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Sample records for zone water content

  1. The Water Content of Exo-earths in the Habitable Zone around Low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs Dirk; Ciesla, Fred; Pascucci, Ilaria; apai, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of low-mass M dwarf stars have become the focus of many astronomical studies: they are more easily accessible to detection and characterization than their counterparts around sunlike stars. The habitability of these planets, however, faces a number of challenges, including inefficient or negligible water delivery during accretion. To understand the water content of planets in and around the habitable zone, simulations of the final stages of planet formation are necessary.We present detailed accretion simulations of wet and dry planetary embryos around a range of stellar masses. We focus on different pathways of delivering water from beyond the snow line to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. We explore the impact of using either asteroid-like or comet-like bodies, and the effects of a dispersion in snow line locations. We derive the probability distribution of water abundances for terrestrial sized planets in the habitable zone.While these models predict that the bulk of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M stars will be dry, a small fraction receives earth-like amounts of water. Given their larger numbers and higher planet occurrence rates, this population of water-enriched worlds in the habitable zone of M stars may equal that around sun-like stars in numbers.References:Ciesla, Mulders et al. 2015Mulders et al. ApJ subm.

  2. Pore-Scale Transport of Strontium During Dynamic Water Content Changes in the Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, W.; Kibbey, T. C. G.; Papelis, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic water content changes in the unsaturated zone caused by natural and manmade processes, such as evaporation, rainfall, and irrigation, have an effect on contaminant mobility. In general, in the unsaturated zone, evaporation causes an increase in contaminant concentrations, potentially leading to sorption of contaminants on aquifer materials or precipitation of crystalline or amorphous phases. On the other hand, increase of water content may result in dissolution of precipitated phases and increased mobility of contaminants. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative model for the transport of strontium through sand under dynamic water content conditions, as a function of strontium concentration, pH, and ionic strength. Strontium was selected as a surrogate for strontium-90, a by-product of nuclear reactions. The dynamic water content was determined using an automated device for rapidly measuring the hysteretic capillary pressure—saturation relationship, followed by ambient air evaporation, and gravimetric water content measurement. Strontium concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow interruption experiments were conducted to determine whether equilibrium conditions existed for a given flowrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize the treated quartz sand particles and the distribution of strontium on sand grains was determined using elemental maps created by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Strontium behavior appears to be pH dependent as well as ionic strength dependent under these conditions.

  3. Long-distance abscisic acid signalling under different vertical soil moisture gradients depends on bulk root water potential and average soil water content in the root zone.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, Jaime; Alcobendas, Rosalía; Alarcón, Juan J; Dodd, Ian C

    2013-08-01

    To determine how root-to-shoot abscisic acid (ABA) signalling is regulated by vertical soil moisture gradients, root ABA concentration ([ABA](root)), the fraction of root water uptake from, and root water potential of different parts of the root zone, along with bulk root water potential, were measured to test various predictive models of root xylem ABA concentration [RX-ABA](sap). Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Nassau) were grown in soil columns and received different irrigation treatments (top and basal watering, and withholding water for varying lengths of time) to induce different vertical soil moisture gradients. Root water uptake was measured at four positions within the column by continuously recording volumetric soil water content (θv). Average θv was inversely related to bulk root water potential (Ψ(root)). In turn, Ψ(root) was correlated with both average [ABA](root) and [RX-ABA](sap). Despite large gradients in θv, [ABA](root) and root water potential was homogenous within the root zone. Consequently, unlike some split-root studies, root water uptake fraction from layers with different soil moisture did not influence xylem sap (ABA). This suggests two different patterns of ABA signalling, depending on how soil moisture heterogeneity is distributed within the root zone, which might have implications for implementing water-saving irrigation techniques. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of the temporal variation of oxygen contents in the water column on the biogeochemistry of the benthic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigaud, Sylvain; Deflandre, Bruno; Grenz, Christian; Pozzato, Lara; Cesbron, Florian; Meulé, Samuel; Bonin, Patricia; Michotey, Valérie; Mirleau, Pascal; Mirleau, Fatma; Knoery, Joel; Zuberer, Frédéric; Guillemain, Dorian; Marguerite, Sébatien; Mayot, Nicolas; Faure, Vincent; Grisel, Raphael; Radakovitch, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The desoxygenation of the water column in coastal areas, refered as coastal hypoxia, is currently a growing phenomenon still particularly complex to predict. This is mainly due to the fact that the biogeochemical response of the benthic ecosystem to the variation of the oxygen contents in the water column remains poorly understood. Dissolved oxygen concentration is a key parameter controling the benthic micro- and macro-community as well as the biogeochemical reactions occuring in the surface sediment. More particularly, the variation over variable time scales (from hour to years) of the oxygen deficit may induce different pathways for biogeochemical processes such as the oxydation of freshly deposited organic matter and nutrients and metals recycling. This results in variable chemical fluxes at the sediment-water interface, that may in turn, support the eutrophication and desoxygenation of the aquatic system. Our study focus on the Berre lagoon, an eutrophicated mediterranean lagoon impacted by hypoxia events in the water column. Three stations, closely located but impacted by contrasted temporal variation of oxygen deficit in the water column were selected: one station with rare oxygen deficit and with functionnal macrofauna community, one station with almost permanent oxygen deficit and no macrofauna community and one intermediate station with seasonnal oxygen deficit and degraded macrofauna community. Each station was surveyed once during a same field survey while the intermediate station was surveyed seasonnaly. For each campaign, we report vertical profiles of the main chemical components (oxygen, nutrients, metals) along the water-column/sediment continuum, with an increased vertical resolution in the benthic zone using a multi-tool approach (high vertical resolution suprabenthic water sampler and microsensors profiler). In addition, total chemical fluxes at the sediment-water interface was obtained using benthic chambers. This dataset was used to evaluate

  5. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  6. Stochastic Inversion of Geomagnetic Observatory Data Including Rigorous Treatment of the Ocean Induction Effect With Implications for Transition Zone Water Content and Thermal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, F. D.; Grayver, A. V.; Kuvshinov, A.; Khan, A.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we estimate and invert local electromagnetic (EM) sounding data for 1-D conductivity profiles in the presence of nonuniform oceans and continents to most rigorously account for the ocean induction effect that is known to strongly influence coastal observatories. We consider a new set of high-quality time series of geomagnetic observatory data, including hitherto unused data from island observatories installed over the last decade. The EM sounding data are inverted in the period range 3-85 days using stochastic optimization and model exploration techniques to provide estimates of model range and uncertainty. The inverted conductivity profiles are best constrained in the depth range 400-1,400 km and reveal significant lateral variations between 400 km and 1,000 km depth. To interpret the inverted conductivity anomalies in terms of water content and temperature, we combine laboratory-measured electrical conductivity of mantle minerals with phase equilibrium computations. Based on this procedure, relatively low temperatures (1200-1350°C) are observed in the transition zone (TZ) underneath stations located in Southern Australia, Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and North America. In contrast, higher temperatures (1400-1500°C) are inferred beneath observatories on islands, Northeast Asia, and central Australia. TZ water content beneath European and African stations is ˜0.05-0.1 wt %, whereas higher water contents (˜0.5-1 wt %) are inferred underneath North America, Asia, and Southern Australia. Comparison of the inverted water contents with laboratory-constrained water storage capacities suggests the presence of melt in or around the TZ underneath four geomagnetic observatories in North America and Northeast Asia.

  7. Joint inversion of satellite-detected tidal and magnetospheric signals constrains electrical conductivity and water content of the upper mantle and transition zone.

    PubMed

    Grayver, A V; Munch, F D; Kuvshinov, A V; Khan, A; Sabaka, T J; Tøffner-Clausen, L

    2017-06-28

    We present a new global electrical conductivity model of Earth's mantle. The model was derived by using a novel methodology, which is based on inverting satellite magnetic field measurements from different sources simultaneously. Specifically, we estimated responses of magnetospheric origin and ocean tidal magnetic signals from the most recent Swarm and CHAMP data. The challenging task of properly accounting for the ocean effect in the data was addressed through full three-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations. We show that simultaneous inversion of magnetospheric and tidal magnetic signals results in a model with much improved resolution. Comparison with laboratory-based conductivity profiles shows that obtained models are compatible with a pyrolytic composition and a water content of 0.01 wt% and 0.1 wt% in the upper mantle and transition zone, respectively.

  8. Evaluation of Modeling Schemes to Estimate Evapotranspiration and Root Zone Soil Water Content over Vineyard using a Scintillometer and Remotely Sensed Surface Energy Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Gonzalez-Piqueras, J.; Isidro, C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa) and root zone soil water content (SMC) are key operational variable to monitor water consumption and water stress condition for improve vineyard grapes productivity and quality. This analysis, evaluates the estimation of ETa and SMC based on two modeling approaches. The first approach is a hybrid model that couples a thermal-based two source energy balance (TSEB) model (Norman et al. 1995) and water balance model to estimate the two variable (Geli 2012). The second approach is based on Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS)-based estimates of sensible heat flux. The LAS-based estimates of sensible heat fluxes were used to calculate latent heat flux as the residual of surface energy balance equation on hourly basis which was converted to daily ETa. The calculated ETa from the scintillometer was then couple with the water balance approach to provide updated ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS. Both estimates of ETa and SMC based on LAS (i.e. ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS) and TSEB (ETa_TSEB and SMC_TSEB) were compared with ground-based observation from eddy covariance and soil water content measurements at multiple depths. The study site is an irrigated vineyard located in Central Spain Primary with heterogeneous surface conditions in term of irrigation practices and the ground based observation over the vineyard were collected during the summer of 2007. Preliminary results of the inter-comparison of the two approaches suggests relatively good between both modeling approaches and ground-based observations with RMSE lower than 1.2 mm/day for ETa and lower than 20% for SMC. References Norman, J. M., Kustas, W. P., & Humes, K. S. (1995). A two-source approach for estimating soil and vegetation energy fluxes in observations of directional radiometric surface temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 77, 263293. Geli, Hatim M. E. (2012). Modeling spatial surface energy fluxes of agricultural and riparian vegetation using remote sensing, Ph. D. dissertation

  9. Microwave remote sensing of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.

  10. Water pumping in mantle shear zones

    PubMed Central

    Précigout, Jacques; Prigent, Cécile; Palasse, Laurie; Pochon, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Water plays an important role in geological processes. Providing constraints on what may influence the distribution of aqueous fluids is thus crucial to understanding how water impacts Earth's geodynamics. Here we demonstrate that ductile flow exerts a dynamic control on water-rich fluid circulation in mantle shear zones. Based on amphibole distribution and using dislocation slip-systems as a proxy for syn-tectonic water content in olivine, we highlight fluid accumulation around fine-grained layers dominated by grain-size-sensitive creep. This fluid aggregation correlates with dislocation creep-accommodated strain that localizes in water-rich layers. We also give evidence of cracking induced by fluid pressure where the highest amount of water is expected. These results emphasize long-term fluid pumping attributed to creep cavitation and associated phase nucleation during grain size reduction. Considering the ubiquitous process of grain size reduction during strain localization, our findings shed light on multiple fluid reservoirs in the crust and mantle. PMID:28593947

  11. Profiling soil water content sensor

    A waveguide-on-access-tube (WOAT) sensor system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles was developed to sense soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity in 20-cm (8 inch) deep layers from the soil surface to depths of 3 m (10 ft) (patent No. 13/404,491 pending). A Cooperative R...

  12. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF WATER CONTENT IN THE SUBSURFACE

    SciT

    Hendrickx, Jan M.H.

    1999-12-31

    This report contains the experimental, theoretical and numerical studies performed under Department of Energy (DOE) Agreement Number DE-FG07-96ER14732 entitled ''Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Imaging Subsurface Water.'' DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) complexes and test ranges are situated in widely varying climatic conditions from the desert southwest to the humid east. The mission of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is to clean up the inventory of inactive DOE sites and facilities, and the goal of the EM Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to deliver technologies to make environmental restoration more efficient and cost effective.more » In the western United States, where a number of DOE facilities are located, the water table can occur several hundred feet below the surface. The zone between surface and water table is called the vadose zone or unsaturated zone. A characteristic of that zone is that mobility of water and contaminants is greatly reduced compared to rate of movement in the saturated zone. A thick vadose zone lowers the risk and, at least, increases the time before contaminants enter drinking water supplies. The assessment of risk is often performed by modeling of ground water flow and contaminant migration by analytical methods or unsaturated flow models (e.g. Hendrickx et al 1991). Necessary inputs for these models are the hydraulic properties of the different geological formations (e.g. Hendrickx 1990) and the water content distribution in the vadose zone (Freeze and Cherry 1979). Accurate risk assessments for ground water contamination cannot be conducted without actual measurements of the water content distribution in the vadose zone. To date, very few techniques have been developed to provide such information at an acceptable speed and cost. Because soil water contents exhibit a large spatial and temporal variability, the costs of conventional measurement techniques, such as gravimetric

  13. Water-induced convection in the Earth's mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Guillaume C.; Bercovici, David

    2009-01-01

    Water enters the Earth's mantle by subduction of oceanic lithosphere. Most of this water immediately returns to the atmosphere through arc volcanism, but a part of it is expected as deep as the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth). There, slabs can be deflected and linger before sinking into the lower mantle. Because it lowers the density and viscosity of the transition zone minerals (i.e., wadsleyite and ringwoodite), water is likely to affect the dynamics of the transition zone mantle overlying stagnant slabs. The consequences of water exchange between a floating slab and the transition zone are investigated. In particular, we focus on the possible onset of small-scale convection despite the adverse thermal gradient (i.e., mantle is cooled from below by the slab). The competition between thermal and hydrous effects on the density and thus on the convective stability of the top layer of the slab is examined numerically, including water-dependent density and viscosity and temperature-dependent water solubility. For plausible initial water content in a slab (≥0.5 wt %), an episode of convection is likely to occur after a relatively short time delay (5-20 Ma) after the slab enters the transition zone. However, water induced rheological weakening is seen to be a controlling parameter for the onset time of convection. Moreover, small-scale convection above a stagnant slab greatly enhances the rate of slab dehydration. Small-scale convection also facilitates heating of the slab, which in itself may prolong the residence time of the slab in the transition zone.

  14. Estimating canopy water content from spectroscopy

    Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

  15. 78 FR 27033 - Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... current extreme high-water conditions. This safety zone is necessary to protect the general public, levee... dangerously high water conditions, the Coast Guard established a safety zone on the Illinois River from Mile...

  16. A possible source of water in seismogenic subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kimura, G.; Iodp Exp. 322 Scientists

    2010-12-01

    Recent works on the subduction megathrusts have emphasized the mechanical function of fluids contributing dynamic slip-weakening. Basalt-hosting fault zones in on-land accretionary complexes present several textures of seismic slip under fluid-assisted condition such as implosion breccia with carbonate matrix and decrepitation of fluid inclusion. In order to clarify initiation and evolution processes of such fault zones as well as possible source of fluid in the seismogenic subduction zone, we examined a mineralogical/geochemical feature of basaltic basement recovered by IODP Exp. 322 at C0012, that is a reference site for subduction input in the Nankai Trough. A total of 10 samples (about 4 m depth interval from the basement top) were analyzed in this study. XRD analyses indicate that all of the samples contain considerable amount of smectite. The smectite does not appear as a form of interstratified phase with illite or chlorite. Preliminary chemical analyses by EDS in TEM suggest that the smectite is trioctahedral saponite with Ca as a dominant interlayer cation. To determine the saponite content quantitatively, cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bulk samples was measured. The samples show almost similar CEC of around 30 meq/100g, implying that bulk rock contains about 30 wt% of saponite, considering a general CEC of 100 meq/100g for monomineralic saponite. Such abundance of saponite might be a result from intense alteration of oceanic crust due to sea water circulation at low temperature. Previous experimental work suggests that saponite might be highly hydrated (two to three water layer hydration form) at the seismogenic P-T condition. Hence, altered upper oceanic crust is a possible water sink in the seismogenic zone. The water stored in the smectite interlayer region will be expelled via smectite to chlorite transition reaction, that might contribute to the dynamic weakening of the seimogenic plate boundary between the basement basalt and overlying

  17. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  18. Fluoride content of tank water in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Hopcraft, M S; Tong, A C; Thean, H l; Thum, Y S; Tong, D E; Wen, J; Zhao, S C; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Shen, P; Reynolds, E C

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) analyse the fluoride content of tank water; (2) determine whether the method of water collection or storage influenced fluoride content; and (3) survey participant attitudes towards water fluoridation. Plastic tubes and a questionnaire were distributed through dentists to households with water tanks in Victoria. A midstream tank water sample was collected and fluoride analysed in triplicate using ion chromatography All samples (n = 123) contained negligible amounts of fluoride, with a mean fluoride concentration of <0.01 ppm (range: <0.01-0.18 ppm). No statistically significant association was found between fluoride content and variables investigated such as tank material, tank age, roof material and gutter material. Most people did not know whether their tank water contained fluoride and 40.8% preferred to have access to fluoridated water. The majority thought fluoride was safe and more than half of the respondents supported fluoridation. Fluoride content of tank water was well below the optimal levels for caries prevention. People who rely solely on tank water for drinking may require additional exposure to fluoride for optimal caries prevention. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Water Footprint in Nitrate Vulnerable Zones: Mineral vs. Organic Fertilization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2017-04-01

    In intensive agriculture, it is necessary to apply irrigation and fertilizers to increase the crop yield. An optimization of water and N application is necessary. An excess of irrigation implies nitrates washing which would contribute to the contamination of the groundwater. An excess of N, besides affecting the yield and fruit quality, causes serious environmental problems. Nitrate vulnerable zones (NVZs) are areas designated as being at risk from agricultural nitrate pollution. They include around 16% of land in Spain and in Castilla-La Mancha, the area studied, represents 45% of the total land. In several zones, the N content of the groundwater could be approximately 140 mg L-1, or even higher [1]. The input of nitrogen fertilizers (mineral or organic), applied with a poor management, could be increased considerably the pollution risks. The water footprint (WF) is as indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [2]. The WF includes both consumptive water use: blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed) and green water (rainwater consumed)). A third element is the water required to assimilate pollution (grey water) [2]. Under semiarid conditions with low irrigation water quality, green WF is zero because the effective rainfall is negligible. Blue WF includes: i) extra consumption or irrigation water that the farmer has to apply to compensate the fail of uniformity on discharge of drips, ii) percolation out of control or salts leaching, which depends on the salt tolerance of the crop, soil and quality of irrigation water, to ensure the fruit yield. In the NVZs, the major concern is grey WF, because the irrigation and nitrogen dose have to be adjusted to the crop needs in order to minimize nitrate pollution. This study focus on the assessment of mineral and organic fertilization on WF in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions with a low water quality. During successive years, a melon crop

  20. Ecological risk assessment of a coastal zone in Southern Vietnam: Spatial distribution and content of heavy metals in water and surface sediments of the Thi Vai Estuary and Can Gio Mangrove Forest.

    PubMed

    Costa-Böddeker, Sandra; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Thuyên, Lê Xuân; Huy, Hoang Duc; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Richter, Otto; Schwalb, Antje

    2017-01-30

    Enrichment of heavy metals was assessed in the Thi Vai Estuary and in the Can Gio Mangrove Forest (SE, Vietnam). Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in water and in sediments were measured. Total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and C/N ratios were determined. Cu and Cr values were higher than threshold effect level of toxicity, while Ni exceeded probable effect level, indicating the risk of probable toxicity effects. Enrichment factors (EF), contamination factor (CF) and Geo-accumulation index (I-geo) were determined. CF reveals moderate to considerable pollution with Cr and Ni. EF suggests anthropogenic sources of Cr, Cu and Ni. I-geo indicates low contamination with Co, Cu and Zn and moderate contamination with Cr and Ni. Overall metal contents were lower than expected for this highly industrialized region, probably due to dilution, suggesting that erosion rates and hydrodynamics may also play a role in metal contents distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was

  2. Vegetation Water Content (VWC) dynamics in during SMAPVEX16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Polo Bermejo, J.; Judge, J.; Bongiovanni, T. E.; Chakrabarti, S.; Liu, P. W.; Bragdon, J.; Hornbuckle, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation water content has a confounding effect on the retrieval of soil moisture from microwave brightness temperatures. The presence of water in the overlying canopy influences the emission from the canopy itself and attenuates the emission from the soil. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the dynamics of vegetation water content in the context of microwave remote sensing. The key questions are: (1) How is moisture distributed in an agricultural canopy? (2) How does that vertical distribution change in time? (3) How do these dynamics influence the observed brightness temperature? To address these questions, a detailed sampling campaign was undertaken in one corn field and one soybean field at an intensively monitored site near Buckeye, Iowa within the SMAPVEX16 domain. The experiment duration extends from the beginning of IOP1 to the end of IOP2, i.e. from May 18 to August 16 2016. Vegetation sampling was performed on days upon which SMAP had both an ascending and a descending pass. On these days, destructive vegetation samples were generally collected at 6pm and 6pm unless the weather conditions were bad. In addition to measuring the bulk vegetation water content for comparison to the SMAP retrieved VWC, the samples were split into leaves and stems. For the corn plants, leaf moisture content was also measured as a function of height and the stem was cut into 10cm sections. Results will be presented to show the changes in VWC associated with plant development through the vegetative and reproductive stages as well as diurnal variations associated with water availability in the root zone and variations in evaporative demand. In addition, fresh biomass, dry biomass and vegetation water content will be related to brightness temperature observations from (1) the SMAP and SMOS satellite missions, (2) the PALS instrument flown during the SMAPVEX16 IOPs in Iowa (3) the tower-based radiometers located at the soybean and corn fields.

  3. Water contents of clinopyroxenes from sub-arc mantle peridotites

    Turner, Michael; Turner, Simon; Blatter, Dawnika; Maury, Rene; Perfit, Michael; Yogodzinski, Gene

    2017-01-01

    One poorly constrained reservoir of the Earth's water budget is that of clinopyroxene in metasomatised, mantle peridotites. This study presents reconnaissance Sensitive High-Resolution, Ion Microprobe–Stable Isotope (SHRIMP–SI) determinations of the H2O contents of (dominantly) clinopyroxenes in rare mantle xenoliths from four different subduction zones, i.e. Mexico, Kamchatka, Philippines, and New Britain (Tabar-Feni island chain) as well as one intra-plate setting (western Victoria). All of the sub-arc xenoliths have been metasomatised and carry strong arc trace element signatures. Average measured H2O contents of the pyroxenes range from 70 ppm to 510 ppm whereas calculated bulk H2O contents range from 88 ppm to 3 737 ppm if the variable presence of amphibole is taken into account. In contrast, the intra-plate, continental mantle xenolith from western Victoria has higher water contents (3 447 ppm) but was metasomatised by alkali and/or carbonatitic melts and does not carry a subduction-related signature. Material similar to the sub-arc peridotites can either be accreted to the base of the lithosphere or potentially be transported by convection deeper into the mantle where it will lose water due to amphibole breakdown.

  4. Leaf water content and palisade cell size.

    PubMed

    Canny, M J; Huang, C X

    2006-01-01

    The palisade cell sizes in leaves of Eucalyptus pauciflora were estimated in paradermal sections of cryo-fixed leaves imaged in the cryo-scanning electron microscope, as a quantity called the cell area fraction (CAF). Cell sizes were measured in detached leaves as a function of leaf water content, in intact leaves in the field during a day"s transpiration as a function of balance pressure of adjacent leaves, and on leaf disks equilibrated with air of relative humidities from 100 to 58%. Values of CAF ranged from 0.82 at saturation to approx. 0.3 in leaves dried to a relative water content (RWC) of 0.5, and in the field to approx. 0.58 at 15 bar (1.5 MPa) balance pressure. At a CAF of 0.58, the moisture content of the cell walls is in equilibrium with air at 90% relative humidity, which is the estimated relative humidity in the intercellular spaces. It is shown that at this moisture content, the cell walls could be exerting a pressure of approx. 50 bar on the cell contents.

  5. [The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan

    2011-03-01

    The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  6. Temporal Hyporheic Zone Response to Water Table Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Jonathan M; Anseeuw, Sierra K; Lowry, Christopher S; Allen-King, Richelle

    2016-03-01

    Expansion and contraction of the hyporheic zone due to temporal hydrologic changes between stream and riparian aquifer influence the biogeochemical cycling capacity of streams. Theoretical studies have quantified the control of groundwater discharge on the depth of the hyporheic zone; however, observations of temporal groundwater controls are limited. In this study, we develop the concept of groundwater-dominated differential hyporheic zone expansion to explain the temporal control of groundwater discharge on the hyporheic zone in a third-order stream reach flowing through glacially derived terrain typical of the Great Lakes region. We define groundwater-dominated differential expansion of the hyporheic zone as: differing rates and magnitudes of hyporheic zone expansion in response to seasonal vs. storm-related water table fluctuation. Specific conductance and vertical hydraulic gradient measurements were used to map changes in the hyporheic zone during seasonal water table decline and storm events. Planar and riffle beds were monitored in order to distinguish the cause of increasing hyporheic zone depth. Planar bed seasonal expansion of the hyporheic zone was of a greater magnitude and longer in duration (weeks to months) than storm event expansion (hours to days). In contrast, the hyporheic zone beneath the riffle bed exhibited minimal expansion in response to seasonal groundwater decline compared to storm related expansion. Results indicated that fluctuation in the riparian water table controlled seasonal expansion of the hyporheic zone along the planar bed. This groundwater induced hyporheic zone expansion could increase the potential for biogeochemical cycling and natural attenuation. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Imaging Water in Deformed Quartzites: Examples from Caledonian and Himalayan Shear Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Andreas; Ashley, Kyle; Hasnan, Hasnor; Holyoke, Caleb; Jezek, Lynna; Law, Richard; Thomas, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Infrared IR measurements of OH absorption bands due to water in deformed quartz grains have been collected from major shear zones of the Caledonian and Himalayan orogens. Mean intragranular water contents were determined from the magnitude of the broad OH absorption at 3400 cm-1 as a function of structural position, averaging over multiple grains, using an IR microscope coupled to a conventional FTIR spectrometer with apertures of 50-100 μm. Images of water content were generated by scanning areas of up to 4 mm2 of individual specimens with a 10 μm synchrotron-generated IR beam and contouring OH absorptions. Water contents vary with structural level relative to the central cores of shear zones and they vary at the grain scale corresponding to deformation and recrystallization microstructures. Gradients in quartz water content expressed over structural distances of 10 to 400 m from the centers of the Moine Thrust (Stack of Glencoul, NW Scotland), the Main Central Thrust (Sutlej valley of NW India), and the South Tibetan Detachment System (Rongbuk valley north of Mount Everest) indicate that these shear zones functioned as fluid conduits. However, the gradients differ substantially: in some cases, enhanced fluid fluxes appear to have increased quartz water contents, while in others, they served to decrease water contents. Water contents of Moine thrust quartzites appear to have been reduced during shear at greenschist facies by processes of regime II BLG/SGR dislocation creep. Intragranular water contents of the protolith 70 m below the central fault core are large (4078 ± 247 ppm, H/106 Si) while mylonites within 5 mm of the Moine hanging wall rocks have water contents of only 1570 (± 229) ppm. Water contents between these extremes vary systematically with structural level and correlate inversely with the extent of dynamic recrystallization (20 to 100%). Quartz intragranular water contents of Himalayan thrust and low-angle detachment zones sheared at upper

  8. An index for plant water deficit based on root-weighted soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianchu; Li, Sen; Zuo, Qiang; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-03-01

    Governed by atmospheric demand, soil water conditions and plant characteristics, plant water status is dynamic, complex, and fundamental to efficient agricultural water management. To explore a centralized signal for the evaluation of plant water status based on soil water status, two greenhouse experiments investigating the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots on wheat and rice were conducted. Due to the significant offset between the distributions of soil water and roots, wheat receiving subsurface irrigation suffered more from drought than wheat under surface irrigation, even when the arithmetic averaged soil water content (SWC) in the root zone was higher. A significant relationship was found between the plant water deficit index (PWDI) and the root-weighted (rather than the arithmetic) average SWC over root zone. The traditional soil-based approach for the estimation of PWDI was improved by replacing the arithmetic averaged SWC with the root-weighted SWC to take the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots into consideration. These results should be beneficial for scheduling irrigation, as well as for evaluating plant water consumption and root density profile.

  9. Impact of switching crop type on water and solute fluxes in deep vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkeltaub, T.; Kurtzman, D.; Russak, E. E.; Dahan, O.

    2015-12-01

    Switching crop type and consequently changing irrigation and fertilization regimes lead to alterations in deep percolation and solute concentrations of pore water. Herein, observations from the deep vadose zone and model simulations demonstrate the changes in water, chloride, and nitrate fluxes under a commercial greenhouse following the change from tomato to lettuce cropping. The site, located above a phreatic aquifer, was monitored for 5 years. A vadose-zone monitoring system was implemented under the greenhouse and provided continuous data on both temporal variations in water content and chemical composition of the pore water at multiple depths in the deep vadose zone (up to 20 m). Following crop switching, a significant reduction in chloride concentration and dramatic increase in nitrate were observed across the unsaturated zone. The changes in chemical composition of the vadose-zone pore water appeared as sequential breakthroughs across the unsaturated zone, initiating at land surface and propagating down toward the water table. Today, 3 years after switching the crops, penetration of the impact exceeds 10 m depth. Variations in the isotopic composition of nitrate (18O and 15N) in water samples obtained from the entire vadose zone clearly support a fast leaching process and mobilization of solutes across the unsaturated zone following the change in crop type. Water flow and chloride transport models were calibrated to observations acquired during an enhanced infiltration experiment. Forward simulation runs were performed with the calibrated models, constrained to tomato and lettuce cultivation regimes as surface boundary conditions. Predicted chloride and nitrate concentrations were in agreement with the observed concentrations. The simulated water drainage and nitrogen leaching implied that the observed changes are an outcome of recommended agricultural management practices.

  10. Modeling the release of E. coli D21g with transients in water content

    Transients in water content are well known to mobilize colloids that are retained in the vadose zone. However, there is no consensus on the proper model formulation to simulate colloid release during drainage and imbibition. We present a model that relates colloid release to changes in the air-water...

  11. Movement of Water Through the Chalk Unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, A.; Ireson, A.; Wheater, H.; Mathias, S.; Finch, J.

    2006-12-01

    Despite many decades study, quantification of water movement through the Chalk unsaturated zone has proved difficult, due to its particular properties. Chalk comprises a fine grained porous matrix intersected by a fracture network. In much of the unsaturated zone, for most of the time, matric potentials remain between -20 and -0.5 m. Thus the matrix is largely saturated by capillary action, and the fractures are largely de-watered. Therefore, debate has often focussed on the importance of the fractures, as compared with the matrix, for the movement of water. Recently, Mathias et al. (J Hydrol., in press) and Brouyère (J Contam Hydrol,82:195-219,2006) have (independently) proposed an Equivalent Continuum Model, ECM, for the Chalk. This assumes that the fractures can be treated as a porous medium and that the fracture and matrix domains can be treated as a single domain i.e. an equivalent continuum. This requires that the fractures and matrix are in pressure equilibrium, and whilst the theoretical basis for this assumption is reasonable, it has not been demonstrated empirically. In addition, Mathias et al. have demonstrated the importance of rainfall attenuation in the near surface weathered and soil zones of the Chalk for attenuating flow. As part of a national research initiative into groundwater dominated catchments, an extensive field monitoring programme has been implemented at two Chalk catchments in Berkshire (UK). This includes comprehensive soil moisture measurements (water content and matric potential), an extensive network of piezometers and observation wells measuring water table response, and the direct measurement of actual evaporation as well as standard meteorological variables, including rainfall. Using the Kosugi (WRR,32:2697-2703,1996) relationships for soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity a methodology for characterising vertical variation in hydraulic properties from competent chalk at depth through weathered rock to surface soil has

  12. Global seismic data reveal little water in the mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, C.

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of the Earth's present water content is necessary to constrain the amount of water and other volatiles the Earth acquired during its formation and the amount that is cycled back into the interior from the surface. This study compares 410 and 660 km discontinuity depth with shear wave tomography within the mantle transition zone to identify regions with seismic signals consistent with water. The depth of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities is determined from a large updated dataset of SS-S410S and SS-S660S differential travel times, known as SS precursors. The discontinuity depths measured from binning and stacking the SS precursor data are then compared to the shear velocity model HMSL-S06 in the transition zone. Mapping all the possible combinations, very few locations match the predictions from mineral physics for the effects of water on discontinuity depth and shear velocity. The predictions, although not yet measured at actual transition zone temperatures and pressures, are a shallow 410 km discontinuity, a deep 660 km discontinuity, and a slow shear velocity. Only 8% of the bins with high-quality data are consistent with these predictions, and the calculated average water content within these bins is around 0.6 wt.%. A few isolated locations have patterns of velocity/topography that are consistent with water, while there are large regional-scale patterns consistent with cold/hot temperature anomalies. Combining this global analysis of long period seismic data and the current mineral physics predictions for water in transition zone minerals, I find that the mantle transition zone is generally dry, containing less than one Earth ocean of water. Although subduction zones could be locally hydrated, the combined discontinuity and velocity data show no evidence that wadsleyite or ringwoodite have been globally hydrated by subduction or initial Earth conditions.

  13. Unsaturated flow characterization utilizing water content data collected within the capillary fringe

    Baehr, Arthur; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters based on detailed water content profiles, which can be readily acquired during hydrological investigations. Core samples taken through the unsaturated zone allow for the acquisition of gravimetrically determined water content data as a function of elevation at 3 inch intervals. This dense spacing of data provides several measurements of the water content within the capillary fringe, which are utilized to determine capillary pressure function parameters via least-squares calibration. The water content data collected above the capillary fringe are used to calculate dimensionless flow as a function of elevation providing a snapshot characterization of flow through the unsaturated zone. The water content at a flow stagnation point provides an in situ estimate of specific yield. In situ determinations of capillary pressure function parameters utilizing this method, together with particle-size distributions, can provide a valuable supplement to data libraries of unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters. The method is illustrated using data collected from plots within an agricultural research facility in Wisconsin.

  14. Effects of unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Marino, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The design of infiltration basins used to dispose of treated wastewater or for aquifer recharge often requires estimation of ground-water mounding beneath the basin. However, the effect that the unsaturated zone has on water-table response to basin infiltration often has been overlooked in this estimation. A comparison was made between two methods used to estimate ground-water mounding-an analytical approach that is limited to the saturated zone and a numerical approach that incorporates both the saturated and the unsaturated zones. Results indicate that the error that is introduced by a method that ignores the effects of the unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding increases as the basin-loading period is shortened; as the depth to the water table increases, with increasing subsurface anisotropy; and with the inclusion of fine-textured strata. Additionally, such a method cannot accommodate the dynamic nature of basin infiltration, the finite transmission time of the infiltration front to the water table, or the interception of the basin floor by the capillary fringe.The design of infiltration basins used to dispose of treated wastewater or for aquifer recharge often requires estimation of ground-water mounding beneath the basin. However, the effect that the unsaturated zone has on water-table response to basin infiltration often has been overlooked in this estimation. A comparison was made between two methods used to estimate ground-water mounding - an analytical approach that is limited to the saturated zone and a numerical approach that incorporates both the saturated and the unsaturated zones. Results indicate that the error that is introduced by a method that ignores the effects of the unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding increases as the basin-loading period is shortened; as the depth to the water table increases, with increasing subsurface anisotropy; and with the inclusion of fine-textured strata. Additionally, such a method cannot accommodate the

  15. Relative water content of Spruce needles determined by the leaf water content index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Wong, Sam K. S.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1987-01-01

    Leaf relative water content (RWC) is defined as the volume of water in a leaf divided by the volume at full turgor. Using reflectance factors of wavelengths 0.83 micron and 1.6 microns, a Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) was derived from the Lambert-Beer Law such that LWCI should equal RWC; LWCI was equal to RWC for Picea pungens, Picea rubens, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus agrifolia. Algebraic manipulation shows that R(1.6)/R(0.83) termed the Moisture Stress Index (MSI), is near-linearly correlated to RWC and to the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT). Five species tested so far had the same relationship between MSI and EWT, but EWT is not a measure of plant water status.

  16. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  17. Near surface water content estimation using GPR data: investigations within California vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S.; Grote, K.; Lunt, I.; Rubin, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Detailed estimates of water content are necessary for variety of hydrogeological investigations. In viticulture applications, this information is particularly useful for assisting the design of both vineyard layout and efficient irrigation/agrochemical application. However, it is difficult to obtain sufficient information about the spatial variation of water content within the root zone using conventional point or wellbore measurements. We have investigated the applicability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods to estimate near surface water content within two California vineyard study sites: the Robert Mondavi Vineyard in Napa County and the Dehlinger Vineyard within Sonoma County. Our research at the winery study sites involves assessing the feasibility of obtaining accurate, non-invasive and dense estimates of water content and the changes in water content over space and time using both groundwave and reflected GPR events. We will present the spatial and temporal estimates of water content obtained from the GPR data at both sites. We will compare our estimates with conventional measurements of water content (obtained using gravimetric, TDR, and neutron probe techniques) as well as with soil texture and plant vigor measurements. Through these comparisons, we will illustrate the potential of GPR for providing reliable and spatially dense water content estimates and the linkages between water content, soil properties and ecosystem responses at the two study sites.

  18. Heterogeneous distribution of water in the mantle transition zone beneath United States inferred from seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Pavlis, G. L.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    The amount of water in the Earth's deep mantle is critical for the evolution of the solid Earth and the atmosphere. Mineral physics studies have revealed that Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite in the mantle transition zone could store several times the volume of water in the ocean. However, the water content and its distribution in the transition zone remain enigmatic due to lack of direct observations. Here we use seismic data from the full deployment of the Earthscope Transportable Array to produce 3D image of P to S scattering of the mantle transition zone beneath the United States. We compute the image volume from 141,080 pairs of high quality receiver functions defined by the Earthscope Automated Receiver Survey, reprocessed by the generalized iterative deconvolution method and imaged by the plane wave migration method. We find that the transition zone is filled with previously unrecognized small-scale heterogeneities that produce pervasive, negative polarity P to S conversions. Seismic synthetic modeling using a point source simulation method suggests two possible structures for these objects: 1) a set of randomly distributed blobs of slight difference in size, and 2) near vertical diapir structures from small scale convections. Combining with geodynamic simulations, we interpret the observation as compositional heterogeneity from small-scale, low-velocity bodies that are water enriched. Our results indicate there is a heterogeneous distribution of water through the entire mantle transition zone beneath the contiguous United States.

  19. Models and observations of foam coverage and bubble content in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Holman, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Optical and acoustical observations and communications are hampered in the nearshore by the presence of bubbles and foam generated by breaking waves. Bubble clouds in the water column provide a highly variable (both spatially and temporally) obstacle to direct acoustic and optical paths. Persistent foam riding on the water surface creates a primary occlusion of optical penetration into the water column. In an effort to better understand and predict the level of bubble and foam content in the surfzone, we have been pursuing the development of a detailed phase resolved model of fluid and gaseous components of the water column, using a Navier-Stokes/VOF formulation extended to include a multiphase description of polydisperse bubble populations. This sort of modeling provides a detailed description of large scale turbulent structures and associated bubble transport mechanisms under breaking wave crests. The modeling technique is too computationally intensive, however, to provide a wider-scale description of large surfzone regions. In order to approach the larger scale problem, we are developing a model for spatial and temporal distribution of foam and bubbles within the framework of a Boussinesq model. The basic numerical framework for the code is described by Shi et al (2010, this conference). Bubble effects are incorporated both in the mass and momentum balances for weakly dispersive, fully nonlinear waves, with spatial and temporal bubble distributions parameterized based on the VOF modeling and measurements and tied to the computed rate of dissipation of energy during breaking. A model of a foam layer on the water surface is specified using a shallow water formulation. Foam mass conservation includes source and sink terms representing outgassing of the water column, direct foam generation due to surface agitation, and erosion due to bubble bursting. The foam layer motion in the plane of the water surface arises due to a balance of drag forces due to wind and water

  20. Spatial Irrigation Management Using Remote Sensing Water Balance Modeling and Soil Water Content Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, J. Burdette

    Spatially informed irrigation management may improve the optimal use of water resources. Sub-field scale water balance modeling and measurement were studied in the context of irrigation management. A spatial remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration and soil water balance model was modified and validated for use in real-time irrigation management. The modeled ET compared well with eddy covariance data from eastern Nebraska. Placement and quantity of sub-field scale soil water content measurement locations was also studied. Variance reduction factor and temporal stability were used to analyze soil water content data from an eastern Nebraska field. No consistent predictor of soil water temporal stability patterns was identified. At least three monitoring locations were needed per irrigation management zone to adequately quantify the mean soil water content. The remote-sensing-based water balance model was used to manage irrigation in a field experiment. The research included an eastern Nebraska field in 2015 and 2016 and a western Nebraska field in 2016 for a total of 210 plot-years. The response of maize and soybean to irrigation using variations of the model were compared with responses from treatments using soil water content measurement and a rainfed treatment. The remote-sensing-based treatment prescribed more irrigation than the other treatments in all cases. Excessive modeled soil evaporation and insufficient drainage times were suspected causes of the model drift. Modifying evaporation and drainage reduced modeled soil water depletion error. None of the included response variables were significantly different between treatments in western Nebraska. In eastern Nebraska, treatment differences for maize and soybean included evapotranspiration and a combined variable including evapotranspiration and deep percolation. Both variables were greatest for the remote-sensing model when differences were found to be statistically significant. Differences in maize yield in

  1. Release of E.coli D21g with transients in water content

    Transients in water content are well known to mobilize microorganisms that are retained in the vadose zone. However, there is no consensus on the relative importance of drainage and imbibition events on microorganism release. To overcome this limitation, we have systematically studied the release o...

  2. Effectiveness of streamside management zones on water quality: pretreatment measurements

    J.L. Boggs; G. Sun; S.G. McNulty; W. Swartley; E. Treasure

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paired watershed study is to quantify the effects of upland forest harvesting and Streamside Management Zones (SMZs) on stream water quantity and quality in North Carolina. Four watersheds ranging from 12 to 28 hectares (i.e., two on Hill Forest and two on Umstead Research Farm) with perennial stream channels were gauged for flow monitoring and...

  3. Effect of water content on stability of landslides triggered by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyabanaki, S.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2013-12-01

    during rainfall is investigated. In this study, after different durations of rainfall, an earthquake is applied to the model and the elapsed time in which the FS gets less than one obtains by trial and error. The results for different initial water contents and earthquake acceleration coefficients show that landslides can happen after shorter rainfall duration when water content is greater. If water content is high enough, the landslide occurs even without rainfall. References [1] Ray RL, Jacobs JM, de Alba P. Impact of unsaturated zone soil moisture and groundwater table on slope instability. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2010, 136(10):1448-1458. [2] Das B. Principles of Foundation Engineering. Stanford, Cengage Learning, 2011. Fig. 1. Effect of initial water content on FS for different EACs

  4. Water movement through thick unsaturated zones overlying the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas, 2000-2001

    McMahon, Peter B.; Dennehy, K.F.; Michel, R.L.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Ellett, K.M.; Hurlbut, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The role of irrigation as a driving force for water and chemical movement to the central High Plains aquifer is uncertain because of the thick unsaturated zone overlying the aquifer. Water potentials and profiles of tritium, chloride, nitrate, and pesticide concentrations were used to evaluate water movement through thick unsaturated zones overlying the central High Plains aquifer at three sites in southwestern Kansas. One site was located in rangeland and two sites were located in areas dominated by irrigated agriculture. In 2000?2001, the depth to water at the rangeland site was 50 meters and the depth to water at the irrigated sites was about 45.4 meters. Irrigation at the study sites began in 1955?56. Measurements of matric potential and volumetric water content indicate wetter conditions existed in the deep unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites than at the rangeland site. Total water potentials in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites systematically decreased with depth to the water table, indicating a potential existed for downward water movement from the unsaturated zone to the water table at those sites. At the rangeland site, total water potentials in the deep unsaturated zone indicate small or no potential existed for downward water movement to the water table. Postbomb tritium was not detected below a depth of 1.9 meters in the unsaturated zone or in ground water at the rangeland site. In contrast, postbomb tritium was detected throughout most of the unsaturated zone and in ground water at both irrigated sites. These results indicate post-1953 water moved deeper in the unsaturated zone at the irrigated sites than at the rangeland site. The depth of the interface between prebomb and postbomb tritium and a tritium mass-balance method were used to estimate water fluxes in the unsaturated zone at each site. The average water fluxes at the rangeland site were 5.4 and 4.4 millimeters per year for the two methods, which are similar to the average water

  5. A nearly water-saturated mantle transition zone inferred from mineral viscosity.

    PubMed

    Fei, Hongzhan; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Sakurai, Moe; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Katsura, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Takafumi

    2017-06-01

    An open question for solid-earth scientists is the amount of water in Earth's interior. The uppermost mantle and lower mantle contain little water because their dominant minerals, olivine and bridgmanite, have limited water storage capacity. In contrast, the mantle transition zone (MTZ) at a depth of 410 to 660 km is considered to be a potential water reservoir because its dominant minerals, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, can contain large amounts of water [up to 3 weight % (wt %)]. However, the actual amount of water in the MTZ is unknown. Given that water incorporated into mantle minerals can lower their viscosity, we evaluate the water content of the MTZ by measuring dislocation mobility, a property that is inversely proportional to viscosity, as a function of temperature and water content in ringwoodite and bridgmanite. We find that dislocation mobility in bridgmanite is faster by two orders of magnitude than in anhydrous ringwoodite but 1.5 orders of magnitude slower than in water-saturated ringwoodite. To fit the observed mantle viscosity profiles, ringwoodite in the MTZ should contain 1 to 2 wt % water. The MTZ should thus be nearly water-saturated globally.

  6. A vadose zone water fluxmeter with divergence control

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Caldwell, T.G.; Ritter, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Unsaturated water flux densities are needed to quantify water and contaminant transfer within the vadose zone. However, water flux densities are seldom measured directly and often are predicted with uncertainties of an order or magnitude or more. A water fluxmeter was designed, constructed, and tested to directly measure drainage fluxes in field soils. The fluxmeter was designed to minimize divergence. It concentrates flow into a narrow sensing region filled with a fiberglass wick. The wick applies suction, proportional to its length, and passively drains the meter. The meter can be installed in an augured borehole at almost any depth below the root zone. Water flux through the meter is measured with a self‐calibrating tipping bucket, with a sensitivity of ∼4 mL tip−1. For our meter this is equivalent to detection limit of ∼0.1 mm. Passive‐wick devices previously have not properly corrected for flow divergence. Laboratory measurements supported predictions of a two‐dimensional (2‐D) numerical model, which showed that control of the collector height H and knowledge of soil hydraulic properties are required for improving divergence control, particularly at fluxes below 1000 mm yr−1. The water fluxmeter is simple in concept, is inexpensive, and has the capability of providing continuous and reliable monitoring of unsaturated water fluxes ranging from less than 1 mm yr−1 to more than 1000 mm yr−1.

  7. A vadose zone water fluxmeter with divergence control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, G. W.; Ward, A. L.; Caldwell, T. G.; Ritter, J. C.

    2002-08-01

    Unsaturated water flux densities are needed to quantify water and contaminant transfer within the vadose zone. However, water flux densities are seldom measured directly and often are predicted with uncertainties of an order or magnitude or more. A water fluxmeter was designed, constructed, and tested to directly measure drainage fluxes in field soils. The fluxmeter was designed to minimize divergence. It concentrates flow into a narrow sensing region filled with a fiberglass wick. The wick applies suction, proportional to its length, and passively drains the meter. The meter can be installed in an augured borehole at almost any depth below the root zone. Water flux through the meter is measured with a self-calibrating tipping bucket, with a sensitivity of ~4 mL tip-1. For our meter this is equivalent to detection limit of ~0.1 mm. Passive-wick devices previously have not properly corrected for flow divergence. Laboratory measurements supported predictions of a two-dimensional (2-D) numerical model, which showed that control of the collector height H and knowledge of soil hydraulic properties are required for improving divergence control, particularly at fluxes below 1000 mm yr-1. The water fluxmeter is simple in concept, is inexpensive, and has the capability of providing continuous and reliable monitoring of unsaturated water fluxes ranging from less than 1 mm yr-1 to more than 1000 mm yr-1.

  8. Changes in water and solute fluxes in the vadose zone after switching crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkeltaub, Tuvia; Dahan, Ofer; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Switching crop type and therefore changing irrigation and fertilization regimes leads to alternation in deep percolation and concentrations of solutes in pore water. Changes of fluxes of water, chloride and nitrate under a commercial greenhouse due to a change from tomato to green spices were observed. The site, located above the a coastal aquifer, was monitored for the last four years. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) was implemented under the greenhouse and provided continuous data on both the temporal variation in water content and the chemical composition of pore water at multiple depths in the deep vadose zone (~20 m). Chloride and nitrate profiles, before and after the crop type switching, indicate on a clear alternation in soil water solutes concentrations. Before the switching of the crop type, the average chloride profile ranged from ~130 to ~210, while after the switching, the average profile ranged from ~34 to ~203 mg L-1, 22% reduction in chloride mass. Counter trend was observed for the nitrate concentrations, the average nitrate profile before switching ranged from ~11 to ~44 mg L-1, and after switching, the average profile ranged from ~500 to ~75 mg L-1, 400% increase in nitrate mass. A one dimensional unsaturated water flow and chloride transport model was calibrated to transient deep vadose zone data. A comparison between the simulation results under each of the surface boundary conditions of the vegetables and spices cultivation regime, clearly show a distinct alternation in the quantity and quality of groundwater recharge.

