : population growth and decentralization necessitates a proactive...

  18. The California general plan process and sustainable transportation planning

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-11-01

    This study reviewed the current and potential utility of California's General Plan process as a tool for promoting more sustainable local transportation systems The study used multiple methods to investigate this issue, including: 1. An extensive lit...

  19. Utilizing High-Performance Computing to Investigate Parameter Sensitivity of an Inversion Model for Vadose Zone Flow and Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Z.; Ward, A. L.; Fang, Y.; Yabusaki, S.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution geologic models have proven effective in improving the accuracy of subsurface flow and transport predictions. However, many of the parameters in subsurface flow and transport models cannot be determined directly at the scale of interest and must be estimated through inverse modeling. A major challenge, particularly in vadose zone flow and transport, is the inversion of the highly-nonlinear, high-dimensional problem as current methods are not readily scalable for large-scale, multi-process models. In this paper we describe the implementation of a fully automated approach for addressing complex parameter optimization and sensitivity issues on massively parallel multi- and many-core systems. The approach is based on the integration of PNNL's extreme scale Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (eSTOMP) simulator, which uses the Global Array toolkit, with the Beowulf-Cluster inspired parallel nonlinear parameter estimation software, BeoPEST in the MPI mode. In the eSTOMP/BeoPEST implementation, a pre-processor generates all of the PEST input files based on the eSTOMP input file. Simulation results for comparison with observations are extracted automatically at each time step eliminating the need for post-process data extractions. The inversion framework was tested with three different experimental data sets: one-dimensional water flow at Hanford Grass Site; irrigation and infiltration experiment at the Andelfingen Site; and a three-dimensional injection experiment at Hanford's Sisson and Lu Site. Good agreements are achieved in all three applications between observations and simulations in both parameter estimates and water dynamics reproduction. Results show that eSTOMP/BeoPEST approach is highly scalable and can be run efficiently with hundreds or thousands of processors. BeoPEST is fault tolerant and new nodes can be dynamically added and removed. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to use high-resolution geologic models to preserve

  20. Subglacial till formation: Microscale processes within the subglacial shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Jane K.

    2017-08-01

    This was a study of subglacial deformation till genesis from a modern temperate glacier, at Skálafellsjökull, Iceland. Detailed microscale properties of till samples (from Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM] and thin section analysis) were examined from a glacial site with in situ subglacial process monitoring and an exposed subglacial surface in the foreland. Two lithofacies were examined, a grey sandy till derived from the ash and basalt, and a silty reddish brown till derived from oxidized paleosols and/or tephra layers. These also represented a clay-content continuum from low (0.3%) to high (22.3%). The evolution from debris to subglacial till was investigated. This included a reduction in grain-size (21% for grey lithology, 13% reddish brown lithology), and reduction in rounding (RA) (32% for the grey lithology, 26% for the reddish brown lithology), and the quantification and analysis of the different grain erosion/comminution processes in the resultant till. It was shown that the microstructures within a till were dependent on shear strain and glaciological conditions (deformation history). The low clay content tills were dominated by linear structures (lineations and boudins, and anisotropic microfabric) whilst the higher clay content tills were dominated by rotational structures (turbates and plaster, and isotropic microfabric). These results are important in our understanding of the formation of both modern and Quaternary tills and informs our reconstruction of past glacial dynamics.

  1. Extraction of process zones and low-dimensional attractive subspaces in stochastic fracture mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Kerfriden, P.; Schmidt, K.M.; Rabczuk, T.; Bordas, S.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose to identify process zones in heterogeneous materials by tailored statistical tools. The process zone is redefined as the part of the structure where the random process cannot be correctly approximated in a low-dimensional deterministic space. Such a low-dimensional space is obtained by a spectral analysis performed on pre-computed solution samples. A greedy algorithm is proposed to identify both process zone and low-dimensional representative subspace for the solution in the complementary region. In addition to the novelty of the tools proposed in this paper for the analysis of localised phenomena, we show that the reduced space generated by the method is a valid basis for the construction of a reduced order model. PMID:27069423

  2. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Density pricing zones for special access and...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.123 Density pricing zones... price cap regulation may establish any number of density zones within a study area that is used for...

  3. Methane clathrate stability zone variations and gas transport in the Martian subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatekin, O.; Gloesener, E.; Dehant, V. M. A.; Temel, O.

    2016-12-01

    During the last years, several detections of methane in the atmosphere of Mars were reported from Earth-based and Mars orbit instruments with abundances ranging to tens of parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). Recently, the Curiosity rover detected methane with background levels of 0.7 ppbv and episodic releases of 7 ppbv. Although the methane sources are still unknown, this gas may have been stored in reservoirs of clathrate hydrate in the Martian subsurface where thermodynamics conditions are favourable to their presence. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds constituted by cages formed by hydrogen-bonded water molecules inside of which guest gas molecules are trapped. In this study, methane clathrate stability in the Martian subsurface are investigated and their temporal and spatial variations are studied. Present-day maps of methane clathrate stability zone are produced by coupling the stability conditions of methane clathrate with a subsurface model using the available observations such as the the thermal inertia derived from TES MGS data. Then, a gas transport model has been used to study the methane flux at the surface due to the diffusion of different plausible methane volumes released by clathrate hydrates at variable depths under the Martian surface.

  4. A Process-Based Transport-Distance Model of Aeolian Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, A. K.; Okin, G.; Wainwright, J.; Parsons, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new approach to modeling aeolian transport based on transport distance. Particle fluxes are based on statistical probabilities of particle detachment and distributions of transport lengths, which are functions of particle size classes. A computational saltation model is used to simulate transport distances over a variety of sizes. These are fit to an exponential distribution, which has the advantages of computational economy, concordance with current field measurements, and a meaningful relationship to theoretical assumptions about mean and median particle transport distance. This novel approach includes particle-particle interactions, which are important for sustaining aeolian transport and dust emission. Results from this model are compared with results from both bulk- and particle-sized-specific transport equations as well as empirical wind tunnel studies. The transport-distance approach has been successfully used for hydraulic processes, and extending this methodology from hydraulic to aeolian transport opens up the possibility of modeling joint transport by wind and water using consistent physics. Particularly in nutrient-limited environments, modeling the joint action of aeolian and hydraulic transport is essential for understanding the spatial distribution of biomass across landscapes and how it responds to climatic variability and change.

  5. The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds – a review of the scientific literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the riparian zone

  6. Transport induced by mean-eddy interaction: II. Analysis of transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Kayo; Wiggins, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of transport processes resulting from the mean-eddy interaction in a flow. The framework is based on the Transport Induced by the Mean-Eddy Interaction (TIME) method presented in a companion paper (Ide and Wiggins, 2014) [1]. The TIME method estimates the (Lagrangian) transport across stationary (Eulerian) boundaries defined by chosen streamlines of the mean flow. Our framework proceeds after first carrying out a sequence of preparatory steps that link the flow dynamics to the transport processes. This includes the construction of the so-called "instantaneous flux" as the Hovmöller diagram. Transport processes are studied by linking the signals of the instantaneous flux field to the dynamical variability of the flow. This linkage also reveals how the variability of the flow contributes to the transport. The spatio-temporal analysis of the flux diagram can be used to assess the efficiency of the variability in transport processes. We apply the method to the double-gyre ocean circulation model in the situation where the Rossby-wave mode dominates the dynamic variability. The spatio-temporal analysis shows that the inter-gyre transport is controlled by the circulating eddy vortices in the fast eastward jet region, whereas the basin-scale Rossby waves have very little impact.

  7. 29 CFR 788.11 - “Transporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âTransporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant... EMPLOYED § 788.11 “Transporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation terminal.” The transportation or movement of logs or other forestry products to a “mill processing...

  8. Interacting Physical and Biological Processes Affecting Nutrient Transport Through Human Dominated Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient transport. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient transport in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through transport to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus transport, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and transport. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes affecting nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.

  9. Water flow and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum: Upscaling from rhizosphere to root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarovitch, Naftali; Perelman, Adi; Guerra, Helena; Vanderborght, Jan; Pohlmeier, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Root water and nutrient uptake are among the most important processes considered in numerical models simulating water content and fluxes in the subsurface, as they control plant growth and production as well as water flow and nutrient transport out of the root zone. Root water uptake may lead to salt accumulation at the root-soil interface, resulting in rhizophere salt concentrations much higher than in the bulk soil. This salt accumulation is caused by soluble salt transport towards the roots by mass flow through the soil, followed by preferential adsorption of specific nutrients by active uptake, thereby excluding most other salts at the root-soil interface or in the root apoplast. The salinity buildup can lead to large osmotic pressure gradients across the roots thereby effectively reducing root water uptake. The initial results from rhizoslides (capillary paper growth system) show that sodium concentration is decreasing with distance from the root, compared with the bulk that remained more stable. When transpiration rate was decreased under high salinity levels, sodium concentration was more homogenous compared with low salinity levels. Additionally, sodium and gadolinium distributions were measured nondestructively around tomato roots using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This technique could also observe the root structure and water content around single roots. Results from the MRI confirm the solutes concentration pattern around roots and its relation to their initial concentration. We conclude that local water potentials at the soil-root interface differ from bulk potentials. These relative differences increase with decreasing root density, decreasing initial salt concentration and increasing transpiration rate. Furthermore, since climate may significantly influence plant response to salinity a dynamic climate-coupled salinity reduction functions are critical in while using macroscopic numerical models.

  10. Multiphasic modeling of charged solute transport across articular cartilage: Application of multi-zone finite-bath model.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-06-14

    Charged and uncharged solutes penetrate through cartilage to maintain the metabolic function of chondrocytes and to possibly restore or further breakdown the cartilage tissue in different stages of osteoarthritis. In this study the transport of charged solutes across the various zones of cartilage was quantified, taken into account the physicochemical interactions between the solute and the cartilage constituents. A multiphasic finite-bath finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate equine cartilage diffusion experiments that used a negatively charged contrast agent (ioxaglate) in combination with serial micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure the diffusion. By comparing the FE model with the experimental data both the diffusion coefficient of ioxaglate and the fixed charge density (FCD) were obtained. In the multiphasic model, cartilage was divided into multiple (three) zones to help understand how diffusion coefficient and FCD vary across cartilage thickness. The direct effects of charged solute-FCD interaction on diffusion were investigated by comparing the diffusion coefficients derived from the multiphasic and biphasic-solute models. We found a relationship between the FCD obtained by the multiphasic model and ioxaglate partitioning obtained from micro-CT experiments. Using our multi-zone multiphasic model, diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was up to ten-fold higher than that of the middle zone, while the FCD of the middle zone was up to almost two-fold higher than that of the superficial zone. In conclusion, the developed finite-bath multiphasic model provides us with a non-destructive method by which we could obtain both diffusion coefficient and FCD of different cartilage zones. The outcomes of the current work will also help understand how charge of the bath affects the diffusion of a charged molecule and also predict the diffusion behavior of a charged solute across articular cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Physical and Transport Properties of the carbonate-bearing faults: experimental insights from the Monte Maggio Fault zone (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Scuderi, Marco Maria; Collettini, Cristiano

    2015-04-01

    Physical properties of fault zones vary with time and space and in particular, fluid flow and permeability variations are strictly related to fault zone processes. Here we investigate the physical properties of carbonate samples collected along the Monte Maggio normal Fault (MMF), a regional structure (length ~10 km and displacement ~500 m) located within the active system of the Apennines. In particular we have studied an exceptionally exposed outcrop of the fault within the Calcare Massiccio formation (massive limestone) that has been recently exposed by new roadworks. Large cores (100 mm in diameter and up to 20 cm long) drilled perpendicular to the fault plane have been used to: 1) characterize the damage zone adjacent to the fault plane and 2) to obtain smaller cores, 38 mm in diameter both parallel and perpendicular to the fault plane, for rock deformation experiments. At the mesoscale two types of cataclastic damage zones can be identified in the footwall block (i) a Cemented Cataclasite (CC) and (ii), a Fault Breccia (FB). Since in some portions of the fault the hangingwall (HW) is still preserved we also collected HW samples. After preliminary porosity measurements at ambient pressure, we performed laboratory measurements of Vp, Vs, and permeability at effective confining pressures up to 100 MPa in order to simulate crustal conditions. The protolith has a primary porosity of about 7 %, formed predominantly by isolated pores since the connected porosity is only 1%. FB samples are characterized by 10% and 5% of bulk and connected porosity respectively, whilst CC samples show lower bulk porosity (7%) and a connected porosity of 2%. From ambient pressure to 100 MPa, P-wave velocity is about 5,9-6,0 km/s for the protolith, ranges from 4,9 km/s to 5,9 km/s for FB samples, whereas it is constant at 5,9 km/s for CC samples and ranges from 5,4 to 5,7 for HW sample. Vs shows the same behaviour resulting in a constant Vp/Vs ratio from 0 to 100 MPa that ranges from 1

  12. NASA Experiment on Tropospheric-Stratospheric Water Vapor Transport in the Intertropical Convergence Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The following six papers report preliminary results obtained from a field experiment designed to study the role of tropical cumulo-nimbus clouds in the transfer of water vapor from the troposphere to the stratosphere over the region of Panama. The measurements were made utilizing special NOAA enhanced IR satellite images, radiosonde-ozonesondes and a NASA U-2 aircraft carrying. nine experiments. The experiments were provided by a group of NASA, NOAA, industry, and university scientists. Measurements included atmospheric humidity, air and cloud top temperatures, atmospheric tracer constituents, cloud particle characteristics and cloud morphology. The aircraft made a total of eleven flights from August 30 through September 18, 1980, from Howard Air Force Base, Panama; the pilots obtained horizontal and vertical profiles in and near convectively active regions and flew around and over cumulo-nimbus towers and through the extended anvils in the stratosphere. Cumulo-nimbus clouds in the tropics appear to play an important role in upward water vapor transport and may represent the principal source influencing the stratospheric water vapor budget. The clouds provide strong vertical circulation in the troposphere, mixing surface air and its trace materials (water vapor, CFM's sulfur compounds, etc.) quickly up to the tropopause. It is usually assumed that large scale mean motions or eddy scale motions transport the trace materials through the tropopause and into the stratosphere where they are further dispersed and react with other stratospheric constituents. The important step between the troposphere and stratosphere for water vapor appears to depend upon the processes occurring at or near the tropopause at the tops of the cumulo-nimbus towers. Several processes have been sugested: (1) The highest towers penetrate the tropopause and carry water in the form of small ice particles directly into the stratosphere. (2) Water vapor from the tops of the cumulonimbus clouds is

  13. Low-Temperature Thermochronology for Unraveling Thermal Processes and Dating of Fault Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagami, T.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal signatures as well as timing of fault motions can be constrained by thermochronological analyses of fault-zone rocks (e.g., Tagami, 2012). Fault-zone materials suitable for such analyses are produced by tectocic and geochemical processes, such as (1) mechanical fragmentation of host rocks, grain-size reduction of fragments and recrystallization of grains to form mica and clay minerals, (2) secondary heating/melting of host rocks by frictional fault motions, and (3) mineral vein formation as a consequence of fluid advection associated with fault motions. The geothermal structure of fault zones are primarily controlled by the following three factors: (a) regional geothermal structure around the fault zone that reflect background thermo-tectonic history of studied province, (b) frictional heating of wall rocks by fault motions and resultant heat transfer into surrounding rocks, and (c) thermal influences by hot fluid advection in and around the fault zone. Thermochronological methods widely applied in fault zones are K-Ar (40Ar/39Ar), fission-track (FT), and U-Th methods. In addition, OSL, TL, ESR and (U-Th)/He methods are applied in some fault zones, in order to extract temporal imformation related to low temperature and/or very recent fault activities. Here I briefly review the thermal sensitivity of individual thermochronological systems, which basically controls the response of each method against faulting processes. Then, the thermal sensitivity of FTs is highlighted, with a particular focus on the thermal processes characteristic to fault zones, i.e., flash and hydrothermal heating. On these basis, representative examples as well as key issues, including sampling strategy, are presented to make thermochronologic analysis of fault-zone materials, such as fault gouges, pseudotachylytes and mylonites, along with geological, geomorphological and seismological implications. Finally, the thermochronologic analyses of the Nojima fault are overviewed, as an

  14. Enhanced Nitrogen Loss by Eddy-Induced Vertical Transport in the Offshore Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Lavik, Gaute; Stramma, Lothar; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Bristow, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    The eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) upwelling region is one of the ocean’s largest sinks of fixed nitrogen, which is lost as N2 via the anaerobic processes of anammox and denitrification. One-third of nitrogen loss occurs in productive shelf waters stimulated by organic matter export as a result of eastern boundary upwelling. Offshore, nitrogen loss rates are lower, but due to its sheer size this area accounts for ~70% of ETSP nitrogen loss. How nitrogen loss and primary production are regulated in the offshore ETSP region where coastal upwelling is less influential remains unclear. Mesoscale eddies, ubiquitous in the ETSP region, have been suggested to enhance vertical nutrient transport and thereby regulate primary productivity and hence organic matter export. Here, we investigated the impact of mesoscale eddies on anammox and denitrification activity using 15N-labelled in situ incubation experiments. Anammox was shown to be the dominant nitrogen loss process, but varied across the eddy, whereas denitrification was below detection at all stations. Anammox rates at the eddy periphery were greater than at the center. Similarly, depth-integrated chlorophyll paralleled anammox activity, increasing at the periphery relative to the eddy center; suggestive of enhanced organic matter export along the periphery supporting nitrogen loss. This can be attributed to enhanced vertical nutrient transport caused by an eddy-driven submesoscale mechanism operating at the eddy periphery. In the ETSP region, the widespread distribution of eddies and the large heterogeneity observed in anammox rates from a compilation of stations suggests that eddy-driven vertical nutrient transport may regulate offshore primary production and thereby nitrogen loss. PMID:28122044

  15. Role of Passive Diffusion, Transporters, and Membrane Trafficking-Mediated Processes in Cellular Drug Transport.

    PubMed

    Cocucci, E; Kim, J Y; Bai, Y; Pabla, N

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular drug accumulation is thought to be dictated by two major processes, passive diffusion through the lipid membrane or membrane transporters. The relative role played by these distinct processes remains actively debated. Moreover, the role of membrane-trafficking in drug transport remains underappreciated and unexplored. Here we discuss the distinct processes involved in cellular drug distribution and propose that better experimental models are required to elucidate the differential contributions of various processes in intracellular drug accumulation. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. The role of suspension events in cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport in the surf zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Suspension of sand in the surf zone is intermittent. Especially striking in a time series of concentration are periods of intense suspension, suspension events, when the water column suspended sediment concentration is an order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration. The prevalence, timing, and contribution of suspension events to cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport are explored using field data collected in the inner half of the surf zone during a large storm at Duck, NC. Suspension events are defined as periods when the concentration is above a threshold. Events tended to occur during onshore flow under the wave crest, resulting in an onshore contribution to the suspended sediment transport. Even though large events occurred less than 10 percent of the total time, at some locations onshore transport associated with suspension events was greater than mean-current driven offshore-directed transport during non-event periods, causing the net suspended sediment transport to be onshore. Events and fluctuations in longshore velocity were not correlated. However, events did increase the longshore suspended sediment transport by approximately the amount they increase the mean concentration, which can be up to 35%. Because of the lack of correlation, the longshore suspended sediment transport can be modeled without considering the details of the intensity and time of events as the vertical integration of the product of the time-averaged longshore velocity and an event-augmented time-averaged concentration. However, to accurately model cross-shore suspended sediment transport, the timing and intensity of suspension events must be reproduced.

  17. Transport of elemental mercury in the unsaturated zone from a waste disposal site in an arid region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury contained in buried landfill waste may be released via upward emission to the atmosphere or downward leaching to groundwater. Data from the US Geological Survey’s Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in arid southwestern Nevada reveal another potential pathway of Hg release: long-distance (102 m) lateral migration of elemental Hg (Hg0) through the unsaturated zone. Gas collected from multiple depths from two instrumented boreholes that sample the entire 110-m unsaturated zone thickness and are located 100 and 160 m away from the closest waste burial trench exhibit gaseous Hg concentrations of up to 33 and 11 ng m−3, respectively. The vertical distribution of gaseous Hg in the borehole closest to the disposal site shows distinct subsurface peaks in concentration at depths of 1.5 and 24 m that cannot be explained by radial diffusive transport through a heterogeneous layered unsaturated zone. The inability of current models to explain gaseous Hg distribution at the ADRS highlights the need to advance the understanding of gas-phase contaminant transport in unsaturated zones to attain a comprehensive model of landfill Hg release.

  18. In-situ Observations of Swash-zone Flow Velocities and Sediment Transport on a Steep Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardon-Maldonado, P.; Puleo, J. A.; Figlus, J.

    2014-12-01

    A 45 m scaffolding frame containing an array of instruments was installed at South Bethany Beach, Delaware, to obtain in-situ measurements in the swash zone. Six cross-shore stations were established to simultaneously measure near-bed velocity profiles, sediment concentration and water level fluctuations on a steep beach. Measurements of swash-zone hydrodynamics and morphological change were collected from February 12 to 25, 2014, following a large Nor'easter storm with surf zone significant wave height exceeding 5 m. Swash-zone flow velocities (u,v,w) were measured at each cross-shore location using a Nortek Vectrino profiling velocimeter that measured a 30 mm velocity profile at 1 mm vertical increments at 100 Hz. These velocity profiles were used to quantify the vertical flow structure over the foreshore and estimate hydrodynamic parameters such as bed shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation. Sediment concentrations were measured using optical backscatter sensors (OBS) to obtain spatio-temporal measurements during both uprush and backwash phases of the swash cycle. Cross-shore sediment transport rates at each station were estimated by taking the product of cross-shore velocity and sediment concentration. Foreshore elevations were sampled every low tide using a Leica GPS system with RTK capability. Cross-shore sediment transport rates and gradients derived from the velocities and bed shear stress estimates will be related to the observed morphological change.

  19. 75 FR 64248 - Approval for Processing Authority Foreign-Trade Zones 73 and 74; The Belt's Corporation (Kitting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1713] Approval for Processing Authority Foreign-Trade Zones 73 and 74; The Belt's Corporation (Kitting of Liquor Gift Sets), Elkridge and Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U...

  20. Zoned chondrules in Semarkona: Evidence for high-and low-temperature processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.; Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Wang, Jingyuan; Brearley, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    At least 15% of the low-FeO chondrules in Semarkona (LL3.0) have mesostases that are concentrically zoned in Na, with enrichments near the outer margins. We have studied zoned chondrules using electron microprobe methods (x-ray mapping plus quantitative analysis), ion micropobe analysis for trace elements and hydrogen isotopes, cathodoluminescence imaging, and transmission electron microscopy in order to determine what these objects can tell us about the environment in which chondrules formed and evolved. Mesostases in these chondrules are strongly zoned in all moderately volatile elements and H (interpreted as water). Calcium is depleted in areas of volatile enrichment. Titanium and Cr generally decrease toward the chondrule surfaces, whereas Al and Si may either increase or decrease, generally in opposite directions to one another; Mn follows Na in some chondrules but not in others; Fe and Mg are unzoned. D/H ratios increase in the water-rich areas of zoned chondrules. Mesostasis shows cathodoluminescence zoning in most zoned chondrules, with the brightest yellow color near the outside. Mesostasis in zoned chondrules appears to be glassy, with no evidence for devitrification. Systematic variations in zoning patterns among pyroxene- and olivine-rich chondrules may indicate that fractionation of low- and high-Ca pyroxene played some role in Ti, Cr, Mn, Si, Al, and some Ca zoning. But direct condensation of elements into hot chondrules, secondary melting of late condensates into the outer portions of chondrules, and subsolidus diffusion of elements into warm chondrules cannot account for the sub-parallel zoning profiles of many elements, the presence of H2O, or elemental abundance patterns. Zoning of moderately volatile elements and Ca may have been produced by hydration of chondrule glass without devitrification during aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. This could have induced structural changes in the glass allowing rapid diffusion and exchange of elements

  1. Toward computational models of magma genesis and geochemical transport in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R.; Spiegelman, M.

    2003-04-01

    The chemistry of material erupted from subduction-related volcanoes records important information about the processes that lead to its formation at depth in the Earth. Self-consistent numerical simulations provide a useful tool for interpreting this data as they can explore the non-linear feedbacks between processes that control the generation and transport of magma. A model capable of addressing such issues should include three critical components: (1) a variable viscosity solid flow solver with smooth and accurate pressure and velocity fields, (2) a parameterization of mass transfer reactions between the solid and fluid phases and (3) a consistent fluid flow and reactive transport code. We report on progress on each of these parts. To handle variable-viscosity solid-flow in the mantle wedge, we are adapting a Patankar-based FAS multigrid scheme developed by Albers (2000, J. Comp. Phys.). The pressure field in this scheme is the solution to an elliptic equation on a staggered grid. Thus we expect computed pressure fields to have smooth gradient fields suitable for porous flow calculations, unlike those of commonly used penalty-method schemes. Use of a temperature and strain-rate dependent mantle rheology has been shown to have important consequences for the pattern of flow and the temperature structure in the wedge. For computing thermal structure we present a novel scheme that is a hybrid of Crank-Nicholson (CN) and Semi-Lagrangian (SL) methods. We have tested the SLCN scheme on advection across a broad range of Peclet numbers and show the results. This scheme is also useful for low-diffusivity chemical transport. We also describe our parameterization of hydrous mantle melting [Katz et. al., G3, 2002 in review]. This parameterization is designed to capture the melting behavior of peridotite--water systems over parameter ranges relevant to subduction. The parameterization incorporates data and intuition gained from laboratory experiments and thermodynamic

  2. Impacts of Quaternary History on Critical Zone Structure and Processes: Examples and a Conceptual Model from the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Alison M.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Grimley, David A.; Stumpf, Andrew J.; Kumar, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The concept of a critical zone (CZ) supporting terrestrial life has fostered groundbreaking interdisciplinary science addressing complex interactions among water, soil, rock, air and life near Earth’s surface. Pioneering work has focused on the CZ in areas with residual soils and steady-state or erosional topography. CZ evolution in these areas is conceptualized as progressive weathering of local bedrock (e.g. in the flow-through reactor model). However, this model is not applicable to areas in which weathering profiles form in transported materials including the formerly glaciated portion of the Central Lowland of North America. We present a new conceptual model of CZ evolution in landscapes impacted by continental glaciation based on investigations at three study sites in the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO) The IML-CZO is devoted to the study of CZ processes in a region characterized by thick surficial deposits resulting from multiple continental glaciations, with bedrock at depths of up to 150 m. Here the physical (glacial ice, loess, developing soil profiles) and biological (microbes, tundra, forest, prairie) components of the CZ vary significantly in time. Moreover, the spatial relationships between mineral components of the CZ record a history of glacial-interglacial cycles and landscape evolution. We present cross-sections from IML-CZO sites to provide specific examples of how environmental change is recorded by the structure of the mineral components of the CZ. We build on these examples to create an idealized model of CZ evolution through a glacial cycle that represents the IML-CZO sites and other areas of low relief that have experienced continental glaciation. In addition, we identify two main characteristics of CZ structure which should be included in a conceptual model of CZ development in the IML-CZO and similar settings: (1) mineral components have diverse origins and transport trajectories including alteration in

  3. Colloid formation and metal transport through two mixing zones affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Bencala, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Stream discharges and concentrations of dissolved and colloidal metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), SO4, and dissolved silica were measured to identify chemical transformations and determine mass transports through two mixing zones in the Animas River that receive the inflows from Cement and Mineral Creeks. The creeks were the dominant sources of Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb, whereas the upstream Animas River supplied about half of the Zn. With the exception of Fe, which was present in dissolved and colloidal forms, the metals were dissolved in the acidic, high-SO4 waters of Cement Creek (pH 3.8). Mixing of Cement Creek with the Animas River increased pH to near-neutral values and transformed Al and some additional Fe into colloids which also contained Cu and Pb. Aluminium and Fe colloids had already formed in the mildly acidic conditions in Mineral Creek (pH 6.6) upstream of the confluence with the Animas River. Colloidal Fe continued to form downstream of both mixing zones. The Fe- and Al-rich colloids were important for transport of Cu, Pb, and Zn, which appeared to have sorbed to them. Partitioning of Zn between dissolved and colloidal phases was dependent on pH and colloid concentration. Mass balances showed conservative transports for Ca, Mg, Mn, SO4, and dissolved silica through the two mixing zones and small losses (< 10%) of colloidal Al, Fe and Zn from the water column.

  4. Recovery of Nitrogen Pools and Processes in Degraded Riparian Zones in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    John T. Walker; James M. Vose; Jennifer Knoepp; Christopher D. Geron

    2009-01-01

    Establishment of riparian buffers is an effective method for reducing nutrient input to streams. However, the underlying biogeochemical processes are not fully understood. The objective of this 4-yr study was to examine the effects of riparian zone restoration on soil N cycling mechanisms in a mountain pasture previously degraded by cattle. Soil inorganic N pools,...

  5. The impacts of intense moisture transport on the deep and marginal sea-ice zones of the Arctic during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Cian; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few decades observations have shown that the Arctic is warming at a much faster rate than the global average; a phenomenon know as polar amplification. This tendency for the high latitudes to warm at a disproportionate rate compared to the global average is also a robust feature of global climate model simulations and highlights the importance of climate research in this region. The most often cited mechanism explaining polar amplification is the ice-albedo feed-back; a mechanism by which the surface albedo decreases as sea ice retreats in response to a warming climate. This in turn leads to a higher absorption of insolation and the melting of more ice. In recent years the role of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism as the main cause of polar amplification has been brought into question. GCM studies show a slight reduction of the total poleward energy transport in a warming climate; with the dry static component decreasing at a much faster rate than the moist component. This repartitioning of the poleward energy transport has implications for the formation of clouds in the Arctic, which induce a secondary warming by trapping escaping OLR. These cloud processes in the atmosphere can explain at least part of the recent temperature amplification in the Arctic; and indeed even aquaplanet model studies with zero sea-ice reproduce the polar amplification phenomenon. Directionally, the ice-albedo feedback is a "bottom-up" process; inducing warming in the atmosphere from an increasing surface heat source i.e. more open ocean. The opening of more ocean surface is also consistent with the bottom amplified structure of warming in the Arctic. Here we present evidence for a mechanism in the atmosphere that matches with observations, but in fact acts the opposite direction i.e. "top-down", whereby moist air masses from lower latitudes, termed "moisture intrusions", travelling over the sea-ice increase the longwave down radiation and in turn induce a bottom amplified

  6. Fine Sediment Erosion and Transport to the Near Coastal Zone from Watersheds of St. Thomas, USVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, G.; Xuan, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The US Virgin Islands' landscape is characterized by steep slopes and short distances from ridge peaks to fringing reefs. Fine-grained sediments eroded from predominantly thin soils may be transported rapidly by streams (locally called guts) to the sea and cause stress to corals. We have studied erosion and transport processes on St Thomas by three methods: (1) continuous monitoring of suspended matter in one of the island's few perennial streams, Dorothea Gut, (2) measurement of 137Cs inventories in soil cores taken across the landscape, and (3) evaluation of sediment captured in most of the island's coastal ponds, through which a significant portion of runoff must pass. We find that, for areas that have not been recently disturbed, watersheds retain fine sediments surprisingly well. On the other hand, small patches of land, like building lots that have been recently disturbed and poorly managed, can produce disproportionate amounts of fine sediment. These results differ somewhat from nearby St John, USVI, where unpaved roads are the major source of eroded sediments.

