Evolutionary history of the endangered fish Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Bean, 1898) (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae) using a sequential approach to phylogeography based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data
Background Tectonic, volcanic and climatic events that produce changes in hydrographic systems are the main causes of diversification and speciation of freshwater fishes. Elucidate the evolutionary history of freshwater fishes permits to infer theories on the biotic and geological evolution of a region, which can further be applied to understand processes of population divergence, speciation and for conservation purposes. The freshwater ecosystems in Central Mexico are characterized by their genesis dynamism, destruction, and compartmentalization induced by intense geologic activity and climatic changes since the early Miocene. The endangered goodeid Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis is widely distributed across Central México, thus making it a good model for phylogeographic analyses in this area. Results We addressed the phylogeography, evolutionary history and genetic structure of populations of Z. quitzeoensis through a sequential approach, based on both microsatellite and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Most haplotypes were private to particular locations. All the populations analysed showed a remarkable number of haplotypes. The level of gene diversity within populations was H¯d = 0.987 (0.714 – 1.00). However, in general the nucleotide diversity was low, π = 0.0173 (0.0015 – 0.0049). Significant genetic structure was found among populations at the mitochondrial and nuclear level (ΦST = 0.836 and FST = 0.262, respectively). We distinguished two well-defined mitochondrial lineages that were separated ca. 3.3 million years ago (Mya). The time since expansion was ca. 1.5 × 106 years ago for Lineage I and ca. 860,000 years ago for Lineage II. Also, genetic patterns of differentiation, between and within lineages, are described at different historical timescales. Conclusion Our mtDNA data indicates that the evolution of the different genetic groups is more related to ancient geological and climatic events (Middle Pliocene, ca. 3.3 Mya) than to the current
Turko, A J; Wright, P A
The order Cyprinodontiformes contains an exceptional diversity of amphibious taxa, including at least 34 species from six families. These cyprinodontiforms often inhabit intertidal or ephemeral habitats characterized by low dissolved oxygen or otherwise poor water quality, conditions that have been hypothesized to drive the evolution of terrestriality. Most of the amphibious species are found in the Rivulidae, Nothobranchiidae and Fundulidae. It is currently unclear whether the pattern of amphibiousness observed in the Cyprinodontiformes is the result of repeated, independent evolutions, or stems from an amphibious common ancestor. Amphibious cyprinodontiforms leave water for a variety of reasons: some species emerse only briefly, to escape predation or capture prey, while others occupy ephemeral habitats by living for months at a time out of water. Fishes able to tolerate months of emersion must maintain respiratory gas exchange, nitrogen excretion and water and salt balance, but to date knowledge of the mechanisms that facilitate homeostasis on land is largely restricted to model species. This review synthesizes the available literature describing amphibious lifestyles in cyprinodontiforms, compares the behavioural and physiological strategies used to exploit the terrestrial environment and suggests directions and ideas for future research. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Gutiérrez, Verónica; Rego, Natalia; Naya, Hugo; García, Graciela
Among teleosts, the South American genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) includes 42 taxa of annual fishes divided into five different species groups. It is a monophyletic genus, but morphological and molecular data do not resolve the relationship among intrageneric clades and high rates of substitution have been previously described in some mitochondrial genes. In this work, the complete mitogenome of a species of the genus was determined for the first time. We determined its structure, gene order and evolutionary peculiar features, which will allow us to evaluate the performance of mitochondrial genes in the phylogenetic resolution at different taxonomic levels. Regarding gene content and order, the circular mitogenome of A. charrua (17,271 pb) presents the typical pattern of vertebrate mitogenomes. It contains the full complement of 13 proteins-coding genes, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA and one non-coding control region. Notably, the tRNA-Cys was only 57 bp in length and lacks the D-loop arm. In three full sibling individuals, heteroplasmatic condition was detected due to a total of 12 variable sites in seven protein-coding genes. Among cyprinodontiforms, the mitogenome of A. charrua exhibits the lowest G+C content (37 %) and GCskew, as well as the highest strand asymmetry with a net difference of T over A at 1st and 3rd codon positions. Considering the 12 coding-genes of the H strand, correspondence analyses of nucleotide composition and codon usage show that A and T at 1st and 3rd codon positions have the highest weight in the first axis, and segregate annual species from the other cyprinodontiforms analyzed. Given the annual life-style, their mitogenomes could be under different selective pressures. All 13 protein-coding genes are under strong purifying selection and we did not find any significant evidence of nucleotide sites showing episodic selection (dN >dS) at annual lineages. When fast evolving third codon positions were removed from alignments, the
Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Heß, Martin; Plath, Martin
Background Fishes show an amazing diversity in hearing abilities, inner ear structures, and otolith morphology. Inner ear morphology, however, has not yet been investigated in detail in any member of the diverse order Cyprinodontiformes. We, therefore, studied the inner ear of the cyprinodontiform freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana by analyzing the position of otoliths in situ, investigating the 3D structure of sensory epithelia, and examining the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, while combining μ-CT analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemical methods. P. mexicana occurs in different ecotypes, enabling us to study the intra-specific variability (on a qualitative basis) of fish from regular surface streams, and the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfidic cave in southern Mexico. Results The inner ear of Poecilia mexicana displays a combination of several remarkable features. The utricle is connected rostrally instead of dorso-rostrally to the saccule, and the macula sacculi, therefore, is very close to the utricle. Moreover, the macula sacculi possesses dorsal and ventral bulges. The two studied ecotypes of P. mexicana showed variation mainly in the shape and curvature of the macula lagenae, in the curvature of the macula sacculi, and in the thickness of the otolithic membrane. Conclusions Our study for the first time provides detailed insights into the auditory periphery of a cyprinodontiform inner ear and thus serves a basis—especially with regard to the application of 3D techniques—for further research on structure-function relationships of inner ears within the species-rich order Cyprinodontiformes. We suggest that other poeciliid taxa, or even other non-poeciliid cyprinodontiforms, may display similar inner ear morphologies as described here. PMID:22110746
Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Hess, Martin; Plath, Martin
Fishes show an amazing diversity in hearing abilities, inner ear structures, and otolith morphology. Inner ear morphology, however, has not yet been investigated in detail in any member of the diverse order Cyprinodontiformes. We, therefore, studied the inner ear of the cyprinodontiform freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana by analyzing the position of otoliths in situ, investigating the 3D structure of sensory epithelia, and examining the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, while combining μ-CT analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemical methods. P. mexicana occurs in different ecotypes, enabling us to study the intra-specific variability (on a qualitative basis) of fish from regular surface streams, and the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfidic cave in southern Mexico. The inner ear of Poecilia mexicana displays a combination of several remarkable features. The utricle is connected rostrally instead of dorso-rostrally to the saccule, and the macula sacculi, therefore, is very close to the utricle. Moreover, the macula sacculi possesses dorsal and ventral bulges. The two studied ecotypes of P. mexicana showed variation mainly in the shape and curvature of the macula lagenae, in the curvature of the macula sacculi, and in the thickness of the otolithic membrane. Our study for the first time provides detailed insights into the auditory periphery of a cyprinodontiform inner ear and thus serves a basis--especially with regard to the application of 3D techniques--for further research on structure-function relationships of inner ears within the species-rich order Cyprinodontiformes. We suggest that other poeciliid taxa, or even other non-poeciliid cyprinodontiforms, may display similar inner ear morphologies as described here.
Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Schaefer, Jacob F.; Hernández, Carmen L.; Prosanta Chakrabarty
Abstract A new species of Profundulus, Profundulus kreiseri (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), is described from the Chamelecón and Ulúa Rivers in the northwestern Honduran highlands. Based on a phylogenetic analysis using cytochrome b and the presence of synapomorphic characters (dark humeral spot, a scaled preorbital region and between 32-34 vertebrae), this new species is placed in the subgenus Profundulus, which also includes Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae, Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus and Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis. Profundulus kreiseri can be distinguished from other members of the subgenus Profundulus by having less than half of its caudal fin densely scaled. Profundulus kreiseri can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae and Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus by the absence of rows of dark spots on its flanks. The new species can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis by the presence of fewer caudal- and pectoral-fin rays. The new species is distinguished from congeners of the profundulid subgenus Tlaloc (viz., Profundulus (Tlaloc) hildebrandi, Profundulus (Tlaloc) labialis, Profundulus (Tlaloc) candalarius and Profundulus (Tlaloc) portillorum) by having a scaled preorbital region and a dark humeral spot. Profundulus kreiseri and Profundulus portillorum are the only two species of Profundulus that are endemic to the region south of the Motagua River drainage in southern Guatemala and northwestern Honduras. PMID:23166464
Altner, Melanie; Reichenbacher, Bettina
The extant Cyprinodontiformes (killifishes) with their two suborders Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei represent a diverse and well-studied group of fishes. However, their fossil record is comparatively sparse and has so far yielded members of the Cyprinodontoidei only. Here we report on cyprinodontiform fossils from the upper Miocene Lukeino Formation in the Tugen Hills of the Central Rift Valley of Kenya, which represent the first fossil record of an aplocheiloid killifish. A total of 169 specimens - mostly extraordinarily well preserved - and a sample of ten extant cyprinodontiform species were studied on the basis of morphometrics, meristics and osteology. A phylogenetic analysis using PAUP was also conducted for the fossils. Both the osteological data and the phylogenetic analysis provide strong evidence for the assignment of the fossils to the Aplocheiloidei, and justify the definition of the new family †Kenyaichthyidae, the new genus †Kenyaichthys and the new species †K. kipkechi sp. nov. The phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly places †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. in a sister relationship to the Rivulidae (a purely Neotropical group), a probable explanation might be lack of available synapomorphies for the Rivulidae, Nothobranchiidae and Aplocheilidae. The specimens of †K. kipkechi sp. nov. show several polymorphic characters and large overlap in meristic traits, which justifies their interpretation as a species flock in statu nascendi. Patterns of variation in neural and haemal spine dimensions in the caudal vertebrae of †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. and the extant species studied indicate that some previously suggested synapomorphies of the Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei need to be revised. PMID:25923654
García, G; Ríos, N; Gutiérrez, V
Among Neotropical fish fauna, the South American killifish genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) constitutes an excellent model to study the genomic evolutionary processes underlying speciation events. Recently, unusually large genome size has been described in 16 species of this genus, with an average DNA content of about 5.95 ± 0.45 pg per diploid cell (mean C-value of about 2.98 pg). In the present paper we explore the possible origin of this unparallel genomic increase by means of comparative analysis of the repetitive components using NGS (454-Roche) technology in the lowest and highest Rivulidae genomes. Here, we provide the first annotated Rivulidae-repeated sequences composition and their relative repetitive fraction in both genomes. Remarkably, the genomic proportion of the moderately repetitive DNA in Austrolebias charrua genome represents approximately twice (45%) of the repetitive components of the highly related rivulinae taxon Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (25%). Present work provides evidence about the impact of the repeat families that could be distinctly proliferated among sublineages within Rivulidae fish group, explaining the great genome size differences encompassing the differentiation and speciation events in this family.
Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Valdesalici, Stefano; Rosales-Torres, Ana María
Populations of annual killifishes persist in temporary water bodies over the dry season through the expression of diapause in their drought-resistant embryos. Environmental cues may influence expression of the diapause phenotype during embryonic incubation. Millerichthys robustus is the only annual killifish distributed in North America. The aim of this review is to analyze the ecology of M. robustus development and contrast this with that of annual killifishes in austral locations. The temporary water bodies inhabited by M. robustus present the following environmental conditions: flood, drought, and humidity. During the flooding period, the environment presents the lowest temperatures, shortest photoperiod, and highest precipitation, and embryos were found in diapause I. The drought period features the highest temperatures and lowest precipitation, and embryos were found in diapause II. In contrast, during the humid period at the beginning of the rainy season, embryos were found in diapause I, II, and III, associated with the longer photoperiod and high temperatures. These dynamics of the diapause phenotypes can be explained by a combination of the strategies of phenotypic plasticity during flood and drought periods, and bet-hedging during the humid period. Moreover, the microenvironmental conditions in which embryos were buried could influence developmental trajectories. Developmental Dynamics 246:802-806, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Velázquez-Velázquez, Ernesto; González-Solís, David; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo
The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, has been considered one of the most dangerous parasites for cultured carp and a risk for native freshwater fish populations worldwide. This cestode is highly pathogenic for fishes especially fry. In this paper we record B. acheilognathi parasitizing the endangered and endemic freshwater fish Profundulus hildebrandi from the endorheic basin of San Crist6bal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico. B. acheilognathi was recorded from 10 of the 11 sampled localities, with high values of prevalence (> 60%) and mean abundance (> 4.50). The infection was persistent all through the year; gravid cestodes were recorded in all samples. It is assumed that B. acheilognathi entered to this area through the introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio, for aquacultural purposes. The data presented in this paper document the successful introduction, colonization and establishment of this alien species into the endangered P. hildebrandi.
Ribeiro, Juliana Souza; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Ederli, Nicole Brand
The genus Anableps is composed of species Anableps anableps, Anableps dowi, and Anableps microlepis. These fishes are tropical and usually live on the surface of brackish water, being popularly known as four-eyed-fishes due to the presence of prominent eyes and a pupil split horizontally. A. anableps and A. microlepis are considered as sister species that live in sympatry in South America. A. dowi, however, is restricted to the Pacific Ocean (Central America) and is considered the most primitive species of this genus. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of endoparasites in A. anableps from the Parnaíba's Delta and characterize them morphologically. During the necropsy, larvae of Contracaecum sp. in the third larval stage (L3) were collected from the pancreas of A. anableps, but no endoparasites were observed in other organs. The worms had a cuticular tooth and excretory pore located at the anterior end, a thread like body, whitish color, and without distinction of sex. The length of the ventricular appendix of the larvae was much greater than in other studies. This is the first report of endoparasitism in A. anableps and the first report of nematodes in four-eyed-fishes.
Morcillo, Felipe; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Doadrio, Ignacio
Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sánchez-Alvarez, A; García-Prieto, L; Pérez-Ponce de León, G
A new species of Rhabdochona from 2 species of freshwater fishes, Alloophorus robustus and Goodea atripinnis, is described from 2 lakes of the Mesa Central of Mexico. Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi n. sp. belongs to a group of species possessing inconspicuous bifurcated deirids and a prostom armed with 10 large teeth. It is distinguished from them because the left spicule is shorter, the tip is bifurcate, and both spicules lack a reflected dorsal barb. The new species most closely resembles Rhabdochona catostomi and Rhabdochona milleri but differs from them because the former possesses a left spicule tip with ventral barb, right spicule with reflected distal barb, and 5 pairs of postanal papillae, whereas R. milleri has 14 prostomal teeth, eggs rounded, and left spicule with slightly outlined bifurcation and right with a dorsal barb. Previous records of R. milleri in Mexico must be referred to R. lichtenfelsi.