  9. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  10. Scenario planning for water resource management in semi arid zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Kumar, Gaurav

    2018-06-01

    Scenario planning for water resource management in semi arid zone is performed using systems Input-Output approach of time domain analysis. This approach derived the future weights of input variables of the hydrological system from their precedent weights. Input variables considered here are precipitation, evaporation, population and crop irrigation. Ingles & De Souza's method and Thornthwaite model have been used to estimate runoff and evaporation respectively. Difference between precipitation inflow and the sum of runoff and evaporation has been approximated as groundwater recharge. Population and crop irrigation derived the total water demand. Compensation of total water demand by groundwater recharge has been analyzed. Further compensation has been evaluated by proposing efficient methods of water conservation. The best measure to be adopted for water conservation is suggested based on the cost benefit analysis. A case study for nine villages in Chirawa region of district Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan (India) validates the model.

  11. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  12. Biogeochemical control points in a water-limited critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorover, J.; Brooks, P. D.; Gallery, R. E.; McIntosh, J. C.; Olshansky, Y.; Rasmussen, C.

    2017-12-01

    The routing of water and carbon through complex terrain is postulated to control structure evolution in the sub-humid critical zone of the southwestern US. By combining measurements of land-atmosphere exchange, ecohydrologic partitioning, and subsurface biogeochemistry, we seek to quantify how a heterogeneous (in time and space) distribution of "reactants" impacts both short-term (sub-)catchment response (e.g., pore and surface water chemical dynamics) and long-term landscape evolution (e.g., soil geochemistry/morphology and regolith weathering depth) in watersheds underlain by rhyolite and schist. Instrumented pedons in convergent, planar, and divergent landscape positions show distinct depth-dependent responses to precipitation events. Wetting front propagation, dissolved carbon flux and associated biogeochemical responses (e.g., pulses of CO2 production, O2 depletion, solute release) vary with topography, revealing the influence of lateral subsidies of water and carbon. The impacts of these episodes on the evolution of porous media heterogeneity is being investigated by statistical analysis of pore water chemistry, chemical/spectroscopic studies of solid phase organo-mineral products, sensor-derived water characteristic curves, and quantification of co-located microbial community activity/composition. Our results highlight the interacting effects of critical zone structure and convergent hydrologic flows in the evolution of biogeochemical control points.

  13. Geoelectric imaging for saline water intrusion in Geopark zone of Ciletuh Bay, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardi, N. D.; Iryanti, M.; Asmoro, C. P.; Yusuf, A.; Sundana, A. N. A.; Safura, H. Y.; Fitri, M.; Anggraeni, M.; Kurniawan, R.; Afrianti, R.; Sumarni

    2018-05-01

    Saline water intrusion in estuary is an urgent ecological encounter across the world. The Ciletuh Bay, located in the southern Sukabumi district, is an area with high cultivated potential becoming one of the most important geology tourism zones in Indonesia. However, salt water intrusion along the creek is a natural spectacle that disturbs the economic growth of the whole region. This research was intended at plotting the subsurface level of saltwater interventions into aquifers at the northern part of Ciletuh creek, Indonesia. The study implemented geoelectric imaging methods. 37 imaging datum were acquired using Wenner array configuration. The saline water were identified across the study area. The result of two dimensional cross-sectional resistivity shows that there is an indication of sea content in our measured soil, i.e. the smallest resistivity value is 0.579 Ωm found at a depth of 12.4 m to 19.8 m at a track length of 35 m to 60 m is categorized in the clayey which shows low groundwater quality. However, when compared with the results of direct observation of groundwater from the wells of residents, the water obtained is brackish water. A water chemistry test is conducted to ascertain the initial results of this method so that a potential sea intrusion potential map can be interpreted more clearly. This can consequently help as an extrapolative model to define depth to saline water at any site within the saline water zone in the study area.

  14. Mineralogy and fluid content of sediments entering the Costa Rica subduction zone - Results from Site U1414, IODP Expedition 344

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, D.; Buatier, M.; Kutterolf, S.; Straub, S. M.; Nascimento, D.; Millan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Subduction zones are characterized by the largest thrust earthquakes, as quantified by both rupture area and seismic moment release. Offshore Costa Rica, the oceanic Cocos Plate subducts under the Caribbean plate forming the southern end of the Middle America trench. A high convergence rate and almost complete subduction of incoming sediments make the Costa Rica convergent margin an extremely dynamic environment. The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) is designed to understand the processes that control nucleation and seismic rupture of large earthquakes at erosional subduction zones. Site U1414 of IODP Exp.344 was drilled to investigate the material from the incoming Cocos Plate. A key parameter of incoming plate is fluid content and release because it impacts deformation within the subduction complex. The deposition, compaction and diagenesis of sedimentary rocks control the distribution of fluids, fluid pressures and fluid flow patterns within subduction zones. We therefore decided to characterize sediment composition and quantify the different types of water at Site U1414. Mineralogical investigations were performed using optical and electronic microscope observations, X Ray Diffraction (on bulk and clay fractions), Cation Exchange Capacity measurements, carbon analyses (to determine carbonate contents), and sequenced extractions in NaOH (to quantify the biogenic opal content). Fluid characteristics were approached by thermal gravimetric analyses. The entire sedimentary sequence was recovered at Site U1414 and can be divided into three major sedimentary units. The first one is a hemipelagic silty clay to clay with a gradual increase of calcareous nannofossils. The dominant mineral is smectite associated in the clay fractions with kaolinite and zeolites. Small amounts of biogenic opal have been analyzed. Other minerals like quartz, feldspar and calcite are also present. The second unit is composed of nannofossil-rich calcareous ooze. The proportion of

  15. Experimental study on water content detection of traditional masonry based on infrared thermal image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoqing; Lei, Zukang

    2017-10-01

    Based on infrared thermal imaging technology for seepage test of two kinds of brick masonry, find out the relationship between the distribution of one-dimensional two brick surface temperature distribution and one-dimensional surface moisture content were determined after seepage brick masonry minimum temperature zone and water content determination method of the highest point of the regression equation, the relationship between temperature and moisture content of the brick masonry reflected the quantitative and establish the initial wet masonry building disease analysis method, then the infrared technology is applied to the protection of historic buildings in.

  16. [Virtual water content of livestock products in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong

    2006-04-01

    The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage.

  17. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Locations. The following areas are security zones: (1) San...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Locations. The following areas are security zones: (1) San...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Locations. The following areas are security zones: (1) San...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Locations. The following areas are security zones: (1) San...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1192 - Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Waters... Security Zones; Waters surrounding San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport, San Francisco Bay, California. (a) Locations. The following areas are security zones: (1) San...

  2. Bottom-water observations in the Vema fracture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eittreim, Stephen L.; Biscaye, Pierre E.; Jacobs, Stanley S.

    1983-03-01

    The Vema fracture zone trough, at 11°N between 41° and 45°E, is open to the west at the 5000-m level but is silled at the 4650-m level on the east where it intersects the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The trough is filled with Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) with a potential temperature of 1.32°C and salinity of 34.82 ppt. The bottom water is thermally well mixed in a nearly homogeneous layer about 700 m thick. The great thickness of this bottom layer, as compared with the bottom-water structure of the western Atlantic basin, may result from enhanced mixing induced by topographic constriction at the west end of the fracture zone trough. A benthic thermocline, with potential temperature gradients of about 1.2 mdeg m-1, is associated with an abrupt increase in turbidity with depth at about 1200 m above bottom. A transitional layer of more moderate temperature gradients, about 0.4 mdeg m-1, lies between the benthic thermocline above and the AABW below. The AABW layer whose depth-averaged suspended paniculate concentrations range from 8 to 19 μg L-1, is consistently higher in turbidity than the overlying waters. At the eastern end of the trough, 140 m below sill depth, very low northeastward current velocities, with maximums of 3 cm s-1, were recorded for an 11-day period.

  3. Influence of Water Content on Pullout Behaviour of Geogrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong; Song, Yang-yang; Hao, Dong-xue; Gao, Yu-cong

    2017-06-01

    The interaction between geogrid and soil is fundamental and crucial factor on safety and stability of geogrid-reinforced earth structure. Therefore, the interface index between geogrid and soil is of vital importance in the design of reinforced earth structures. The pullout behaviour of geogrid in soil is studied, an experimental investigation is conducted using geogrid in four groups of soil with 20%, 24%, 28%, 32% water contents, which correspond to normal stresses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kPa respectively. The results indicate that the geogrid embedded in soil mainly represents pullout failure, and the ultimate pullout force is sensitive to water content. It decreases with the increase of the water content firstly. Besides, the water content influences the process of the pullout behaviour. The increase of water content leads to the ultimate pullout force soon.

  4. Water content in intraplate basalt magmas from the Longgang area, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizobuchi, F.; Kuritani, T.; Yoshida, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Nagahashi, Y.; Taniguchi, H.

    2009-12-01

    In northeastern China, intraplate magmatism has been active, and Cenozoic basalts are widely distributed. Beneath the area, the subducted Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone, and some previous studies have inferred that the magmatism may have been affected by fluid phases released from the stagnant slab. To test this hypothesis, it is important to know the water content in the source mantle. In this context, the water content in the intraplate magma was estimated using primitive scoria samples from the Longgang area, NE China. Because of the absence of glass inclusions in phenocrysts that enables direct measurement of water content, it was estimated by thermodynamic constraints. During ascent of water-bearing magmas, the water solubility tends to decrease, and water saturation is achieved at depth. Then, crystals can grow rapidly by an increase in the liquidus temperature resulting from water exsolution. Because the microlites in our samples can be regarded as such crystals, the water content in the magma in which the microlites occured was estimated by thermodynamic analyses using the compositions of the microlites and glass. In the calculations, thermodynamic solution models of e.g. Ghiorso&Sack(1995) were used. The calculated water content and the temperature of the magma were about 0.6 wt.% and 1110 degC, respectively. The water content is slightly higher than those of primitive intraplate magmas such as from Hawaii (0.4 wt.%, Wallace & Anderson,1998) and Iceland (0.1-0.4 wt.%, Nichols et al., 2002). Assuming that the degree of melting was 1-2%, the water content of the source asthenospheric mantle was 110-170 ppm. The magma temperature at 80-120 km depth (garnet stability field) was also estimated as 1160-1180 degC, assuming adiabatic ascent. Using the constraints obtained in this study, the effect of stagnant-slab-derived fluids on the magma generation will be evaluated as a future study.

  5. Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

  6. Recreational runners with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated patella water content.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M

    2014-09-01

    Increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint overloading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP). To date, it remains unknown whether persons with PFP exhibit elevated bone water content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recreational runners with PFP exhibit elevated patella water content when compared to pain-free controls. Ten female recreational runners with a diagnosis of PFP (22 to 39years of age) and 10 gender, age, weight, height, and activity matched controls underwent chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify patella water content (i.e., water-signal fraction). Differences in bone water content of the total patella, lateral aspect of the patella, and medial aspect of the patella were compared between groups using independent t tests. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated significantly greater total patella bone water content (15.4±3.5% vs. 10.3±2.1%; P=0.001), lateral patella water content (17.2±4.2% vs. 11.5±2.5%; P=0.002), and medial patella water content (13.2±2.7% vs. 8.4±2.3%; P<0.001). The higher patella water content observed in female runners with PFP is suggestive of venous engorgement and elevated extracellular fluid. In turn, this may lead to an increase in intraosseous pressure and pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating Canopy Water Content of Chaparral Shrubs Using Optical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Scheer, George; Castaneda, Claudia M.; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Roberts, Dar; Green, Robert O.

    1996-01-01

    California chaparral ecosystems are exceptionally fire adapted and typically are subject to wildfire at decadal to century frequencies. The hot dry Mediterranean climate summers and the chaparral communities of the Santa Monica Mountains make wildfire one of the most serious economic and life-threatening natural disasters faced by the region. Additionally, the steep fire-burned hillsides are subject to erosion, slumpage, and mud slides during the winter rains. The Santa Monica Mountain Zone (SMMZ) is a 104,000 ha eastwest trending range with 607 m of vertical relief and located in the center of the greater Los Angeles region. A series of fires in the fall of 1993 burned from Simi Valley to Santa Monica within a few hours. Developing techniques to monitor fire hazard and predict the spread of fire is of major concern to the region. One key factor in the susceptibility to fire is the water content of the vegetation canopy. The development of imaging spectrometry and remote sensing techniques may constitute a tool to provide this information.

  8. Water and the oxidation state of subduction zone magmas.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Katherine A; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2009-07-31

    Mantle oxygen fugacity exerts a primary control on mass exchange between Earth's surface and interior at subduction zones, but the major factors controlling mantle oxygen fugacity (such as volatiles and phase assemblages) and how tectonic cycles drive its secular evolution are still debated. We present integrated measurements of redox-sensitive ratios of oxidized iron to total iron (Fe3+/SigmaFe), determined with Fe K-edge micro-x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and pre-eruptive magmatic H2O contents of a global sampling of primitive undegassed basaltic glasses and melt inclusions covering a range of plate tectonic settings. Magmatic Fe3+/SigmaFe ratios increase toward subduction zones (at ridges, 0.13 to 0.17; at back arcs, 0.15 to 0.19; and at arcs, 0.18 to 0.32) and correlate linearly with H2O content and element tracers of slab-derived fluids. These observations indicate a direct link between mass transfer from the subducted plate and oxidation of the mantle wedge.

  9. Active THz inspection of water content in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Palacios, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2010-04-01

    The THz range offers the possibility of measuring water content. This can be useful in wine industry to control plants water levels and also to decrease irrigation costs. This paper presents a THz imaging system used to characterise water content in leaves using frequency and time domain methods from 0.14 to 0.22 THz. Our results show the possibility of getting useful information out of the preformed measurements.

  10. DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  11. Numerical Modeling of Water Fluxes in the Root Zone of Irrigated Pecan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, M. K.; Deb, S.

    2010-12-01

    Information is still limited on the coupled liquid water, water vapor, heat transport and root water uptake for irrigated pecan. Field experiments were conducted in a sandy loam mature pecan field in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Three pecan trees were chosen to monitor diurnal soil water content under the canopy (approximately half way between trunk and the drip line) and outside the drip line (bare spot) along a transect at the depths of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 cm using TDR sensors. Soil temperature sensors were installed at an under-canopy locations and bare spot to monitor soil temperature data at depths of 5, 10, 20, and 40 cm. Simulations of the coupled transport of liquid water, water vapor, and heat with and without root water uptake were carried out using the HYDRUS-1D code. Measured soil hydraulic and thermal properties, continuous meteorological data, and pecan characteristics, e.g. rooting depth, leaf area index, were used in the model simulations. Model calibration was performed for a 26-day period from DOY 204 through DOY 230, 2009 based on measured soil water content and soil temperature data at different soil depths, while the model was validated for a 90-day period from DOY 231 through DOY 320, 2009 at bare spot. Calibrated parameters were also used to apply the model at under-canopy locations for a 116-day period from DOY 204 to 320. HYDRUS-1D simulated water contents and soil temperatures correlated well with the measured data at each depth. Numerical assessment of various transport mechanisms and quantitative estimates of isothermal and thermal water fluxes with and without root water uptake in the unsaturated zone within canopy and bare spot is in progress and will be presented in the conference.

  12. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  13. Postnatal changes in skin water content in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Akio; Fujinuma, Sumie; Motojima, Yukiko; Oka, Shuntaro; Komaki, Takeshi; Saito, Aya; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Araki, Shunsuke; Kanai, Masayo; Sobajima, Hisanori; Tamura, Masanori

    2015-09-01

    Preterm infants have immature skin, which contributes to skin problems. Very little is known about postnatal changes in the skin, despite the clinical importance of this issue. To assess temporal changes in skin water content in preterm infants. A prospective observational study. Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were included in this study. Skin water content was measured at five different skin regions using dielectric methods at a depth of 1.5mm. Skin water content was measured on postnatal day 1 in 101 infants, and the correlation between skin water content and gestational week was analyzed. Measurements were also made on postnatal days 2, 3, and 7, and every 7days thereafter until the corrected age of 37weeks in 87 of the 101 infants. Temporal changes were statistically analyzed after dividing participants into seven groups by gestational age. On postnatal day 1, skin water content correlated inversely with gestational age at all skin regions. Skin water content decreased significantly over time, converging to the level of term infants by the corrected age of 32-35weeks. Skin water content at a depth of 1.5mm was related to corrected age and reached the level of term infants by the corrected age of approximately 32-35weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvements to measuring water flux in the vadose zone.

    PubMed

    Masarik, Kevin C; Norman, John M; Brye, Kristofor R; Baker, John M

    2004-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of land use practices on ground water quality has been difficult because few techniques are capable of monitoring the quality and quantity of soil water flow below the root zone without disturbing the soil profile and affecting natural flow processes. A recently introduced method, known as equilibrium tension lysimetry, was a major improvement but it was not a true equilibrium since it still required manual intervention to maintain proper lysimeter suction. We addressed this issue by developing an automated equilibrium tension lysimeter (AETL) system that continuously matches lysimeter tension to soil-water matric potential of the surrounding soil. The soil-water matric potential of the bulk soil is measured with a heat-dissipation sensor, and a small DC pump is used to apply suction to a lysimeter. The improved automated approach reported here was tested in the field for a 12-mo period. Powered by a small 12-V rechargeable battery, the AETLs were able to continuously match lysimeter suction to soil-water matric potential for 2-wk periods with minimal human attention, along with the added benefit of collecting continuous soil-water matric potential data. We also demonstrated, in the laboratory, methods for continuous measurement of water depth in the AETL, a capability that quantifies drainage on a 10-min interval, making it a true water-flux meter. Equilibrium tension lysimeters have already been demonstrated to be a reliable method of measuring drainage flux, and the further improvements have created a more effective device for studying water drainage and chemical leaching through the soil matrix.

  15. A minimalist probabilistic description of root zone soil water

    Milly, P.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    The probabilistic response of depth‐integrated soil water to given climatic forcing can be described readily using an existing supply‐demand‐storage model. An apparently complex interaction of numerous soil, climate, and plant controls can be reduced to a relatively simple expression for the equilibrium probability density function of soil water as a function of only two dimensionless parameters. These are the index of dryness (ratio of mean potential evaporation to mean precipitation) and a dimensionless storage capacity (active root zone soil water capacity divided by mean storm depth). The first parameter is mainly controlled by climate, with surface albedo playing a subsidiary role in determining net radiation. The second is a composite of soil (through moisture retention characteristics), vegetation (through rooting characteristics), and climate (mean storm depth). This minimalist analysis captures many essential features of a more general probabilistic analysis, but with a considerable reduction in complexity and consequent elucidation of the critical controls on soil water variability. In particular, it is shown that (1) the dependence of mean soil water on the index of dryness approaches a step function in the limit of large soil water capacity; (2) soil water variance is usually maximized when the index of dryness equals 1, and the width of the peak varies inversely with dimensionless storage capacity; (3) soil water has a uniform probability density function when the index of dryness is 1 and the dimensionless storage capacity is large; and (4) the soil water probability density function is bimodal if and only if the index of dryness is <1, but this bimodality is pronounced only for artificially small values of the dimensionless storage capacity.

  16. Terahertz Measurement of the Water Content Distribution in Wood Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensalem, M.; Sommier, A.; Mindeguia, J. C.; Batsale, J. C.; Pradere, C.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, THz waves have been shown to be an effective technique for investigating the water diffusion within porous media, such as biomaterial or insulation materials. This applicability is due to the sufficient resolution for such applications and the safe levels of radiation. This study aims to achieve contactless absolute water content measurements at a steady state case in semi-transparent solids (wood) using a transmittance THz wave range setup. First, a calibration method is developed to validate an analytical model based on the Beer-Lambert law, linking the absorption coefficient, the density of the solid, and its water content. Then, an estimation of the water content on a local scale in a transient-state case (drying) is performed. This study shows that THz waves are an effective contactless, safe, and low-cost technique for the measurement of water content in a porous medium, such as wood.

  17. Investigating Temporal and Spatial Variations in Near Surface Water Content using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Grote, K.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Rubin, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Using only conventional point or well logging measurements, it is difficult to obtain information about water content with sufficient spatial resolution and coverage to be useful for near surface applications such as for input to vadose zone predictive models or for assisting with precision crop management. Prompted by successful results of a controlled ground penetrating radar (GPR) pilot study, we are investigating the applicability of GPR methods to estimate near surface water content at a study site within the Robert Mondavi vineyards in Napa County, California. Detailed information about soil variability and water content within vineyards could assist in estimation of plantable acreage, in the design of vineyard layout and in the design of an efficient irrigation/agrochemical application procedure. Our research at the winery study site involves investigation of optimal GPR acquisition and processing techniques, modeling of GPR attributes, and inversion of the attributes for water content information over space and time. A secondary goal of our project is to compare water content information obtained from the GPR data with information available from other types of measurements that are being used to assist in precision crop management. This talk will focus on point and spatial correlation estimation of water content obtained using GPR groundwave information only, and comparison of those estimates with information obtained from analysis of soils, TDR, neutron probe and remote sensing data sets. This comparison will enable us to 1) understand the potential of GPR for providing water content information in the very shallow subsurface, and to 2) investigate the interrelationships between the different types of measurements (and associated measurement scales) that are being utilized to characterize the shallow subsurface water content over space and time.

  18. Modeling the influence of snow cover temperature and water content on wet-snow avalanche runout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Cesar Vera; Wever, Nander; Christen, Marc; Bartelt, Perry

    2018-03-01

    Snow avalanche motion is strongly dependent on the temperature and water content of the snow cover. In this paper we use a snow cover model, driven by measured meteorological data, to set the initial and boundary conditions for wet-snow avalanche calculations. The snow cover model provides estimates of snow height, density, temperature and liquid water content. This information is used to prescribe fracture heights and erosion heights for an avalanche dynamics model. We compare simulated runout distances with observed avalanche deposition fields using a contingency table analysis. Our analysis of the simulations reveals a large variability in predicted runout for tracks with flat terraces and gradual slope transitions to the runout zone. Reliable estimates of avalanche mass (height and density) in the release and erosion zones are identified to be more important than an exact specification of temperature and water content. For wet-snow avalanches, this implies that the layers where meltwater accumulates in the release zone must be identified accurately as this defines the height of the fracture slab and therefore the release mass. Advanced thermomechanical models appear to be better suited to simulate wet-snow avalanche inundation areas than existing guideline procedures if and only if accurate snow cover information is available.

  19. Active microwave measurement of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Cihlar, J.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of radar backscatter from bare soil at 4.7, 5.9, and 7.1 GHz for incident angles of 0-70 deg have been analyzed to determine sensitivity to soil moisture. Because the effective depth of penetration of the radar signal is only about one skin depth, the observed signals were correlated with the moisture in a skin depth as characterized by the attenuation coefficient (reciprocal of skin depth). Since the attenuation coefficient is a monotonically increasing function of moisture density, it may also be used as a measure of moisture content over the distance involved, which varies with frequency and moisture content. The measurements show an approximately linear increase in scattering with attenuation coefficient of the soil at angles within 10 deg of vertical and all frequencies. At 4.7 GHz this increase continues relatively large out to 70 deg incidence, but by 7.1 GHz the sensitivity is much less even at 20 deg and practically gone at 50 deg.

  20. Transmissivity and water quality of water-producing zones in the intermediate aquifer system, Sarasota County, Florida

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Bowman, Geronia

    1998-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system is an important water source in Sarasota County, Florida, because the quality of water in it is usually better than that in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The intermediate aquifer system consists of a group of up to three water-producing zones separated by less-permeable units that restrict the vertical movement of ground water between zones. The diverse lithology, that makes up the intermediate aquifer system, reflects the variety of depositional environments that occurred during the late Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Slight changes in the depositional environment resulted in aquifer heterogeneity, creating both localized connection between water-producing zones and abrupt culmination of water-producing zones that are not well documented. Aquifer heterogeneity results in vertical and areal variability in hydraulic and water-quality properties. The uppermost water-producing zone is designated producing zone 1 but is not extensively used because of its limited production capability and limited areal extent. The second water-producing zone is designated producing zone 2, and most of the domestic- and irrigation-supply wells in the area are open to this zone. Additionally, producing zone 2 is utilized for public supply in southern coastal areas of Sarasota County. Producing zone 3 is the lowermost and most productive water-producing zone in the intermediate aquifer system. Public-supply well fields serving the cities of Sarasota and Venice, as well as the Plantation and Mabry Carlton Reserve well fields, utilize producing zone 3. Heads within the intermediate aquifer system generally increase with aquifer depth. However, localized head-gradient reversals occur in the study area, coinciding with sites of intense ground-water withdrawals. Heads in producing zones 1, 2, and 3 range from 1 to 23, 0.2 to 34, and 7 to 42 feet above sea level, respectively. Generally, an upward head gradient exists between producing zones 3 and 2

  1. Fluoride content of still bottled water in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Saranathan, S; Morgan, M V; Dashper, S G

    2006-09-01

    Recently there has been a considerable increase in the consumption of bottled water in Australia. Overseas studies have found the fluoride levels in many bottled waters are well below levels considered optimal for preventing dental caries. This raises the concern that if bottled water is regularly consumed an effective means of preventing dental caries is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine the fluoride concentration in 10 popular brands of still bottled water currently sold in Australia. The fluoride content of water samples were determined using an ion analyser and compared to a fluoride standard. The fluoride concentration of all bottled waters was less than 0.08 ppm. Only three of the 10 brands indicated the fluoride content on their labels. Melbourne reticulated water was found to be fluoridated at 1.02 ppm. All bottled waters tested contained negligible fluoride which justifies the concern that regular consumption of bottled water may reduce the benefits gained from water fluoridation. It is recommended that all bottled water companies should consider stating their fluoride content on their labels. This will inform consumers and dental care providers of the levels of fluoride in bottled water and allow an informed decision regarding consumption of fluoridated versus non-fluoridated drinking water.

  2. Ice Particle Impact on Cloud Water Content Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle

    2004-01-01

    Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.

  3. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Water Show safety zone on Lake Michigan near Lincoln Park. This action is necessary to accurately reflect the enforcement dates and times for this safety zone due to changes made in this year's air show...

  4. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic...

  5. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic...

  6. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic...

  7. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic...

  8. Vegetation Water Content Mapping for Agricultural Regions in SMAPVEX16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. A.; Cosh, M. H.; McKee, L.; Berg, A. A.; McNairn, H.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation water content impacts the ability of L-band radiometers to measure surface soil moisture. Therefore it is necessary to quantify the amount of water held in surface vegetation for an accurate soil moisture remote sensing retrieval. A methodology is presented for generating agricultural vegetation water content maps using Landsat 8 scenes for agricultural fields of Iowa and Manitoba for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiments in 2016 (SMAPVEX16). Manitoba has a variety of row crops across the region, and the study period encompasses the time frame from emergence to reproduction, as well as a forested region. The Iowa study site is dominated by corn and soybeans, presenting an easier challenge. Ground collection of vegetation biomass and water content were also collected to provide a ground truth data source. Errors for the resulting vegetation water content maps ranged depending upon crop type, but generally were less than 15% of the total plant water content per crop type. Interpolation is done between Landsat overpasses to produce daily vegetation water content maps for the summer of 2016 at a 30 meter resolution.

  9. High Ice Water Content: DC-8 Aeronautics Campaign

    2015-09-10

    During the month of August, NASA’s DC-8 completed flights in Florida aimed at collecting data on high-altitude crystals for the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) mission. High ice water content can be found within large convective storms and can result in aircraft engines losing power or not functioning properly. Researchers will use the data to develop technology that can be used onboard commercial aircraft to avoid high ice water content conditions and provide a safer flight for passengers. This video gives an inside look at the HIWC mission, including research done in and around Hurricane Danny, as well as a look at the instruments being used onboard the research aircraft. Researchers and pilots onboard worked with satellite information from the ground to find regions of high ice water content within the convective systems.

  10. Porous media matric potential and water content measurements during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, Joey H.; Jones, Scott B.; Steinberg, Susan L.; Levine, Howard G.; Or, Dani

    2005-01-01

    Control of water and air in the root zone of plants remains a challenge in the microgravity environment of space. Due to limited flight opportunities, research aimed at resolving microgravity porous media fluid dynamics must often be conducted on Earth. The NASA KC-135 reduced gravity flight program offers an opportunity for Earth-based researchers to study physical processes in a variable gravity environment. The objectives of this study were to obtain measurements of water content and matric potential during the parabolic profile flown by the KC-135 aircraft. The flight profile provided 20-25 s of microgravity at the top of the parabola, while pulling 1.8 g at the bottom. The soil moisture sensors (Temperature and Moisture Acquisition System: Orbital Technologies, Madison, WI) used a heat-pulse method to indirectly estimate water content from heat dissipation. Tensiometers were constructed using a stainless steel porous cup with a pressure transducer and were used to measure the matric potential of the medium. The two types of sensors were placed at different depths in a substrate compartment filled with 1-2 mm Turface (calcined clay). The ability of the heat-pulse sensors to monitor overall changes in water content in the substrate compartment decreased with water content. Differences in measured water content data recorded at 0, 1, and 1.8 g were not significant. Tensiometer readings tracked pressure differences due to the hydrostatic force changes with variable gravity. The readings may have been affected by changes in cabin air pressure that occurred during each parabola. Tensiometer porous membrane conductivity (function of pore size) and fluid volume both influence response time. Porous media sample height and water content influence time-to-equilibrium, where shorter samples and higher water content achieve faster equilibrium. Further testing is needed to develop these sensors for space flight applications.

  11. Reaction between hydrous wadsleyite and iron: Implication for water distribution in Earth's transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, F.; Li, J.; Liu, J.; Dong, J.

    2017-12-01

    The mantle transition zone (TZ) is considered as a potential water reservoir due to large capacities of wadsleyite and ringwoodite to store water in the structures. Whether it is a hydrous layer or an empty reservoir, however, is still under debate. Because the TZ may contain metallic iron1, 2 and water is an oxidizing agent at > 5 GPa, the stability of coexisting iron and TZ hydrous phases needs to be examined. In this study, we conducted multi-anvil experiments on iron with synthetic hydrous wadsleyite or forsterite and water under TZ pressure-temperature conditions. Similar rapid reactions were observed for both types of starting materials, producing ferropericlase, iron-bearing wadsleyite or ringwoodite, and iron hydride. The results imply that a hydrous TZ is incompatible with a reduced state, and that water distribution of TZ is confined to subducting slabs and slab-mantle boundaries, where water or hydrous phases in slab must oxidize the adjacent mantle before they can hydrate the silicates. In contrast, the bulk transition zone may be mostly dry. The iron hydride produced from this slab-mantle interaction may sink to greater depths due to their low melting temperature3, thus providing a pathway for hydrogen to enter the lower mantle and core. References 1. O'Neill HSC, McCammon C, Canil D, Rubie D, Ross C, Seifert F. Mossbauer spectroscopy of mantle transition zone phases and determination of minimum Fe3+ content. American Mineralogist 1993, 78(3-4): 456-460. 2. Rohrbach A, Ballhaus C, Golla-Schindler U, Ulmer P, Kamenetsky VS, Kuzmin DV. Metal saturation in the upper mantle. Nature 2007, 449(7161): 456-458. 3. Sakamaki K, Takahashi E, Nakajima Y, Nishihara Y, Funakoshi K, Suzuki T, et al. Melting phase relation of FeH x up to 20GPa: Implication for the temperature of the Earth's core. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 2009, 174(1): 192-201.

  12. Studies on urban drinking water quality in a tropical zone.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Pathak, S P; Gopal, K; Murthy, R C

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities associated with industrialization, agriculture and urbanization have led to the deterioration in water quality due to various contaminants. To assess the status of urban drinking water quality, samples were collected from the piped supplies as well as groundwater sources from different localities of residential, commercial and industrial areas of Lucknow City in a tropical zone of India during pre-monsoon for estimation of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals. Bacterial contamination was found to be more in the samples from commercial areas than residential and industrial areas. OCPs like α,γ-hexachlorocyclohexane and 1,1 p,p-DDE {dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethene)} were found to be present in most of the samples from study area. The total organochlorine pesticide levels were found to be within the European Union limit (0.5 μg/L) in most of the samples. Most of the heavy metals estimated in the samples were also found to be within the permissible limits as prescribed by World Health Organization for drinking water. Thus, these observations show that contamination of drinking water in urban areas may be mainly due to municipal, industrial and agricultural activities along with improper disposal of solid waste. This is an alarm to safety of public health and aquatic environment in tropics.

  13. Continuous monitoring of water flow and solute transport using vadose zone monitoring technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, O.

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater contamination is usually attributed to pollution events that initiate on land surface. These may be related to various sources such as industrial, urban or agricultural, and may appear as point or non point sources, through a single accidental event or a continuous pollution process. In all cases, groundwater pollution is a consequence of pollutant transport processes that take place in the vadose zone above the water table. Attempts to control pollution events and prevent groundwater contamination usually involve groundwater monitoring programs. This, however, can not provide any protection against contamination since pollution identification in groundwater is clear evidence that the groundwater is already polluted and contaminants have already traversed the entire vadose zone. Accordingly, an efficient monitoring program that aims at providing information that may prevent groundwater pollution has to include vadose-zone monitoring systems. Such system should provide real-time information on the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water and serve as an early warning system capable of detecting pollution events in their early stages before arrival of contaminants to groundwater. Recently, a vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) was developed to allow continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of percolating water in the deep vadose zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes for continuous tracking of water content profiles, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) for frequent sampling of the deep vadose pore water at multiple depths. The monitoring probes and sampling ports are installed through uncased slanted boreholes using a flexible sleeve that allows attachment of the monitoring devices to the borehole walls while achieving good contact between the sensors and the undisturbed sediment column. The system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and

  14. Prediction of protein secondary structure content for the twilight zone sequences.

    PubMed

    Homaeian, Leila; Kurgan, Lukasz A; Ruan, Jishou; Cios, Krzysztof J; Chen, Ke

    2007-11-15

    Secondary protein structure carries information about local structural arrangements, which include three major conformations: alpha-helices, beta-strands, and coils. Significant majority of successful methods for prediction of the secondary structure is based on multiple sequence alignment. However, multiple alignment fails to provide accurate results when a sequence comes from the twilight zone, that is, it is characterized by low (<30%) homology. To this end, we propose a novel method for prediction of secondary structure content through comprehensive sequence representation, called PSSC-core. The method uses a multiple linear regression model and introduces a comprehensive feature-based sequence representation to predict amount of helices and strands for sequences from the twilight zone. The PSSC-core method was tested and compared with two other state-of-the-art prediction methods on a set of 2187 twilight zone sequences. The results indicate that our method provides better predictions for both helix and strand content. The PSSC-core is shown to provide statistically significantly better results when compared with the competing methods, reducing the prediction error by 5-7% for helix and 7-9% for strand content predictions. The proposed feature-based sequence representation uses a comprehensive set of physicochemical properties that are custom-designed for each of the helix and strand content predictions. It includes composition and composition moment vectors, frequency of tetra-peptides associated with helical and strand conformations, various property-based groups like exchange groups, chemical groups of the side chains and hydrophobic group, auto-correlations based on hydrophobicity, side-chain masses, hydropathy, and conformational patterns for beta-sheets. The PSSC-core method provides an alternative for predicting the secondary structure content that can be used to validate and constrain results of other structure prediction methods. At the same time, it

  15. Water and Slabs in the Transition Zone - Hydrous Ringwoodite in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, D. G.; Brenker, F. E.; Nestola, F.; McNeill, J.; Nasdala, L.; Hutchison, M.; Matveev, S.; Mather, K.; Vincze, L.; Schmitz, S.; Vekemens, B.

    2014-12-01

    Theory and experiments have shown that the Earth's Transition Zone (TZ) could be a major repository for water, due to the ability of the higher-pressure polymorphs of olivine - wadsleyite and ringwoodite - to host up to ~2.5wt. % H2O. Despite experimental demonstration of the water-bearing capacity of these phases, geophysical probes such as electrical conductivity have provided conflicting results, and the issue of whether the TZ contains abundant water remains highly controversial. We report X-ray diffraction, Raman and infra-red spectroscopic evidence for the first terrestrial occurrence of any higher pressure polymorph of olivine: ringwoodite, included in a diamond from Juína, Brazil. The ringwoodite occurs with a Ca-walstromite phase that we interpret to be retrogressed Ca-silicate perovskite. The most likely interpretation of this two-phase assemblage is that it represents a partially retrogressed portion of a somewhat Fe-rich peridotitic mantle, in which hydrous ringwoodite, and former CaSiO3- perovskite co-existed above 15GPa. The ringwoodite has a Mg# of ~ 75, suggesting that it may be mantle hybrised with a more fertile component such as subducted oceanic crust. The water-rich nature of this inclusion (~1.5 wt%), along with the preservation of ringwoodite, is the first direct evidence that, at least locally, the TZ is hydrous, to about 1 wt%. As well as being in agreement with recent magnetotelluric estimates of the TZ water content, this amount of water helps to reconcile measured TZ seismic velocities with those predicted from lab experiments. The finding also indicates that some kimberlites must have their primary sources in this deep mantle region. The high water content of the ringwoodite suggests that it was not close to the mantle geotherm when trapped in the diamond. This may be an indication that the the assemblage was part of a water-rich subducted slab out of thermal equilibrium, within the transition zone. The water-rich nature of the

  16. The mineral content of tap water in United States households

    The composition of tap water contributes to dietary intake of minerals. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper...

  17. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor’s accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm3 cm−3) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the organic matter level and water content. Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R2 = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (<0.05 cm3 cm−3), while it overestimated the water content at the higher water content range (>0.05 cm3 cm−3). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm3 cm−3). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and

  18. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K

    2016-08-05

    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor's accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm³ cm(-3)) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the organic matter level and water content. Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R² = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (<0.05 cm³ cm(-3)), while it overestimated the water content at the higher water content range (>0.05 cm³ cm(-3)). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm³ cm(-3)). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and

  19. The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites

    Friedman, I.

    1958-01-01

    The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

  20. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  1. Oceanographic controls over sediment water content: northern Bermuda rise

    SciT

    Baker, M.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Cores taken from the plateaus of Northern Bermuda Rise show that the region is underlain at depths of 1-5 m by a 1-3 m thick layer of hemipelagic lutites with anomalously high water contents. The lack of visually apparent textural and lithological changes in this extremely fine grained sediment rule out these common causes for variation in water content. The water content averages 175% within this layer and 100% immediately above and below it. This is an increase of 9.5% in porosity. The high water content sediment is confined to a period between 12 and 16 ka. Current work onmore » the mineralogy of the sediments which comprise this layer suggest two oceanographic factors that may have influenced its formation. A meltwater spike associated with deglaciation may have altered the ecological conditions above the thermocline sufficiently to promote the increased production of radiolaria, resulting in the deposition of silica enriched sediment on the sea floor. A combination of textural and perhaps chemical factors caused by the silica enrichment may have influenced the increase in water content. Intensified bottom currents at this time also may have eroded smectite rich sediments from exposures of Neogene age and deposited them on the plateaus. An increase in smectite would increase the water content due to the extremely fine grain size and the chemistry of the clay. Thus, the lateral continuity and isochroniety of this layer, combined with its mineralogical characteristics suggests that oceanographic changes can influence water content and perhaps other geotechnical properties on a regional scale.« less

  2. Optimization of contour ridge water harvesting systems for arid zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berliner, Pedro; Arazi, Adit

    2017-04-01

    Runoff is generated along slopes in semi-arid regions during rainfall events and flows into the lower lying areas, usually ephemeral streams. Depending on the slope and volume of water involved, the flow can become turbulent and cause the detachments of soil particles (erosion). The purpose of the system under investigation is to capture the water after a relatively short flow distance and allow it to be absorbed by the soil. This action accomplishes two objectives: erosion is averted and the stored water can be used for plant production. Depending on the ratio of contributing to receiving areas and storm characteristics the stored water can be significantly higher than the precipitation. The objective of the present project was to develop a simple model that describes the above biomass production in such a system and allows to determine the optimum distribution of structures along a given slope in order to meet one criteria (e.g. minimize variance, maximize production, maximize lowest production, etc.) or a suite of them. The basic assumption is that tree above ground biomass production is linearly related to transpired water, the latter driven by an external force (potential evaporation) and modulated by water availability in the soil. PET is computed using the standard Penman-Monteith formulation for evaporation from open water bodies, if the latter is not available. Four water fluxes are computed: Evaporation, Transpiration, Runoff and Drainage, the first two not interacting directly. All of the above mentioned fluxes and rates are daily lumped values and water content in the profile is updated daily, assuming that rainfall events happen after the computation of fluxes. Daily water inputs are estimated from rainfall data and computed runoff. A dynamic runoff coefficient (=cumulative generated runoff generated/cumulative precipitation) was derived from measurements carried out in the area and used in order to estimate runoff volumes from total recorded

  3. The deuterium content of water in some volcanic glasses

    Friedman, I.; Smith, R.L.

    1958-01-01

    The deuterium-hydrogen composition (relative to Lake Michigan water = 0.0) of water extractsd from coexisting perlite and obsidian from eleven different localities was determined. The water content of the obsidians is generally from 0.09 to 0.29 per cent by weight, though two samples from near Olancha, California, contain about 0.92 per cent. The relative deuterium concentration is from -4.6 to -12.3 per cent. The coexisting perlite contains from 2.0 to 3.8 per cent of water with a relative deuterium concentration of -3.1 to -16.6 per cent. The deuterium concentration in the perlites is not related to that in the enclosed obsidian. The deuterium concentration in the perlite water is related to the deuterium concentration of the modern meteoric water and the perlite water contains approximately 4 per cent less deuterium than does the groundwater of the area in which the perlites occur. The above relations hold true for perlites from northern New Mexico, east slope of the Sierra Nevada. California Coast Range, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, and New Zealand. As the water in the obsidian is unrelated to meteoric water, but the enclosing perlite water is related, we believe that this is evidence for the secondary hydration of obsidian to form high water content perlitic glass. ?? 1958.

  4. Estimating soil water content from ground penetrating radar coarse root reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Cui, X.; Chen, J.; Li, W.; Cao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is an indispensable variable for understanding the organization of natural ecosystems and biodiversity. Especially in semiarid and arid regions, soil moisture is the plants primary source of water and largely determine their strategies for growth and survival, such as root depth, distribution and competition between them. Ground penetrating radar (GPR), a kind of noninvasive geophysical technique, has been regarded as an accurate tool for measuring soil water content at intermediate scale in past decades. For soil water content estimation with surface GPR, fixed antenna offset reflection method has been considered to have potential to obtain average soil water content between land surface and reflectors, and provide high resolution and few measurement time. In this study, 900MHz surface GPR antenna was used to estimate SWC with fixed offset reflection method; plant coarse roots (with diameters greater than 5 mm) were regarded as reflectors; a kind of advanced GPR data interpretation method, HADA (hyperbola automatic detection algorithm), was introduced to automatically obtain average velocity by recognizing coarse root hyperbolic reflection signals on GPR radargrams during estimating SWC. In addition, a formula was deduced to determine interval average SWC between two roots at different depths as well. We examined the performance of proposed method on a dataset simulated under different scenarios. Results showed that HADA could provide a reasonable average velocity to estimate SWC without knowledge of root depth and interval average SWC also be determined. When the proposed method was applied to estimation of SWC on a real-field measurement dataset, a very small soil water content vertical variation gradient about 0.006 with depth was captured as well. Therefore, the proposed method could be used to estimate average soil water content from ground penetrating radar coarse root reflections and obtain interval average SWC between two roots at

  5. Body water content of extremely preterm infants at birth

    PubMed Central

    Hartnoll, G.; Betremieux, P.; Modi, N.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Preterm birth is often associated with impaired growth. Small for gestational age status confers additional risk.
AIM—To determine the body water content of appropriately grown (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in order to provide a baseline for longitudinal studies of growth after preterm birth.
METHODS—All infants born at the Hammersmith and Queen Charlotte's Hospitals between 25 and 30 weeks gestational age were eligible for entry into the study. Informed parental consent was obtained as soon after delivery as possible, after which the extracellular fluid content was determined by bromide dilution and total body water by H218O dilution.
RESULTS—Forty two preterm infants were studied. SGA infants had a significantly higher body water content than AGA infants (906 (833-954) and 844 (637-958) ml/kg respectively; median (range); p = 0.019). There were no differences in extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes, nor in the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid. Estimates of relative adiposity suggest a body fat content of about 7% in AGA infants, assuming negligible fat content in SGA infants and lean body tissue hydration to be equivalent in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS—Novel values for the body water composition of the SGA preterm infant at 25-30 weeks gestation are presented. The data do not support the view that SGA infants have extracellular dehydration, nor is their regulation of body water impaired.

 PMID:10873174

  6. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  7. Activated carbon oxygen content influence on water and surfactant adsorption.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Phillip; Wu, Sophie Hua; Badalyan, Alexander

    2002-02-15

    This research investigates the adsorption properties of three activated carbons (AC) derived from coconut, coal, and wood origin. Each carbon demonstrates different levels of resistance to 2 M NaOH treatment. The coconut AC offers the greatest and wood AC the least resistance. The influence of base treatment is mapped in terms of its effects on specific surface area, micropore volume, water adsorption, and dodecanoic acid adsorption from both water and 2 M NaOH solution. A linear relationship exists between the number of water molecules adsorbed at the B-point of the water adsorption isotherm and the oxygen content determined from elemental analysis. Surfactant adsorption isotherms from water and 2 M NaOH indicate that the AC oxygen content effects a greater dependence on affinity for surfactant than specific surface area and micropore volume. We show a linear relationship between the plateau amount of surfactant adsorbed and the AC oxygen content in both water and NaOH phases. The higher the AC oxygen content, the lower the amount of surfactant adsorbed. In contrast, no obvious relationship could be drawn between the surfactant amount adsorbed and the surface area.

  8. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  9. Water content dependence of trapped air in two soils

    Stonestrom, David A.; Rubin, Jacob

    1989-01-01

    An improved air pycnometer method was used to examine the water content dependence of trapped-air volumes in two repacked, nonswelling soils. Trapped-air volumes were determined at a series of hydrostatic equilibrium stages which were attained during water pressure-controlled wetting and drying cycles over a range of 0 to −10 kPa for a sand and 0 to −20 kPa for a loam. Small pressure perturbations, between 0.2 and 0.6 kPa, were used in the air pycnometer method. Volumes of trapped air obtained at each hydrostatic equilibrium stage were independent of perturbation level and remained relatively constant over the time required to make repeated determinations. In contrast with most of the results obtained in previous studies, which often showed irregular relations, in this study the volume fraction of trapped air was found to be a regular, monotonically increasing (though possibly hysteretic) function of water content. For the soils studied, the function definitely exceeded zero only at water contents greater than 70% of saturation. However, during the initial drying from complete water saturation, the volume fraction of trapped air was virtually zero. Air trapping influenced the water retention curves significantly only at water contents higher than about 60% of saturation. Except at zero water pressure, however, not all of the differences between the initial and the other drying retention curves were accounted for by observed differences in trapped-air volumes. Air trapping was not required for the onset of hysteresis in the water retention relation for the cases studied, i.e., when drying-to-wetting reversals were imposed at about 27% and 40% of saturation for the sand and loam soils, respectively.

  10. Dry Juan de Fuca slab revealed by quantification of water entering Cascadia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nedimović, M. R.; Carton, H.

    2017-11-01

    Water is carried by subducting slabs as a pore fluid and in structurally bound minerals, yet no comprehensive quantification of water content and how it is stored and distributed at depth within incoming plates exists for any segment of the global subduction system. Here we use seismic data to quantify the amount of pore and structurally bound water in the Juan de Fuca plate entering the Cascadia subduction zone. Specifically, we analyse these water reservoirs in the sediments, crust and lithospheric mantle, and their variations along the central Cascadia margin. We find that the Juan de Fuca lower crust and mantle are drier than at any other subducting plate, with most of the water stored in the sediments and upper crust. Variable but limited bend faulting along the margin limits slab access to water, and a warm thermal structure resulting from a thick sediment cover and young plate age prevents significant serpentinization of the mantle. The dryness of the lower crust and mantle indicates that fluids that facilitate episodic tremor and slip must be sourced from the subducted upper crust, and that decompression rather than hydrous melting must dominate arc magmatism in central Cascadia. Additionally, dry subducted lower crust and mantle can explain the low levels of intermediate-depth seismicity in the Juan de Fuca slab.