  7. Gathering Information from Transport Systems for Processing in Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodym, Oldřich; Unucka, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Paper deals with complex system for processing information from means of transport acting as parts of train (rail or road). It focuses on automated information gathering using AutoID technology, information transmission via Internet of Things networks and information usage in information systems of logistic firms for support of selected processes on MES and ERP levels. Different kinds of gathered information from whole transport chain are discussed. Compliance with existing standards is mentioned. Security of information in full life cycle is integral part of presented system. Design of fully equipped system based on synthesized functional nodes is presented.

  8. Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1998-01-01

    Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1-5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric.

  9. Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-09-22

    Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1--5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric. 5 figs.

  10. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... switched transport. 69.123 Section 69.123 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... for special access and switched transport. (a)(1) Incumbent local exchange carriers not subject to... at least 15 percent of that carrier's special access and transport revenues within that study area...

  11. Site-specific seismic ground motion analyses for transportation infrastructure in the New Madrid seismic zone.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-11-01

    Generic, code-based design procedures cannot account for the anticipated short-period attenuation and long-period amplification of earthquake ground motions in the deep, soft sediments of the Mississippi Embayment within the New Madrid Seismic Zone (...

  12. Transportation informatics : advanced image processing techniques automated pavement distress evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    The current project, funded by MIOH-UTC for the period 1/1/2009- 4/30/2010, is concerned : with the development of the framework for a transportation facility inspection system using : advanced image processing techniques. The focus of this study is ...

  13. An isotopic view of water and nitrate transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J. R.; Pearlstein, S.; Hutchins, S.; Faulkner, B. R.; Rugh, W.; Willard, K.; Coulombe, R.; Compton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen (N) inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural fertilizers, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. However, the effectiveness of these improvements on groundwater quality is unclear because of the complexity of nutrient transport through the vadose zone and long groundwater residence times. Our objective was to focus on vadose zone transport and understand the dynamics and timing of N and water movement below the rooting zone in relation to N management and water inputs. Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking water movement, and understanding N transformations. In partnership with local farmers and state agencies, we established lysimeters and groundwater wells in multiple agricultural fields in the GWMA, and have monitored nitrate, nitrate isotopes, and water isotopes weekly for multiple years. Our results indicate that vadose zone transport is highly complex, and the residence time of water collected in lysimeters was much longer than expected. While input precipitation water isotopes were highly variable over time, lysimeter water isotopes were surprisingly consistent, more closely resembling long-term precipitation isotope means rather than recent precipitation isotopic signatures. However, some particularly large precipitation events with unique isotopic signatures revealed high spatial variability in transport, with some lysimeters showing greater proportions of recent precipitation inputs than others. In one installation where we have groundwater wells and lysimeters at multiple depths, nitrate/nitrite concentrations decreased with depth. N concentrations

  14. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system.

  15. Compositional Zoning in Kilauea Olivine: A Geochemical Tool for Investigating Magmatic Processes at Hawaiian Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Kendra J.

    Olivine compositions and zoning patterns have been widely used to investigate the evolution of magmas from their source to the Earthfs surface. Modeling the formation of compositional zoning in olivine crystals has been used to retrieve timescales of magma residence, mixing, and transit. This dissertation is composed of three projects that apply diffusion chronometry principles to investigate how zoned olivine phenocrysts record magmatic processes at Hawaiian volcanoes. Olivine phenocrysts from K.lauea, the most active and thoroughly studied volcano in Hawaiei, are used to develop a better understanding of how Hawaiian olivine crystals record magmatic histories. This work begins by examining how crustal processes such as magma mixing and diffusive reequilibration can modify olivine compositions inherited from growth in parental magmas (Chapter 2). Diffusive re-equilibration of Fe-Mg, Mn, and Ni in olivine crystals overprints the chemical relationships inherited during growth, which strongly impacts interpretations about mantle processes and source components. These issues are further complicated by sectioning effects, where small (400 ƒEm along the c-axis) olivine crystals are more susceptible to overprinting compared to large (800 ƒEm) crystals. Olivine compositions and zoning patterns are then used to show that magmas during K.laueafs explosive Keanak.koei Tephra period (1500-1823 C.E.) were mixed and stored in crustal reservoirs for weeks to months prior to eruption (Chapter 3). Fe-Mg disequilibrium between olivine rims and their surrounding glasses show that a late-stage mixing event likely occurred hours to days prior to eruption, but the exact timescale is difficult to quantify using Fe-Mg and Ni diffusion. Lithium, a rapidly diffusing trace element in olivine, is modeled for the first time in a natural volcanic system to quantify this late-stage, short-duration mixing event (Chapter 4). Lithium zoning in olivine records both growth and diffusion processes

  16. Numerical simulation of two-phase flow for sediment transport in the inner-surf and swash zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtyar, R.; Barry, D. A.; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, A.; Li, L.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Sander, G. C.

    2010-03-01

    A two-dimensional two-phase flow framework for fluid-sediment flow simulation in the surf and swash zones was described. Propagation, breaking, uprush and backwash of waves on sloping beaches were studied numerically with an emphasis on fluid hydrodynamics and sediment transport characteristics. The model includes interactive fluid-solid forces and intergranular stresses in the moving sediment layer. In the Euler-Euler approach adopted, two phases were defined using the Navier-Stokes equations with interphase coupling for momentum conservation. The k-ɛ closure model and volume of fluid approach were used to describe the turbulence and tracking of the free surface, respectively. Numerical simulations explored incident wave conditions, specifically spilling and plunging breakers, on both dissipative and intermediate beaches. It was found that the spatial variation of sediment concentration in the swash zone is asymmetric, while the temporal behavior is characterized by maximum sediment concentrations at the start and end of the swash cycle. The numerical results also indicated that the maximum turbulent kinetic energy and sediment flux occurs near the wave-breaking point. These predictions are in general agreement with previous observations, while the model describes the fluid and sediment phase characteristics in much more detail than existing measurements. With direct quantifications of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, sediment concentration and flux, the model provides a useful approach to improve mechanistic understanding of hydrodynamic and sediment transport in the nearshore zone.

  17. The Ansel Adams zone system: HDR capture and range compression by chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    2010-02-01

    We tend to think of digital imaging and the tools of PhotoshopTM as a new phenomenon in imaging. We are also familiar with multiple-exposure HDR techniques intended to capture a wider range of scene information, than conventional film photography. We know about tone-scale adjustments to make better pictures. We tend to think of everyday, consumer, silver-halide photography as a fixed window of scene capture with a limited, standard range of response. This description of photography is certainly true, between 1950 and 2000, for instant films and negatives processed at the drugstore. These systems had fixed dynamic range and fixed tone-scale response to light. All pixels in the film have the same response to light, so the same light exposure from different pixels was rendered as the same film density. Ansel Adams, along with Fred Archer, formulated the Zone System, staring in 1940. It was earlier than the trillions of consumer photos in the second half of the 20th century, yet it was much more sophisticated than today's digital techniques. This talk will describe the chemical mechanisms of the zone system in the parlance of digital image processing. It will describe the Zone System's chemical techniques for image synthesis. It also discusses dodging and burning techniques to fit the HDR scene into the LDR print. Although current HDR imaging shares some of the Zone System's achievements, it usually does not achieve all of them.

  18. Forest Canopy Processes in a Regional Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, Paul; Staebler, Ralf; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Zhang, Junhua; McLinden, Chris; Kharol, Shailesh; Moran, Michael; Robichaud, Alain; Zhang, Leiming; Stroud, Craig; Pabla, Balbir; Cheung, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Forest canopies have typically been absent or highly parameterized in regional chemical transport models. Some forest-related processes are often considered - for example, biogenic emissions from the forests are included as a flux lower boundary condition on vertical diffusion, as is deposition to vegetation. However, real forest canopies comprise a much more complicated set of processes, at scales below the "transport model-resolved scale" of vertical levels usually employed in regional transport models. Advective and diffusive transport within the forest canopy typically scale with the height of the canopy, and the former process tends to dominate over the latter. Emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons arise from the foliage, which may be located tens of metres above the surface, while emissions of biogenic nitric oxide from decaying plant matter are located at the surface - in contrast to the surface flux boundary condition usually employed in chemical transport models. Deposition, similarly, is usually parameterized as a flux boundary condition, but may be differentiated between fluxes to vegetation and fluxes to the surface when the canopy scale is considered. The chemical environment also changes within forest canopies: shading, temperature, and relativity humidity changes with height within the canopy may influence chemical reaction rates. These processes have been observed in a host of measurement studies, and have been simulated using site-specific one-dimensional forest canopy models. Their influence on regional scale chemistry has been unknown, until now. In this work, we describe the results of the first attempt to include complex canopy processes within a regional chemical transport model (GEM-MACH). The original model core was subdivided into "canopy" and "non-canopy" subdomains. In the former, three additional near-surface layers based on spatially and seasonally varying satellite-derived canopy height and leaf area index were added to the original model

  19. Determination of Transport Parameters in Unsaturated Zone by Tracer Experiment in the Porous Aquifer located at Ljubljana, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, S.; Cencur Curk, B.

    2009-04-01

    The gravel sandy aquifer of Ljubljansko polje is the source of drinking water for nearly 300.000 inhabitants of the Ljubljana city and vicinity. There are two main waterworks: Kleče and Hrastje. The plain area of Ljubljansko polje is a tectonic sink and consists of river sediments that can reach in thickness more than 100 m in the deepest part. The bedrock is the impermeable permocarbonic clayey shale, mudstones and sandstones. The hydraulic conductivity of Ljubljansko polje sediments is very good, from 10-2 m/s in the central part to 3.7•10-3 m/s on the borders of the plain. The average groundwater level is 20 m below surface. A numerical groundwater flow model was established for the wider area of the Ljubljansko polje aquifer. The fore mentioned model was not calibrated on solute transport parameters but only on water levels and this lead to unreliability in the transport model and its predictions of pollution scenarios. The transport model needs to calculate reliable scenarios of pollution dispersion, which can only be achieved with the application of real transport parameters. Human activities in the area of the Hrastje waterworks of Ljubljana threaten to degrade groundwater quality. For this reason several tracer experiments were carried out in the past. Despite a great risk, the experiments were performed on the catchment area of the Hrastje waterworks, inside the second water protection zone. During the experiments the water from Hrastje waterworks was still in use for drinking water supply. The tracer experiments were carried out in order to determine the solute transport parameters such as advection, dispersion and sorption. The research proved that the tracers could be used safely on sensitive area and that the researchers are capable and qualified to carry it out with a highest level of security. Since none of the past tracer experiments, carried out in the same area, gave us any detailed information on pollutant spreading in unsaturated zone a new

  20. Physical and Transport Property Variations Within Carbonate-Bearing Fault Zones: Insights From the Monte Maggio Fault (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippetta, F.; Carpenter, B. M.; Mollo, S.; Scuderi, M. M.; Scarlato, P.; Collettini, C.

    2017-11-01

    The physical characterization of carbonate-bearing normal faults is fundamental for resource development and seismic hazard. Here we report laboratory measurements of density, porosity, Vp, Vs, elastic moduli, and permeability for a range of effective confining pressures (0.1-100 MPa), conducted on samples representing different structural domains of a carbonate-bearing fault. We find a reduction in porosity from the fault breccia (11.7% total and 6.2% connected) to the main fault plane (9% total and 3.5% connected), with both domains showing higher porosity compared to the protolith (6.8% total and 1.1% connected). With increasing confining pressure, P wave velocity evolves from 4.5 to 5.9 km/s in the fault breccia, is constant at 5.9 km/s approaching the fault plane and is low (4.9 km/s) in clay-rich fault domains. We find that while the fault breccia shows pressure sensitive behavior (a reduction in permeability from 2 × 10-16 to 2 × 10-17 m2), the cemented cataclasite close to the fault plane is characterized by pressure-independent behavior (permeability 4 × 10-17 m2). Our results indicate that the deformation processes occurring within the different fault structural domains influence the physical and transport properties of the fault zone. In situ Vp profiles match well the laboratory measurements demonstrating that laboratory data are valuable for implications at larger scale. Combining the experimental values of elastic moduli and frictional properties it results that at shallow crustal levels, M ≤ 1 earthquakes are less favored, in agreement with earthquake-depth distribution during the L'Aquila 2009 seismic sequence that occurred on carbonates.

  1. Analytical Hierarchy Process modeling for malaria risk zones in Vadodara district, Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, B.; Joshi, J. P.

    2014-11-01

    Malaria epidemic is one of the complex spatial problems around the world. According to WHO, an estimated 6, 27, 000 deaths occurred due to malaria in 2012. In many developing nations with diverse ecological regions, it is still a large cause of human mortality. Owing to the incompleteness of epidemiological data and their spatial origin, the quantification of disease incidence burdening basic public health planning is a major constrain especially in developing countries. The present study focuses on the integrated Geospatial and Multi-Criteria Evaluation (AHP) technique to determine malaria risk zones. The study is conducted in Vadodara district, including 12 Taluka among which 4 Taluka are predominantly tribal. The influence of climatic and physical environmental factors viz., rainfall, hydro geomorphology; drainage, elevation, and land cover are used to score their share in the evaluation of malariogenic condition. This was synthesized on the basis of preference over each factor and the total weights of each data and data layer were computed and visualized. The district was divided into three viz., high, moderate and low risk zones .It was observed that a geographical area of 1885.2sq.km comprising 30.3% fall in high risk zone. The risk zones identified on the basis of these parameters and assigned weights shows a close resemblance with ground condition. As the API distribution for 2011overlaid corresponds to the risk zones identified. The study demonstrates the significance and prospect of integrating Geospatial tools and Analytical Hierarchy Process for malaria risk zones and dynamics of malaria transmission.

  2. Implications of contact metamorphism of Mancos Shale for critical zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarre-Sitchler, A.

    2016-12-01

    Bedrock lithology imparts control on some critical zone processes, for example rates and extent of chemical weathering, solute release though mineral dissolution, and water flow. Bedrock can be very heterogeneous resulting in spatial variability of these processes throughout a catchment. In the East River watershed outside of Crested Butte, Colorado, bedrock is dominantly comprised of the Mancos Shale; a Cretaceous aged, organic carbon rich marine shale. However, in some areas the Mancos Shale appears contact metamorphosed by nearby igneous intrusions resulting in a potential gradient in lithologic change in part of the watershed where impacts of lithology on critical zone processes can be evaluated. Samples were collected in the East River valley along a transect from the contact between the Tertiary Gothic Mountain laccolith of the Mount Carbon igneous system and the underlying Manocs shale. Porosity of these samples was analyzed by small-angle and ultra small-angle neutron scattering. Results indicate contact metamorphism decreases porosity of the shale and changes the pore shape from slightly anisotropic pores aligned with bedding in the unmetamorphosed shale to isotropic pores with no bedding alignment in the metamorphosed shales. The porosity analysis combined with clay mineralogy, surface area, carbon content and oxidation state, and solute release rates determined from column experiments will be used to develop a full understanding of the impact of contact metamorphism on critical zone processes in the East River.

  3. Correlated receptor transport processes buffer single-cell heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Kallenberger, Stefan M.; Unger, Anne L.; Legewie, Stefan; Lymperopoulos, Konstantinos; Eils, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Cells typically vary in their response to extracellular ligands. Receptor transport processes modulate ligand-receptor induced signal transduction and impact the variability in cellular responses. Here, we quantitatively characterized cellular variability in erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) trafficking at the single-cell level based on live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling. Using ensembles of single-cell mathematical models reduced parameter uncertainties and showed that rapid EpoR turnover, transport of internalized EpoR back to the plasma membrane, and degradation of Epo-EpoR complexes were essential for receptor trafficking. EpoR trafficking dynamics in adherent H838 lung cancer cells closely resembled the dynamics previously characterized by mathematical modeling in suspension cells, indicating that dynamic properties of the EpoR system are widely conserved. Receptor transport processes differed by one order of magnitude between individual cells. However, the concentration of activated Epo-EpoR complexes was less variable due to the correlated kinetics of opposing transport processes acting as a buffering system. PMID:28945754

  4. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  5. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was...

  6. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Activities Plan § 285.647 How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone...

  7. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  8. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your GAP will be processed based on how your limited lease, ROW...

  9. Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning Process: A Guidebook for Practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nathan; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Hurlbut, David J.

    Achieving clean energy goals may require new investments in transmission, especially if planners anticipate economic growth and increased demand for electricity. The renewable energy zone (REZ) transmission planning process can help policymakers ensure their infrastructure investments achieve national goals in the most economical manner. Policymakers, planners, and system operators around the world have used variations of the REZ process to chart the expansion of their transmission networks and overcome the barriers of traditional transmission planning. This guidebook seeks to help power system planners, key decision makers, and stakeholders understand and use the REZ transmission planning process to integrate transmission expansionmore » planning and renewable energy generation planning.« less

  10. Three-dimensional modeling of nitrate-N transport in vadose zone: Roles of soil heterogeneity and groundwater flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbariyeh, Simin; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Tang, Zhenghong; Li, Yusong

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of groundwater from nitrogen fertilizers in agricultural lands is an important environmental and water quality management issue. It is well recognized that in agriculturally intensive areas, fertilizers and pesticides may leach through the vadose zone and eventually reach groundwater. While numerical models are commonly used to simulate fate and transport of agricultural contaminants, few models have considered a controlled field work to investigate the influence of soil heterogeneity and groundwater flow on nitrate-N distribution in both root zone and deep vadose zone. In this work, a numerical model was developed to simulate nitrate-N transport and transformation beneath a center pivot-irrigated corn field on Nebraska Management System Evaluation area over a three-year period. The model was based on a realistic three-dimensional sediment lithology, as well as carefully controlled irrigation and fertilizer application plans. In parallel, a homogeneous soil domain, containing the major sediment type of the site (i.e. sandy loam), was developed to conduct the same water flow and nitrate-N leaching simulations. Simulated nitrate-N concentrations were compared with the monitored nitrate-N concentrations in 10 multi-level sampling wells over a three-year period. Although soil heterogeneity was mainly observed from top soil to 3 m below the surface, heterogeneity controlled the spatial distribution of nitrate-N concentration. Soil heterogeneity, however, has minimal impact on the total mass of nitrate-N in the domain. In the deeper saturated zone, short-term variations of nitrate-N concentration correlated with the groundwater level fluctuations.

  11. Three-dimensional modeling of nitrate-N transport in vadose zone: Roles of soil heterogeneity and groundwater flux.

    PubMed

    Akbariyeh, Simin; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Tang, Zhenghong; Li, Yusong

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of groundwater from nitrogen fertilizers in agricultural lands is an important environmental and water quality management issue. It is well recognized that in agriculturally intensive areas, fertilizers and pesticides may leach through the vadose zone and eventually reach groundwater. While numerical models are commonly used to simulate fate and transport of agricultural contaminants, few models have considered a controlled field work to investigate the influence of soil heterogeneity and groundwater flow on nitrate-N distribution in both root zone and deep vadose zone. In this work, a numerical model was developed to simulate nitrate-N transport and transformation beneath a center pivot-irrigated corn field on Nebraska Management System Evaluation area over a three-year period. The model was based on a realistic three-dimensional sediment lithology, as well as carefully controlled irrigation and fertilizer application plans. In parallel, a homogeneous soil domain, containing the major sediment type of the site (i.e. sandy loam), was developed to conduct the same water flow and nitrate-N leaching simulations. Simulated nitrate-N concentrations were compared with the monitored nitrate-N concentrations in 10 multi-level sampling wells over a three-year period. Although soil heterogeneity was mainly observed from top soil to 3 m below the surface, heterogeneity controlled the spatial distribution of nitrate-N concentration. Soil heterogeneity, however, has minimal impact on the total mass of nitrate-N in the domain. In the deeper saturated zone, short-term variations of nitrate-N concentration correlated with the groundwater level fluctuations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical Controls on Biogeochemical Processes in Intertidal Zones of Beach Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiss, James W.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Laattoe, Tariq; Russoniello, Christopher J.; Michael, Holly A.

    2017-11-01

    Marine ecosystems are sensitive to inputs of chemicals from submarine groundwater discharge. Tidally influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing zones in beach aquifers can host biogeochemical transformations that modify chemical loads prior to discharge. A numerical variable-density groundwater flow and reactive transport model was used to evaluate the physical controls on reactivity for mixing-dependent and mixing-independent reactions in beach aquifers, represented as denitrification and sulfate reduction, respectively. A sensitivity analysis was performed across typical values of tidal amplitude, hydraulic conductivity, terrestrial freshwater flux, beach slope, dispersivity, and DOC reactivity. For the model setup and conditions tested, the simulations demonstrate that denitrification can remove up to 100% of terrestrially derived nitrate, and sulfate reduction can transform up to 8% of seawater-derived sulfate prior to discharge. Tidally driven mixing between saltwater and freshwater promotes denitrification along the boundary of the intertidal saltwater circulation cell in pore water between 1 and 10 ppt. The denitrification zone occupies on average 49% of the mixing zone. Denitrification rates are highest on the landward side of the circulation cell and decrease along circulating flow paths. Reactivity for mixing-dependent reactions increases with the size of the mixing zone and solute supply, while mixing-independent reactivity is controlled primarily by solute supply. The results provide insights into the types of beaches most efficient in altering fluxes of chemicals prior to discharge and could be built upon to help engineer beaches to enhance reactivity. The findings have implications for management to protect coastal ecosystems and the estimation of chemical fluxes to the ocean.

  13. Borehole Time Domain Reflectometry in Layered Sandstone: Impact of Measurement Technique on Vadose Zone Process Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J.; Truss, S. W.

    2004-12-01

    An investigation is reported into the hydraulic behaviour of the vadose zone of a layered sandstone aquifer using borehole-based Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). TDR has been widely applied to shallow soils but has seen limited application at greater depth and in cemented lithologies due to the difficulty of installing conventional TDR probes in rock and from boreholes. Here, flat TDR probes that are simply in contact with, rather than inserted within the medium under investigation, have been developed and applied in a field study. Both a commercially available portable packer TDR system (TRIME-B3L Borehole Packer Probe) and specially designed TDR probes, permanently installed in boreholes on grouted-in packers were used to monitor seasonal fluctuations in moisture content in the vadose zone of a layered sandstone over one year under natural rainfall loading. The data show that the vadose zone contains seasonal perched water tables that form when downward percolating moisture reaches layers of fine grained sandstone and siltstone and causes local saturation. The formation of perched water tables is likely to lead to lateral flow bypassing the less permeable, finer layers. This contrasts with behaviour inferred from previous studies of the same aquifer that used borehole radar and resistivity, which suggested its vadose zone behaviour was characterized by uniform downwards migration of wetting fronts. To investigate the impact of measurement technique on observed response, the TDR data reported here were used to produce simulated zero offset profile (ZOP) borehole radar responses. This simulation confirmed the limited ability of ZOP borehole radar to detect key vadose zone processes, because the phenomenon of critical refraction minimizes the sensitivity of the results to high moisture content layers. The study illustrates that inappropriate technique selection results in hydrological process mis-identification, with serious consequences for the usefulness of data

  14. Modeling of natural organic matter transport processes in groundwater.

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, T C; Mas-Pla, J; McCarthy, J F; Williams, T M

    1995-01-01

    A forced-gradient tracer test was conducted at the Georgetown site to study the transport of natural organic matter (NOM) in groundwater. In particular, the goal of this experiment was to investigate the interactions between NOM and the aquifer matrix. A detailed three-dimensional characterization of the hydrologic conductivity heterogeneity of the site was obtained using slug tests. The transport of a conservative tracer (chloride) was successfully reproduced using these conductivity data. Despite the good simulation of the flow field, NOM breakthrough curves could not be reproduced using a two-site sorption model with spatially constant parameters. Preliminary results suggest that different mechanisms for the adsorption/desorption processes, as well as their spatial variability, may significantly affect the transport and fate of NOM. PMID:7621798

  15. Process based modeling of total longshore sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Hanes, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Waves, currents, and longshore sand transport are calculated locally as a function of position in the nearshore region using process based numerical models. The resultant longshore sand transport is then integrated across the nearshore to provide predictions of the total longshore transport of sand due to waves and longshore currents. Model results are in close agreement with the I1-P1 correlation described by Komar and Inman (1970) and the CERC (1984) formula. Model results also indicate that the proportionality constant in the I1-P1 formula depends weakly upon the sediment size, the shape of the beach profile, and the particular local sediment flux formula that is employed. Model results indicate that the various effects and influences of sediment size tend to cancel out, resulting in little overall dependence on sediment size.

  16. 78 FR 30270 - Foreign-Trade Zone 247-Erie, Pennsylvania; Application for Subzone; GE Transportation, Lawrence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ..., Pennsylvania; Application for Subzone; GE Transportation, Lawrence Park Township, Pennsylvania An application... Transportation, located in Lawrence Park Township, Pennsylvania. The application was submitted pursuant to the... located at 2901 East Lake Road, Lawrence Park Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania. No production activity...

  17. Rupture process of large earthquakes in the northern Mexico subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, Larry J.; Miller, Angus D.

    1994-03-01

    The Cocos plate subducts beneath North America at the Mexico trench. The northernmost segment of this trench, between the Orozco and Rivera fracture zones, has ruptured in a sequence of five large earthquakes from 1973 to 1985; the Jan. 30, 1973 Colima event ( M s 7.5) at the northern end of the segment near Rivera fracture zone; the Mar. 14, 1979 Petatlan event ( M s 7.6) at the southern end of the segment on the Orozco fracture zone; the Oct. 25, 1981 Playa Azul event ( M s 7.3) in the middle of the Michoacan “gap”; the Sept. 19, 1985 Michoacan mainshock ( M s 8.1); and the Sept. 21, 1985 Michoacan aftershock ( M s 7.6) that reruptured part of the Petatlan zone. Body wave inversion for the rupture process of these earthquakes finds the best: earthquake depth; focal mechanism; overall source time function; and seismic moment, for each earthquake. In addition, we have determined spatial concentrations of seismic moment release for the Colima earthquake, and the Michoacan mainshock and aftershock. These spatial concentrations of slip are interpreted as asperities; and the resultant asperity distribution for Mexico is compared to other subduction zones. The body wave inversion technique also determines the Moment Tensor Rate Functions; but there is no evidence for statistically significant changes in the moment tensor during rupture for any of the five earthquakes. An appendix describes the Moment Tensor Rate Functions methodology in detail. The systematic bias between global and regional determinations of epicentral locations in Mexico must be resolved to enable plotting of asperities with aftershocks and geographic features. We have spatially “shifted” all of our results to regional determinations of epicenters. The best point source depths for the five earthquakes are all above 30 km, consistent with the idea that the down-dip edge of the seismogenic plate interface in Mexico is shallow compared to other subduction zones. Consideration of uncertainties in

  18. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., calculated pursuant to the methodology set forth in § 69.725. (2) Such a system of pricing zones shall be....3(e)(7), in study areas in which a telephone company offers a cross-connect, as described in § 69... one of the locations between which the service is offered. (d) Notwithstanding § 69.3(e)(7), in study...

  19. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., calculated pursuant to the methodology set forth in § 69.725. (2) Such a system of pricing zones shall be....3(e)(7), in study areas in which a telephone company offers a cross-connect, as described in § 69... one of the locations between which the service is offered. (d) Notwithstanding § 69.3(e)(7), in study...

  20. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., calculated pursuant to the methodology set forth in § 69.725. (2) Such a system of pricing zones shall be....3(e)(7), in study areas in which a telephone company offers a cross-connect, as described in § 69... one of the locations between which the service is offered. (d) Notwithstanding § 69.3(e)(7), in study...

  1. Intelligent Transportation Systems In Work Zones: A Cross-Cutting Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-11-01

    Work zones cause congestion, and result in more than 800 fatalities and 37,000 injuries in the U.S. every year. However, as our infrastructure ages, there is an increasing need for the maintenance and rehabilitation of our roadways, which means more ...

  2. From soil water to surface water - how the riparian zone controls element transport from a boreal forest to a stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Åsa; Laudon, Hjalmar; Köhler, Stephan J.

    2017-06-01

    Boreal headwaters are often lined by strips of highly organic soils, which are the last terrestrial environment to leave an imprint on discharging groundwater before it enters a stream. Because these riparian soils are so different from the Podzol soils that dominate much of the boreal landscape, they are known to have a major impact on the biogeochemistry of important elements such as C, N, P and Fe and the transfer of these elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. For most elements, however, the role of the riparian zone has remained unclear, although it should be expected that the mobility of many elements is affected by changes in, for example, pH, redox potential and concentration of organic carbon as they are transported through the riparian zone. Therefore, soil water and groundwater was sampled at different depths along a 22 m hillslope transect in the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden using soil lysimeters and analysed for a large number of major and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn, Zr) and other parameters such as sulfate and total organic carbon (TOC). The results showed that the concentrations of most investigated elements increased substantially (up to 60 times) as the water flowed from the uphill mineral soils and into the riparian zone, largely as a result of higher TOC concentrations. The stream water concentrations of these elements were typically somewhat lower than in the riparian zone, but still considerably higher than in the uphill mineral soils, which suggests that riparian soils have a decisive impact on the water quality of boreal streams. The degree of enrichment in the riparian zone for different elements could be linked to the affinity for organic matter, indicating that the pattern with strongly elevated concentrations in riparian soils is typical for organophilic substances. One likely explanation is that the solubility of many

  3. Quantification of chemical transport processes from the soil to surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kun; Huang, Chi-Hua; Wang, Guang-Qian; Fu, Xu-Dong; Parker, Gary

    2013-01-01

    There is a good conceptual understanding of the processes that govern chemical transport from the soil to surface runoff, but few studies have actually quantified these processes separately. Thus, we designed a laboratory flow cell and experimental procedures to quantify the chemical transport from soil to runoff water in the following individual processes: (i) convection with a vertical hydraulic gradient, (ii) convection via surface flow or the Bernoulli effect, (iii) diffusion, and (iv) soil loss. We applied different vertical hydraulic gradients by setting the flow cell to generate different seepage or drainage conditions. Our data confirmed the general form of the convection-diffusion equation. However, we now have additional quantitative data that describe the contribution of each individual chemical loading process in different surface runoff and soil hydrological conditions. The results of this study will be useful for enhancing our understanding of different geochemical processes in the surface soil mixing zone. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. The effect of welding line heat-affected-zone on the formability of tube hydroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChiuHuang, Cheng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-En; Lee, Ping-Kun

    2016-08-01

    Tube hydroforming has been used as a lightweight design approach to reduce CO2 emission for the automotive industry. For the high strength steel tube, the strength and quality of the welding line is very important for a successful tube hydroforming process. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the welding line's strength and the width of the heat-affected zone on the tube thinning during the hydroforming process. The simulation results show that both factors play an important role on the thickness distribution during the tube expansion.

  5. Modeling sediment transport as a spatio-temporal Markov process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, Joris; Ancey, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Despite a century of research about sediment transport by bedload occuring in rivers, its constitutive laws remain largely unknown. The proof being that our ability to predict mid-to-long term transported volumes within reasonable confidence interval is almost null. The intrinsic fluctuating nature of bedload transport may be one of the most important reasons why classical approaches fail. Microscopic probabilistic framework has the advantage of taking into account these fluctuations at the particle scale, to understand their effect on the macroscopic variables such as sediment flux. In this framework, bedload transport is seen as the random motion of particles (sand, gravel, pebbles...) over a two-dimensional surface (the river bed). The number of particles in motion, as well as their velocities, are random variables. In this talk, we show how a simple birth-death Markov model governing particle motion on a regular lattice accurately reproduces the spatio-temporal correlations observed at the macroscopic level. Entrainment, deposition and transport of particles by the turbulent fluid (air or water) are supposed to be independent and memoryless processes that modify the number of particles in motion. By means of the Poisson representation, we obtained a Fokker-Planck equation that is exactly equivalent to the master equation and thus valid for all cell sizes. The analysis shows that the number of moving particles evolves locally far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Several analytical results are presented and compared to experimental data. The index of dispersion (or variance over mean ratio) is proved to grow from unity at small scales to larger values at larger scales confirming the non Poisonnian behavior of bedload transport. Also, we study the one and two dimensional K-function, which gives the average number of moving particles located in a ball centered at a particle centroid function of the ball's radius.