Berbel-Filho, Waldir Miron; Barros-Neto, Luciano Freitas; Dias, Ricardo Marques; Mendes, Liana Figueiredo; Figueiredo, Carlos Augusto Assumpção; Torres, Rodrigo Augusto; Lima, Sergio Maia Queiroz
Abstract Poecilia vivipara, a small euryhaline guppy is reported at the Maceió River micro-basin in the Fernando de Noronha oceanic archipelago, northeast Brazil. However, the origin (human-mediated or natural dispersal) of this insular population is still controversial. The present study investigates how this population is phylogenetically related to the surrounding continental populations using the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene from eleven river basins in South America. Our phylogenetic reconstruction showed a clear geographical distribution arrangement of P. vivipara lineages. The Fernando de Noronha haplotype fell within the 'north' clade, closely related to a shared haplotype between the Paraíba do Norte and Potengi basins; the geographically closest continental drainages. Our phylogenetic reconstruction also showed highly divergent lineages, suggesting that P. vivipara may represent a species complex along its wide distribution. Regarding to the insular population, P. vivipara may have been intentionally introduced to the archipelago for the purpose of mosquito larvae control during the occupation of a U.S. military base following World War II. However, given the euryhaline capacity of P. vivipara, a potential scenario of natural (passive or active) dispersal cannot be ruled out. PMID:29674897
Amorim, Pedro F
Abstract Background The Cynopoecilus melanotaenia complex is a morphologically homogeneous killifish group, endemic from an area encompassing southern Brazil and northeastern Uruguay. It presently comprises four valid species: C. melanotaenia, the type species of the genus, and C. fulgens, C. intimus, and C. nigrovittatus. New information Cynopoecilus feltrini, n. sp., from the lower Tubarão river basin, southern Brazil, is distinguished from all congeners of the C. melanotaenia complex by having frontal E-scales medially overlapped, branchiostegal region orangish red in males and dorsum with few dark brown spots above opercular region. A phylogenetic tree derived from the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (681 bp) indicates that C. feltrini is a member of the clade that includes all species of the C. melanotaenia complex except C. melanotaenia, as well as that C. feltrini is the sister group of a clade comprising C. fulgens and C. nigrovittatus. PMID:27099548
North America’s Great Basin has long been of interest to biologists due to its high level of organismal endemicity throughout its endorheic watersheds. One example of such a group is the subfamily Empetricthyinae. In this paper, we analyzed the relationships of the Empetrichtyinae and assessed the validity of the subspecies designations given by Williams and Wilde within the group using concatenated phylogenetic tree estimation and species tree estimation. Samples from 19 populations were included covering the entire distribution of the three extant species of Empetricthyinae–Crenichthys nevadae, Crenichthys baileyi and Empetricthys latos. Three nuclear introns (S8 intron 4, S7 intron 1, and P0 intron 1) and one mitochondrial gene (Cytb) were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Using these sequences, we generated two separate hypotheses of the evolutionary relationships of Empetrichtyinae- one based on the mitochondrial data and one based on the nuclear data using Bayesian phylogenetics. Haplotype networks were also generated to look at the relationships of the populations within Empetrichthyinae. After comparing the two phylogenetic hypotheses, species trees were generated using *BEAST with the nuclear data to further test the validity of the subspecies within Empetrichthyinae. The mitochondrial analyses supported four lineages within C. baileyi and 2 within C. nevadae. The concatenated nuclear tree was more conserved, supporting one clade and an unresolved polytomy in both species. The species tree analysis supported the presence of two species within both C. baileyi and C. nevadae. Based on the results of these analyses, the subspecies designations of Williams and Wilde are not valid, rather a conservative approach suggests there are two species within C. nevadae and two species within C. baileyi. No structure was found for E. latos or the populations of Empetricthyinae. This study represents one of many demonstrating the invalidity of subspecies and their detriment to species identification, conservation, and understanding. PMID:29077708
Berbel-Filho, Waldir Miron; Barros-Neto, Luciano Freitas; Dias, Ricardo Marques; Mendes, Liana Figueiredo; Figueiredo, Carlos Augusto Assumpção; Torres, Rodrigo Augusto; Lima, Sergio Maia Queiroz
Poecilia vivipara , a small euryhaline guppy is reported at the Maceió River micro-basin in the Fernando de Noronha oceanic archipelago, northeast Brazil. However, the origin (human-mediated or natural dispersal) of this insular population is still controversial. The present study investigates how this population is phylogenetically related to the surrounding continental populations using the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene from eleven river basins in South America. Our phylogenetic reconstruction showed a clear geographical distribution arrangement of P. vivipara lineages. The Fernando de Noronha haplotype fell within the 'north' clade, closely related to a shared haplotype between the Paraíba do Norte and Potengi basins; the geographically closest continental drainages. Our phylogenetic reconstruction also showed highly divergent lineages, suggesting that P. vivipara may represent a species complex along its wide distribution. Regarding to the insular population, P. vivipara may have been intentionally introduced to the archipelago for the purpose of mosquito larvae control during the occupation of a U.S. military base following World War II. However, given the euryhaline capacity of P. vivipara , a potential scenario of natural (passive or active) dispersal cannot be ruled out.
Five species of Cyprinodon in Laguna Chichancanab, Yucatan, Mexico comprise a young species flock whose ecology and evolution has not been thoroughly studied, but whose existence is threatened with extinction. Species flocks evolve in isolated areas where predators and competitors are absent. Since the description of the Chichancanab flock, Oreochromis mossambicus, a species introduced into the lake for which I examined habitat in the 1980's, has become common throughout the basin. I assessed relative abundance of flock species in the lake. examined habitat use and segregation among the three most common flock species and examined the affects of O. mossambicus upon flock species habitat use. Cyprinodon beltrani was the most abundant flock species in 1997, followed by C. maya and C. labiosus; C. verecundus and C. simus were rare. Cyprinodon beltrani was found in shallow water, nearshore, over thick beds of submerged Chara, and little emergent vegetation. Cyprinodon beltrani exhibited diurnal variation in nearshore habitat use. In the field, the habitat use of C. beltrani and O. mossambicus broadly overlapped. In aquarium experiments, three flock species exhibited habitat use segregation and C. beltrani and C. labiosus showed agonistic behaviors that strengthened segregation. Cyprinodon maya differed from C. beltrani and C. labiosus by its greater dispersion of individuals and use of areas higher in the water column. The presence of O. mossambicus caused a shift in habitat use by C. maya and C. labiosus that put these species into habitat occupied by C. beltrani. The presence of introduced species has caused a significant perturbation of the conditions that fomented speciation of the Chichancanab flock 8,000 years ago.
Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Lam, Natalia; Pinto, Irma Vila; Méndez, Marco A.; Iturra, Patricia
Abstract Orestias Valenciennes, 1839 is a genus of freshwater fish endemic to the South American Altiplano. Cytogenetic studies of these species have focused on conventional karyotyping. The aim of this study was to use classical and molecular cytogenetic methods to identify the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and chromosome organization of four classes of repetitive DNA sequences (histone H3 DNA, U2 snRNA, 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA) in the chromosomes of O. ascotanensis Parenti, 1984, an endemic species restricted to the Salar de Ascotán in the Chilean Altiplano. All individuals analyzed had a diploid number of 48 chromosomes. C-banding identified constitutive heterochromatin mainly in the pericentromeric region of most chromosomes, especially a GC-rich heterochromatic block of the short arm of pair 3. FISH assay with an 18S probe confirmed the location of the NOR in pair 3 and revealed that the minor rDNA cluster occurs interstitially on the long arm of pair 2. Dual FISH identified a single block of U2 snDNA sequences in the pericentromeric regions of a subtelocentric chromosome pair, while histone H3 sites were observed as small signals scattered in throughout the all chromosomes. This work represents the first effort to document the physical organization of the repetitive fraction of the Orestias genome. These data will improve our understanding of the chromosomal evolution of a genus facing serious conservation problems. PMID:29093798
Sonnenberg, Rainer; Friel, John P; Van der Zee, Jouke R
A new deep-bodied Hylopanchax species is described from the northwestern Congo basin. Hylopanchax paucisquamatus, new species, was collected in the Odzala-Kokoua National Park in the Likouala River drainage of the Republic of Congo. It differs from its congeners, including the deep-bodied H. leki and H. ndeko, by a unique combination of morphological characters, including low number of mid-longitudinal and transverse scales, number of dorsal-fin rays, and position of dorsal-fin origin in relation to anal-fin. It is the only deep-bodied species currently known outside the Kasaï River drainage.
Money, David A; Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B
Predators can influence a variety of prey traits, including behavior. Traits such as boldness, activity rate, and tendency to explore can all be shaped by predation risk. Our study examines the effects of predation on these behaviors by considering a natural system in which two sister species of livebearing fishes, Brachyrhaphis roseni and B. terrabensis, experience divergent predation environments. In February of 2013, we collected fish in the Río Chiriquí Nuevo drainage, Chiriquí, Panama, and conducted behavioral assays. Using open-field behavioral assays, we evaluated both juveniles and adults, and males and females, to determine if there were differences in behavior between ontogenetic stages or between sexes. We assessed boldness as ‘time to emerge’ from a shelter into a novel environment, and subsequently measured activity and exploration within that novel environment. We predicted that B. roseni (a species that co-occurs with predators) would be more bold, more active, and more prone to explore, than B. terrabensis (a species that does not co-occur with predators). In total, we tested 17 juveniles, 21 adult males, and 20 adult females of B. roseni, and 19 juveniles, 19 adult males, and 18 adult females of B. terrabensis. We collected all animals from streams in Chiriquí, Panama in February 2013, and tested them following a short acclimation period to laboratory conditions. As predicted, we found that predation environment was associated with several differences in behavior. Both adult and juvenile B. roseni were more active and more prone to explore than B. terrabensis. However, we found no differences in boldness in either adults or juveniles. We also found a significant interaction between ‘sex’ and ‘species’ as predictors of boldness and exploration, indicating that predation environment can affect behaviors of males and females differently in each species. Our work demonstrates the importance of considering sex and life history stage when evaluating the evolution of behavior.
Reznick, David; Meredith, Robert; Collette, Bruce B
We have previously documented multiple, independent origins of placentas in the fish family Poeciliidae. Here we summarize similar analyses of fishes in the family Zenarchopteridae. This family includes three live-bearing genera. Earlier studies documented the presence of superfetation, or the ability to carry multiple litters of young in different stages of development in the same ovary, in some species in all three genera. There is also one earlier report of matrotrophy, or extensive postfertilization maternal provisioning, in two of these genera. We present detailed life-history data for approximately half of the species in all three genera and combine them with the best available phylogeny to make inferences about the pattern of life-history evolution within this family. Three species of Hemirhamphodon have superfetation but lack matrotrophy. Most species in Nomorhamphus and Dermogenys either lack superfetation and matrotrophy or have both superfetation and matrotrophy. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that matrotrophy may have evolved independently in each genus. In Dermogenys, matrotrophic species produce fewer, larger offspring than nonmatrotrophic species. In Nomorhamphus; matrotrophic species instead produce more and smaller offspring than lecithotrophic species. However, the matrotrophic species in both genera have significantly smaller masses of reproductive tissue relative to their body sizes. All aspects of these results are duplicated in the fish family Poeciliidae. We discuss the possible adaptive significance of matrotrophy in the light of these new results. The two families together present a remarkable opportunity to study the evolution of a complex trait because they contain multiple, independent origins of the trait that often include close relatives that vary in either the presence or absence of the matrotrophy or in the degree to which matrotrophy is developed. These are the raw materials that are required for either an analysis of the adaptive significance of the trait or for studies of the genetic mechanisms that underlie the evolution of the trait.
Volcan, Matheus Vieira; Klotzel, Bruno; Lanés, Luis Esteban Krause
Two new species of the genus Melanorivulus are herein described from the middle Rio Verde drainage, upper Rio Paraná basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both new species are members of the Melanorivulus pictus clade, diagnosed by having ventral process of angulo-articular vestigial and flanks intense greenish blue or greenish golden to purplish blue above anal fin base in males. Melanorivulus nigropunctatus, new species, from wetlands of a small drainage tributary of right side of the Rio Verde, differs from all other congeners by possessing black dots over the head and body in both sexes and pectoral fin orange with a dark grey margin in males. Melanorivulus ofaie, new species, is found in a similar environment, but at the opposite margin of the Rio Verde. It is distinguished by males presenting flank greenish blue to light blue, with seven to nine oblique chevron-like red bars, ventral portion of head whitish with dark brown spots, dorsal fin yellow with two to three transverse broad red oblique stripes and distal region red, anal fin light orangish yellow, basal area light blue with short red bars and distal portion with a dark red margin, and caudal fin yellow or orangish yellow with three to four vertical red bars in the dorsal and middle portions, sometimes with a orange distal margin. Both new species are considered endangered due to the loss and degradation of their habitat.
Alonso, Felipe; Terán, Guillermo Enrique; Calviño, Pablo; García, Ignacio; Cardoso, Yamila; García, Graciela
Austrolebias wichi, new species, is herein described from seasonal ponds of the Bermejo river basin in the Western Chacoan district in northwestern Argentina. This species was found in a single pond, a paleochannel of the Bermejo River, which is seriously disturbed by soybean plantations surrounding it. Despite intensive sampling in the area, this species was only registered in this pond where it was relatively scarce. Therefore, we consider this species as critically endangered. This species is the sister species of A. patriciae in our phylogenetic analyses and is similar, in a general external aspect, to A. varzeae and A. carvalhoi. It can be distinguished among the species of Austrolebias by its unique color pattern in males. Additionally, from A. varzeae by presenting a supraorbital band equal or longer than the infraorbital band (vs. shorter) and from A. patriciae by the convex dorsal profile of head (vs. concave). Further diagnostic characters and additional comments on its ecology and reproduction are provided.
Terán, Guillermo Enrique; Calviño, Pablo; García, Ignacio; Cardoso, Yamila; García, Graciela
Austrolebias wichi, new species, is herein described from seasonal ponds of the Bermejo river basin in the Western Chacoan district in northwestern Argentina. This species was found in a single pond, a paleochannel of the Bermejo River, which is seriously disturbed by soybean plantations surrounding it. Despite intensive sampling in the area, this species was only registered in this pond where it was relatively scarce. Therefore, we consider this species as critically endangered. This species is the sister species of A. patriciae in our phylogenetic analyses and is similar, in a general external aspect, to A. varzeae and A. carvalhoi. It can be distinguished among the species of Austrolebias by its unique color pattern in males. Additionally, from A. varzeae by presenting a supraorbital band equal or longer than the infraorbital band (vs. shorter) and from A. patriciae by the convex dorsal profile of head (vs. concave). Further diagnostic characters and additional comments on its ecology and reproduction are provided. PMID:29768422
Inferring Evolution of Habitat Usage and Body Size in Endangered, Seasonal Cynopoeciline Killifishes from the South American Atlantic Forest through an Integrative Approach (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae).