  11. Water movement through a thick unsaturated zone underlying an intermittent stream in the western Mojave Desert, southern California, USA

    Izbicki, J.A.; Radyk, J.; Michel, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that small amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of intermittent streamflow in washes in the upper Mojave River basin, in the western Mojave Desert, near Victorville, California. These washes flow only a few days each year after large storms. To reach the water table, water must pass through an unsaturated zone that is more than 130 m thick. Results of this study, done in 1994-1998, showy that infiltration to depths below the root zone did not occur at control sites away from the wash. At these sites, volumetric water contents were as low as 0.01 and water potentials (measured as the combination of solute and matric potentials using a water activity meter) were as negative as -14,000 kPa. Water-vapor movement was controlled by highly negative solute potentials associated with the accumulation of soluble salts in the unsaturated zone. Highly negative matric potentials above and below the zone of maximum solute accumulation result from movement of water vapor toward the highly negative solute potentials at that depth. The ??18O and ??D (delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium) isotopic composition of water in coarse-grained deposits plots along a Rayleigh distillation line consistent with removal of water in coarse-grained layers by vapor transport. Beneath Oro Grande Wash, water moved to depths below the root zone and, presumably, to the water table about 130 m below land surface. Underneath Oro Grande Wash, volumetric water contents were as high as 0.27 and water potentials (measured as matric potential using tensiometers) were between -1.8 and -50 kPa. On the basis of tritium data, water requires at least 180-260 years to infiltrate to the water table. Clay layers impede the downward movement of water. Seasonal changes in water vapor composition underneath the wash are consistent with the rapid infiltration of a small quantity of water to great depths and subsequent equilibration of vapor with water in the surrounding material. It may be

  12. Data assimilation with soil water content sensors and pedotransfer functions in soil water flow modeling

    Soil water flow models are based on a set of simplified assumptions about the mechanisms, processes, and parameters of water retention and flow. That causes errors in soil water flow model predictions. Soil water content monitoring data can be used to reduce the errors in models. Data assimilation (...

  13. Water content of latent fingerprints - Dispelling the myth.

    PubMed

    Kent, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Changing procedures in the handling of rare and precious documents in museums and elsewhere, based on assumptions about constituents of latent fingerprints, have led the author to an examination of available data. These changes appear to have been triggered by one paper using general biological data regarding eccrine sweat production to infer that deposited fingerprints are mostly water. Searching the fingerprint literature has revealed a number of reference works similarly quoting figures for average water content of deposited fingerprints of 98% or more. Whilst accurate estimation is difficult there is no evidence that the residue on fingers could be anything like 98% water, even if there were no contamination from sebaceous glands. Consideration of published analytical data of real fingerprints, and several theoretical considerations regarding evaporation and replenishment rates, indicates a probable initial average water content of a fingerprint, soon after deposition, of 20% or less. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Water transport to circumprimary habitable zones from icy planetesimal disks in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, D.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Maindl, T. I.; Bazsó, Á.

    2017-03-01

    So far, more than 130 extrasolar planets have been found in multiple stellar systems. Dynamical simulations show that the outcome of the planetary formation process can lead to different planetary architectures (i.e. location, size, mass, and water content) when the star system is single or double. In the late phase of planetary formation, when embryo-sized objects dominate the inner region of the system, asteroids are also present and can provide additional material for objects inside the habitable zone (HZ). In this study, we make a comparison of several binary star systems and aim to show how efficient they are at moving icy asteroids from beyond the snow line into orbits crossing the HZ. We also analyze the influence of secular and mean motion resonances on the water transport towards the HZ. Our study shows that small bodies also participate in bearing a non-negligible amount of water to the HZ. The proximity of a companion moving on an eccentric orbit increases the flux of asteroids to the HZ, which could result in a more efficient water transport on a short timescale, causing a heavy bombardment. In contrast to asteroids moving under the gravitational perturbations of one G-type star and a gas giant, we show that the presence of a companion star not only favors a faster depletion of our disk of planetesimals, but can also bring 4-5 times more water into the whole HZ. However, due to the secular resonance located either inside the HZ or inside the asteroid belt, impacts between icy planetesimals from the disk and big objects in the HZ can occur at high impact speed. Therefore, real collision modeling using a GPU 3D-SPH code show that in reality, the water content of the projectile is greatly reduced and therefore, also the water transported to planets or embryos initially inside the HZ.

  15. MONITORING OF PORE WATER PRESSURE AND WATER CONTENT AROUND A HORIZONTAL DRIFT THROUGH EXCAVATION - MEASUREMENT AT THE 140m GALLERY IN THE HORONOBE URL -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Kunimaru, Takanori; Kishi, Atsuyasu; Komatsu, Mitsuru

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) project in Horonobe, Hokkaido, as a part of the research and development program on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Pore water pressure and water content around a horizontal drift in the URL have been monitored for over 18 months since before the drift excavation was started. During the drift excavation, both pore water pressure and water content were decreasing. Pore water pressure has been still positive though it continued to decrease with its gradient gradually smaller after excavation, while water content turned to increase about 6 months after the completion of the excavation. It turned to fall again about 5 months later. An unsaturated zone containing gases which were dissolved in groundwater may have been formed around the horizontal drift.

  16. Water in the critical zone: soil, water and life from profile to planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth is unique in the combination of abundant liquid water, plate tectonics and life, providing the broad context within which the critical zone exists, as the surface skin of the land. Global differences in the availability of water provide a major control on the balance of processes operating in the soil, allowing the development of environments as diverse as those dominated by organic soils, by salty deserts or by deeply weathered lateritic profiles. Within the critical zone, despite the importance of water, the complexity of its relationships with the soil material continue to provide many fundamental barriers to our improved understanding, at the scales of pore, hillslope and landscape. Water is also a vital resource for the survival of increasing human populations. Intensive agriculture first developed in semi-arid areas where the availability of solar energy could be combined with irrigation water from more humid areas, minimising the problems of weed control with primitive tillage techniques. Today the challenge to feed the world requires improved, and perhaps novel, ways to optimise the combination of solar energy and water at a sustainable economic and environmental cost.

  17. Water in the critical zone: soil, water and life from profile to planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Mike

    2015-04-01

    Water is essential to the critical zone between bedrock and the atmosphere, and without water the soil is dead. Water provides the basis for the abundant life within the soil and, interacting with micro-organisms, drives the key processes in the critical zone. This review looks at the balances that control the flow of water through the soil, and how water movement is one of the major controls on the fluxes and transformations that control the formation, evolution and loss of material that controls the 'life' and 'health' of the soil. At regional scales, climate, acting largely through the soil hydrology, plays a major part in determining the type of soils developed - from hyper arid soils dominated by aeolian inputs, through arid and semi-arid soils with largely vertical water exchanges with the atmosphere, to temperate soils with substantial lateral drainage, and humid soils dominated by organic peats. Soil water balance controls the partition of precipitation between evaporative loss, lateral subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, and, in turn, has a major influence on the potential for plant growth and on the lateral connectivity between soils on a hillslope. Sediment and solute balances distinguish soils of accumulation from soils that tend towards a stable chemical depletion ratio. Reflecting the availability of water and the soil material, carbon balance plays a major role in soil horizonation and distinguishes soils dominated by mineral or organic components. At finer catena and catchment scales, lateral connectivity, or its absence, determines how soils evolve through the transfer of water and sediment downslope, creating more or less integrated landscapes in a balance between geomorphological and pedological processes. Within single soil profiles, the movement of water controls the processes of weathering and soil horizonation by ion diffusion, advective leaching and bioturbation, creating horizonation that, in turn, modifies the hydrological responses

  18. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  19. Deformation of the total ozone content field in the tropical zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyev, Victor I.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the ozone investigation results obtained in the tropical zone. Measurements of the total ozone content (TOC) were carried out by the ozonometer M-124. The ozonometer was automated to investigate the ozone intradiurnal variations and to increase precision of the TOC measurements. Obtained results allowed us to follow the effect of tropical cyclones (TC) on the TOC field. Several days before the TC formation the TOC increase is observed in daily mean course compared with the background one. Three types of trend can be singled out in the TOC intradiurnal course: zero, parabolic, quasi-linear. Maximum velocities of a trend are observed some days before the TC formation. Analogous harmonic constituents are mainly presented as spectrum of daily means of ozone, mean and absolute velocities of trend and dispersion as well as spectra of meteorological, hydrometeorological and actinometric values. Revealed is a number of day-to-day ozone variations concerned with large-scale circulations; moisture content in the atmosphere. Obtained are the data about short-period ozone waves (period less than a day). Thin-film silver sensors were used to measure the vertical ozone distribution (VOD). Atmospheric aerosol and VOD measurements were carried out simultaneously, they gave data of the VOD layered structure, where the VOD local minima coincided with the position of aerosol layers' maxima.

  20. The virtual water content of major grain crops and virtual water flows between regions in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi-Kun; Wu, Pu-Te; Wang, Yu-Bao; Zhao, Xi-Ning

    2013-04-01

    The disproportionate distribution of arable land and water resources has become a bottleneck for guaranteeing food security in China. Virtual water and virtual water trade theory have provided a potential solution to improve water resources management in agriculture and alleviate water crises in water-scarce regions. The present study evaluates the green and blue virtual water content of wheat, maize and rice at the regional scale in China. It then assesses the water-saving benefits of virtual water flows related to the transfer of the three crops between regions. The national average virtual water content of wheat, maize and rice were 1071 m(3) per ton (50.98% green water, 49.02% blue water ), 830 m(3) per ton (76.27% green water, 23.73% blue water) and 1294 m(3) per ton (61.90% green water, 38.10% blue water), respectively. With the regional transfer of wheat, maize and rice, virtual water flows reached 30.08 Gm(3) (59.91% green water, 40.09% blue water). Meanwhile, China saved 11.47 Gm(3) green water, while it consumed 7.84 Gm(3) more blue water than with a no-grain transfer scenario in 2009. In order to guarantee food security in China, the government should improve water productivity (reduce virtual water content of crops) during the grain production process. Meanwhile, under the preconditions of economic feasibility and land-water resources availability, China should guarantee the grain-sown area in southern regions for taking full advantage of green water resources and to alleviate the pressure on water resources. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East... the Regional Water Rescue Exercise. Basis and Purpose The Pierce County, Washington, Department of... to read as follows: Sec. 165.T13-0251 Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management...

  2. Field testing model predictions of foam coverage and bubble content in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T.; Ma, G.; Holman, R. A.; Chickadel, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    Field-scale modeling of surfzone bubbles and foam coverage is challenging in terms of the computational intensity of multi-phase bubble models based on Navier-Stokes/VOF formulation. In this study, we developed the NHWAVE-bubble package, which includes a 3D non-hydrostatic wave model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012), a multi-phase bubble model and a foam model. NHWAVE uses a surface and bottom following sigma coordinate system, making it more applicable to 3D modeling of nearshore waves and circulation in a large-scale field domain. It has been extended to include a multiphase description of polydisperse bubble populations following the approach applied in a 3D VOF model by Ma et al. (2012). A model of a foam layer on the water surface is specified in the model package using a shallow water formulation based on a balance of drag forces due to wind and water column motion. Foam mass conservation includes source and sink terms representing outgassing of the water column, direct foam generation due to surface agitation, and erosion due to bubble bursting. The model is applied in a field scale domain at FRF, Duck, NC where optical data in either visible band (ARGUS) or infrared band were collected during 2010 Surf Zone Optics experiments. The decay of image brightness or intensity following the passage of wave crests is presumably tied to both decay of bubble populations and foam coverage after passage of a broken wave crest. Infrared imagery is likely to provide more detailed information which could separate active breaking from passive foam decay on the surface. Model results will be compared with the measurements with an attention to distinguishing between active generation and passive decay of the foam signature on the water surface.

  3. Mapping soil water content on golf course greens with GPR

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be an effective and efficient method for high-resolution mapping of volumetric water content in the sand layer directly beneath the ground surface at a golf course green. This information could potentially be very useful to golf course superintendents for determi...

  4. SAPWOOD WATER CONTENT IS INSENSITIVE TO CHANGES IN SOIL MOISTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in sapwood water content of large Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees were measured throughout the year at two sites: a low elevation (600-m) site where precipitation occurs primarily as rain, and a high elevation (1200-m) site that receives significant snowfall. B...

  5. Monitoring water content dynamics of biological soil crusts

    Young, Michael H.; Fenstermaker, Lynn F.; Belnap, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (hereafter, “biocrusts”) dominate soil surfaces in nearly all dryland environments. To better understand the influence of water content on carbon (C) exchange, we assessed the ability of dual-probe heat-pulse (DPHP) sensors, installed vertically and angled, to measure changes in near-surface water content. Four DPHP sensors were installed in each of two research plots (eight sensors total) that differed by temperature treatment (control and heated). Responses were compared to horizontally installed water content measurements made with three frequency-domain reflectometry (FDR) sensors in each plot at 5-cm depth. The study was conducted near Moab, Utah, from April through September 2009. Results showed significant differences between sensor technologies: peak water content differences from the DPHP sensors were approximately three times higher than those from the FDR sensors; some of the differences can be explained by the targeted monitoring of biocrust material in the shorter DPHP sensor and by potential signal loss from horizontally installed FDR sensors, or by an oversampling of deeper soil. C-exchange estimates using the DPHP sensors showed a net C loss of 69 and 76 g C m−2 in control and heated plots, respectively. The study illustrates the potential for using the more sensitive data from shallow installations for estimating C exchange in biocrusts.

  6. Observed reflectivities and liquid water content for marine stratocumulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Snider, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of cloud liquid water content and cloud reflectivity are used to verify their parametric relationship in a manner consistent with simple parameterizations often used in general-circulation climate models. The column amount of cloud liquid water was measured with a microwave radiometer on San Nicolas Island as described by Hogg et al., (1983). Cloud reflectivity was obtained through spatial coherence analysis of AVHRR imagery data as per Coakley and Baldwin (1984) and Coakley and Beckner (1988). The dependence of the observed reflectivity on the observed liquid water is discussed, and this empirical relationship is compared with the parameterization proposed by Stephens (1978).

  7. Soil water content assessment: critical issues concerning the operational application of the triangle method.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-03-19

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies.

  8. Soil Water Content Assessment: Critical Issues Concerning the Operational Application of the Triangle Method

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  9. Estimates of Leaf Relative Water Content from Optical Polarization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Existing approaches to remotely sensing canopy water status, such as the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), have limitations. The CWSI, based upon remotely sensing canopy radiant temperature in the thermal infrared spectral region, does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWT is based upon the physics of water-light interaction in the 900-2000nm spectral region, not plant physiology. Our goal, development of a remote sensing technique for estimating plant water status based upon measurements in the VIS/NIR spectral region, would potentially provide remote sensing access to plant dehydration physiology - to the cellular photochemistry and structural changes associated with water deficits in leaves. In this research, we used optical, crossed polarization filters to measure the VIS/NIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, for 78 corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) leaves having relative water contents (RWC) between 0.60 and 0.98. Our results show that as RWC decreases R increases while T decreases. Our results tie R and T changes in the VIS/NIR to leaf physiological changes - linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf - and perhaps of a plant canopy - might be possible in the future.

  10. Relationship of Water Content With Silicon and Fluorine Contents of Silicone-Hydrogel Contact Lens Materials.

    PubMed

    Dupre, Terin E; Benjamin, William J

    2018-06-25

    The relationship between water (W) content and silicon (Si) content of silicone-hydrogel (SiHy) contact lens materials was inspected using identical methodologies, equipment, and operators for materials composing 16 types of commercially available SiHy contact lenses. Fluorine (F) content was included in the analysis for the three materials also containing a fluoropolymer. One type of lens consisted of a bulk SiHy material coated with thin layers of conventional hydrogel. SiHy materials were obtained in the form of 16 contact lens brands purchased on the open market in a common range of refractive powers from -3 to +6 D in single lots. All test lenses were equilibrated at room temperature in a standard saline recommended in the American National Standards Institute Z80.20-2016 and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 18369-4:2017 standards. W content was obtained gravimetrically, in %, according to those standards for 16 lenses of each SiHy material. Si content was determined in % using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy for four digested lenses of each material. F content was determined in % using an ion-selective electrode for four combusted lenses of each of the three fluorinated SiHy materials. W and Si contents of the bulk SiHy material of the coated lens were estimated by computational exclusion of the hydrogel layers. The linear coefficients of determination (R, n=16) were -0.7576 (relating mean dry Si content [n=4] to mean W content [n=16]) and -0.8819 (relating mean hydrated Si content [n=4] to mean W content [n=16]). When the 4 SiHy materials that were fluorinated or coated were excluded from the analysis, the R values (n=12) were -0.8869 and -0.9263, respectively. When F contents and the coating were added to the assessments, the linear coefficients of determination (R, n=16) became -0.8948 (relating mean dry [Si+F] content to mean W content) and -0.9397 (relating mean hydrated [Si+F] content to mean W content

  11. Total Water Content Measurements with an Isokinetic Sampling Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Miller, Dean R.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a Total Water Content (TWC) Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument is comprised of the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Analysis and testing have been conducted on the subsystems to ensure their proper function and accuracy. End-to-end bench testing has also been conducted to ensure the reliability of the entire instrument system. A Stokes Number based collection efficiency correction was developed to correct for probe thickness effects. The authors further discuss the need to ensure that no condensation occurs within the instrument plumbing. Instrument measurements compared to facility calibrations from testing in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel are presented and discussed. There appears to be liquid water content and droplet size effects in the differences between the two measurement techniques.

  12. The water content of recurring slope lineae on Mars

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Piqueux, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Observations of recurring slope lineae (RSL) from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have been interpreted as present-day, seasonally variable liquid water flows; however, orbital spectroscopy has not confirmed the presence of liquid H2O, only hydrated salts. Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) temperature data and a numerical heat transfer model definitively constrain the amount of water associated with RSL. Surface temperature differences between RSL-bearing and dry RSL-free terrains are consistent with no water associated with RSL and, based on measurement uncertainties, limit the water content of RSL to at most 0.5–3 wt %. In addition, distinct high thermal inertia regolith signatures expected with crust-forming evaporitic salt deposits from cyclical briny water flows are not observed, indicating low water salinity (if any) and/or low enough volumes to prevent their formation. Alternatively, observed salts may be preexisting in soils at low abundances (i.e., near or below detection limits) and largely immobile. These RSL-rich surfaces experience ~100 K diurnal temperature oscillations, possible freeze/thaw cycles and/or complete evaporation on time scales that challenge their habitability potential. The unique surface temperature measurements provided by THEMIS are consistent with a dry RSL hypothesis or at least significantly limit the water content of Martian RSL.

  13. [Foliar water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis sapling under different soil water contents].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong E; Yu, Xin Xiao; Chen, Li Hua; Jia, Guo Dong; Zhao, Na; Li, Han Zhi; Chang, Xiao Min

    2017-07-18

    The determination of plant foliar water use efficiency will be of great value to improve our understanding about mechanism of plant water consumption and provide important basis of regional forest ecosystem management and maintenance, thus, laboratory controlled experiments were carried out to obtain Platycladus orientalis sapling foliar water use efficiency under five different soil water contents, including instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE gs ) derived from gas exchange and short-term water use efficiency (WUE cp ) caculated using carbon isotope model. The results showed that, controlled by stomatal conductance (g s ), foliar net photosynthesis rate (P n ) and transpiration rate (T r ) increased as soil water content increased, which both reached maximum va-lues at soil water content of 70%-80% field capacity (FC), while WUE gs reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Both δ 13 C of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material achieved maximum values at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Besides, δ 13 C values of leaf water-soluble compounds were significantly greater than that of phloem exudates, indicating that there was depletion in 13 C in twig phloem compared with leaf water-soluble compounds and no obvious fractionation in the process of water-soluble material transportation from leaf to twig. Foliar WUE cp also reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). There was some difference between foliar WUE gs and WUE cp under the same condition, and the average difference was 0.52 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 . The WUE gs had great space-time variability, by contrast, WUE cp was more representative. It was concluded that P. orientalis sapling adapted to drought condition by increasing water use efficiency and decreasing physiological activity.

  14. International Critical Zone Science: Opportunities to Build a Global Understanding of Land-Water Linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Critical Zone science examines the structure and properties of the thin veneer that links surface properties to deep geology, at time scales of seconds to millennia. One of the fundamental premises of the US Critical Zone Observatories program is that CZOs should include some measurements made in common at all sites, as these common measurements will enable us to make stronger inferences about how the structure and function of the critical zone interact to drive key processes such as soil formation, stream flow generation, and nutrient export. Recent advances in real-time sensors provide new opportunities to address some fundamental questions about how hillslope soils and streams are linked. Data from the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory in Puerto Rico, for example, document a previously undescribed transition, or flipping, of stream and soil biogeochemistry in a tropical rain forest. Under typical conditions, soil moisture is high and soil oxygen content is often low, especially at depth. Streams, in contrast, are typically near oxygen saturation. Under severe drought, however, oxygen increases dramatically in soil air and declines to values that are well below saturation in streams. This flipping in redox conditions suggests that despite the strong hydrologic connection between hillslope and stream, gas dynamics and potentially solute dynamics are decoupled along the flow path. The international CZO community has the opportunity to develop a suite of sensor arrays to document soil air, groundwater chemistry, and stream water chemistry. Progress towards realizing the potential of these international networks to develop coherent sensor programs will be addressed based on the current status of sensor deployments in CZO networks in the US, China, and Europe.

  15. Biogeographic Zoning of Russia's Far Eastern Seas and Adjacent Waters Based on Nekton Trawling Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, O. A.; Sukhanov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of biogeographic zoning of the epi- and mesopelagic region based on nekton areas using a new modification of the Shorygin method. It is shown that the position and boundaries of biogeographic areas are related to real relatively stable elements of the biotope (water masses, currents, frontal zones, eddies, and rings). A pronounced latitudinal pattern of the areas of natural zones is not always seen. Zoning becomes less detailed from the top layer of the epipelagic to mesopelagic region, and the zonalities of mesopelagic and epipelagic areas are not similar. We propose a new zoning approach to solve dynamic biogeography problems.

  16. Permeability of bacterial spores. IV. Water content, uptake, and distribution.

    PubMed

    BLACK, S H; GERHARDT, P

    1962-05-01

    Black, S. H. (The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) and Philipp Gerhardt. Permeability of bacterial spores. IV. Water content, uptake, and distribution. J. Bacteriol. 83:960-967. 1962.-Dormant and germinated spores of Bacillus cereus strain terminalis were examined for water properties. Respectively, they exhibited a mean density of 1.28 and 1.11 g/ml, a water content of 64.8 and 73.0%, and a total water uptake of 66.6 and 75.6%, based on spore weight, or 86.0 and 83.9%, based on spore volume. The results confirmed a previous report that internal and external water are in virtually complete equilibrium, but refuted a prevailing hypothesis that heat resistance is attributable to a dry core. A model of spore ultrastructure that evolved from the cumulative results pictures a moist, dense, heteroporous core. A new hypothesis is formulated as an explanation for thermostability in spores and possibly in other instances; it postulates the occurrence of an insolubly gelled core with cross-linking between macromolecules through stable but reversible bonds so as to form a high-polymer matrix with entrapped free water.

  17. Seismic evidence for water transport out of the mantle transition zone beneath the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2018-01-01

    The mantle transition zone has been considered a major water reservoir in the deep Earth. Mass transfer across the transition-zone boundaries may transport water-rich minerals from the transition zone into the water-poor upper or lower mantle. Water release in the mantle surrounding the transition zone could cause dehydration melting and produce seismic low-velocity anomalies if some conditions are met. Therefore, seismic observations of low-velocity layers surrounding the transition zone could provide clues of water circulation at mid-mantle depths. Below the Alpine orogen, a depressed 660-km discontinuity has been imaged clearly using seismic tomography and receiver functions, suggesting downwellings of materials from the transition zone. Multitaper-correlation receiver functions show prominent ∼0.5-1.5% velocity reductions at ∼750-800-km depths, possibly caused by partial melting in the upper part of lower mantle. The gap between the depressed 660-km discontinuity and the low-velocity layers is consistent with metallic iron as a minor phase in the topmost lower mantle reported by laboratory studies. Velocity drops atop the 410-km discontinuity are observed surrounding the Alpine orogeny, suggesting upwelling of water-rich rock from the transition zone in response to the downwelled materials below the orogeny. Our results provide evidence that convective penetration of the mantle transition zone pushes hydrated minerals both upward and downward to add hydrogen to the surrounding mantle.

  18. Isotopic composition of water in a deep unsaturated zone beside a radioactive-waste disposal area near Beatty, Nevada

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Morganwalp, David W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    1999-01-01

    The isotopic composition of water in deep unsaturated zones is of interest because it provides information relevant to hydrologic processes and contaminant migration. Profiles of oxygen-18 (18O), deuterium (D), and tritium (3H) from a 110-meter deep unsaturated zone, together with data on the isotopic composition of ground water and modern-day precipitation, are interpreted in the context of water-content, water-potential, and pore-gas profiles. At depths greater than about three meters, water vapor and liquid water are in approximate equilibrium with respect to D and 18O. The vapor-phase concentrations of D and 18O have remained stable through repeated samplings. Vapor-phase 3H concentrations have generally increased with time, requiring synchronous sampling of liquid and vapor to assess equilibrium. Below 30 meters, concentrations of D and 18O in pore water become approximately equal to the composition of ground water, which is isotopically lighter than modern precipitation and has a carbon-14 (14C) concentration of about 26 percent modern carbon. These data indicate that net gradients driving fluxes of water, gas, and heat are directed upwards for undisturbed conditions at the Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS). Superimposed on the upward-directed flow field, tritium is migrating away from waste in response to gradients in tritium concentrations.

  19. High water content oil-external micellar dispersions

    SciT

    Jones, S.C.; Roszelle, W.O.; Svaldi, M.A.

    1970-02-24

    A high water content oil-external micellar dispersion (containing 55 percent to about 90 percent water) was developed for enhanced oil recovery. The micellar slug contained petroleum sulfonate (molecular weight averaged at about 350 to about 525), hydrocarbon, water and cosurfactant. The micellar slug was driven by a mobility buffer slug, which consisted of No. 530 Pusher, fusel oil and the residue Palestine water (420 ppm TDS) from the Palestine water reservoir in Palestine, Illinois. Fired Berea sandstone cores (porosity near 20 percent) were saturated with water (18,000 ppm sodium chloride), flooded with sweet black crude oil from Henry lease inmore » Illinois (7 cp at 72/sup 0/F), and waterflooded with water from Henry lease (18,000 ppm TDS). A maximum recovery of 11.5 percent of oil in place was recovered by 2 percent pore volume of a micellar dispersion containing petroleum sulfonate (MW 406), crude oil, 70 percent by volume distilled water, and p-hexanol.« less

  20. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  1. Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

    2014-12-01

    The freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of

  2. Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs. PMID:11318912

  3. Seasonal variation of water quality in a lateral hyporheic zone with response to dam operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Chen, L.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic environment of lateral hyporheic zone in a regulated river were investigated seasonally under fluctuated water levels induced by dam operations. Groundwater levels variations in preassembled wells and changes in electronic conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, water temperature and pH in the hyporheic zone were examined as environmental performance indicators for the water quality. Groundwater tables in wells were highly related to the river water levels that showed a hysteresis pattern, and the lag time is associated with the distances from wells to the river bank. The distribution of DO and EC were strongly related to the water temperature, indicating that the cold water released from up-reservoir could determine the biochemistry process in the hyporheic zone. Results also showed that the hyporheic water was weakly alkaline in the study area but had a more or less uniform spatial distribution. Dam release-storage cycles were the dominant factor in changing lateral hyporheic flow and water quality.

  4. Robust spatialization of soil water content at the scale of an agricultural field using geophysical and geostatistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henine, Hocine; Tournebize, Julien; Laurent, Gourdol; Christophe, Hissler; Cournede, Paul-Henry; Clement, Remi

    2017-04-01

    Research on the Critical Zone (CZ) is a prerequisite for undertaking issues related to ecosystemic services that human societies rely on (nutrient cycles, water supply and quality). However, while the upper part of CZ (vegetation, soil, surface water) is readily accessible, knowledge of the subsurface remains limited, due to the point-scale character of conventional direct observations. While the potential for geophysical methods to overcome this limitation is recognized, the translation of the geophysical information into physical properties or states of interest remains a challenge (e.g. the translation of soil electrical resistivity into soil water content). In this study, we propose a geostatistical framework using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) approach to assimilate geophysical and point-scale data. We especially focus on the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil water content using (1) TDR point-scale measurements of soil water content, which are considered as accurate data, and (2) soil water content data derived from electrical resistivity measurements, which are uncertain data but spatially dense. We used a synthetic dataset obtained with a vertical 2D domain to evaluate the performance of this geostatistical approach. Spatio-temporal simulations of soil water content were carried out using Hydrus-software for different scenarios: homogeneous or heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution, and continuous or punctual infiltration pattern. From the simulations of soil water content, conceptual soil resistivity models were built using a forward modeling approach and point sampling of water content values, vertically ranged, were done. These two datasets are similar to field measurements of soil electrical resistivity (using electrical resistivity tomography, ERT) and soil water content (using TDR probes) obtained at the Boissy-le-Chatel site, in Orgeval catchment (East of Paris, France). We then integrated them into a specialization

  5. Migrating Jupiter up to the habitable zone: Earth-like planet formation and water delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darriba, L. A.; de Elía, G. C.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Several observational works have shown the existence of Jupiter-mass planets covering a wide range of semi-major axes around Sun-like stars. Aims: We aim to analyse the planetary formation processes around Sun-like stars that host a Jupiter-mass planet at intermediate distances ranging from 1 au to 2 au. Our study focusses on the formation and evolution of terrestrial-like planets and water delivery in the habitable zone (HZ) of the system. Our goal is also to analyse the long-term dynamical stability of the resulting systems. Methods: A semi-analytic model was used to define the properties of a protoplanetary disk that produces a Jupiter-mass planet around the snow line, which is located at 2.7 au for a solar-mass star. Then, it was used to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase up to the formation of the Jupiter-mass planet, and we used the results as the initial conditions to carry out N-body simulations of planetary accretion. We developed sixty N-body simulations to describe the dynamical processes involved during and after the migration of the gas giant. Results: Our simulations produce three different classes of planets in the HZ: "water worlds", with masses between 2.75 M⊕ and 3.57 M⊕ and water contents of 58% and 75% by mass, terrestrial-like planets, with masses ranging from 0.58 M⊕ to 3.8 M⊕ and water contents less than 1.2% by mass, and "dry worlds", simulations of which show no water. A relevant result suggests the efficient coexistence in the HZ of a Jupiter-mass planet and a terrestrial-like planet with a percentage of water by mass comparable to the Earth. Moreover, our study indicates that these planetary systems are dynamically stable for at least 1 Gyr. Conclusions: Systems with a Jupiter-mass planet located at 1.5-2 au around solar-type stars are of astrobiological interest. These systems are likely to harbour terrestrial-like planets in the HZ with a wide diversity of water contents.

  6. Computer Controlled Microwave Oven System for Rapid Water Content Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Codes - .d/or CONTENTS Page PREFACE .................................................................... 1 CONVERSION FACTORS, NON- SI TO SI (METRIC...CONVERSION FACTORS, NON- SI TO SI (METRIC) UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Non- SI units of measurement used in this report can be converted to SI (metric) units as...formula: C = (5/9)(F - 32) . To obtain Kelvin ( K ) readings, use: K = (5/9)(F - 32) + 273.15 3 COMPUTER CONTROLLED MICROWAVE OVEN SYSTEM FOR RAPID WATER

  7. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content.

    PubMed

    Waller, Laura; Kim, Jungik; Shao-Horn, Yang; Barbastathis, George

    2009-08-17

    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered backprojection tomographic algorithm, we are able to incorporate a priori information about the object distribution into a fast reconstruction algorithm which is suitable for real-time monitoring.

  8. Monitoring water content in Opalinus Clay within the FE-Experiment: Test application of dielectric water content sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaki, T.; Vogt, T.; Komatsu, M.; Müller, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of water content in the near field rock around repository tunnels for radioactive waste in clay formations is one of the essential quantities to be monitored for safety assessment in many waste disposal programs. Reliable measurements of water content are important not only for the understanding and prediction of coupled hydraulic-mechanic processes that occur during tunnel construction and ventilation phase, but also for the understanding of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes that take place in the host rock during the post closure phase of a repository tunnel for spent fuel and high level radioactive waste (SF/HLW). The host rock of the Swiss disposal concept for SF/HLW is the Opalinus Clay formation (age of approx. 175 Million years). To better understand the THM effects in a full-scale heater-engineered barrier-rock system in Opalinus Clay, a full-scale heater test, namely the Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) experiment, was initiated in 2010 at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in north-western Switzerland. The experiment is designed to simulate the THM evolution of a SF/HLW repository tunnel based on the Swiss disposal concept in a realistic manner during the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure phases. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors. The sensors will be distributed in the host rock, the tunnel lining, the engineered barrier, which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks, and on the heaters. The excavation is completed and the tunnel is currently being ventilated. Measuring water content in partially saturated clay-rich high-salinity rock with a deformable grain skeleton is challenging. Therefore, we use the ventilation phase (before backfilling and heating) to examine the applicability of commercial water content sensors and to

  9. Soil water content evaluation considering time-invariant spatial pattern and space-variant temporal change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Si, B. C.

    2013-10-01

    Soil water content (SWC) varies in space and time. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil water content distribution using a statistical model. The model divides spatial SWC series into time-invariant spatial patterns, space-invariant temporal changes, and space- and time-dependent redistribution terms. The redistribution term is responsible for the temporal changes in spatial patterns of SWC. An empirical orthogonal function was used to separate the total variations of redistribution terms into the sum of the product of spatial structures (EOFs) and temporally-varying coefficients (ECs). Model performance was evaluated using SWC data of near-surface (0-0.2 m) and root-zone (0-1.0 m) from a Canadian Prairie landscape. Three significant EOFs were identified for redistribution term for both soil layers. EOF1 dominated the variations of redistribution terms and it resulted in more changes (recharge or discharge) in SWC at wetter locations. Depth to CaCO3 layer and organic carbon were the two most important controlling factors of EOF1, and together, they explained over 80% of the variations in EOF1. Weak correlation existed between either EOF2 or EOF3 and the observed factors. A reasonable prediction of SWC distribution was obtained with this model using cross validation. The model performed better in the root zone than in the near surface, and it outperformed conventional EOF method in case soil moisture deviated from the average conditions.

  10. Water content estimated from point scale to plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Binley, A. M.; Demir, G.; Abgarmi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture controls the portioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff. Here we investigate measurements of soil moisture using a range of techniques spanning different spatial scales. In order to understand soil water content in a test basin, 512 km2 in area, in the south of Turkey, a Cosmic Ray CRS200B soil moisture probe was installed at elevation of 1459 m and an ML3 ThetaProbe (CS 616) soil moisture sensor was established at 5cm depth used to get continuous soil moisture. Neutron count measurements were corrected for the changes in atmospheric pressure, atmospheric water vapour and intensity of incoming neutron flux. The calibration of the volumetric soil moisture was performed, from the laboratory analysis, the bulk density varies between 1.719 (g/cm3) -1.390 (g/cm3), and the dominant soil texture is silty clay loam and silt loamThe water content reflectometer was calibrated for soil-specific conditions and soil moisture estimates were also corrected with respect to soil temperature. In order to characterize the subsurface, soil electrical resistivity tomography was used. Wenner and Schlumberger array geometries were used with electrode spacing varied from 1m- 5 m along 40 m and 200 m profiles. From the inversions of ERT data it is apparent that within 50 m distance from the CRS200B, the soil is moderately resistive to a depth of 2m and more conductive at greater depths. At greater distances from the CRS200B, the ERT results indicate more resistive soils. In addition to the ERT surveys, ground penetrating radar surveys using a common mid-point configuration was used with 200MHz antennas. The volumetric soil moisture obtained from GPR appears to overestimate those based on TDR observations. The values obtained from CS616 (at a point scale) and CRS200B (at a mesoscale) are compared with the values obtained at a plot scale. For the field study dates (20-22.06.2017) the volumetric moisture content obtained from CS616 were 25.14%, 25.22% and 25

  11. Dry Juan de Fuca slab revealed by quantification of water entering Cascadia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Carton, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    Water is carried by subducting slabs as a pore fluid and in structurally bound minerals, yet no comprehensive quantification of water content and how it is stored and distributed at depth within incoming plates exists for any segment of the global subduction system. Here we use controlled-source seismic data collected in 2012 as part of the Ridge-to-Trench seismic experiment to quantify the amount of pore and structurally bound water in the Juan de Fuca plate entering the Cascadia subduction zone. We use wide-angle OBS seismic data along a 400-km-long margin-parallel profile 10-15 km seaward from the Cascadia deformation front to obtain P-wave tomography models of the sediments, crust, and uppermost mantle, and effective medium theory combined with a stochastic description of crustal properties (e.g., temperature, alteration assemblages, porosity, pore aspect ratio), to analyze the pore fluid and structurally bound water reservoirs in the sediments, crust and lithospheric mantle, and their variations along the Cascadia margin. Our results demonstrate that the Juan de Fuca lower crust and mantle are much drier than at any other subducting plate, with most of the water stored in the sediments and upper crust. Previously documented, variable but limited bend faulting along the margin, which correlates with degree of plate locking, limits slab access to water, and a warm thermal structure resulting from a thick sediment cover and young plate age prevents significant serpentinization of the mantle. Our results have important implications for a number of subduction processes at Cascadia, such as: (1) the dryness of the lower crust and mantle indicates that fluids that facilitate episodic tremor and slip must be sourced from the subducted upper crust; (2) decompression rather than hydrous melting must dominate arc magmatism in northern-central Cascadia; and (3) dry subducted lower crust and mantle can explain the low levels of intermediate-depth seismicity in the Juan de

  12. Adsorption of water vapour and the specific surface area of arctic zone soils (Spitsbergen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, Jolanta; Sokołowska, Zofia; Witkowska-Walczak, Barbara; Skic, Kamil

    2018-01-01

    Water vapour/nitrogen adsorption were investigated and calculated the specific surface areas of arctic-zone soil samples (Turbic Cryosols) originating from different micro-relief forms (mud boils, cell forms and sorted circles) and from different depths. For the characterisation of the isotherms obtained for arctic soils, the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model was then compared with the two other models (Aranovich-Donohue and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer) which were developed from Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. Specific surface area was calculated using the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model at p p0-1 range of 0.05-0.35 for the water vapour desorption and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The values of total specific surface area were the highest in Cryosols on mud boils, lower on cell forms, and the lowest on sorted circles. Such tendency was observed for the results obtained by both the water vapour and nitrogen adsorption. The differences in the values of specific surface area at two investigated layers were small. High determination coefficients were obtained for relationships between the specific surface areas and contents of clay and silt fraction in Cryosols. No statistically significant correlation between the total carbon amount and the values of specific surface area in Cryosols has been found.

  13. Undocumented water column sink for cadmium in open ocean oxygen-deficient zones

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, David J.; Conway, Tim M.; John, Seth G.; Christian, James R.; Kramer, Dennis I.; Pedersen, Tom F.; Cullen, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a micronutrient and a tracer of biological productivity and circulation in the ocean. The correlation between dissolved Cd and the major algal nutrients in seawater has led to the use of Cd preserved in microfossils to constrain past ocean nutrient distributions. However, linking Cd to marine biological processes requires constraints on marine sources and sinks of Cd. Here, we show a decoupling between Cd and major nutrients within oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs) in both the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, which we attribute to Cd sulfide (CdS) precipitation in euxinic microenvironments around sinking biological particles. We find that dissolved Cd correlates well with dissolved phosphate in oxygenated waters, but is depleted compared with phosphate in ODZs. Additionally, suspended particles from the North Atlantic show high Cd content and light Cd stable isotope ratios within the ODZ, indicative of CdS precipitation. Globally, we calculate that CdS precipitation in ODZs is an important, and to our knowledge a previously undocumented marine sink of Cd. Our results suggest that water column oxygen depletion has a substantial impact on Cd biogeochemical cycling, impacting the global relationship between Cd and major nutrients and suggesting that Cd may be a previously unidentified tracer for water column oxygen deficiency on geological timescales. Similar depletions of copper and zinc in the Northeast Pacific indicate that sulfide precipitation in ODZs may also have an influence on the global distribution of other trace metals. PMID:24778239

  14. Undocumented water column sink for cadmium in open ocean oxygen-deficient zones.

    PubMed

    Janssen, David J; Conway, Tim M; John, Seth G; Christian, James R; Kramer, Dennis I; Pedersen, Tom F; Cullen, Jay T

    2014-05-13

    Cadmium (Cd) is a micronutrient and a tracer of biological productivity and circulation in the ocean. The correlation between dissolved Cd and the major algal nutrients in seawater has led to the use of Cd preserved in microfossils to constrain past ocean nutrient distributions. However, linking Cd to marine biological processes requires constraints on marine sources and sinks of Cd. Here, we show a decoupling between Cd and major nutrients within oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs) in both the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, which we attribute to Cd sulfide (CdS) precipitation in euxinic microenvironments around sinking biological particles. We find that dissolved Cd correlates well with dissolved phosphate in oxygenated waters, but is depleted compared with phosphate in ODZs. Additionally, suspended particles from the North Atlantic show high Cd content and light Cd stable isotope ratios within the ODZ, indicative of CdS precipitation. Globally, we calculate that CdS precipitation in ODZs is an important, and to our knowledge a previously undocumented marine sink of Cd. Our results suggest that water column oxygen depletion has a substantial impact on Cd biogeochemical cycling, impacting the global relationship between Cd and major nutrients and suggesting that Cd may be a previously unidentified tracer for water column oxygen deficiency on geological timescales. Similar depletions of copper and zinc in the Northeast Pacific indicate that sulfide precipitation in ODZs may also have an influence on the global distribution of other trace metals.

  15. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., Boston, MA; Final Rule (USCG-2009-0589), to protect vessels from the hazard posed by the presence of the... read as follows: Sec. 165.T01-0542 Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA. (a...

  16. 76 FR 12 - Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-1111] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary..., Oahu, HI. (a) Location. The following area, within the Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone (See 33 CFR 3...

  17. 76 FR 80251 - Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1142] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary..., HI. (a) Location. The following area, within the Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone (See 33 CFR 3.70...

  18. 78 FR 79312 - Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket Number USCG-2013-0934] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., Oahu, HI. (a) Location. The following area, within the COTP Honolulu Zone (see 33 CFR 3.70-10), from...

  19. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciT

    Kang, Misun; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Voisin, Sophie

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scatteringmore » effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.« less

  20. Observation and Modelling of Soil Water Content Towards Improved Performance Indicators of Large Irrigation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbassi, Kamal; Akdim, Nadia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation performance may be evaluated for different objectives such as equity, adequacy, or effectiveness. We are using two performance indicators: IP2 measures the consistency of the allocation of the irrigation water with gross Crop Water requirements, while IP3 measures the effectiveness of irrigation by evaluating the increase in crop transpiration between the case of no irrigation and the case of different levels of irrigation. To evaluate IP3 we need to calculate the soil water balance for the two cases. We have developed a system based on the hydrological model SWAP (Soil Water atmosphere Plant) to calculate spatial and temporal patterns of crop transpiration T(x, y, t) and of the vertical distribution of soil water content θ(x, y, z, t). On one hand, in the absence of ground measurement of soil water content to validate and evaluate the precision of the estimated one, a possibility would be to use satellite retrievals of top soil water content, such as the data to be provided by SMAP. On the other hand, to calculate IP3 we need root zone rather than top soil water content. In principle, we could use the model SWAP to establish a relationship between the top soil and root zone water content. Such relationship could be a simple empirical one or a data assimilation procedure. In our study area (Doukkala- Morocco) we have assessed the consistency of the water allocation with the actual irrigated area and crop water requirements (CWR) by using a combination of multispectral satellite image time series (i,e RapidEye (REIS), SPOT4 (HRVIR1) and Landsat 8 (OLI) images acquired during the 2012/2013 agricultural season). To obtain IP2 (x, y, t) we need to determine ETc (x, y, t). We have applied two (semi)empirical approaches: the first one is the Kc-NDVI method, based on the correlation between the Near Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the value of crop coefficient (kc); the second one is the analytical approach based on the direct application of Penman

  1. Estimating plant available water content from remotely sensed evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Warren, G.; Doody, T.

    2012-04-01

    Plant available water content (PAWC) is an emergent soil property that is a critical variable in hydrological modelling. PAWC determines the active soil water storage and, in water-limited environments, is the main cause of different ecohydrological behaviour between (deep-rooted) perennial vegetation and (shallow-rooted) seasonal vegetation. Conventionally, PAWC is estimated for a combination of soil and vegetation from three variables: maximum rooting depth and the volumetric water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point, respectively. Without elaborate local field observation, large uncertainties in PAWC occur due to the assumptions associated with each of the three variables. We developed an alternative, observation-based method to estimate PAWC from precipitation observations and CSIRO MODIS Reflectance-based Evapotranspiration (CMRSET) estimates. Processing steps include (1) removing residual systematic bias in the CMRSET estimates, (2) making spatially appropriate assumptions about local water inputs and surface runoff losses, (3) using mean seasonal patterns in precipitation and CMRSET to estimate the seasonal pattern in soil water storage changes, (4) from these, calculating the mean seasonal storage range, which can be treated as an estimate of PAWC. We evaluate the resulting PAWC estimates against those determined in field experiments for 180 sites across Australia. We show that the method produces better estimates of PAWC than conventional techniques. In addition, the method provides detailed information with full continental coverage at moderate resolution (250 m) scale. The resulting maps can be used to identify likely groundwater dependent ecosystems and to derive PAWC distributions for each combination of soil and vegetation type.

  2. Dynamic Change of Water Quality in Hyporheic Zone at Water Curtain Cultivation Area, Cheongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, S. H.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    There has been recently growing numbers of facilities for water curtain cultivation of strawberry and lettuce in Korea. These areas are nearly all located in the fluvial deposits near streams which can replenish water resources into exhausted groundwater aquifers during peak season. The purpose of this study is on groundwater chemistry and the change in physical and chemical properties due to stream-groundwater exchange or mixing in the representative agricultural area among the Jurassic granitic terrain of Korea. In the study area, groundwater level continuously decreased from November through March due to intensive use of groundwater, which forced stream water into aquifer. After March, groundwater level was gradually recovered to the original state. To evaluate the extent and its variations of stream water mixing into aquifer, field parameters including T, pH, EC and DO values, concentrations of major ions and oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic ratios were used. Field measurements and water sample collections were performed several times from 2012 to 2015 mainly during peak time of groundwater use. To compare the temporal variations and areal differences, 21 wells from four cross sections perpendicular to stream line were used. While water temperature, EC values and concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, HCO3 showed roughly gradual increase from stream line to 150 m distance, pH and DO values showed reverse phenomenon. This can be used to evaluate the extent and limit of stream water introduction into aquifer. However, individual wells showed yearly variations in those parameters and this dynamic and unstable feature indicates that mixing intensity of stream water over groundwater in this hyporheic zone varied year by year according to amounts of groundwater use and decrease of groundwater level.

  3. Runoff simulation sensitivity to remotely sensed initial soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Unkrich, C. L.; Keefer, T. O.; Parry, R.; Bach, L. B.; Amer, S. A.

    1994-05-01

    A variety of aircraft remotely sensed and conventional ground-based measurements of volumetric soil water content (SW) were made over two subwatersheds (4.4 and 631 ha) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch experimental watershed during the 1990 monsoon season. Spatially distributed soil water contents estimated remotely from the NASA push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR), an Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics (IRE) multifrequency radiometer, and three ground-based point methods were used to define prestorm initial SW for a distributed rainfall-runoff model (KINEROS; Woolhiser et al., 1990) at a small catchment scale (4.4 ha). At a medium catchment scale (631 ha or 6.31 km2) spatially distributed PBMR SW data were aggregated via stream order reduction. The impacts of the various spatial averages of SW on runoff simulations are discussed and are compared to runoff simulations using SW estimates derived from a simple daily water balance model. It was found that at the small catchment scale the SW data obtained from any of the measurement methods could be used to obtain reasonable runoff predictions. At the medium catchment scale, a basin-wide remotely sensed average of initial water content was sufficient for runoff simulations. This has important implications for the possible use of satellite-based microwave soil moisture data to define prestorm SW because the low spatial resolutions of such sensors may not seriously impact runoff simulations under the conditions examined. However, at both the small and medium basin scale, adequate resources must be devoted to proper definition of the input rainfall to achieve reasonable runoff simulations.

  4. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

    PubMed

    Delin, Geoffrey N; Herkelrath, William N

    2017-05-01

    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effects of different irrigation practices using treated wastewater on tomato yields, quality, water productivity, and soil and fruit mineral contents.

    PubMed

    Demir, Azize Dogan; Sahin, Ustun

    2017-11-01

    Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE) in the TWW was significantly higher than in the FW. Although the DI and the PRD practices caused less yields, these practices significantly increased WUE values due to less irrigation water applied. The water-yield linear relationships were statistically significant. TWW significantly increased titratable acidity and vitamin C contents. Reduced irrigation provided significantly lower titratable acidity, vitamin C, and lycopene contents. TWW increased the surface soil and fruit mineral contents in response to FW. Greater increases were observed under FI, and mineral contents declined with reduction in irrigation water. Heavy metal accumulation in soils was within safe limits. However, Cd and Pb contents in fruits exceeded standard limits given by FAO/WHO. Higher metal pollution index values determined for fruits also indicated that TWW application, especially under FI, might cause health risks in long term.