  6. Serpentinization as a reactive transport process: The brucite silicification reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutolo, B. M.; Luhmann, A. J.; Tosca, N. J.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    considering serpentinization and many other hydrothermal processes in a reactive transport framework whereby fluid, solute, and heat transport are intimately coupled to kinetically-controlled reactions.

  7. Assessing tungsten transport in the vadose zone: from dissolution studies to soil columns.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Gulsah Sen; Braida, Washington; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Strickland, David

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the dissolution, sorption, leachability, and plant uptake of tungsten and alloying metals from canister round munitions in the presence of model, well characterized soils. The source of tungsten was canister round munitions, composed mainly of tungsten (95%) with iron and nickel making up the remaining fraction. Three soils were chosen for the lysimeter studies while four model soils were selected for the adsorption studies. Lysimeter soils were representatives of the typical range of soils across the continental USA; muck-peat, clay-loamy and sandy-quartzose soil. Adsorption equilibrium data on the four model soils were modeled with Langmuir and linear isotherms and the model parameters were obtained. The adsorption affinity of soils for tungsten follows the order: Pahokee peat>kaolinite>montmorillonite>illite. A canister round munition dissolution study was also performed. After 24 d, the measured dissolved concentrations were: 61.97, 3.56, 15.83 mg L(-1) for tungsten, iron and nickel, respectively. Lysimeter transport studies show muck peat and sandy quartzose soils having higher tungsten concentration, up to 150 mg kg(-1) in the upper layers of the lysimeters and a sharp decline with depth suggesting strong retardation processes along the soil profile. The concentrations of tungsten, iron and nickel in soil lysimeter effluents were very low in terms of posing any environmental concern; although no regulatory limits have been established for tungsten in natural waters. The substantial uptake of tungsten and nickel by ryegrass after 120 d of exposure to soils containing canister round munition suggests the possibility of tungsten and nickel entering the food chain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vadose Zone Flow and Transport of Dissolved Organic Carbon at Multiple Scales in Humid Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Philip M; Mayes, Melanie; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2006-06-01

    Scientists must embrace the necessity to offset global CO{sub 2} emissions regardless of politics. Efforts to enhance terrestrial organic carbon sequestration have traditionally focused on aboveground biomass and surface soils. An unexplored potential exists in thick lower horizons of widespread, mature soils such as Alfisols, Ultisols, and Oxisols. We present a case study of fate and transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a highly weathered Ultisol, involving spatial scales from the laboratory to the landscape. Our objectives were to interpret processes observed at various scales and provide an improved understanding of coupled hydrogeochemical mechanisms that control DOC mobility andmore » sequestration in deep subsoils within humid climatic regimes. Our approach is multiscale, using laboratory-scale batch and soil columns (0.2 by 1.0 m), an in situ pedon (2 by 2 by 3 m), a well-instrumented subsurface facility on a subwatershed (0.47 ha), and ephemeral and perennial stream discharge at the landscape scale (38.4 ha). Laboratory-scale experiments confirmed that lower horizons have the propensity to accumulate DOC, but that preferential fracture flow tends to limit sequestration. Intermediate-scale experiments demonstrated the beneficial effects of C diffusion into soil micropores. Field- and landscape-scale studies demonstrated coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological mechanisms that limit DOC sequestration, and their sensitivity to local environmental conditions. Our results suggest a multi-scale approach is necessary to assess the propensity of deep subsoils to sequester organic C in situ. By unraveling fundamental organic C sequestration mechanisms, we improve the conceptual and quantitative understanding needed to predict and alter organic C budgets in soil systems.« less

  9. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  10. Student Work Safety Guidelines in Roadside Applications and Work Zones : Safety Guidelines for Transportation Researchers

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-01-01

    The Smart City Demonstration Program is intended to improve access through expanded mobility options in major job centers, enhance visitor experience by better connecting visitors to transportation options, stimulate regional economic prosperity and ...

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Transient Flow, Solidification, and Particle Transport Processes in Continuous-Casting Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa

    2014-07-01

    The current study developed a coupled computational model to simulate the transient fluid flow, solidification, and particle transport processes in a slab continuous-casting mold. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated using the large eddy simulation. An enthalpy-porosity approach is used for the analysis of solidification processes. The transport of bubble and non-metallic inclusion inside the liquid pool is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. A criterion of particle entrapment in the solidified shell is developed using the user-defined functions of FLUENT software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern inside the liquid pool exhibits quite satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. The predicted complex instantaneous velocity field is composed of various small recirculation zones and multiple vortices. The transport of particles inside the liquid pool and the entrapment of particles in the solidified shell are not symmetric. The Magnus force can reduce the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell, especially for smaller particles, but the effect is not obvious. The Marangoni force can play an important role in controlling the motion of particles, which increases the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell obviously.

  12. Observation of flow processes in the vadose zone using ERT on different space and time scales: results, obstacles, and suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Lamparter, Axel; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Bachmann, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) observes the flow processes in the vadose zone indirectly. ERT has been used to estimate water flow in different soil types and under different flow conditions using active experiments or monitoring the natural process in many cases. Our experiments in sand and loess soil connected ERT with local soil probing using TDR devices and tensiometers in order to proof the reliability of the ERT inversion results in terms of infiltration velocity. Additionally, a colour tracer was used and sections through the infiltration zones were excavated in order to compare the shape of the dye -stained infiltration zone with the results of the ERT inversion. The data revealed the complicated infiltration pattern with a higher transport velocity in sand and a different shape than expected by classical soil hydraulic models. These results indicate the need for independent observations in order to correctly assess the water storage in the vadose zone with its hydrological consequences, the groundwater recharge and the contamination risk caused by rapid movement of water. ERT can be used for this purpose on different spatial- and time scales but for reliable results various obstacles need to be dealt with. Firstly, the ambiguity of the resistivity because soil resistivity depends on both, soil water content and electrical soil/water conductivity. This obstacle is less severe when the infiltration velocity is investigated, because then only the first onset of resistivity change is interpreted as the water arrival time. Our results show that the arrival of the water front as well as the final infiltration depth can be reliably detected. In contrast, this obstacle is very severe when the amount of water stored is observed using conductive tracer. The problem is not critical during a passive experiment when the natural rain fall and the waters fate through the vadose zone is monitored. The second obstacle is the limited resolution of ERT which

  13. The investigation of form and processes in the coastal zone under extreme storm events - the case study of Rethymno, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afentoulis, Vasileios; Mohammadi, Bijan; Tsoukala, Vasiliki

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a significant geographical and particular region, since it gathers a wide range of social-human's activities and appears to be a complex as well as fragile system of natural variables. Coastal communities are increasingly at risk from serious coastal hazards, such as shoreline erosion and flooding related to extreme hydro-meteorological events: storm surges, heavy precipitation, tsunamis and tides. In order to investigate the impact of these extreme events on the coastal zone, it is necessary to describe the driving mechanisms which contribute to its destabilization and more precisely the interaction between the wave forces and the transport of sediment. The aim of the present study is to examine the capability of coastal zone processes simulation under extreme wave events, using numerical models, in the coastal area of Rethymno, Greece. Rethymno city is one of the eleven case study areas of PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastal regions) project, an EU funded research project, which aims at developing adaptive risk management strategies for coastal communities focusing on extreme hydro-meteorological events, with a multidisciplinary approach integrating social, environmental and technical research and innovation so as to increase the resilience of coastal regions all over the world. Within this framework, three different numerical models have been used: the MIKE 21 - DHI, the XBeach model and a numerical formulation for sea bed evolution, developed by Afaf Bouharguane and Bijan Mohammadi (2013). For the determination of the wave and hydrodynamic conditions, as well as the assessment of the sediment transport components, the MIKE 21 SW and the MIKE 21 FM modules have been applied and the bathymetry of Rethymno is arranged into a 2D unstructured mesh. This method of digitalization was selected because of its ability to easily represent the complex geometry of the coastal zone. It allows smaller scale wave characteristics to be

  14. Water recharge and solute transport through the vadose zone of fractured chalk under desert conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Nativ, R.; Dahan, O.; Adar, E.

    In the present study the inferred mechanism of groundwater recharge and contamination was studied using tracer concentrations in the fractured vadose zone of the Avdat chalk. The results of this study are important for an evaluation of groundwater contamination from existing and planned facilities in the northern Negev desert in Israel. This study focused on the vicinity of the Ramat Hovav industrial chemical complex in the northern Negev, which also includes the national site for hazardous waste. Water recharge and solute migration rates were examined in five core holes and one borehole which penetrate the entire vadose zone and enabledmore » the collection of rock samples for chemical and isotopic analyses, and an observation of fracture distribution with depth. Tritium profiles were used to estimate water percolation rates through the vadose zone, chloride profiles were used to assess the migration rate of nonreactive solutes, and bromide profiles were also used to evaluate the migration rate of nonreactive contaminants. Deuterium and oxygen 18 profiles were used to assess the evaporation of the infiltrating water at and near land surface.« less

  15. Influence of colloids on the attenuation and transport of phosphorus in alluvial gravel aquifer and vadose zone media.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liping; Lafogler, Mark; Knorr, Bastian; McGill, Erin; Saunders, Darren; Baumann, Thomas; Abraham, Phillip; Close, Murray

    2016-04-15

    Phosphorous (P) leaching (e.g., from effluents, fertilizers) and transport in highly permeable subsurface media can be an important pathway that contributes to eutrophication of receiving surface waters as groundwater recharges the base-flow of surface waters. Here we investigated attenuation and transport of orthophosphate-P in gravel aquifer and vadose zone media in the presence and absence of model colloids (Escherichia coli, kaolinite, goethite). Experiments were conducted using repacked aquifer media in a large column (2m long, 0.19m in diameter) and intact cores (0.4m long, 0.24m in diameter) of vadose zone media under typical field flow rates. In the absence of the model colloids, P was readily traveled through the aquifer media with little attenuation (up to 100% recovery) and retardation, and P adsorption was highly reversible. Conversely, addition of the model colloids generally resulted in reduced P concentration and mass recovery (down to 28% recovery), and increased retardation and adsorption irreversibility in both aquifer and vadose zone media. The degree of colloid-assisted P attenuation was most significant in the presence of fine material and Fe-containing colloids at low flow rate but was least significant in the presence of coarse gravels and E. coli at high flow rate. Based on the experimental results, setback distances of 49-53m were estimated to allow a reduction of P concentrations in groundwater to acceptable levels in the receiving water. These estimates were consistent with field observations in the same aquifer media. Colloid-assisted P attenuation can be utilized to develop mitigation strategies to better manage effluent applications in gravelly soils. To efficiently retain P within soil matrix and reduce P leaching to groundwater, it is recommended to select soils that are rich in iron oxides, to periodically disturb soil preferential flow paths by tillage, and to apply a low irrigation rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach

  17. Scales and Patterns of Nitrate Transport and Transformation in the Hyporheic Zone of a Lowland River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naden, E.; Krause, S.; Tecklenburg, C.; Munz, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Hyporheic Zone (HZ) represents the spatially and temporally variable part of the streambed that is affected by the mixture of groundwater and surface water and often characterised by strong redox gradients and high turnover rates of redox reactive substances. The HZ has often been understood as a complex bioreactor with a high potential to affect groundwater-surface water exchange as well control the chemical signature of waters along the hyporheic passage. Currently, 73% of groundwater and 28% of UK rivers sampled exhibit either high nitrate levels or rising trends (Defra, 2008) Because of the high metabolic rates that have often be observed, the HZ is by many expected to potentially ameliorate groundwater nitrate fluxes and thus to reduce nitrate pollution and benefit freshwater ecosystems. The objective of this pilot study was to set up a monitoring program on a typical lowland river within glacio-fluvial deposits and well connected to the shallow groundwater aquifer. This study aims to derive a conceptual model of hyporheic exchange and nutrient metabolism in an agriculturally used lowland system including the development of upscaling strategies that allow for the assessment of hyporheic uptake or contribution on a subcatchment scale. The research area covers a 250 metre stream reach of the River Tern (Shropshire, UK), a lowland groundwater dependent surface water body at risk of failing to achieve ‘good water' status under the WFD, primarily due to diffuse agricultural pollution. In two horizontal arrays 42 multi piezometers have been installed in the river bed offering sampling from between three and eight sampling points ranging from 5 cm to 200 cm depth. These allow the sampling of streambed porewater from more than 150 locations. Additionally, ten shallow groundwater boreholes (up to 3m depth) have been installed within the riparian floodplain. From June to September 2008 head measurements were taken at the streambed piezometers, riparian groundwater

  18. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part I. Model validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process-based modeling provides detailed spatial and temporal information of the soil environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone across field topography where measurements of soil temperature and water may not sufficiently describe the zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the...

  19. 30 CFR 585.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 585.612 Section 585.612 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Plan § 585.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  20. 30 CFR 585.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 585.612 Section 585.612 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Plan § 585.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  1. Recharge processes in an alluvial aquifer riparian zone, Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha; Christenson, Scott; Cozzarelli, Isabelle; Ferree, Dale; Jaeshke, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of stable isotope profiles (d2H and d18O) in the saturated zone, combined with water-table fluctuations, gave a comprehensive picture of recharge processes in an alluvial aquifer riparian zone. At the Norman Landfill U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology research site in Norman, Oklahoma, recharge to the aquifer appears to drive biodegradation, contributing fresh supplies of electron acceptors for the attenuation of leachate compounds from the landfill. Quantifying recharge is a first step in studying this process in detail. Both chemical and physical methods were used to estimate recharge. Chemical methods included measuring the increase in recharge water in the saturated zone, as defined by isotopic signature, specific conductance or chloride measurements; and infiltration rate estimates using storm event isotopic signatures. Physical methods included measurement of water-table rise after individual rain events and on an approximately monthly time scale. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated using diurnal watertable fluctuations; outflux of water from the alluvial aquifer during the growing season had a large effect on net recharge at the site. Evaporation and methanogenesis gave unique isotopic signatures to different sources of water at the site, allowing the distinction of recharge using the offset of the isotopic signature from the local meteoric water line. The downward movement of water from large, isotopically depleted rain events in the saturated zone yielded recharge rate estimates (2.2 - 3.3 mm/day), and rates also were determined by observing changes in thickness of the layer of infiltrated recharge water at the top of the saturated zone (1.5 - 1.6 mm/day). Recharge measured over 2 years (1998-2000) in two locations at the site averaged 37 percent of rainfall, however, part of this water had only a short residence time in the aquifer. Isotopes showed recharge water entering the ground-water system in winter and spring, then being

  2. Boron isotopes at the catchment scale, a new potential tool to infer critical zone processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Noireaux, J.; Braun, J. J.; Riotte, J.; Louvat, P.; Bouchez, J.; Lemarchand, D.; Muddu, S.; Mohan Kumar, M.; Candaudap, F.

    2017-12-01

    Boron is a mid-mass element that has two isotopes, 10B and 11B. These isotopes are largely fractioned by a number of chemical, biological and physical processes. Boron as a great affinity for clays and is useful for life, making it a double tracer of critical zone processes. This study focuses on the Mule Hole Critical Zone Observatory in South India. This is part of the French Research Infrastructure OZCAR and has benefited from the fruitful Indo-French collaboration (Indo-French Cell for Water Sciences) for more that 15 years. Boron and its isotopes were measured in the different compartment of the CZ in Mule Hole, vegetation, atmosphere, throughfall, soil, soil water, river water and compared to the behavior of other elements. The well constrained hydrology in Mule Hole allowed us to calculate the main fluxes affecting boron in the Critical Zone and came to the first order conclusion that the recycling of boron by vegetation is by far the most important flux within the system, reaching 15-20 times the catchment outlet flux. From an isotopic point of view, the total range of variation is measured between -3 ‰ and 77‰, with a bedrock value at 10‰ in classical delta unit, making boron a well suited tracer for constraining CZ processes. The flux of boron most enriched in heavy boron is the throughfall, showing the importance of biological processes in controlling the boron isotopic composition of the stream. Boron in soils in depleted in the heavy isotope but is enriched in boron compared to the bedrock, a surprising situation that we interpret as the legacy of a previous stage of transient weathering. These results indicate a strong decoupling between the behaviors of boron at the surface of the CZ and at depth.

  3. Technical Potential Assessment for the Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Process: A GIS-Based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nathan; Roberts, Billy J

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based energy resource and technical potential assessments identify areas capable of supporting high levels of renewable energy (RE) development as part of a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Transmission Planning process. This document expands on the REZ Process to aid practitioners in conducting GIS-based RE resource and technical potential assessments. The REZ process is an approach to plan, approve, and build transmission infrastructure that connects REZs - geographic areas that have high-quality RE resources, suitable topography and land-use designations, and demonstrated developer interest - to the power system. The REZ process helps to increase the share of solarmore » photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other resources while also maintaining reliability and economics.« less

  4. Condensation and transport in the totally asymmetric inclusion process (TASIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knebel, Johannes; Weber, Markus F.; Krueger, Torben; Frey, Erwin

    Transport phenomena are often modeled by the hopping of particles on regular lattices or networks. Such models describe, e.g., the exclusive movement of molecular motors along microtubules: no two motors may occupy the same site. In our work, we study inclusion processes that are the bosonic analogues of the fermionic exclusion processes. In inclusion processes, many particles may occupy a single site and hopping rates depend linearly on the occupation of departure and arrival sites. Particles thus attract other particles to their own site. Condensation occurs when particles collectively cluster in one or multiple sites, whereas other sites become depleted.We showed that inclusion processes describe both the selection of strategies in evolutionary zero-sum games and the condensation of non-interacting bosons into multiple quantum states in driven-dissipative systems. The condensation is captured by the antisymmetric Lotka-Volterra equation (ALVE), which constitutes a nonlinearly coupled dynamical system. We derived an algebraic method to analyze the ALVE and to determine the condensates. Our approach allows for the design of networks that result in condensates with oscillating occupations, and yields insight into the interplay between network topology and transport properties. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB-TR12), German Excellence Initiative (Nanosystems Initiative Munich), Center for NanoScience Munich.

  5. Modeling of turbulent transport as a volume process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mark J.; Morel, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    An alternative type of modeling was proposed for the turbulent transport terms in Reynolds-averaged equations. One particular implementation of the model was considered, based on the two-point velocity correlations. The model was found to reproduce the trends but not the magnitude of the nonisotropic behavior of the turbulent transport. Some interesting insights were developed concerning the shape of the contracted two-point correlation volume. This volume is strongly deformed by mean shear from the spherical shape found in unstrained flows. Of particular interest is the finding that the shape is sharply waisted, indicating preferential lines of communication, which should have a direct effect on turbulent transfer and on other processes.

  6. Time-alternating method based on single-sideband holography with half-zone-plate processing for the enlargement of viewing zones.

    PubMed

    Mishina, T; Okano, F; Yuyama, I

    1999-06-10

    The single-sideband method of holography, as is well known, cuts off beams that come from conjugate images for holograms produced in the Fraunhofer region and from objects with no phase components. The single-sideband method with half-zone-plate processing is also effective in the Fresnel region for beams from an object that has phase components. However, this method restricts the viewing zone to a narrow range. We propose a method to improve this restriction by time-alternating switching of hologram patterns and a spatial filter set on the focal plane of a reconstruction lens.

  7. Strain heating in process zones; implications for metamorphism and partial melting in the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devès, Maud H.; Tait, Stephen R.; King, Geoffrey C. P.; Grandin, Raphaël

    2014-05-01

    Since the late 1970s, most earth scientists have discounted the plausibility of melting by shear-strain heating because temperature-dependent creep rheology leads to negative feedback and self-regulation. This paper presents a new model of distributed shear-strain heating that can account for the genesis of large volumes of magmas in both the crust and the mantle of the lithosphere. The kinematic (geometry and rates) frustration associated with incompatible fault junctions (e.g. triple-junction) prevents localisation of all strain on the major faults. Instead, deformation distributes off the main faults forming a large process zone that deforms still at high rates under both brittle and ductile conditions. The increased size of the shear-heated region minimises conductive heat loss, compared with that commonly associated with narrow shear zones, thus promoting strong heating and melting under reasonable rheological assumptions. Given the large volume of the heated zone, large volumes of melt can be generated even at small melt fractions.

  8. Biologically-Oriented Processes in the Coastal Sea Ice Zone of the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, I. A.

    2002-12-01

    The annual advance and retreat of sea ice is a major physical determinant of spatial and temporal changes in the structure and function of marine coastal biological communities. Sea ice biological data obtained in the tidal zone of Kandalaksha Gulf (White Sea) during 1996-2001 period will be presented. Previous observations in this area were mainly conducted during the ice-free summer season. However, there is little information on the ice-covered winter season (6-7 months duration), and, especially, on the sea-ice biology in the coastal zone within tidal regimes. During the January-May period time-series observations were conducted on transects along shorelines with coastal and fast ice. Trends in the annual extent of sea ice showed significant impacts on ice-associated biological communities. Three types of sea ice impact on kelps, balanoides, littorinas and amphipods are distinguished: (i) positive, when sea ice protects these populations from grinding (ii) negative, when ice grinds both fauna and flora, and (iii) a combined effect, when fast ice protects, but anchored ice grinds plant and animals. To understand the full spectrum of ecological problems caused by pollution on the coastal zone, as well as the problems of sea ice melting caused by global warming, an integrated, long-term study of the physical, chemical, and biological processes is needed.

  9. Soil moisture flow and nitrate transport through partially saturated zone considering mobile-immobile approach using 3D tank setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, J.; Yadav, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the soil water flow and nitrate movement through vadose zone considering mobile-immobile approach using large scale three dimensional (3D) tank setup. The three dimensional sand tank setup was fabricated having dimension of 60 cm length, 30 cm width and 60 cm height and embedded with horizontal and vertical layers of sampling ports. The tank was filled with a porous media of average size of 0.5 to 1.0 mm homogeneous and nitrate concentration of 300 mg/l was applied with a distributed constant water flux of 150ml/hr. at the top using a sprinkler system. Pore water samples were collected hourly from the sampling ports and were analyzed using UV-spectrophotometer. The soil hydraulic and solute transport parameters were deduced from the laboratory experiments for simulating the considered 3D domain using the mobile-immobile approach. Soil moisture flow and contaminant transport equations are numerically solved for simulating the nitrate movement in the tank setup. The simulated break through curves (BTC) show the nitrate movement is rapid in mobile region by a factor of 1.2 as compared with the immobile region. The results show that the mobile-immobile approach of predicting solute transport in variably saturated zone can be used effectively in field after getting the required parameters using the laboratory experiments under similar environmental conditions. The high concentration 130 ppm was observed in lateral and transverse axis at 05 cm depth. This results will help in further investigation in field and in implementation of decontamination techniques.

  10. Evaluation of unsaturated-zone solute-transport models for studies of agricultural chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Bayless, E. Randall; Green, Christopher T.; Garg, Sheena; Voss, Frank D.; Lampe, David C.; Barbash, Jack E.; Capel, Paul D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Of the models tested, RZWQM, HYDRUS2D, VS2DT, GLEAMS and PRZM had graphical user interfaces. Extensive documentation was available for RZWQM, HYDRUS2D, and VS2DT. RZWQM can explicitly simulate water and solute flux in macropores, and both HYDRUS2D and VS2DT can simulate water and solute flux in two dimensions. The version of RZWQM tested had a maximum simulation depth of 3 meters. The complex models simulate the formation, transport, and fate of degradates of up to three to five compounds including the parent, with the exception of VS2DT, which simulates the transport and fate of a single compound.

  11. Percolation flux and Transport velocity in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    The percolation flux for borehole USW UZ-14 was calculated from 14C residence times of pore water and water content of cores measured in the laboratory. Transport velocity is calculated from the depth interval between two points divided by the difference in 14C residence times. Two methods were used to calculate the flux and velocity. The first method uses the 14C data and cumulative water content data directly in the incremental intervals in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit and the Topopah Spring welded unit. The second method uses the regression relation for 14C data and cumulative water content data for the entire Paintbrush nonwelded unit and the Topopah Spring Tuff/Topopah Spring welded unit. Using the first method, for the Paintbrush nonwelded unit in boreholeUSW UZ-14 percolation flux ranges from 2.3 to 41.0 mm/a. Transport velocity ranges from 1.2 to 40.6 cm/a. For the Topopah Spring welded unit percolation flux ranges from 0.9 to 5.8 mm/a in the 8 incremental intervals calculated. Transport velocity ranges from 1.4 to 7.3 cm/a in the 8 incremental intervals. Using the second method, average percolation flux in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit for 6 boreholes ranges from 0.9 to 4.0 mm/a at the 95% confidence level. Average transport velocity ranges from 0.6 to 2.6 cm/a. For the Topopah Spring welded unit and Topopah Spring Tuff, average percolation flux in 5 boreholes ranges from 1.3 to 3.2 mm/a. Average transport velocity ranges from 1.6 to 4.0 cm/a. Both the average percolation flux and average transport velocity in the PTn are smaller than in the TS/TSw. However, the average minimum and average maximum values for the percolation flux in the TS/TSw are within the PTn average range. Therefore, differences in the percolation flux in the two units are not significant. On the other hand, average, average minimum, and average maximum transport velocities in the TS/TSw unit are all larger than the PTn values, implying a larger transport velocity for the TS

  12. Experimental study of boron geochemistry: implications for fluid processes in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C. F.; Spivack, A. J.; Gieskes, J. M.; Rosenbauer, R.; Bischoff, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    A comprehensive experimental study, utilizing an autoclave hydrothermal apparatus with a 10B isotopic tracer, has been conducted to monitor the geochemical behavior of sediment B during early subduction zone processes. The partition coefficient of exchangeable B ( K D) was determined over a temperature range of 25-350°C, at 800 bars and a water/rock ratio of 3-1.5 w/w. These K D are shown to be a complex function of temperature, pH, and possibly mineralogy. At low temperatures, K D is significantly high at ˜4 in contrast to the value of essentially zero at temperatures higher than ˜100°C. A K D of zero represents no B adsorption, implying efficient mobilization of exchangeable B at shallow depths during sediment subduction. Our experimental results demonstrate high mobilization of bulk B in sediments (both exchangeable and lattice bound) at elevated temperatures (200-350°C), in good agreement with previous observations of B in metasediments indicating progressive depletion during metamorphism. In addition, this study emphasizes the importance of a possible water/rock ratio dependence of B mobilization. In other words, the degree of sedimentary B mobilization in subduction zones strongly depends on the local thermal structure and porosity distribution. In low geothermal gradient areas, large amounts of porewater are expelled before significant B mobilization has occurred, so that some sedimentary B will survive and get into the deeper parts of the subduction zone. Our results imply that efficient mobilization of B from the subducted slab must occur and that arc magmatism recycles most of the remaining subducted B back to surface reservoirs. A reconsideration of the B budget in subduction zones provides critical information with respect to B sources and sinks in the ocean.

  13. Interfacial Reduction-Oxidation Mechanisms Governing Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Principal Investigator: Baolin Deng, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; Co-Principal Investigator: Silvia Sabine Jurisson, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; Co-Principal Investigator: Edward C. Thornton, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA

    2008-05-12

    There are many soil contamination sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) installations that contain radionuclides and toxic metals such as uranium (U), technetium (Tc), and chromium (Cr). Since these contaminants are the main 'risk drivers' at the Hanford site (WA) and some of them also pose significant risk at other DOE facilities (e.g., Oak Ridge Reservation - TN; Rocky Flats - CO), development of technologies for cost effective site remediation is needed. Current assessment indicates that complete removal of these contaminants for ex-situ disposal is infeasible, thus in-situ stabilization through reduction to insoluble species is considered one of themore » most important approaches for site remediation. In Situ Gaseous Reduction (ISGR) is a technology developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for vadose zone soil remediation. The ISGR approach uses hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) for reductive immobilization of contaminants that show substantially lower mobility in their reduced forms (e.g., Tc, U, and Cr). The technology can be applied in two ways: (i) to immobilize or stabilize pre-existing contaminants in the vadose zone soils by direct H{sub 2}S treatment, or (ii) to create a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) that prevents the migration of contaminants. Direct treatment involves reduction of the contaminants by H{sub 2}S to less mobile species. Formation of a PRB is accomplished through reduction of ferric iron species in the vadose zone soils by H{sub 2}S to iron sulfides (e.g., FeS), which provides a means for capturing the contaminants entering the treated zone. Potential future releases may occur during tank closure activities. Thus, the placement of a permeable reactive barrier by ISGR treatment can be part of the leak mitigation program. Deployment of these ISGR approaches, however, requires a better understanding of the immobilization kinetics and mechanisms, and a better assessment of the long-term effectiveness of treatment. The

  14. Estimating the effect of shallow groundwater on diurnal heat transport in a vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jianmei; Zhao, Lin; Zhai, Zhe

    2016-09-01

    The influence of shallow groundwater on the diurnal heat transport of the soil profile was analyzed using a soil sensor automatic monitoring system that continuously measures temperature and water content of soil profiles to simulate heat transport based on the Philip and de Vries (PDV) model. Three experiments were conducted to measure soil properties at depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm when groundwater tables reached 10 cm, 30 cm, and 60 cm (Experiments I, II, and III). Results show that both the soil temperature near shallow groundwater and the soil water content were effectively simulated by the PDV model. The root mean square errors of the temperature at depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, and 20 cm were 1.018°C, 0.909°C, and 0.255°C, respectively. The total heat flux generated the convergent and divergent planes in space-time fields with valley values of-161.5W•m-2 at 7:30 and-234.6W•m-2 at 11:10 in Experiments II and III, respectively. The diurnal heat transport of the saturated soil occurred in five stages, while that of saturated-unsaturated and unsaturated soil profiles occurred in four stages because high moisture content led to high thermal conductivity, which hastened the heat transport.

  15. Atrazine fate and transport within the coastal zone in southeastern Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbicide transport from crop-land to coastal waters may adversely impact water quality. This work examined potential atrazine impact from use on a farm field adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast. Atrazine application was linked to residu...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF TWO SHARP FRONT MODELS FOR VADOSE ZONE NON-AQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research efforts on the transport of immiscible organic wastes in subsurface the development of numerical models of various levels of sophistication. Systems have focused on the site characterization data needed to obtain. However, in real field applications, the model p...

  17. Work zone performance monitoring application development.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires state transportation agencies to (a) collect and analyze safety and mobility data to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects during construction and (b) improve overall agency processes a...

  18. Transpiration Driven Hydrologic Transport in vegetated shallow water environments: Implications on Diel and Seasonal Soil Biogeochemical Processes and System Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachand, P.; Bachand, S. M.; Fleck, J.; Anderson, F.

    2011-12-01

    modified Peclet No. calculations, we quantified the relative importance of upward diffusion from the sediments and downward advection from transpiration as hydrologic transport mechanisms in the root zone. Transpiration driven infiltration moves water past the diffusive zone within 1 - 2 days in this system during the summer months. With the waning seasons, evapotranspiration diminishes until by winter diffusion dominates throughout the entire root zone. This model has great implications on the analyses of soil biogeochemical process in the root zone of shallow aquatic systems. Downward advection is a major transport mechanism into the root zone of shallow flooded aquatic systems and provides an important physical mechanism that drives variability in the seasonal and diel storage; release and cycling of COCs; and the creation of both a physical and chemical barrierd to upward diffusion of soil-borne COCs into the water column. Models that do not account for root zone interactions may not be able to capture diel and seasonal differences. Moreover, these interactions may lead to unanticipated environmental consequences as a result of cultural practices.