Costa, Wilson J E M
Cynopoecilines comprise a diversified clade of small killifishes occurring in the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered biodiversity hotspots in the world. They are found in temporary pools of savannah-like and dense forest habitats, and most of them are highly threatened with extinction if not already extinct. The greatest gap in our knowledge of cynopoecilines stems from the absence of an integrative approach incorporating molecular phylogenetic data of species still found in their habitats with phylogenetic data taken from the rare and possibly extinct species without accessible molecular information. An integrative analysis combining 115 morphological characters with a multigene dataset of 2,108 bp comprising three nuclear loci (GLYT1, ENC1, Rho), provided a robust phylogeny of cynopoeciline killifishes, which was herein used to attain an accurate phylogenetic placement of nearly extinct species. The analysis indicates that the most recent common ancestor of the Cynopoecilini lived in open vegetation habitats of the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil and was a miniature species, reaching between 25 and 28 mm of standard length. The rare cases of cynopoecilines specialized in inhabiting pools within dense forests are interpreted as derived from four independent evolutionary events. Shifts in habitat usage and biogeographic patterns are tentatively associated to Cenozoic paleogeographic events, but the evolutionary history of cynopoecilines may be partially lost by a combination of poor past sampling and recent habitat decline. A sharp evolutionary shift directed to increased body size in a clade encompassing the genera Campellolebias and Cynopoecilus may be related to a parallel acquisition of an internally-fertilizing reproductive strategy, unique among aplocheiloid killifishes. This study reinforces the importance of adding morphological information to molecular databases as a tool to understand the biological complexity of organisms under intense pressure from loss of habitat.
Inferring Evolution of Habitat Usage and Body Size in Endangered, Seasonal Cynopoeciline Killifishes from the South American Atlantic Forest through an Integrative Approach (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)
Costa, Wilson J. E. M.
Cynopoecilines comprise a diversified clade of small killifishes occurring in the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered biodiversity hotspots in the world. They are found in temporary pools of savannah-like and dense forest habitats, and most of them are highly threatened with extinction if not already extinct. The greatest gap in our knowledge of cynopoecilines stems from the absence of an integrative approach incorporating molecular phylogenetic data of species still found in their habitats with phylogenetic data taken from the rare and possibly extinct species without accessible molecular information. An integrative analysis combining 115 morphological characters with a multigene dataset of 2,108 bp comprising three nuclear loci (GLYT1, ENC1, Rho), provided a robust phylogeny of cynopoeciline killifishes, which was herein used to attain an accurate phylogenetic placement of nearly extinct species. The analysis indicates that the most recent common ancestor of the Cynopoecilini lived in open vegetation habitats of the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil and was a miniature species, reaching between 25 and 28 mm of standard length. The rare cases of cynopoecilines specialized in inhabiting pools within dense forests are interpreted as derived from four independent evolutionary events. Shifts in habitat usage and biogeographic patterns are tentatively associated to Cenozoic paleogeographic events, but the evolutionary history of cynopoecilines may be partially lost by a combination of poor past sampling and recent habitat decline. A sharp evolutionary shift directed to increased body size in a clade encompassing the genera Campellolebias and Cynopoecilus may be related to a parallel acquisition of an internally-fertilizing reproductive strategy, unique among aplocheiloid killifishes. This study reinforces the importance of adding morphological information to molecular databases as a tool to understand the biological complexity of organisms under intense pressure from loss of habitat. PMID:27428070
Arratia, Gloria; Vila, Irma; Lam, Natalia; Guerrero, Claudia Jimena
A new genus and species, Pseudorestias lirimensis, is described from the southern part of the Chilean Altiplano. While sharing several characters that clearly align the new species with Orestias, this new fish is characterized by numerous autapomorphies: the Meckel cartilage is a continuous cartilage that broadly expands posteriorly (in large specimens, it keeps its anterior part and is resorbed posteriorly), the basibranchials are fused into one long element, the second pharyngobranchial is not displaced dorsally over pharyngobranchial tooth plate 3+4, but they are aligned, the anterior and posterior ceratohyals are closely articulated keeping a scarce amount of cartilage between both bones and ventral to them, ossified middle and distal dorsal radials are present in females as well as ossified middle and distal anal radials. Pseudorestias lirimensis presents strong sexual dimorphism associated to size. Females are almost twice as large and long than males, neuromast lines are absent in males, a mesethmoid is present in males, squamation on head is reduced in males, and ossified middle and distal radial of dorsal fin are cartilaginous in males. Pseudorestias and Orestias are suggested as the sole members of the tribe Orestiini. A list of characters diagnosing the tribe is provided. The presence of the new genus is interpreted as a possible result of the ecosystem isolation where the fish is living from surrounding basins—as early as possibly from the Miocene-Pliocene times—and its physical and chemical characteristics. Small populations, living conditions, small habitat, and reduced distribution make this species a strong candidate to be considered critically endangered, a situation already established for all other Chilean species living in the Altiplano. There is high probability it will become extinct due to water demands and climate change in the region. PMID:28792510
Souza, E R; Ribeiro, L B; Feldberg, E; Hrbek, I P Farias T; Gross, M C
The genus Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965is comprized of five valid species (Fluviphylax pygmaeus Myers et Carvalho, 1955, Fluviphylax zonatus, Fluviphylax simplex, Fluviphylax obscurus Costa, 1996,and Fluviphylax palikur Costa et Le Bail, 1999), which are endemic to the Amazon region. These fishes are the smallest known South American vertebrates and among the smallest know vertebrates on Earth. All species but the type Fluviphylax pygmaeus have been described in late 1990's, and much remains unknown about the biology, taxonomy and systematics of this group of fishes. The aims of the present study were to establish the diploid and haploid number of Fluviphylax zonatus and Fluviphylax simplex, and to find species-specific markers for the discrimination of taxa. The diploid number for both species was 48 chromosomes, with no sex chromosome heteromorphism. Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited the karyotypic formula 4m+8sm+22st+14a and FN=82, and Fluviphylax simplex exhibited 4m+16sm+18st+10a and FN=86. The determination of the total mean length of the chromosomes and their grouping into five size classes demonstrated different chromosome composition of the two species. This difference was further supported by the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. The meiotic analysis revealed 24 bivalents in both species, but Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited chromosomes with late pairing of the telomeric portions in the pachytene. These data reveal that cytogenetic characterization is useful and important for the discrimination of these species. Our study further indicates that this method could be employed in the analysis of other species of small fishes that are difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological traits or are morphologically cryptic.
Freyhof, Jörg; Weissenbacher, Anton; Geiger, Matthias
Eight species are recognised in the Aphanius dispar group. Aphanius dispar from the Red and Mediterranean Sea basins, A. stoliczkanus from coastal areas of the Arabian/Persian Gulf, the northern Arabian Sea east to Gujarat in India, the Gulf of Oman and some endorheic basins in Iran and Pakistan, A. richardsoni from springs in the Dead Sea basin in Jordan and Israel, A. sirhani from the Azraq Oasis in Jordan, A. ginaonis from one spring in Iran, A. furcatus from few streams and springs in Iran and A. stiassnyae from one lake in Ethiopia. Aphanius kruppi, new species, from the Wadi al Batha drainage in northern Oman, is distinguished from adjacent A. stoliczkanus by having 9-14 brown or grey lateral bars on the flank in the male, a roundish, diamond-shaped or somewhat vertically-elongate blotch centred on the caudal-fin base in the female and 2-3 scale rows on the caudal-fin base. The available molecular genetic data for A. dispar reject the hypothesis of the presence of a single widespread coastal species in the Middle East and make it likely that two additional unidentified species occur in the Red Sea basin.