  6. 76 FR 33639 - Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary Fireworks, Upper New York Bay, Red Hook, NY... New York Water Taxi. The fireworks will commence at 9 p.m. on June 21, 2011 and will last... CFR Part 165 Harbors, Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements...

  7. 78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Lake Moovalya region of the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Parker, Arizona for the Blue....). RPM Racing Enterprises is sponsoring the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals, which is...

  8. An imbalance in the deep water cycle at subduction zones: The potential importance of the fore-arc mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Julia M.; Lee, Cin-Ty A.

    2017-12-01

    The depth of slab dehydration is thought to be controlled by the thermal state of the downgoing slab: cold slabs are thought to mostly dehydrate beneath the arc front while warmer slabs should mostly dehydrate beneath the fore-arc. Cold subduction zone lavas are thus predicted to have interacted with greater extent of water-rich fluids released from the downgoing slab, and should thus display higher water content and be elevated in slab-fluid proxies (i.e., high Ba/Th, H2O/Ce, Rb/Th, etc.) compared to hot subduction zone lavas. Arc lavas, however, display similar slab-fluid signatures regardless of the thermal state of the slab, suggesting more complexity to volatile cycling in subduction zones. Here, we explore whether the serpentinized fore-arc mantle may be an important fluid reservoir in subduction zones and whether it can contribute to arc magma generation by being dragged down with the slab. Using simple mass balance and fluid dynamics calculations, we show that the dragged-down fore-arc mantle could provide enough water (∼7-78% of the total water injected at the trenches) to account for the water outfluxes released beneath the volcanic arc. Hence, we propose that the water captured by arc magmas may not all derive directly from the slab, but a significant component may be indirectly slab-derived via dehydration of dragged-down fore-arc serpentinites. Fore-arc serpentinite dehydration, if universal, could be a process that explains the similar geochemical fingerprint (i.e., in slab fluid proxies) of arc magmas.

  9. Discrimination of plant root zone water status in greenhouse production based on phenotyping and machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Guo, Doudou; Juan, Jiaxiang; Chang, Liying; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-08-15

    Plant-based sensing on water stress can provide sensitive and direct reference for precision irrigation system in greenhouse. However, plant information acquisition, interpretation, and systematical application remain insufficient. This study developed a discrimination method for plant root zone water status in greenhouse by integrating phenotyping and machine learning techniques. Pakchoi plants were used and treated by three root zone moisture levels, 40%, 60%, and 80% relative water content. Three classification models, Random Forest (RF), Neural Network (NN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were developed and validated in different scenarios with overall accuracy over 90% for all. SVM model had the highest value, but it required the longest training time. All models had accuracy over 85% in all scenarios, and more stable performance was observed in RF model. Simplified SVM model developed by the top five most contributing traits had the largest accuracy reduction as 29.5%, while simplified RF and NN model still maintained approximately 80%. For real case application, factors such as operation cost, precision requirement, and system reaction time should be synthetically considered in model selection. Our work shows it is promising to discriminate plant root zone water status by implementing phenotyping and machine learning techniques for precision irrigation management.

  10. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water.

    PubMed

    Mythri, H; Chandu, G N; Prashant, G M; Subba Reddy, V V

    2010-01-01

    Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter. Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  11. Use of Water Content Reflectometers in Bioinfiltration/Bioretention to Measure Water Movement and Estimate Evapotranspiration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most bioinfiltration/bioretention models assume runoff is evenly distributed across the surface area and after the engineered fill media is no longer saturated, the volumetric water content (VWC) is constant throughout the media profile and at field capacity. Four to nine water ...

  12. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  13. Peatland water repellency: Importance of soil water content, moss species, and burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P. A.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, with northern peat reserves expected to become more vulnerable to wildfire as climate change enhances the length and severity of the fire season. Recent research suggests that high water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands have been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate the effect of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a laboratory based drying experiment where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes including unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ∼1.4 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by burning. Based on soil water retention curves, we suggest that it is highly unlikely that Sphagnum will exhibit strong hydrophobic conditions under field conditions.

  14. [Estimation of vegetation canopy water content using Hyperion hyperspectral data].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Ning; Ma, Jian-Wei; Li, Xiao-Tao; Leng, Pei; Zhou, Fang-Cheng; Li, Shuang

    2013-10-01

    Vegetation canopy water content (VCWC) has widespread utility in agriculture, ecology and hydrology. Based on the PROSAIL model, a novel model for quantitative inversion of vegetation canopy water content using Hyperion hyperspectral data was explored. Firstly, characteristics of vegetation canopy reflection were investigated with the PROSAIL radiative transfer model, and it was showed that the first derivative at the right slope (980 - 1 070 nm) of the 970 nm water absorption feature (D98-1 070) was closely related to VCWC, and determination coefficient reached to 0.96. Then, bands 983, 993, 1 003, 1 013, 1 023, 1 033, 1 043, 1 053 and 1 063 nm of Hyperion data were selected to calculate D980-1 070, and VCWC was estimated using the proposed method. Finally, the retrieval result was verified using field measured data in Yingke oasis of the Heihe basin. It indicated that the mean relative error was 12.5%, RMSE was within 0.1 kg x m(-2) and the proposed model was practical and reliable. This study provides a more efficient way for obtaining VCWC of large area.

  15. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  16. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizomes in artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) and management implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhen; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    Rhizomes are essential organs for growth and expansion of Phragmites australis. They function as an important source of organic matter and as a nutrient source, especially in the artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) of shallow lakes. In this study, decomposition experiments on 1- to 6-year-old P. australis rhizomes were conducted in the ALWTZ of Lake Baiyangdian to evaluate the contribution of the rhizomes to organic matter accumulation and nutrient release. Mass loss and changes in nutrient content were measured after 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days. The decomposition process was modeled with a composite exponential model. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors. A multiple stepwise regression model was utilized to determine the dominant factors that affect mass loss. Results showed that the decomposition rates in water were significantly higher than those in soil for 1- to 6-year-old rhizomes. However, the sequence of decomposition rates was identical in both water and soil. Significant relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors were observed at a later stage, and P-related factors proved to have a more significant impact than N-related factors on mass loss. According to multiple stepwise models, the C/P ratio was found to be the dominant factor affecting the mass loss in water, and the C/N and C/P ratios were the main factors affecting the mass loss in soil. The combined effects of harvesting, ditch broadening, and control of water depth should be considered for lake administrators.

  17. Farm scale application of EMI and FDR sensors to measuring and mapping soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) controls most water exchange processes within and between the soil-plants-atmosphere continuum and can therefore be considered as a practical variable for irrigation farmer choices. A better knowledge of spatial SWC patterns could improve farmer's awareness about critical crop water status conditions and enhance their capacity to characterize their behavior at the field or farm scale. However, accurate soil moisture measurement across spatial and temporal scales is still a challenging task and, specifically at intermediate spatial (0.1-100 ha) and temporal (minutes to days) scales, a data gap remains that limits our understanding over reliability of the SWC spatial measurements and its practical applicability in irrigation scheduling. In this work we compare the integrated EM38 (Geonics Ltd. Canada) response, collected at different sensor positions above ground to that obtained by integrating the depth profile of volumetric SWC measured with Diviner 2000 (Sentek) in conjunction with the depth response function of the EM38 when operated in both horizontal and vertical dipole configurations. On a 1.0-ha Olive grove site in Sicliy (Italy), 200 data points were collected before and after irrigation or precipitation events following a systematic sampling grid with focused measurements around the tree. Inside two different zone of the field, characterized from different soil physical properties, two Diviner 2000 access tube (1.2 m) were installed and used for the EM38 calibration. After calibration, the work aimed to propose the combined use of the FDR and EMI sensors to measuring and mapping root zone soil water content. We found strong correlations (R2 = 0.66) between Diviner 2000 SWC averaged to a depth of 1.2 m and ECa from an EM38 held in the vertical mode above the soil surface. The site-specific relationship between FDR-based SWC and ECa was linear for the purposes of estimating SWC over the explored range of ECa monitored at field levels

  18. Liquid water content variation with altitude in clouds over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cloud water content is one of the most fundamental measurements in cloud physics. Knowledge of the vertical variability of cloud microphysical characteristics is important for a variety of reasons. The profile of liquid water content (LWC) partially governs the radiative transfer for cloudy atmospheres, LWC profiles improves our understanding of processes acting to form and maintain cloud systems and may lead to improvements in the representation of clouds in numerical models. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote sensing techniques. The aim of this paper was to analyze the liquid water content (LWC) measurements in clouds, in time of the aircraft flights. The aircraft and its platform ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research is property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania. The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 m). The processed and analyzed measurements are acquired during 4 flights from Romania (Bucharest, 44°25'57″N 26°06'14″E) to Germany (Berlin 52°30'2″N 13°23'56″E) above the same region of Europe. The flight path was starting from Bucharest to the western part of Romania above Hungary, Austria at a cruse altitude between 6000-8500 m, and after 5 hours reaching Berlin. In total we acquired data during approximately 20 flight hours and we presented the vertical and horizontal LWC variations for different cloud types. The LWC values are similar for each type of cloud to values from literature. The vertical LWC profiles in the atmosphere measured during takeoff and landing of the aircraft have shown their

  19. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  20. Effect of water content on the water repellency for hydrophobized sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, S.; Kawamoto, K.; Kuroda, T.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

    2011-12-01

    Alternative earthen covers such as capillary barriers (CBs) and evapotranspirative covers are recognized as useful technical and low-cost solutions for limiting water infiltration and controlling seepage flow at solid waste landfills in semi-arid and arid regions. However, their application to the landfills at wet regions seems to be matter of concern due to loss of their impending capability under high precipitation. One of the possible techniques to enhance the impermeable properties of CBs is to alter soil grain surfaces to be water-repellent by mixing/coating hydrophobic agents (HAs). In order to examine a potential use of model sands hydrophobized with locally available and environmental-friendly HAs such as oleic acid (OA) and stearic acid (SA) for hydrophobic CBs. In the present study, we first characterized the effect of water content on the degree of water repellency (WR) for hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soil at different depth. Secondly, the time dependency of the contact angle in hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soils at different water content was evaluated. Further, the effects of hydrophobic organic matter contents on the WR of hydrophobized sands were investigated by horizontal infiltration test. We investigated the degree of WR as functions of volumetric water content (θ) of a volcanic ash soil samples from different depth and water adjusted hydrophobized sand samples with different ratio of HAs by using sessile drop method (SDM). The initial contact angle (αi) measured from SDM decreased gradually with increasing water content in OA and SA coated samples. Measured αi values for volcanic ash soils increased with increasing water content and reached a peak values of 111.7o at θ= 0.325 cm3 cm-3, where-after αi gradually decreased. Each test sample exhibited sharp decrease in contact angle with time at higher water content. Sorptivity values for oleic acid coated samples decreased with increasing HA content and reached the minimum

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content in the subsurface

    SciT

    J. Hendricks; T. Yao; A. Kearns

    1999-01-21

    Previous theoretical and experimental studies indicated that surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the potential to provide cost-effective water content measurements in the subsurface and is a technology ripe for exploitation in practice. The objectives of this investigation are (a) to test the technique under a wide range of hydrogeological conditions and (b) to generalize existing NMR theories in order to correctly model NMR response from conductive ground and to assess properties of the inverse problem. Twenty-four sites with different hydrogeologic settings were selected in New Mexico and Colorado for testing. The greatest limitation of surface NMR technology appears tomore » be the lack of understanding in which manner the NMR signal is influenced by soil-water factors such as pore size distribution, surface-to-volume ratio, paramagnetic ions dissolved in the ground water, and the presence of ferromagnetic minerals. Although the theoretical basis is found to be sound, several advances need to be made to make surface NMR a viable technology for hydrological investigations. There is a research need to investigate, under controlled laboratory conditions, how the complex factors of soil-water systems affect NMR relaxation times.« less

  2. Growth of early continental crust by water-present eclogite melting in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, A.; Stevens, G.

    2011-12-01

    The geochemistry of well preserved Paleo- to Meso-Archaean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) suite rocks, such as the ca 3.45 Ga trondhjemites from the Barberton greenstone belt in South Africa, provides insight into the origins of Earth's early felsic continental crust. This is particularly well demonstrated by the high-Al2O3 variety of these magmas, such as the Barberton rocks, where the geochemistry requires that they are formed by high pressure (HP) melting of a garnet-rich metamafic source. This has been interpreted as evidence for the formation of these magmas by anatexis of the upper portions of slabs within Archaean subduction zones. Most of the experimental data relevant to Archaean TTG genesis has been generated by studies of fluid-absent melting of metabasaltic sources. However, water drives arc magmatism within Phanerozoic subduction zones and thus, understanding the behaviour of water in Archaean subduction zones, may have considerable value for understanding the genesis of these TTG magmas. Consequently, this study investigates the role of HP water-present melting of an eclogite-facies starting material, in the production of high-Al2O3 type TTG melts. Water-saturated partial melting experiments were conducted between 1.9 and 3.0GPa; and, 870°C and 900°C. The melting reaction is characterized by the breakdown of sodic Cpx, together with Qtz and H2O, to form melt in conjunction with a less sodic Cpx: Qtz + Cpx1 + Grt1 + H2O = Melt + Cpx2 + Grt2. In many of the experimental run products, melt segregated efficiently from residual crystals, allowing for the measurement of a full range of trace elements via Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy. The experimental glasses produced by this study have the compositions of peraluminous trondhjemites; and they are light rare earth element, Zr and Sr enriched; and heavy rare earth element, Y and Nb depleted. The compositions of the experimental glasses are similar to high-Al2O3 type

  3. Interpretation of environmental tracers in groundwater systems with stagnant water zones.

    PubMed

    Maloszewski, Piotr; Stichler, Willibald; Zuber, Andrzej

    2004-03-01

    Lumped-parameter models are commonly applied for determining the age of water from time records of transient environmental tracers. The simplest models (e.g. piston flow or exponential) are also applicable for dating based on the decay or accumulation of tracers in groundwater systems. The models are based on the assumption that the transit time distribution function (exit age distribution function) of the tracer particles in the investigated system adequately represents the distribution of flow lines and is described by a simple function. A chosen or fitted function (called the response function) describes the transit time distribution of a tracer which would be observed at the output (discharge area, spring, stream, or pumping wells) in the case of an instantaneous injection at the entrance (recharge area). Due to large space and time scales, response functions are not measurable in groundwater systems, therefore, functions known from other fields of science, mainly from chemical engineering, are usually used. The type of response function and the values of its parameters define the lumped-parameter model of a system. The main parameter is the mean transit time of tracer through the system, which under favourable conditions may represent the mean age of mobile water. The parameters of the model are found by fitting calculated concentrations to the experimental records of concentrations measured at the outlet. The mean transit time of tracer (often called the tracer age), whether equal to the mean age of water or not, serves in adequate combinations with other data for determining other useful parameters, e.g. the recharge rate or the content of water in the system. The transit time distribution and its mean value serve for confirmation or determination of the conceptual model of the system and/or estimation of its potential vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution. In the interpretation of environmental tracer data with the aid of the lumped-parameter models, the

  4. Groundwater-surface water interaction in the riparian zone of an incised channel, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Schilling, K.E.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.

    2006-01-01

    Riparian zones of many incised channels in agricultural regions are cropped to the channel edge leaving them unvegetated for large portions of the year. In this study we evaluated surface and groundwater interaction in the riparian zone of an incised stream during a spring high flow period using detailed stream stage and hydraulic head data from six wells, and water quality sampling to determine whether the riparian zone can be a source of nitrate pollution to streams. Study results indicated that bank storage of stream water from Walnut Creek during a large storm water runoff event was limited to a narrow 1.6 m zone immediately adjacent to the channel. Nitrate concentrations in riparian groundwater were highest near the incised stream where the unsaturated zone was thickest. Nitrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations and nitrate-chloride ratios increased during a spring recharge period then decreased in the latter portion of the study. We used MODFLOW and MT3DMS to evaluate dilution and denitrification processes that would contribute to decreasing nitrate concentrations in riparian groundwater over time. MT3DMS model simulations were improved with a denitrification rate of 0.02 1/d assigned to the floodplain sediments implying that denitrification plays an important role in reducing nitrate concentrations in groundwater. We conclude that riparian zones of incised channels can potentially be a source of nitrate to streams during spring recharge periods when the near-stream riparian zone is largely unvegetated. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Coastal Zone Color Scanner data of rich coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Klooster, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons of chlorophyll concentrations and diffuse attenuation coefficients measured from ships off the central California coast were made with satellite derived estimates of the same parameters using data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner. Very high chlorophyll concentrations were encountered in Monterey Bay. Although lower chlorophyll values acquired off Pt. Sur agreed satisfactorily with the satellite data, the high chlorophyll values departed markedly from agreement. Two possible causes for the disagreement are suggested. Comparison of diffuse attenuation coefficients from the same data sets showed closer agreement.

  6. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  7. Water mass interaction in the confluence zone of the Daning River and the Yangtze River--a driving force for algal growth in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Holbach, Andreas; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Hu, Wei; Schleicher, Nina; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Increasing eutrophication and algal bloom events in the Yangtze River Three Gorges Reservoir, China, are widely discussed with regard to changed hydrodynamics and nutrient transport and distribution processes. Insights into water exchange and interaction processes between water masses related to large-scale water level fluctuations in the reservoir are crucial to understand water quality and eutrophication dynamics. Therefore, confluence zones of tributaries with the Yangtze River main stream are dedicated key interfaces. In this study, water quality data were recorded in situ and on-line in varying depths with the MINIBAT towed underwater multi-sensor system in the confluence zone of the Daning River and the Yangtze River close to Wushan City during 1 week in August 2011. Geostatistical evaluation of the water quality data was performed, and results were compared to phosphorus contents of selective water samples. The strongly rising water level throughout the measurement period caused Yangtze River water masses to flow upstream into the tributary and supply their higher nutrient and particulate loads into the tributary water body. Rapid algal growth and sedimentation occurred immediately when hydrodynamic conditions in the confluence zone became more serene again. Consequently, water from the Yangtze River main stream can play a key role in providing nutrients to the algal bloom stricken water bodies of its tributaries.

  8. 33 CFR 165.1411 - Security zone; waters surrounding U.S. Forces vessel SBX-1, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zone; waters surrounding U.S. Forces vessel SBX-1, HI. 165.1411 Section 165.1411 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1411 Security zone; waters surrounding U.S. Forces vessel SBX-1, HI. (a) Location. The following...

  9. Planetary formation and water delivery in the habitable zone around solar-type stars in different dynamical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, P. S.; de Elía, G. C.; Ronco, M. P.; Guilera, O. M.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that there are many and various planetary systems in the Universe. Aims: We study the formation and water delivery of planets in the habitable zone (HZ) around solar-type stars. In particular, we study different dynamical environments that are defined by the most massive body in the system. Methods: First of all, a semi-analytical model was used to define the mass of the protoplanetary disks that produce each of the five dynamical scenarios of our research. Then, we made use of the same semi-analytical model to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase. Finally, we carried out N-body simulations of planetary accretion in order to analyze the formation and water delivery of planets in the HZ in the different dynamical environments. Results: Water worlds are efficiently formed in the HZ in different dynamical scenarios. In systems with a giant planet analog to Jupiter or Saturn around the snow line, super-Earths tend to migrate into the HZ from outside the snow line as a result of interactions with other embryos and accrete water only during the gaseous phase. In systems without giant planets, Earths and super-Earths with high water by mass contents can either be formed in situ in the HZ or migrate into it from outer regions, and water can be accreted during the gaseous phase and in collisions with water-rich embryos and planetesimals. Conclusions: The formation of planets in the HZ with very high water by mass contents seems to be a common process around Sun-like stars. Our research suggests that such planets are still very efficiently produced in different dynamical environments. Moreover, our study indicates that the formation of planets in the HZ with masses and water contents similar to those of Earth seems to be a rare process around solar-type stars in the systems under consideration.

  10. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  11. Influence of Variable Streamside Management Zone Configurations on Water Quality after Forest Harvest

    Emma L. Witt; Christopher D. Barton; Jeffrey W. Stringer; Randy Kolka; Mac A. Cherry

    2016-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are a common best management practice (BMP) used to reduce water quality impacts from logging. The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of varying SMZ configurations on water quality. Treatments (T1, T2, and T3) that varied in SMZ width, canopy retention within the SMZ, and BMP utilization were applied at the...

  12. Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2): Model use, calibration, and validation

    The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) has been used widely for simulating agricultural management effects on crop production and soil and water quality. Although it is a one-dimensional model it has many desirable features for the modeling community. This paper outlines the principles of calibr...

  13. Root-zone temperature and water availability affect early root growth of planted longleaf pine

    M.A. Sword

    1995-01-01

    Longleaf pine seedlings from three seed sources were exposed to three root-zone temperatures and three levels of water availability for 28 days. Root growth declined as temperature and water availability decreased. Root growth differed by seed source. Results suggest that subtle changes in the regeneration environment may influence early root growth of longleaf pine...

  14. Understanding the effectiveness of vegetated streamside management zones for protecting water quality (Chapter 5)

    Philip Smethurst; Kevin Petrone; Daniel Neary

    2012-01-01

    We set out to improve understanding of the effectiveness of streamside management zones (SMZs) for protecting water quality in landscapes dominated by agriculture. We conducted a paired-catchment experiment that included water quality monitoring before and after the establishment of a forest plantation as an SMZ on cleared farmland that was used for extensive grazing....

  15. The role of porous matrix in water flow regulation within a karst unsaturated zone: an integrated hydrogeophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrière, Simon D.; Chalikakis, Konstantinos; Danquigny, Charles; Davi, Hendrik; Mazzilli, Naomi; Ollivier, Chloé; Emblanch, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    Some portions of the porous rock matrix in the karst unsaturated zone (UZ) can contain large volumes of water and play a major role in water flow regulation. The essential results are presented of a local-scale study conducted in 2011 and 2012 above the Low Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB - Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit) at Rustrel, southeastern France. Previous research revealed the geological structure and water-related features of the study site and illustrated the feasibility of specific hydrogeophysical measurements. In this study, the focus is on hydrodynamics at the seasonal and event timescales. Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) measured a high water content (more than 10 %) in a large volume of rock. This large volume of water cannot be stored in fractures and conduits within the UZ. MRS was also used to measure the seasonal variation of water stored in the karst UZ. A process-based model was developed to simulate the effect of vegetation on groundwater recharge dynamics. In addition, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring was used to assess preferential water pathways during a rain event. This study demonstrates the major influence of water flow within the porous rock matrix on the UZ hydrogeological functioning at both the local (LSBB) and regional (Fontaine de Vaucluse) scales. By taking into account the role of the porous matrix in water flow regulation, these findings may significantly improve karst groundwater hydrodynamic modelling, exploitation, and sustainable management.

  16. Soft-water zone in the Chicot Aquifer, Bayou Teche area, Louisiana

    Hosman, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    Test drilling in the vicinity of Bayou Teche in St. Martin Parish in southern Louisiana has disclosed a zone of soft water in the basal unit of the Chicot aquifer; the Chicot aquifer system blankets all southwestern Louisiana. Fresh water, which is defined as containing 250 milligrams per liter chloride or less, in the Chicot aquifer is characteristically hard and high in iron concentration; in this area the hardness is generally 200-300 milligrams per liter. The soft-water zone, containing water with a hardness of less than 60 milligrams per liter, is anomalous and occurs in an area where the basal part of the aquifer is separated from the main body of the aquifer by a thick clay layer. The zone has been mapped in parts of St. Martin and adjoining Lafayette Parishes. Although the exact areal extent of the zone cannot be determined with available data, it appears to be sufficiently large that the soft water should prove to be an important asset to the area. The water could be used by itself or mixed with either hard or slightly salty water (more than 250 milligrams per liter chloride) to provide a blend that would require little or no treatment for most purposes. Because of the proximity of salty water in much of the area, careful planning and monitoring will be necessary to maintain the soft-water zone as a dependable supply of usable water. The soft water appears to be an exhaustible supply; however, its useful life as a resource can be maximized by proper management.

  17. The Growth of Melt Inclusion- and Water-Rich Zones in Clinopyroxene Phenocrysts of the Powai Ankaramite Flow, Deccan Traps, India: Rapid Closed System Oscillatory Mineral Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Water concentrations were measured and mapped using FTIR spectroscopy in clinopyroxene phenocrysts of the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, west of the Western Ghats escarpment of the Deccan province, India. Samples were provided by Dr. Hetu Sheth of the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by high-temperature basaltic melt at ~ 6 kb and ~1230oC. Cpx phenocrysts are euhedral and have concentric bands (100 to 200 microns thick) of fine (10-20 micron diameter) melt inclusions. Cpx bands that host melt inclusions have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free bands. Water concentrations of cpx and ol were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed. Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.35 and 8.26 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx, and between 8.24 and 9.41 wt. % based on those in ol. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. We suggest that oscillatory zoning in cpx is a result of repeated growth of cpx in water-richer and water-poorer boundary layers in which water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in preferential capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Mg was preferentially incorporated into the cpx, causing Ca and water to build up in the boundary layer, and Mg and Fe to become relatively depleted in the boundary layer, as discussed for oscillatorially-zoned minerals by Wang and Merino (1993). Application of the equations for growth of oscillatory zones in crystals given by Wang and Merino (1993) to the growth of cpx crystals in the Powai ankaramite indicate that crystal growth occurred relatively quickly, on the order of days, although the width of the boundary zone, which is uncertain

  18. The vadose zone as a geoindicator of environmental change and groundwater quality in water-scarce areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmunds, W. M.; Baba Goni, I.; Gaye, C. B.; Jin, L.

    2013-12-01

    Inert and reactive tracers in moisture profiles provide considerable potential for the vadose zone to be used as an indicator of rapid environmental change. This indicator is particularly applicable in areas of water stress where long term (decade to century) scale records may be found in deep unsaturated zones in low rainfall areas and provide insights into recent recharge, climate variation and water-rock interactions which generate groundwater quality. Unsaturated zone Cl records obtained by elutriation of moisture are used widely for estimating recharge and water balance studies; isotope profiles (3H, δ2H, δ18O) from total water extraction procedures are used for investigation of residence times and hydrological processes. Apart from water taken using lysimeters, little work has been conducted directly on the geochemistry of pore fluids. This is mainly due to the difficulties of extraction of moisture from unsaturated material with low water contents (typically 2-6 wt%) and since dilution methods can create artifacts. Using immiscible liquid displacement techniques it is now possible to directly investigate the geochemistry of moisture from unsaturated zone materials. Profiles up to 35m from Quaternary sediments from dryland areas of the African Sahel (Nigeria, Senegal) as well as Inner Mongolia, China are used to illustrate the breadth of information obtainable from vadose zone profiles. Using pH, major and trace elements and comparing with isotopic data, a better understanding is gained of timescales of water movement, aquifer recharge, environmental records and climate history as well as water-rock interaction and contaminant behaviour. The usefulness of tritium as residence time indicator has now expired following cessation of atmospheric thermonuclear testing and through radioactive decay. Providing the rainfall Cl, moisture contents and bulk densities of the sediments are known, then Cl accumulation can be substituted to estimate timescales. Profiles

  19. Extreme water loss and abiotic O2 buildup on planets throughout the habitable zones of M dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Luger, R; Barnes, R

    2015-02-01

    We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than ∼1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred million years following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase, provided they form with abundant surface water. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone, regardless of whether the escape is energy-limited or diffusion-limited. We find that the amount of water lost scales with the planet mass, since the diffusion-limited hydrogen escape flux is proportional to the planet surface gravity. In addition to undergoing potential desiccation, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bar of abiotically produced O2, resulting in potential false positives for life. The amount of O2 that builds up also scales with the planet mass; we find that O2 builds up at a constant rate that is controlled by diffusion: ∼5 bar/Myr on Earth-mass planets and up to ∼25 bar/Myr on super-Earths. As a result, some recently discovered super-Earths in the habitable zone such as GJ 667Cc could have built up as many as 2000 bar of O2 due to the loss of up to 10 Earth oceans of water. The fate of a given planet strongly depends on the extreme ultraviolet flux, the duration of the runaway regime, the initial water content, and the rate at which oxygen is absorbed by the surface. In general, we find that the initial phase of high luminosity may compromise the habitability of many terrestrial planets orbiting low-mass stars.

  20. Vadose zone monitoring strategies to control water flux dynamics and changes in soil hydraulic properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes-Abellan, Javier; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquin; Candela, Lucila

    2013-04-01

    For monitoring the vadose zone, different strategies can be chosen, depending on the objectives and scale of observation. The effects of non-conventional water use on the vadose zone might produce impacts in porous media which could lead to changes in soil hydraulic properties, among others. Controlling these possible effects requires an accurate monitoring strategy that controls the volumetric water content, θ, and soil pressure, h, along the studied profile. According to the available literature, different monitoring systems have been carried out independently, however less attention has received comparative studies between different techniques. An experimental plot of 9x5 m2 was set with automatic and non-automatic sensors to control θ and h up to 1.5m depth. The non-automatic system consisted of ten Jet Fill tensiometers at 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 cm (Soil Moisture®) and a polycarbonate access tube of 44 mm (i.d) for soil moisture measurements with a TRIME FM TDR portable probe (IMKO®). Vertical installation was carefully performed; measurements with this system were manual, twice a week for θ and three times per week for h. The automatic system composed of five 5TE sensors (Decagon Devices®) installed at 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 cm for θ measurements and one MPS1 sensor (Decagon Devices®) at 60 cm depth for h. Installation took place laterally in a 40-50 cm length hole bored in a side of a trench that was excavated. All automatic sensors hourly recorded and stored in a data-logger. Boundary conditions were controlled with a volume-meter and with a meteorological station. ET was modelled with Penman-Monteith equation. Soil characterization include bulk density, gravimetric water content, grain size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention curves determined following laboratory standards. Soil mineralogy was determined by X-Ray difractometry. Unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters were model-fitted through SWRC-fit code and

  1. Nutrient availability and nutrient use efficiency in plants growing in the transition zone between land and water.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, G; Baattrup-Pedersen, A; Riis, T

    2016-03-01

    The transition zone between terrestrial and freshwater habitats is highly dynamic, with large variability in environmental characteristics. Here, we investigate how these characteristics influence the nutritional status and performance of plant life forms inhabiting this zone. Specifically, we hypothesised that: (i) tissue nutrient content differs among submerged, amphibious and terrestrial species, with higher content in submerged species; and (ii) PNUE gradually increases from submerged over amphibious to terrestrial species, reflecting differences in the availability of N and P relative to inorganic C across the land-water ecotone. We found that tissue nutrient content was generally higher in submerged species and C:N and C:P ratios indicated that content was limiting for growth for ca. 20% of plant individuals, particularly those belonging to amphibious and terrestrial species groups. As predicted, the PNUE increased from submerged over amphibious to terrestrial species. We suggest that this pattern reflects that amphibious and terrestrial species allocate proportionally more nutrients into processes of importance for photosynthesis at saturating CO2 availability, i.e. enzymes involved in substrate regeneration, compared to submerged species that are acclimated to lower availability of CO2 in the aquatic environment. Our results indicate that enhanced nutrient loading may affect relative abundance of the three species groups in the land-water ecotone of stream ecosystems. Thus, species of amphibious and terrestrial species groups are likely to benefit more from enhanced nutrient availability in terms of faster growth compared to aquatic species, and that this can be detrimental to aquatic species growing in the land-water ecotone, e.g. Ranunculus and Callitriche. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  3. Water movement in stony soils: The influence of stoniness on soil water content profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Viliam; Knava, Karol

    2010-05-01

    WATER MOVEMENT IN STONY SOILS: THE INFLUENCE OF STONINESS ON SOIL WATER CONTENT PROFILES Viliam Novák, Karol Kňava Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3, Slovakia, e-mail: novak@uh.savba.sk Soils containing rock fragments are widespread over the world, on Europe such soil account for 30%, 60% in Mediterranean region. In comparison to fine earth soils (soil particles are less then 2 mm) stony soils contain rock fragments characterized by the low retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, for stony soils -in comparison to the fine-earth soils - is typical lower hydraulic conductivity and retention capacity, which lead to the decrease decrease of infiltration rate and low water retention. So, water movement and its modeling in stony soil would differ from fine earth (usually agricultural) soil. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the differences in water movement in homogeneous soil (fine earth) and stony soil. The influence of different stoniness on soil water content and soil water dynamics was studied too. Windthrow at High Tatra mountains in Slovakia (November 2004) cleared nearly 12 000 ha of 80 year conifers and this event initiated complex research of windthrow impact on the ecosystem. The important part of this study was water movement in impacted area. Specific feature of the soil in this area was moraine soil consisting of fine earth, characterized as silty sand, with the relative stone content up to 0.49, increasing with depth. Associated phenomenon to the forest clearing is the decrease of rain interception and higher undercanopy precipitation. Conifers interception capacity can be three times higher than low canopy interception, and can reach up to 40% of annual precipitation in Central Europe. Stones in the soil are decreasing infiltration rate, but paradoxically increased understorey precipitation and followingly the increased cumulative infiltration led to the increase of the soil

  4. Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68

  5. Study of a water quality imager for coastal zone missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staylor, W. F.; Harrison, E. F.; Wessel, V. W.

    1975-01-01

    The present work surveys water quality user requirements and then determines the general characteristics of an orbiting imager (the Applications Explorer, or AE) dedicated to the measurement of water quality, which could be used as a low-cost means of testing advanced imager concepts and assessing the ability of imager techniques to meet the goals of a comprehensive water quality monitoring program. The proposed imager has four spectral bands, a spatial resolution of 25 meters, and swath width of 36 km with a pointing capability of 330 km. Silicon photodetector arrays, pointing systems, and several optical features are included. A nominal orbit of 500 km altitude at an inclination of 50 deg is recommended.

  6. Water transportation ability of flat-lying slabs in the mantle transition zone and implications for craton destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Kusky, Timothy M.; Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2018-01-01

    Water transported by deep subduction to the mantle transition zone (MTZ) that is eventually released and migrates upwards is invoked as a likely cause for hydroweakening and cratonic lithosphere destruction. The destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) during the Mesozoic has been proposed to be related to hydroweakening. However, the source of water related to large-scale craton destruction in the NCC is poorly constrained. Some suggest that the water was mainly released from a flat-lying (or stagnating) slab in the MTZ, whereas others posit that most water was released from a previously existing strongly hydrous MTZ then perturbed by the stagnating subduction in the MTZ layer. In this study, we use numerical modeling to evaluate the water carrying ability of flat-lying slabs in the MTZ with different slab ages and water contents to simulate its maximum value and discuss its potential role on large-scale hydroweakening and craton destruction. Our results reveal that a single flat-lying slab in the MTZ cannot provide enough water for large-scale cratonic lithosphere hydroweakening and thinning. Water estimates invoked for craton destruction as experienced by the NCC can only be the result of long-term piling of multiple slabs in the MTZ or penetrating deeper into the lower mantle.

  7. Characterization of bacterial coliform occurrences in different zones of a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Blanch, A R; Galofré, B; Lucena, F; Terradillos, A; Vilanova, X; Ribas, F

    2007-03-01

    To compare the bacterial coliforms detected from occurrences in three zones of a water distribution system supplied by two separate water sources. Conventional and standardized protocols for identifying enterobacterial populations were applied. Additional tests to confirm isolates were included. Analyses of diversity and population similarity were performed using the Phene Plate System, a miniaturized biochemical phenotyping method. Isolates were identified by the API 20E system in tandem with biochemical phenotyping. A total of 16 576 samples were taken from the water distribution system, with 1416 isolates analysed. A low number of coliform occurrences were observed (2%). Escherichia coli was not detected in either water origin or in Zone 2 samples; however, in Zones 1 and 3 a low number of cases of E. coli were recorded. The percentages of E. coli depended on the identification criteria. Eight biochemical profiles for coliform populations were defined according to the results of the confirmative tests. There was a high diversity among these populations in the three zones studied, although no significant variations in their composition (associated with occurrences in the different zones) were observed. Klebsiella oxytoca was the most commonly detected species irrespective of zone, although seven other enterobacterial genera were also found. Analysis of the enzymatic activity of beta-glucuronidase or application of the criteria established in the norm ISO 9308-1, in tandem with thermotolerance was needed to evaluate the occurrence of E. coli in the distribution systems. Detected occurrences of bacterial coliforms could be associated with re-growth patterns for specific sampling points in the distribution system. Seasonal differences, independent of the studied zones, were observed. Biochemical phenotyping of bacterial coliforms was shown to be a useful method on the characterization of occurrences in water distribution systems.

  8. Managed aquifer recharge of treated wastewater: water quality changes resulting from infiltration through the vadose zone.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Elise; Toze, Simon; Patterson, Bradley; Higginson, Simon

    2011-11-01

    Secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated through a 9 m-thick calcareous vadose zone during a 39 month managed aquifer recharge (MAR) field trial to determine potential improvements in the recycled water quality. The water quality improvements of the recycled water were based on changes in the chemistry and microbiology of (i) the recycled water prior to infiltration relative to (ii) groundwater immediately down-gradient from the infiltration gallery. Changes in the average concentrations of several constituents in the recycled water were identified with reductions of 30% for phosphorous, 66% for fluoride, 62% for iron and 51% for total organic carbon when the secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated at an applied rate of 17.5 L per minute with a residence time of approximately four days in the vadose zone and less than two days in the aquifer. Reductions were also noted for oxazepam and temazepam among the pharmaceuticals tested and for a range of microbial pathogens, but reductions were harder to quantify as their magnitudes varied over time. Total nitrogen and carbamazepine persisted in groundwater down-gradient from the infiltration galleries. Infiltration does potentially offer a range of water quality improvements over direct injection to the water table without passage through the unsaturated zone; however, additional treatment options for the non-potable water may still need to be considered, depending on the receiving environment or the end use of the recovered water. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiscale Bayesian neural networks for soil water content estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Raghavendra B.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Springer, Everett P.

    2008-08-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been used for some time now to estimate soil hydraulic parameters from other available or more easily measurable soil properties. However, most such uses of ANNs as pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been at matching spatial scales (1:1) of inputs and outputs. This approach assumes that the outputs are only required at the same scale as the input data. Unfortunately, this is rarely true. Different hydrologic, hydroclimatic, and contaminant transport models require soil hydraulic parameter data at different spatial scales, depending upon their grid sizes. While conventional (deterministic) ANNs have been traditionally used in these studies, the use of Bayesian training of ANNs is a more recent development. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian framework to derive soil water retention function including its uncertainty at the point or local scale using PTFs trained with coarser-scale Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO)-based soil data. The approach includes an ANN trained with Bayesian techniques as a PTF tool with training and validation data collected across spatial extents (scales) in two different regions in the United States. The two study areas include the Las Cruces Trench site in the Rio Grande basin of New Mexico, and the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) hydrology experimental region in Oklahoma. Each region-specific Bayesian ANN is trained using soil texture and bulk density data from the SSURGO database (scale 1:24,000), and predictions of the soil water contents at different pressure heads with point scale data (1:1) inputs are made. The resulting outputs are corrected for bias using both linear and nonlinear correction techniques. The results show good agreement between the soil water content values measured at the point scale and those predicted by the Bayesian ANN-based PTFs for both the study sites. Overall, Bayesian ANNs coupled with nonlinear bias correction are found to be very suitable tools for deriving soil

  10. Vadose Zone Monitoring of Dairy Green Water Lagoons using Soil Solution Samplers.

    SciT

    Brainard, James R.; Coplen, Amy K

    2005-11-01

    Over the last decade, dairy farms in New Mexico have become an important component to the economy of many rural ranching and farming communities. Dairy operations are water intensive and use groundwater that otherwise would be used for irrigation purposes. Most dairies reuse their process/green water three times and utilize lined lagoons for temporary storage of green water. Leakage of water from lagoons can pose a risk to groundwater quality. Groundwater resource protection infrastructures at dairies are regulated by the New Mexico Environment Department which currently relies on monitoring wells installed in the saturated zone for detecting leakage of wastemore » water lagoon liners. Here we present a proposal to monitor the unsaturated zone beneath the lagoons with soil water solution samplers to provide early detection of leaking liners. Early detection of leaking liners along with rapid repair can minimize contamination of aquifers and reduce dairy liability for aquifer remediation. Additionally, acceptance of vadose zone monitoring as a NMED requirement over saturated zone monitoring would very likely significantly reduce dairy startup and expansion costs. Acknowledgment Funding for this project was provided by the Sandia National Laboratories Small Business Assistance Program« less

  11. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  12. A global sensitivity analysis of crop virtual water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, S.; Tuninetti, M.; D'Odorico, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-12-01

    The concepts of virtual water and water footprint are becoming widely used in the scientific literature and they are proving their usefulness in a number of multidisciplinary contexts. With such growing interest a measure of data reliability (and uncertainty) is becoming pressing but, as of today, assessments of data sensitivity to model parameters, performed at the global scale, are not known. This contribution aims at filling this gap. Starting point of this study is the evaluation of the green and blue virtual water content (VWC) of four staple crops (i.e. wheat, rice, maize, and soybean) at a global high resolution scale. In each grid cell, the crop VWC is given by the ratio between the total crop evapotranspiration over the growing season and the crop actual yield, where evapotranspiration is determined with a detailed daily soil water balance and actual yield is estimated using country-based data, adjusted to account for spatial variability. The model provides estimates of the VWC at a 5x5 arc minutes and it improves on previous works by using the newest available data and including multi-cropping practices in the evaluation. The model is then used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, in order to evaluate the role of model parameters in affecting the VWC and to understand how uncertainties in input data propagate and impact the VWC accounting. In each cell, small changes are exerted to one parameter at a time, and a sensitivity index is determined as the ratio between the relative change of VWC and the relative change of the input parameter with respect to its reference value. At the global scale, VWC is found to be most sensitive to the planting date, with a positive (direct) or negative (inverse) sensitivity index depending on the typical season of crop planting date. VWC is also markedly dependent on the length of the growing period, with an increase in length always producing an increase of VWC, but with higher spatial variability for rice than for

  13. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  14. 75 FR 24799 - Safety Zone; Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races Practice Sessions, Columbia River, Kennewick...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races Practice Sessions, Columbia River, Kennewick...-City Water Follies Association hosts annual hydroplane races on the Columbia River in Kennewick... Safety Zone; Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races Practice Sessions, Columbia River, Kennewick, WA (a...

  15. The Influence of Orbital Resonances on the Water Transport to Objects in the Circumprimary Habitable Zone of Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, David; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Maindl, Thomas I.; Ragossnig, Florian; Schäfer, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the role of secular and mean motion resonances on the water transport from a belt of icy asteroids onto planets or embryos orbiting inside the circumprimary habitable zone (HZ) of a binary star system. In addition, the host-star has an accompanying gas giant planet. For a comparison, we perform two case studies where a secular resonance (SR) is located either inside the HZ close to 1.0 au (causing eccentric motion of a planet or embryos therein) or in the asteroid belt, beyond the snow line. In the latter case, a higher flux of icy objects moving toward the HZ is expected. Collisions between asteroids and objects in the HZ are treated analytically. Our purely dynamical study shows that the SR in the HZ boosts the water transport however, collisions can occur at very high impact speeds. In this paper, we treat for the first time, realistic collisions using a GPU 3D-SPH code to assess the water loss in the projectile. Including the water loss into the dynamical results, we get more realistic values for the water mass fraction of the asteroid during an impact. We highlight that collisions occurring at high velocities greatly reduce the water content of the projectile and thus the amount of water transported to planets or embryos orbiting inside the HZ. Moreover, we discuss other effects that could modify our results, namely the asteroid’s surface rate recession due to ice sublimation and the atmospheric drag contribution on the asteroids’ mass loss.

  16. Augmented water binding and low cellular water content in erythrocytes of camel and camelids.

    PubMed

    Bogner, P; Csutora, P; Cameron, I L; Wheatley, D N; Miseta, A

    1998-12-01

    We investigated a link between hemoglobin primary structure, hemoglobin hydrophobicity-hydrophilicity, and erythrocyte water content in various mammalian species. Some hemoglobin molecules, particularly those of the camel and camelids, contain more charged amino acid residues and are more hydrophilic than the hemoglobins of human and a number of other mammalian species. To test the in vivo significance of these alterations of hemoglobin primary structure, we determined the osmotically unresponsive erythrocyte water fractions in mannit solutions of various osmolarities at 4 degreesC. Among the species investigated, the size of the osmotically unresponsive erythrocyte water fraction relates in a positive linear way to hemoglobin hydrophilicity. The extreme low total erythrocyte water content of camel erythrocytes (1.1-1.3 g water/g dry mass) may be explained by a comparatively high osmotically unresponsive erythrocyte water fraction. It is proposed that alterations of hemoglobin sequences of camel and camelids may be the part of a natural selection process aimed at protecting these animals against osmotic dehydration in arid environments.

  17. Augmented water binding and low cellular water content in erythrocytes of camel and camelids.

    PubMed Central

    Bogner, P; Csutora, P; Cameron, I L; Wheatley, D N; Miseta, A

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a link between hemoglobin primary structure, hemoglobin hydrophobicity-hydrophilicity, and erythrocyte water content in various mammalian species. Some hemoglobin molecules, particularly those of the camel and camelids, contain more charged amino acid residues and are more hydrophilic than the hemoglobins of human and a number of other mammalian species. To test the in vivo significance of these alterations of hemoglobin primary structure, we determined the osmotically unresponsive erythrocyte water fractions in mannit solutions of various osmolarities at 4 degreesC. Among the species investigated, the size of the osmotically unresponsive erythrocyte water fraction relates in a positive linear way to hemoglobin hydrophilicity. The extreme low total erythrocyte water content of camel erythrocytes (1.1-1.3 g water/g dry mass) may be explained by a comparatively high osmotically unresponsive erythrocyte water fraction. It is proposed that alterations of hemoglobin sequences of camel and camelids may be the part of a natural selection process aimed at protecting these animals against osmotic dehydration in arid environments. PMID:9826628

  18. Sensitivity of Vadose Zone Water Fluxes to Climate Shifts in Arid Settings

    SciT

    Pfletschinger, H.; Prömmel, K.; Schüth, C.

    2014-01-01

    Vadose zone water fluxes in arid settings are investigated regarding their sensitivity to hydraulic soil parameters and meteorological data. The study is based on the inverse modeling of highly defined soil column experiments and subsequent scenario modeling comparing different climate projections for a defined arid region. In arid regions, groundwater resources are prone to depletion due to excessive water use and little recharge potential. Especially in sand dune areas, groundwater recharge is highly dependent on vadose zone properties and corresponding water fluxes. Nevertheless, vadose zone water fluxes under arid conditions are hard to determine owing to, among other reasons, deepmore » vadose zones with generally low fluxes and only sporadic high infiltration events. In this study, we present an inverse model of infiltration experiments accounting for variable saturated nonisothermal water fluxes to estimate effective hydraulic and thermal parameters of dune sands. A subsequent scenario modeling links the results of the inverse model with projections of a global climate model until 2100. The scenario modeling clearly showed the high dependency of groundwater recharge on precipitation amounts and intensities, whereas temperature increases are only of minor importance for deep infiltration. However, simulated precipitation rates are still affected by high uncertainties in the response to the hydrological input data of the climate model. Thus, higher certainty in the prediction of precipitation pattern is a major future goal for climate modeling to constrain future groundwater management strategies in arid regions.« less

  19. Centaurs and Activity Beyond the Water Sublimation Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, David

    2017-08-01

    Centaurs are icy objects in dynamical transition between the Kuiper belt, where they originate, and the Jupiter family comets. Water ice in inward drifting Centaurs should begin to sublimate measurably when their perihelion reaches the orbit of Jupiter (5 AU). Instead, a fraction of Centaurs become active (have a cometary appearance) even with perihelia at Saturn (10 AU). Of the many suggestions made for the origin of this distant activity, the current favorite and the one with the largest impact on cometary science is the crystallization of amorphous water ice. Amorphous ice is an excellent carrier of supervolatiles (e.g. CO, N2) which are released upon the exothermic transition to crystalline ice. If Centaur ice is amorphous, then so must be Kuiper belt ice, setting strong constraints on the internal temperature vs. time history of the Kuiper belt objects. If the crystallization hypothesis is correct, we should never find an active Centaur with a perihelion substantially beyond the so-called crystallization line at about 12 AU (because temperatures there are too low to trigger crystallization). We propose a simple search for distant activity in Centaurs with perihelia 15 to 20 AU, in which crystallization cannot occur, in order to challenge the crystallization hypothesis. The search is made possible by the tight and stable point spread function and sensitivity to near-nucleus coma of HST.