  19. Electrical resistivity tomography as monitoring tool for unsaturated zone transport: an example of preferential transport of deicing chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wehrer, Markus; Lissner, Heidi; Bloem, Esther; French, Helen; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive spatially resolved monitoring techniques may hold the key to observe heterogeneous flow and transport behavior of contaminants in soils. In this study, time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was employed during an infiltration experiment with deicing chemical in a small field lysimeter. Deicing chemicals like potassium formate, which frequently impact soils on airport sites, were infiltrated during snow melt. Chemical composition of seepage water and the electrical response was recorded over the spring period 2010. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs are able to show the infiltration of the melt water loaded with ionic constituents of deicing chemicals and their degradation product hydrogen carbonate. The tomographs indicate early breakthrough behavior in parts of the profile. Groundtruthing with pore fluid conductivity and water content variations shows disagreement between expected and observed bulk conductivity. This was attributed to the different sampling volume of traditional methods and ERT due to a considerable fraction of immobile water in the soil. The results show that ERT can be used as a soil monitoring tool on airport sites if assisted by common soil monitoring techniques.

  20. Crystal Zoning Constrains on the Processes and Time Scales Involved in Monogenetic Mafic Volcanism (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, H.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Marti, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the historical eruptive activity in Tenerife has been relatively mafic and mildly-explosive monogenetic eruptions, and thus it seems that this activity is the most likely in the near future. Here we investigate the processes and time scales that lead to such eruptions with the aim to better interpret and plan for any possible unrest in the island. We focus on three historical eruptions: Siete Fuentes (December 31 1704-January 1705), Fasnia (January 5-January 13 1705) and Arafo (February 2-February 26 1705) issued from a 10 km long basaltic fissure eruption oriented N45E and covering an area of 10.4 km2. The erupted volume increases by 5-fold from the first to the last eruption. All magmas are tephritic, although the bulk-rock becomes more mafic with time due to accumulation of olivine with Cr-spinel inclusions, and clinopyroxene rather than to the appearance of a truly more primitive melt. Olivine core compositions of the three eruptions range between Fo79 and Fo87. Frequency histograms show three main populations: at Fo79-80, Fo80-82 and Fo84-87 displaying normal and reverse zoning. Thermodynamic calculations show that only cores with Fo80-82 are in equilibrium with the whole rock. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts can have large pools of matrix glass and show rims of different composition. Only the rims, with Mg#84-86, are in equilibrium with the whole-rock. Considering olivine cores and clinopyroxene rims in equilibrium we obtained a temperature range of 1150-1165°C, and MELTS calculations suggest pressures of 1 to 5 kbar. The variety of olivine core populations reflects mixing and mingling between three different magmas, and their proportions have changed with time from Siete Fuentes to Arafo. Most crystals have complex zoning profiles that record two events: (1) one of magma mixing/mingling at depth, (2) another of magma transport and ascent to the surface. Magma mixing at depth ranges from about 3 months to two years and is similar for the three eruptions

  1. The Influence of Orbital Resonances on the Water Transport to Objects in the Circumprimary Habitable Zone of Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, David; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Maindl, Thomas I.; Ragossnig, Florian; Schäfer, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the role of secular and mean motion resonances on the water transport from a belt of icy asteroids onto planets or embryos orbiting inside the circumprimary habitable zone (HZ) of a binary star system. In addition, the host-star has an accompanying gas giant planet. For a comparison, we perform two case studies where a secular resonance (SR) is located either inside the HZ close to 1.0 au (causing eccentric motion of a planet or embryos therein) or in the asteroid belt, beyond the snow line. In the latter case, a higher flux of icy objects moving toward the HZ is expected. Collisions between asteroids and objects in the HZ are treated analytically. Our purely dynamical study shows that the SR in the HZ boosts the water transport however, collisions can occur at very high impact speeds. In this paper, we treat for the first time, realistic collisions using a GPU 3D-SPH code to assess the water loss in the projectile. Including the water loss into the dynamical results, we get more realistic values for the water mass fraction of the asteroid during an impact. We highlight that collisions occurring at high velocities greatly reduce the water content of the projectile and thus the amount of water transported to planets or embryos orbiting inside the HZ. Moreover, we discuss other effects that could modify our results, namely the asteroid’s surface rate recession due to ice sublimation and the atmospheric drag contribution on the asteroids’ mass loss.

  2. Transport equations of electrodiffusion processes in the laboratory reference frame.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Javier

    2006-02-23

    The transport equations of electrodiffusion processes use three reference frames for defining the fluxes: Fick's reference in diffusion, solvent-fixed reference in transference numbers, and laboratory fluxes in electric conductivity. The convenience of using only one reference frame is analyzed here from the point of view of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. A relation between the fluxes of ions and solvent and the electric current density is deduced first from a mass and volume balance. This is then used to show that (i) the laboratory and Fick's diffusion coefficients are identical and (ii) the transference numbers of both the solvent and the ion in the laboratory reference frame are related. Finally, four experimental methods for the measurement of ion transference numbers are analyzed critically. New expressions for evaluating transference numbers for the moving boundary method and the chronopotentiometry technique are deduced. It is concluded that the ion transport equation in the laboratory reference frame plays a key role in the description of electrodiffusion processes.

  3. Vadose zone process that control landslide initiation and debris flow propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidle, Roy C.

    2015-04-01

    Advances in the areas of geotechnical engineering, hydrology, mineralogy, geomorphology, geology, and biology have individually advanced our understanding of factors affecting slope stability; however, the interactions among these processes and attributes as they affect the initiation and propagation of landslides and debris flows are not well understood. Here the importance of interactive vadose zone processes is emphasized related to the mechanisms, initiation, mode, and timing of rainfall-initiated landslides that are triggered by positive pore water accretion, loss of soil suction and increase in overburden weight, and long-term cumulative rain water infiltration. Both large- and small-scale preferential flow pathways can both contribute to and mitigate instability, by respectively concentrating and dispersing subsurface flow. These mechanisms are influenced by soil structure, lithology, landforms, and biota. Conditions conducive to landslide initiation by infiltration versus exfiltration are discussed relative to bedrock structure and joints. The effects of rhizosphere processes on slope stability are examined, including root reinforcement of soil mantles, evapotranspiration, and how root structures affect preferential flow paths. At a larger scale, the nexus between hillslope landslides and in-channel debris flows is examined with emphasis on understanding the timing of debris flows relative to chronic and episodic infilling processes, as well as the episodic nature of large rainfall and related stormflow generation in headwater streams. The hydrogeomorphic processes and conditions that determine whether or not landslides immediately mobilize into debris flows is important for predicting the timing and extent of devastating debris flow runout in steep terrain. Given the spatial footprint of individual landslides, it is necessary to assess vadose zone processes at appropriate scales to ascertain impacts on mass wasting phenomena. Articulating the appropriate

  4. Deep Vadose Zone Flow and Transport Behavior at T-Tunnel Complex, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, R.; Reeves, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Rainier Mesa, a tuffaceous plateau on the Nevada National Security Site, has been the location of numerous subsurface nuclear tests conducted in a series of tunnel complexes located approximately 450 m below the top of the mesa and 500 m above the regional groundwater flow system. The tunnels were constructed near the middle of an 800 m Tertiary sequence of faulted, low-permeability welded and non-welded bedded, vitric, and zeolitized tuff units. Water levels from wells in the vicinity of the T-tunnel complex indicate the presence of a perched saturation zone located approximately 100 m above the T-tunnel complex. This upper zone of saturation extends downward through most of the Tertiary sequence. The groundwater table is located at an elevation of 1300 m within a thrust sheet of Paleozoic carbonates, corresponding to the lower carbonate aquifer hydrostratigraphic unit (LCA3). The LCA3 is considered to be hydraulically connected to the Death Valley regional flow system. The objective of this project is to simulate complex downward patterns of fluid flow and radionuclide transport from the T-tunnel complex through the matrix and fault networks of the Tertiary tuff units to the water table. We developed an improved fracture characterization and mapping methodology consisting of displacement-length scaling relationships, simulation of realistic fault networks based on site-specific data, and the development of novel fracture network upscaling techniques that preserves fracture network flow and transport properties on coarse continuum grid. Development of upscaling method for fracture continua is based on the concepts of discrete fracture network modeling approach which performs better at honoring network connectivity and anisotropy of sparse networks in comparison to other established methods such as a tensor approach. Extensive flow simulations in the dual-continuum framework demonstrate that the characteristics of fault networks strongly influences the saturation

  5. Role of Hydrodynamic and Mineralogical Heterogeneities on Reactive Transport Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luquot, L.; Garcia-Rios, M.; soler Sagarra, J.; Gouze, P.; Martinez-Perez, L.; Carrera, J.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting reactive transport at large scale, i.e., Darcy- and field- scale, is still challenging considering the number of heterogeneities that may be present from nm- to pore-scale. It is well documented that conventional continuum-scale approaches oversimplify and/or ignore many important aspects of rock structure, chemical reactions, fluid displacement and transport, which, as a consequence, results in uncertainties when applied to field-scale operations. The changes in flow and reactive transport across the different spatial and temporal scales are of central concern in many geological applications such as groundwater systems, geo-energy, rock building heritage and geological storage... In this presentation, we will discuss some laboratory and numerical results on how local heterogeneities (structural, hydrodynamic and mineralogical) can affect the localization and the rate of the reaction processes. Different flow through laboratory experiments using various rock samples will be presented, from simple monomineral rocks such as limestone samples, and more complex rocks composed of different minerals with a large range of kinetic reactions. A new numerical approach based on multirate water mixing approach will be presented and applied to one of the laboratory experiment in order to analyze and distinguish the effect of the mineralogy distribution and the hydrodynamic heterogeneity on the total reaction rate.

  6. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  7. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  8. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  9. Integrating climate change into the transportation planning process : final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to advance the practice and application of transportation planning among state, regional, and local transportation planning agencies to successfully meet growing concerns about the relationship between transportation an...

  10. Hydrological balance and water transport processes of partially sealed soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, Anne; Wessolek, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    With increased urbanisation, soil sealing and its drastic effects on hydrological processes have received a lot of attention. Based on safety concerns, there has been a clear focus on urban drainage and prevention of urban floods caused by storm water events. For this reason, any kind of sealing is often seen as impermeable runoff generator that prevents infiltration and evaporation. While many hydrological models, especially storm water models, have been developed, there are only a handful of empirical studies actually measuring the hydrological balance of (partially) sealed surfaces. These challenge the general assumption of negligible infiltration and evaporation and show that these processes take place even for severe sealing such as asphalt. Depending on the material, infiltration from partially sealed surfaces can be equal to that of vegetated ones. Therefore, more detailed knowledge is needed to improve our understanding and models. In Berlin, two partially sealed weighable lysimeters were equipped with multiple temperature and soil moisture sensors in order to study their hydrological balance, as well as water and heat transport processes within the soil profile. This combination of methods affirms previous observations and offers new insights into altered hydrological processes of partially sealed surfaces at a small temporal scale. It could be verified that not all precipitation is transformed into runoff. Even for a relatively high sealing degree of concrete slabs with narrow seams, evaporation and infiltration may exceed runoff. Due to the lack of plant roots, the hydrological balance is mostly governed by precipitation events and evaporation generally occurs directly after rainfall. However, both surfaces allow for upward water transport from the upper underlying soil layers, sometimes resulting in relatively low evaporation rates on days without precipitation. The individual response of the surfaces differs considerably, which illustrates how

  11. Transport Infrastructure in the Process of Cataloguing Brownfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramářová, Zuzana

    2017-10-01

    To begin with, the identification and follow-up revitalisation of brownfields raises a burning issue in territorial planning as well as in construction engineering. This phenomenon occurs not only in the Czech Republic and Europe, but also world-wide experts conduct its careful investigation. These issues may be divided into several areas. First, it is identifying and cataloguing single territorial localities; next, it means a complex process of locality revitalisation. As a matter of fact, legislative framework represents a separate area, which is actually highly specific in individual countries in accordance with the existing law, norms and regulations (it concerns mainly territorial planning and territory segmentation into appropriate administrative units). Legislative base of the Czech Republic was analysed in an article at WMCAUS in 2016. The solution of individual identification and following cataloguing of brownfields is worked out by Form of Regional Studies within the Legislation of the Czech Republic. Due to huge the scale of issues to be tackled, their content is only loosely defined in regard to Building Act and its implementing regulations, e.g. examining the layout of future construction in the area, locating architecturally or otherwise interesting objects, transport or technical infrastructure management, tourism, socially excluded localities etc. Legislative base does not exist, there is no common method for identifying and cataloguing brownfields. Therefore, individual catalogue lists are subject to customer’s requirements. All the same, the relevant information which the database contains may be always examined. One of them is part about transport infrastructure. The information may be divided into three subareas - information on transport accessibility of the locality, information on the actual infrastructure in the locality and information on the transport accessibility of human resources.

  12. Intelligent Transportation Systems in Work Zones - A Case Study: Work Zone Travel Time System. Reducing Congestion with the Use of a Traffic Management Contract Incentive during the Reconstruction of Arizona State Route 68

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-10-01

    This case study is one in a series of documents that examines the use of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in work zones. This case study presents information gathered through interviews with key personnel on the Arizona State Route (SR) 68 pr...

  13. Factors Effecting the Fate and Transport of CL-20 in the Vadose Zone and Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    recently been investigated (Gamerdinger and Kaplan , 2000; Gamerdinger et al., 2001a, 2001b). This research has shown that changes in the water flow...expected to vary with sediment texture ( Kaplan et al. 1996; Gamerdinger et al. 1998). Research in this task will use sediments that are being used...steady-state unsaturated flow at water contents was selected for conducting transport experiments (Gamerdinger et al. 1998; Gamerdinger and Kaplan

  14. Importance of 3D Processes Near the Ocean's Surface for Material Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgokmen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    There are a number of practical problems that demand an accurate knowledge of ocean currents near the surface of the ocean. It is known that oceanic coherent features transport heat and carry out vertical exchange of biogeochemical tracers. Ocean currents can affect biological primary production, air-sea gas exchanges and global tracer budgets. Ocean currents are also important for the dispersion of substances that pose a danger to society, economy and human health. Examples of such events include algal blooms, the Fukushima nuclear plant incident in the Pacific Ocean in 2011, and repeated large oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico, namely the IXTOC in 1978 and the Deepwater Horizon event in 2010. Such incidents demand accurate answers to questions such as ``where will the pollutant go?", ``how fast will it get there?" and ``how much pollutant will arrive there?", and in some instances ``where did the pollutant come from?". The answers to these questions are critical to the allocation of limited response resources, and in determining the overall impact of the events. We will summarize the efforts by the Consortium for Advanced Research on Transport of Hydrocarbon in the Environment (CARTHE). One of the primary objectives of CARTHE is to improve predictive modeling capability for flows near the air-sea interface. In particular, two large experiments, Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD) and Surf-zone and Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment (SCOPE), coordinated with real-time modeling were instructive on processes influencing near-surface material transport. Findings on submesoscale flows as well as model deficiencies to capture processes relevant to transport will be discussed. Insight into future modeling and observational plans will be provided.

  15. Spatio-temporal scaling effects on longshore sediment transport pattern along the nearshore zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorram, Saeed; Ergil, Mustafa

    2018-03-01

    A measure of uncertainties, entropy has been employed in such different applications as coastal engineering probability inferences. Entropy sediment transport integration theories present novel visions in coastal analyses/modeling the application and development of which are still far-reaching. Effort has been made in the present paper to propose a method that needs an entropy-power index for spatio-temporal patterns analyses. Results have shown that the index is suitable for marine/hydrological ecosystem components analyses based on a beach area case study. The method makes use of six Makran Coastal monthly data (1970-2015) and studies variables such as spatio-temporal patterns, LSTR (long-shore sediment transport rate), wind speed, and wave height all of which are time-dependent and play considerable roles in terrestrial coastal investigations; the mentioned variables show meaningful spatio-temporal variability most of the time, but explanation of their combined performance is not easy. Accordingly, the use of an entropy-power index can show considerable signals that facilitate the evaluation of water resources and will provide an insight regarding hydrological parameters' interactions at scales as large as beach areas. Results have revealed that an STDDPI (entropy based spatio-temporal disorder dynamics power index) can simulate wave, long-shore sediment transport rate, and wind when granulometry, concentration, and flow conditions vary.

  16. Lithologic Controls on Critical Zone Processes in a Variably Metamorphosed Shale-Hosted Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldam Pommer, R.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Local and regional shifts in thermal maturity within sedimentary shale systems impart significant variation in chemical and physical rock properties, such as pore-network morphology, mineralogy, organic carbon content, and solute release potential. Even slight variations in these properties on a watershed scale can strongly impact surface and shallow subsurface processes that drive soil formation, landscape evolution, and bioavailability of nutrients. Our ability to map and quantify the effects of this heterogeneity on critical zone processes is hindered by the complex coupling of the multi-scale nature of rock properties, geochemical signatures, and hydrological processes. This study addresses each of these complexities by synthesizing chemical and physical characteristics of variably metamorphosed shales in order to link rock heterogeneity with modern earth surface and shallow subsurface processes. More than 80 samples of variably metamorphosed Mancos Shale were collected in the East River Valley, Colorado, a headwater catchment of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Chemical and physical analyses of the samples show that metamorphism decreases overall rock porosity, pore anisotropy, and surface area, and introduces unique chemical signatures. All of these changes result in lower overall solute release from the Mancos Shale in laboratory dissolution experiments and a change in rock-derived solute chemistry with decreasing organic carbon and cation exchange capacity (Ca, Na, Mg, and K). The increase in rock competency and decrease in reactivity of the more thermally mature shales appear to subsequently control river morphology, with lower channel sinuosity associated with areas of the catchment underlain by metamorphosed Mancos Shale. This work illustrates the formative role of the geologic template on critical zone processes and landscape development within and across watersheds.

  17. Development of an automated processing system for potential fishing zone forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardianto, R.; Setiawan, A.; Hidayat, J. J.; Zaky, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    The Institute for Marine Research and Observation (IMRO) - Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Republic of Indonesia (MMAF) has developed a potential fishing zone (PFZ) forecast using satellite data, called Peta Prakiraan Daerah Penangkapan Ikan (PPDPI). Since 2005, IMRO disseminates everyday PPDPI maps for fisheries marine ports and 3 days average for national areas. The accuracy in determining the PFZ and processing time of maps depend much on the experience of the operators creating them. This paper presents our research in developing an automated processing system for PPDPI in order to increase the accuracy and shorten processing time. PFZ are identified by combining MODIS sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (CHL) data in order to detect the presence of upwelling, thermal fronts and biological productivity enhancement, where the integration of these phenomena generally representing the PFZ. The whole process involves data download, map geo-process as well as layout that are carried out automatically by Python and ArcPy. The results showed that the automated processing system could be used to reduce the operator’s dependence on determining PFZ and speed up processing time.

  18. Reactive transport and mass balance modeling of the Stimson sedimentary formation and altered fracture zones constrain diagenetic conditions at Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Ming, D. W.; Peretyazhko, T. S.; Rampe, E. B.

    2018-06-01

    On a planet as cold and dry as present-day Mars, evidence of multiple aqueous episodes offers an intriguing view into very different past environments. Fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian depositional environments are being investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity in Gale crater, Mars. Geochemical and mineralogical observations of these sedimentary rocks suggest diagenetic processes affected the sediments. Here, we analyze diagenesis of the Stimson formation eolian parent material, which caused loss of olivine and formation of magnetite. Additional, later alteration in fracture zones resulted in preferential dissolution of pyroxene and precipitation of secondary amorphous silica and Ca sulfate. The ability to compare the unaltered parent material with the reacted material allows constraints to be placed on the characteristics of the altering solutions. In this work we use a combination of a mass balance approach calculating the fraction of a mobile element lost or gained, τ, with fundamental geochemical kinetics and thermodynamics in the reactive transport code CrunchFlow to examine the characteristics of multiple stages of aqueous alteration at Gale crater, Mars. Our model results indicate that early diagenesis of the Stimson sedimentary formation is consistent with leaching of an eolian deposit by a near-neutral solution, and that formation of the altered fracture zones is consistent with a very acidic, high sulfate solution containing Ca, P and Si. These results indicate a range of past aqueous conditions occurring at Gale crater, Mars, with important implications for past martian climate and environments.

  19. Performance processes within affect-related performance zones: a multi-modal investigation of golf performance.

    PubMed

    van der Lei, Harry; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2012-12-01

    Individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) method utilizing Kamata et al. (J Sport Exerc Psychol 24:189-208, 2002) probabilistic model of determining the individual zone of optimal functioning was utilized as idiosyncratic affective patterns during golf performance. To do so, three male golfers of a varsity golf team were observed during three rounds of golf competition. The investigation implemented a multi-modal assessment approach in which the probabilistic relationship between affective states and both, performance process and performance outcome, measures were determined. More specifically, introspective (i.e., verbal reports) and objective (heart rate and respiration rate) measures of arousal were incorporated to examine the relationships between arousal states and both, process components (i.e., routine consistency, timing), and outcome scores related to golf performance. Results revealed distinguishable and idiosyncratic IAPZs associated with physiological and introspective measures for each golfer. The associations between the IAPZs and decision-making or swing/stroke execution were strong and unique for each golfer. Results are elaborated using cognitive and affect-related concepts, and applications for practitioners are provided.

  20. Nitrate transport and transformation processes in unsaturated porous media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tindall, James A.; Petrusak, Robin L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted on two contrasting agricultural soils to observe the influence of soil texture, preferential flow, and plants on nitrate transport and denitrification under unsaturated conditions. Calcium nitrate fertilizer was applied to the surface of four large undisturbed soil cores (30 cm diameter by 40 cm height). Two of the cores were a structured clay obtained from central Missouri and two were an unstructured fine sand obtained from central Florida. The cores were irrigated daily and maintained at a matric potential of -20 kPa, representative of soil tension in the rooting zone of irrigated agricultural fields. Volumetric water content (θ), concentration of nitrate-N in the soil solution, and nitrous oxide flux at the surface, 10, 20, and 30 cm were monitored daily. Leaching loss of surface-applied N03− -N was significant in both the sand and the clay. In unplanted sand cores, almost all of the applied nitrate was leached below 30 cm within 10 days. Gaseous N loss owing to denitrification was no greater than 2% of the nitrate-N applied to the unplanted sand cores and, in general, was less than 1 %. Although leaching was somewhat retarded in the clay cores, about 60% of the applied nitrate-N was leached from the unplanted clay soil in 5–6 weeks. Under unsaturated conditions, the clay had little to no tendency to denitrify despite the greater moisture content of the clay and retarded leaching of nitrate in the clay. The planted sand cores had surprisingly large gaseous N loss owing to denitrification, as much as 17% of the nitrate-N. Results from both the clay and sand experiments show that the dynamics of nitrate transport and transformation in unsaturated soils are affected by small, localized variations in the soil moisture content profile, the gaseous diffusion coefficient of the soil, the rate at which the nitrate pulse passes through the soil, the solubility of N2O and N2 and the diffusion of the gasses through the soil

  1. Deformation processes and weakening mechanisms within the frictional viscous transition zone of major crustal-scale faults: insights from the Great Glen Fault Zone, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Strachan, R. A.

    2000-05-01

    The Great Glen Fault Zone (GGFZ), Scotland, is a typical example of a crustal-scale, reactivated strike-slip fault within the continental crust. Analysis of intensely strained fault rocks from the core of the GGFZ near Fort William provides a unique insight into the nature of deformation associated with the main phase of (sinistral) movements along the fault zone. In this region, an exhumed sequence of complex mid-crustal deformation textures that developed in the region of the frictional-viscous transition (ca. 8-15 km depth) is preserved. Fault rock fabrics vary from mylonitic in quartzites to cataclastic in micaceous shear zones and feldspathic psammites. Protolith mineralogy exerted a strong control on the initial textural development and distribution of the fault rocks. At lower strains, crystal-plastic deformation occurred in quartz-dominated lithologies to produce mylonites simultaneously with widespread fracturing and cataclasis in feldspar- and mica-dominated rocks. At higher strains, shearing appears to increasingly localise into interconnected networks of cataclastic shear zones, many of which are strongly foliated. Textures indicative of fluid-assisted diffusive mass transfer mechanisms are widespread in such regions and suggest that a hydrous fluid-assisted, grainsize-controlled switch in deformation behaviour followed the brittle comminution of grains. The fault zone textural evolution implies that a strain-induced, fluid-assisted shallowing and narrowing of the frictional-viscous transition occurred with increasing strain. It is proposed that this led to an overall weakening of the fault zone and that equivalent processes may occur along many other long-lived, crustal-scale dislocations.

  2. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious.

  3. Analysis of suspended solids transport processes in primary settling tanks.

    PubMed

    Patziger, Miklós; Kiss, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a long-term research comprising FLUENT-based numerical modeling, in situ measurements and laboratory tests to analyze suspended solids (SS) transport processes in primary settling tanks (PSTs). The investigated PST was one of the rectangular horizontal flow PSTs at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a capacity of 500,000 population equivalent. Many middle-sized and large WWTPs are equipped with such PSTs. The numerical PST model was calibrated and validated based on the results of comprehensive in situ flow and SS concentration measurements from low (5 m/h) up to quite high surface overflow rates of 9.5 and 13.0 m/h and on settling and other laboratory tests. The calibrated and validated PST model was also successfully used for evaluation of some slight modifications of the inlet geometry (removing lamellas, installing a flocculation 'box', shifting the inlet into a 'bottom-near' or into a 'high' position), which largely affect PST behavior and performance. The investigations provided detailed insight into the flow and SS transport processes within the investigated PST, which strongly contributes to hydrodynamically driven design and upgrading of PSTs.

  4. Monitoring deep geodynamic processes within Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic zone by geodetic means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita

    2015-04-01

    Background Located in the bending zone of East Carpathians, the so-called Vrancea zone is one of the most active seismic regions in Europe. Despite many years of international research, its intermediate-depth seismicity within full intra-continental environment still represents a challenge of the 21st century. Infrastructure In the attempt to join the above-mentioned efforts, the Solid Earth Dynamics Department (SEDD) in the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy has developed a special research infrastructure, mainly devoted to gravity and space geodesy observations. A geodetic network covering the epicentre area of the intermediate-depth earthquakes has been designed and implemented for monitoring deep geodynamic processes and their surface echoes. Within each base-station of the above-mentioned network, a still-reinforced concrete pillar allows for high accuracy repeated gravity and GPS determinations. Results Starting from some results of the previously run CERGOP and UNIGRACE European programmes, to which additional SEDD repeated field campaigns were added, an unusual geodynamic behaviour has been revealed in the area. 1) Crust deformation: unlike the overall uprising of East Carpathians, as a result of denudation followed by erosion, their SE bending zone, with Vrancea epicentre area exhibits a slight subsidence. 2) Gravity change: more than 200 microgals non-tidal gravity decrease over a 20 years time-span has been noticed within the subsiding area. Extended observations showed the gravity lowering as a nowadays continuing process. Interpretation This strange combination of topography subsidence and gravity lowering has been interpreted in terms of crust stretching in the Vrancea epicentre zone due to the gravity pull created by densification of the lower crust as a result of phase-transform processes taking place in the lithospheric compartment sunken into the upper mantle. The occurrence of crust earthquakes with vertical-extension focal

  5. Boron desorption and fractionation in Subduction Zone Fore Arcs: Implications for the sources and transport of deep fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffer, Demian M.; Kopf, Achim J.

    2016-12-01

    At many subduction zones, pore water geochemical anomalies at seafloor seeps and in shallow boreholes indicate fluid flow and chemical transport from depths of several kilometers. Identifying the source regions for these fluids is essential toward quantifying flow pathways and volatile fluxes through fore arcs, and in understanding their connection to the loci of excess pore pressure at depth. Here we develop a model to track the coupled effects of boron desorption, smectite dehydration, and progressive consolidation within sediment at the top of the subducting slab, where such deep fluid signals likely originate. Our analysis demonstrates that the relative timing of heating and consolidation is a dominant control on pore water composition. For cold slabs, pore water freshening is maximized because dehydration releases bound water into low porosity sediment, whereas boron concentrations and isotopic signatures are modest because desorption is strongly sensitive to temperature and is only partially complete. For warmer slabs, freshening is smaller, because dehydration occurs earlier and into larger porosities, but the boron signatures are larger. The former scenario is typical of nonaccretionary margins where insulating sediment on the subducting plate is commonly thin. This result provides a quantitative explanation for the global observation that signatures of deeply sourced fluids are generally strongest at nonaccretionary margins. Application of our multitracer approach to the Costa Rica, N. Japan, N. Barbados, and Mediterranean Ridge subduction zones illustrates that desorption and dehydration are viable explanations for observed geochemical signals, and suggest updip fluid migration from these source regions over tens of km.

  6. Linking Weathering, Rock Moisture Dynamics, Geochemistry, Runoff, Vegetation and Atmospheric Processes through the Critical Zone: Graduate Student led Research at the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    In the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory lies Rivendell, a heavily-instrumented steep forested hillslope underlain by nearly vertically dipping argillite interbedded with sandstone. Under this convex hillslope lies "Zb", the transition to fresh bedrock, which varies from less than 6 m below the surface near the channel to 20 m at the divide. Rempe and Dietrich (2014, PNAS) show that the Zb profile can be predicted from the assumption that weathering occurs when drainage is induced in the uplifting fresh bedrock under hillslopes by lateral head gradients driven by channel incision at the hillslope boundary. Infiltrating winter precipitation is impeded at the lower conductivity boundary at Zb, generating perched groundwater that dynamically pulses water laterally to the channel, controlling stream runoff. Below the soil and above the water table lies an unsaturated zone through which all recharge to the perched groundwater (and thus all runoff to channels) occurs. It is this zone and the waters in them that profoundly affect critical zone processes. In our seasonally dry environment, the first rains penetrate past the soil and moisten the underlying weathered bedrock (Salve et al., 2012, WRR). It takes about 200 to 400 mm of cumulative rain, however, before the underlying groundwater rises significantly. Oshun et al (in review) show that by this cumulative rainfall the average of the wide-ranging isotopic signature of rain reaches a nearly constant average annual value. Consequently, the recharging perched groundwater shows only minor temporal isotopic variation. Kim et al, (2014, GCA) find that the winter high-flow groundwater chemistry is controlled by relatively fast-reacting cation exchange processes, likely occurring in transit in the unsaturated zone. Oshun also demonstrates that the Douglas fir rely on this rock moisture as a water source, while the broadleaf trees (oaks and madrone) use mostly soil moisture. Link et al (2014 WRR) show that Doug fir declines

  7. A chaotic-dynamical conceptual model to describe fluid flow and contaminant transport in a fractured vadose zone. 1997 progress report and presentations at the annual meeting, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, December 3--4, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, B.; Doughty, C.; Geller, J.