Monteiro, C M; Wendt, E W; Zebral, Y D
A new species of Dendrorchis is described and compared with others in the genus. The parasites were found in the swim bladder of the annual killifish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia. Hosts were collected from a seasonal wetland in southern Brazil. The main characteristics of D. pampae are: genital pore in the intestinal bifurcation region elongate and lobed vitellaria uterine loops limited to the acetabular region and to the rear end of the body; and wide intestinal caeca. An emended diagnosis of the genus Dendrorchis includes the characteristics of the new species. This is the first record of an adult digenean in an annual killifish from South America.
Two new species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) parasitizing Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae), an endemic freshwater fish from central Mexico.
Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo
Gyrodactylus mexicanus n. sp. and Gyrodactylus lamothei n. sp. are described from the fins and skin of Girardinichthys multiradiatus, an endemic freshwater fish from central Mexico. Gyrodactylus mexicanus is compared to other Gyrodactylus species that parasitize Fundulus spp., the phylogenetically closest group to the Goodeidae from North America. Gyrodactylus mexicanus is distinguished by having large anchors with well-developed superficial roots, enlarged hooks with a proximally disrupted shank (ligament), and a ventral bar with 2 poorly developed anterolateral projections and a small medial process. Gyrodactylus lamothei is distinguished from G. mexicanus and from other species of Gyrodactylus on the North American continent by having anchors with a sclerite on the superficial root and robust hooks with a straight shaft and a recurved point.
Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; García-Varela, Martín; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A.; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L.; Martínez-Ramírez, Emilio; Andrade-Gómez, Leopoldo; López-Jiménez, Alejandra; Hernández-Cruz, Eduardo; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
Abstract From December 2012 to November 2014, 267 fish belonging to the family Profundulidae (representing nine of the 11 species of the genus Profundulus) were collected in 26 localities of Middle-America, across southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, comprising the distribution range of the genus, and analyzed for helminth parasites. Additionally, a database with all ten available published accounts of the helminth parasite fauna of this genus (the only genus within the family) was assembled. Based on both sources of information, a checklist containing all the records was compiled as a tool to address future questions in the areas of evolutionary biology, biogeography, ecology and phylogeography of this host-parasite association. The helminth parasite fauna of this fish group consists of 20 nominal species, classified in 17 genera and 14 families. It includes six species of adult digeneans, five metacercariae, two monogeneans, one adult cestode, three adult nematodes and three larval nematodes. The profundulid fishes are parasitized by a specialized group of helminth species (e.g. Paracreptotrema blancoi sensu Salgado-Maldonado et al. (2011b), Paracreptotrema profundulusi Salgado-Maldonado, Caspeta-Mandujano & Martínez Ramírez, 2011, Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum Pérez-Ponce de León, Pinacho-Pinacho, Mendoza-Garfias & García-Varela, 2015, Spinitectus humbertoi Mandujano-Caspeta & Moravec, 2000, Spinitectus mariaisabelae Caspeta-Mandujano Cabañas-Carranza & Salgado-Maldonado, 2007 and Rhabdochona salgadoi Mandujano-Caspeta & Moravec, 2000), representing the core helminth fauna that are not shared with other Middle-American fish species. PMID:26478697
Katwate, Unmesh; Kumkar, Pradeep; Britz, Ralf; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh
In his work on the fishes of the Andaman Islands, Francis Day (1870) collected large-sized specimens of Aplocheilus from the south Andamans. Despite differences in the size and dorsal-fin ray counts, Day refrained from recognising the Andaman Aplocheilus as a distinct species and considered it as Aplocheilus panchax, a species distributed in the Ganges delta and across the eastern coast of mainland India. However, Day mentioned the differences in fin-ray counts between these two populations. Subsequently Köhler (1906) described the Andaman population as Haplochilus andamanicus (now in Aplocheilus), referring to the diagnostic characters initially discovered by Day. This species failed to receive recognition from taxonomists, because of the uncertainty regarding the validity of the species and its questionable synonymy with A. panchax. In this study, based on morphological and molecular evidence, we demonstrate that A. andamanicus is indeed a distinct and valid species, which can easily be diagnosed from the widespread A. panchax. While resolving the identity of A. andamanicus, we also demonstrate that the congeners from southeast Asia form a genetically distinct group for which the name Odontopsis armata is available.
Beltrán-López, Rosa Gabriela; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; Pérez-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Piller, Kyle; Doadrio, Ignacio
Volcanic and tectonic activities in conjunction with Quaternary climate are the main events that shaped the geographical distribution of genetic variation of many lineages. Poeciliopsis infans is the only poeciliid species that was able to colonize the temperate highlands of central Mexico. We inferred the phylogenetic relationships, biogeographic history, and historical demography in the widespread Neotropical species P. infans and correlated this with geological events and the Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate in the highlands of central Mexico, using the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome b and Cytochrome oxidase I and two nuclear loci, Rhodopsin and ribosomal protein S7. Populations of P. infans were recovered in two well-differentiated clades. The maximum genetic distances between the two clades were 3.3% for cytb, and 1.9% for coxI. The divergence of the two clades occurred ca. 2.83 Myr. Ancestral area reconstruction revealed a complex biogeographical history for P. infans. The Bayesian Skyline Plot showed a demographic decline, although more visible for clade A, and more recently showed a population expansion in the last 0.025 Myr. Finally, the habitat suitability modelling showed that during the LIG, clade B had more areas with high probabilities of presence in comparison to clade A, whereas for the LGM, clade A showed more areas with high probabilities of presence in comparisons to clade B. Poeciliopsis infans has had a complex evolutionary and biogeographic history, which, as in other co-distributed freshwater fishes, seems to be linked to the volcanic and tectonic activities during the Pliocene or early Pleistocene. Populations of P. infans distributed in lowlands showed a higher level of genetic diversity than populations distributed in highlands, which could be linked to more stable and higher temperatures in lowland areas. The fluctuations in population size through time are in agreement with the continuous fluctuations of the climate of central Mexico.
Zee, Jouke R van der; Walsh, Gina; Mikembi, Valdie N Boukaka; Jonker, Michiel N; Alexandre, Marco P; Sonnenberg, Rainer
Three new 'Aphyosemion' species are described from the upper Louessé River in the Massif du Chaillu, Republic of the Congo, based on a combination of DNA, habitat preference, male colour pattern, and morphological data. 'Aphyosemion' cyanoflavum, new species, is a member of the 'A'. ogoense group. It differs from its congeners by a unique colour pattern and cephalic sensory system which contains a wide supra-orbital groove with large, densely pigmented anterior neuromasts and dark frontal neuromasts housed in one pit with one central anterior lobe. 'Aphyosemion' mandoroense, new species, and 'A'. cryptum, new species, are members of the 'A'. coeleste group. 'Aphyosemion' cryptum, new species, is in appearance very similar to 'A'. coeleste, but lacks the typical post opercular metallic green blotch and is generally larger in body size. Initial DNA analyses demonstrate that 'A'. cryptum, new species, is more closely related to 'A'. mandoroense, new species, than to 'A'. coeleste, despite similarity in appearance. 'Aphyosemion' cryptum, new species, and 'A'. coeleste occur syntopic in several locations in a sub-catchment of the upper Louessé system, however differ in microhabitat preference. 'Aphyosemion' mandoroense, new species, differs by male body and fin colour pattern from all species of the 'A'. coeleste group except 'A'. citrineipinnis. From the latter, it can be distinguished by the absence of red pigmentation and a dark grey to black margin in the unpaired fins.