  20. Water and the arid zone of the United States

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    In a pluvial period associated with Wisconsin glaciation the closed basin of the Estancia Valley in New Mexico held a lake which, at its maximum extent, was 150 feet deep and had a surface area of 450 square miles. This basin, with a mean elevation of about 6,000 feet, has at present an annual precipitation of about 14 inches.Estimates have been made of the Pleistocene precipitation necessary to maintain this pluvial lake. Instead of the present annual average of 14 inches it has been variously estimated that the precipitation must have been between 20 and 24 inches. Lakes existed during Pleistocene time in many places in the western United States that are now true deserts - with a precipitation of less than 4 inches - and there is abundant evidence that early man lived on the shores of these lakes. He must have adapted himself to the increasing aridity; this adaptation can be seen even at present in the form of floodwater farming practices, which have been highly developed by the Hopi Indians, particularly in northeastern Arizona.A gradually changing climate is only one, and not the most important, of the changing conditions to which man must gradually adjust in his particular relation to the use of water. The changes in his own culture in conjunction with changes in population density are usually even more important determinants of man’s use of and attitude toward his water supplies. In a desert area of Central Arizona, near Florence, the remains of irrigation systems developed by the aborigines to irrigate the alluvial valley floor with water diverted from the Gila River, which was at that time perennial, have been mapped and partially excavated. Irrigated agriculture was not practised nearly so extensively in the arid portions of the United States as in Persia, India, and many Mediterranean countries, nor was the general culture of indigenous American tribes so highly developed. Even in the simple cultures of the American Indians patterns of adjustment to a

  1. Measuring water contents in animal organ tissues using terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyumin; Jeoung, Kiyong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ji, Young-Bin; Son, Hyeyoung; Choi, Yuna; Huh, Young-Min; Suh, Jin-Suck; Oh, Seung Jae

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the water contents in several organ tissues such as the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain tissue of rats using the terahertz spectroscopic imaging technique. The water contents of the tissues were determined by using a simple equation containing the absorption coefficients of fresh and lyophilized tissues and water. We compared the measured water contents with the difference in mass of tissues before and after lyophilization. All results showed a good match except for the kidney, which has several Bowman's capsules.

  2. Stochastic Ground Water Flow Simulation with a Fracture Zone Continuum Model

    Langevin, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented for incorporating the hydraulic effects of vertical fracture zones into two-dimensional cell-based continuum models of ground water flow and particle tracking. High hydraulic conductivity features are used in the model to represent fracture zones. For fracture zones that are not coincident with model rows or columns, an adjustment is required for the hydraulic conductivity value entered into the model cells to compensate for the longer flowpath through the model grid. A similar adjustment is also required for simulated travel times through model cells. A travel time error of less than 8% can occur for particles moving through fractures with certain orientations. The fracture zone continuum model uses stochastically generated fracture zone networks and Monte Carlo analysis to quantify uncertainties with simulated advective travel times. An approach is also presented for converting an equivalent continuum model into a fracture zone continuum model by establishing the contribution of matrix block transmissivity to the bulk transmissivity of the aquifer. The methods are used for a case study in west-central Florida to quantify advective travel times from a potential wetland rehydration site to a municipal supply wellfield. Uncertainties in advective travel times are assumed to result from the presence of vertical fracture zones, commonly observed on aerial photographs as photolineaments.

  3. On the interpolation of volumetric water content in research catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, Phesheya; Chaplot, Vincent

    Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) is widely used in the environmental sciences because of its accuracy and efficiency in producing soil maps compared to the traditional soil mapping. Numerous studies have investigated how the sampling density and the interpolation process of data points affect the prediction quality. While, the interpolation process is straight forward for primary attributes such as soil gravimetric water content (θg) and soil bulk density (ρb), the DSM of volumetric water content (θv), the product of θg by ρb, may either involve direct interpolations of θv (approach 1) or independent interpolation of ρb and θg data points and subsequent multiplication of ρb and θg maps (approach 2). The main objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of these two mapping approaches for θv. A 23 ha grassland catchment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa was selected for this study. A total of 317 data points were randomly selected and sampled during the dry season in the topsoil (0-0.05 m) for θg by ρb estimation. Data points were interpolated following approaches 1 and 2, and using inverse distance weighting with 3 or 12 neighboring points (IDW3; IDW12), regular spline with tension (RST) and ordinary kriging (OK). Based on an independent validation set of 70 data points, OK was the best interpolator for ρb (mean absolute error, MAE of 0.081 g cm-3), while θg was best estimated using IDW12 (MAE = 1.697%) and θv by IDW3 (MAE = 1.814%). It was found that approach 1 underestimated θv. Approach 2 tended to overestimate θv, but reduced the prediction bias by an average of 37% and only improved the prediction accuracy by 1.3% compared to approach 1. Such a great benefit of approach 2 (i.e., the subsequent multiplication of interpolated maps of primary variables) was unexpected considering that a higher sampling density (∼14 data point ha-1 in the present study) tends to minimize the differences between interpolations techniques and approaches. In the

  4. The ammonium content in the Malayer igneous and metamorphic rocks (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Western Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadnejad, Vahid; Hirt, Ann Marie; Valizadeh, Mohammad-Vali; Bokani, Saeed Jabbari

    2011-04-01

    The ammonium (NH4+) contents of the Malayer area (Western Iran) have been determined by using the colorimetric method on 26 samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks. This is the first analysis of the ammonium contents of Iranian metamorphic and igneous rocks. The average ammonium content of metamorphic rocks decreases from low-grade to high-grade metamorphic rocks (in ppm): slate 580, phyllite 515, andalusite schist 242. In the case of igneous rocks, it decreases from felsic to mafic igneous types (in ppm): granites 39, monzonite 20, diorite 17, gabbro 10. Altered granitic rocks show enrichment in NH4+ (mean 61 ppm). The high concentration of ammonium in Malayer granites may indicate metasedimentary rocks as protoliths rather than meta-igneous rocks. These granitic rocks (S-types) have high K-bearing rock-forming minerals such as biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar which their potassium could substitute with ammonium. In addition, the high ammonium content of metasediments is probably due to inheritance of nitrogen from organic matter in the original sediments. The hydrothermally altered samples of granitic rocks show highly enrichment of ammonium suggesting external sources which intruded additional content by either interaction with metasedimentary country rocks or meteoritic solutions.

  5. Ecological impacts of winter water level drawdowns on lake littoral zones: A review

    Roy, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater littoral zones harbor diverse ecological communities and serve numerous ecosystem functions that are controlled, in part, by natural water level fluctuations. However, human alteration of lake hydrologic regimes beyond natural fluctuations threaten littoral zone ecological integrity. One type of hydrologic alteration in lakes is winter water level drawdowns, which are frequently employed for hydropower, flood control, and macrophyte control, among other purposes. Here, we synthesize the abiotic and biotic responses to annual and novel winter water level drawdowns in littoral zones of lakes and reservoirs. The dewatering, freezing, and increased erosion of exposed lakebeds drive changes in the littoral zone. Shoreline-specific physicochemical conditions such as littoral slope and shoreline exposure further induce modifications. Loss of fine sediment decreases nutrient availability over time, but desiccation may promote a temporary nutrient pulse upon re-inundation. Annual winter drawdowns can decrease taxonomic richness of macrophytes and benthic invertebrates and shift assemblage composition to favor taxa with r-selected life history strategies and with functional traits resistant to direct and indirect drawdown effects. Fish assemblages, though less directly affected by winter drawdowns (except where there is critically low dissolved oxygen), experience negative effects via indirect pathways like decreased food resources and spawning habitat. We identify eight general research gaps to guide future research that could improve our understanding about the complex effects of winter drawdowns on littoral zone ecology.

  6. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  7. The assessment of waters ecological state of the Crimea coastal near high-rise construction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrova, Natalya; Ivanenko, Tatyana; Mannanov, Emran

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of our study is determined by the significant level of coastal sea waters pollution by sewage near high-rise construction zones, which determines the violation of the sanitary and hygienic of sea waters `characteristics and limits the possibilities for organizing recreational activities. The purpose of this study is to identify the ecological state of the marine aquatic area by the example of the Western Crimea near high-rise construction zones. The studies confirmed that the recreational and coastal area wastewater is intensely mixed with seawater, as a result, the pollution in the coastal strip of the sea in the area of deep water discharges sharply decrease. This happens because of water rapid rise to the surface and under the influence of the continuous movement of sea water huge masses with deep-water discharge, fresh wastewater is actively mixed with sea water. However, with no doubt, it is inadmissible to discharge sewage into the sea directly from the shore, but only at the estimated distance from the coast. The materials of the article can be useful for the management bodies and organizations involved in monitoring the quality of the coastal zone of the sea, teachers and students of higher educational institutions when assessing the ecological situation of the territories.

  8. Dynamics of water mass in the Central Siberia permafrost zone based on gravity survey from the grace satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, S. T.; Kharuk, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE gravimetric survey is applied to analyze the equivalent water mass anomalies (EWMAs) in the permafrost zone of Central Siberia. Variations in EWMAs are related to precipitation, air temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and soil composition (drainage conditions). The EWMA dynamics demonstrates two periods. The period of 2003-2008 is characterized by a positive trend. The one of 2008-2012 shows a decrease in the trend with a simultaneous increase by 30-70% of EWMA dispersion in the background of growth (up to 40%) of precipitation variability. The rate of water mass increment demonstrates a positive correlation with the sand and gravel contents in soil ( r = 0.72) and a negative one with clay content ( r =-0.69 to-0.77). For Taimyr Peninsula, there is a deficit of residual water mass (~250 mm for the period of 2012-2013) indicating the deeper thawing of permafrost soils. In the Central Siberian Plateau, the indicator of more intensive permafrost thawing (and that of an increase in active layer thickness) is a considerable trend of water mass increase (2003-2008). The increasing trend of the largest Siberian rivers (Yenisei and Lena) is revealed in the period of 2003-2012.

  9. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Fox River in Green Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River...

  10. Regional mapping of forest canopy water content and biomass using AIRSAR images over BOREAS study area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan; Rignot, Eric; Vanzyl, Jakob

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, monitoring vegetation biomass over various climate zones has become the primary focus of several studies interested in assessing the role of the ecosystem responses to climate change and human activities. Airborne and spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems provide a useful tool to directly estimate biomass due to its sensitivity to structural and moisture characteristics of vegetation canopies. Even though the sensitivity of SAR data to total aboveground biomass has been successfully demonstrated in many controlled experiments over boreal forests and forest plantations, so far, no biomass estimation algorithm has been developed. This is mainly due to the fact that the SAR data, even at lowest frequency (P-band) saturates at biomass levels of about 200 tons/ha, and the structure and moisture information in the SAR signal forces the estimation algorithm to be forest type dependent. In this paper, we discuss the development of a hybrid forest biomass algorithm which uses a SAR derived land cover map in conjunction with a forest backscatter model and an inversion algorithm to estimate forest canopy water content. It is shown that unlike the direct biomass estimation from SAR data, the estimation of water content does not depend on the seasonal and/or environmental conditions. The total aboveground biomass can then be derived from canopy water content for each type of forest by incorporating other ecological information. Preliminary results from this technique over several boreal forest stands indicate that (1) the forest biomass can be estimated with reasonable accuracy, and (2) the saturation level of the SAR signal can be enhanced by separating the crown and trunk biomass in the inversion algorithm. We have used the JPL AIRSAR data over BOREAS southern study area to test the algorithm and to generate regional scale water content and biomass maps. The results are compared with ground data and the sources of errors are discussed. Several SAR

  11. Measuring Leaf Water Content Using Multispectral Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, S.; Vastaranta, M.; Linnakoski, R.; Sugano, J.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppä, H.; Hyyppä, J.

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is increasing the amount and intensity of disturbance events, i.e. drought, pest insect outbreaks and fungal pathogens, in forests worldwide. Leaf water content (LWC) is an early indicator of tree stress that can be measured remotely using multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (MS-TLS). LWC affects leaf reflectance in the shortwave infrared spectrum which can be used to predict LWC from spatially explicit MS-TLS intensity data. Here, we investigated the relationship between LWC and MS-TLS intensity features at 690 nm, 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths with Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions. We found that a simple ratio of 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths was able to explain 84 % of the variation (R2) in LWC with a respective prediction accuracy of 0.0041 g/cm2. Our results showed that MS-TLS can be used to estimate LWC with a reasonable accuracy in environmentally stable conditions.

  12. Estimation water vapor content using the mixing ratio method and validated with the ANFIS PWV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparta, W.; Alhasa, K. M.; Singh, M. S. J.

    2017-05-01

    This study reported the comparison between water vapor content, the surface meteorological data (pressure, temperature, and relative humidity), and precipitable water vapor (PWV) produced by PWV from adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for areas in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi (UKMB) station. The water vapor content value was estimated with mixing ratio method and the surface meteorological data as the parameter inputs. The accuracy of water vapor content was validated with PWV from ANFIS PWV model for the period of 20-23 December 2016. The result showed that the water vapor content has a similar trend with the PWV which produced by ANFIS PWV model (r = 0.975 at the 99% confidence level). This indicates that the water vapor content that obtained with mixing ratio agreed very well with the ANFIS PWV model. In addition, this study also found, the pattern of water vapor content and PWV have more influenced by the relative humidity.

  13. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  14. [Spectrum Variance Analysis of Tree Leaves Under the Condition of Different Leaf water Content].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Tai-sheng; Pan, Li-xin

    2015-07-01

    Leaf water content is an important factor affecting tree spectral characteristics. So Exploring the leaf spectral characteristics change rule of the same tree under the condition of different leaf water content and the spectral differences of different tree leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content are not only the keys of hyperspectral vegetation remote sensing information identification but also the theoretical support of research on vegetation spectrum change as the differences in leaf water content. The spectrometer was used to observe six species of tree leaves, and the reflectivity and first order differential spectrum of different leaf water content were obtained. Then, the spectral characteristics of each tree species leaves under the condition of different leaf water content were analyzed, and the spectral differences of different tree species leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content were compared to explore possible bands of the leaf water content identification by hyperspectral remote sensing. Results show that the spectra of each tree leaf have changed a lot with the change of the leaf water content, but the change laws are different. Leaf spectral of different tree species has lager differences in some wavelength range under the condition of same leaf water content, and it provides some possibility for high precision identification of tree species.

  15. Soil Moisture/ Tree Water Status Dynamics in Mid-Latitude Montane Forest, Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsough, P. C.; Malazian, A.; Meadows, M. W.; Roudneva, K.; Storch, J.; Bales, R. C.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an effort to understand the root-water-nutrient interactions in the multi-dimensional soil/vegetation system surrounding large trees, in August 2008 we instrumented a mature white fir (Abies concolor) and the surrounding soil to better define the water balance in a single tree. In July 2010, we instrumented a second tree, a Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in shallower soils on a drier, exposed slope. The trees are located in a mixed-conifer forest at an elevation of 2000m in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. The deployment of more than 250 sensors to measure temperature, volumetric water content, matric potential, and snow depth surrounding the two trees complements sap-flow measurements in the trunk and stem-water-potential measurements in the canopy to capture the seasonal cycles of soil wetting and drying. We show here the results of a multi-year deployment of soil moisture sensors as critical integrators of hydrologic/ biotic interaction in a forested catchment. Sensor networks such as deployed here are a valuable tool in closing the water budget in dynamic forested catchments. While the exchange of energy, water and carbon is continuous, the pertinent fluxes are strongly heterogeneous in both space and time. Thus, the prediction of the behavior of the system across multiple scales constitutes a major challenge.

  16. Water and vapor transfer in vadose zone of Gobi desert and riparian in the hyper arid environment of Ejina, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, C.; Yu, J.; Sun, F.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    To reveal how water and vapor transfer in vadose zone affect evapotranspiration in Gobi desert and riparian in hyper arid region is important for understanding eco-hydrological process. Field studies and numerical simulations were imported to evaluate the water and vapor movement processes under non isothermal and lower water content conditions. The soil profiles (12 layers) in Gobi desert and riparian sites of Ejina were installed with sensors to monitor soil moisture and temperature for 1 year. The meteorological conditions and water table were measured by micro weather stations and mini-Divers respectively in the two sites. Soil properties, including particles composition, moisture, bulk density, water retention curve, and saturated hydraulic conductivity of two site soil profiles, was measured. The observations showed that soil temperatures for the two sites displayed large diurnal and seasonal fluctuations. Temperature gradients with depth resulted in a downward in summer and upward in winter and became driving force for thermal vapor movement. Soil moistures in Gobi desert site were very low and varied slowly with time. While the soil moistures in riparian site were complicated due to root distribution but water potentials remained uniform with time. The hydrus-1D was employed to simulate evapotranspiration processes. The simulation results showed the significant difference of evaporation rate in the Gobi desert and riparian sites.

  17. 77 FR 40541 - Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket Number USCG-2012-0518] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a...

  18. Performance Evaluation of Automated Passive Capillary Sampler for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    Passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) are widely used to monitor, measure and sample drainage water under saturated and unsaturated soil conditions in the vadose zone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and accuracy of automated passive capillary sampler for estimating drainage...

  19. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  20. Application of Data Assimilation with the Root Zone Water Quality Model for Soil Moisture Profile Estimation

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), a popular data assimilation technique for non-linear systems was applied to the Root Zone Water Quality Model. Measured soil moisture data at four different depths (5cm, 20cm, 40cm and 60cm) from two agricultural fields (AS1 and AS2) in northeastern Indiana were us...

  1. 76 FR 30023 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is amending its regulations to...

  2. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and... (Corps) is proposing to amend its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near... described in Sec. 334.420(b)(1)(i)] in the Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters in Carteret County, North...

  3. Watershed scale assessment of the impact of forested riparian zones on stream water quality

    J. A. Webber; K. W. J. Williard; M. R. Whiles; M. L. Stone; J. J. Zaczek; D. K. Davie

    2003-01-01

    Federal and state land management agencies have been promoting forest and grass riparian zones to combat non-point source nutrient and sediment pollution of our nations' waters. The majority of research examining the effectiveness of riparian buffers at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to streams has been conducted at the field scale. This study took a...

  4. Irrigation scheduling as affected by field capacity and wilting point water content from different data sources

    Soil water content at field capacity and wilting point water content is critical information for irrigation scheduling, regardless of soil water sensor-based method (SM) or evapotranspiration (ET)-based method. Both methods require knowledge on site-specific and soil-specific Management Allowable De...

  5. Does water content or flow rate control colloid transport in unsaturated porous media?

    PubMed

    Knappenberger, Thorsten; Flury, Markus; Mattson, Earl D; Harsh, James B

    2014-04-01

    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (θ - θr)/(θs - θr)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  6. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone: U TRANSPORT IN A GROUNDWATER-SURFACE WATER TRANSITION ZONE

    SciT

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris

    A tightly spaced well-field within a groundwater uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a three year period for groundwater elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from mountain snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time series trendsmore » for Uaq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal well-to well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common temporal behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Concentration hot spots were observed in groundwater that varied in location with increasing water table elevation. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized U was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While uranium time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year to year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of the river water intrusion event.« less

  7. Water flow and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum: Upscaling from rhizosphere to root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarovitch, Naftali; Perelman, Adi; Guerra, Helena; Vanderborght, Jan; Pohlmeier, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Root water and nutrient uptake are among the most important processes considered in numerical models simulating water content and fluxes in the subsurface, as they control plant growth and production as well as water flow and nutrient transport out of the root zone. Root water uptake may lead to salt accumulation at the root-soil interface, resulting in rhizophere salt concentrations much higher than in the bulk soil. This salt accumulation is caused by soluble salt transport towards the roots by mass flow through the soil, followed by preferential adsorption of specific nutrients by active uptake, thereby excluding most other salts at the root-soil interface or in the root apoplast. The salinity buildup can lead to large osmotic pressure gradients across the roots thereby effectively reducing root water uptake. The initial results from rhizoslides (capillary paper growth system) show that sodium concentration is decreasing with distance from the root, compared with the bulk that remained more stable. When transpiration rate was decreased under high salinity levels, sodium concentration was more homogenous compared with low salinity levels. Additionally, sodium and gadolinium distributions were measured nondestructively around tomato roots using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This technique could also observe the root structure and water content around single roots. Results from the MRI confirm the solutes concentration pattern around roots and its relation to their initial concentration. We conclude that local water potentials at the soil-root interface differ from bulk potentials. These relative differences increase with decreasing root density, decreasing initial salt concentration and increasing transpiration rate. Furthermore, since climate may significantly influence plant response to salinity a dynamic climate-coupled salinity reduction functions are critical in while using macroscopic numerical models.

  8. Socio-hydrological implications of water management in the dry zone of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upeksha Gamage, Isurun; Arachchige Hemachandra Jayasena, Hetti

    2018-06-01

    Water management plays a vital role in the agricultural economy and living conditions of people in Sri Lanka. Though government and non-government organizations have been readily contributing to water management, it is still inefficient, especially in terms of water allocation, consumption and conservation. To identify factors which could be used to implement integrated water resources management (IWRM), a socio-hydrological study was performed in five areas within the dry zone in Sri Lanka. The study covers a comprehensive analysis of how the household income, demography and education level correlating to water usage, purification and disposal methods. The average household income ranges from LKR 2500 to 15 000 per month. The results show that the average daily usage for drinking, cooking, washing, toiletries and bathing are 3, 5, 10, 7, and 85 L per person, respectively. Majority of the families use dug wells and pipe-borne water as the primary source. Correlation coefficients suggest that higher household income or level of education leads to increased water consumption (R = 0.91, 0.94). There is no linear relationship between the level of education with the good practices of water purification and disposal. Though these results indicate preliminary assessments based on the dry zone practices, efficient water management could be enhanced by strong socio-hydrological implications through educating people on conservation, usage, disposal practices and health concerns.

  9. Remote sensing of leaf, canopy and vegetation water contents for satellite climate data records

    Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

  10. Water runoff vs modern climatic warming in mountainous cryolithic zone in North-East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotov, V. E.; Glotova, L. P.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying the effects of current climatic warming for both surface and subsurface water runoffs in North-East Russia, where the Main Watershed of the Earth separates it into the Arctic and Pacific continental slopes. The process of climatic warming is testified by continuous weather records during 80-100 years and longer periods. Over the Arctic slope and in the northern areas of the Pacific slope, climatic warming results in a decline in a total runoff of rivers whereas the ground-water recharge becomes greater in winter low-level conditions. In the southern Pacific slope and in the Sea of Okhotsk basin, the effect of climatic warming is an overall increase in total runoff including its subsurface constituents. We believe these peculiar characters of river runoff there to be related to the cryolithic zone environments. Over the Arctic slope and the northern Pacific slope, where cryolithic zone is continuous, the total runoff has its subsurface constituent as basically resulting from discharge of ground waters hosted in seasonally thawing rocks. Warmer climatic conditions favor growth of vegetation that needs more water for the processes of evapotranspiration and evaporation from rocky surfaces in summer seasons. In the Sea of Okhotsk basin, where the cryolithic zone is discontinuous, not only ground waters in seasonally thawing layers, but also continuous taliks and subpermafrost waters participate in processes of river recharges. As a result, a greater biological productivity of vegetation cover does not have any effect on ground-water supply and river recharge processes. If a steady climate warming is provided, a continuous cryolithic zone can presumably degrade into a discontinuous and then into an island-type permafrost layer. Under such a scenario, there will be a general increase in the total runoff and its subsurface constituent. From geoecological viewpoints, a greater runoff will have quite positive effects, whereas some

  11. Modeling water infiltration and pesticides transport in unsaturated zone of a sedimentary aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoli, Pauline; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Baran, Nicole; Lassabatère, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality monitoring has become an important environmental, economic and community issue since increasing needs drinking water at the same time with high anthropic pressure on aquifers. Leaching of various contaminants as pesticide into the groundwater is closely bound to water infiltration in the unsaturated zone which whom solute transport can occur. Knowledge's about mechanisms involved in the transfer of pesticides in the deep unsaturated zone are lacking today. This study aims to evaluate and to model leaching of pesticides and metabolites in the unsaturated zone, very heterogeneous, of a fluvio-glacial aquifer, in the South-East of France, where contamination of groundwater resources by pesticides is frequently observed as a consequence of intensive agricultural activities. Water flow and pesticide transport were evaluated from column tests under unsaturated conditions and from adsorption batch experiments onto the predominant lithofacies collected, composed of a mixture of sand and gravel. A maize herbicide, S-metolachlor, applied on the study site and worldwide and its two major degradation products (metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid and metolachlor oxanilic acid) were studied here. A conservative tracer, bromide ion, was used to determine water dispersive parameters of porous media. Elution curves were obtained from pesticide concentrations analyzed by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography system interfaced to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and from bromide concentrations measured by ionic chromatography system. Experimental data were implemented into Hydrus to model flow and solute transfer through a 1D profile in the vadose zone. Nonequilibrium solute transport model based on dual-porosity model with mobile and immobile water is fitting correctly elution curves. Water dispersive parameters show flow pattern realized in the mobile phase. Exchanges between mobile and immobile water are very limited. Because of low adsorptions onto

  12. The influence of collection zone on glucosinolates, polyphenols and flavonoids contents and biological profiles of Capparis sicula ssp. sicula.

    PubMed

    Conforti, F; Marcotullio, M C; Menichini, F; Statti, G A; Vannutelli, L; Burini, G; Menichini, F; Curini, M

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of collection zone on total phenol, flavonoid and glucosinolate contents and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of caper (Capparis sicula ssp. sicula). This species has been characterized through the detection, isolation and quantitative evaluation of chemical markers (polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates). The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the two collection zones. While the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids of the two samples were quite the same, their high-performance liquid chromatography profiles were very different. In both samples, the most abundant aglycone was quercetin which accounted for 60% of total flavonoids. Nuclear magnetic resonance data analysis allowed the identification of two compounds: 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids which represented 6.67% and 15.94%, respectively, of the total amount of flavonoids in sample 1. In sample 2, these two acids were still present, but their percentages were much less (2.20% and 1.71%, respectively). As far as we know, this is the first report about the presence of dicaffeoylquinic acids in Capparis. With regard to glucosinolate content, sample 1 showed a higher content of glucosinolates. In both samples, glucocapparin was the most abundant compound. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic C. sicula extracts using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl, β-carotene bleaching test and oxygen radical absorbance capacity showed that the sample 2 was more active than 1. As regards the inhibition of NO production, the extracts from sample 2 were more active than those from sample 1.

  13. 76 FR 59064 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA722 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by [[Page 59065

  14. Human-water interactions in Myanmar's Dry Zone under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    Understanding human-water interactions is particularly essential in countries where the economy and the people's well-being and income strongly depend on the availability and quality of sufficient water resources. Such a strong dependency on water is existent in Myanmar's Dry Zone located in the central Ayeyarwady River basin. In this area, rainfall is associated with high heterogeneity across space and time. Precipitation amounts in the Dry Zone (500-1000 mm annually) are generally less compared to other regions in Myanmar (up to 4000-6000 mm). Following the Global Climate Risk Index, Myanmar is one of the countries which were most affected by extreme weather events between 1994 and 2013. Severe drought periods e.g in the years 1997-1998, 2010 and 2014 led to crop failures and water shortage in the Dry Zone, where more than 14 mio people predominantly practice agriculture. Due to the high variability of rainfalls, farming is only possible with irrigation, mainly conducted by canal systems from the rivers and groundwater withdrawal. Myanmar is recently facing big challenges which result from comprehensive political and economic reforms since 2011. These may also include increasing water use by new industrial zones and urbanization. However, not only policy and economy modify the need for water. Variability of river runoff and changes in seasonality are expected as a result of climate change. The overarching goal of the study is to understand and increase the knowledge on human-water-climate interactions and to elaborate possible future scenarios for Myanmar's Dry Zone. It is not well studied yet how current and future climate change and increasing human impact will influence the country's abundant water resources including groundwater. Therefore, the first step of this study is to identify the major drivers within the central Ayeyarwady River basin. We are in the process of collecting and analyzing data sets and information including hydrologic and eco

  15. A scheme for parameterizing ice cloud water content in general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Donner, Leo J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for specifying ice water content in GCMs is developed, based on theory and in-cloud measurements. A theoretical development of the conceptual precipitation model is given and the aircraft flights used to characterize the ice mass distribution in deep ice clouds is discussed. Ice water content values derived from the theoretical parameterization are compared with the measured values. The results demonstrate that a simple parameterization for atmospheric ice content can account for ice contents observed in several synoptic contexts.

  16. From soil water to surface water - how the riparian zone controls element transport from a boreal forest to a stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Åsa; Laudon, Hjalmar; Köhler, Stephan J.

    2017-06-01

    Boreal headwaters are often lined by strips of highly organic soils, which are the last terrestrial environment to leave an imprint on discharging groundwater before it enters a stream. Because these riparian soils are so different from the Podzol soils that dominate much of the boreal landscape, they are known to have a major impact on the biogeochemistry of important elements such as C, N, P and Fe and the transfer of these elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. For most elements, however, the role of the riparian zone has remained unclear, although it should be expected that the mobility of many elements is affected by changes in, for example, pH, redox potential and concentration of organic carbon as they are transported through the riparian zone. Therefore, soil water and groundwater was sampled at different depths along a 22 m hillslope transect in the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden using soil lysimeters and analysed for a large number of major and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn, Zr) and other parameters such as sulfate and total organic carbon (TOC). The results showed that the concentrations of most investigated elements increased substantially (up to 60 times) as the water flowed from the uphill mineral soils and into the riparian zone, largely as a result of higher TOC concentrations. The stream water concentrations of these elements were typically somewhat lower than in the riparian zone, but still considerably higher than in the uphill mineral soils, which suggests that riparian soils have a decisive impact on the water quality of boreal streams. The degree of enrichment in the riparian zone for different elements could be linked to the affinity for organic matter, indicating that the pattern with strongly elevated concentrations in riparian soils is typical for organophilic substances. One likely explanation is that the solubility of many

  17. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1313 Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and...

  18. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part I. Model validation

    Process-based modeling provides detailed spatial and temporal information of the soil environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone across field topography where measurements of soil temperature and water may not sufficiently describe the zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the...

  19. Vulnerability of ground water to contamination, Edwards Aquifer recharge zone, Bexar County, Texas, 1998

    Clark, Allan K.

    2000-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer, one of the most productive carbonate-rock aquifers in the Nation, is composed of the Kainer and Person Formations of the Edwards Group plus the overlying Georgetown Formation. Most recharge to the Edwards aquifer results from the percolation of streamflow loss and the infiltration of precipitation through porous parts of the recharge zone. Residential and commercial development is increasing, particularly in Bexar County in south-central Texas, atop the densely fractured and steeply faulted recharge zone. The increasing development has increased the vulnerability of ground water to contamination by spillage or leakage of waste materials, particularly fluids associated with urban runoff and (or) septic-tank leachate. This report describes a method of assessing the vulnerability of ground water to contamination in the Edwards aquifer recharge zone. The method is based on ratings of five natural features of the area: (1) hydraulic properties of outcropping hydrogeologic units; (2) presence or absence of faults; (3) presence or absence of caves and (or) sinkholes; (4) slope of land surface; and (5) permeability of soil. The sum of the ratings for the five natural features was used to develop a map showing the recharge zone's vulnerability to ground-water contamination.

  20. Effect of water content on partial ternary phase diagram water-in-diesel microemulsion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukayat, Hastinatun; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Raman, Ismail Ab.; Ramli, Suria

    2014-09-01

    Introduction of water in the fuel gave a significant effect to the reduction of pollutant such as NOx emission. In this work, water/diesel microemulsion fuels were prepared using compositional method by mixing water and diesel in the presence of non-ionic surfactant and co-surfactant. The effects of water composition on the partial ternary phase diagram were studied at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (w/w). The physical stability of the microemulsion was investigated at 45°C over a period of one month. The optimum formulae obtained were diesel/T80/1-penthanol/water 60:20:15:5 wt% (System 1), 55:20:15:10 wt% (System 2), 50:20:15:15 wt% (System 3) and 45:20:15:20 wt% (System 4). Physicochemical characterizations of optimum formulae were studied. The results showed that water content has a significant effect to the formation of microemulsion, its stability, droplet size and viscosity.

  1. Effect of Water Cooling on the Performances of Friction Stir Welding Heat-Affected Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. J.; Liu, H. J.; Yu, L.

    2012-07-01

    The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generally the intrinsic weakest location of the normal friction stir welded precipitate hardened aluminum alloys. In order to improve the mechanical properties of the HAZ by controlling the temperature level, underwater friction stir welding (FSW) of an Al-Cu aluminum alloy was conducted in the present study. The results indicate that the hardness of the HAZ can be improved through underwater FSW. Microstructural analysis reveals that the hardness improvement is attributed to the lowering of precipitate coarsening level and the narrowing of precipitate free zone, which are essentially induced by the variations of welding thermal cycles under the cooling effect of water.

  2. Experimental investigation of water distribution in a two-phase zone during gravity-dominated evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare M.; Castaing, Jean-Christophe; Hough, Larry; Frétigny, Christian; Dreyfus, Rémi

    2017-12-01

    We characterize the water repartition within the partially saturated (two-phase) zone (PSZ) during evaporation from mixed wettable porous media by controlling the wettability of glass beads, their sizes, and as well the surrounding relative humidity. Here, capillary numbers are low and under these conditions, the percolating front is stabilized by gravity. Using experimental and numerical analyses, we find that the PSZ saturation decreases with the Bond number, where packing of smaller particles have higher saturation values than packing made of larger particles. Results also reveal that the extent (height) of the PSZ, as well as water saturation in the PSZ, both increase with wettability. We also numerically calculate the saturation exclusively contained in connected liquid films and results show that values are less than the expected PSZ saturation. These results strongly reflect that the two-phase zone is not solely made up of connected capillary networks but also made of disconnected water clusters or pockets. Moreover, we also find that global saturation (PSZ + full wet zone) decreases with wettability, confirming that greater quantity of water is lost via evaporation with increasing hydrophilicity. These results show that connected liquid films are favored in more-hydrophilic systems while disconnected water pockets are favored in less-hydrophilic systems.

  3. Capture Versus Capture Zones: Clarifying Terminology Related to Sources of Water to Wells.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Paul M; Leake, Stanley A; Fienen, Michael N

    2018-03-15

    The term capture, related to the source of water derived from wells, has been used in two distinct yet related contexts by the hydrologic community. The first is a water-budget context, in which capture refers to decreases in the rates of groundwater outflow and (or) increases in the rates of recharge along head-dependent boundaries of an aquifer in response to pumping. The second is a transport context, in which capture zone refers to the specific flowpaths that define the three-dimensional, volumetric portion of a groundwater flow field that discharges to a well. A closely related issue that has become associated with the source of water to wells is streamflow depletion, which refers to the reduction in streamflow caused by pumping, and is a type of capture. Rates of capture and streamflow depletion are calculated by use of water-budget analyses, most often with groundwater-flow models. Transport models, particularly particle-tracking methods, are used to determine capture zones to wells. In general, however, transport methods are not useful for quantifying actual or potential streamflow depletion or other types of capture along aquifer boundaries. To clarify the sometimes subtle differences among these terms, we describe the processes and relations among capture, capture zones, and streamflow depletion, and provide proposed terminology to distinguish among them. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Groundwater published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of National Ground Water Association.

  4. Effect of alteration zones on water quality: a case study from Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan

    2010-04-01

    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration can be found in the Can volcanics of Biga Peninsula, northwest Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from the boundary between fractured aquifer (silicified zone) and impervious boundary (argillic zone). This study focuses on two such springs in Kirazli area (Kirazli and Balaban springs) with a distinct quality pattern. Accordingly, field parameters (temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity), major anion and cation (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, and sulfate), heavy metals (aluminum, arsenic, barium, chromium, cobalt, cupper, iron, lithium, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc), and isotopes (oxygen-18, deuterium, and tritium) were determined in water samples taken from these springs during 2005 through 2007. The chemical analyses showed that aluminum concentrations were found to be two orders of magnitude greater in Kirazli waters (mean value 13813.25 microg/L). The levels of this element exceeded the maximum allowable limits given in national and international standards for drinking-water quality. In addition, Balaban and Kirazli springs are >55 years old according to their tritium levels; Kirazli spring is older than Balaban spring. Kirazli spring is also more enriched than Balaban spring based in oxygen-18 and deuterium values. Furthermore, Kirazli spring water has been in contact with altered rocks longer than Balaban spring water, according to its relatively high chloride and electrical conductivity values.

  5. The origin of high-nitrate ground waters in the Australian arid zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. J.; Jacobson, G.; Smith, G. D.

    1992-08-01

    Nitrate concentrations beyond the drinking-water limit of 10 mg1 -1 NO 3-N, are common in Australian arid-zone ground waters and are often associated with otherwise potable waters. In some aquifers nitrate-N concentrations of up to 80 mg1 -1 have been found, and this is a severe constraint on water supply development for small settlements. Water-bore data indicate a correlation of high-nitrate ground waters with shallow unconfined aquifers. Aguifer hydrochemistry indicats that these ground waters were emplaced by episodic Holocene recharge events in an otherwise arid climate regime. Nitrate has been flushed through the unsaturated zone which apparently lacks denitrification activity. The nitrate originates by near-surface biological fixation and contributing organisms include cyanobacteria in soil crusts and bacteria in termite mounds with the highest soil nitrate concentrations found in the outer skin of termite mounds. Bacteria associated with the termites appear to fix nitrogen, which eventually appears in an inorganic form, principally as ammonia. Nitrate is produced by bacterial oxidation of the ammonia, and is leached to the outside of the termite mound by capillary action. Diffuse recharge from extreme rainfall events then flushes this nitrate to the water table.

  6. What is the effect of local controls on the temporal stability of soil water contents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, G.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderlinden, K.; Hardelauf, H.; Herbst, M.

    2012-04-01

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) reflects the spatio-temporal organization of SWC. Factors and their interactions that control this organization, are not completely understood and have not been quantified yet. It is understood that these factors should be classified into groups of local and non-local controls. This work is a first attempt to evaluate the effects of soil properties at a certain location as local controls Time series of SWC were generated by running water flow simulations with the HYDRUS6 code. Bare and grassed sandy loam, loam and clay soils were represented by sets of 100 independent soil columns. Within each set, values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were generated randomly assuming for the standard deviation of the scaling factor of ln Ks a value ranging from 0.1 to 1.0. Weather conditions were the same for all of the soil columns. SWC at depths of 0.05 and 0.60 m, and the average water content of the top 1 m were analyzed. The temporal stability was characterized by calculating the mean relative differences (MRD) of soil water content. MRD distributions from simulations, developed from the log-normal distribution of Ks, agreed well with the experimental studies found in the literature. Generally, Ks was the leading variable to define the MRD rank for a specific location. Higher MRD corresponded to the lowest values of Ks when a single textural class was considered. Higher MRD were found in the finer texture when mixtures of textural classes were considered and similar values of Ks were compared. The relationships between the spread of the MRD distributions and the scaling factor of ln Ks were nonlinear. Variation in MRD was higher in coarser textures than in finer ones and more variability was seen in the topsoil than in the subsoil. Established vegetation decreased variability of MRD in the root zone and increased variability below. The dependence of MRD on Ks opens the possibility of using SWC sensor networks to

  7. Soil water content spatial pattern estimated by thermal inertia from air-borne sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Antonio; Basile, Angelo; Esposito, Marco; Menenti, Massimo; Buonanno, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Remote sensing of soil water content from air- or space-borne platforms offer the possibility to provide large spatial coverage and temporal continuity. The water content can be actually monitored in a thin soil layer, usually up to a depth of 0.05m below the soil surface. To the contrary, difficulties arise in the estimation of the water content storage along the soil profile and its spatial (horizontal) distribution, which are closely connected to soil hydraulic properties and their spatial distribution. A promising approach for estimating soil water contents profiles is the integration of remote sensing of surface water content and hydrological modeling. A major goal of the scientific group is to develop a practical and robust procedure for estimating water contents throughout the soil profile from surface water content. As a first step, in this work, we will show some preliminary results from aircraft images analysis and their validation by field campaigns data. The data extracted from the airborne sensors provided the opportunity of retrieving land surface temperatures with a very high spatial resolution. The surface water content pattern, as deduced by the thermal inertia estimations, was compared to the surface water contents maps measured in situ by time domain reflectometry-based probes.

  8. Global Transition Zone Anisotropy and Consequences for Mantle Flow and Earth's Deep Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2011-12-01

    The transition zone has long been at the center of the debate between multi- and single-layered convection models that directly relate to heat transport and chemical mixing throughout the mantle. It has also been suggested that the transition zone is a reservoir that collects water transported by subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. Since water lowers mantle minerals density and viscosity, thereby modifying their rheology and melting behavior, it likely affects global mantle dynamics and the history of plate tectonics. Constraining mantle flow is therefore important for our understanding of Earth's thermochemical evolution and deep water cycle. Because it can result from deformation by dislocation creep during convection, seismic anisotropy can help us model mantle flow. It is relatively well constrained in the uppermost mantle, but its presence in the transition zone is still debated. Its detection below 250 km depth has been challenging to date because of the poor vertical resolution of commonly used datasets. In this study, we used global Love wave overtone phase velocity maps, which are sensitive to structure down to much larger depths than fundamental modes alone, and have greater depth resolution than shear wave-splitting data. This enabled us to obtain a first 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy for the upper 800km of the mantle. We inverted the 2Ψ terms of anisotropic phase velocity maps [Visser, et al., 2008] for the first five Love wave overtones between 35s and 174s period. The resulting model shows that the average anisotropy amplitude for vertically polarized shear waves displays two main stable peaks: one in the uppermost mantle and, most remarkably, one in the lower transition zone. F-tests showed that the presence of 2Ψ anisotropy in the transition zone is required to improve the third, fourth, and fifth overtones fit. Because of parameter trade-offs, however, we cannot exclude that the anisotropy is located in the upper transition zone as

  9. High temperature ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water foam stabilized with viscoelastic zwitterionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Alzobaidi, Shehab; Da, Chang; Tran, Vu; Prodanović, Maša; Johnston, Keith P

    2017-02-15

    Ultralow water content carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) foams with gas phase volume fractions (ϕ) above 0.95 (that is <0.05 water) tend to be inherently unstable given that the large capillary pressures that cause the lamellar films to thin. Herein, we demonstrate that these C/W foams may be stabilized with viscoelastic aqueous phases formed with a single zwitterionic surfactant at a concentration of only 1% (w/v) in DI water and over a wide range of salinity. Moreover, they are stable with a foam quality ϕ up to 0.98 even for temperatures up to 120°C. The properties of aqueous viscoelastic solutions and foams containing these solutions are examined for a series of zwitterionic amidopropylcarbobetaines, R-ONHC 3 H 6 N(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 CO 2 , where R is varied from C 12 - 14 (coco) to C 18 (oleyl) to C 22 (erucyl). For the surfactants with long C 18 and C 22 tails, the relaxation times from complex rheology indicate the presence of viscoelastic wormlike micelles over a wide range in salinity and pH, given the high surfactant packing fraction. The apparent viscosities of these ultralow water content foams reached more than 120cP with stabilities more than 30-fold over those for foams formed with the non-viscoelastic C 12 - 14 surfactant. At 90°C, the foam morphology was composed of ∼35μm diameter bubbles with a polyhedral texture. The apparent foam viscosity typically increased with ϕ and then dropped at ϕ values higher than 0.95-0.98. The Ostwald ripening rate was slower for foams with viscoelastic versus non-viscoelastic lamellae as shown by optical microscopy, as a consequence of slower lamellar drainage rates. The ability to achieve high stabilities for ultralow water content C/W foams over a wide temperature range is of interest in various technologies including polymer and materials science, CO 2 enhanced oil recovery, CO 2 sequestration (by greater control of the CO 2 flow patterns), and possibly even hydraulic fracturing with minimal use of water to reduce

  10. [Effect of Seasonal Temperature Increasing on Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil of the Water Level Fluctuating Zone of Three Gorge Tributary During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun-jie; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Bin; Xiao, Xiao-jun; Ma, Hui-yan; Yu, Zhi-guo

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the effect of seasonal temperature increasing on nitrogen mineralization in soil of the water level fluctuating soil zone of three gorge reservoir areas in the Yangtze river tributary during the dry period, surface soils were collected from the water level fluctuating zone of Pengxi river crossing two hydrological sections, i.e., upstream and downstream and three water level altitudes, 155 m (low), 165 m (middle) and 175 m (high). We incubated the soil at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C to determine the transformation rates of nitrogen in soil of Pengxi river basin during the dry period. The result showed that TN and NO3- -N contents in the soil of upstream section and higher (175 m) altitude of water level were higher than those in downstream and low (165 m) altitude of water level, whereas the pattern for NH4+ -N was different, with higher NH4+ -N contents in downstream and low water level. The inorganic nitrogen was dominated by NO3- -N, which accounted for up to 57.4%-84.7% of inorganic nitrogen. Generally, soil ammoniation, nitration and net N mineralization increased with the rising water level altitude and stream sections (P < 0.05). In summary, nitration and net N mineralization significantly increased with increasing temperature, (P < 0.05), while ammoniation showed no difference (P > 0.05).

  11. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  12. Water movement within the unsaturated zone in four agricultural areas of the United States

    Fisher, L.H.; Healy, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Millions of tons of agricultural fertilizer and pesticides are applied annually in the USA. Due to the potential for these chemicals to migrate to groundwater, a study was conducted in 2004 using field data to calculate water budgets, rates of groundwater recharge and times of water travel through the unsaturated zone and to identify factors that influence these phenomena. Precipitation was the only water input at sites in Indiana and Maryland; irrigation accounted for about 80% of total water input at sites in California and Washington. Recharge at the Indiana site (47.5 cm) and at the Maryland site (31.5 cm) were equivalent to 51 and 32%, respectively, of annual precipitation and occurred between growing seasons. Recharge at the California site (42.3 cm) and Washington site (11.9 cm) occurred in response to irrigation events and was about 29 and 13% of total water input, respectively. Average residence time of water in the unsaturated zone, calculated using a piston-flow approach, ranged from less than 1 yr at the Indiana site to more than 8 yr at the Washington site. Results of bromide tracer tests indicate that at three of the four sites, a fraction of the water applied at land surface may have traveled to the water table in less than 1 yr. The timing and intensity of precipitation and irrigation were the dominant factors controlling recharge, suggesting that the time of the year at which chemicals are applied may be important for chemical transport through the unsaturated zone. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Resolving precipitation-induced water content profiles through inversion of dispersive GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangel, A. R.; Moysey, S. M.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become a popular tool for monitoring hydrologic processes. When monitoring infiltration, the thin wetted zone that occurs near the ground surface at early times may act as a dispersive waveguide. This low-velocity layer traps the GPR waves, causing specific frequencies of the signal to travel at different phase velocities, confounding standard traveltime analysis. In a previous numerical study we demonstrated the potential of dispersion analysis for estimating the depth distribution of waveguide water contents. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of the methodology when applying it to experimental time-lapse dispersive GPR data collected during a laboratory infiltration experiment in a relatively homogenous soil. A large sand-filled tank is equipped with an automated gantry to independently control the position of 1000 MHz source and receiver antennas. The system was programmed to repeatedly collect a common mid-point (CMP) profile at the center of the tank followed by two constant offset profiles (COP) in the x and y direction. Each collection was completed in 30 s and repeated 50 times during a 28 min experiment. Two minutes after the start of measurements, the surface of the sand was irrigated at a constant flux rate of 0.006 cm/sec for 23 minutes. Time-lapse COPs show increases in traveltime to reflectors in the tank associated with increasing water content, as well as the development of a wetting front reflection. From 4-10 min, the CMPs show a distinct shingling characteristic that is indicative of waveguide dispersion. Forward models where the waveguide is conceptualized as discrete layers and a piece-wise linear function were used to invert picked dispersion curves for waveguide properties. We show the results from both inversion approaches for multiple dispersive CMPs and show how the single layer model fails to represent the gradational nature of the wetting front.

  14. Weathering, Fractures and Water in the deep Critical Zone: Geophysical investigations in the U.S. Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Hayes, J. L.; Flinchum, B. A.; St Clair, J. T.; Riebe, C. S.; Richter, D., Jr.; Leone, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is Earth's breathing skin: the thin layer from treetop to bedrock that supports most terrestrial life. Key hydrological, biogeochemical, and physical processes occur in the CZ, including physical and chemical weathering, soil production, erosion, nutrient cycling, and surface/groundwater exchange. These processes in turn influence subsurface water storage capacity, landscape evolution, ecological stability, aquifer recharge and stream flow. Because the deep CZ is hidden from direct observation, it can only be studied by drilling and/or geophysical measurements. Given the relative scarcity of such data, we lack a complete understanding of the architecture of the CZ, how it varies across landscapes, and what controls that variation. We present geophysical data that address these questions at six Critical Zone Observatories (CZO): Calhoun, Boulder Creek, Eel River, Reynolds Creek, Catalina-Jemez, and Southern Sierra. Conclusions include: (1) Regolith depth is influenced by the opening of fractures due to the release of regional and topographic stress as rocks are exhumed toward the surface. Stress models at Calhoun and Boulder Creek show remarkable agreement with seismic velocities in the shallow subsurface, suggesting that stress release controls the development of fracture porosity in the CZ. (2) Chemical weathering (plagioclase dissolution) begins at depths where fractures open (~40 m at Calhoun), implying that fracturing and chemical weathering are intimately paired in the deep CZ. (3) Volumetric strain is an underappreciated contributor to porosity in the CZ. In the Southern Sierra, strain dominates over chemical weathering in the upper 10 m, consistent with the stress-release model. (4) Geological structure and lithology can trump environmental controls (e.g., aspect and climate) on regolith development. At Catalina, strongly contrasting regolith thickness on north- and south-facing slopes, is not due to "northness", but rather to

  15. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE BOTTLED DRINKING WATER IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Rirattanapong, Opas

    2016-09-01

    The use of bottled drinking water may be a source of fluoride and could be a risk factor for fluorosis among infants and young children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride content of commercially available bottled drinking water in Bangkok, Thailand. Forty-five water samples (15 samples of plain water and 30 samples of mineral water) were purchased from several supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. Three bottles of each water sample were purchased, and the fluoride content of each sample was measured twice using a combination fluoride-ion selective electrode. The average reading for each sample was then calculated. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Differences between mineral and plain water samples were determined by Student’s t-test. The mean (±SD) fluoride content for all the water samples was 0.17 (±0.17) mg F/l (range: 0.01-0.89 mg F/l). Six brands (13%) tested stated the fluoride content on the label. The actual fluoride content in each of their brands varied little from the label. Eight samples (18%) had a fluoride content >0.3 mg F/l and two samples (4%) had a fluoride content >0.6 mg F/l. The mean mineral water fluoride concentration was significantly higher than the mean fluoride concentration of plain water (p=0.001). We found commercially sold bottled drinking water in Bangkok, Thailand contained varying concentrations of fluoride; some with high concentrations of fluoride. Health professions need to be aware this varying fluoride content of bottled drinking water and educate the parents of infants and small children about this when prescribing fluoride supplements. Consideration should be made to have fluoride content put on the label of bottled water especially among brands with a content >0.3 mg F/l.