    1998-07-01

    Understanding subsurface flow and transport processes is critical for effective assessment, decision-making, and remediation activities for contaminated sites. However, for fluid flow and contaminant transport through fractured vadose zones, traditional hydrogeological approaches are often found to be inadequate. In this project, the authors examine flow and transport through a fractured vadose zone as a deterministic chaotic dynamical process, and develop a model of it in these terms. Initially, the authors examine separately the geometric model of fractured rock and the flow dynamics model needed to describe chaotic behavior. Ultimately they will put the geometry and flow dynamics together to developmore » a chaotic-dynamical model of flow and transport in a fractured vadose zone. They investigate water flow and contaminant transport on several scales, ranging from small-scale laboratory experiments in fracture replicas and fractured cores, to field experiments conducted in a single exposed fracture at a basalt outcrop, and finally to a ponded infiltration test using a pond of 7 by 8 m. In the field experiments, they measure the time-variation of water flux, moisture content, and hydraulic head at various locations, as well as the total inflow rate to the subsurface. Such variations reflect the changes in the geometry and physics of water flow that display chaotic behavior, which they try to reconstruct using the data obtained. In the analysis of experimental data, a chaotic model can be used to predict the long-term bounds on fluid flow and transport behavior, known as the attractor of the system, and to examine the limits of short-term predictability within these bounds. This approach is especially well suited to the need for short-term predictions to support remediation decisions and long-term bounding studies. View-graphs from ten presentations made at the annual meeting held December 3--4, 1997 are included in an appendix to this report.« less

  8. Hybrid Multiscale Simulation of Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Processes in the River-Groundwater Interaction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Scheibe, T. D.; Chen, X.; Hammond, G. E.; Song, X.

    2015-12-01

    The zone in which river water and groundwater mix plays an important role in natural ecosystems as it regulates the mixing of nutrients that control biogeochemical transformations. Subsurface heterogeneity leads to local hotspots of microbial activity that are important to system function yet difficult to resolve computationally. To address this challenge, we are testing a hybrid multiscale approach that couples models at two distinct scales, based on field research at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The region of interest is a 400 x 400 x 20 m macroscale domain that intersects the aquifer and the river and contains a contaminant plume. However, biogeochemical activity is high in a thin zone (mud layer, <1 m thick) immediately adjacent to the river. This microscale domain is highly heterogeneous and requires fine spatial resolution to adequately represent the effects of local mixing on reactions. It is not computationally feasible to resolve the full macroscale domain at the fine resolution needed in the mud layer, and the reaction network needed in the mud layer is much more complex than that needed in the rest of the macroscale domain. Hence, a hybrid multiscale approach is used to efficiently and accurately predict flow and reactive transport at both scales. In our simulations, models at both scales are simulated using the PFLOTRAN code. Multiple microscale simulations in dynamically defined sub-domains (fine resolution, complex reaction network) are executed and coupled with a macroscale simulation over the entire domain (coarse resolution, simpler reaction network). The objectives of the research include: 1) comparing accuracy and computing cost of the hybrid multiscale simulation with a single-scale simulation; 2) identifying hot spots of microbial activity; and 3) defining macroscopic quantities such as fluxes, residence times and effective reaction rates.

  9. Trace element behavior in hydrothermal experiments: Implications for fluid processes at shallow depths in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, C.-F.; Castillo, P. R.; Gieskes, J. M.; Chan, L. H.; Spivack, A. J.

    1996-05-01

    Chemical evaluation of fluids affected during progressive water-sediment interactions provides critical information regarding the role of slab dehydration and/or crustal recycling in subduction zones. To place some constraints on geochemical processes during sediment subduction, reactions between décollement sediments and synthetic NaCl-CaCl 2 solutions at 25-350°C and 800 bar were monitored in laboratory hydrothermal experiments using an autoclave apparatus. This is the first attempt in a single set of experiments to investigate the relative mobilities of many subduction zone volatiles and trace elements but, because of difficulties in conducting hydrothermal experiments on sediments at high P-T conditions, the experiments could only be designed for a shallow (˜ 10 km) depth. The experimental results demonstrate mobilization of volatiles (B and NH 4) and incompatible elements (As, Be, Cs, Li, Pb, Rb) in hydrothermal fluids at relatively low temperatures (˜ 300°C). In addition, a limited fractionation of light from heavy rare earth elements (REEs) occurs under hydrothermal conditions. On the other hand, the high field strength elements (HFSEs) Cr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Ti, and Zr are not mobile in the reacted fluids. The observed behavior of volatiles and trace elements in hydrothermal fluids is similar to the observed enrichment in As, B, Cs, Li, Pb, Rb, and light REEs and depletion in HFSEs in arc magmas relative to magmas derived directly from the upper mantle. Thus, our work suggests a link between relative mobilities of trace elements in hydrothermal fluids and deep arc magma generation in subduction zones. The experimental results are highly consistent with the proposal that the addition of subduction zone hydrous fluids to the subarc mantle, which has been depleted by previous melting events, can produce the unique characteristics of arc magmas. Moreover, the results suggest that deeply subducted sediments may no longer have the composition necessary to generate

  10. Investigating point zero: The artificial catchment 'Chicken Creek' as an observatory to study critical zone structures and processes of the critical zone in an initial ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Gerwin, Werner

    2010-05-01

    Recently, earth surface structures reaching from vegetation to the groundwater in the near underground have been termed "critical zone". This zone is "critical" to supporting life on Earth and, thus, the understanding of processes within this zone is of great importance in environmental sciences. Investigating the critical zone requires interdisciplinary and integrative research approaches across the fields of geomorphology, ecology, biology, soil science, hydrology and environmental modeling. A central motivation of the critical zone concept is the need for moving beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries to a more holistic and integrated study of the Earth surface system. However, the critical zone is characterized by complex interactions between abiotic and biotic structures and processes which need to be analyzed for improving our understanding of ecosystem functioning as well as of ecosystem development. To gain a better understanding of these fundamental questions it might be helpful to look at initial ecosystems, i.e. at ecosystems in the initial phase of development. It can be hypothesized that the complexity of a very young ecosystem is lower compared to mature systems and, therefore, structure-process interactions might become more obvious at early than at later stages of development. In this context, an artificial watershed was constructed with well known boundary conditions to investigate the initial ecosystem phase. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was set up with a layer of post-glacial sandy sediments overlying an aquiclude made of clay at the base. These hydrological starting conditions allowed for the formation of a groundwater body within the sandy layer of the experimental catchment. Further, after completion of the construction works in September 2005 the site was left to natural succession and no measures like planting or fertilization were carried out. As the initial phase of

  11. High efficiency processing for reduced amplitude zones detection in the HRECG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    Summary - This article presents part of a more detailed research proposed in the medium to long term, with the intention of establishing a new philosophy of electrocardiogram surface analysis. This research aims to find indicators of cardiovascular disease in its early stage that may go unnoticed with conventional electrocardiography. This paper reports the development of a software processing which collect some existing techniques and incorporates novel methods for detection of reduced amplitude zones (RAZ) in high resolution electrocardiographic signal (HRECG).The algorithm consists of three stages, an efficient processing for QRS detection, averaging filter using correlation techniques and a step for RAZ detecting. Preliminary results show the efficiency of system and point to incorporation of techniques new using signal analysis with involving 12 leads.

  12. Use of GIS technologies to facilitate the transportation project programming process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-05-01

    Transportation project programming in a transportation agency is a process of matching : potential projects with available funds to accomplish the agencys mission and goals of a : given period of time. Result of this process is normally a transpor...

  13. Scaling up: What coupled land-atmosphere models can tell us about critical zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, K. A.; Masarik, M. T.; Rudisill, W. J.; Gelb, L.; Flores, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    A significant limitation to extending our knowledge of critical zone (CZ) evolution and function is a lack of hydrometeorological information at sufficiently fine spatial and temporal resolutions to resolve topo-climatic gradients and adequate spatial and temporal extent to capture a range of climatic conditions across ecoregions. Research at critical zone observatories (CZOs) suggests hydrometeorological stores and fluxes exert key controls on processes such as hydrologic partitioning and runoff generation, landscape evolution, soil formation, biogeochemical cycling, and vegetation dynamics. However, advancing fundamental understanding of CZ processes necessitates understanding how hydrometeorological drivers vary across space and time. As a result of recent advances in computational capabilities it has become possible, although still computationally expensive, to simulate hydrometeorological conditions via high resolution coupled land-atmosphere models. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we developed a high spatiotemporal resolution dataset extending from water year 1987 to present for the Snake River Basin in the northwestern USA including the Reynolds Creek and Dry Creek Experimental Watersheds, both part of the Reynolds Creek CZO, as well as a range of other ecosystems including shrubland desert, montane forests, and alpine tundra. Drawing from hypotheses generated by work at these sites and across the CZO network, we use the resulting dataset in combination with CZO observations and publically available datasets to provide insights regarding hydrologic partitioning, vegetation distribution, and erosional processes. This dataset provides key context in interpreting and reconciling what observations obtained at particular sites reveal about underlying CZ structure and function. While this dataset does not extend to future climates, the same modeling framework can be used to dynamically downscale coarse global climate model output to scales

  14. Reactive transport modeling of processes controlling the distribution and natural attenuation of phenolic compounds in a deep sandstone aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K. U.; Benner, S. G.; Frind, E. O.; Thornton, S. F.; Lerner, D. N.

    2001-12-01

    Reactive solute transport modeling was utilized to evaluate the potential for natural attenuation of a contaminant plume containing phenolic compounds at a chemical producer in the West Midlands, UK. The reactive transport simulations consider microbially mediated biodegradation of the phenolic compounds (phenols, cresols, and xylenols) by multiple electron acceptors. Inorganic reactions including hydrolysis, aqueous complexation, dissolution of primary minerals, formation of secondary mineral phases, and ion exchange are considered. One-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations were conducted. Mass balance calculations indicate that biodegradation in the saturated zone has degraded approximately 1-5% of the organic contaminant plume over a time period of 47 years. Simulations indicate that denitrification is the most significant degradation process, accounting for approximately 50% of the organic contaminant removal, followed by sulfate reduction and fermentation reactions, each contributing 15-20%. Aerobic respiration accounts for less than 10% of the observed contaminant removal in the saturated zone. Although concentrations of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) mineral phases are high in the aquifer sediment, reductive dissolution is limited, producing only 5% of the observed mass loss. Mass balance calculations suggest that no more than 20-25% of the observed total inorganic carbon (TIC) was generated from biodegradation reactions in the saturated zone. Simulations indicate that aerobic biodegradation in the unsaturated zone, before the contaminant entered the aquifer, may have produced the majority of the TIC observed in the plume. Because long-term degradation is limited to processes within the saturated zone, use of observed TIC concentrations to predict the future natural attenuation may overestimate contaminant degradation by a factor of 4-5.

  15. Redox transformations and transport of cesium and iodine (-1, 0, +5) in oxidizing and reducing zones of a sand and gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, P.M.; Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tracer tests were performed in distinct biogeochemical zones of a sand and gravel aquifer in Cape Cod, MA, to study the redox chemistry (I) and transport (Cs, I) of cesium and iodine in a field setting. Injection of iodide (I -) into an oxic zone of the aquifer resulted in oxidation of I - to molecular iodine (I2) and iodate (IO3-) over transport distances of several meters. Oxidation is attributed to Mn-oxides present in the sediment. Transport of injected IO 3- and Cs+ was retarded in the mildly acidic oxic zone, with retardation factors of 1.6-1.8 for IO3- and 2.3-4.4for Cs. Cs retardation was likely due to cation exchange reactions. Injection of IO3- into a Fe-reducing zone of the aquifer resulted in rapid and complete reduction to I- within 3 m of transport. The nonconservative behavior of Cs and I observed during the tracer tests underscores the necessity of taking the redox chemistry of I as well as sorption properties of I species and Cs into account when predicting transport of radionuclides (e.g., 129I and 137Cs) in the environment.

  16. Effect of hydrofracking fluid on colloid transport in the unsaturated zone.

    PubMed

    Sang, Wenjing; Stoof, Cathelijne R; Zhang, Wei; Morales, Verónica L; Gao, Bin; Kay, Robert W; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yalei; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2014-07-15

    Hydraulic fracturing is expanding rapidly in the US to meet increasing energy demand and requires high volumes of hydrofracking fluid to displace natural gas from shale. Accidental spills and deliberate land application of hydrofracking fluids, which return to the surface during hydrofracking, are common causes of environmental contamination. Since the chemistry of hydrofracking fluids favors transport of colloids and mineral particles through rock cracks, it may also facilitate transport of in situ colloids and associated pollutants in unsaturated soils. We investigated this by subsequently injecting deionized water and flowback fluid at increasing flow rates into unsaturated sand columns containing colloids. Colloid retention and mobilization was measured in the column effluent and visualized in situ with bright field microscopy. While <5% of initial colloids were released by flushing with deionized water, 32-36% were released by flushing with flowback fluid in two distinct breakthrough peaks. These peaks resulted from 1) surface tension reduction and steric repulsion and 2) slow kinetic disaggregation of colloid flocs. Increasing the flow rate of the flowback fluid mobilized an additional 36% of colloids, due to the expansion of water filled pore space. This study suggests that hydrofracking fluid may also indirectly contaminate groundwater by remobilizing existing colloidal pollutants.

  17. Effect of Hydrofracking Fluid on Colloid Transport in the Unsaturated Zone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is expanding rapidly in the US to meet increasing energy demand and requires high volumes of hydrofracking fluid to displace natural gas from shale. Accidental spills and deliberate land application of hydrofracking fluids, which return to the surface during hydrofracking, are common causes of environmental contamination. Since the chemistry of hydrofracking fluids favors transport of colloids and mineral particles through rock cracks, it may also facilitate transport of in situ colloids and associated pollutants in unsaturated soils. We investigated this by subsequently injecting deionized water and flowback fluid at increasing flow rates into unsaturated sand columns containing colloids. Colloid retention and mobilization was measured in the column effluent and visualized in situ with bright field microscopy. While <5% of initial colloids were released by flushing with deionized water, 32–36% were released by flushing with flowback fluid in two distinct breakthrough peaks. These peaks resulted from 1) surface tension reduction and steric repulsion and 2) slow kinetic disaggregation of colloid flocs. Increasing the flow rate of the flowback fluid mobilized an additional 36% of colloids, due to the expansion of water filled pore space. This study suggests that hydrofracking fluid may also indirectly contaminate groundwater by remobilizing existing colloidal pollutants. PMID:24905470

  18. Occupational hazards and illnesses of Filipino women workers in export processing zones.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2008-01-01

    This was a baseline study on occupational exposure and health problems among women workers in export processing zones. Physical, chemical, and ergonomic hazards were evaluated and measured through workplace ambient monitoring, survey questionnaires, and interviews with 500 respondents in 24 companies (most were female at 88.8%). The top 5 hazards were ergonomic hazards (72.2%), heat (66.6%), overwork (66.6%), poor ventilation (54.8%), and chemical exposure (50.8%). The most common illnesses were gastrointestinal problems (57.4%), backache (56%), headache (53.2%), and fatigue/weakness (53.2%). Logistic regression showed an association between certain work-related factors and occupational illnesses, and psychosocial problems. Highly significant associations were hearing loss with years spent in the company (p=.005) and gender (p=.006), headache and dizziness with poor ventilation (p=.000), backache with prolonged work (p=.003). These results will have implications for policy and program formulation for women workers' concerns and issues in export zones.

  19. Moisture origin and transport processes in Colombia, northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, I.; Dominguez, F.; Cañón-Barriga, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Dirmeyer, P. A.

    2018-02-01

    We assess the spatial structure of moisture flux divergence, regional moisture sources and transport processes over Colombia, in northern South America. Using three independent methods the dynamic recycling model (DRM), FLEXPART and the Quasi-isentropic back-trajectory (QIBT) models we quantify the moisture sources that contribute to precipitation over the region. We find that moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and terrestrial recycling are the most important sources of moisture for Colombia, highlighting the importance of the Orinoco and Amazon basins as regional providers of atmospheric moisture. The results show the influence of long-range cross-equatorial flow from the Atlantic Ocean into the target region and the role of the study area as a passage of moisture into South America. We also describe the seasonal moisture transport mechanisms of the well-known low-level westerly and Caribbean jets that originate in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, respectively. We find that these dynamical systems play an important role in the convergence of moisture over western Colombia.

  20. Vadose zone processes delay groundwater nitrate reduction response to BMP implementation as observed in paired cultivated vs. uncultivated potato rotation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Nyiraneza, J.; Murray, B. J.; Chapman, S.; Malenica, A.; Parker, B.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrate leaching from crop production contributes to groundwater contamination and subsequent eutrophication of the receiving surface water. A study was conducted in a 7-ha potato-grain-forages rotation field in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada during 2011-2016 to link potato rotation practices and groundwater quality. The field consists of fine sandy loam soil and is underlain by 7-9 m of glacial till, which overlies the regional fractured ;red-bed; sandstone aquifer. The water table is generally located in overburden close to the bedrock interface. Field treatments included one field zone taken out of production in 2011 with the remaining zones kept under a conventional potato rotation. Agronomy data including crop tissue, soil, and tile-drain water quality were collected. Hydrogeology data including multilevel monitoring of groundwater nitrate and hydraulic head and data from rock coring for nitrate distribution in overburden and bedrock matrix were also collected. A significant amount of nitrate leached below the soil profile after potato plant kill (referred to as topkill) in 2011, most of it from fertilizer N. A high level of nitrate was also detected in the till vadose zone through coring in December 2012 and through multilevel groundwater sampling from January to May 2014 in both cultivated and uncultivated field zones. Groundwater nitrate concentrations increased for about 2.5 years after the overlying potato field was removed from production. Pressure-driven uniform flow processes dominate water and nitrate transport in the vadose zone, producing an apparently instant water table response but a delayed groundwater quality response to nitrate leaching events. These data suggest that the uniform flow dominated vadose zone in agricultural landscapes can cause the accumulation of a significant amount of nitrate originated from previous farming activities, and the long travel time of this legacy nitrate in the vadose zone can result in substantially delayed

  1. Carbon Processing in Aquatic Critical Zones: A Source-to-Sink Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of organic carbon (OC) in the global ocean is buried in the coastal margin. In particular, river delta and non-deltaic shelf regions bury an estimated 114 Tg C year-1 and 70 Tg C year-1, respectively, with only ca. 6 Tg C year-1 buried in the open ocean. While there has long standing general agreement that continental selves represent the largest sink of both terrestrial (OCterr) and marine (OCmari) OC in the global ocean, our understanding of the spatial and temporal complexity of this region continues to evolve. For example, fjords are now more recognized as "hotspots"of carbon burial with recent estimates suggesting fjord surface area-normalized OC burial rates are at least five times greater than other marine systems and one hundred times greater than the entire ocean average. Here, I will compare and contrast some of the key molecular biomarkers that have been used to date to track OC across different depositional environments (e.g., large river deltas and fjords) and explore how margin-type, residence time of transport, reservoir dams, redox, priming effects, and molecular stability, impact the utility of using different biomarkers in coastal OC cycling. Finally, I will focus on important critical zones within the aquatic continuum from land-to-sea and examine how more attention is needed better understand OC cycling in these new dynamic interfaces in the Anthropocene.

  2. Climatic Drivers for Multi-Decadal Shifts in Solute Transport and Methane Production Zones within a Large Peat Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Paul H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Reeve, Andrew S.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Corbett, J. Elizabeth; Dasgupta, Soumitri; Levy, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Northern peatlands are an important source for greenhouse gases but their capacity to produce methane remains uncertain under changing climatic conditions. We therefore analyzed a 43-year time series of pore-water chemistry to determine if long-term shifts in precipitation altered the vertical transport of solutes within a large peat basin in northern Minnesota. These data suggest that rates of methane production can be finely tuned to multi-decadal shifts in precipitation that drive the vertical penetration of labile carbon substrates within the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. Tritium and cation profiles demonstrate that only the upper meter of these peat deposits was flushed by downwardly moving recharge from 1965 through 1983 during a Transitional Dry-to-Moist Period. However, a shift to a moister climate after 1984 drove surface waters much deeper, largely flushing the pore waters of all bogs and fens to depths of 2 m. Labile carbon compounds were transported downward from the rhizosphere to the basal peat at this time producing a substantial enrichment of methane in Delta C-14 with respect to the solid-phase peat from 1991 to 2008. These data indicate that labile carbon substrates can fuel deep production zones of methanogenesis that more than doubled in thickness across this large peat basin after 1984. Moreover, the entire peat profile apparently has the capacity to produce methane from labile carbon substrates depending on climate-driven modes of solute transport. Future changes in precipitation may therefore play a central role in determining the source strength of peatlands in the global methane cycle.

  3. Climatic drivers for multidecadal shifts in solute transport and methane production zones within a large peat basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glaser, Paul H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Reeve, Andrew S.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Corbett, J. Elizabeth; Dasgupta, Soumitri; Levy, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Northern peatlands are an important source for greenhouse gases, but their capacity to produce methane remains uncertain under changing climatic conditions. We therefore analyzed a 43 year time series of the pore-water chemistry to determine if long-term shifts in precipitation altered the vertical transport of solutes within a large peat basin in northern Minnesota. These data suggest that rates of methane production can be finely tuned to multidecadal shifts in precipitation that drive the vertical penetration of labile carbon substrates within the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. Tritium and cation profiles demonstrate that only the upper meter of these peat deposits was flushed by downwardly moving recharge from 1965 to 1983 during a Transitional Dry-to-Moist Period. However, a shift to a moister climate after 1984 drove surface waters much deeper, largely flushing the pore waters of all bogs and fens to depths of 2 m. Labile carbon compounds were transported downward from the rhizosphere to the basal peat at this time producing a substantial enrichment of methane in Δ14C with respect to the solid-phase peat from 1991 to 2008. These data indicate that labile carbon substrates can fuel deep production zones of methanogenesis that more than doubled in thickness across this large peat basin after 1984. Moreover, the entire peat profile apparently has the capacity to produce methane from labile carbon substrates depending on climate-driven modes of solute transport. Future changes in precipitation may therefore play a central role in determining the source strength of peatlands in the global methane cycle.

  4. Engineering charge transport by heterostructuring solution-processed semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Ip, Alexander H.; Zhitomirsky, David; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-06-01

    Solution-processed semiconductor devices are increasingly exploiting heterostructuring — an approach in which two or more materials with different energy landscapes are integrated into a composite system. Heterostructured materials offer an additional degree of freedom to control charge transport and recombination for more efficient optoelectronic devices. By exploiting energetic asymmetry, rationally engineered heterostructured materials can overcome weaknesses, augment strengths and introduce emergent physical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to single-material systems. These systems see benefit and application in two distinct branches of charge-carrier manipulation. First, they influence the balance between excitons and free charges to enhance electron extraction in solar cells and photodetectors. Second, they promote radiative recombination by spatially confining electrons and holes, which increases the quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes. In this Review, we discuss advances in the design and composition of heterostructured materials, consider their implementation in semiconductor devices and examine unexplored paths for future advancement in the field.

  5. Hydrogeologic setting and simulation of pesticide fate and transport in the unsaturated zone of a regolith-mantled, carbonate-rock terrain near Newville, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hippe, D.J.; Hall, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Physical and chemical data were collected from May 1991 through April 1993 at a 4.5 hectare field site in Cumberland County, Pa., about 5 kilometers southeast of Newville. These data were used to define the hydrogeologic setting of a field site representative of the intensively farmed carbonate valleys of southeastern and south-central Pennsylvania. The environmental processing of commonly used pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides) in the unsaturated zone was simulated with a process- oriented digital model to evaluate the environmental fate and transport of pesticides to ground water. Site data and modelling results provide a basis for a discussion of water-quality implications of agricultural best-management practices. The carbonate valleys of Pennsylvania comprise regolith-mantled carbonate-rock terrains that consist of broad undulating upland areas dissected by mostly dry valleys and widely spaced spring-fed creeks. The upland areas are farmed and exhibit possess a doline karst topography with many closed depressions, sinkholes, and bedrock outcrops. Unsaturated materials at the field site consist of an almost continuous soil cover composed of fine-grained residuum underlain by an intermediate vadose zone composed of karstified limestone. Soils are absent on scattered bedrock outcrops and are more than 12 meters thick in other areas of the site. The soil profile stores appreciable quantities of water with a volumetric average of about 36 percent water at field capacity. Organic carbon content of soil materials is about 1.7 percent in the Ap-horizon and from 0.1 to 0.3 percent throughout the full thickness of the B- and C-horizons. Atrazine, metolachlor, simazine, and the atrazine soil metabolites deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine were detected at concentrations above 0.05 mg/L in just the upper 0.6 meters of soil materials. However, detectable concentrations of atrazine, simazine, and atrazine soil metabolites were measured in water

  6. Integrating Hydrogeological, Microbiological, and Geochemical Data Using a Multi-Component Reactive Transport Model: Quantifying the Biogeochemical Evolution of Redox Zones in a Contaminated Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. T.; Phanikumar, M. S.; Long, D. T.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogeological, microbiological, and geochemical processes operating in a shallow sandy aquifer contaminated by waste fuels and chlorinated solvents were integrated using high-resolution mechanistic models. A 3-D, transient, reactive transport model was developed to quantitatively describe coupled processes via thermodynamic and kinetic arguments. The model was created by linking the hydrodynamic model MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988), with advection, dispersion and user defined kinetic reactions based on RT3D 2.0, (Clement and Jones, 1998) and geochemical model PHREEQC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). This model, BGTK3D 2.0, describes 1) the biodegradation of organic matter based on the influence of transport processes on microbial growth, 2) the complex suite of biogeochemical reactions operating in the aquifer, and 3) sharp chemical gradients. Some key features of this model are an ability to incorporate realistic solid phases to test hypotheses regarding mineral-water interactions, and an ability to accurately describe small-scale biogeochemical cycling (cm variability) observed in the field without oscillations or excessive numerical damping. BGTK3D was used to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of redox chemistry in a contaminated aquifer. The conceptual model that terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) distribute themselves sequentially into redox zones down flow path in aqueous systems is often used to interpret how and at what rates organic compounds will be degraded in the environment. Geochemical and microbiological data collected from a mixed contaminant plume at the former Wurtsmith AFB in Oscoda, Michigan suggests that under steady-state, mature plume conditions, traditional redox zonation may not be a realistic model of the distribution of TEAPs and therefore may not be the best model to evaluate the potential degradation of organic compounds. Based on these data, a conceptual model of TEAP evolution in contaminated systems was

  7. The Geodetic Signature of the Earthquake Cycle at Subduction Zones: Model Constraints on the Deep Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govers, R.; Furlong, K. P.; van de Wiel, L.; Herman, M. W.; Broerse, T.

    2018-03-01

    Recent megathrust events in Tohoku (Japan), Maule (Chile), and Sumatra (Indonesia) were well recorded. Much has been learned about the dominant physical processes in megathrust zones: (partial) locking of the plate interface, detailed coseismic slip, relocking, afterslip, viscoelastic mantle relaxation, and interseismic loading. These and older observations show complex spatial and temporal patterns in crustal deformation and displacement, and significant differences among different margins. A key question is whether these differences reflect variations in the underlying processes, like differences in locking, or the margin geometry, or whether they are a consequence of the stage in the earthquake cycle of the margin. Quantitative models can connect these plate boundary processes to surficial and far-field observations. We use relatively simple, cyclic geodynamic models to isolate the first-order geodetic signature of the megathrust cycle. Coseismic and subsequent slip on the subduction interface is dynamically (and consistently) driven. A review of global preseismic, coseismic, and postseismic geodetic observations, and of their fit to the model predictions, indicates that similar physical processes are active at different margins. Most of the observed variability between the individual margins appears to be controlled by their different stages in the earthquake cycle. The modeling results also provide a possible explanation for observations of tensile faulting aftershocks and tensile cracking of the overriding plate, which are puzzling in the context of convergence/compression. From the inversion of our synthetic GNSS velocities we find that geodetic observations may incorrectly suggest weak locking of some margins, for example, the west Aleutian margin.

  8. The purification process on scintillator material (SrI{sub 2}: Eu) by zone-refinement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Raja; Daniel, D. Joseph; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: ramasamyp@ssn.edu.in

    The thermal properties of Europium doped strontium iodide was analyzed through Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The melting point of europium doped strontium iodide is around 531°C. The hydrated and oxyhalide impurities were found before melting temperature. In order to remove these impurities we have done purification process by Zone-refinement technique. The effective output of purification of zone refining was also observed through the segregation of impurities.

  9. Hydrogeochemistry of prairie pothole region wetlands: Role of long-term critical zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mushet, David M.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Results from the CWLSA were scaled up to a 9700 km2 area surrounding CWLSA using ~ 1800 drill logs and literature data on wetland water chemistry for 178 wetlands within this larger area. The oxidized brown zone depth and wetland water compositional trends are very similar to the CWLSA. Additionally, surface water data from 176 southern Canadian pothole wetlands that conform to the same wetland water geochemical trends as those recorded in the CWLSA further corroborate that SO42 − accumulation driven by pyrite oxidation is a nearly ubiquitous process in the prairie pothole region and distinguishes PPR wetlands from other wetlands worldwide that have a similar overall hydrology.

  10. Do submesoscale frontal processes ventilate the oxygen minimum zone off Peru?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, S.; Kanzow, T.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Krahmann, G.; Engel, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Peruvian upwelling system encompasses the most intense and shallowest oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the ocean. This system shows pronounced submesoscale activity like filaments and fronts. We carried out glider-based observations off Peru during austral summer 2013 to investigate whether submesoscale frontal processes ventilate the Peruvian OMZ. We present observational evidence for the subduction of highly oxygenated surface water in a submesoscale cold filament. The subduction event ventilates the oxycline but does not reach OMZ core waters. In a regional submesoscale-permitting model we study the pathways of newly upwelled water. About 50% of upwelled virtual floats are subducted below the mixed layer within 5 days emphasizing a hitherto unrecognized importance of subduction for the ventilation of the Peruvian oxycline.

  11. Microstructural study of the Mertz shear zone, East Antarctica. Implications for deformation processes and seismic anisotropy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, Gaëlle; Bascou, Jérôme; Maurice, Claire; Cottin, Jean-Yves; Ménot, René-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The Mertz Shear Zone (MSZ; 146°E 67°S; East Antarctica) is one major lithospheric-scale structure which outcrops on the eastern edge of the Terre Adélie Craton (Ménot et al., 2007) and that could connected with shear zones of South Australia (e.g., Kalinjala or Coorong shear zone (Kleinschmidt and Talarico, 2000; Gibson et al., 2013)) before the Cretaceous opening of the Southern Ocean. Geochronological and metamorphic studies indicated an MSZ activity at 1.7 and 1.5 Ga respectively in amphibolite and greenschists facies conditions. The deformation affects both the intermediate and lower crust levels, without associated voluminous magma injection. Granulite crop out in the area of the MSZ. They were dated at 2.4 Ga (Ménot et al., 2005) and could represent some preserved Neoarchean tectonites. These rocks show various degrees of deformation including penetrative structures that may display comparable features with that observed in amphibolite and greenschists facies rocks, i.e. NS-striking and steeply dipping foliation with weekly plunging lineation. In the field, cinematic indicators for the MSZ argue for a dominant dextral shear sense. We proceed to optical analysis and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements using EBSD technique in order to better constrain the deformation processes. Our results highlight (1) a microstructural gradient from highly deformed rocks (mylonites), forming plurimetric large shear bands and showing evidences of plastic deformation, to slightly deformed rocks in preserved cores with no evidences of plastic deformation or with a clear strong static recrystallization; (2) CPO of minerals related with variations on deformation conditions. Feldspar and quartz CPO argue for plastic deformation at high temperature in the most deformed domains and for the absence of deformation or an important stage of static recrystallization in preserved cores; (3) uncommon CPO in orthopyroxene which are characterized by [010]-axes

  12. Stress development in heterogenetic lithosphere: Insights into earthquake processes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yan; Hou, Guiting; Kusky, Timothy; Gregg, Patricia M.