To each his own: no evidence of gyrodactylid parasite host switches from invasive poeciliid fishes to Goodea atripinnis Jordan (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae), the most dominant endemic freshwater goodeid fish in the Mexican Highlands.
Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; García-Vásquez, Adriana; Freeman, Mark A; Shinn, Andrew P; Paladini, Giuseppe
Goodeid topminnows are live-bearing fishes endemic to the Mexican Highlands (Mesa Central, MC). Unfortunately, in the MC, environmental degradation and introduced species have pushed several goodeid species to the brink of extinction. Invasive fishes can introduce exotic parasites, and the most abundant goodeid, blackfin goodea Goodea atripinnis Jordan, is parasitised by six exotic helminths. Poeciliids are widely dispersed invasive fishes, which exert negative ecological effects on goodeids. Poeciliids host several species of the monogenean genus Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832, including pathogenic, invasive parasites. Here, we looked for evidence of Gyrodactylus species switching hosts from poeciliids to goodeids. Fish were collected in rivers draining the MC into both sides of the continental divide. Hosts were screened for gyrodactylid parasites in localities where G. atripinnis and poeciliids occurred sympatrically. Gyrodactylus specimens were characterised morphologically (attachment apparatus) and molecularly (internal transcribed spacer region, ITS). A Bayesian phylogenetic tree using ITS sequences established relationships between gyrodactylids collected from goodeid fishes and those from parasites infecting poeciliids. Gyrodactylids were collected from G. atripinnis in six localities on both sides of the watershed where exotic poeciliids occurred sympatrically. Morphological and molecular analyses indicated the presence of four undescribed species of Gyrodactylus infecting this goodeid host. Gyrodactylus tomahuac n. sp., the most abundant and geographically widespread species, is described here. The other three Gyrodactylus spp. are not described, but their ITS sequences are used as molecular data presented here, are the only available for gyrodactylids infecting goodeid fishes. Morphological and molecular data suggest that two distinct groups of gyrodactylids infect goodeids, one of which shares a common ancestor with gyrodactylids parasitizing poeciliids. No evidence was found of gyrodactylids switching hosts from invasive poeciliids to endemic goodeids, nor vice versa. Moreover, considering that G. atripinnis is known to host both Gyrodactylus lamothei Mendoza-Palmero, Sereno-Uribe & Salgado-Maldonado, 2009 and Gyrodactylus mexicanus Mendoza-Palmero, Sereno-Uribe & Salgado-Maldonado, 2009, with the addition of G. tomahuac n. sp. and the three undescribed Gyrodactylus spp. reported, at least six gyrodactylids may infect this host. This would make monogeneans the second most abundant parasite group infecting G. atripinnis, which to date is known to harbour 22 helminth species: nine digeneans, five nematodes, four cestodes, three monogeneans and one acanthocephalan.
Choudhury, A; García-Varela, M; Pérez-Ponce de León, G
We examine the extent to which adult helminths of freshwater fishes have been part of the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), by integrating information in published studies and new data from Panama with fish biogeography and Earth history of Middle America. The review illustrates the following: (1) the helminth fauna south of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and especially south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, shows strong Neotropical affinities; (2) host-parasite associations follow principles of the 'biogeographic core fauna' in which host-lineage specificity is pronounced; (3) phylogenetic analysis of the widespread freshwater trematode family Allocreadiidae reveals a complex history of host-shifting and co-diversification involving mainly cyprinodontiforms and characids; (4) allocreadiids, monogeneans and spiruridan nematodes of Middle American cyprinodontiforms may provide clues to the evolutionary history of their hosts; and (5) phylogenetic analyses of cryptogonimid trematodes may reveal whether or how cichlids interacted with marine or brackish-water environments during their colonization history. The review shows that 'interchange' is limited and asymmetrical, but simple narratives of northward isthmian dispersal will likely prove inadequate to explain the historical biogeography of many host-parasite associations in tropical Middle America, particularly those involving poeciliids. Finally, our study highlights the urgent need for targeted survey work across Middle America, focused sampling in river drainages of Colombia and Venezuela, and deeper strategic sampling in other parts of South America, in order to develop and test robust hypotheses about fish-parasite associations in Middle America.
Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.
This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. PMID:25654444
Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F
This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. © G. Salgado-Maldonado et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.
Helmstetter, Andrew J; Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Igea, Javier; Van Dooren, Tom J M; Leroi, Armand M; Savolainen, Vincent
Species richness is distributed unevenly across the tree of life and this may be influenced by the evolution of novel phenotypes that promote diversification. Viviparity has originated ∼150 times in vertebrates and is considered to be an adaptation to highly variable environments. Likewise, possessing an annual life cycle is common in plants and insects, where it enables the colonization of seasonal environments, but rare in vertebrates. The extent to which these reproductive life-history traits have enhanced diversification and their relative importance in the process remains unknown. We show that convergent evolution of viviparity causes bursts of diversification in fish. We built a phylogenetic tree for Cyprinodontiformes, an order in which both annualism and viviparity have arisen, and reveal that while both traits have evolved multiple times, only viviparity played a major role in shaping the patterns of diversity. These results demonstrate that changes in reproductive life-history strategy can stimulate diversification.
Moravec, F; Jiménez-García, M I; Salgado-Maldonado, G
The dracunculoid nematode Mexiconema cichlasomae Moravec, Vidal et Salgado Maldonado, 1992, originally described from the abdominal cavity and viscera of Cichlasoma spp. from Mexico, was recorded from the abdominal cavity of the poeciliid Xiphophorus helleri Heckel in Lake Catemaco and its small tributary Arroyo Agrio, Veracruz and from the intestine of the nurse shark Ginglystoma cirratum (Bonnaterre) off the southern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in Campeche; both these findings represent new host records. The nematode specimens from these hosts are briefly described and illustrated. Whereas X. helleri evidently served as the true definitive host of this parasite, G. cirratum probably acquired Mexiconema infection accidentally while feeding on fish definitive hosts in the brackish or salt-water environment. The ability of M. cichlasomae to utilize fishes of different orders (Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes) as definitive hosts is rather exceptional among dracunculoid nematodes.