  16. Simulating sunflower canopy temperatures to infer root-zone soil water potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.

    1983-01-01

    A soil-plant-atmosphere model for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), together with clear sky weather data for several days, is used to study the relationship between canopy temperature and root-zone soil water potential. Considering the empirical dependence of stomatal resistance on insolation, air temperature and leaf water potential, a continuity equation for water flux in the soil-plant-atmosphere system is solved for the leaf water potential. The transpirational flux is calculated using Monteith's combination equation, while the canopy temperature is calculated from the energy balance equation. The simulation shows that, at high soil water potentials, canopy temperature is determined primarily by air and dew point temperatures. These results agree with an empirically derived linear regression equation relating canopy-air temperature differential to air vapor pressure deficit. The model predictions of leaf water potential are also in agreement with observations, indicating that measurements of canopy temperature together with a knowledge of air and dew point temperatures can provide a reliable estimate of the root-zone soil water potential.

  17. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  18. Documentation of the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) Package for modeling Unsaturated Flow Between the Land Surface and the Water Table with MODFLOW-2005

    Niswonger, Richard G.; Prudic, David E.; Regan, R. Steven

    2006-01-01

    Percolation of precipitation through unsaturated zones is important for recharge of ground water. Rain and snowmelt at land surface are partitioned into different pathways including runoff, infiltration, evapotranspiration, unsaturated-zone storage, and recharge. A new package for MODFLOW-2005 called the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) Package was developed to simulate water flow and storage in the unsaturated zone and to partition flow into evapotranspiration and recharge. The package also accounts for land surface runoff to streams and lakes. A kinematic wave approximation to Richards? equation is solved by the method of characteristics to simulate vertical unsaturated flow. The approach assumes that unsaturated flow occurs in response to gravity potential gradients only and ignores negative potential gradients; the approach further assumes uniform hydraulic properties in the unsaturated zone for each vertical column of model cells. The Brooks-Corey function is used to define the relation between unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water content. Variables used by the UZF1 Package include initial and saturated water contents, saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity, and an exponent in the Brooks-Corey function. Residual water content is calculated internally by the UZF1 Package on the basis of the difference between saturated water content and specific yield. The UZF1 Package is a substitution for the Recharge and Evapotranspiration Packages of MODFLOW-2005. The UZF1 Package differs from the Recharge Package in that an infiltration rate is applied at land surface instead of a specified recharge rate directly to ground water. The applied infiltration rate is further limited by the saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity. The UZF1 Package differs from the Evapotranspiration Package in that evapotranspiration losses are first removed from the unsaturated zone above the evapotranspiration extinction depth, and if the demand is not met, water can be removed

  19. Determination of threshold value of soil water content for field and vegetable plants with lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoblauch, S.

    2009-04-01

    Phaeozem with silt-loamy texture developed from loess (water content at wilting point amounts between 0.167 and 0.270 cm3/cm3 and at field capacity (0.03 MPa) between 0.286 and 0.342 cm3/cm3). The mean annual temperature is 8.2°C and the mean annual precipitation is 550 mm. Results are as follows: Winter wheat begins to reduce evapotranspiration when the water content in the root zone to a depth of 2.0 m is smaller than 25 % of the available water holding capacity (AWC). That is equal to an amount of soil water of 171 mm. The threshold value of potatoes is 40 % of the AWC to a rooting depth of 0.6 m (49 mm soil water amount). The corresponding value for cabbage is 40 % of the AWC relating to a rooting depth of 1.2 m, for cauli flower 60 % of the AWC relating to a depth of 1.0 m and for onion 80 % of the AWC to a rooting depth of 0.3 m (90, 50 and 5 mm soil water amount). Nevertheless onion attain a maximum rooting depth of 0.9 m. The maximum rooting depths of winter wheat, potatoes, cabbage and cawli flower are 2.0, 1.0, 1.5 und 1.5 m. The date on which the threshold is reached is different, for winter wheat and cabbage just before harvest and for onion in a few days after 8-leaf-stage. However, it is assumed that these values are also the influence of weather reflect, particulary with regard to the transpiration demand of the atmosphere and the amount of rain fall during earlier growth stages which can prefer the development of adaptation mechanism. Although there are great differences between the plant species concerning root water uptake to avoid a decline of biomass production due to drought.

  20. Dynamic Kinetics of Nitrogen Cycle in Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction Zone at Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.; Xu, F.; Yan, A.; Shi, L.; Zachara, J. M.; Gao, Y.; Qian, W.; Nelson, W.; Fredrickson, J.; Zhong, L.; Thompson, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen cycle carried out by microbes is an important geobiological process that has global implications for carbon and nitrogen cycling and climate change. This presentation describes a study of nitrogen cycle in groundwater-surface water interaction zone (GSIZ) at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Groundwater at Hanford sites has long been documented with nitrate contamination. Nearby Columbia River stage changes of up to 3 m every day because of daily discharge fluctuation from upstream Priest Rapids Dam; resulting an exchange of groundwater and surface water in a short time period. Yet, nitrogen cycle in the GSIZ at Hanford Site remains unclear. Column studies have been used to identify nitrogen metabolism pathways and investigate kinetics of nitrogen cycle in groundwater saturated zone, surface water saturated zone, and GSIZ. Functional gene and protein abundances were determined by qPCR and PRISM-SRM (high-pressure, high-resolution separations coupled with intelligent selection and multiplexing for sensitive selected reaction monitoring) to identify key enzymatic reactions and metabolic pathways of nitrogen cycle. The results showed that dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) competed with denitrification under anaerobic conditions, reducing 30% of NO3- to NH4+, a cation strongly retained on the sediments. As dissolved oxygen intruded the anaerobic zone with river water, NH4+ was oxidized to NO3-, increasing the mobility of NO3-. Multiplicative Monod models were established to describe nitrogen cycle in columns fed with O2 depleted synthetic groundwater and O2 saturated synthetic river water, respectively. The two models were then coupled to predict the dynamic kinetics of nitrogen cycle in GSIZ.

  1. Exploring the time-frequency content of high frequency oscillations for automated identification of seizure onset zone in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Sha, Zhiyi; Sencer, Altay; Aydoseli, Aydin; Bebek, Nerse; Abosch, Aviva; Henry, Thomas; Gurses, Candan; Ince, Nuri Firat

    2016-04-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) in intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings are considered as promising clinical biomarkers of epileptogenic regions in the brain. The aim of this study is to improve and automatize the detection of HFOs by exploring the time-frequency content of iEEG and to investigate the seizure onset zone (SOZ) detection accuracy during the sleep, awake and pre-ictal states in patients with epilepsy, for the purpose of assisting the localization of SOZ in clinical practice. Ten-minute iEEG segments were defined during different states in eight patients with refractory epilepsy. A three-stage algorithm was implemented to detect HFOs in these segments. First, an amplitude based initial detection threshold was used to generate a large pool of HFO candidates. Then distinguishing features were extracted from the time and time-frequency domain of the raw iEEG and used with a Gaussian mixture model clustering to isolate HFO events from other activities. The spatial distribution of HFO clusters was correlated with the seizure onset channels identified by neurologists in seven patient with good surgical outcome. The overlapping rates of localized channels and seizure onset locations were high in all states. The best result was obtained using the iEEG data during sleep, achieving a sensitivity of 81%, and a specificity of 96%. The channels with maximum number of HFOs identified epileptogenic areas where the seizures occurred more frequently. The current study was conducted using iEEG data collected in realistic clinical conditions without channel pre-exclusion. HFOs were investigated with novel features extracted from the entire frequency band, and were correlated with SOZ in different states. The results indicate that automatic HFO detection with unsupervised clustering methods exploring the time-frequency content of raw iEEG can be efficiently used to identify the epileptogenic zone with an accurate and efficient manner.

  2. Vertical variation in the amplitude of the seasonal isotopic content of rainfall as a tool to jointly estimate the groundwater recharge zone and transit times in the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park aquifer system, north-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Jódar, Jorge; Custodio, Emilio; Lambán, Luis Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Herrera-Lameli, Christian; Sapriza-Azuri, Gonzalo

    2016-12-15

    The time series of stable water isotope composition relative to meteorological stations and springs located in the high mountainous zone of the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park are analyzed in order to study how the seasonal isotopic content of precipitation propagates through the hydrogeological system in terms of the aquifer recharge zone elevation and transit time. The amplitude of the seasonal isotopic composition of precipitation and the mean isotopic content in rainfall vary along a vertical transect, with altitudinal slopes for δ 18 O of 0.9‰/km for seasonal amplitude and -2.2‰/km for isotopic content. The main recharge zone elevation for the sampled springs is between 1950 and 2600m·a.s.l. The water transit time for the sampled springs ranges from 1.1 to 4.5yr, with an average value of 1.85yr and a standard deviation of 0.8yr. The hydrological system tends to behave as a mixing reservoir. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Running-induced patellofemoral pain fluctuates with changes in patella water content.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Although increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint loading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP), there is little data to support this mechanism. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether running results in increases in patella water content and pain and whether 48 hours of rest reduces patella water content and pain to pre-running levels. Ten female runners with a diagnosis of PFP (mean age 25.1 years) participated. Patella water content was quantified using a chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to quantify subjects' pain levels. MRI and pain data were obtained prior to running, immediately following a 40-minute running session, and 48 hours post-running. Pain and patella water content were compared among the 3 time points using one-way ANOVA's with repeated measures. Immediately post-running, persons with PFP reported significant increases in pain and exhibited elevated patella water content. Pain and patella water content decreased to pre-running levels following 48 hours of rest. Our findings suggest that transient changes in patella water content associated with running may, in part, contribute to patellofemoral symptoms.

  4. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  5. Extreme Water Loss and Abiotic O2 Buildup on Planets Throughout the Habitable Zones of M Dwarfs

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than ∼1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred million years following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase, provided they form with abundant surface water. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone, regardless of whether the escape is energy-limited or diffusion-limited. We find that the amount of water lost scales with the planet mass, since the diffusion-limited hydrogen escape flux is proportional to the planet surface gravity. In addition to undergoing potential desiccation, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bar of abiotically produced O2, resulting in potential false positives for life. The amount of O2 that builds up also scales with the planet mass; we find that O2 builds up at a constant rate that is controlled by diffusion: ∼5 bar/Myr on Earth-mass planets and up to ∼25 bar/Myr on super-Earths. As a result, some recently discovered super-Earths in the habitable zone such as GJ 667Cc could have built up as many as 2000 bar of O2 due to the loss of up to 10 Earth oceans of water. The fate of a given planet strongly depends on the extreme ultraviolet flux, the duration of the runaway regime, the initial water content, and the rate at which oxygen is absorbed by the surface. In general, we find that the initial phase of high luminosity may compromise the habitability of many terrestrial planets orbiting low-mass stars. Key Words: Astrobiology—Biosignatures—Extrasolar terrestrial planets—Habitability—Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 15, 119–143. PMID:25629240

  6. Fluid flow and water-rock interaction in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Mark E.; Thomas, Donald M.; Flexser, Steven; Vennemann, Torsten W.

    1997-07-01

    The East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii represents a major area of geothermal activity. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses of secondary hydrothermal minerals in core samples from three scientific observation holes (SOH) drilled into the rift zone indicate that the geothermal system is dominated by meteoric waters to depths of as much as 1500 m below sea level. Calculated δ18O and δD values for fluids on the north side of the rift zone indicate that the deep meteoric fluids may be derived from precipitation on the upper slopes of Mauna Loa Volcano. In the interior of the rift zone, recharge is dominated by seawater mixed with local meteoric water. Water/rock ratios in the rift area are approximately 2, but strongly 18O-enriched fluids in the deeper parts of the SOH-2 and SOH-4 drill holes (on the north side of the rift) indicate that the fluids underwent extensive interaction with rocks prior to reaching this part of the rift zone. Marine carbonates at the subaerial to submarine transition (between 1700 and 1780 m depth) in SOH-4 have not fully equilibrated with the fluids, suggesting that the onset of hydrothermal activity in this area was relatively recent (<2000 years). This may represent increased volcanic activity along the rift after the end of the Ai La'au phase of eruptive activity at the Kilauea summit approximately 1000 years ago, or it may reflect progressive evolution of the hydrothermal system in response to southward migration of intrusive activity within the rift.

  7. [Spectral reflectance characteristics and modeling of typical Takyr Solonetzs water content].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-hua; Jia, Ke-li

    2015-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the spectral reflectance of the typical Takyr Solonetzs soil in Ningxia, the relationship of soil water content and spectral reflectance was determined, and a quantitative model for the prediction of soil water content was constructed. The results showed that soil spectral reflectance decreased with the increasing soil water content when it was below the water holding capacity but increased with the increasing soil water content when it was higher than the water holding capacity. Soil water content presented significantly negative correlation with original reflectance (r), smooth reflectance (R), logarithm of reflectance (IgR), and positive correlation with the reciprocal of R and logarithm of reciprocal [lg (1/R)]. The correlation coefficient of soil water content and R in the whole wavelength was 0.0013, 0.0397 higher than r and lgR, respectively. Average correlation coefficient of soil water content with 1/R and [lg (1/R)] at the wavelength of 950-1000 nm was 0.2350 higher than that of 400-950 nm. The relationships of soil water content with the first derivate differential (R') , the first derivate differential of logarithm (lgR)' and the first derivate differential of logarithm of reciprocal [lg(1/R)]' were unstable. Base on the coefficients of r, lg(1/R), R' and (lgR)', different regression models were established to predict soil water content, and the coefficients of determination were 0.7610, 0.8184, 0.8524 and 0.8255, respectively. The determination coefficient for power function model of R'. reached 0.9447, while the fitting degree between the predicted value based on this model and on-site measured value was 0.8279. The model of R' had the highest fitted accuracy, while that of r had the lowest one. The results could provide a scientific basis for soil water content prediction and field irrigation in the Takyr Solonetzs region.

  8. Effects of thermal vapor diffusion on seasonal dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone

    Milly, Paul C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The response of water in the unsaturated zone to seasonal changes of temperature (T) is determined analytically using the theory of nonisothermal water transport in porous media, and the solutions are tested against field observations of moisture potential and bomb fallout isotopic (36Cl and 3H) concentrations. Seasonally varying land surface temperatures and the resulting subsurface temperature gradients induce thermal vapor diffusion. The annual mean vertical temperature gradient is close to zero; however, the annual mean thermal vapor flux is downward, because the temperature‐dependent vapor diffusion coefficient is larger, on average, during downward diffusion (occurring at high T) than during upward diffusion (low T). The annual mean thermal vapor flux is shown to decay exponentially with depth; the depth (about 1 m) at which it decays to e−1of its surface value is one half of the corresponding decay depth for the amplitude of seasonal temperature changes. This depth‐dependent annual mean flux is effectively a source of water, which must be balanced by a flux divergence associated with other transport processes. In a relatively humid environment the liquid fluxes greatly exceed the thermal vapor fluxes, so such a balance is readily achieved without measurable effect on the dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone. However, if the mean vertical water flux through the unsaturated zone is very small (<1 mm y−1), as it may be at many locations in a desert landscape, the thermal vapor flux must be balanced mostly by a matric‐potential‐induced upward flux of water. This return flux may include both vapor and liquid components. Below any near‐surface zone of weather‐related fluctuations of matric potential, maintenance of this upward flux requires an increase with depth in the annual mean matric potential; this theoretical prediction is supported by long‐term field measurements in the Chihuahuan Desert. The analysis also makes predictions

  9. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  10. Predicting Plant-Accessible Water in the Critical Zone: Mountain Ecosystems in a Mediterranean Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, P. Z.; Goulden, M.; Riebe, C. S.; Tague, C.; O'Geen, A. T.; Flinchum, B. A.; Safeeq, M.; Conklin, M. H.; Hart, S. C.; Asefaw Berhe, A.; Hartsough, P. C.; Holbrook, S.; Bales, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced understanding of subsurface water storage, and the below-ground architecture and processes that create it, will advance our ability to predict how the impacts of climate change - including drought, forest mortality, wildland fire, and strained water security - will take form in the decades to come. Previous research has examined the importance of plant-accessible water in soil, but in upland landscapes within Mediterranean climates the soil is often only the upper extent of subsurface water storage. We draw insights from both this previous research and a case study of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory to: define attributes of subsurface storage, review observed patterns in its distribution, highlight nested methods for its estimation across scales, and showcase the fundamental processes controlling its formation. We observe that forest ecosystems at our sites subsist on lasting plant-accessible stores of subsurface water during the summer dry period and during multi-year droughts. This indicates that trees in these forest ecosystems are rooted deeply in the weathered, highly porous saprolite, which reaches up to 10-20 m beneath the surface. This confirms the importance of large volumes of subsurface water in supporting ecosystem resistance to climate and landscape change across a range of spatiotemporal scales. This research enhances the ability to predict the extent of deep subsurface storage across landscapes; aiding in the advancement of both critical zone science and the management of natural resources emanating from similar mountain ecosystems worldwide.

  11. Connection Zones, Surface Water - Groundwater: Aquifers Associated To Niger Central Delta, In Mali.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kone, S.

    2016-12-01

    Surface water infiltration recharging Mali aquifers occurs through, underlying perched hydrogeological networks, lacustrine zones of the Central Delta or inundation valleys. The mapping of both the Surface water and the Groundwater, their types and availabilities, are briefly presented, and the focus of the study is on the types of hydraulic connections between these water bodies. The aquifers hydraulically connected to the Niger Central Delta flows systems are Continental Terminal/Quaternary, and they concern some areas where either inundation or perennial surface water flow occurs. These aquifers belong to the hydrogeological Unit of Central Delta where the recharge by surface water is estimated to be five percent of the flow loss between the entry and the outlet of this hydrological system. Some attempts of simulation along with a review based on the first studies synthetized in "Synthese Hydrogeologique du Mali" would permit to pave the way to other studies on these hydraulically connected zones in Mali. A previews simulation study, about mapping the potential rate of pumping capacity, corroborates some observed structural characteristics and leads to subdivide the area in two hydrogeological sectors, and the present simulation studies focus on the sector "Macina -Diaka" where surface water are in hydraulic relation with groundwater.

  12. Environmental implications of high metal content in soils of a titanium mining zone in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maina, David M; Ndirangu, Douglas M; Mangala, Michael M; Boman, Johan; Shepherd, Keith; Gatari, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Mining activities contribute to an increase of specific metal contaminants in soils. This may adversely affect plant life and consequently impact on animal and human health. The objective of this study was to obtain the background metal concentrations in soils around the titanium mining in Kwale County for monitoring its environmental impacts. Forty samples were obtained with half from topsoils and the other from subsoils. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine the metal content of the soil samples. High concentrations of Ti, Mn, Fe, and Zr were observed where Ti concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 2.8 %; Mn 0.02 to 3.1 %; Fe 0.89 to 3.1 %; and Zr 0.05 to 0.85 %. Using ratios of elemental concentrations in topsoil to subsoil method and enrichment factors concept, the metals were observed to be of geogenic origin with no anthropogenic input. The high concentrations of Mn and Fe may increase their concentration levels in the surrounding agricultural lands through deposition, thereby causing contamination on the land and the cultivated food crops. The latter can cause adverse human health effects. In addition, titanium mining will produce tailings containing low-level titanium concentrations, which will require proper disposal to avoid increasing titanium concentrations in the soils of the region since it has been observed to be phytotoxic to plants at high concentrations. The results of this study will serve as reference while monitoring the environmental impact by the titanium mining activities.

  13. Soil water content drives spatiotemporal patterns of CO2 and N2O emissions from a Mediterranean riparian forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblador, Sílvia; Lupon, Anna; Sabaté, Santiago; Sabater, Francesc

    2017-09-01

    Riparian zones play a fundamental role in regulating the amount of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) that is exported from catchments. However, C and N removal via soil gaseous pathways can influence local budgets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contribute to climate change. Over a year, we quantified soil effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a Mediterranean riparian forest in order to understand the role of these ecosystems on catchment GHG emissions. In addition, we evaluated the main soil microbial processes that produce GHG (mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification) and how changes in soil properties can modify the GHG production over time and space. Riparian soils emitted larger amounts of CO2 (1.2-10 g C m-2 d-1) than N2O (0.001-0.2 mg N m-2 d-1) to the atmosphere attributed to high respiration and low denitrification rates. Both CO2 and N2O emissions showed a marked (but antagonistic) spatial gradient as a result of variations in soil water content across the riparian zone. Deep groundwater tables fueled large soil CO2 effluxes near the hillslope, while N2O emissions were higher in the wet zones adjacent to the stream channel. However, both CO2 and N2O emissions peaked after spring rewetting events, when optimal conditions of soil water content, temperature, and N availability favor microbial respiration, nitrification, and denitrification. Overall, our results highlight the role of water availability on riparian soil biogeochemistry and GHG emissions and suggest that climate change alterations in hydrologic regimes can affect the microbial processes that produce GHG as well as the contribution of these systems to regional and global biogeochemical cycles.

  14. Ground penetrating radar water content mapping of golf course green sand layers

    Information on the spatial distribution of water content across the sand layer component of a golf course green can be important to golf course superintendents for evaluating drainage effectiveness and scheduling irrigation. To estimate the bulk water content of the sand layer at point locations ac...

  15. Preliminary assestment of lint cotton water content in gin-drying temperature studies

    Prior studies to measure total water (free and bound) in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration showed the method is more accurate and precise than moisture content by standard oven drying. The objective of the current study was to compare the moisture and total water contents from five cultivars de...

  16. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content

    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil water content (SWC) variability within agricultural fields is useful to improve crop management. Spatial patterns of soil water contents can be characterized using the temporal stability analysis, however high density sampling is required. Soil apparent electrical c...

  17. Field tests of a down-hole TDR profiling water content measurement system

    Accurate soil profile water content monitoring at multiple depths has previously been possible only using the neutron probe (NP), but with great effort and at unsatisfactory intervals. Despite the existence of several capacitance systems for profile water content measurements, accuracy and spatial r...

  18. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Multiyear stability of soil water content profiles

    Scaling in situ soil water content time series data to a large spatial domain is a key element of watershed environmental monitoring and modeling. The primary method of estimating and monitoring large-scale soil water content distributions is via in situ networks. It is critical to establish the s...

  19. Computer modelling of technogenic thermal pollution zones in large water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshakova, Ya N.; Lyubimova, T. P.

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, the thermal pollution zones created due to discharge of heated water from thermal power plants are investigated using the example of the Permskaya Thermal Power Plant (Permskaya TPP or Permskaya GRES), which is one of the largest thermal power plants in Europe. The study is performed for different technological and hydrometeorological conditions. Since the vertical temperature distribution in such wastewater reservoirs is highly inhomogeneous, the computations are performed in the framework of 3D model.

  20. Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashora, N.; Sharma, S.; Dabas, R. S.; Alex, S.; Pandey, R.

    2009-05-01

    Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i) GPS derived total electron content (TEC) variations following the storm (ii) Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii) effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's) on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) zone. Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E), ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E) and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E) have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC) have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz) and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i) enhanced background level of VTEC as compared to the mean

  1. [The new method monitoring crop water content based on NIR-Red spectrum feature space].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Yang, Gui-jun; Li, Zhen-hai

    2014-06-01

    Moisture content is an important index of crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring of crop water content is of great significance for evaluating crop water deficit balance and guiding agriculture irrigation. The present paper was trying to build a new crop water index for winter wheat vegetation water content based on NIR-Red spectral space. Firstly, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled according to relative spectral response function of HJ-CCD and ZY-3. Then, a new index (PWI) was set up to estimate vegetation water content of winter wheat by improveing PDI (perpendicular drought index) and PVI (perpendicular vegetation index) based on NIR-Red spectral feature space. The results showed that the relationship between PWI and VWC (vegetation water content) was stable based on simulation of wide-band multispectral data HJ-CCD and ZY-3 with R2 being 0.684 and 0.683, respectively. And then VWC was estimated by using PWI with the R2 and RMSE being 0.764 and 0.764, 3.837% and 3.840%, respectively. The results indicated that PWI has certain feasibility to estimate crop water content. At the same time, it provides a new method for monitoring crop water content using remote sensing data HJ-CCD and ZY-3.

  2. Water recharge and solute transport through the vadose zone of fractured chalk under desert conditions

    SciT

    Nativ, R.; Dahan, O.; Adar, E.

    In the present study the inferred mechanism of groundwater recharge and contamination was studied using tracer concentrations in the fractured vadose zone of the Avdat chalk. The results of this study are important for an evaluation of groundwater contamination from existing and planned facilities in the northern Negev desert in Israel. This study focused on the vicinity of the Ramat Hovav industrial chemical complex in the northern Negev, which also includes the national site for hazardous waste. Water recharge and solute migration rates were examined in five core holes and one borehole which penetrate the entire vadose zone and enabledmore » the collection of rock samples for chemical and isotopic analyses, and an observation of fracture distribution with depth. Tritium profiles were used to estimate water percolation rates through the vadose zone, chloride profiles were used to assess the migration rate of nonreactive solutes, and bromide profiles were also used to evaluate the migration rate of nonreactive contaminants. Deuterium and oxygen 18 profiles were used to assess the evaporation of the infiltrating water at and near land surface.« less

  3. Induced heterogeneity of soil water content and chemical properties by treated wastewater irrigation and its reclamation by freshwater irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahav, Matan; Brindt, Naaran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Wallach, Rony

    2017-06-01

    The recognition of treated wastewater (TWW) as an alternative water resource is expanding in areas with a shortage of freshwater (FW) resources. Today, most orchards in Israel are irrigated with TWW. While the benefits of using TWW for irrigation are apparent, evidence of its negative effects on soil, trees, and yield is accumulating. This study, performed in a commercial TWW-irrigated citrus orchard in central Israel, examined the effects of (1) soil-wettability decrease due to prolonged TWW irrigation on the spatial and temporal distribution of water content and associated chemical properties in the root zone; (2) the conversion of irrigation in half of the TWW-irrigated research plot to FW (2012) for soil reclamation. Electrical resistivity tomography surveys in the substantially water repellent soils revealed that water flow is occurring along preferential flow paths in both plots, leaving behind a considerably nonuniform water-content distribution. This was despite the gradual relief in soil water repellency measured in the FW plots. Four soil-sampling campaigns (spring and fall, 2014-2016), performed in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layers of the research plot, revealed bimodal gravimetrically measured water-content distribution. The preferential flow led to uneven chemical-property distribution, with substantially high concentrations in the dry spots, and lower concentrations in the wet spots along the preferential flow paths. The average salt and nutrient concentrations, which were initially high in both plots, gradually dispersed with time, as concentrations in the FW plots decreased. Nevertheless, the efficiency of reclaiming TWW soil by FW irrigation appears low.

  4. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  5. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  6. Relating salt marsh pore water geochemistry patterns to vegetation zones and hydrologic influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Kevan B.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-03-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological factors influence vegetation zonation in salt marshes and other wetlands, but connections among these factors could be better understood. If salt marsh vegetation and marsh pore water geochemistry coorganize, e.g., via continuous plant water uptake and persistently unsaturated sediments controlling vegetation zone-specific pore water geochemistry, this could complement known physical mechanisms of marsh self-organization. A high-resolution survey of pore water geochemistry was conducted among five salt marsh vegetation zones at the same intertidal elevation. Sampling transects were arrayed both parallel and perpendicular to tidal channels. Pore water geochemistry patterns were both horizontally differentiated, corresponding to vegetation zonation, and vertically differentiated, relating to root influences. The geochemical patterns across the site were less broadly related to marsh hydrology than to vegetation zonation. Mechanisms contributing to geochemical differentiation included: root-induced oxidation and nutrient (P) depletion, surface and creek-bank sediment flushing by rainfall or tides, evapotranspiration creating aerated pore space for partial sediment flushing in some areas while persistently saturated conditions hindered pore water renewal in others, and evapoconcentration of pore water solutes overall. The concentrated pore waters draining to the tidal creeks accounted for 41% of ebb tide solutes (median of 14 elements), including being a potentially toxic source of Ni but a slight sink for Zn, at least during the short, winter study period in southern San Francisco Bay. Heterogeneous vegetation effects on pore water geochemistry are not only significant locally within the marsh but may broadly influence marsh-estuary solute exchange and ecology.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of water quality in the coastal zone by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing as a tool in a waste management program is discussed. By monitoring both the pollution sources and the environmental quality, the interaction between the components of the exturaine system was observed. The need for in situ sampling is reduced with the development of improved calibrated, multichannel sensors. Remote sensing is used for: (1) pollution source determination, (2) mapping the influence zone of the waste source on water quality parameters, and (3) estimating the magnitude of the water quality parameters. Diffusion coefficients and circulation patterns can also be determined by remote sensing, along with subtle changes in vegetative patterns and density.

  8. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS) , on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  9. Automated Passive Capillary Lysimeters for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, J.; Evans, R.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrated and evaluated the performance and accuracy of an automated PCAP lysimeters that we designed for in-situ continuous measuring and estimating of drainage water below the rootzone of a sugarbeet-potato-barley rotation under two irrigation frequencies. Twelve automated PCAPs with sampling surface dimensions of 31 cm width * 91 cm long and 87 cm in height were placed 90 cm below the soil surface in a Lihen sandy loam. Our state-of-the-art design incorporated Bluetooth wireless technology to enable an automated datalogger to transmit drainage water data simultaneously every 15 minutes to a remote host and had a greater efficiency than other types of lysimeters. It also offered a significantly larger coverage area (2700 cm2) than similarly designed vadose zone lysimeters. The cumulative manually extracted drainage water was compared with the cumulative volume of drainage water recorded by the datalogger from the tipping bucket using several statistical methods. Our results indicated that our automated PCAPs are accurate and provided convenient means for estimating water drainage in the vadose zone without the need for costly and manually time-consuming supportive systems.

  10. ARSENIC SORUCE IDENTIFICATION AT THE GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTION ZONE AT A CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in assessing the current impact of the discharge of arsenic contaminated ground water into a surface water body is differentiating the arsenic ground-water flux versus dissolution of in-place contaminated sediments. A field investigation has been carried ou...

  11. Watering cattle (young bulls) with brackish water--a hazard due to its salt content?

    PubMed

    Visscher, C F; Witzmann, S; Beyerbach, M; Kamphues, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was primarily to test the effects and reactions of cattle offered salty water as the only source of drinking water. Mineral balance studies were carried out on three bull, continuously fed a ration based on hay, hay cobs, barley, soybean meal and a vitamin/mineral supplement. The salt content of the drinking water varied between the trials (trials I/II/III: 0.10/5.00/10.0 g/l; town water supplemented by different amounts of an additive containing 95.4% sodium chloride and 4.6% potassium chloride). Rising salt concentration of the drinking water led to significantly higher sodium, potassium and chloride intake (sodium: trial I/II/III = 5.42/59.5/ 157 g/day; potassium: trials I/II/III = 108/117/121 g/day; chloride: trials I/II/III = 22.8/112/266 g/day) mainly caused by a significantly higher water intake (trials I/II/III: 21.8 ± 2.03/30.4 ± 3.08/41.5 ± 5.89 kg/day). Amounts of urine increased significantly (trials I/II/III: 3.99 ± 0.46/ 9.66 ± 1.34/20.2 ± 3.14 kg/day). The concentrations of minerals in the urine (sodium: trials I/II/III = 123/3729/6705 mg/kg; potassium: trials I/II/III = 17345/9996/ 5496 mg/kg; chloride: trials I/II/III = 2020/ 9672/11870 mg/kg) and faeces (sodium: trials I/II/III = 1299/6544/ 7653 mg/kg; potassium: trials I/II/III = 6343/3719/3490 mg/kg; chloride: trials I/II/III = 3851/4580/4693 mg/kg) also changed significantly over time. Serum values of sodium tended to decrease (trials I/II/III: 142/137/137 mmol/l) within the physiological range, whereas those of chloride increased (trials I/II/III: 91.5/95.6/97.5 mmol/l) at higher salt concentrations in drinking water. The haematocrit, pH-value as well as urea content in blood were not affected by the higher salt intake. In balance trial III (highest salt load: 10.0 g/l), sodium intake of the bulls reached 0.57 ± 0.03 g/kg BW (~22.1 ± 0.9 g sodium/kg dry matter feed). An increase of salinity in drinking water up to 10 g/l--with otherwise harmless water

  12. Variation in Water Content in Martian Subsurface Along Curiosity Traverse

    2013-03-18

    This set of graphs shows variation in the amount and the depth of water detected beneath NASA Mars rover Curiosity by use of the rover Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons DAN instrument at different points the rover has driven.

  13. Iceland Scotland Overflow Water flow through the Bight Fracture Zone in June-July 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Herle; Petit, Tillys; Thierry, Virginie

    2017-04-01

    ISOW (Iceland Scotland Overflow Water) is the densest water in the northern Iceland Basin and a main constituent of the lower limb of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). ISOW is the product of mixing of dense water originating from the Nordic Seas with Atlantic Water and Labrador Sea Water during its crossing of the Iceland-Faroe-Scotland Ridge and downstream acceleration. In the northern Iceland Basin, ISOW is characterized by potential density σ0 > 27.8 and salinity > 34.94. Downstream of the Iceland-Scotland Ridge, ISOW flows southwestward in a Deep Western Boundary Current along the eastern flank of the Reykjanes Ridge. Models and float trajectories previously suggested that part of the ISOW flow could cross the Reykjanes Ridge through the Bight Fracture Zone. However, no direct observations of the ISOW flow through the Bight Fracture Zone are available that would allow us to quantify its transport and water mass transformation. This lack of direct observations also prevents understanding the dynamics of the throughflow. In this study, we analyzed a set of CTDO2 and LADCP stations acquired in June-July 2015 during the Reykjanes Ridge Experiment cruise and provide new insights on the ISOW flow through the Bight Fracture Zone. The evolution of the properties as well as the velocity measurements confirm an ISOW flow from the Iceland Basin to the Irminger Sea. A main constrain to the throughflow is the presence of two sills of about 2150 m depth and two narrows. With potential densities between 27.8-27.87 kg m-3 and near bottom potential temperature of 3.02°C and salinity of 34.98, only the lightest variety of ISOW is found at the entrance of the BFZ east of the sills. In the central part of the Bight Fracture Zone, the evolution of ISOW is characterized by a decrease of 0.015 kg m-3 in the near bottom density, ascribed to the blocking of the densest ISOW variety by the sills and/or diapycnal mixing. To the West, at the exit of the BFZ, ISOW overlays

  14. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p < 0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p < 0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  15. Soil Water Adsorption and Evaporation During the Dry Season in an Arid Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, N.; Berliner, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the daily pattern of changes in water content in the upper soil layers of a bare loess soil in the Negev desert throughout the dry season and to assess the corresponding relative magnitude of latent heat flux density. The measurements were carried out in the Northern Negev, Israel, over a bare loess soil, during nine 24-h field campaigns throughout the dry season of 2002. In addition to a micrometeorological station that was set up in the research site, an improved micro-lysimeter was installed. During each campaign, the 100-mm topsoil was sampled hourly, and water content at ten mm increments was obtained. A clear discernible daily cycle of water content in the upper soil layers was observed due to direct adsorption of water vapor by the soil and consequent evaporation. Although the water content of the uppermost soil is significantly lower than the wilting point, for which most of the commonly used meteorological models would assume no latent heat flux, the latter was ˜20% of the net-radiation during the night and 10-15% during the day. It is, therefore, concluded that latent heat flux plays a major role in the dissipation of the net radiation during the dry season in the Negev desert.

  16. System Regulates the Water Contents of Fuel-Cell Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo; Lazaroff, Scott

    2005-01-01

    An assembly of devices provides for both humidification of the reactant gas streams of a fuel cell and removal of the product water (the water generated by operation of the fuel cell). The assembly includes externally-sensing forward-pressure regulators that supply reactant gases (fuel and oxygen) at variable pressures to ejector reactant pumps. The ejector supply pressures depend on the consumption flows. The ejectors develop differential pressures approximately proportional to the consumption flow rates at constant system pressure and with constant flow restriction between the mixer-outlet and suction ports of the ejectors. For removal of product water from the circulating oxygen stream, the assembly includes a water/gas separator that contains hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes. The water separator imposes an approximately constant flow restriction, regardless of the quality of the two-phase flow that enters it from the fuel cell. The gas leaving the water separator is nearly 100 percent humid. This gas is returned to the inlet of the fuel cell along with a quantity of dry incoming oxygen, via the oxygen ejector, thereby providing some humidification.

  17. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater mathematical models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. However, most integrated surface water-groundwater models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D shallow water equations to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection

  18. Influence of water content on the inactivation of P. digitatum spores using an air-water plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youyi, HU; Weidong, ZHU; Kun, LIU; Leng, HAN; Zhenfeng, ZHENG; Huimin, HU

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate whether an air-water plasma jet is beneficial to improve the efficiency of inactivation, a series of experiments were done using a ring-needle plasma jet. The water content in the working gas (air) was accurately measured based on the Karl Fischer method. The effects of water on the production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) and O (3p5P-3s5S) were also studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the water content is in the range of 2.53-9.58 mg l-1, depending on the gas/water mixture ratio. The production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) rises with the increase of water content, whereas the O (3p5P-3s5S) shows a declining tendency with higher water content. The sterilization experiments indicate that this air-water plasma jet inactivates the P. digitatum spores very effectively and its efficiency rises with the increase of the water content. It is possible that OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) is a more effective species in inactivation than O (3p5P-3s5S) and the water content benefit the spore germination inhibition through rising the OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) production. The maximum of the inactivation efficacy is up to 93% when the applied voltage is -6.75 kV and the water content is 9.58 mg l-1.

  19. Influence of Water Content on Mechanical Properties of Rock in Both Saturation and Drying Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zilong; Cai, Xin; Cao, Wenzhuo; Li, Xibing; Xiong, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Water content has a pronounced influence on the properties of rock materials, which is responsible for many rock engineering hazards, such as landslides and karst collapse. Meanwhile, water injection is also used for the prevention of some engineering disasters like rock-bursts. To comprehensively investigate the effect of water content on mechanical properties of rocks, laboratory tests were carried out on sandstone specimens with different water contents in both saturation and drying processes. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique was applied to study the water distribution in specimens with variation of water contents. The servo-controlled rock mechanics testing machine and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique were used to conduct both compressive and tensile tests on sandstone specimens with different water contents. From the laboratory tests, reductions of the compressive and tensile strength of sandstone under static and dynamic states in different saturation processes were observed. In the drying process, all of the saturated specimens could basically regain their mechanical properties and recover its strength as in the dry state. However, for partially saturated specimens in the saturation and drying processes, the tensile strength of specimens with the same water content was different, which could be related to different water distributions in specimens.

  20. European Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater

    SciT

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Chris

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency gas-burning hot water heating takes advantage of a condensing heat exchanger to deliver improved combustion efficiency over a standard non-condensing configuration. The water heating is always lower than the gas heating value. In contrast, Gas Absorption Heat Pump (GAHP) hot water heating combines the efficiency of gas burning with the performance increase from a heat pump to offer significant gas energy savings. An ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system can maintain higher coefficients of performance in coldermore » climates. In this work, a GAHP commercial water heating system was compared to a condensing gas storage system for a range of locations and climate zones across Europe. The thermodynamic performance map of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system was used in a building energy modeling software that could also incorporate the changing ambient air temperature and water mains temperature for a specific location, as well as a full-service restaurant water draw pattern.« less

  1. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  2. Changes In Tree Species In Riparian Zones Of Urban Streams May Have Effects On Restoration And Storm Water Control Efforts

    EPA Science Inventory

    A riparian zone is the land and vegetation within and directly adjacent to surface water ecosystems, such as lakes and streams. The vegetation in riparian zones provides ecosystem services (such as reducing flooding and bank erosion and reducing levels of pollutants in streams) ...

  3. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  4. Fresh Water Content Variability in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Proshutinsky, Andrey

    2003-01-01

    Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation; AOO) which has a prominent decadal variability. This study explores how the simulated AOO affects the Arctic Ocean stratification and its relationship to the sea ice cover variations. The simulation uses the Princeton Ocean Model coupled to sea ice. The surface forcing is based on NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and its climatology, of which the latter is used to force the model spin-up phase. Our focus is to investigate the competition between ocean dynamics and ice formation/melt on the Arctic basin-wide fresh water balance. We find that changes in the Atlantic water inflow can explain almost all of the simulated fresh water anomalies in the main Arctic basin. The Atlantic water inflow anomalies are an essential part of AOO, which is the wind driven barotropic response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The baroclinic response to AO, such as Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre, and ice meldfreeze anomalies in response to AO are less significant considering the whole Arctic fresh water balance.

  5. Groundwater-surface water interactions in the hyporheic zone under climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shangbo; Yuan, Xingzhong; Peng, Shuchan; Yue, Junsheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Hong; Williams, D Dudley

    2014-12-01

    Slight changes in climate, such as the rise of temperature or alterations of precipitation and evaporation, will dramatically influence nearly all freshwater and climate-related hydrological behavior on a global scale. The hyporheic zone (HZ), where groundwater (GW) and surface waters (SW) interact, is characterized by permeable sediments, low flow velocities, and gradients of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics along the exchange flows. Hyporheic metabolism, that is biogeochemical reactions within the HZ as well as various processes that exchange substances and energy with adjoining systems, is correlated with hyporheic organisms, habitats, and the organic matter (OM) supplied from GW and SW, which will inevitably be influenced by climate-related variations. The characteristics of the HZ in acting as a transition zone and in filtering and purifying exchanged water will be lost, resulting in a weakening of the self-purification capacity of natural water bodies. Thus, as human disturbances intensify in the future, GW and SW pollution will become a greater challenge for mankind than ever before. Biogeochemical processes in the HZ may favor the release of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) under climate change scenarios. Future water resource management should consider the integrity of aquatic systems as a whole, including the HZ, rather than independently focusing on SW and GW.

  6. NMR study on mechanisms of ionic polymer-metal composites deformation with water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Chen, Hualing; Wang, Yongquan; Luo, Bin; Chang, Longfei; Li, Bo; Chen, Luping

    2011-10-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) exhibit a large dynamic bending deformation under exterior electric field. The states and proportions of water within the IPMCs have great effect on the IPMCs deformation properties. This letter investigates the influence of the proportion changes of different types of water on the deformation, which may disclose the working mechanisms of the IPMCs. We give a deformation trend of IPMCs with the reduction of water content firstly. Then by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance, various water types (water bonded to sulfonates, loosely bound water and free water) of IPMCs and their proportions are investigated in the drying process which corresponds to their different deformation states. It is obtained that the deformation properties of IPMCs depend strongly on their water content and the excess free water is responsible for the relaxation deformation.

  7. SI-Traceable Water Content Measurements in Solids, Bulks, and Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østergaard, Peter; Nielsen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Methods such as Karl Fischer titration and Loss-on-Drying, commonly used for estimating moisture content in samples, have been in existence for many years, but have difficulties obtaining a direct calibration chain toward water content. In recognition of this challenge, the joint research project, METefnet, was funded by the European Metrology Research Programme in 2012. The goal of METefnet is to establish a European metrology infrastructure for water content measurement and to develop primary standards for unambiguous determination of water mass fraction in materials. Here, we describe the primary standard developed by Danish Technological Institute in METefnet. This standard establishes traceability of the water content of a sample to dewpoint temperature. The standard only measures water, and the measurement result is not affected by other components.

  8. Remote sensing of atmospheric water content from Bhaskara SAMIR data. [using statistical linear regression analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohil, B. S.; Hariharan, T. A.; Sharma, A. K.; Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    The 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz passive microwave radiometers (SAMIR) on board the Indian satellite Bhaskara have provided very useful data. From these data has been demonstrated the feasibility of deriving atmospheric and ocean surface parameters such as water vapor content, liquid water content, rainfall rate and ocean surface winds. Different approaches have been tried for deriving the atmospheric water content. The statistical and empirical methods have been used by others for the analysis of the Nimbus data. A simulation technique has been attempted for the first time for 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz radiometer data. The results obtained from three different methods are compared with radiosonde data. A case study of a tropical depression has been undertaken to demonstrate the capability of Bhaskara SAMIR data to show the variation of total water vapor and liquid water contents.

  9. Using Isotopic Age of Water as a Constraint on Model Identification at a Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Bhatt, G.; George, H.; Boyer, E. W.; Sullivan, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an ecohydrologic model constrained by comprehensive space and time observations of water and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen for an upland catchment, the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSH_CZO). The paper first develops the theoretical basis for simulation of flow, isotope ratios and "age" as water moves through the canopy, to the unsaturated and saturated zones and finally to an intermittent stream. The model formulation demonstrates that the residence time and age of environmental tracers can be directly simulated without knowledge of the form of the underlying residence time distribution function and without the addition of any new physical parameters. The model is used to explore the observed rapid attenuation of event and seasonal isotopic ratios in precipitation over the depth of the soil zone and the impact of decreasing hydraulic conductivity with depth on the dynamics of streamflow and stream isotope ratios. The results suggest the importance of mobile macropore flow on recharge to groundwater during the non-growing cold-wet season. The soil matrix is also recharged during this season with a cold-season isotope signature. During the growing-dry season, root uptake and evaporation from the soil matrix along with a declining water table provides the main source of water for plants and determines the growing season signature. Flow path changes during storm events and transient overland flow is inferred by comparing the frequency distribution of groundwater and stream isotope histories with model results. Model uncertainty is evaluated for conditions of matrix-macropore partitioning and heterogeneous variations in conductivity with depth. The paper concludes by comparing the fully dynamical model with the simplified mixing model form in dynamic equilibrium. The comparison illustrates the importance of system memory on the time scales for flow and mixing processes and the limitations of the dynamic equilibrium

  10. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W

    2003-06-01

    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p < 0.001); the 95% limits of agreement for this difference were -5.4% to +1.1%. There is good reliability within and between examiners in measuring water content of hydrogel lenses. However, with our sample of lenses, examiners tended to overestimate the nominal water content of hydrogel lenses. As discussed, this bias may be associated with the Brix scale used in refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  11. Effects of the Extended Water Retention Curve on Coupled Heat and Water Transport in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Mohanty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding and simulating coupled heat and water transfer appropriately in the shallow subsurface is of vital significance for accurate prediction of soil evaporation that would improve the coupling between land surface and atmosphere. The theory of Philip and de Vries (1957) and its extensions (de Vries, 1958; Milly, 1982), although physically incomplete, are still adopted successfully to describe the coupled heat and water movement in field soils. However, the adsorptive water retention, which was ignored in Philip and de Vries theory and its extensions for characterizing soil hydraulic parameters, was shown to be non-negligible for soil moisture and evaporation flux calculation in dry field soils based on a recent synthetic analysis (Mohanty and Yang, 2013). In this study, we attempt to comprehensively investigate the effects of full range water retention curve on coupled heat and water transport simulation with a focus on soil moisture content, temperature and soil evaporative flux, based on two synthetic (sand and loam) and two field sites (Riverside, California and Audubon, Arizona) analysis. The results of synthetic sand and loam numerical modeling showed that when neglecting the adsorptive water retention, the resulting simulated soil water content would be larger, and the evaporative flux would be lower, respectively, compared to that obtained by the full range water retention curve mode. The simulated temperature did not show significant difference with or without accounting for adsorptive water retention. The evaporation underestimation when neglecting the adsorptive water retention is mainly caused by isothermal hydraulic conductivity underprediction. These synthetic findings were further corroborated by the Audubon, Arizona field site experimental results. The results from Riverside, California field experimental site showed that the soil surface can reach very dry status, although the soil profile below the drying front is not dry, which also to

  12. Aerospace remote sensing of the coastal zone for water quality and biotic productivity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harriss, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing can provide the wide area synoptic coverage of surface waters which is required for studies of such phenomena as river plume mixing, phytoplankton dynamics, and pollutant transport and fate, but which is not obtainable by conventional oceanographic techniques. The application of several remote sensors (aircraftborne and spacecraftborne multispectral scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and active laser systems) to coastal zone research is discussed. Current measurement capabilities (particulates, chlorophyll a, temperature, salinity, ocean dumped materials, other pollutants, and surface winds and roughness) are defined and the results of recent remote sensing experiments conducted in the North Atlantic coastal zone are presented. The future development of remote sensing must rely on an integrated laboratory research program in optical physics. Recent results indicate the potential for separation of particulates into subsets by remote sensors.