    2016-03-01

    The New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in the Midwestern United States was the site of several major M 6.8-8 earthquakes in 1811-1812, and remains seismically active. Although this region has been investigated extensively, the ultimate controls on earthquake initiation and the duration of the seismicity remain unclear. In this study, we develop a finite element model for the Central United States to conduct a series of numerical experiments with the goal of determining the impact of heterogeneity in the upper crust, the lower crust, and the mantle on earthquake nucleation and rupture processes. Regional seismic tomography data (CITE) are utilized to infer the viscosity structure of the lithosphere which provide an important input to the numerical models. Results indicate that when differential stresses build in the Central United States, the stresses accumulating beneath the Reelfoot Rift in the NMSZ are highly concentrated, whereas the stresses below the geologically similar Midcontinent Rift System are comparatively low. The numerical observations coincide with the observed distribution of seismicity throughout the region. By comparing the numerical results with three reference models, we argue that an extensive mantle low velocity zone beneath the NMSZ produces differential stress localization in the layers above. Furthermore, the relatively strong crust in this region, exhibited by high seismic velocities, enables the elevated stress to extend to the base of the ancient rift system, reactivating fossil rifting faults and therefore triggering earthquakes. These results show that, if boundary displacements are significant, the NMSZ is able to localize tectonic stresses, which may be released when faults close to failure are triggered by external processes such as melting of the Laurentide ice sheet or rapid river incision.

  13. THE DOE COMPLEX-WIDE VADOSE ZONE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP: CHARACTERIZATION MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT FATE AND TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Lab (INEEL) was charged by DOE EM to develop a complex-wide science and technology roadmap for the characterization, modeling and simulation of the fate and transport of contamination in the vadose zone. Various types of hazardous, r...

  14. H51E-1535: Biogeochemical factors influencing the transport and fate of colloids and colloid-associated contaminants in the vadose zone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The vadose zone exhibits large spatial and temporal variability in many physical, chemical, and biological factors that strongly influence the transport and fate of colloids (e.g., microbes, nanoparticles, clays, and dissolved organic matter) and colloid-associated contaminants (e.g., heavy metals, ...

  15. Descending projections from the dysgranular zone of rat primary somatosensory cortex processing deep somatic input.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehee; Kim, Uhnoh

    2012-04-01

    In the mammalian somatic system, peripheral inputs from cutaneous and deep receptors ascend via different subcortical channels and terminate in largely separate regions of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). How these inputs are processed in SI and then projected back to the subcortical relay centers is critical for understanding how SI may regulate somatic information processing in the subcortex. Although it is now relatively well understood how SI cutaneous areas project to the subcortical structures, little is known about the descending projections from SI areas processing deep somatic input. We examined this issue by using the rodent somatic system as a model. In rat SI, deep somatic input is processed mainly in the dysgranular zone (DSZ) enclosed by the cutaneous barrel subfields. By using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) as anterograde tracer, we characterized the topography of corticostriatal and corticofugal projections arising in the DSZ. The DSZ projections terminate mainly in the lateral subregions of the striatum that are also known as the target of certain SI cutaneous areas. This suggests that SI processing of deep and cutaneous information may be integrated, to a certain degree, in this striatal region. By contrast, at both thalamic and prethalamic levels as far as the spinal cord, descending projections from DSZ terminate in areas largely distinguishable from those that receive input from SI cutaneous areas. These subcortical targets of DSZ include not only the sensory but also motor-related structures, suggesting that SI processing of deep input may engage in regulating somatic and motor information flow between the cortex and periphery. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Understand Formation of the Stimson Sedimentary Unit and Altered Fracture Zones at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Ming, D. W.; Peretyazhko, T.; Rampe, E. B.

    2017-01-01

    Water flowing through sediments at Gale Crater, Mars created environments that were likely habitable, and sampled basin-wide hydrological systems. However, many questions remain about these environments and the fluids that generated them. Measurements taken by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity of multiple fracture zones can help constrain the environments that formed them because they can be compared to nearby associated parent material (Figure 1). For example, measurements of altered fracture zones from the target Greenhorn in the Stimson sandstone can be compared to parent material measured in the nearby Big Sky target, allowing constraints to be placed on the alteration conditions that formed the Greenhorn target from the Big Sky target. Similarly, CheMin measurements of the powdered < 150 micron fraction from the drillhole at Big Sky and sample from the Rocknest eolian deposit indicate that the mineralogies are strikingly similar. The main differences are the presence of olivine in the Rocknest eolian deposit, which is absent in the Big Sky target, and the presence of far more abundant Fe oxides in the Big Sky target. Quantifying the changes between the Big Sky target and the Rocknest eolian deposit can therefore help us understand the diagenetic changes that occurred forming the Stimson sedimentary unit. In order to interpret these aqueous changes, we performed reactive transport modeling of 1) the formation of the Big Sky target from a Rocknest eolian deposit-like parent material, and 2) the formation of the Greenhorn target from the Big Sky target. This work allows us to test the relationships between the targets and the characteristics of the aqueous conditions that formed the Greenhorn target from the Big Sky target, and the Big Sky target from a Rocknest eolian deposit-like parent material.

  17. Using periodic orbits to compute chaotic transport rates between resonance zones.

    PubMed

    Sattari, Sulimon; Mitchell, Kevin A

    2017-11-01

    Transport properties of chaotic systems are computable from data extracted from periodic orbits. Given a sufficient number of periodic orbits, the escape rate can be computed using the spectral determinant, a function that incorporates the eigenvalues and periods of periodic orbits. The escape rate computed from periodic orbits converges to the true value as more and more periodic orbits are included. Escape from a given region of phase space can be computed by considering only periodic orbits that lie within the region. An accurate symbolic dynamics along with a corresponding partitioning of phase space is useful for systematically obtaining all periodic orbits up to a given period, to ensure that no important periodic orbits are missing in the computation. Homotopic lobe dynamics (HLD) is an automated technique for computing accurate partitions and symbolic dynamics for maps using the topological forcing of intersections of stable and unstable manifolds of a few periodic anchor orbits. In this study, we apply the HLD technique to compute symbolic dynamics and periodic orbits, which are then used to find escape rates from different regions of phase space for the Hénon map. We focus on computing escape rates in parameter ranges spanning hyperbolic plateaus, which are parameter intervals where the dynamics is hyperbolic and the symbolic dynamics does not change. After the periodic orbits are computed for a single parameter value within a hyperbolic plateau, periodic orbit continuation is used to compute periodic orbits over an interval that spans the hyperbolic plateau. The escape rates computed from a few thousand periodic orbits agree with escape rates computed from Monte Carlo simulations requiring hundreds of billions of orbits.

  18. An autism-associated serotonin transporter variant disrupts multisensory processing.

    PubMed

    Siemann, J K; Muller, C L; Forsberg, C G; Blakely, R D; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J; Wallace, M T

    2017-03-21

    Altered sensory processing is observed in many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with growing evidence that these impairments extend to the integration of information across the different senses (that is, multisensory function). The serotonin system has an important role in sensory development and function, and alterations of serotonergic signaling have been suggested to have a role in ASD. A gain-of-function coding variant in the serotonin transporter (SERT) associates with sensory aversion in humans, and when expressed in mice produces traits associated with ASD, including disruptions in social and communicative function and repetitive behaviors. The current study set out to test whether these mice also exhibit changes in multisensory function when compared with wild-type (WT) animals on the same genetic background. Mice were trained to respond to auditory and visual stimuli independently before being tested under visual, auditory and paired audiovisual (multisensory) conditions. WT mice exhibited significant gains in response accuracy under audiovisual conditions. In contrast, although the SERT mutant animals learned the auditory and visual tasks comparably to WT littermates, they failed to show behavioral gains under multisensory conditions. We believe these results provide the first behavioral evidence of multisensory deficits in a genetic mouse model related to ASD and implicate the serotonin system in multisensory processing and in the multisensory changes seen in ASD.

  19. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuohy, Robin M; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W; Swanson, Don; Kent, Adam J R

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai‘i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n=10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n=38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea’s summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the

  20. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea's east rift zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuohy, Robin M.; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W.; Swanson, Donald A.; Kent, Adam J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2 concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai'i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n = 10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n = 38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea's summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the summit

  1. Particle transport model sensitivity on wave-induced processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staneva, Joanna; Ricker, Marcel; Krüger, Oliver; Breivik, Oyvind; Stanev, Emil; Schrum, Corinna

    2017-04-01

    Different effects of wind waves on the hydrodynamics in the North Sea are investigated using a coupled wave (WAM) and circulation (NEMO) model system. The terms accounting for the wave-current interaction are: the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state dependent momentum and energy flux. The role of the different Stokes drift parameterizations is investigated using a particle-drift model. Those particles can be considered as simple representations of either oil fractions, or fish larvae. In the ocean circulation models the momentum flux from the atmosphere, which is related to the wind speed, is passed directly to the ocean and this is controlled by the drag coefficient. However, in the real ocean, the waves play also the role of a reservoir for momentum and energy because different amounts of the momentum flux from the atmosphere is taken up by the waves. In the coupled model system the momentum transferred into the ocean model is estimated as the fraction of the total flux that goes directly to the currents plus the momentum lost from wave dissipation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the wave-induced Stokes-Coriolis force leads to a deflection of the current. During the extreme events the Stokes velocity is comparable in magnitude to the current velocity. The resulting wave-induced drift is crucial for the transport of particles in the upper ocean. The performed sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the model skill depends on the chosen processes. The results are validated using surface drifters, ADCP, HF radar data and other in-situ measurements in different regions of the North Sea with a focus on the coastal areas. The using of a coupled model system reveals that the newly introduced wave effects are important for the drift-model performance, especially during extremes. Those effects cannot be neglected by search and rescue, oil-spill, transport of biological material, or larva drift modelling.

  2. Monitoring runoff and nutrient transport in the coastal zone of a Danish lowland river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovesen, N. B.; Windolf, J.; Kronvang, B.

    2012-04-01

    Denmark has a very long coastline compared to its total area, and therefore large parts of the lower river reaches are influenced by tidal and coastal backwater effects. In general the gradients of these lowland rivers are very low, and furthermore thousands of small watercourses are flowing directly to the sea along the coastline. This situation makes it impossible to gauge the runoff to many fjords and marine inland waters utilizing traditional monitoring techniques, and consequently, even though Denmark is covered with several hundreds of gauging stations, only 50 percent of the country is gauged. Models are today used to estimate the total runoff and loads of nutrients to coastal waters. One of the major problems in the calibration of the models is however, the lacking of data from the lower part of rivers influenced by tidal and coastal backwater. In order to investigate the possibilities of improving the Danish gauging network and to test the models used for runoff estimation in the ungauged areas, a new monitoring station was established in the summer of 2011 in the River Skjern very close to the outlet in Ringkobing Fjord at the west coast of Jutland. The hydraulic conditions are here affected by tidal and backwater effects and the nutrient transport may be influenced by stratified flow conditions. The catchment area to the new station is 2455 km2, and the width of the channel is 70-80meters. The velocity distribution is measured in the profile by both horizontal and vertical multi cell Doppler sensors. Conductivity (salinity), turbidity and water temperature are measured by sensors in 2 levels, near bottom and in the upper part of the depth profile. Time integrated water samples are collected also in 2 levels with a 2 hour interval and analyzed for total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorous, and phosphate. The wind speed and direction is registered at the station. The preliminary results show a strong correlation between the water velocities and

  3. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the

  4. Multi-Zone Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance Code with Domain Decomposition for Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaz, Homayun K.

    2002-01-01

    -equation turbulence model, and two-phase flow. To overcome these limitations, the LTCP code is rewritten to include the multi-zone capability with domain decomposition that makes it suitable for parallel processing, i.e., enabling the code to run every zone or sub-domain on a separate processor. This can reduce the run time by a factor of 6 to 8, depending on the problem.

  5. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume II, TRANZ, a prototype expert system for traffic control in highway work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-01-01

    The development of a prototype knowledge-based expert system (KBES) for selecting appropriate traffic control strategies and management techniques around highway work zones was initiated. This process was encompassed by the steps that formulate the p...

  6. Application studies of RFID technology in the process of coal logistics transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Bingqin; Chang, Xiaoming; Hao, Meiyan; Kong, Dejin

    2012-04-01

    For quality control problems in coal transport, RFID technology has been proposed to be applied to coal transportation process. The whole process RFID traceability system from coal production to consumption has been designed and coal supply chain logistics tracking system integration platform has been built, to form the coal supply chain traceability and transport tracking system and providing more and more transparent tracking and monitoring of coal quality information for consumers of coal. Currently direct transport and combined transport are the main forms of coal transportation in China. The means of transport are cars, trains and ships. In the booming networking environment of RFID technology, the RFID technology will be applied to coal logistics and provide opportunity for the coal transportation tracking in the process transportation.

  7. CO2-ECBM related coupled physical and mechanical transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Sartorius, M.; Busch, A.; Krooss, B. M.; Littke, R.

    2012-12-01

    The interrelation of cleat transport processes and mechanical properties was investigated by permeability tests at different stress levels (60% to 130% of in-situ stress) with sorbing (CH4, CO2) and inert gases (N2, Ar, He) on a subbituminous A coal from the Surat Basin, Queensland Australia (figure). From the flow tests under controlled triaxial stress conditions the Klinkenberg-corrected "true" permeability coefficients and the Klinkenberg slip factors were derived. The "true"-, absolute or Klinkenberg-corrected permeability depends on gas type. Following the approach of Seidle et al. (1992) the cleat volume compressibility (cf) was calculated from observed changes in apparent permeability upon variation of external stress (at equal mean gas pressures). The observed effects also show a clear dependence on gas type. Due to pore or cleat compressibility the cleat aperture decreases with increasing effective stress. Vice versa, with increasing mean pore pressure at lower confining pressure an increase in permeability is observed, which is attributed to a widening of cleat aperture. Non-sorbing gases like helium and argon show higher apparent permeabilities than sorbing gases like methane and CO2. Permeability coefficients measured with successively increasing mean gas pressures were consistently lower than those determined at decreasing mean gas pressures. The kinetics of matrix transport processes were studied by sorption tests on different particle sizes at various moisture contents and temperatures (cf. Busch et al., 2006). Methane uptake rates were determined from the pressure decline curves recorded for each particle-size fraction, and "diffusion coefficients" were calculated using several unipore and bidisperse diffusion models. While the CH4 sorption capacity of moisture-equilibrated coals was significantly lower (by 50%) than that of dry coals, no hysteresis was observed between sorption and desorption on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples and the

  8. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    The coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST) enables simulations that integrate oceanic, atmospheric, wave and morphological processes in the coastal ocean. Within the modeling system, the three-dimensional ocean circulation module (ROMS) is coupled with the wave generation and propagation model (SWAN) to allow full integration of the effect of waves on circulation and vice versa. The existing wave-current coupling component utilizes a depth dependent radiation stress approach. In here we present a new approach that uses the vortex force formalism. The formulation adopted and the various parameterizations used in the model as well as their numerical implementation are presented in detail. The performance of the new system is examined through the presentation of four test cases. These include obliquely incident waves on a synthetic planar beach and a natural barred beach (DUCK' 94); normal incident waves on a nearshore barred morphology with rip channels; and wave-induced mean flows outside the surf zone at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO). Model results from the planar beach case show good agreement with depth-averaged analytical solutions and with theoretical flow structures. Simulation results for the DUCK' 94 experiment agree closely with measured profiles of cross-shore and longshore velocity data from Garcez Faria et al. (1998, 2000). Diagnostic simulations showed that the nonlinear processes of wave roller generation and wave-induced mixing are important for the accurate simulation of surf zone flows. It is further recommended that a more realistic approach for determining the contribution of wave rollers and breaking induced turbulent mixing can be formulated using non-dimensional parameters which are functions of local wave parameters and the beach slope. Dominant terms in the cross-shore momentum balance are found to be the quasi-static pressure gradient and breaking acceleration. In the alongshore direction

  9. Real-time 4D electrical resistivity imaging of tracer transport within an energically stimulated fracture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracture stimulation is used extensively in the subsurface energy sector to improve access between energy bearing formations and production boreholes. However, large uncertainties exist concerning the location and extent of stimulated fractures, and concerning the behavior of flow within those fractures. This uncertainty often results in significant risks, including induced seismicity and contamination of potable groundwater aquifers. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a proven method of imaging fluid flow within fracture networks, by imaging the change in bulk conductivity induced by the presence of an electrically anomalous tracer within the fracture. In this work we demonstrate characterization and flow monitoring of a stimulated fracture using real-time four-dimensional ERT imaging within an unsaturated rhyolite formation. After stimulation, a conductive tracer was injected into the fracture zone. ERT survey data were continuously and autonomously collected, pre-processed on site, submitted to an off-site high performance computing system for inversion, and returned to the field for inspection. Surveys were collected at approximately 12 minute intervals. Data transmission and inversion required approximately 2 minutes per survey. The time-lapse imaging results show the dominant flow-paths within the stimulated fracture zone, thereby revealing the location and extent of the fracture, and the behavior of tracer flow within the fracture. Ultimately real-time imaging will enable site operators to better understand stimulation operations, and control post-stimulation reservoir operations for optimal performance and environmental protection.

  10. The relationship of title VI requirements to Florida's transportation planning process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and metropolitan planning organizations (MPO) in Florida are : required to address Title VI and environmental justice (EJ) in the transportation planning process. This study : reviews those practices an...

  11. PLANiTS : structuring and supporting the intelligent transportation systems planning process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    PLANiTS (Planning and Analysis Integration for Intelligent Transportation Systems) is a process-based computer system that supports a series of mutually interdependent steps progressing toward developing and programming transportation improvement pro...

  12. A primer on safety performance measures for the transportation planning process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-01

    This Primer is a tool to help State and local practitioners, transportation planners, and decision-makers identify, select, and use safety performance measures as a part of the transportation planning process. The Primer draws from current literature...

  13. Incorporating ITS solutions into the metropolitan transportation planning process : overcoming institutional barriers

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-11-01

    There are three conditions that help bring ITS solutions into the metropolitan transportation planning process: Condition 1: Endorsement of ITS by Elected Officials and Transportation Managers Condition 2: Improved Communication and Coordination Acro...

  14. Crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates: Floating zone process and ultra rapid crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofiev, A.; Yan, X.; Ikeda, M.; Löffler, S.; Paschen, S.

    2014-09-01

    We studied the crystal growth process of type-I transition metal clathrates in two different regimes: a regime of moderate cooling rate, realized with the floating zone technique, and a regime of ultra rapid cooling, realized by the melt spinning technique. In the former regime, bulk Ba8AuxSi46-x and Ba8Cu4.8GaxGe41.2-x single crystals were grown. We investigated segregation effects of the constituting elements by measurements of the composition profiles along the growth direction. The compositional non-uniformity results in a spatial variation of the electrical resistivity which is discussed as well. Structural features of clathrates and their extremely low thermal conductivities imply specifics in growth behavior which manifest themselves most pronouncedly in a rapid crystallization process. Our melt spinning experiments on Ba8Au5Si41 and Ba8Ni3.5Si42.5 (and earlier on some other clathrates) have revealed surprisingly large grains of at least 1 μm. Because of the anomalously high growth rate of the clathrate phase the formation of impurity phases is considerably kinetically suppressed. We present our scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations of melt spun samples and discuss structural, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the unusual clathrate nucleation and crystallization.

  15. Do submesoscale frontal processes ventilate the oxygen minimum zone off Peru?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, S.; Kanzow, T.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Krahmann, G.; Engel, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Peruvian upwelling region shows pronounced near-surface submesoscale variability including filaments and sharp density fronts. Submesoscale frontal processes can drive large vertical velocities and enhance vertical tracer fluxes in the upper ocean. The associated high temporal and spatial variability poses a large challenge to observational approaches targeting these processes. In this study the role of submesoscale processes for the ventilation of the near-coastal oxygen minimum zone off Peru is investigated. We use satellite based sea surface temperature measurements and multiple high-resolution glider observations of temperature, salinity, oxygen and chlorophyll fluorescence carried out in January and February 2013 off Peru near 14°S during active upwelling. Additionally, high-resolution regional ocean circulation model outputs (ROMS) outputs are analysed. At the beginning of our observational survey a previously upwelled, productive and highly oxygenated water body is found in the mixed layer. Subsequently, a cold filament forms and the waters are moved offshore. After the decay of the filament and the relaxation of the upwelling front, the oxygen enriched surface water is found in the previously less oxygenated thermocline suggesting the occurrence of frontal subduction. A numerical model simulation is used to analyse the evolution of Lagrangian numerical floats in several upwelling filaments, whose vertical structure and hydrographic properties agree well with the observations. The floats trajectories support our interpretation that the subduction of previously upwelled water occurs in filaments off Peru. We find that 40 - 60 % of the floats seeded in the newly upwelled water is subducted within a time period of 5 days. This hightlights the importance of this process in ventilating the oxycline off Peru.

  16. Modelling nitrite dynamics and associated feedback processes in the Benguela oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashifane, T. B.; Vichi, M.; Waldron, H. N.; Machu, E.; Garçonc, V.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding nitrite dynamics in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) is a challenge as it represents an intermediary nitrogen species with a short turnover time. Nitrite is also reduced to nitrogen in OMZs, preventing its accumulation. This creates difficulties in detecting nitrite with colorimetric methods as concentrations may occur below detection limits in some regions. Nitrite concentrations are key to understanding intermediate nitrogen processes and their implication for nitrogen loss in OMZs. A coupled physical-biogeochemical model is applied in the Benguela OMZ to study nitrite dynamics and its associated feedback processes. Simulated results show occurrence of primary and secondary nitrite maxima in the Benguela shelf waters. The primary nitrite maxima in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification and nitrate assimilation as they occur in association with the nitracline. Secondary nitrite maxima accumulate in the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF) OMZ and are attributed to denitrification. The secondary nitrite maxima are consumed by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) off Walvis Bay. Nitrite maxima are restricted to the shelf off Walvis Bay and advected offshore in the ABF region. Interchanges between the poleward South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and the equatorward, well-aerated Eastern South Atlantic Central Water (ESACW) drive the seasonality of nitrogen processes in the Benguela. Subsequent nitrite reduction in the Benguela OMZ leads to nitrous oxide production, with high concentrations occurring in the ABF region as a result of nitrification and denitrification. Off Walvis Bay, nitrous oxide production is low since nitrite is consumed by anammox. Nitrous oxide production occurs in thermocline, intermediate and deeper water masses in the ABF region. High N fluxes in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification as compared to anammox and denitrification. Results from this study demonstrate the role of intermediate nitrogen species in nitrogen feedback

  17. Water transportation ability of flat-lying slabs in the mantle transition zone and implications for craton destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Kusky, Timothy M.; Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2018-01-01

    Water transported by deep subduction to the mantle transition zone (MTZ) that is eventually released and migrates upwards is invoked as a likely cause for hydroweakening and cratonic lithosphere destruction. The destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) during the Mesozoic has been proposed to be related to hydroweakening. However, the source of water related to large-scale craton destruction in the NCC is poorly constrained. Some suggest that the water was mainly released from a flat-lying (or stagnating) slab in the MTZ, whereas others posit that most water was released from a previously existing strongly hydrous MTZ then perturbed by the stagnating subduction in the MTZ layer. In this study, we use numerical modeling to evaluate the water carrying ability of flat-lying slabs in the MTZ with different slab ages and water contents to simulate its maximum value and discuss its potential role on large-scale hydroweakening and craton destruction. Our results reveal that a single flat-lying slab in the MTZ cannot provide enough water for large-scale cratonic lithosphere hydroweakening and thinning. Water estimates invoked for craton destruction as experienced by the NCC can only be the result of long-term piling of multiple slabs in the MTZ or penetrating deeper into the lower mantle.

  18. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Elkington, W. Brice

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  19. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2013-10-01

    This report represents a synthesis and integration of basic and applied research into a system-scale model of the Hanford 300 Area groundwater uranium plume, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Richland Operations (DOE-RL) office. The report integrates research findings and data from DOE Office of Science (DOE-SC), Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and DOE-RL projects, and from the site remediation and closure contractor, Washington Closure Hanford, LLC (WCH). The three-dimensional, system-scale model addresses water flow and reactive transport of uranium for the coupled vadose zone, unconfined aquifer, and Columbia River shoreline of the Hanford 300 Area. The system-scale modelmore » of the 300 Area was developed to be a decision-support tool to evaluate processes of the total system affecting the groundwater uranium plume. The model can also be used to address “what if” questions regarding different remediation endpoints, and to assist in design and evaluation of field remediation efforts. For example, the proposed cleanup plan for the Hanford 300 Area includes removal, treatment, and disposal of contaminated sediments from known waste sites, enhanced attenuation of uranium hot spots in the vadose and periodically rewetted zone, and continued monitoring of groundwater with institutional controls. Illustrative simulations of polyphosphate infiltration were performed to demonstrate the ability of the system-scale model to address these types of questions. The use of this model in conjunction with continued field monitoring is expected to provide a rigorous basis for developing operational strategies for field remediation and for defining defensible remediation endpoints.« less

  20. Ocean Carbon Flux, Transport, and Burial Within the Western and Eastern US Coastal Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Moisan, John R.; Haidvogel, Dale B.; Miller, Arthur J.; Cornuelle, Bruce; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2004-01-01

    This project has been to develop and apply a regional. eddy-resolving circulation and biogeochemistry model of both the western and eastern U.S. coastal regions, capable of simulating the processes that control the carbon cycle. Validation has been by statistical comparison with analyses from various satellite measurements, including those from EOS sensors, as well as from in situ measurements. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate how the coastal ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles respond to changes in climate, large-scale eutrophication from indus- trial pollution, and other anthropogenic induced changes. The research has been conducted in collaboration with research groups at UCLA. NASA/GSFC (Wallops), Rutgers, and SIO. Overall. the project was focused on several key modeling issues, each of which tie back into completing the primary task of developing a coastal carbon model for both the eastern and western US. coasts. Individual groups within the entire program are still collaborating to address these specific tasks. These include: implementation of the coupled circulation/biogeochemical model within the U.S. West Coast. including high-resolution, embedded subdomains for the Southern California Bight and Monterey Bay region; development of a biogeochemical model with resolved carbon, nitrogen and oxygen cycles; development of data assimilation techniques for use of satellite data sets; reconfiguration of the model domain to U.S. East Coast; development of coastal forcing fields: development of methods to compare the model against remotely sensed data; and, the test of model sensitivity to environmental conditions. Below, we present a summary of the progress made toward achieving these soak. Because this has been a multi-institutional, collaborative effort, we note the groups involved with particular activities.

  1. Abrasion and Fragmentation Processes in Marly Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouteiller, C.; Naaim, F.; Mathys, N.; Lave, J.; Kaitna, R.

    2009-04-01

    In the highly erosive marly catchments of Draix (Southern Alps, France), downstream fining of sediments has been observed and can not be explained by selective sorting. Moreover, high concentrations of suspended fine sediment (up to 800 g/L) are measured during flood events in these basins. These observations lead to the hypothesis that abrasion and fragmentation of marly sediments during transport play an important role in the production of fine sediments. Several experiments are conducted in order to quantify these processes: material from the river bed is introduced into the water flow in a circular flume as well as in a large scale rotating drum. Abrasion rates range from 5 to 15%/km, depending on the lithology: marls from the upper basin are more erosive than those from the lower basin. Modifications of grain size distribution in the rough fraction are also observed. Field measurements are also conducted. Downstream of the main marly sediment sources, the river bed is composed of marls and limestone pebbles. We have sampled the river bed for analysis of grain size distribution and lithology. First results show a decrease of the proportion of marls along the river bed. This is in accordance with the high erosion rates observed in our laboratory experiments. Further investigations are planned in order to study more precisely marl grain size distribution, especially in the finer fraction.

  2. Different stages and status of vertical transporting process of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Li, Haixia; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiaolong; Ding, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the stages and status of vertical transporting process of pollutant in marine bay is essential to pollution control. This paper analyzed the stages and status of Cu’s vertical transporting process in waters in Jiaozhou Bay. Results showed that the vertical transporting process in waters in Jiaozhou Bay included four stages of 1) Cu was imported to the bay by major sources, 2) Cu was transported to surface waters, 3) Cu was transported from surface waters to sediment in sea bottom, and 4) Cu was fixed and buried in sediment. Furthermore, Cu’s vertical transporting process could be divided into seven status in detail, and he characteristics of the vertical transport process of Cu were also analyzed.

  3. Evolution of the fracture process zone in high-strength concrete under different loading rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, R. C.; Zhang, X.; Ruiz, G.; Tarifa, M.; Cámara, M.

    2010-06-01

    For cementitious materials, the inelastic zone around a crack tip is termed as fracture process zone (FPZ) and dominated by complicated mechanism, such as microcracking, crack deflection, bridging, crack face friction, crack tip blunting by voids, crack branching, and so on. Due to the length of the FPZ is related with the characteristic length of the cementitious materials, the size, extent and location of the FPZ has been the object of countless research efforts for several decades. For instance, Cedolin et al. [1] have used an optical method based on the moiré interferometry to determine FPZ in concrete. Castro-Montero et al. [2] have applied the method of holographic interferometry to mortar to study the extension of the FPZ. The advantage of the interferometry method is that the complete FPZ can be directly observed on the surface of the sample. Swartz et al. [3] has adopted the dye penetration technique to illustrate the changing patterns observed as the crack progress from the tensile side to the compression side of the beam. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) is also an experimental technique well suited for monitoring fracture process. Haidar et al. [4] and Maji et al. [5] have studied the relation between acoustic emission characteristics and the properties of the FPZ. Compared with the extensive research on properties of the FPZ under quasi-static loading conditions, much less information is available on its dynamic characterization, especially for high-strength concrete (HSC). This paper presents the very recent results of an experimental program aimed at disclosing the loading rate effect on the size and velocity of the (FPZ) in HSC. Eighteen three-point bending specimens were conducted under a wide range of loading rates from from 10-4 mm/s to 103 mm/s using either a servo-hydraulic machine or a self-designed drop-weight impact device. The beam dimensions were 100 mm 100 mm in cross section, and 420 mm in length. The initial notch-depth ratio was

  4. Delay functions in trip assignment for transport planning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Lee Vien

    2017-10-01

    In transportation planning process, volume-delay and turn-penalty functions are the functions needed in traffic assignment to determine travel time on road network links. Volume-delay function is the delay function describing speed-flow relationship while turn-penalty function is the delay function associated to making a turn at intersection. The volume-delay function used in this study is the revised Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) function with the constant parameters, α and β values of 0.8298 and 3.361 while the turn-penalty functions for signalized intersection were developed based on uniform, random and overflow delay models. Parameters such as green time, cycle time and saturation flow were used in the development of turn-penalty functions. In order to assess the accuracy of the delay functions, road network in areas of Nibong Tebal, Penang and Parit Buntar, Perak was developed and modelled using transportation demand forecasting software. In order to calibrate the models, phase times and traffic volumes at fourteen signalised intersections within the study area were collected during morning and evening peak hours. The prediction of assigned volumes using the revised BPR function and the developed turn-penalty functions show close agreement to actual recorded traffic volume with the lowest percentage of accuracy, 80.08% and the highest, 93.04% for the morning peak model. As for the evening peak model, they were 75.59% and 95.33% respectively for lowest and highest percentage of accuracy. As for the yield left-turn lanes, the lowest percentage of accuracy obtained for the morning and evening peak models were 60.94% and 69.74% respectively while the highest percentage of accuracy obtained for both models were 100%. Therefore, can be concluded that the development and utilisation of delay functions based on local road conditions are important as localised delay functions can produce better estimate of link travel times and hence better planning for future

  5. The holistic rhizosphere: integrating zones, processes, and semantics in the soil influenced by roots.

    PubMed

    York, Larry M; Carminati, Andrea; Mooney, Sacha J; Ritz, Karl; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2016-06-01

    Despite often being conceptualized as a thin layer of soil around roots, the rhizosphere is actually a dynamic system of interacting processes. Hiltner originally defined the rhizosphere as the soil influenced by plant roots. However, soil physicists, chemists, microbiologists, and plant physiologists have studied the rhizosphere independently, and therefore conceptualized the rhizosphere in different ways and using contrasting terminology. Rather than research-specific conceptions of the rhizosphere, the authors propose a holistic rhizosphere encapsulating the following components: microbial community gradients, macroorganisms, mucigel, volumes of soil structure modification, and depletion or accumulation zones of nutrients, water, root exudates, volatiles, and gases. These rhizosphere components are the result of dynamic processes and understanding the integration of these processes will be necessary for future contributions to rhizosphere science based upon interdisciplinary collaborations. In this review, current knowledge of the rhizosphere is synthesized using this holistic perspective with a focus on integrating traditionally separated rhizosphere studies. The temporal dynamics of rhizosphere activities will also be considered, from annual fine root turnover to diurnal fluctuations of water and nutrient uptake. The latest empirical and computational methods are discussed in the context of rhizosphere integration. Clarification of rhizosphere semantics, a holistic model of the rhizosphere, examples of integration of rhizosphere studies across disciplines, and review of the latest rhizosphere methods will empower rhizosphere scientists from different disciplines to engage in the interdisciplinary collaborations needed to break new ground in truly understanding the rhizosphere and to apply this knowledge for practical guidance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For

  6. Mushy zone modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Smith, Richard N.; Marsh, Steven P.; Kuklinski, Robert

    A key element of mushy zone modeling is the description of the microscopic evolution of the lengthscales within the mushy zone and the influence of macroscopic transport processes. This paper describes some recent progress in developing a mean-field statistical theory of phase coarsening in adiabatic mushy zones. The main theoretical predictions are temporal scaling laws that indicate that average lengthscale increases as time 1/3, a self-similar distribution of mushy zone lengthscales based on spherical solid particle shapes, and kinetic rate constants which provide the dependences of the coarsening process on material parameters and the volume fraction of the solid phase. High precision thermal decay experiments are described which verify aspects of the theory in pure material mushy zones held under adiabatic conditions. The microscopic coarsening theory is then integrated within a macroscopic heat transfer model of one-dimensional alloy solidification, using the Double Integral Method. The method demonstrates an ability to predict the influence of macroscopic heat transfer on the evolution of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings in Al-Cu alloys. Finally, some suggestions are made for future experimental and theoretical studies required in developing comprehensive solidification processing models.