  13. 77 FR 46338 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XC142 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the deep-water species fishery by... apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the deep-water species fishery in the GOA...

  14. 78 FR 30242 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    .... 120918468-3111-02] RIN 0648-XC675 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the deep-water species fishery by... apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the deep-water species fishery in the GOA...

  15. 75 FR 38937 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... directed fishing for the deep-water species fisheries. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XX32 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the deep-water species fishery for...

  16. 76 FR 39790 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... directed fishing for the deep-water species fisheries. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA536 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the deep-water species fishery for...

  17. 75 FR 38939 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XX33 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the deep-water species... Pacific halibut prohibited species catch (PSC) sideboard limit specified for the deep-water species...

  18. 75 FR 23189 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XW20 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the deep-water species fishery by... apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the deep-water species fishery in the GOA...

  19. 77 FR 24154 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XC001 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the deep-water species fishery by... apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the deep-water species fishery in the GOA...

  20. 76 FR 23511 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA394 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the deep-water species fishery by... apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the deep-water species fishery in the GOA...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS...

  2. 77 FR 12213 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Amendment 80...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XB044 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species fishery by... shallow-water species fishery by Amendment 80 vessels in the GOA has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200...

  3. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA680 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... fourth seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  4. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY78 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species fishery by... apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water species fishery in the...

  5. 76 FR 39794 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA539 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... species catch (PSC) sideboard limit specified for the shallow-water species fishery for catcher/processors...

  6. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XC204 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... fourth seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  7. 77 FR 33103 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XC056 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... second seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  8. 75 FR 38938 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XX31 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species fishery for... (PSC) sideboard limit specified for the shallow-water species fishery for catcher/processors subject to...

  9. 77 FR 19146 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XB122 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... first seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  10. 77 FR 42193 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-0648-XC112 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... third seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  11. 76 FR 57679 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA704 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear... apportionment of the 2011 Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the trawl shallow-water species...

  12. 75 FR 56017 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XZ06 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear... of the 2010 Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the trawl shallow-water species fishery...

  13. Flat Branch monitoring project: stream water temperature and sediment responses to forest cutting in the riparian zone

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Dick L. Fowler

    2010-01-01

    Stream water protection during timber-harvesting activities is of primary interest to forest managers. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of riparian zone tree cutting on water temperature and total suspended solids. We monitored stream water temperature and total suspended solids before and after timber harvesting along a second-order tributary of the...

  14. Influence of water content on degradation rates for ethanol in biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Auria, R; Aycaguer, A C; Devinny, J S

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of ethanol vapor in a peat biofilter with various initial water contents (70%, 59%, 49%, and 35%) was studied. For water contents ranging from 49% to 70%, elimination capacity was about 30 g/m3/h. For a water content of 35%, elimination capacity decreased to 4 g/m3/h. A low mean CO2 yield coefficient (0.35 g CO2 produced per g ethanol consumed) was found for all of the initial water contents. The value was only 20% of the yield coefficient (1.91 g/g) predicted by stoichiometry. When the packing material was dried from 70% to 59% water content during the biofiltration process, elimination capacity dropped from 27 g/m3/h to 4 g/m3/h. After 24 hours of drying, the biofiltration experiment was restarted and run for two more weeks. During this period, the biofilter did not recover. At 59% water content, the rate of water evaporation was estimated at 59.6 g/m3/h. A simplified mass balance permitted calculation of the biological water production rate, approximately 22.1 g/m3/h.

  15. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Natalia F; Rojas, Claudia; Bonilla, Carlos A; Vargas, Ignacio T

    2017-12-28

    Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m -2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v / v ) showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m -2 vs. 32.5 μW m -2 ). Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01) between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs.

  16. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Natalia F.; Rojas, Claudia; Bonilla, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m−2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v/v) showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m−2 vs. 32.5 μW m−2). Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01) between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs. PMID:29283378

  17. Soil-water content characterisation in a modified Jarvis-Stewart model: A case study of a conifer forest on a shallow unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, Adrien; Fan, Junliang; Oestergaard, Kasper T.; Whitley, Rhys; Gibbes, Badin; Arsac, Margaux; Lockington, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes were monitored for a subtropical coastal conifer forest in South-East Queensland, Australia. Observations were used to quantify seasonal changes in transpiration rates with respect to temporal fluctuations of the local water table depth. The applicability of a Modified Jarvis-Stewart transpiration model (MJS), which requires soil-water content data, was assessed for this system. The influence of single depth values compared to use of vertically averaged soil-water content data on MJS-modelled transpiration was assessed over both a wet and a dry season, where the water table depth varied from the surface to a depth of 1.4 m below the surface. Data for tree transpiration rates relative to water table depth showed that trees transpire when the water table was above a threshold depth of 0.8 m below the ground surface (water availability is non-limiting). When the water table reached the ground surface (i.e., surface flooding) transpiration was found to be limited. When the water table is below this threshold depth, a linear relationship between water table depth and the transpiration rate was observed. MJS modelling results show that the influence of different choices for soil-water content on transpiration predictions was insignificant in the wet season. However, during the dry season, inclusion of deeper soil-water content data improved the model performance (except for days after isolated rainfall events, here a shallower soil-water representation was better). This study demonstrated that, to improve MJS simulation results, appropriate selection of soil water measurement depths based on the dynamic behaviour of soil water profiles through the root zone was required in a shallow unconfined aquifer system.

  18. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    PubMed

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that there will be great risk of nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and organic matter permeating into the groundwater if floodplain changes into farmland. As the special control unit of nitrogen pollution between rivers and artificial wetlands, dry fanning areas near the river play a very important role in nitrogen migration between river and groundwater. Farm manure as base fertilizer may he an important source of phosphorus leak and loss at the artificial wetlands. Phosphorus leaks into the groundwater and is transferred along the hydraulic gradient, especially during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. The land use types and farming systems of the riparian floodplain have a major impact on the nitrate nitrogen contents of the groundwater. Nitrogen can infiltrate and accumulate quickly at anaerobic conditions in the fish pond area, and the annual nitrogen achieves a relatively balanced state in lotus area. In those areas, the soil is flooded and at anaerobic condition in spring and summer, nitrogen infiltrates and denitrification significantly, but soil is not flooded and at aerobic condition in the autumn and winter, and during these time, a significant nitrogen nitrification process occurs. In the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river

  19. Understanding water content data in cottons equilibrated to moisture equilibrium

    The accurate measurement of moisture in cottons conditioned to moisture equilibrium and understanding the data are prerequisites to the development of applications of the data. In this study, moisture is measured by Karl Fischer Titration, which is highly selective for water in cotton; the results ...

  20. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    SciT

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X.

    1998-08-01

    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22more » MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.« less

  1. Jerusalem artichoke decreased salt content and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil in the coastal saline zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Niu; Cheng, Yongwen; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Zed, Rengel

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main environmental constraints that restrict plant growth and agricultural productivity; however, utilization of salt-affected land can bring substantial benefits. This study used an in-situ remediation method by planting Jerusalem artichoke in naturally occurring saline alkali soils with different salinity (high salinity (H, >4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil), moderate salinity (M, 2.0-4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) and low salinity (L, 1.0-2.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) in the coastal saline zone in southeast China in comparison with the respective controls without Jerusalem artichoke planting (undisturbed soil). Soil pH and salinity increased sequentially from the rhizosphere to the bulk soil and the unplanted controls. The activity of neutral phosphatase and invertase decreased in the order L > M > H, whereas that of catalase was reverse. The minimum content of calcite, muscovite and quartz, and maximum content of chlorite and albite, were found in the control soils. Planting of Jerusalem artichoke enhanced bacterial microflora in saline alkali soil. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. The number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the rhizosphere soil was, respectively, 1.27, 1.02 and 1.25 times higher compared with the bulk soil, suggesting that Jerusalem artichoke played a significant role in increasing abundance and diversity of soil microbial populations. The study showed that Jerusalem artichoke could be used to improve saline alkali soil by enriching bacterial communities, enhancing the activity of phosphatase and invertase, and decreasing soil salinity.

  2. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    SciT

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris

    In this study, a well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (U aq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time seriesmore » trends for U aq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in U aq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized U aq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While U aq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.« less

  3. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone

    DOE PAGES

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Chris; ...

    2016-03-04

    In this study, a well-field within a uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a 3 year period for water table elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (U aq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time seriesmore » trends for U aq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal and well-to-well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Hot-spots in U aq varied in location with increasing water table elevation through the combined effects of advection and source term location. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized U aq was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While U aq time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year-to-year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of river water intrusion.« less

  4. The influence of Critical Zone structure on runoff paths, seasonal water storage, and ecosystem composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, W. J.; Dietrich, W. E.; Rempe, D.; Dralle, D.; Dawson, T. E.; Lovill, S.; Bryk, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how subsurface water storage mediates water availability to ecosystems is crucial for elucidating linkages between water, energy, and carbon cycles from local to global scales. Earth's Critical Zone (the CZ, which extends from the top of the vegetation canopy downward to fresh bedrock) includes fractured and weathered rock layers that store and release water, thereby contributing to ecosystem water supplies, and yet are not typically represented in land-atmosphere models. To investigate CZ structural controls on water storage dynamics, we intensively studied field sites in a Mediterranean climate where winter rains arrive months before peak solar energy availability, resulting in strong summertime ecosystem reliance on stored subsurface water. Intra-hillslope and catchment-wide observations of CZ water storage capacity across a lithologic boundary in the Franciscan Formation of the Northern California Coast Ranges reveal large differences in the thickness of the CZ and water storage capacity that result in a stark contrast in plant community composition and stream behavior. Where the CZ is thick, rock moisture storage supports forest transpiration and slow groundwater release sustains baseflow and salmon populations. Where the CZ is thin, limited water storage is used by an oak savanna ecosystem, and streams run dry in summer due to negligible hillslope drainage. At both sites, wet season precipitation replenishes the dynamic storage deficit generated during the summer dry season, with excess winter rains exiting the watersheds via storm runoff as perched groundwater fracture flow at the thick-CZ site and saturation overland flow at the thin-CZ site. Annual replenishment of subsurface water storage even in severe drought years may lead to ecosystem resilience to climatic perturbations: during the 2011-2015 drought there was not widespread forest die-off in the study area.

  5. Evaluation of unsaturated zone water fluxes in heterogeneous alluvium at a Mojave Basin Site

    Nimmo, John R.; Deason, Jeffrey A.; Izbicki, John A.; Martin, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Vertical and horizontal water fluxes in the unsaturated zone near intermittent streams critically affect ecosystems, water supply, and contaminant transport in arid and semiarid regions. The subsurface near the Oro Grande Wash is typical in having great textural diversity, pronounced layer contrasts, and extremely low hydraulic conductivities associated with nearly dry media. These features prevent a straightforward application of the Darcian method for recharge estimation, which has provided high‐quality flux estimates at simpler, wetter sites. We have augmented the basic Darcian method with theoretical developments such that a small number of core sample unsaturated hydraulic property measurements, combined with additional, easily obtained data (e.g., drillers' logs) can provide useful flux estimates and knowledge of two‐dimensional water behavior beneath the wash.

  6. Effect of sulfur content on the microstructure and toughness of simulated heat-affected zone in Ti-killed steels

    SciT

    Jyelong Lee; Yeongtsuen Pan

    1993-06-01

    Four Ti-killed steels were made to study the specific influence of sulfur on the inclusion, microstructure, and toughness of a simulated heat-affected zone (HAZ). The HAZ toughness was mainly determined by the volume fraction of intragranular acicular ferrite (IAF) which was closely related to the supercooling required to initiate austenite to ferrite transformation. The extent of supercooling was strongly influenced by the composition of grain boundary and inclusions. Sulfur addition up to 102 ppm caused a segregation of sulfur to the grain boundaries and a change of inclusion phase from predominantly Ti-oxides to Ti-oxysulphides and MnS. This behavior, in turn,more » suppressed the formation of IAF polygonal ferrite and promoted the formation of IAF. Further addition of sulfur elevated transformation temperature and promoted the formation of polygonal ferrite due to the refinement of grain size and the increase of grain boundary associated inclusions. A methodology was proposed to evaluate the intragranular nucleation potential of inclusions, and the results showed that Ti-oxysulphides possessed better nucleation potential for IAF than Ti-oxides and MnS. With the lowest transformation temperature and most effective nuclei, the best HAZ toughness can be obtained at sulfur content of 102 ppm due to the achievement of the maximum volume fraction of IAF.« less

  7. Water, oceanic fracture zones and the lubrication of subducting plate boundaries—insights from seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaphorst, David; Kendall, J.-Michael; Collier, Jenny S.; Verdon, James P.; Blundy, Jon; Baptie, Brian; Latchman, Joan L.; Massin, Frederic; Bouin, Marie-Paule

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the relationship between subduction processes and related seismicity for the Lesser Antilles Arc using the Gutenberg-Richter law. This power law describes the earthquake-magnitude distribution, with the gradient of the cumulative magnitude distribution being commonly known as the b-value. The Lesser Antilles Arc was chosen because of its along-strike variability in sediment subduction and the transition from subduction to strike-slip movement towards its northern and southern ends. The data are derived from the seismicity catalogues from the Seismic Research Centre of The University of the West Indies and the Observatoires Volcanologiques et Sismologiques of the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and consist of subcrustal events primarily from the slab interface. The b-value is found using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for a maximum-likelihood straight line-fitting routine. We investigate spatial variations in b-values using a grid-search with circular cells as well as an along-arc projection. Tests with different algorithms and the two independent earthquake cataloges provide confidence in the robustness of our results. We observe a strong spatial variability of the b-value that cannot be explained by the uncertainties. Rather than obtaining a simple north-south b-value distribution suggestive of the dominant control on earthquake triggering being water released from the sedimentary cover on the incoming American Plates, or a b-value distribution that correlates with on the obliquity of subduction, we obtain a series of discrete, high b-value `bull's-eyes' along strike. These bull's-eyes, which indicate stress release through a higher fraction of small earthquakes, coincide with the locations of known incoming oceanic fracture zones on the American Plates. We interpret the results in terms of water being delivered to the Lesser Antilles subduction zone in the vicinity of fracture zones providing lubrication and thus changing the character of the

  8. Water content and the conversion of phytochrome regulation of lettuce dormancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Vertucci, F. A.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to determine which biological reactions can occur in relation to the water content of seeds, the regulation of lettuce seed dormancy by red and far red light was determined at various hydration levels. Far red light had an inhibiting effect on germination for seeds at all moisture contents from 4 to 32% water. Germination was progressively stimulated by red light as seed hydration increased from 8 to 15%, and reached a maximum at moisture contents above 18%. Red light was ineffective at moisture contents below 8%. Seeds that had been stimulated by red light and subsequently dried lost the enhanced germinability if stored at moisture contents above 8%. The contrast between the presumed photoconversion of phytochrome far red-absorbing (Pfr) to (Pr) occurring at any moisture content and the reverse reaction occurring only if the seed moisture content is greater than 8% may be explained on the basis of the existence of unstable intermediates in the Pr to Pfr conversion. Our results suggest that the initial photoreaction involved in phytochrome conversion is relatively independent of water content, while the subsequent partial reactions become increasingly facilitated as water content increases from 8 to 18%.

  9. Integral Quantification of Soil Water Content at the Intermediate Catchment Scale by Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. One new measurement methodology for integral quantifications of mean areal soil water content at the intermediate catchment scale is the aboveground sensing of cosmic-ray neutrons, more precisely ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS). Ground albedo natural neutrons, are generated by collisions of secondary cosmic rays with land surface materials (soil, water, biomass, snow, etc). Neutrons measured at the air/ground interface correlate with soil moisture contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters. This correlation is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. The present study performed ground albedo neutron sensing in different locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam (Brandenburg, Germany) cropped with corn in 2010 and sunflowers in 2011, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains, Germany) in 2011. In order to test this method, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, calibration approach, and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations are also evaluated. Our observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil water content from GANS compared quantitatively with mean water content values derived from a network of classical devices (RMSE = 0.02 m3/m3 and r2 = 0.98) in three calibration periods with cropped-field conditions. Then, same calibration parameters corresponded

  10. Fluoride Content of Bottled Waters in Hong Kong and Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Hessa I; Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the F concentration of bottled waters that was available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations of bottled waters collected from Hong Kong (n=81) and Qatar (n=32) were analysed. The F ion selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in the samples. Three measurements were obtained for every sample to ensure reproducibility and appropriate statistical analyses were employed. Qatar group: F concentrations ranged from 0.06 ppm to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the labels of the samples (60%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p < 0.0001). Hong Kong group: F concentrations ranged from 0.04 ppm to 2.52 ppm with a mean value of 0.44 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the samples (16%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p< 0.0001). Wide variations exist in the F concentration among the different brands of bottled water available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were not consistent with the measured F concentrations.

  11. Effects of fast walking on tibiofemoral bone water content in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Standerfer, Alexa; Ngo, Suzenna; Daun, Karen; Lee, Szu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Although it is believed that genu varum increases loading on the medial knee during locomotion, the acute effect of increased loading on bone stress has not been determined. This study aimed to examine the effects of locomotion and lower extremity alignment on bone water content in middle-aged adults without knee osteoarthritis. Five males and 5 females participated. Lower extremity alignment was defined as the angle between the midpoint of the anterior mid-thigh and the midpoint of the patellar tendon using the center of the patella as the fulcrum. A chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging protocol was used to assess bone water content before and after a 30-minute fast walking session. Bone stress response was determined by quantifying water content within the weight-bearing regions of the medial and lateral compartments of the tibiofemoral joint. Paired t-tests were used to compare bone water content before and after fast walking. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine the associations between lower extremity alignment and changes in water content post-walking. The paired t-tests revealed no changes in water content after fast walking within medial and lateral femur/tibia (P>0.05). Pearson correlation analyses revealed a significant moderate correlation between increased bone water content of the medial femur and increased varus alignment (R=0.688, P=0.028). Although there was no significant change in bone water content following locomotion, knee varus was associated with signs of bone stress in the medial femur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simple, fast, and low-cost camera-based water content measurement with colorimetric fluorescent indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seok-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Il; Kim, Youngmi; Nam, Hyoungsik

    2018-05-01

    Recently, a simple, sensitive, and low-cost fluorescent indicator has been proposed to determine water contents in organic solvents, drugs, and foodstuffs. The change of water content leads to the change of the indicator's fluorescence color under the ultra-violet (UV) light. Whereas the water content values could be estimated from the spectrum obtained by a bulky and expensive spectrometer in the previous research, this paper demonstrates a simple and low-cost camera-based water content measurement scheme with the same fluorescent water indicator. Water content is calculated over the range of 0-30% by quadratic polynomial regression models with color information extracted from the captured images of samples. Especially, several color spaces such as RGB, xyY, L∗a∗b∗, u‧v‧, HSV, and YCBCR have been investigated to establish the optimal color information features over both linear and nonlinear RGB data given by a camera before and after gamma correction. In the end, a 2nd order polynomial regression model along with HSV in a linear domain achieves the minimum mean square error of 1.06% for a 3-fold cross validation method. Additionally, the resultant water content estimation model is implemented and evaluated in an off-the-shelf Android-based smartphone.

  13. The role of recharge zones, discharge zones, springs and tile drainage systems in peneplains of Central European highlands with regard to water quality generation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doležal, František; Kvítek, Tomáš

    The hydrogeology, runoff generation and water quality generation in old peneplains of Central Europe built by acid crystalline rocks (such as the Bohemo-Moravian Highland) are described and interpreted in terms of a three-zone concept. The recharge zones are located on flat tops of hills and their soils are mostly permeable. It is mainly through them that the shallow groundwater-bearing formations are loaded with nitrate. The groundwater exfiltrates on the lower parts of slopes (in the so-called transient zone) and in narrow valleys (in the discharge zone), creating dispersed springs and waterlogged areas. In addition, the rapid and shallow flow of perched groundwater down the slope, which takes place during wet periods in the recharge zone and, mainly, in the transient zone, leaches the nitrate from the soil directly to the stream, without necessarily being in contact with the permanent groundwater table of the recharge and the transient zones. Discharge and water quality measurements in the Kopaninský tok experimental catchment (6.7 km 2) were analysed, using a combination of two runoff separation techniques (a digital filter and a simple conceptual model GROUND). Three runoff components were distinguished (direct runoff, interflow and baseflow). There is a weak but significant positive correlation between the stream nitrate concentration on the one hand and either the interflow or the baseflow on the other hand. There is also a weak but significant negative correlation between the stream nitrate concentration on the one hand and either the ratio of direct runoff to total stream flow or the logarithm of this ratio on the other hand, provided that the cases of zero direct runoff are disregarded. A simple mixing model was used to estimate the characteristic nitrate concentrations of individual runoff components. The interflow has the highest characteristic nitrate concentration and is probably the main stream water polluter with nitrate. The baseflow is identified

  14. Quantifying Seasonal Dynamic Water Storage in a Fractured Bedrock Vadose Zone With Borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, L.; Minton, B.; Soto-Kerans, N.; Rempe, D.; Heidari, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In many uplands landscapes, water is transiently stored in the weathered and fractured bedrock that underlies soils. The timing and spatial pattern of this "rock moisture" has strong implications for ecological and biogeochemical processes that influence global cycling of water and solutes. However, available technologies for direct monitoring of rock moisture are limited. Here, we quantify temporal and spatial changes in rock moisture at the field scale across thick (up to 20 m) fractured vadose zone profiles using a novel narrow diameter borehole nuclear magnetic resonance system (BNMR). Successive BNMR surveys were performed using the Vista Clara Inc. Dart system in a network of boreholes within two steep, intensively hydrologically monitored hillslopes associated with the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory (ERCZO) in Northern California. BNMR data showed agreement with estimates of the temporal and spatial pattern of rock moisture depletion over the dry season via downhole neutron and gamma density surveys, as well as permanently installed continuous time domain reflectometry. Observable shifts in the BNMR-derived T2 distribution over time provide a direct measure of changes in the amount of water held within different pore sizes (large vs. small) in fractured rock. Analysis of both BNMR and laboratory-scale NMR (using a 2MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer) measurements of ERCZO core samples at variable saturation suggest that rock moisture changes associated with summer depletion occur within both large (fracture) and small (matrix) pore sizes. Collectively, our multi-method field- and laboratory- scale measurements highlight the potential for BNMR to improve quantification of rock moisture storage for better understanding of the biogeochemical and ecohydrological implications of rock moisture circulation in the Critical Zone.

  15. Evaluation of coastal zone color scanner diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms for application to coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, James L.; Trees, Charles C.; Arnone, Robert A.

    1990-09-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scannez (ZCS) and associated atmospheric and in-water algorithms have allowed synoptic analyses of regional and large scale variability of bio-optical properties [phytoplankton pigments and diffuse auenuation coefficient K(490)}. Austin and Petzold (1981) developed a robust in-water K(490) algorithm which related the diffuse attenuation coefficient at one optical depth [1/K(490)] to the ratio of the water-leaving radiances at 443 and 550 nm. Their regression analysis included diffuse attenuation coefficients K(490) up to 0.40 nm, but excluded data from estuarine areas, and other Case II waters, where the optical properties are not predominantly determined by phytoplankton. In these areas, errors are induced in the retrieval of remote sensing K(490) by extremely low water-leaving radiance at 443 nm [Lw(443) as viewed at the sensor may only be 1 or 2 digital counts], and improved cury can be realized using algorithms based on wavelengths where Lw(λ) is larger. Using ocean optical profiles quired by the Visibility Laboratory, algorithms are developed to predict K(490) from ratios of water leaving radiances at 520 and 670, as well as 443 and 550 nm.

  16. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for non-invasive assessment of water content in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Borovkova, Mariia; Khodzitsky, Mikhail; Demchenko, Petr; Cherkasova, Olga; Popov, Alexey; Meglinski, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We apply terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for the quantitative non-invasive assessment of the water content in biological samples, such as Carpinus caroliniana tree leaves and pork muscles. The developed experimental terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system operates both in transmission and reflection modes. The Landau-Looyenga-Lifshitz-based model is used for the calculation of the water concentration within the samples. The results of the water concentration measurements are compared with the results of the gravimetric measurements. The obtained results show that the water content in biological samples can be measured non-invasively, with a high accuracy, utilizing terahertz waves in transmission and reflection modes.

  17. Determining water content of fresh concrete by microwave reflection or transmission measurement.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-01-01

    In search of a rapid and accurate method for determining the water content of fresh concrete mixes, the microwave reflection and transmission properties of fresh concrete mixes were studied to determine the extent of correlation between each of these...

  18. Soil Water Retention as Indicator for Soil Physical Quality - Examples from Two SoilTrEC European Critical Zone Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseva, Svetla; Kercheva, Milena; Shishkov, Toma; Dimitrov, Emil; Nenov, Martin; Lair, Georg J.; Moraetis, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Soil water retention is of primary importance for majority of soil functions. The characteristics derived from Soil Water Retention Curve (SWRC) are directly related to soil structure and soil water regime and can be used as indicators for soil physical quality. The aim of this study is to present some parameters and relationships based on the SWRC data from the soil profiles characterising the European SoilTrEC Critical Zone Observatories Fuchsenbigl and Koiliaris. The studied soils are representative for highly productive soils managed as arable land in the frame of soil formation chronosequence at "Marchfeld" (Fuchsenbigl CZO), Austria and heavily impacted soils during centuries through intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification in context of climatic and lithological gradient at Koiliaris, Crete, Greece. Soil water retention at pF ≤ 2.52 was determined using the undisturbed soil cores (100 cm3 and 50 cm3) by a suction plate method. Water retention at pF = 4.2 was determined by a membrane press method and at pF ≥ 5.6 - by adsorption of water vapour at controlled relative humidity, both using ground soil samples. The soil physical quality parameter (S-parameter) was defined as the slope of the water retention curve at its inflection point (Dexter, 2006), determined with the obtained parameters of van Genuhten (1980) water retention equation. The S-parameter values were categorised to assess soil physical quality as follows: S < 0.020 very poor, 0.020 ≤ S < 0.035 poor, 0.035 ≤ S < 0.050 good, S ≥ 0.050 very good (Dexter, 2004). The results showed that most of the studied topsoil horizons have good physical quality according to both the S-parameter and the Plant-Available Water content (PAW), with the exception of the soils from croplands at CZO Fuxenbigl (F4, F5) which are with poor soil structure. The link between the S-parameter and the indicator of soil structure stability (water stable soil aggregates with size 1-3 mm) is not

  19. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  20. Use of Water Content Reflectometers in Bioinfiltration/Bioretention to Measure Water Movement and Estimate Evapotranspiration - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most bioinfiltration/bioretention models assume runoff is evenly distributed across the surface area and after the engineered fill media is no longer saturated, the volumetric water content (VWC) is constant throughout the media profile and at field capacity. Four to nine water ...

  1. Warm water and life beneath the grounding zone of an Antarctic outlet glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shin; Sawagaki, Takanobu; Fukuda, Takehiro

    2013-04-01

    Ice-ocean interaction plays a key role in rapidly changing Antarctic ice sheet margins. Recent studies demonstrated that warming ocean is eroding floating part of the ice sheet, resulting in thinning, retreat and acceleration of ice shelves and outlet glaciers. Field data are necessary to understand such processes, but direct observations at the interface of ice and the ocean are lacking, particularly beneath the grounding zone. To better understand the interaction of Antarctic ice sheet and the ocean, we performed subglacial measurements through boreholes drilled in the grounding zone of Langhovde Glacier, an outlet glacier in East Antarctica. Langhovde Glacier is located at 69°12'S, 39°48'E, approximately 20 km south of a Japanese research station Syowa. The glacier discharges ice into Lützow-holm Bay through a 3-km-wide floating terminus at a rate of 130 m a-1. Fast flowing feature is confined by bedrock to the west and slow moving ice to the east, and it extends about 10 km upglacier from the calving front. In 2011/12 austral summer season, we operated a hot water drilling system to drill through the glacier at 2.5 and 3 km from the terminus. Inspections of the boreholes revealed the ice was underlain by a shallow saline water layer. Ice and water column thicknesses were found to be 398 and 24 m at the first site, and 431 and 10 m at the second site. Judging from ice surface and bed elevations, the drilling sites were situated at within a several hundred meters from the grounding line. Sensors were lowered into the boreholes to measure temperature, salinity and current within the subglacial water layer. Salinity and temperature from the two sites were fairly uniform (34.25±0.05 PSU and -1.45±0.05°C), indicating vertical and horizontal mixing in the layer. The measured temperature was >0.7°C warmer than the in-situ freezing point, and very similar to the values measured in the open ocean near the glacier front. Subglacial current was up to 3 cm/s, which

  2. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater

  3. Thermal waters along the Konocti Bay fault zone, Lake County, California: a re-evaluation

    Thompson, J.M.; Mariner, R.H.; White, L.D.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The Konocti Bay fault zone (KBFZ), initially regarded by some as a promising target for liquid-dominated geothermal systems, has been a disappointment. At least five exploratory wells were drilled in the vicinity of the KBFZ, but none were successful. Although the Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometers indicate that the thermal waters discharging in the vicinity of Howard and Seigler Springs may have equilibrated at temperatures greater than 200??C, the spring temperatures and fluid discharges are low. Most thermal waters along the KBFZ contain >100 mg/l Mg. High concentrations of dissolved magnesium are usually indicative of relatively cool hydrothermal systems. Dissolution of serpentine at shallow depths may contribute dissolved silica and magnesium to rising thermal waters. Most thermal waters are saturated with respect to amorphous silica at the measured spring temperature. Silica geothermometers and mixing models are useless because the dissolved silica concentration is not controlled by the solubility of either quartz or chalcedony. Cation geothermometry indicates the possibility of a high-temperature fluid (> 200??C) only in the vicinity of Howard and Seigler Springs. However, even if the fluid temperature is as high as that indicated by the geothermometers, the permeability may be low. Deuterium and oxygen-18 values of the thermal waters indicate that they recharged locally and became enriched in oxygen-18 by exchange with rock. Diluting meteoric water and the thermal water appear to have the same deuterium value. Lack of tritium in the diluted spring waters suggest that the diluting water is old. ?? 1992.

  4. Seismicity and Fault Zone Structure Near the Xinfengjiang Water Reservoir, Guangdong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Sun, X.; He, L.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Xingfengjiang Water Reservoir (XWR) was built in 1958 and the first impoundment was conducted in 1959. Immediately following the reservoir impoundment, a series of earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of the XWR, including the 1962 M6.1 earthquake that occurred ~1 km next to the dam. Numerous small earthquakes take place in this region presently, making it one of the most active seismic zones in Guangdong. To investigate the present seismicity and associated fault zone structure, we deployed a temporary seismic network, including a dense linear array across the Ren-Zi-Shi fault southwest to the reservoir. The temporary network is consisted of 42 stations that are operated in the field for more than one month. Because of the mountainous terrain, it is impossible to deploy broadband sensors. Here we use DDV-5 seismometer with a central frequency of 120Hz-5s that is independent on external GPS and battery. During our deployment, numerous earthquakes were recorded. Preliminary results of travel time analysis have shown the characteristic of low velocity fault zone. More detailed analysis, including relocation of earthquakes, ambient noise cross correlation, and modeling body waves, will be presented.

  5. Laboratory and numerical experiments on water and energy fluxes during freezing and thawing in the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holländer, Hartmut; Montasir Islam, Md.; Šimunek, Jirka

    2017-04-01

    Frozen soil has a major effect in many hydrologic processes, and its effects are difficult to predict. A prime example is flood forecasting during spring snowmelt within the Canadian Prairies. One key driver for the extent of flooding is the antecedent soil moisture and the possibility for water to infiltrate into frozen soils. Therefore, these situations are crucial for accurate flood prediction during every spring. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the water flow and heat transport within HYDRUS-1D version 4.16 and with Hansson's model, which is a detailed freezing/thawing module (Hansson et al., 2004), to predict the impact of frozen and partly frozen soil on infiltration. We developed a standardized data set of water flow and heat transport into (partial) frozen soil by laboratory experiments using fine sand. Temperature, soil moisture, and percolated water were observed at different freezing conditions as well as at thawing conditions. Significant variation in soil moisture was found between the top and the bottom of the soil column at the starting of the thawing period. However, with increasing temperature, the lower depth of the soil column showed higher moisture as the soil became enriched with moisture due to the release of heat by soil particles during the thawing cycle. We applied vadose zone modeling using the results from the laboratory experiments. The simulated water content by HYDRUS-1D 4.16 showed large errors compared to the observed data showing by negative Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. Hansson's model was not able to predict soil water fluxes due to its unstable behavior (Šimunek et al., 2016). The soil temperature profile simulated using HYDRUS-1D 4.16 was not able to predict the release of latent heat during the phase change of water that was visible in Hansson's model. Hansson's model includes the energy gain/loss due to the phase change in the amount of latent energy stored in the modified heat transport equation. However, in

  6. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  7. Magmatic water contents determined through clinopyroxene: Examples from the Western Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Franz A.; Skogby, Henrik; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Dahren, Börje

    2015-07-01

    Water is a key parameter in magma genesis, magma evolution, and resulting eruption styles, because it controls the density, the viscosity, as well as the melting and crystallization behavior of a melt. The parental water content of a magma is usually measured through melt inclusions in minerals such as olivine, a method which may be hampered, however, by the lack of melt inclusions suitable for analysis, or postentrapment changes in their water content. An alternative way to reconstruct the water content of a magma is to use nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), such as pyroxene, which take up low concentrations of hydrogen as a function of the magma's water content. During magma degassing and eruption, however, NAMs may dehydrate. We therefore tested a method to reconstruct the water contents of dehydrated clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the Western Canary islands (n = 28) through rehydration experiments followed by infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Employing currently available crystal/melt partitioning data, the results of the experiments were used to calculate parental water contents of 0.71 ± 0.07 to 1.49 ± 0.15 wt % H2O for Western Canary magmas during clinopyroxene crystallization at upper mantle conditions. This H2O range is in agreement with calculated water contents using plagioclase-liquid-hygrometry, and with previously published data for mafic lavas from the Canary Islands and comparable ocean island systems elsewhere. Utilizing NAMs in combination with hydrogen treatment can therefore serve as a proxy for pre-eruptive H2O contents, which we anticipate becoming a useful method applicable to mafic rocks where pyroxene is the main phenocryst phase.

  8. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (p<0.05) at 80°C. However, heat treatment had more effect on wheat dough compared to brown rice batter.

  9. [Analysis of spectral features based on water content of desert vegetation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Li, Xia; Yin, Ye-biao; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Sheng-bin

    2010-09-01

    By using HR-768 field-portable spectroradiometer made by the Spectra Vista Corporation (SVC) of America, the hyper-spectral data of nine types of desert plants were measured, and the water content of corresponding vegetation was determined by roasting in lab. The continuum of measured hyperspectral data was removed by using ENVI, and the relationship between the water content of vegetation and the reflectance spectrum was analyzed by using correlation coefficient method. The result shows that the correlation between the bands from 978 to 1030 nm and water content of vegetation is weak while it is better for the bands from 1133 to 1266 nm. The bands from 1374 to 1534 nm are the characteristic bands because of the correlation between them and water content is the best. By using cluster analysis and according to the water content, the vegetation could be marked off into three grades: high (>70%), medium (50%-70%) and low (<50%). The research reveals the relationship between water content of desert vegetation and hyperspectral data, and provides basis for the analysis of area in desert and the monitoring of desert vegetation by using remote sensing data.

  10. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  11. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Single Leaves from Optical Polarization Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long-term goals of remote sensing research. For monitoring canopy water status, existing approaches such as the Crop Water Stress Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness have limitations. The CWSI does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWI is based upon the physics of water-light interaction, not plant physiology. In this research, we applied optical polarization techniques to monitor the VISNIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both changed nonlinearly as each leaf dried, R increasing and T decreasing. Our results tie changes in the VISNIR R and T to leaf physiological changes linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf and perhaps of a plant canopy might be possible in the future. However, using our approach to estimate the water status of a leaf does not appear possible at present, because our results display too much variability that we do not yet understand.

  12. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Single Leaves from Optical Polarization Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Dahlgren, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. For monitoring canopy water status, existing approaches such as the Crop Water Stress Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness have limitations. The CWSI does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWI is based upon the physics of water-light interaction, not plant physiology. In this research, we applied optical polarization techniques to monitor the VIS/NIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both changed nonlinearly as each leaf dried, R increasing and T decreasing. Our results tie changes in the VIS/NIR R and T to leaf physiological changes - linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf - and perhaps of a plant canopy - might be possible in the future. However, using our approach to estimate the water status of a leaf does not appear possible at present, because our results display too much variability that we do not yet understand.

  13. Contrasting physiological effects of partial root zone drying in field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell) according to total soil water availability

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Pascual; Dodd, Ian C.; Martinez-Cutillas, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Different spatial distributions of soil moisture were imposed on field-grown grapevines by applying the same irrigation volumes to the entire (DI; deficit irrigation) or part of the (PRD; partial root zone drying) root zone. Five treatments were applied: controls irrigated at 60% ETc (crop evapotranspiration) for the whole season (308 mm year−1); DI-1 and PRD-1 that received the same irrigation as controls before fruit set, 30% ETc from fruit set to harvest and 45% ETc post-harvest (192 mm year−1); and DI-2 and PRD-2 that were the same, except that 15% ETc was applied from fruit set to harvest (142 mm year−1). Compared with DI-1, PRD-1 maintained higher leaf area post-veraison and increased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, but decreased intrinsic gas exchange efficiency without causing differences in leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Compared with DI-2, PRD-2 increased leaf xylem ABA concentration and decreased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, mainly at the beginning of PRD cycles. Distinctive PRD effects (e.g. greater stomatal closure) depended on the volumetric soil water content of the wet root zone, as predicted from a model of root-to-shoot ABA signalling. PMID:22451721

  14. Water content determination of superdisintegrants by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, G; Zelkó, R

    2012-04-07

    Water contents of superdisintegrant pharmaceutical excipients were determined by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy using simple linear regression. Water contents of the investigated three common superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate) varied over a wide range (0-24%, w/w). In the case of crospovidone three different samples from two manufacturers were examined in order to study the effects of different grades on the calibration curves. Water content determinations were based on strong absorption of water between 3700 and 2800 cm⁻¹, other spectral changes associated with the different compaction of samples on the ATR crystal using the same pressure were followed by the infrared region between 1510 and 1050 cm⁻¹. The calibration curves were constructed using the ratio of absorbance intensities in the two investigated regions. Using appropriate baseline correction the linearity of the calibration curves was maintained over the entire investigated water content regions and the effect of particle size on the calibration was not significant in the case of crospovidones from the same manufacturer. The described method enables the water content determination of powdered hygroscopic materials containing homogeneously distributed water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrient fluxes across sediment-water interface in Bohai Bay Coastal Zone, China.

    PubMed

    Mu, Di; Yuan, Dekui; Feng, Huan; Xing, Fangwei; Teo, Fang Yenn; Li, Shuangzhao

    2017-01-30

    Sediment cores and overlying water samples were collected at four sites in Tianjin Coastal Zone, Bohai Bay, to investigate nutrient (N, P and Si) exchanges across the sediment-water interface. The exchange fluxes of each nutrient species were estimated based on the porewater profiles and laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed significant differences between the two methods, which implied that molecular diffusion alone was not the dominant process controlling nutrient exchanges at these sites. The impacts of redox conditions and bioturbation on the nutrient fluxes were confirmed by the laboratory incubation experiments. The results from this study showed that the nutrient fluxes measured directly from the incubation experiment were more reliable than that predicted from the porewater profiles. The possible impacts causing variations in the nutrient fluxes include sewage discharge and land reclamation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical model of water flow in a fractured basalt vadose zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christine

    2000-12-01

    A numerical model of a fractured basalt vadose zone has been developed on the basis of the conceptual model described by Faybishenko et al. [[his issue]. The model has been used to simulate a ponded infiltration test in order to investigate infiltration through partially saturated fractured basalt. A key question addressed is how the fracture pattern geometry and fracture connectivity within a single basalt flow of the Snake River Plain basalt affect water infiltration. The two-dimensional numerical model extends from the ground surface to a perched water body 20 m below and uses an unconventional quasi-deterministic approach with explicit but highly simplified representation of major fractures and other important hydrogeologic features. The model adequately reproduces the majority of the field observation and provides insights into the infiltration process that cannot be obtained by data collection alone, demonstrating its value as a component of field studies.

  17. Developing hydrological model for water quality in Iraq marshes zone using Landsat-TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghany, Maged; Hasab, Hashim Ali; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Bin Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    The Mesopotamia marshlands constitute the largest wetland ecosystem in the Middle East and Western Eurasia. These wetlands are located at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in southern Iraq. However, there are series reductions in the wetland zones because of neighbor countries, i.e. Turkey, Syria built dams upstream of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In addition, the first Gulf war of the 1980s had damaged majority of the marches resources. In fact,the marshes had been reduced in size to less than 7% since 1973 and had deteriorated in water quality parameters. The study integrates Hydrological Model of RMA-2 with Geographic Information System, and remote sensing techniques to map the water quality in the marshlands south of Iraq. This study shows that RMA-2 shows the two dimensional water flow pattern and water quality quantities in the marshlands. It can be said that the integration between Hydrological Model of RMA-2, Geographic Information System, and remote sensing techniques can be used to monitor water quality in the marshlands south of Iraq.

  18. Mapping the Fresh-Salt Water Interaction in the Coastal Zone Using High Resolution Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Pedersen, J. B. B.; Christiansen, A. V.; Foged, N.; Schaars, F.; Rolf, H.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade airborne electromagnetics (AEM) and the accompanying data processing and inversion algorithms have undergone huge developments in terms of technology, costs, and reliability. This has expanded the scope of AEM from mainly mineral exploration to geotechnical applications and groundwater resource mapping. In this abstract we present a case with generally applicable results where AEM is used to map saltwater intrusion as well as outflow of fresh water to the sea. The survey took place on the Dutch coast in 2011 and is composed of a detailed inland coastal mapping as well as lines extending kilometres into the North Sea. It adds further complications that the area has a dense infrastructure and rapid varying dune topography causing the need for cautious data processing. We use the high resolution AEM system SkyTEM and data processing and inversion in the Aarhus Workbench. On the inland side, the results show a high resolution image of the fresh water interface and the interaction with clay layers acting as barriers. On the sea side they show a picture of freshwater plumes being pushed several hundred meters under the sea. The last mentioned information was actually the main purpose of the survey as this information could hardly be obtained by other methods and it is decisive for the total water balance of the system. The case shows an example of an AEM survey resulting in a high resolution image of the entire coastal zone. The technology is applicable in all coastal zones in the world and if applied it would lead to much improved management of the water resources in these landscapes.

  19. Water and sediment dynamics in the Red River mouth and adjacent coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Maren, D. S.

    2007-02-01

    The coastline of the Red River Delta is characterized by alternating patterns of rapid accretion and severe erosion. The main branch of the Red River, the Ba Lat, is presently expanding seaward with a main depositional area several km downstream and offshore the Ba Lat River mouth. Sediment deposition rates are approximately 6 m in the past 50 years. Field measurements were done to determine the processes that regulate marine dispersal and deposition of sediment supplied by the Ba Lat. These measurements reveal that the waters surrounding the Ba Lat delta are strongly stratified with a pronounced southward-flowing surface layer. This southward-flowing surface layer is a coastal current which is generated by river plumes that flow into the coastal zone north of the Ba Lat. However, outflow of turbid river water is not continuous and most sediment enters the coastal zone when the alongshore surface velocities are low. As a consequence, most sediment settles from suspension close to the river mouth. In addition to the southward surface flow, the southward near-bottom currents are also stronger than northward currents. Contrasting with the residual flow near-surface, this southward flow component near-bottom is caused by tidal asymmetry. Because most sediment is supplied by the Ba Lat when wave heights are low, sediment is able to consolidate and therefore the long-term deposition is southward of, but still close to, the Ba Lat mouth.

  20. Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

  1. Water, heat, and vapor flow in a deep vadose zone under arid and hyper-arid conditions: a numerical study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madi, Raneem; de Rooij, Gerrit H.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater recharge in arid regions is notoriously difficult to quantify. One reason is data scarcity: reliable weather records (rainfall, potential evapotranspiration rate, temperature) are typically lacking, the soil properties over the entire extent of the often very deep vadose zone are usually unknown, and the effect of sparse vegetation, wadis, (biological) soil crusts, and hard pans on infiltration and evaporation is difficult to quantify. Another reason is the difficulty of modeling the intricately coupled relevant processes over extended periods of time: coupled flow of liquid water, water vapor, and heat in a very deep soil in view of considerable uncertainty at the soil surface as indicated above, and over large spatial extents. In view of this myriad of problems, we limited ourselves to the simulation of 1-dimensional coupled flow of water, heat, and vapor in an unvegetated deep vadose zone. The conventional parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties perform poorly under very dry conditions. We therefore selected an alternative that was developed specifically for dry circumstances and modified another to eliminate the physically implausible residual water content that rendered it of limited use for desert environments. The issue of data scarcity was resolved by using numerically generated rainfall records combined with a simple model for annual and daily temperature fluctuations. The soil was uniform, and the groundwater depth was constant at 100 m depth, which provided the lower boundary condition. The geothermal gradient determined the temperature at the groundwater level. We generated two scenarios with 120 years of weather in an arid and a hyper-arid climate. The initial condition was established by first starting with a somewhat arbitrary unit gradient initial condition corresponding to a small fraction of the annual average rainfall and let the model run through the 120-year atmospheric forcing. The resulting profile of matric potential

  2. Vegetation water content of crops and woodlands for improving soil moisture retrievals from Coriolis WindSat

    Estimation of vegetation water content (VWC) by shortwave infrared remote sensing improves soil moisture retrievals. The largest unknown for predicting VWC is stem water content; for woodlands, stem water content is expected to be proportional to stem height. Airborne imagery were acquired and photo...

  3. Vegetation water content of crops and woodlands for improving soil moisture retrievals from Coriolis WindSat

    Estimation of vegetation water content (VWC) by shortwave infrared remote sensing improves soil moisture retrievals. The largest unknown for predicting VWC is stem water content, which is assumed to be allometrically related to canopy water content. From forest science, stem volume is linearly relat...

  4. Validation of Soil Water Content Estimation Method on Agricultural Regions in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; Kim, M.

    2016-12-01

    The continuous water stress caused by decrease of soil water has a direct influence to the crop growth in a upland crop area. The agricultural drought is occured if water requirement is not supplied timely in crop growh process. It is more important to understand the soil characteristics for high accuracy soil moisture estimation because of the soil water contents largely depends on soil properties. The RDA(Rural Development Administration) has provided real-time soil moisture observations corrected for 71 points in the South Korea. In this study, we developed a soil water content estimation method that considered soil hydraulic parameters for the observation points of soil water content in agricultural regions operated by the RDA. SWAP(Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant) model was used in the estimation of soil water contents. The soil hydraulic parameters that is the input data of the SWAP model were estimated using the ROSETTA model developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture(USDA). Meteorological data observed from AWS(Automatic Weather Station) were used including daily maximum temperature(°), daily minimum temperature(°), relative humidity(%), solar radiation, wind speed and precipitation data. We choosed 56 stations there are no missing of meteorological data and have soil physical properties. For the verification of soil water content estimation method, we used Haenam KoFlux observation data that are observed long-term soil water contents over 2009-2015(2014 missing) years. In the case of 2015, there are good reproducibility between observation of soil water contents and results of SWAP model simulation with R2=0.72, RMSE=0.026 and TCC=0.849. In the case of precipitation event, the simulation results were slightly overestimated more than observation. However there are good reproducibility in the case of soil water reduction due to continuous non-precipitation periods. We have simulated the soil water contents of the 56 stations that being operated in the RDA

  5. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    SciT

    Yochim, April, E-mail: ayochim@regionofwaterloo.ca; Zytner, Richard G., E-mail: rzytner@uoguelph.ca; McBean, Edward A., E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and themore » lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were

  6. Land and water use practices intended to increase water productivity in arid and semi-arid zones. Application to Uzbekistan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshadiev, Mirzokhid; Fleskens, Luuk; van Dam, Jos; Pulatov, Alim

    2017-04-01

    Water demand increases as more food is required to meet population growth and higher living standards. In addition, climate change is expected to further exacerbate water scarcity in already dry areas where irrigation is most needed. In the water scarce areas, the key strategy to meet demand of growing food production and water use is increase of water productivity (WP) based on best land and water use practices. A literature review will be conducted to study promising land and water use practices that increase water productivity in arid and semi-arid zones, with a special focus on Uzbekistan. In addition to literature review we will conduct interviews with local farmers and land and water management experts. However, due to time constraints and difficult to access grey literature, the review paper cannot cover all promising land and water use practices that have been used in Uzbekistan. We selected the following promising practices: a) conventional furrow irrigation; b) deficit irrigation; c) drip/sprinkle irrigation, and d) rain-fed with supplemental irrigation. The preliminary findings of the literature review show that in Uzbekistan in case of conventional furrow irrigation the WP range of cotton was 0.32-0.89, and of wheat 0.44-1.77 (kg m3). By applying deficit irrigation practices, WP values of cotton can be 0-25% higher (0.32-1.11 kg m3), and of wheat 114-400% higher (2.20-3.78 kg m3). However, deficit irrigation practices for potato's need to be managed carefully to reach higher WP, and might even negatively effect WP, showing a range of 0.85-7.04 compared to conventional furrow irrigation 4.02-4.81 (kg m3). Important to mention that drip irrigation practice can highly contribute to increase WP of cotton by 156-91 % (0.82-1.70 kg m3) compared to furrow irrigation. Also, rain-fed cultivation with supplemental irrigation result is anticipated and will be included in the presentation and full version of paper. In summary, the review of current land and water

  7. The modelling influence of water content to mechanical parameter of soil in analysis of slope stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusman, M.; Nazki, A.; Putra, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    One of the parameters in slope stability analysis is the shear strength of the soil. Changes in soil shear strength characteristics lead to a decrease in safety factors on the slopes. This study aims to see the effect of increased moisture content on soil mechanical parameters. The case study study was conducted on the slopes of Sitinjau Lauik Kota Padang. The research method was done by laboratory analysis and simple liniear regression analysis and multiple. Based on the test soil results show that the increase in soil water content causes a decrease in cohesion values and internal shear angle. The relationship of moisture content to cohesion is described in equation Y = 55.713-0,6X with R2 = 0.842. While the relationship of water content to shear angle in soil is described in the equation Y = 38.878-0.258X with R2 = 0.915. From several simulations of soil water level improvement, calculation of safety factor (SF) of slope. The calculation results show that the increase of groundwater content is very significant affect the safety factor (SF) slope. SF slope values are in safe condition when moisture content is 50% and when it reaches maximum water content 73.74% slope safety factor value potentially for landslide.