  7. Dynamic Model of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Process Based on Multi-zone Reaction Kinetics: Model Derivation and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Bapin Kumar; Brooks, Geoff; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Li, Zushu; Schrama, Frank N. H.; Sun, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A multi-zone kinetic model coupled with a dynamic slag generation model was developed for the simulation of hot metal and slag composition during the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) operation. The three reaction zones (i) jet impact zone, (ii) slag-bulk metal zone, (iii) slag-metal-gas emulsion zone were considered for the calculation of overall refining kinetics. In the rate equations, the transient rate parameters were mathematically described as a function of process variables. A micro and macroscopic rate calculation methodology (micro-kinetics and macro-kinetics) were developed to estimate the total refining contributed by the recirculating metal droplets through the slag-metal emulsion zone. The micro-kinetics involves developing the rate equation for individual droplets in the emulsion. The mathematical models for the size distribution of initial droplets, kinetics of simultaneous refining of elements, the residence time in the emulsion, and dynamic interfacial area change were established in the micro-kinetic model. In the macro-kinetics calculation, a droplet generation model was employed and the total amount of refining by emulsion was calculated by summing the refining from the entire population of returning droplets. A dynamic FetO generation model based on oxygen mass balance was developed and coupled with the multi-zone kinetic model. The effect of post-combustion on the evolution of slag and metal composition was investigated. The model was applied to a 200-ton top blowing converter and the simulated value of metal and slag was found to be in good agreement with the measured data. The post-combustion ratio was found to be an important factor in controlling FetO content in the slag and the kinetics of Mn and P in a BOF process.

  8. Mechanical characterization of natural building stones: observation of the fracture process zone by ESPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvetti, Francesco; Cardani, Giuliana; Meda, Alberto

    1999-09-01

    The cultural heritage of many nations consist of a great variety of structures of high intrinsic value, which are often composed of natural building stones (NBS), as granite, limestone, marble and sandstone. The use of accurate inspection devices, such as laser interferometry, allows us to acquire information regarding the mechanical properties and damage (tensile cracks) of NBS, which represents the first step in the restoration process. In this paper, the potential application of an electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is shown, with particular attention to the observed displacement field and the crack penetration during laboratory testing. In ESPI, by superimposing a reflected light to a reference digitized image, an interference phenomenon is produced. By comparing two recorded interference patterns (before and after loading), the corresponding deformation can be evaluated. The application of ESPI in several laboratory tests on NBS is presented in this paper. In particular, during bending tests performed on geometrically similar NBS specimens, it was observed that the size and shape of the localized damage zone do not depend on the specimen size. These results allow for an interpretation of the 'size- effect,' which consists of a reduction of nominal strength as the specimen size increases.

  9. Midbrain dopamine neurons associated with reward processing innervate the neurogenic subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Lennington, Jessica B; Pope, Sara; Goodheart, Anna E; Drozdowicz, Linda; Daniels, Stephen B; Salamone, John D; Conover, Joanne C

    2011-09-14

    Coordinated regulation of the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) is accomplished by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The neurotransmitter dopamine is one regulatory molecule implicated in SVZ function. Nigrostriatal and ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons innervate regions adjacent to the SVZ, and dopamine synapses are found on SVZ cells. Cell division within the SVZ is decreased in humans with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of Parkinson's disease following exposure to toxins that selectively remove nigrostriatal neurons, suggesting that dopamine is critical for SVZ function and nigrostriatal neurons are the main suppliers of SVZ dopamine. However, when we examined the aphakia mouse, which is deficient in nigrostriatal neurons, we found no detrimental effect to SVZ proliferation or organization. Instead, dopamine innervation of the SVZ tracked to neurons at the ventrolateral boundary of the VTA. This same dopaminergic neuron population also innervated the SVZ of control mice. Characterization of these neurons revealed expression of proteins indicative of VTA neurons. Furthermore, exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP depleted neurons in the ventrolateral VTA and resulted in decreased SVZ proliferation. Together, these results reveal that dopamine signaling in the SVZ originates from a population of midbrain neurons more typically associated with motivational and reward processing.

  10. Neogene Sediment Transport, Deposition, and Exhumation from the Southern Alaska Syntaxis to the Eastern Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, K. D.; Witmer, J. W.; Enkelmann, E.; Plafker, G.; Brennan, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Over 5 km of Neogene sedimentary strata are well exposed in the Chugach-St. Elias Ranges within the southern Alaska syntaxis. This syntaxis forms where the Pacific-North America plate boundary changes from the northwest-trending Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform system to the southwest-trending Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Active collision and subduction of the buoyant Yakutat microplate in the syntaxis results in a wide collisional zone defined by active mountain belts, extensive glaciation, and thick packages of synorogenic strata. New stratigraphic and U-Th/He thermochronologic data from Neogene synorogenic strata, named the Yakataga and Redwood Formations, provide insights on collisional tectonics, glacial erosion, and sediment transport, deposition, burial, and exhumation from the onshore Chugach and St. Elias Ranges to the exposed accretionary prism of the Aleutian trench. Stratigraphic analyses show that along the southeastern part of the syntaxis, Neogene strata are characterized by deposition in braid delta, shallow marine, and glaciomarine slope apron depositional systems that resulted in construction of a broad continental shelf. In the central part of the syntaxis, marine shelf and upper slope environments deposited thick-bedded sandstone and mudstone in a thrust belt/foreland basin system. Along the southwestern part of the syntaxis, Neogene strata were deposited in a regional submarine fan system that filled the easternmost part of the Aleutian trench. Geologic mapping of the contact between the Yakataga Formation and underlying strata along the syntaxis document an angular unconformity with maximum stratigraphic separation (> 5 km) in the central part of the syntaxis. Along strike, this unconformity becomes conformable along both the southwestern and southeastern parts of the syntaxis. The regional angular unconformity and facies transitions both point to the importance of the central part of the syntaxis in the generation and distribution of

  11. The vesicle protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of synaptic vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P; Nonet, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport.

  12. The Vesicle Protein SAM-4 Regulates the Processivity of Synaptic Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qun; Ahlawat, Shikha; Schaefer, Anneliese; Mahoney, Tim; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Nonet, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is a KIF1A/UNC-104 mediated process critical for synapse development and maintenance yet little is known of how SV transport is regulated. Using C. elegans as an in vivo model, we identified SAM-4 as a novel conserved vesicular component regulating SV transport. Processivity, but not velocity, of SV transport was reduced in sam-4 mutants. sam-4 displayed strong genetic interactions with mutations in the cargo binding but not the motor domain of unc-104. Gain-of-function mutations in the unc-104 motor domain, identified in this study, suppress the sam-4 defects by increasing processivity of the SV transport. Genetic analyses suggest that SAM-4, SYD-2/liprin-α and the KIF1A/UNC-104 motor function in the same pathway to regulate SV transport. Our data support a model in which the SV protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of SV transport. PMID:25329901

  13. Oxygen Sensitivity of Anammox and Coupled N-Cycle Processes in Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Jensen, Marlene M.; Contreras, Sergio; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Lam, Phyllis; Günter, Marcel; LaRoche, Julie; Lavik, Gaute; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient measurements indicate that 30–50% of the total nitrogen (N) loss in the ocean occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This pelagic N-removal takes place within only ∼0.1% of the ocean volume, hence moderate variations in the extent of OMZs due to global warming may have a large impact on the global N-cycle. We examined the effect of oxygen (O2) on anammox, NH3 oxidation and NO3 − reduction in 15N-labeling experiments with varying O2 concentrations (0–25 µmol L−1) in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZs. Our results show that O2 is a major controlling factor for anammox activity in OMZ waters. Based on our O2 assays we estimate the upper limit for anammox to be ∼20 µmol L−1. In contrast, NH3 oxidation to NO2 − and NO3 − reduction to NO2 − as the main NH4 + and NO2 − sources for anammox were only moderately affected by changing O2 concentrations. Intriguingly, aerobic NH3 oxidation was active at non-detectable concentrations of O2, while anaerobic NO3 − reduction was fully active up to at least 25 µmol L−1 O2. Hence, aerobic and anaerobic N-cycle pathways in OMZs can co-occur over a larger range of O2 concentrations than previously assumed. The zone where N-loss can occur is primarily controlled by the O2-sensitivity of anammox itself, and not by any effects of O2 on the tightly coupled pathways of aerobic NH3 oxidation and NO3 − reduction. With anammox bacteria in the marine environment being active at O2 levels ∼20 times higher than those known to inhibit their cultured counterparts, the oceanic volume potentially acting as a N-sink increases tenfold. The predicted expansion of OMZs may enlarge this volume even further. Our study provides the first robust estimates of O2 sensitivities for processes directly and indirectly connected with N-loss. These are essential to assess the effects of ocean de-oxygenation on oceanic N-cycling. PMID:22216239

  14. CO2-ECBM related coupled physical and mechanical transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Satorius, Michael; Busch, Andreas; Krooß, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    The interrelation of cleat transport processes and mechanical properties was investigated by permeability tests at different stress levels (60% to 130% of in-situ stress) with sorbing (CH4, CO2) and inert gases (N2, Ar, He) on a sub bituminous A coal from the Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. From the flow tests under controlled triaxial stress conditions the Klinkenberg-corrected "true" permeability coefficients and the Klinkenberg slip factors were derived. The "true"-, absolute or Klinkenberg corrected permeability shows a gas type dependence. Following the approach of Seidle et al. (1992) the cleat volume compressibility (cf) was calculated from observed changes in apparent permeability upon variation of external stress (at equal mean gas pressures). The observed effects also show a clear dependence on gas type. Due to pore or cleat compressibility the cleat aperture decreases with increasing effective stress. Vice versa we observe with increasing mean pressure at lower confining pressure an increase in permeability which we attribute to a cleat aperture widening. The cleat volume compressibility (cf) also shows a dependence on the mean pore pressure. Non-sorbing gases like helium and argon show higher apparent permeabilities than sorbing gases like methane. Permeability coefficients measured with successively increasing mean gas pressures were consistently lower than those determined at decreasing mean gas pressures. This permeability hysteresis is in accordance with results reported by Harpalani and McPherson (1985). The kinetics of matrix transport processes were studied by sorption tests on different particle sizes at various moisture contents and temperatures (cf. Busch et al., 2006). Methane uptake rates were determined from the pressure decline curves recorded for each particle-size fraction, and "diffusion coefficients" were calculated using several unipore and bidisperse diffusion models. While the CH4 sorption capacity of moisture-equilibrated coals

  15. CO2-ECBM related coupled physical and mechanical transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Sartorius, M.; Busch, A.; Cumming, D.; Krooss, B. M.

    2012-04-01

    The interrelation of cleat transport processes and mechanical properties was investigated by permeability tests at different stress levels (60% to 130% of in-situ stress) with sorbing (CH4, CO2) and inert gases (N2, Ar, He) on a sub bituminous A coal from the Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. From the flow tests under controlled triaxial stress conditions the Klinkenberg-corrected "true" permeability coefficients and the Klinkenberg slip factors were derived. The "true"-, absolute or Klinkenberg corrected permeability shows a gas type dependence. Following the approach of Seidle et al. (1992) the cleat volume compressibility (cf) was calculated from observed changes in apparent permeability upon variation of external stress (at equal mean gas pressures). The observed effects also show a clear dependence on gas type. Due to pore or cleat compressibility the cleat aperture decreases with increasing effective stress. Vice versa we observe with increasing mean pressure at lower confining pressure an increase in permeability which we attribute to a cleat aperture widening. The cleat volume compressibility (cf) also shows a dependence on the mean pore pressure. Non-sorbing gases like helium and argon show higher apparent permeabilities than sorbing gases like methane. Permeability coefficients measured with successively increasing mean gas pressures were consistently lower than those determined at decreasing mean gas pressures. This permeability hysteresis is in accordance with results reported by Harpalani and McPherson (1985). The kinetics of matrix transport processes were studied by sorption tests on different particle sizes at various moisture contents and temperatures (cf. Busch et al., 2006). Methane uptake rates were determined from the pressure decline curves recorded for each particle-size fraction, and "diffusion coefficients" were calculated using several unipore and bidisperse diffusion models. While the CH4 sorption capacity of moisture-equilibrated coals

  16. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  17. Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael; Gallucci, V. F.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes the application of irreversible thermodynamics to biology. It begins with…

  18. Magma Reservoir Processes Revealed by Geochemistry of the Ongoing East Rift Zone Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornber, C. R.

    2002-12-01

    limits of repeated MgO and temperature variation imply end-member magma conditions that are regulated by open-system recharge of the shallow magmatic plumbing system. The low-end of MgO variation (7 wt%) approaches the low-pressure multiphase cotectic, which is maintained by open-system replenishment of a persistent magma reservoir. The high-temperature end-member (10 wt% MgO) is probably regulated by olivine fractionation in a zone of turbulent mixing between primitive recharge magma (15 wt% MgO) and resident cotectic magma. The highest temperature magmas are associated with eruption pulses that occur in response to intrusive events at the summit and initiate short-term increases of HINCE/MINCE. Subsequent changes toward lower magmatic temperatures are associated with periods of overall summit deflation, relatively low-level effusion, and frequent eruptive pauses. The long-term trends can be explained by episodic mixing of chemically uniform recharge melt with diminishing proportions of pre-1983 summit magma (maintained at cotectic conditions). Decreasing HINCE/MINCE may signify that a greater proportion of recharge magma is being diverted directly to Pu`u `O`o with minimal summit interaction or that the mass ratio of those mixing end-members has changed due to a depleted summit chamber (or both). The coincidence of long-term summit deflation since the 1982 summit eruption suggests that shallow processes related to summit reservoir depletion may be responsible for decreasing HINCE/MINCE and Pb isotopes in post-1982 steady-state eruption products. Magma derived from a uniform mantle-source, after having flushed out older resident magma, may now completely occupy the shallow magmatic plumbing system.

  19. 30 CFR 585.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 585.647 Section 585.647 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Management Act? Your GAP will be processed based on how your limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant was...

  20. 30 CFR 585.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 585.647 Section 585.647 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Management Act? Your GAP will be processed based on how your limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant was...

  1. Roughness of the Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities Revealed by High Resolution Wavefield Imaging with the Earthscope Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Pavlis, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    We post-processed 141,080 pairs of high quality radial and transverse receiver functions from the Earthscope Automated Receiver Survey using a variant of what we have called generalized iterative deconvolution method and reshaped the spiking output into different scales of Ricker wavelets. We then used these data as input to our 3D plane wave migration method to produce an image volume of P to S scattering surfaces under all of the lower 48 states. The result is arguably the highest resolution image ever produce of the mantle transition zone. Due to the effect of migration impulse response, different scales of Ricker wavelets provide another important means of controlling the resolution of the image produced by 3D plane wave migration method. Model simulation shows that comparing to the widely used CCP stacking method with receiver functions shaped by Gaussian wavelet, the application of our methods is capable of resolving not only dipping discontinuities but also more subtle details of the discontinuities. Application to the latest USArray data reveals several previously unobserved features of the 410 and 660 discontinuities. Both discontinuities are resolved to a precision approaching 1 km under the stable interior, but degrading to the order of 10 km in the western US due to a probably combination of higher attenuation and velocity heterogeneity not resolved by current generation tomography models. Topography with many 10s of km is resolved at a range of scales. In addition, we observe large variation of relative amplitude on the radial component and large variations in the radial to transverse amplitude ratio that correlate with inferred variations in discontinuity topography. We argue this combination of observations can be explained by roughness at a range of scales. Roughness is consistent with the phase-change model for these discontinuities given there is little reason to think the mantle is homogeneous at these distance scales. Continental scale isopach

  2. Integration of context sensitive solutions in the transportation planning process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1998 Thinking Beyond the Pavement workshop, the national movement of the use of context sensitive solutions for project development is well documented. Better understanding of the application of CSS principles in the transportation pl...

  3. 23 CFR 450.206 - Scope of the statewide transportation planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope of the statewide transportation planning process. 450.206 Section 450.206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming § 450...

  4. 23 CFR 450.206 - Scope of the statewide transportation planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope of the statewide transportation planning process. 450.206 Section 450.206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming § 450...

  5. 23 CFR 450.206 - Scope of the statewide transportation planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope of the statewide transportation planning process. 450.206 Section 450.206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming § 450...

  6. 23 CFR 450.206 - Scope of the statewide transportation planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of the statewide transportation planning process. 450.206 Section 450.206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming § 450...

  7. 23 CFR 450.206 - Scope of the statewide transportation planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope of the statewide transportation planning process. 450.206 Section 450.206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming § 450...

  8. Electronic and Ionic Transport in Processable Conducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-28

    doping with nitrosonium fluoborate. 6. Polypyrrole containing luminescent ions has been shown to be useful as in-situ probes of ion transport during...blends, ion transport, fibers, theoretical calculations ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) A summary of the research...polymer/dopant ion interactions, symmereically and asymmetrically substituted poly(di-2-heterocycle-2,5-disubstitutedphenylenes), poly(5

  9. Automating the process for locating no-passing zones using georeferencing data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    This research created a method of using global positioning system (GPS) coordinates to identify the location of no-passing zones in two-lane highways. Analytical algorithms were developed for analyzing the availability of sight distance along the ali...

  10. The impact of land use and season on the riverine transport of mercury into the marine coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Saniewski, Michał; Szubska, Marta; Romanowski, Andrzej; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-11-01

    In Mediterranean seas and coastal zones, rivers can be the main source of mercury (Hg). Catchment management therefore affects the load of Hg reaching the sea with surface runoff. The major freshwater inflows to the Baltic Sea consist of large rivers. However, their systems are complex and identification of factors affecting the outflow of Hg from its catchments is difficult. For this reason, a study into the impact of watershed land use and season on mercury biogeochemistry and transport in rivers was performed along two small rivers which may be considered typical of the southern Baltic region. Neither of these rivers are currently impacted by industrial effluents, thus allowing assessment of the influence of catchment terrain and season on Hg geochemistry. The study was performed between June 2008 and May 2009 at 13 sampling points situated at different terrain types within the catchments (forest, wetland, agriculture and urban). Hg analyses were conducted by CVAFS. Arable land erosion was found to be an important source of Hg to the aquatic system, similar to urban areas. Furthermore, inflows of untreated storm water discharge resulted in a fivefold increase of Hg concentration in the rivers. The highest Hg concentration in the urban runoff was observed with the greatest amount of precipitation during summer. Moderate rainfalls enhance the inflow of bioavailable dissolved mercury into water bodies. Despite the lack of industrial effluents entering the rivers directly, the sub-catchments with anthropogenic land use were important sources of Hg in the rivers. This was caused by elution of metal, deposited in soils over the past decades, into the rivers. The obtained results are especially important in the light of recent environmental conscience regulations, enforcing the decrease of pollution by Baltic countries.

  11. 49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire State of Alaska, except as provided in § 71.12...

  12. 49 CFR 71.13 - Samoa zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Samoa zone. 71.13 Section 71.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.13 Samoa zone. The eighth zone, the Samoa standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 169 degrees...

  13. 49 CFR 71.4 - Eastern zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eastern zone. 71.4 Section 71.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.4 Eastern zone. The second zone, the eastern standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of 67°30″ W...

  14. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″ W...

  15. 49 CFR 71.14 - Chamorro Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chamorro Zone. 71.14 Section 71.14 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.14 Chamorro Zone. The ninth zone, the Chamorro standard time zone, includes the Island of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern...

  16. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  17. Deeply subducted continental fragments - Part 1: Fracturing, dissolution-precipitation, and diffusion processes recorded by garnet textures of the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Contiguous continental high-pressure terranes in orogens offer insight into deep recycling and transformation processes that occur in subduction zones. These remain poorly understood, and currently debated ideas need testing. The approach we chose is to investigate, in detail, the record in suitable rock samples that preserve textures and robust mineral assemblages that withstood overprinting during exhumation. We document complex garnet zoning in eclogitic mica schists from the Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps). These retain evidence of two orogenic cycles and provide detailed insight into resorption, growth, and diffusion processes induced by fluid pulses in high-pressure conditions. We analysed local textures and garnet compositional patterns, which turned out remarkably complex. By combining these with thermodynamic modelling, we could unravel and quantify repeated fluid-rock interaction processes. Garnet shows low-Ca porphyroclastic cores that were stable under (Permian) granulite facies conditions. The series of rims that surround these cores provide insight into the subsequent evolution: the first garnet rim that surrounds the pre-Alpine granulite facies core in one sample indicates that pre-Alpine amphibolite facies metamorphism followed the granulite facies event. In all samples documented, cores show lobate edges and preserve inner fractures, which are sealed by high-Ca garnet that reflects high-pressure Alpine conditions. These observations suggest that during early stages of subduction, before hydration of the granulites, brittle failure of garnet occurred, indicating high strain rates that may be due to seismic failure. Several Alpine rims show conspicuous textures indicative of interaction with hydrous fluid: (a) resorption-dominated textures produced lobate edges, at the expense of the outer part of the granulite core; (b) peninsulas and atoll garnet are the result of replacement reactions; and (c) spatially limited resorption and enhanced transport

  18. Ambient groundwater flow diminishes nitrate processing in the hyporheic zone of streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Morvarid; Boano, Fulvio; Cook, Perran L. M.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Rippy, Megan A.; Grant, Stanley B.

    2017-05-01

    Modeling and experimental studies demonstrate that ambient groundwater reduces hyporheic exchange, but the implications of this observation for stream N-cycling is not yet clear. Here we utilize a simple process-based model (the Pumping and Streamline Segregation or PASS model) to evaluate N-cycling over two scales of hyporheic exchange (fluvial ripples and riffle-pool sequences), ten ambient groundwater and stream flow scenarios (five gaining and losing conditions and two stream discharges), and three biogeochemical settings (identified based on a principal component analysis of previously published measurements in streams throughout the United States). Model-data comparisons indicate that our model provides realistic estimates for direct denitrification of stream nitrate, but overpredicts nitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification. Riffle-pool sequences are responsible for most of the N-processing, despite the fact that fluvial ripples generate 3-11 times more hyporheic exchange flux. Across all scenarios, hyporheic exchange flux and the Damköhler Number emerge as primary controls on stream N-cycling; the former regulates trafficking of nutrients and oxygen across the sediment-water interface, while the latter quantifies the relative rates of organic carbon mineralization and advective transport in streambed sediments. Vertical groundwater flux modulates both of these master variables in ways that tend to diminish stream N-cycling. Thus, anthropogenic perturbations of ambient groundwater flows (e.g., by urbanization, agricultural activities, groundwater mining, and/or climate change) may compromise some of the key ecosystem services provided by streams.

  19. The Generation of Continents through Subduction Zone Processing of Large Igneous Provinces: A Case Study from the Central American Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, N.; Rychert, C.

    2013-12-01

    Billions of years ago primary mantle magmas evolved to form the continental crust, although no simple magmatic differentiation process explains the progression to average andesitic crustal compositions observed today. A multiple stage process is often invoked, involving subduction and or oceanic plumes, to explain the strong depletion observed in Archean xenoliths and as well as pervasive tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite and komatiite protoliths in the greenstone belts in the crust in the cratons. Studying modern day analogues of oceanic plateaus that are currently interacting with subductions zones can provide insights into continental crust formation. Here we use surface waves to image crustal isotropic and radially anisotropic shear velocity structure above the central American subduction system in Nicaragua and Costa Rica, which juxtaposes thickened ocean island plateau crust in Costa Rica with continental/normal oceanic crust in Nicaragua. We find low velocities beneath the active arc regions (3-6% slower than the surrounding region) and up to 6% radially anisotropic structures within the oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province beneath Costa Rica. The low velocities and radial anisotropy suggest the anomalies are due to pervasive deep crustal magma sills. The inferred sill structures correlate spatially with increased silicic outputs in northern Costa Rica, indicating that deep differentiation of primary magmas is more efficient beneath Costa Rica relative to Nicaragua. Subduction zone alteration of large igneous provinces promotes efficient, deep processing of primary basalts to continental crust. This scenario can explain the formation of continental lithosphere and crust, by both providing strongly depleted mantle lithosphere and a means for rapidly generating a silicic crustal composition.

  20. Morphology and Role of the Investigator Fracture Zone on the Sumatra Subduction Zone Process using High-resolution Bathymetry and Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Robles, F.; Singh, S. C.; Bradley, K. E.; Hananto, N.; Leclerc, F.; Qin, Y.; Wei, S.; Carton, H. D.; Tapponnier, P.; Sieh, K.; Permana, H.; Avianto, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Sumatran subduction zone is one of the most seismically active areas on Earth. Within the last decade, it has produced three great earthquakes plus one earthquake that produced a much larger tsunami than predicted from the magnitude alone. However, the physical factors that limit the lateral extent of these ruptures as well as ancient earthquakes evidenced by paleogeodesy remain poorly understood. It has been suggested that subducted bathymetric features, such as seamounts and fracture zones, may be define many segment boundaries. Offshore of Central Sumatra, the Investigator Fracture Zone (IFZ) impinges on the trench and has been subducted to great depth beneath the overriding accretionary wedge. Where it is still exposed as a bathymetric feature, this fracture zone is 2000 km long and more than 100 km wide, and is composed of four individual ridges that exhibit up to 3.7 km of original relief. In order to study the role of the IFZ on subduction processes, we simultaneously acquired multibeam bathymetry and eight 35-km-long high-resolution seismic reflection profiles across the subduction front during the 2015 MegaTera experiment. We find that subduction of the IFZ ridges significantly deforms the morphology of the overriding accretionary wedge. The steep eastern slope of subducting ridges allowed the development of a long lived frontal thrust that reaches the surface at the trench and is associated with a very large frontal anticline and a flat portion of the accretionary wedge. Extensional deformation of the forearc and transverse basin formation occurs along the trailing edge of the ridges. We suggest that the subducted IFZ defines a segment boundary between the southern limit of coseismic slip of the Mw = 8.7, 2005 Simeulue-Nias earthquake and the northern limit of coseismic slip limit of a major 1797 earthquake recorded by coral paleogeodesy. The presence of four distinct ridges and an intervening 35-km-wide area of normal oceanic crust within the 105-km

  1. Effect of Friction Stir Processing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ91C Magnesium Cast Alloy Weld Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Behzad; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Enayati, Mohammad Hossein; Sabooni, Soheil; Vallant, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    In this study, friction stir processing (FSP) was applied to the GTAW (TIG)-welded AZ91C cast alloy to refine the microstructure and optimize the mechanical properties of the weld zone. Microstructural investigation of the samples was performed by optical microscopy and the phases in the microstructure were determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructural evaluations showed that FSP destroys the coarse dendritic microstructure. Furthermore, it dissolves the secondary hard and brittle β-Mg17Al12 phase existing at grain boundaries of the TIG weld zone. The closure and decrease in amount of porosities along with the elimination of the cracks in the microstructure were observed. These changes were followed by a significant grain refinement to an average value of 11 µm. The results showed that the hardness values increased to the mean ones, respectively, for as-cast (63 Hv), TIG weld zone (67 Hv), and stir zone (79 Hv). The yield and ultimate strength were significantly enhanced after FSP. The fractography evaluations, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicated to a transition from brittle to ductile fracture surface after applying FSP to the TIG weld zone.

  2. Unravelling the magmatic processes behind zoned fall units on Ascension Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, K. J.; Barclay, J.; Preece, K.; Brown, R. J.; Davidson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ascension Island, an isolated composite volcano in the south Atlantic, has a wide spectrum of explosive and effusive deposits. Eruptions on the island have produced ash and pumice fall deposits, ignimbrites, scoria cones, lava flows and lava domes, which vary in composition from basalt to rhyolite. We report, for the first time, the presence of multiple, zoned pumice fall deposits. These deposits grade upwards (stepwise or gradationally) from pumice to scoria. We present detailed observations of two key deposits which typify the range in zonation observed in the unusual fall units. Forensic examination of these deposits and their petrological and geochemical characteristics provide critical information about the interactions and processes behind the wide spectrum of magma compositions and past eruptive behaviour on Ascension Island. The first deposit changes gradationally from fayalite-bearing trachytic pumice fall (61.1 wt.% SiO2) at the base, to basaltic trachy-andesite scoria fall (54.5 wt.% SiO2) at the top. The second deposit is more complex. It contains mingled pumice-scoria clasts, has a rapid transition from pumice to scoria and no intermediate clasts were observed. New analyses of H2O, CO2 and key trace elements within melt inclusions combined with systematic whole rock and phenocryst analyses enable us to probe the relationship of these co-erupted magmas to other deposits on the island. This has yielded insights into the magma plumbing system; and improved understanding of the roles that fractional crystallisation and magma mixing play in generating the range in compositions observed at this unique ocean island volcano.