  8. Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ahmad B; Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris; Vontobel, Peter; Lehmann, Eberhard; Weller, Ulrich; Hopmans, Jan W; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Oswald, Sascha E

    2011-11-01

    • Despite the importance of rhizosphere properties for water flow from soil to roots, there is limited quantitative information on the distribution of water in the rhizosphere of plants. • Here, we used neutron tomography to quantify and visualize the water content in the rhizosphere of the plant species chickpea (Cicer arietinum), white lupin (Lupinus albus), and maize (Zea mays) 12 d after planting. • We clearly observed increasing soil water contents (θ) towards the root surface for all three plant species, as opposed to the usual assumption of decreasing water content. This was true for tap roots and lateral roots of both upper and lower parts of the root system. Furthermore, water gradients around the lower part of the roots were smaller and extended further into bulk soil compared with the upper part, where the gradients in water content were steeper. • Incorporating the hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters of the rhizosphere into our model, we could simulate the gradual changes of θ towards the root surface, in agreement with the observations. The modelling result suggests that roots in their rhizosphere may modify the hydraulic properties of soil in a way that improves uptake under dry conditions. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. BOLE WATER CONTENT SHOWS LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATION IN CENTURY-OLD DOUGLAS-FIR TREES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

  10. Seasonal patterns of bole water content in old growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large, old conifer trees in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), USA purportedly ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought by drawing down the water content of bole tissues over the summer months and refilling during the winter. Continuous monitoring of bole relative water conten...

  11. Effective water content reduction in sewage wastewater sludge using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna

    2014-02-01

    The present work compares the use of three flocculants for sedimentation of sludge and sludge water content from sewage wastewater i.e. magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION), ferrous sulfate (chemical) and Moringa crude extract (protein). Sludge water content, wet/dry weight, turbidity and color were performed for, time kinetics and large-scale experiment. A 30% reduction of the sludge water content was observed when the wastewater was treated with either protein or chemical coagulant. The separation of sludge from wastewater treated with MION was achieved in less than 5min using an external magnet, resulted in 95% reduction of sludge water content. Furthermore, MION formed denser flocs and more than 80% reduction of microbial content was observed in large volume experiments. The results revealed that MION is efficient in rapid separation of sludge with very low water content, and thus could be a suitable alternative for sludge sedimentation and dewatering in wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pb and Cd Contents in Soil, Water, and Trees at an Afforestation Site, South China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-11-01

    Pb and Cd contents in 13 plantation tree species (leaf and branch components), soil, water (groundwater and river water) at a young (3-5 year-old) seashore afforestation stand were investigated in Nansha district, Guangzhou city in southern China. The results showed that (1) soil, rather than water or trees, had the highest content of both Pb (averagely 48.79 mg/kg) and Cd (0.50 mg/kg), demonstrating that soil might function as a major reservoir for extraneously derived heavy metals; (2) Pb content was higher in branches than in leaves, but Cd content appeared similar in both components, implying possibly different accumulation mechanisms in trees; (3) Pb and Cd appeared to accumulate differently among some tree taxa, whereas almost no significant difference was detected between introduced and indigenous species. The study indicated that trees were potentially useful to remediate sites contaminated with Pb and Cd in the urbanized areas.

  13. The Calibration and Use of Capacitance Sensors to Monitor Stem Water Content in Trees.

    PubMed

    Matheny, Ashley M; Garrity, Steven R; Bohrer, Gil

    2017-12-27

    Water transport and storage through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum is critical to the terrestrial water cycle, and has become a major research focus area. Biomass capacitance plays an integral role in the avoidance of hydraulic impairment to transpiration. However, high temporal resolution measurements of dynamic changes in the hydraulic capacitance of large trees are rare. Here, we present procedures for the calibration and use of capacitance sensors, typically used to monitor soil water content, to measure the volumetric water content in trees in the field. Frequency domain reflectometry-style observations are sensitive to the density of the media being studied. Therefore, it is necessary to perform species-specific calibrations to convert from the sensor-reported values of dielectric permittivity to volumetric water content. Calibration is performed on a harvested branch or stem cut into segments that are dried or re-hydrated to produce a full range of water contents used to generate a best-fit regression with sensor observations. Sensors are inserted into calibration segments or installed in trees after pre-drilling holes to a tolerance fit using a fabricated template to ensure proper drill alignment. Special care is taken to ensure that sensor tines make good contact with the surrounding media, while allowing them to be inserted without excessive force. Volumetric water content dynamics observed via the presented methodology align with sap flow measurements recorded using thermal dissipation techniques and environmental forcing data. Biomass water content data can be used to observe the onset of water stress, drought response and recovery, and has the potential to be applied to the calibration and evaluation of new plant-level hydrodynamics models, as well as to the partitioning of remotely sensed moisture products into above- and belowground components.

  14. Calibration of the Root Zone Water Quality Model and Application of Data Assimilation Techniques to Estimate Profile Soil Moisture

    Estimation of soil moisture has received considerable attention in the areas of hydrology, agriculture, meteorology and environmental studies because of its role in the partitioning water and energy at the land surface. In this study, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Root Zone Water Quality ...

  15. Influence of light intensity and water content of medium on total dendrobine of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Ling; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Hong-Chang; Luo, Chun-Li; Wang, Hua-Lei

    2017-11-01

    To ascertain the influence of light intensity and water content of medium on the total dendrobine of Dendrobium nobile (D. nobile). The principal component analysis combined with total dendrobine accumulation was conducted to assess the yield and quality of D. nobile in all treatments. In the experiment, D. nobile plants were cultivated in greenhouse as tested materials, and complete test of 9 treatments was adopted with relative light intensities 75.02%, 39.74%, 29.93% and relative water content of medium 50%, 65%, 80%. The plants were treated in June and harvested till December. Indexes including agronomic traits, fresh weight and dry weight of stem and leaf, ash content, extract, and dendrobine were measured. Under the light intensity treatments of 75.02% with 50%, 65%, 80% water content of medium, the basal stems of plants were comparatively thicker with more leaves, and the fresh weight and dry weight of stems and leaves were significantly higher than other 6 treatments. Leaves in all treatments contained dendrobine. Under the light intensity treatments of 75.02% with 50%, 65%, 80% water content of medium, dendrobine content of leaves was lower while dendrobine contents of other treatments were more than 0.60%. After comprehensive assessment through the principal component analysis and total dendrobine accumulation, the results showed that 3 treatments with relative light intensity of 75.02% ranked the top three. In brief, the moderately strong light intensity and water content of medium from low to medium can facilitate the growth and yield of D. nobile plants, while light intensity from moderately weak to weak can enhance the dendrobine content. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on the Optimum Water Content of Detecting Soil Nitrogen Using Near Infrared Sensor

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Nie, Pengcheng; Dong, Tao; Qu, Fangfang; Lin, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the important indexes to evaluate the physiological and biochemical properties of soil. The level of soil nitrogen content influences the nutrient levels of crops directly. The near infrared sensor can be used to detect the soil nitrogen content rapidly, nondestructively, and conveniently. In order to investigate the effect of the different soil water content on soil nitrogen detection by near infrared sensor, the soil samples were dealt with different drying times and the corresponding water content was measured. The drying time was set from 1 h to 8 h, and every 1 h 90 samples (each nitrogen concentration of 10 samples) were detected. The spectral information of samples was obtained by near infrared sensor, meanwhile, the soil water content was calculated every 1 h. The prediction model of soil nitrogen content was established by two linear modeling methods, including partial least squares (PLS) and uninformative variable elimination (UVE). The experiment shows that the soil has the highest detection accuracy when the drying time is 3 h and the corresponding soil water content is 1.03%. The correlation coefficients of the calibration set are 0.9721 and 0.9656, and the correlation coefficients of the prediction set are 0.9712 and 0.9682, respectively. The prediction accuracy of both models is high, while the prediction effect of PLS model is better and more stable. The results indicate that the soil water content at 1.03% has the minimum influence on the detection of soil nitrogen content using a near infrared sensor while the detection accuracy is the highest and the time cost is the lowest, which is of great significance to develop a portable apparatus detecting nitrogen in the field accurately and rapidly. PMID:28880202

  17. Research on the Optimum Water Content of Detecting Soil Nitrogen Using Near Infrared Sensor.

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Xiao, Shupei; Nie, Pengcheng; Dong, Tao; Qu, Fangfang; Lin, Lei

    2017-09-07

    Nitrogen is one of the important indexes to evaluate the physiological and biochemical properties of soil. The level of soil nitrogen content influences the nutrient levels of crops directly. The near infrared sensor can be used to detect the soil nitrogen content rapidly, nondestructively, and conveniently. In order to investigate the effect of the different soil water content on soil nitrogen detection by near infrared sensor, the soil samples were dealt with different drying times and the corresponding water content was measured. The drying time was set from 1 h to 8 h, and every 1 h 90 samples (each nitrogen concentration of 10 samples) were detected. The spectral information of samples was obtained by near infrared sensor, meanwhile, the soil water content was calculated every 1 h. The prediction model of soil nitrogen content was established by two linear modeling methods, including partial least squares (PLS) and uninformative variable elimination (UVE). The experiment shows that the soil has the highest detection accuracy when the drying time is 3 h and the corresponding soil water content is 1.03%. The correlation coefficients of the calibration set are 0.9721 and 0.9656, and the correlation coefficients of the prediction set are 0.9712 and 0.9682, respectively. The prediction accuracy of both models is high, while the prediction effect of PLS model is better and more stable. The results indicate that the soil water content at 1.03% has the minimum influence on the detection of soil nitrogen content using a near infrared sensor while the detection accuracy is the highest and the time cost is the lowest, which is of great significance to develop a portable apparatus detecting nitrogen in the field accurately and rapidly.

  18. Comparing electronic probes for volumetric water content of low-density feathermoss

    Overduin, P.P.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kane, D.L.; Harden, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Feathermoss is ubiquitous in the boreal forest and across various land-cover types of the arctic and subarctic. A variety of affordable commercial sensors for soil moisture content measurement have recently become available and are in use in such regions, often in conjunction with fire-susceptibility or ecological studies. Few come supplied with calibrations suitable or suggested for soils high in organics. Aims to test seven of these sensors for use in feathermoss, seeking calibrations between sensor output and volumetric water content. Design/methodology/approach - Measurements from seven sensors installed in live, dead and burned feathermoss samples, drying in a controlled manner, were compared to moisture content measurements. Empirical calibrations of sensor output to water content were determined. Findings - Almost all of the sensors tested were suitable for measuring the moss sample water content, and a unique calibration for each sensor for this material is presented. Differences in sensor design lead to changes in sensitivity as a function of volumetric water content, affecting the spatial averaging over the soil measurement volume. Research limitations/implications - The wide range of electromagnetic sensors available include frequency and time domain designs with variations in wave guide and sensor geometry, the location of sensor electronics and operating frequency. Practical implications - This study provides information for extending the use of electromagnetic sensors to feathermoss. Originality/value - A comparison of volumetric water content sensor mechanics and design is of general interest to researchers measuring soil water content. In particular, researchers working in wetlands, boreal forests and tundra regions will be able to apply these results. ?? Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  19. A cost-effectiveness comparison of existing and Landsat-aided snow water content estimation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, J. M.; Thomas, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    This study describes how Landsat imagery can be cost-effectively employed to augment an operational hydrologic model. Attention is directed toward the estimation of snow water content, a major predictor variable in the volumetric runoff forecasting model presently used by the California Department of Water Resources. A stratified double sampling scheme is supplemented with qualitative and quantitative analyses of existing operations to develop a comparison between the existing and satellite-aided approaches to snow water content estimation. Results show a decided advantage for the Landsat-aided approach.

  20. Metrologically Traceable Determination of the Water Content in Biopolymers: INRiM Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolle, F.; Beltramino, G.; Fernicola, V.; Sega, M.; Verdoja, A.

    2017-03-01

    Water content in materials is a key factor affecting many chemical and physical properties. In polymers of biological origin, it influences their stability and mechanical properties as well as their biodegradability. The present work describes the activity carried out at INRiM on the determination of water content in samples of a commercial starch-derived biopolymer widely used in shopping bags (Mater-Bi^{circledR }). Its water content, together with temperature, is the most influencing parameter affecting its biodegradability, because of the considerable impact on the microbial activity which is responsible for the biopolymer degradation in the environment. The main scope of the work was the establishment of a metrologically traceable procedure for the determination of water content by using two electrochemical methods, namely coulometric Karl Fischer (cKF) titration and evolved water vapour (EWV) analysis. The obtained results are presented. The most significant operational parameters were considered, and a particular attention was devoted to the establishment of metrological traceability of the measurement results by using appropriate calibration procedures, calibrated standards and suitable certified reference materials. Sample homogeneity and oven-drying temperature were found to be the most important influence quantities in the whole water content measurement process. The results of the two methods were in agreement within the stated uncertainties. Further development is foreseen for the application of cKF and EWV to other polymers.

  1. Quantification of seasonal biomass effects on cosmic-ray soil water content determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatz, R.; Bogena, H. R.; Hendricks Franssen, H.; Huisman, J. A.; Qu, W.; Montzka, C.; Korres, W.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-12-01

    The novel cosmic-ray soil moisture probes (CRPs) measure neutron flux density close to the earth surface. High energy cosmic-rays penetrate the Earth's atmosphere from the cosmos and become moderated by terrestrial nuclei. Hydrogen is the most effective neutron moderator out of all chemical elements. Therefore, neutron flux density measured with a CRP at the earth surface correlates inversely with the hydrogen content in the CRP's footprint. A major contributor to the amount of hydrogen in the sensor's footprint is soil water content. The ability to measure changes in soil water content within the CRP footprint at a larger-than-point scale (~30 ha) and at high temporal resolution (hourly) make these sensors an appealing measurement instrument for hydrologic modeling purposes. Recent developments focus on the identification and quantification of major uncertainties inherent in CRP soil moisture measurements. In this study, a cosmic-ray soil moisture network for the Rur catchment in Western Germany is presented. It is proposed to correct the measured neutron flux density for above ground biomass yielding vegetation corrected soil water content from cosmic-ray measurements. The correction for above ground water equivalents aims to remove biases in soil water content measurements on sites with high seasonal vegetation dynamics such as agricultural fields. Above ground biomass is estimated as function of indices like NDVI and NDWI using regression equations. The regression equations were obtained with help of literature information, ground-based control measurements, a crop growth model and globally available data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). The results show that above ground biomass could be well estimated during the first half of the year. Seasonal changes in vegetation water content yielded biases in soil water content of ~0.05 cm3/cm3 that could be corrected for with the vegetation correction. The vegetation correction has particularly

  2. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Zubair; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  3. Brain tissue water content in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Aygok, G; Marmarou, A; Fatouros, P; Young, H

    2006-01-01

    Relatively little is known regarding the water content of brain tissue in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients. The objective of our study was to determine absolute water content non-invasively in hydrocephalic patients, particularly in the anterior and posterior ventricular horns and in the periventricular white matter. Ten patients who were diagnosed and treated for idiopathic NPH in our clinic were selected for study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques were used to obtain anatomical image slices for quantitative brain water measurements. Apparent diffusion coefficient measures were also extracted from regions of interest. To our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm that periventricular lucency seen on MRI represents increased water content in the extracellular space that is markedly elevated prior to shunting.

  4. A high resolution capacitive sensing system for the measurement of water content in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-06-25

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ± 50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  5. Origin and Distribution of Water Contents in Continental and Oceanic Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    The water content distribution of the upper mantle will be reviewed as based on the peridotite record. The amount of water in cratonic xenoliths appears controlled by metasomatism while that of the oceanic mantle retains in part the signature of melting events. In both cases, the water distribution is heterogeneous both with depth and laterally, depending on localized water re-enrichments next to melt/fluid channels. The consequence of the water distribution on the rheology of the upper mantle and the location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary will also be discussed.

  6. Phytochemical content of hot and cold water extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habboo, Maysam Dahham; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2018-04-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiaceae) is a plant with ethnobotanical applications including antifungal and antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical contents of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves water extract prepared in cold and hot distilled water. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytochemicals components such as a flavonoid, terpenoid and steroid in both extracts. Cold water extract has two extra components: saponin and alkaloid that may be destroyed by the exposure to heat.

  7. The impact of hydrologic segmentation on the Critical Zone water fluxes of headwater catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Dominguez, M.; Guan, H.

    2017-12-01

    Headwater catchments are usually located on areas with complex terrain, where variability in aspect and microclimate give rise to contrasting vegetation cover and soil properties. This fine-scale variability in land surface conditions within a catchment is usually overlooked in hydrologic models, and the resulting differences in hydrologic dynamics across the slopes neglected. In this work we evaluate the impact of the differential hydrologic response, or as we define it here, "hydrologic segmentation" on the partition of water fluxes of contrasting slopes within a series of headwater catchments across a latitudinal gradient. Our aim is to investigate the effect of hydrologically segmenting the slopes of headwater catchments as a function of their unique aspect-vegetation-soils associations, on the water fluxes of the catchments and their potential consequences on the water balance at a regional scale. Using a distributed hydrologic model and data from a series of catchments with varying land cover and climatic conditions, we run a set of simulations with and without hydrologic segmentation to assess the effect of changing the architecture of the top part of the critical zone on the evaporation, transpiration, infiltration and runoff fluxes of each catchment slope. We calibrate and compare the simulation results with observations from a network of hydrologic sensors and independent field estimates of the various water fluxes. Our results suggest that hydrologic segmentation will significantly affect both the timing and partition of evapotranspiration fluxes with direct impacts on soil moisture residence times and the potential for deep infiltration and aquifer recharge.

  8. Examining Adaptations to Water Stress Among Farming Households in Sri Lanka's Dry Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. E.; Carrico, A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka's primary rice-farming zone. Whether these changes will undermine the national-level food security that Sri Lanka has worked to develop since their independence depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Using household survey data collected in 13 rice farming communities throughout Sri Lanka, this research explores how water stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields. Our analyses reveal that farmers' abilities to access irrigation infrastructure is the most important factor shaping the rice yields of water stressed Sri Lanka farmers. Notably, however, our research also identified farmers' use of hybrid, 'short duration' seed varietals to be the only climate adaptation strategy being promoted by agricultural extension services to have a significant positive impact on farmers' yields. These findings provide encouraging evidence for policies that promote plant breeding and distribution in Sri Lanka as a means to buffer the food system to climate change.

  9. Impacts of beach wrack removal via grooming on surf zone water quality.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Zhou, Christina; French-Owen, Darien; Hassaballah, Abdulrahman; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2014-02-18

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used to assess the microbial water quality of recreational waters. Increasingly, nonfecal sources of FIB have been implicated as causes of poor microbial water quality in the coastal environment. These sources are challenging to quantify and difficult to remediate. The present study investigates one nonfecal FIB source, beach wrack (decaying aquatic plants), and its impacts on water quality along the Central California coast. The prevalence of FIB on wrack was studied using a multibeach survey, collecting wrack throughout Central California. The impacts of beach grooming, to remove wrack, were investigated at Cowell Beach in Santa Cruz, California using a long-term survey (two summers, one with and one without grooming) and a 48 h survey during the first ever intensive grooming event. FIB were prevalent on wrack but highly variable spatially and temporally along the nine beaches sampled in Central California. Beach grooming was generally associated with either no change or a slight increase in coastal FIB concentrations and increases in surf zone turbidity and silicate, phosphate, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations. The findings suggest that beach grooming for wrack removal is not justified as a microbial pollution remediation strategy.

  10. Norwegian fisheries in the Svalbard zone since 1980. Regulations, profitability and warming waters affect landings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misund, Ole Arve; Heggland, Kristin; Skogseth, Ragnheid; Falck, Eva; Gjøsæter, Harald; Sundet, Jan; Watne, Jens; Lønne, Ole Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    The Svalbard archipelago in the High Arctic is influenced by cold Arctic water masses from the north-east and the warm West Spitsbergen Current flowing northwards along its western coast. The eastern waters and the fjords are normally frozen during the winter months, while the coastal waters west of the archipelago remain open. Norwegian fishers have been harvesting from Svalbard waters for decades and detailed records of catches exists from 1980 onwards. We analyze the catch records from the Svalbard zone (approximately ICES area IIb). The large fishery for capelin in summer yielding annual catches up to 737 000 tons was closed by a Norwegian fishery regulation in the mid nineteen nineties. Demersal fisheries have been continuous, and the results clearly indicate a northward trend in landings of Northeast Arctic cod, haddock, ling and Atlantic halibut. Fisheries of Northern shrimp have been more variable and shown no clear geographic trends. A "gold rush" fishery for scallops north of Svalbard lasted for about 10 years (1986-1995) only, and ended due to low profitably. These results are discussed in relation to the possibility of further northward extension of fisheries subjected to climate change.

  11. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  12. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guild, Liane; Kudela, Raphael; Hooker, Stanford; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John M.; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan; Broughton, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of

  13. Effects of crack tip plastic zone on corrosion fatigue cracking of alloy 690(TT) in pressurized water reactor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, J.; Qiu, S. Y.; Chen, Y.; Fu, Z. H.; Lin, Z. X.; Xu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Alloy 690(TT) is widely used for steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR), where it is susceptible to corrosion fatigue. In this study, the corrosion fatigue behavior of Alloy 690(TT) in simulated PWR environments was investigated. The microstructure of the plastic zone near the crack tip was investigated and labyrinth structures were observed. The relationship between the crack tip plastic zone and fatigue crack growth rates and the environment factor Fen was illuminated.

  14. Geostatistical modeling of the gas emission zone and its in-place gas content for Pittsburgh-seam mines using sequential Gaussian simulation

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.; Goodman, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the size of the gas emission zone, the locations of gas sources within, and especially the amount of gas retained in those zones is one of the most important steps for designing a successful methane control strategy and an efficient ventilation system in longwall coal mining. The formation of the gas emission zone and the potential amount of gas-in-place (GIP) that might be available for migration into a mine are factors of local geology and rock properties that usually show spatial variability in continuity and may also show geometric anisotropy. Geostatistical methods are used here for modeling and prediction of gas amounts and for assessing their associated uncertainty in gas emission zones of longwall mines for methane control. This study used core data obtained from 276 vertical exploration boreholes drilled from the surface to the bottom of the Pittsburgh coal seam in a mining district in the Northern Appalachian basin. After identifying important coal and non-coal layers for the gas emission zone, univariate statistical and semivariogram analyses were conducted for data from different formations to define the distribution and continuity of various attributes. Sequential simulations performed stochastic assessment of these attributes, such as gas content, strata thickness, and strata displacement. These analyses were followed by calculations of gas-in-place and their uncertainties in the Pittsburgh seam caved zone and fractured zone of longwall mines in this mining district. Grid blanking was used to isolate the volume over the actual panels from the entire modeled district and to calculate gas amounts that were directly related to the emissions in longwall mines. Results indicated that gas-in-place in the Pittsburgh seam, in the caved zone and in the fractured zone, as well as displacements in major rock units, showed spatial correlations that could be modeled and estimated using geostatistical methods. This study showed that GIP volumes may

  15. Geostatistical modeling of the gas emission zone and its in-place gas content for Pittsburgh-seam mines using sequential Gaussian simulation

    Karacan, C.O.; Olea, R.A.; Goodman, G.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the size of the gas emission zone, the locations of gas sources within, and especially the amount of gas retained in those zones is one of the most important steps for designing a successful methane control strategy and an efficient ventilation system in longwall coal mining. The formation of the gas emission zone and the potential amount of gas-in-place (GIP) that might be available for migration into a mine are factors of local geology and rock properties that usually show spatial variability in continuity and may also show geometric anisotropy. Geostatistical methods are used here for modeling and prediction of gas amounts and for assessing their associated uncertainty in gas emission zones of longwall mines for methane control.This study used core data obtained from 276 vertical exploration boreholes drilled from the surface to the bottom of the Pittsburgh coal seam in a mining district in the Northern Appalachian basin. After identifying important coal and non-coal layers for the gas emission zone, univariate statistical and semivariogram analyses were conducted for data from different formations to define the distribution and continuity of various attributes. Sequential simulations performed stochastic assessment of these attributes, such as gas content, strata thickness, and strata displacement. These analyses were followed by calculations of gas-in-place and their uncertainties in the Pittsburgh seam caved zone and fractured zone of longwall mines in this mining district. Grid blanking was used to isolate the volume over the actual panels from the entire modeled district and to calculate gas amounts that were directly related to the emissions in longwall mines.Results indicated that gas-in-place in the Pittsburgh seam, in the caved zone and in the fractured zone, as well as displacements in major rock units, showed spatial correlations that could be modeled and estimated using geostatistical methods. This study showed that GIP volumes may

  16. Using Opposing Slope Aspects to Understand Water and Energy Flow Controls on Critical Zone Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Barnhart, K. R.; Kelly, P. K.; Foster, M. A.; Langston, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    A long-standing problem is to understand how climate controls the structure of the critical zone, including the depth of weathering, thickness and character of soils, and morphology of hillslopes. We exploit microclimates on opposing aspects in a watershed in the Boulder Creek CZO to investigate the role of water and energy fluxes on development of critical zone architectures. The 2.6 km2 Gordon Gulch, located at ~2500 m a.s.l. at 40°N latitude, is elongated east-west, and consequently is predominantly composed of north and south-facing soil-mantled slopes, dotted with tors, developed on Precambrian gneiss. The depth to fresh rock ranges from about 8 to 12 m, and is up to 2 m deeper on north-facing slopes. In addition to greater thickness, weathered rock is measurably lower in tensile strength on north-facing slopes. While characteristics of weathered rock vary with aspect, the overlying mobile regolith is relatively uniform in thickness at ~0.5 m across the catchment, and its mineralogy shows only minor chemical alteration from parent rock. These features of the critical zone architecture arise in the face of systematic differences in energy and water delivery by aspect. About 40-50% of the ~500 mm annual precipitation is delivered as snow. During spring, the south-facing slopes receive up to 50% greater direct solar radiation than the north-facing slopes. Consequently, snow cover is ephemeral in the open Ponderosa forests on south-facing slopes, and soil wetting and drying events are frequent. Frost penetration is shallow, and short lived. On north-facing slopes, less direct radiation and a dense Lodgepole pine forest cover leads to snowpack retention. Soils are colder and soil moisture stays elevated for long periods in spring on these slopes. We postulate that deeper and more sustained frost penetration on north-facing slopes enhances the damage rate by frost cracking. Deeper water delivery further aids this process, and supports chemical alteration processes

  17. Changes in carbohydrate content and membrane stability of two ecotypes of Calamagrostis arundinacea growing at different elevations in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shutong; Zeng, Bo; Yuan, Zhi; Su, Xiaolei

    2014-01-01

    The Three Gorges project has caused many ecosystem problems. Ecological restoration using readily-available plants is an effective way of mitigating environmental impacts. Two perennial submergence-tolerant ecotypes of Calamagrostis arundinacea were planted in an experimental field in the drawdown zone. Responses of the two plant ecotypes to flooding stress in the drawdown zone were unknown. Carbohydrate content and membrane stability, two key factors for survival of plants under flooding stress, of two ecotypes (designated "dwarf" and "green") of C. arundinacea growing at different elevations of the drawdown zone were investigated. Live stems (LS) and dead stems (DS) of the two plant ecotypes at eight elevations (175, 170, 162, 160, 158, 155, 152 m and 149 m) were sampled. Contents of soluble sugar, starch and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as plasma membrane permeability of live stems were measured. The lowest elevations for survival of dwarf and green C. arundinacea were 160 m and 158 m, respectively. Soluble sugar content of live stems of both ecotypes decreased with elevation, with amounts from an elevation of 170 m being lower than from an elevation of 175 m. MDA content and plasma membrane permeability in live stems of green C. arundinacea did not increase with the decrease in elevation, while these measures in dwarf C. arundinacea from an elevation of 162 m were significantly higher than from an elevation of 175 m. Carbohydrate content, especially soluble sugar content, in both ecotypes was more sensitive to flooding stress than membrane stability. Green C. arundinacea had a higher tolerance to submergence than dwarf C. arundinacea, and thus green C. arundinacea can be planted at lower elevations than dwarf C. arundinacea.

  18. CAFE: a seismic investigation of water percolation in the Cascadia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondenay, S.; Abers, G. A.; Creager, K. C.; Malone, S. D.; MacKenzie, L.; Zhang, Z.; van Keken, P. E.; Wech, A. G.; Sweet, J. R.; Melbourne, T. I.; Hacker, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    Subduction zones transport water into the Earth's interior. The subsequent release of this water through dehydration reactions may trigger intraslab earthquakes and arc volcanism, regulate slip on the plate interface, control plate buoyancy, and regulate the long-term budget of water on the planet's surface. As part of Earthscope, we have undertaken an experiment named CAFE (Cascadia Arrays for Earthscope) seeking to better constrain these effects in the Cascadia subduction zone. The basic experiment has four components: (1) a 47-element broadband imaging array of Flexible Array instruments integrated with Bigfoot; (2) three small-aperture seismic arrays with 15 additional short-period instruments near known sources of Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events; (3) analysis of the PBO and PANGA GPS data sets to define the details of episodic slip events; and (4) integrative modeling with complementary constraints from petrology and geodynamics. Here, we present a summary of the results that have been obtained to date by CAFE, with a focus on high-resolution seismic imaging. A 250 km-long by 120 km-deep seismic profile extending eastward from the Washington coast was generated by 2-D Generalized Radon Transform Inversion of the broadband data. It images the subducted crust as a shallow-dipping, low-velocity layer from 20km depth beneath the coast to 40km depth beneath the forearc. The termination of the low-velocity layer is consistent with the depth at which hydrated metabasalts of the subducted crust are expected to undergo eclogitization, a reaction that is accompanied by the release of water and an increase in seismic velocities. Slab earthquakes are located in both the oceanic crust and mantle at depths <40 km, and exclusively in the oceanic mantle at greater depth, as would be expected if they are related to slab dehydration. Two ETS events have occurred during the course of the deployment. They were precisely located and are confined to the region above which the

  19. Corneal tissue water content mapping with THz imaging: preliminary clinical results (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Deng, Sophie X.; Taylor, Zachary; Grundfest, Warren

    2016-03-01

    Well-regulated corneal water content is critical for ocular health and function and can be adversely affected by a number of diseases and injuries. Current clinical practice limits detection of unhealthy corneal water content levels to central corneal thickness measurements performed by ultrasound or optical coherence tomography. Trends revealing increasing or decreasing corneal thickness are fair indicators of corneal water content by individual measurements are highly inaccurate due to the poorly understood relationship between corneal thickness and natural physiologic variation. Recently the utility of THz imaging to accuarately measure corneal water content has been explored on with rabbit models. Preliminary experiments revealed that contact with dielectric windows confounded imaging data and made it nearly impossible to deconvolve thickness variations due to contact from thickness variations due to water content variation. A follow up study with a new optical design allowed the acquisition of rabbit data and the results suggest that the observed, time varying contrast was due entirely to the water dynamics of the cornea. This paper presents the first ever in vivo images of human cornea. Five volunteers with healthy cornea were recruited and their eyes were imaged three times over the course of a few minutes with our novel imaging system. Noticeable changes in corneal reflectivity were observed and attributed to the drying of the tear film. The results suggest that clinically compatible, non-contact corneal imaging is feasible and indicate that signal acquired from non-contact imaging of the cornea is a complicated coupling of stromal water content and tear film.

  20. Zone fluidics for measurement of octanol-water partition coefficient of drugs.

    PubMed

    Wattanasin, Panwadee; Saetear, Phoonthawee; Wilairat, Prapin; Nacapricha, Duangjai; Teerasong, Saowapak

    2015-02-20

    A novel zone fluidics (ZF) system for the determination of the octanol-water partition coefficient (Pow) of drugs was developed. The ZF system consisted of a syringe pump with a selection valve, a holding column, a silica capillary flow-cell and an in-line spectrophotometer. Exact microliter volumes of solvents (octanol and phosphate buffer saline) and a solution of the drug, sandwiched between air segments, were sequentially loaded into the vertically aligned holding column. Distribution of the drug between the aqueous and octanol phases occurred by the oscillation movement of the syringe pump piston. Phase separation occurred due to the difference in densities. The liquid zones were then pushed into the detection flow cell. In this method, absorbance measurements in only one of the phase (octanol or aqueous) were employed, which together with the volumes of the solvents and pure drug sample, allowed the calculation of the Pow. The developed system was applied to the determination of the Pow of some common drugs. The log (Pow) values agreed well with a batch method (R(2)=0.999) and literature (R(2)=0.997). Standard deviations for intra- and inter-day analyses were both less than 0.1log unit. This ZF system provides a robust and automated method for screening of Pow values in the drug discovery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Classifying risk zones by the impacts of oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2013-05-15

    Risk zones that could be subject to the impacts of oil spills were identified at a national scale across the 23 coastal provinces of Thailand based on the average percentage risk of critical variables, including frequency of oil spill incidents, number of ports, number of local boats, number of foreign boats, and presence of important resources (i.e., protection area, conservation area, marine park, mangrove, aquaculture, coral reef, seagrass, seagull, seabird, sea turtle, dugong, dolphin, whale, guitar fish, and shark). Risks at the local scale were determined based on the frequency of simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources. Four zones with varied risk magnitudes (low, moderate, high, and very high) were mapped to guide the preparation of effective plans to minimize oil spill incidents and impacts in coastal waters. Risk maps with sufficient information could be used to improve regulations related to shipping and vessel navigation in local and regional seas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  3. Efficient quantification of water content in edible oils by headspace gas chromatography with vapour phase calibration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2018-06-01

    An automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyse the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapour phase calibration technique with an external vapour standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e. the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%. The present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Deuterium content of water increases depression susceptibility: the potential role of a serotonin-related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Evans, Matthew; Chernopiatko, Anton; Couch, Yvonne; Costa-Nunes, João; Cespuglio, Raymond; Chesson, Lesley; Vignisse, Julie; Steinbusch, Harry W; Anthony, Daniel C; Pomytkin, Igor; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-15

    Environmental factors can significantly affect disease prevalence, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. The ratio of deuterium to protium in water shows substantial geographical variation, which could affect disease susceptibility. Thus the link between deuterium content of water and depression was investigated, both epidemiologically, and in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. We performed a correlation analysis between deuterium content of tap water and rates of depression in regions of the USA. Next, we used a 10-day chronic stress paradigm to test whether 2-week deuterium-depleted water treatment (91 ppm) affects depressive-like behavior and hippocampal SERT. The effect of deuterium-depletion on sleep electrophysiology was also evaluated in naïve mice. There was a geographic correlation between a content of deuterium and the prevalence of depression across the USA. In the chronic stress model, depressive-like features were reduced in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water, and SERT expression was decreased in mice treated with deuterium-treated water compared with regular water. Five days of predator stress also suppressed proliferation in the dentate gyrus; this effect was attenuated in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water. Finally, in naïve mice, deuterium-depleted water treatment increased EEG indices of wakefulness, and decreased duration of REM sleep, phenomena that have been shown to result from the administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Our data suggest that the deuterium content of water may influence the incidence of affective disorder-related pathophysiology and major depression, which might be mediated by the serotoninergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of methylglyoxal in water and biological matrices by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    do Rosário, Pedro Miguel Alvaro; Cordeiro, Carlos A Alves; Freire, Ana Ponces; Nogueira, José M Florêncio

    2005-05-01

    We describe a new method for the determination of methylglyoxal in water and biological matrices, using o-phenylenediamine as derivatizing agent and solid-phase extraction followed by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detection. 25 mM sodium phosphate running buffers at pH 2.2, 30 kV, and 25 degrees C allowed the best instrumental conditions for the optimum separation of methylglyoxal in a suitable analytical time (< 10 min), using an uncoated fused-silica capillary of 75 microm inner diameter and an effective length of 45.1 cm with an extended light path and the wavelength set to 200 nm. Under optimized instrumental conditions, good reproducibility of the migration time (< 1.1%), precision (< 5%), an excellent linear dynamic range from 0.1 to 3.6 mg/L (r(2) = 0.9997), and low limits of detection (7.2 microg/L) were obtained for methylglyoxal measurements, using the internal standard methodology. Assays on laboratory-spiked tap and ground water samples allowed a remarkable accuracy, presenting yields of 95.0 +/- 4.3 and 94.0 +/- 1.1%, respectively, and good performance to determine methylglyoxal in beer and yeast cells suspensions matrices was also obtained at trace level. The present methodology is a cost-effective alternative for routine quality control analysis, showing to be reliable, sensitive, and with a low sample volume requirement to monitor methylglyoxal in water and biological matrices.

  6. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing residential development since in the 1960s has lead to increases in nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water in parts of the 247 square mile study area near La Pine, Oregon. Denitrification is the dominant nitrate-removal process that occurs in suboxic ground water, and suboxic ground water serves as a barrier to transport of most nitrate in the aquifer. Oxic ground water, on the other hand, represents a potential pathway for nitrate transport from terrestrial recharge areas to the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers. The effects of present and potential future discharge of ground-water nitrate into the nitrogen-limited Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers are not known. However, additions of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited rivers can lead to increases in primary productivity which, in turn, can increase the magnitudes of dissolved oxygen and pH swings in river water. An understanding of the distribution of oxic ground water in the near-river environment could facilitate understanding the vulnerability of these rivers and could be a useful tool for management of these rivers. In this study, transects of temporary wells were installed in sub-river sediments beneath the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers near La Pine to characterize near-river reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions near the ends of ground-water flow paths. Samples from transects installed near the center of the riparian zone or flood plain were consistently suboxic. Where transects were near edges of riparian zones, most ground-water samples also were suboxic. Oxic ground water (other than hyporheic water) was uncommon, and was only detected near the outside edge of some meander bends. This pattern of occurrence likely reflects geochemical controls throughout the aquifer as well as geochemical processes in the microbiologically active riparian zone near the end of ground-water flow paths. Younger, typically less reduced ground water generally enters near-river environments through

  7. Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of computing the inherent sea surface radiance for regions of clear water from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery given only a knowledge of the local solar zenith angle is examined. The inherent sea surface radiance is related to the upwelling and downwelling irradiances just beneath the sea surface, and an expression is obtained for a normalized inherent sea surface radiance which is nearly independent of solar zenith angle for low phytoplankton pigment concentrations. An analysis of a data base consisting of vertical profiles of upwelled spectral radiance and pigment concentration, which was used in the development of the CZCS program, confirms the virtual constancy of the normalized inherent sea surface radiance at wavelengths of 520 and 550 nm for cases when the pigment concentration is less than 0.25 mg/cu m. A strategy is then developed for using the normalized inherent sea surface radiance in the atmospheric correction of CZCS imagery.

  8. Root zone water quality model (RZWQM2): Model use, calibration and validation

    Ma, Liwang; Ahuja, Lajpat; Nolan, B.T.; Malone, Robert; Trout, Thomas; Qi, Z.

    2012-01-01

    The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) has been used widely for simulating agricultural management effects on crop production and soil and water quality. Although it is a one-dimensional model, it has many desirable features for the modeling community. This article outlines the principles of calibrating the model component by component with one or more datasets and validating the model with independent datasets. Users should consult the RZWQM2 user manual distributed along with the model and a more detailed protocol on how to calibrate RZWQM2 provided in a book chapter. Two case studies (or examples) are included in this article. One is from an irrigated maize study in Colorado to illustrate the use of field and laboratory measured soil hydraulic properties on simulated soil water and crop production. It also demonstrates the interaction between soil and plant parameters in simulated plant responses to water stresses. The other is from a maize-soybean rotation study in Iowa to show a manual calibration of the model for crop yield, soil water, and N leaching in tile-drained soils. Although the commonly used trial-and-error calibration method works well for experienced users, as shown in the second example, an automated calibration procedure is more objective, as shown in the first example. Furthermore, the incorporation of the Parameter Estimation Software (PEST) into RZWQM2 made the calibration of the model more efficient than a grid (ordered) search of model parameters. In addition, PEST provides sensitivity and uncertainty analyses that should help users in selecting the right parameters to calibrate.

  9. Circulation and water properties in the landfast ice zone of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingartner, Thomas J.; Danielson, Seth L.; Potter, Rachel A.; Trefry, John H.; Mahoney, Andy; Savoie, Mark; Irvine, Cayman; Sousa, Leandra

    2017-09-01

    Moorings, hydrography, satellite-tracked drifters, and high-frequency radar data describe the annual cycle in circulation and water properties in the landfast ice zone (LIZ) of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Three seasons, whose duration and characteristics are controlled by landfast ice formation and ablation, define the LIZ: ;winter;, ;break-up;, and ;open-water;. Winter begins in October with ice formation and ends in June when rivers commence discharging. Winter LIZ ice velocities are zero, under-ice currents are weak ( 5 cm s-1), and poorly correlated with winds and local sea level. The along-shore momentum balance is between along-shore pressure gradients and bottom and ice-ocean friction. Currents at the landfast ice-edge are swift ( 35 cm s-1), wind-driven, with large horizontal shears, and potentially unstable. Weak cross-shore velocities ( 1 cm s-1) imply limited exchanges between the LIZ and the outer shelf in winter. The month-long break-up season (June) begins with the spring freshet and concludes when landfast ice detaches from the bottom. Cross-shore currents increase, and the LIZ hosts shallow ( 2 m), strongly-stratified, buoyant and sediment-laden, under-ice river plumes that overlie a sharp, 1 m thick, pycnocline across which salinity increases by 30. The plume salt balance is between entrainment and cross-shore advection. Break-up is followed by the 3-month long open-water season when currents are swift (≥20 cm s-1) and predominantly wind-driven. Winter water properties are initialized by fall advection and evolve slowly due to salt rejection from ice. Fall waters and ice within the LIZ derive from local rivers, the Mackenzie and/or Chukchi shelves, and the Arctic basin.

  10. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water of different sources, Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Mohammed; Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema

    2015-10-05

    The quality of drinking water has always been a major health concern, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the disease cases are attributed to inadequate sanitation and use of polluted water. The inaccessibility of potable water to large segment of a population in the rural communities is the major health concern in most part of developing countries. This study was designed to evaluate the physico-chemical and bacteriological qualities of drinking water of different sources in the study area. The study was conducted at Serbo town and selected kebeles around the same town in Kersa district of Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the study populations were gathered using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Standard microbiological methods were employed for determination of bacterial load and detection of coliforms. Physico-chemical analyses [including total dissolved substances (TDS), total suspended substances (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate and phosphate concentrations, turbidity and electrical conductivities] were conducted following guidelines of American Public Health Association and WHO. Correlations among measured parameters of water samples collected from different water sources were computed using SPSS software (version 20). Only 18.1% (43/237) of the study population had access to tap water in the study area. More than 50% of the community relies on open field waste disposal. Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus and Pseudomonas were among dominant bacterial isolates in the water samples. All water samples collected from unprotected water sources were positive for total coliforms and fecal coliforms (FC). Accordingly, FC were detected in 80% of the total samples with counts ranging between 0.67 and 266.67 CFU/100 ml although 66.67% of tap water samples were negative for FC. The recorded temperature and pH ranged between 20.1-29.90 °C and 5.64-8.14, respectively. The lowest and

  11. An empirical model for the complex dielectric permittivity of soils as a function of water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Chmugge, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The recent measurements on the dielectric properties of soils shows that the variation of dielectric constant with moisture content depends on soil types. The observed dielectric constant increases only slowly with moisture content up to a transition point. Beyond the transition it increases rapidly with moisture content. The moisture value of transition region was found to be higher for high clay content soils than for sandy soils. Many mixing formulas were compared with, and were found incompatible with, the measured dielectric variations of soil-water mixtures. A simple empirical model was proposed to describe the dielectric behavior of ths soil-water mixtures. The relationship between transition moisture and wilting point provides a means of estimating soil dielectric properties on the basis of texture information.

  12. A simulation study of inorganic sulfur cycling in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China and the implications for mercury methylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Rong; Wang, Dingyong; Zhang, Jinzhong; Qian, Sheng; Yin, Deliang; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China experiences a drying and wetting rotation every year, and the water level induced redox variation may influence inorganic sulfur speciation and mercury methylation. In this work, a simulative flooding and drying experiment and a sulfate added flooding experiment were conducted to study this topic. The results showed that sulfate was reduced from the 10th d during the flooding period based on the detected sulfide in water and the increased elemental sulfur (S 0 ) in sediment. Sulfate reduction and sulfide re-oxidation led to the increase of S 0 contents with the maximal values of 1.86 and 0.46 mg kg -1 during the flooding and drying period, respectively. Methylmercury (MeHg) content in sediment displayed a rising trend (0.16-0.28 μg kg -1 ) in the first 40 d during the flooding period, and then declined from 0.28 to 0.15 μg kg -1 . A positive correlation between MeHg content and S 0 content in soil (r = 0.53, p < 0.05) was found during the flooding period, and a positive but not significant correlation between the percent of MeHg in THg (%MeHg) and S 0 content (r = 0.85, p = 0.08). In sulfate added flooding simulation, MeHg content in sediment did not increase with the sulfate concentration increasing. The increased pyrite in high-sulfate treatment may fix mercury through adsorption process. This study demonstrated that inorganic sulfur species especially S 0 and chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) play an important role on mercury methylation in the WLFZ of the TGR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  14. Response of some Thematic Mapper band ratios to variation in soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, H. Brad; Pelletier, Ramona E.

    1986-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance to nadir in the reflective TM bands and the 1.15-1.3-micron band was measured in the laboratory as moisture content was varied in ten soils. Stronger absorption by water in TM5 and TM7 was expected to cause ratios of other bands to TM5 and TM7 to increase with water content, but in most cases these ratios were constant or decreased at low to intermediate water content and increased only at high moisture levels. Because these ratios were found to decrease as illumination elevation angle decreased, it was suggested that increased roughness resulting from the methods of moistening and mixing the soil may have tended to counteract the expected ratio increases.

  15. Chloride Concentration in Water from the Upper Permeable Zone of the Tertiary Limestone Aquifer System, Southeastern United States

    Sprinkle, Craig L.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The tertiary limestone aquifer system of the southeastern United States is a sequence of carbonate rocks referred to as the Floridan aquifer in Florida and the principal artesian aquifer in Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina. More than 3 billion gallons of water are pumped daily from the limestone aquifer; and the system is the principal source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water supply in south Georgia and most of Florida. The aquifer system includes units of Paleocene to early Miocene age that combine to form a continuous carbonate sequence that is hydraulically connected in varying degrees. In a small area near Brunswick, Ga., a thin sequence of rocks of Late Cretaceous age is part of the system. In and directly downdip from much of the outcrop area, the system consists of one continuous permeable unit. Further downdip the aquifer system generally consists of two major permeable zones separated by a less-permeable unit of highly variable hydraulic properties (very leaky to virtually nonleaky). Conditions for the system vary from unconfined to confined depending upon whether the argillaceous Miocene and younger rocks that form the upper confining unit have been removed by erosion. This report is one of a series of preliminary products depicting the hydrogeologic framework, water chemistry, and hydrology of the aquifer system. The map shows the distribution of chloride ions in water from the upper permeable zone of the limestone aquifer system. The upper permeable zone consists of several formations, primarily the Tampa, Suwannee, Ocala, and Avon Park Limestones (Miller 1981a, b). Chloride concentrations of water within the upper permeable zone vary from nearly zero in recharge areas to many thousands of milligrams per liter (mg/L) in coastal discharge areas. Where the aquifer system discharges into the sea, the upper permeable zone contains increasing amounts of seawater. In these areas, wells that fully penetrate the upper permeable