  3. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  4. Multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport during a rainstorm process in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengxin; Gao, Shouting; Liang, Li; Deng, Difei; Gong, Hainan

    2014-08-01

    A rainstorm process that occurred in North China from July 24-25, 2011 was accurately simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and the multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport were studied based on the simulated results. The results indicated that water vapor was carried to North China mainly by the southwest low-level jet and easterly flow, with the former playing a principal role. The enhancement and northward extension of the southwesterly wind were consistent with the increase of magnitude and northward propulsion of the moisture flux. The variation of the winds mirrored fluctuations in the amount of precipitation. In addition, the water vapor from low latitudes to North China was transported first near the boundary layer over 15°N-21°N and then primarily at 850 hPa over 21°N-30°N, 900 hPa over 30°N-39°N, and 800 hPa over the region north of 39°N. The net budget of water vapor in North China was always positive during the rainstorm process because the zonal deficit was much smaller than the meridional surplus. The contribution of the water vapor advection was larger than that of the water vapor convergence in the prior period of rainfall, and the subsequent moisture aggregation relied on the water vapor convergence. The rainband in North China presented frontal mesoscale characteristics, and the short-term aggregation of moisture was closely related to the genesis and development of the mesoscale convective system that was triggered mainly by the cold air intrusion near the boundary layer. The underlying cold air not only lifted the warm air to trigger the convection, but it also influenced the development of the low pressure system in the lower levels, which further intensified the convergence and benefited the rapid accumulation of moisture to the convective zone near the boundary layer. The moisture transport reached its maximum an hour before the rainstorm occurred.

  5. State transportation policy initiative : a new strategic urban transportation planning process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-06-01

    Recent legislation and fiscal trends in Florida and nationwide have created a unique combination of constraints and opportunities, providing an impetus for examining the way Florida conducts transportation planning. In response to these challenges, t...

  6. Processes of technology assessment: The National Transportation Safety Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, E.

    1972-01-01

    The functions and operations of the Safety Board as related to technology assessment are described, and a brief history of the Safety Board is given. Recommendations made for safety in all areas of transportation and the actions taken are listed. Although accident investigation is an important aspect of NTSB's activity, it is felt that the greatest contribution is in pressing for development of better accident prevention programs. Efforts of the Safety Board in changing transportation technology to improve safety and prevent accidents are illustrated.

  7. Atrazine transport within a coastal zone in Southeastern Puerto Rico: a sensitivity analysis of an agricultural field model and riparian zone management model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water quality models are used to predict effects of conservation practices to mitigate the transport of herbicides to water bodies. We used two models - the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) to predict the movement of atrazine from ...

  8. Analysis of procurement processes and development of recommendations for intelligent transportation systems (ITS) procurements : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-09-01

    Traditional state procurement processes are not well-suited to the procurement of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The objective of this study was to analyze Kentuckys existing procurement processes, identify strengths and weaknesses of e...

  9. The Earth: Plasma Sources, Losses, and Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, Daniel T.; André, Mats; Dandouras, Iannis; Delcourt, Dominique; Fazakerley, Andrew; Fontaine, Dominique; Foster, John; Ilie, Raluca; Kistler, Lynn; Lee, Justin H.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Slavin, James A.; Wang, Chih-Ping; Wiltberger, Michael; Yau, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge concerning the source of magnetospheric plasma at Earth. Source of plasma, its acceleration and transport throughout the system, its consequences on system dynamics, and its loss are all discussed. Both observational and modeling advances since the last time this subject was covered in detail (Hultqvist et al., Magnetospheric Plasma Sources and Losses, 1999) are addressed.

  10. Scaling and predicting solute transport processes in streams

    Treesearch

    R. González-Pinzón; R. Haggerty; M. Dentz

    2013-01-01

    We investigated scaling of conservative solute transport using temporal moment analysis of 98 tracer experiments (384 breakthrough curves) conducted in 44 streams located on five continents. The experiments span 7 orders of magnitude in discharge (10-3 to 103 m3/s), span 5 orders of magnitude in...

  11. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  12. Fast Oxidation Processes in a Naturally Reduced Aquifer Zone Caused by Dissolved Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Jemison, N. E.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is quite common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. The naturally reduced zones are heterogeneously dispersed in such aquifers and are characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon and reduced phases, including iron sulfides and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases that are found in association with these natural reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Three field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO wherein groundwater associated with naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in these field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Small concentrations of nitrate were also observed in the previously nitrate-free groundwater, and Fe(II) decreased to the detection limit. These results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS) rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table, and seasonal variations

  13. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model to study the spatial variation of carbon processes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Eissenstat, D. M.; Davis, K. J.; He, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Forest carbon processes are affected by, among other factors, soil moisture, soil temperature, soil nutrients and solar radiation. Most of the current biogeochemical models are 1-D and represent one point in space. Therefore, they cannot resolve the topographically driven hill-slope land surface heterogeneity or the spatial pattern of nutrient availability. A spatially distributed forest ecosystem model, Flux-PIHM-BGC, has been developed by coupling a 1-D mechanistic biogeochemical model Biome-BGC (BBGC) with a spatially distributed land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. Flux-PIHM is a coupled physically based model, which incorporates a land-surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model. Flux-PIHM is able to represent the link between groundwater and the surface energy balance, as well as the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography. In the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D BBGC model, while soil nitrogen is transported among model grids via subsurface water flow. In each grid, Flux-PIHM provides BBGC with soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation information, while BBGC provides Flux-PIHM with leaf area index. The coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model has been implemented at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills critical zone observatory (SSHCZO). Model results suggest that the vegetation and soil carbon distribution is primarily constrained by nitorgen availability (affected by nitorgen transport via topographically driven subsurface flow), and also constrained by solar radiation and root zone soil moisture. The predicted vegetation and soil carbon distribution generally agrees with the macro pattern observed within the watershed. The coupled ecosystem-hydrologic model provides an important tool to study the impact of topography on watershed carbon processes, as well as the impact of climate change on water resources.

  14. Recycling and recharge processes at the Hasandağ Stratovolcano, Central Anatolia: Insights on magma chamber systematics from plagioclase textures and zoning patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, H. D.; Cipar, J. H.; Crispin, K. L.; Kürkçüoğlu, B.; Furman, T.

    2017-12-01

    We elucidate crystal recycling and magma recharge processes at Hasandağ by investigating compositional zoning patterns and textural variation in plagioclase crystals from Quaternary basaltic andesite through dacite lavas. Previous work on Hasandağ intermediate compositions identified thermochemical disequilibrium features and showed abundant evidence for magma mixing1,2. We expand on this work through detailed micro-texture and mineral diffusion analysis to explore the mechanisms and timescales of crystal transport and mixing processes. Thermobarometric calculations constrain the plumbing system to 1.2-2 kbar and 850-950°C, corresponding to a felsic magma chamber at 4.5 km. Electron microprobe results reveal plagioclase phenocrysts from all lava types have common core (An33-46) and rim (An36-64) compositions, with groundmass laths (An57-67) resembling the phenocryst rims. Low An cores are ubiquitous, regardless of bulk rock chemistry, and suggest a consistent composition within the magma reservoir prior to high An rim growth. High An rims are regularly enriched in Mg, Fe, Ti and Sr, which we attribute to mafic recharge and magma mixing. We assess mixing timescales by inverse diffusion modeling of Mg profiles across the core-rim boundaries. Initial results suggest mixing to eruption processes occur on the order of days to months. Heterogeneous calculated timescales within thin sections indicate crystal populations with different growth histories. Crystals often display prominent sieve-textured zones just inside the rim, as well as other disequilibrium features such as oscillatory zoning or resorbed and patchy-zoned cores. We interpret these textures to indicate mobilization of a homogeneous dacitic reservoir with abundant An35 plagioclase crystals by frequent injection of mafic magma. Variability in observed textures and calculated timescales manifests during defrosting of a highly crystalline felsic mush, through different degrees of magma mixing. This process

  15. Petrologic constraints on rift-zone processes - Results from episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, M.O.; Ho, R.A.; Rhodes, J.M.; Wolfe, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Puu Oo eruption in the middle of Kilauea volcano's east rift zone provides an excellent opportunity to utilize petrologic constraints to interpret rift-zone processes. Emplacement of a dike began 24 hours before the start of the eruption on 3 January 1983. Seismic and geodetic evidence indicates that the dike collided with a magma body in the rift zone. Most of the lava produced during the initial episode of the Puu Oo eruption is of hybrid composition, with petrographic and geochemical evidence of mixing magmas of highly evllved and more mafic compositions. Some olivine and plagioclase grains in the hybrid lavas show reverse zoning. Whole-rock compositional variations are linear even for normally compatible elements like Ni and Cr. Leastsquares mixing calculations yield good residuals for major and trace element analyses for magma mixing. Crystal fractionation calculations yield unsatisfactory residuals. The highly evolved magma is similar in composition to the lava from the 1977 eruption and, at one point, vents for these two eruptions are only 200 m apart. Possibly both the 1977 lava and the highly evolved component of the episode 1 Puu Oo lava were derived from a common body of rift-zone-stored magma. The more mafic mixing component may be represented by the most mafic lava from the January 1983 eruption; it shows no evidence of magma mixing. The dike that was intruded just prior to the start of the Puu Oo eruption may have acted as a hydraulic plunger causing mixing of the two rift-zone-stored magmas. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Processes and time scales of magmatic evolution as revealed by Fe-Mg chemical and isotopic zoning in natural olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeser, Martin; Dohmen, Ralf; Horn, Ingo; Schuth, Stephan; Weyer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we applied high-precision in situ Fe and Mg isotope analyses by femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) MC-ICP-MS on chemically zoned olivine xeno- and phenocrysts from intra-plate volcanic regions in order to investigate the magnitude of Fe and Mg isotope fractionation and its suitability to gain information on magma evolution. Our results show that chemical zoning (i.e., Mg#) in magmatic olivines is commonly associated with significant zoning in δ56Fe and δ26Mg (up to 1.7‰ and 0.7‰, respectively). We explored different cases of kinetic fractionation of Fe and Mg isotopes by modeling diffusion in the melt or olivine and simultaneous growth or dissolution. Combining the information of chemical and isotopic zoning in olivine allows to distinguish between various processes that may occur during magma evolution, namely diffusive Fe-Mg exchange between olivine and melt, rapid crystal growth, and Fe-Mg inter-diffusion simultaneous to crystal dissolution or growth. Chemical diffusion in olivine appears to be the dominant process that drives isotope fractionation in magmatic olivine. Simplified modeling of Fe and Mg diffusion is suitable to reproduce both the chemical and the isotopic zoning in most of the investigated olivines and, additionally, provides time information about magmatic processes. For the Massif Central (France), modeling of diffusive re-equilibration of mantle olivines in basanites revealed a short time span (<2 years) between the entrainment of a mantle xenolith in an intra-plate basaltic magma and the eruption of the magma. Furthermore, we determined high cooling rates (on the order of a few tens to hundreds of °C per year) for basanite samples from a single large outcrop in the Massif Central, which probably reflects the cooling of a massive lava flow after eruption. Results from the modeling of Fe and Mg isotope fractionation in olivine point to a systematic difference between βFe and βMg (i.e., βFe/βMg ≈ 2), implying that the

  17. Transport processes in partially saturate concrete: Testing and liquid properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Chiara

    The measurement of transport properties of concrete is considered by many to have the potential to serve as a performance criterion that can be related to concrete durability. However, the sensitivity of transport tests to several parameters combined with the low permeability of concrete complicates the testing. Gas permeability and diffusivity test methods are attractive due to the ease of testing, their non-destructive nature and their potential to correlate to in-field carbonation of reinforced concrete structures. This work was aimed at investigating the potential of existing gas transport tests as a way to reliably quantify transport properties in concrete. In this study gas permeability and diffusivity test methods were analyzed comparing their performance in terms of repeatability and variability. The influence of several parameters was investigated such as moisture content, mixture proportions and gas flow. A closer look to the influence of pressure revealed an anomalous trend of permeability with respect to pressure. An alternative calculation is proposed in an effort to move towards the determination of intrinsic material properties that can serve as an input for service life prediction models. The impact of deicing salts exposure was also analyzed with respect to their alteration of the degree of saturation as this may affect gas transport in cementitious materials. Limited information were previously available on liquid properties over a wide range of concentrations. To overcome this limitation, this study quantified surface tension, viscosity in presence of deicing salts in a broad concentration range and at different temperatures. Existing models were applied to predict the change of fluid properties during drying. Vapor desorption isotherms were obtained to investigate the influence of deicing salts presence on the non-linear moisture diffusion coefficient. Semi-empirical models were used to quantify the initiation and the rate of drying using liquid

  18. Geobiology of the Critical Zone: the Hierarchies of Process, Form and Life provide an Integrated Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    complementary biotic indicators of the palaeoenviroments in which they evolved. This strategy extends into the critical zone, to track evolutionary tenures and turnovers of endemics "ecological prisoners" in vadosic and phreatic landforms. Moreover, geoecodynamics of the Critical Zone can logically exploit endemic biota at the microscale in regolith, and also extremophiles to extreme depths; all such populations hold fascinating potential as biotic indicators of otherwise encrypted events in Earth history. Geoecodynamics is an exciting area emerging in geobiology. It opens up with new lines of attack on challenges at the core of geomorphology and palaeoecology. In its abilities to quantify mesoscale phenomena, geoecodynamics injects new life into evolutionary geomorphology. Moreover, the means to quantify mesoscale process and form enables quantification of thresholds and tenures of landform dynamics; we can now scrutinize obscurities, including the scale-dependency of landscape events invoked to have shaped palimpsests (Brunsden D 1996 Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie NF, 40, 273- 288). Analogously, where accumulated packages of evidence survive, we should be able to map out key signals in the tempo and mode of the genomic record through the Critical Zone, and so scrutinize otherwise encrypted events that shaped the inherent emptiness of the Rock Record (Ager D 1993. The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record; Miall AD 2015. Strata and Time: Probing the Gaps in Our Understanding. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 404, http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP404.4). Compared to, and notwithstanding, the episodic turnovers of sediments (and all allied events) that shaped evolving landscapes, the history of Life has been distinctly different; descent with modification links all clades and lineages of the Tree of Life with the present - even at deep nodes - though an unbroken chain of genomic connectivity. The complexity of niche space we see in landscapes reflects the diverse

  19. A numerical study of zone-melting process for the thermoelectric material of Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Hwang, W. S.; Hsieh, H. L.; Huang, J. Y.; Huang, T. K.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a numerical model has been established by employing a commercial software; ProCAST, to simulate the variation/distribution of temperature and the subsequent microstructure of Bi2Te3 fabricated by zone-melting technique. Then an experiment is conducted to measure the temperature variation/distribution during the zone-melting process to validate the numerical system. Also, the effects of processing parameters on crystallization microstructure such as moving speed and temperature of heater are numerically evaluated. In the experiment, the Bi2Te3 powder are filled into a 30mm diameter quartz cylinder and the heater is set to 800°C with a moving speed 12.5 mm/hr. A thermocouple is inserted in the Bi2Te3 powder to measure the temperature variation/distribution of the zone-melting process. The temperature variation/distribution measured by experiment is compared to the results of numerical simulation. The results show that our model and the experiment are well matched. Then the model is used to evaluate the crystal formation for Bi2Te3 with a 30mm diameter process. It's found that when the moving speed is slower than 17.5 mm/hr, columnar crystal is obtained. In the end, we use this model to predict the crystal formation of zone-melting process for Bi2Te3 with a 45 mm diameter. The results show that it is difficult to grow columnar crystal when the diameter comes to 45mm.

  20. Chlorite Stability in the Mantle Wedge and its Role in Subduction Zone Melting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, T. L.; Chatterjee, N.; Medard, E.; Parman, S. W.

    2006-12-01

    New experimental constraints on the H2O-saturated melting behavior of mantle peridotite (Grove et al., 2006, EPSL 249: 74 - 89) show that chlorite is a stable phase on the vapor-saturated solidus of peridotite at a pressure of 2 GPa and higher. Hydrous melting in the presence of chlorite begins at 860 °C at 2 GPa and the solidus temperature decreases continuously to 800 °C at 3.2 GPa. The solidus phases include olivine, orthopyroxene, high-Ca clinopyroxene and spinel + chlorite over the pressure range of 2 to 2.4 GPa. Garnet + chlorite + ilmenite are present above 2.4 GPa. At 2.8 to 3.2 GPa, chlorite is stable on the vapor- saturated solidus, but it reacts out 20 to 40 °C above the solidus. The temperature-pressure range for chlorite stability and vapor-saturated melting behavior involving chlorite are similar to those inferred for the mantle wedge above the subducted slab by geodynamic thermal models. Thus, chlorite may be a stable phase within the mantle wedge and may play a role in the onset of hydrous mantle melting. The factors that lead to the initiation of melting in subduction zones have remained enigmatic. The occurrence of volcanic fronts above the mantle wedge-subducted slab interface near a depth of 100 km in most arcs has not been conclusively explained. Melting must somehow be linked to processes that involve the release of water from the slab into the overlying mantle wedge, but why does melting always begin at or below 100 km? A potential melt triggering mechanism is that H2O released from dehydration reactions in the subducted oceanic lithosphere at pressures > 2 GPa rises into the overlying mantle and reacts with peridotite to form chlorite. This chloritized peridotite is pulled down by mantle flow to pressures of 3 to 3.5 GPa. Increases in temperature in the mantle wedge above the subducted slab lead to chlorite breakdown and/or vapor-saturated melting initiation. When mantle peridotite is hydrated ~ 13 wt. % chlorite is produced for a bulk H2

  1. Fault-zone structure and weakening processes in basin-scale reverse faults: The Moonlight Fault Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alder, S.; Smith, S. A. F.; Scott, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    The >200 km long Moonlight Fault Zone (MFZ) in southern New Zealand was an Oligocene basin-bounding normal fault zone that reactivated in the Miocene as a high-angle reverse fault (present dip angle 65°-75°). Regional exhumation in the last c. 5 Ma has resulted in deep exposures of the MFZ that present an opportunity to study the structure and deformation processes that were active in a basin-scale reverse fault at basement depths. Syn-rift sediments are preserved only as thin fault-bound slivers. The hanging wall and footwall of the MFZ are mainly greenschist facies quartzofeldspathic schists that have a steeply-dipping (55°-75°) foliation subparallel to the main fault trace. In more fissile lithologies (e.g. greyschists), hanging-wall deformation occurred by the development of foliation-parallel breccia layers up to a few centimetres thick. Greyschists in the footwall deformed mainly by folding and formation of tabular, foliation-parallel breccias up to 1 m wide. Where the hanging-wall contains more competent lithologies (e.g. greenschist facies metabasite) it is laced with networks of pseudotachylyte that formed parallel to the host rock foliation in a damage zone extending up to 500 m from the main fault trace. The fault core contains an up to 20 m thick sequence of breccias, cataclasites and foliated cataclasites preserving evidence for the progressive development of interconnected networks of (partly authigenic) chlorite and muscovite. Deformation in the fault core occurred by cataclasis of quartz and albite, frictional sliding of chlorite and muscovite grains, and dissolution-precipitation. Combined with published friction and permeability data, our observations suggest that: 1) host rock lithology and anisotropy were the primary controls on the structure of the MFZ at basement depths and 2) high-angle reverse slip was facilitated by the low frictional strength of fault core materials. Restriction of pseudotachylyte networks to the hanging-wall of the

  2. Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas in the nonlinear regime.

    PubMed

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2006-06-01

    A field theory approach to transport phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas is presented. The thermodynamic field theory (TFT), previously developed for treating the generic thermodynamic system out of equilibrium, is applied to plasmas physics. Transport phenomena are treated here as the effect of the field linking the thermodynamic forces with their conjugate flows combined with statistical mechanics. In particular, the Classical and the Pfirsch-Schluter regimes are analyzed by solving the thermodynamic field equations of the TFT in the weak-field approximation. We found that, the TFT does not correct the expressions of the ionic heat fluxes evaluated by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes. On the other hand, the fluxes of matter and electronic energy (heat flow) is further enhanced in the nonlinear Classical and Pfirsch-Schluter regimes. These results seem to be in line with the experimental observations. The complete set of the electronic and ionic transport equations in the nonlinear Banana regime, is also reported. A paper showing the comparison between our theoretic results and the experimental observations in the JET machine is currently in preparation.

  3. Fine structure of the landers fault zone: Segmentation and the rupture process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.-G.; Vidale, J.E.; Aki, K.; Marone, C.J.; Lee, W.H.K.

    1994-01-01

    Observations and modeling of 3- to 6-hertz seismic shear waves trapped within the fault zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake series allow the fine structure and continuity of the zone to be evaluated. The fault, to a depth of at least 12 kilometers, is marked by a zone 100 to 200 meters wide where shear velocity is reduced by 30 to 50 percent. This zone forms a seismic waveguide that extends along the southern 30 kilometers of the Landers rupture surface and ends at the fault bend about 18 kilometers north of the main shock epicenter. Another fault plane waveguide, disconnected from the first, exists along the northern rupture surface. These observations, in conjunction with surface slip, detailed seismicity patterns, and the progression of rupture along the fault, suggest that several simple rupture planes were involved in the Landers earthquake and that the inferred rupture front hesitated or slowed at the location where the rupture jumped from one to the next plane. Reduction in rupture velocity can tentatively be attributed to fault plane complexity, and variations in moment release can be attributed to variations in available energy.

  4. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    SciTech Connect

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturatedmore » Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.« less

  5. Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hagos, Fisseha; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Balcha, Fikadu; Berhe, Semarya; Aregay, Alemseged

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it's affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90%) of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75%) of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress. PMID:24649360

  6. Surface and subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of groundwater recharge processes through the karst vadose zone at Rochefort Cave (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Triantafyllou, A.; Delforge, D.; Quinif, Y.; Van Ruymbeke, M.; Kaufmann, O.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-based gravimetry is a non-invasive and integrated tool to characterize hydrological processes in complex environments such as karsts or volcanoes. A problem in ground-based gravity measurements however concerns the lack of sensitivity in the first meters below the topographical surface, added to limited infiltration below the gravimeter building (umbrella effect). Such limitations disappear when measuring underground. Coupling surface and subsurface gravity measurements therefore allow isolating hydrological signals occurring in the zone between the two gravimeters. We present a coupled surface/subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of 2 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (Belgium). The gravity record includes surface measurements of a GWR superconducting gravimeter and subsurface measurements of a Micro-g LaCoste gPhone gravimeter, installed in a cave 35 m below the surface station. The recharge of karstic aquifers is extremely complex to model, mostly because karst hydrological systems are composed of strongly heterogeneous flows. Most of the problem comes from the inadequacy of conventional measuring tools to correctly sample such heterogeneous media, and particularly the existence of a duality of flow types infiltrating the vadose zone: from rapid flows via open conduits to slow seepage through porous matrix. Using the surface/subsurface gravity difference, we were able to identify a significant seasonal groundwater recharge within the karst vadose zone. Seasonal or perennial perched reservoirs have already been proven to exist in several karst areas due to the heterogeneity of the porosity and permeability gradient in karstified carbonated rocks. Our gravimetric experiment allows assessing more precisely the recharge processes of such reservoirs. The gravity variations were also compared with surface and in-cave hydrogeological monitoring (i.e. soil moisture, in-cave percolating water discharges, water levels of the saturated zone). Combined

  7. SIMULATING RADIONUCLIDE FATE AND TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE: EVALUATION AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES OF SELECT COMPUTER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical, mathematical models of water and chemical movement in soils are used as decision aids for determining soil screening levels (SSLs) of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone. Many models require extensive input parameters which include uncertainty due to soil variabil...

  8. Coexistence of passive and carrier-mediated processes in drug transport.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko; Kansy, Manfred; Artursson, Per; Avdeef, Alex; Bendels, Stefanie; Di, Li; Ecker, Gerhard F; Faller, Bernard; Fischer, Holger; Gerebtzoff, Grégori; Lennernaes, Hans; Senner, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The permeability of biological membranes is one of the most important determinants of the pharmacokinetic processes of a drug. Although it is often accepted that many drug substances are transported across biological membranes by passive transcellular diffusion, a recent hypothesis speculated that carrier-mediated mechanisms might account for the majority of membrane drug transport processes in biological systems. Based on evidence of the physicochemical characteristics and of in vitro and in vivo findings for marketed drugs, as well as results from real-life discovery and development projects, we present the view that both passive transcellular processes and carrier-mediated processes coexist and contribute to drug transport activities across biological membranes.

  9. Molecular-dynamics Simulation-based Cohesive Zone Representation of Intergranular Fracture Processes in Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.; Saether, Erik; Phillips, Dawn R.; Glaessgen, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    A traction-displacement relationship that may be embedded into a cohesive zone model for microscale problems of intergranular fracture is extracted from atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations. A molecular-dynamics model for crack propagation under steady-state conditions is developed to analyze intergranular fracture along a flat 99 [1 1 0] symmetric tilt grain boundary in aluminum. Under hydrostatic tensile load, the simulation reveals asymmetric crack propagation in the two opposite directions along the grain boundary. In one direction, the crack propagates in a brittle manner by cleavage with very little or no dislocation emission, and in the other direction, the propagation is ductile through the mechanism of deformation twinning. This behavior is consistent with the Rice criterion for cleavage vs. dislocation blunting transition at the crack tip. The preference for twinning to dislocation slip is in agreement with the predictions of the Tadmor and Hai criterion. A comparison with finite element calculations shows that while the stress field around the brittle crack tip follows the expected elastic solution for the given boundary conditions of the model, the stress field around the twinning crack tip has a strong plastic contribution. Through the definition of a Cohesive-Zone-Volume-Element an atomistic analog to a continuum cohesive zone model element - the results from the molecular-dynamics simulation are recast to obtain an average continuum traction-displacement relationship to represent cohesive zone interaction along a characteristic length of the grain boundary interface for the cases of ductile and brittle decohesion. Keywords: Crack-tip plasticity; Cohesive zone model; Grain boundary decohesion; Intergranular fracture; Molecular-dynamics simulation

  10. Analysis and classification of bedload transport events with variable process characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisler, Andrea; Moser, Markus; Aigner, Johann; Rindler, Rolf; Tritthart, Michael; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge about the magnitude of bedload fluxes at given hydraulic conditions in natural streams is essential for improved process understanding, for the application, calibration and validation of bedload transport formulas, and for numerical sediment transport models. Nonetheless, extensive field measurements of bedload transport are challenging and therefore data from such efforts are rare. Bedload transport has been measured comprehensively at the downstream section of the Urslau torrent in Salzburg, Austria, since 2011. We used an integrative monitoring system that combines direct (mobile basket sampler, slot sampler) and indirect measuring devices (geophone plates). Continuous information about the intensity and distribution of bedload transport within the channel cross-section is available in high spatial and temporal resolution. Seven geophone plates at a stream width of 8 m are part of a measurement system that delivers data in 1-min intervals. These geophone data are calibrated using results of direct bedload measurements, providing an opportunity to calculate bedload rates and bedload yields in selected time periods. Continuous data on the bedload transport process over three years enabled assessing several bedload transport events. The investigation of bedload transport rate/discharge relationships reveals order-of-magnitude changes. For individual events, we observed shifts in the data, reflecting different bedload rates at comparable hydraulic conditions. This study reveals that variable sediment supply conditions affect the prevailing bedload transport rates at the Urslau stream. Calculating the bedload transport efficiency enables comparing bedload transport events that exhibit similar process characteristics. Finally, we provide a conceptual model of bedload transport process types as a function of bedload transport efficiency and dimensionless stream power.

  11. Precipitation behavior of σ phase in fusion zone of dissimilar stainless steel welds during multi-pass GTAW process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Chang, Tao-Chih; Lin, Dong-Yih; Chen, Ming-Che; Wu, Weite

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the precipitation characteristics of σ phase in the fusion zone of stainless steel welds at various welding passes during a tungsten are welding (GTAW) process. The morphology, quantity, and chemical composition of the δ-ferrite and σ phase were analyzed using optical microscopy (OM), a ferritscope (FS), a X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), and a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS), respectively. Massive δ-ferrite was observed in the fusion zone of the first pass welds during welding of dissimilar stainless steels. The σ phase precipitated at the inner δ-ferrite particles and decreased δ-ferrite content during the third pass welding. The σ and δ phases can be stabilized by Si element, which promoted the phase transformation of σ→ϱ+λ2 in the fusion zone of the third pass welds. It was found that the σ phase was a Fe-Cr-Si intermetallic compound found in the fusion zone of the third pass welds during multi-pass welding.

  12. Prograde and retrograde metamorphic processes in high-pressure subduction zone serpentinites from East Thessaly, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, Petros

    2016-04-01

    The East Thessaly region, Central Greece, includes metaophiolitic mélange formations which extend from the eastern foothills of Mt. Olympus and Ossa, throughout the Agia basin, Mt. Mavrovouni (Sklithro region), South Pelion and reaching up to northeast Othris (regions of Aerino and Velestino). They appear in the form of dispersed and deformed thrust sheets having been variably emplaced onto Mesozoic platform series rocks of the Pelagonian tectonostratigraphic zone[1]. These formations consist mainly of serpentinites, as well as metasediments, metagabbros, metadolerites, rodingites, ophicalcites, talc-schists and chromitites. Based upon petrographic observations, mineral chemistry data and XRD patterns, the subduction zone-related serpentinites from the regions of Potamia, Anavra, Aetolofos and Kalochori-Chasanbali (Agia basin), as well as from the regions of Aerino and Velestino, are characterized by the progressive transformation of lizardite to antigorite and are distinguished into two groups. The first group includes serpentinites from the metaophiolitic formations of Potamia, Anavra, Aerino and Velestino, which are marked by destibillization of lizardite to antigorite, mostly along the grain boundaries of the lizardite mesh textured relics. The presence of lizardite and antigorite in almost equal amounts indicates medium-temperature blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (˜340-370 ° C; P≈10-11 kbar)[2,3,4]. The second serpentinite group appears in the regions of Aetolofos and Kalochori, characterized by the predominance of antigorite, the minor occurrence of lizardite and the complete replacement of spinel by Cr-magnetite. The absence of metamorphic olivine suggests that these serpentinites were most likely formed at slightly higher temperature and pressure conditions compared to the first serpentinite group, corresponding to medium or high temperature blueschist facies metamorphism (˜360-380 ° C; P≈12 kbar)[2,3,4]. These metamorphic conditions are

  13. Explosion impacts during transport of hazardous cargo: GIS-based characterization of overpressure impacts and delineation of flammable zones for ammonia.

    PubMed

    Inanloo, Bahareh; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate accidental releases of ammonia followed by an en-route incident in an attempt to further predict the consequences of hazardous cargo accidents. The air dispersion model Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) was employed to track the probable outcomes of a hazardous material release of a tanker truck under different explosion scenarios. The significance of identification of the flammable zones was taken into consideration; in case the flammable vapor causes an explosion. The impacted areas and the severity of the probable destructions were evaluated for an explosion by considering the overpressure waves. ALOHA in conjunction with ArcGIS was used to delineate the flammable and overpressure impact zones for different scenarios. Based on the results, flammable fumes were formed in oval shapes having a chief axis along the wind direction at the time of release. The expansions of the impact areas under the overpressure value which can lead to property damage for 2 and 20 tons releases, under very stable and unstable atmospheric conditions were estimated to be around 1708, 1206; 3742, 3527 feet, respectively, toward the wind direction. A sensitivity analysis was done to assess the significance of wind speed on the impact zones. The insight provided by this study can be utilized by decision makers in transportation of hazardous materials as a guide for possible rerouting, rescheduling, or limiting the quantity of hazardous cargo to reduce the possible impacts after hazardous cargo accidents during transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO 2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO 2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks. The

  15. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO 2 Storage Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Carroll, Susan A.; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D. C.

    2017-07-25

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO 2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO 2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids frommore » the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks

  16. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO 2 Storage Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Susan A.; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D. C.

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO 2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO 2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids frommore » the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compr