Helmstetter, Andrew J.; Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Igea, Javier; Van Dooren, Tom J. M.; Leroi, Armand M.; Savolainen, Vincent
Species richness is distributed unevenly across the tree of life and this may be influenced by the evolution of novel phenotypes that promote diversification. Viviparity has originated ∼150 times in vertebrates and is considered to be an adaptation to highly variable environments. Likewise, possessing an annual life cycle is common in plants and insects, where it enables the colonization of seasonal environments, but rare in vertebrates. The extent to which these reproductive life-history traits have enhanced diversification and their relative importance in the process remains unknown. We show that convergent evolution of viviparity causes bursts of diversification in fish. We built a phylogenetic tree for Cyprinodontiformes, an order in which both annualism and viviparity have arisen, and reveal that while both traits have evolved multiple times, only viviparity played a major role in shaping the patterns of diversity. These results demonstrate that changes in reproductive life-history strategy can stimulate diversification. PMID:27070759
Messu Mandeng, Françoise D; Bilong Bilong, Charles F; Pariselle, Antoine; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Bitja Nyom, Arnold R; Agnèse, Jean-François
Parasite switches to new host species are of fundamental scientific interest and may be considered an important speciation mechanism. For numerous monogenean fish parasites, infecting different hosts is associated with morphological adaptations, in particular of the attachment organ (haptor). However, haptoral morphology in Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridea), parasites of African cichlids, has been mainly linked to phylogenetic rather than to host constraints. Here we determined the position of Cichlidogyrus amieti, a parasite of species of Aphyosemion (Cyprinodontiformes, Nothobranchiidae) in the phylogeny of its congeners in order to infer its origin and assess the morphological changes associated with host-switching events. The DNA of specimens of C. amieti isolated from Aphyosemion cameronense in Cameroon was sequenced and analyzed together with that of Cichlidogyrus spp. from cichlid hosts. In order to highlight the influence of the lateral transfer of C. amieti on the haptoral sclerotised parts we performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to compare the attachment organ structure of C. amieti to that of congeners infecting cichlids. Cichlidogyrus amieti was found to be nested within a strongly supported clade of species described from Hemichromis spp. (i.e. C. longicirrus and C. dracolemma). This clade is located at a derived position of the tree, suggesting that C. amieti transferred from cichlids to Cyprinodontiformes and not inversely. The morphological similarity between features of their copulatory organs suggested that C. amieti shares a recent ancestor with C. dracolemma. It also indicates that in this case, these organs do not seem subjected to strong divergent selection pressure. On the other hand, there are substantial differences in haptoral morphology between C. amieti and all of its closely related congeners described from Hemichromis spp.. Our study provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis of the adaptive nature of haptor
Steinke, Dirk; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel
The power of comparative phylogenomic analyses also depends on the amount of data that are included in such studies. We used expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from fish model species as a proof of principle approach in order to test the reliability of using ESTs for phylogenetic inference. As expected, the robustness increases with the amount of sequences. Although some progress has been made in the elucidation of the phylogeny of teleosts, relationships among the main lineages of the derived fish (Euteleostei) remain poorly defined and are still debated. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of a set of 42 of orthologous genes from 10 available fish model systems from seven different orders (Salmoniformes, Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Beloniformes, and Perciformes) of euteleostean fish to estimate divergence times and evolutionary relationships among those lineages. All 10 fish species serve as models for developmental, aquaculture, genomic, and comparative genetic studies. The phylogenetic signal and the strength of the contribution of each of the 42 orthologous genes were estimated with randomly chosen data subsets. Our study revealed a molecular phylogeny of higher-level relationships of derived teleosts, which indicates that the use of multiple genes produces robust phylogenies, a finding that is expected to apply to other phylogenetic issues among distantly related taxa. Our phylogenomic analyses confirm that the euteleostean superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii are monophyletic and the Protacanthopterygii and Ostariophysi are sister clades. In addition, and contrary to the traditional phylogenetic hypothesis, our analyses determine that killifish (Cyprinodontiformes), medaka (Beloniformes), and cichlids (Perciformes) appear to be more closely related to each other than either of them is to pufferfish (Tetraodontiformes). All 10 lineages split before or during the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea in the
Pronko, Alexander J; Perlman, Benjamin M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A
Mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) are small fusiform teleosts (Cyprinodontiformes) with the ability to locomote on land, despite lacking apparent morphological adaptations for terrestrial movement. Rivulus will leave their aquatic habitat for moist, terrestrial environments when water conditions are poor, or, as we show here, to capture terrestrial insects. Specimens were conditioned to eat pinhead crickets on one side of their aquaria. After 2 weeks of conditioning, a barrier with a slope of 15 deg was partially submerged in the middle of the tank, forcing the fish to transition from water to land and back into water in order to feed. Kinematics during the transition were recorded using Fastec high-speed video cameras (125-250 frames s(-1)). Videos were analyzed using Didge and ImageJ software programs. Transition behaviors were characterized and analyzed according to their specific type. Body oscillation amplitude and wave duration were quantified for movements along the substrate, along with initial velocity for launching behaviors. Kryptolebias marmoratus used a diverse suite of behaviors to transition from water to land. These behaviors can be categorized as launches, squiggles and pounces. Prey were captured terrestrially and brought underwater for consumption. Kryptolebias marmoratus's suite of behaviors represents a novel solution to non-tetrapodal terrestrial transition, which suggests that fishes may have been able to exploit land habitats transiently, without leaving any apparent evidence in the fossil record.
Gamal, Zakia A
The objective of this study was to estimate the survival of Gambusia holbrooki (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) fishin domestic containers in Jeddah, as well as its effectiveness in the control of immature A.aegypti. The use of G. holbrooki compared to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i.)was donein domestic containers. In a first home visit, G. holbrooki or B.t.i were applied to water containers. Two follow-up visits were conducted after 3-4 & 5-6 months to assess the presence of viable fish in the containers and infestation by larvae. G. holbrooki fish were still present in 97.6% of containers 45-60 days after application. The infestation rate was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the B.t.i group (IR ratio=21.60, 95% CI: 6.46-72.28). In deposits where the fish remained, efficacy was 85% better than B.t.i. The permanence of fish was higher in concrete tanks (48.5%) located outside the house (47.5%) and at ground level (53.3%).
Smith, Welber Senteio; Petrere Júnior, Miguel; Barrella, Walter
A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpio.
Bahaar, S W N; Bhat, G A
Present study attempts to identify the taxocoenosis and distribution of nektonic fauna harbouring the rice field ecosystems of Kashmir. The main objective of the study was to provide an overview of the nektonic community composition and physicochemical characteristics of flood waters. 6 sites were selected in Kupwara, Bandipora, Budgam, Srinagar, Pulwama and Anantnag districts of valley Kashmir. A total of 26 taxa belonging to 13 different orders were reported during the study which commenced through 2 consecutive crop cycles. The taxocoenosis was dominated by Coleoptera (10 taxa) followed by Hemiptera (3 taxa), Diptera (2 taxa), Diplostraca (2 taxa), Acarina, Anostraca, Anura, Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Odonata and Pulmonata (1 taxa each). Diversity was calculated using Simpsons Index (D), Simpsons Index of Diversity (1-D), Simpsons Reciprocal Index (1/D), Shannon-Weiner Index (H'), Margalef Richness Index (d) and Evenness Index (e). Kupwara (34 degrees 02'N; 74 degrees 16'E) formed the most diverse site registering a total of 2384 individuals belonging to 24 taxa. A perusal of the primary data related to the physicochemical attributes of flood waters exhibited that average water temperature varied between 19-30 degrees C, average air temperature varied between 21 and 33 degrees C. pH depicted a variation between 6.0 and 9.0, Dissolved Oxygen varied between a minimum of 1.0 mg L(-1) and a maximum of 10 mg L(-1). Free CO2 ranged between 0 mg L(-1) and 6.1 mg(-1). The results pressed the need for recognizing and preserving rice fields as potential habitats for organisms that have successfully adapted to the highly manipulated and eutrophic conditions of rice paddies.
Reckel, Frank; Melzer, Roland R
In order to comparatively analyze curtain-like septa in the eyes of visually orientated "close-to-surface-predators" among atherinomorph teleosts, we examined the eyes of 24 atherinomorph species under a binocular microscope with regard to the falciform process and related structures in the vitreous cavity. Additionally, falciform process samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All the studied representatives of the Cyprinodontiformes and Atheriniformes, and of one of the beloniform suborder, Adrianichthyioidei, possess a "typical" processus falciformis. In the eyes of the representatives of the other beloniform suborder, Belonoidei, however, pigmented structures that originate in the region of the optic disc and protrude into the vitreous cavity were noted. In the Hemiramphidae (halfbeaks) and Exocoetidae (flying fishes) these pigmented structures have a more cone-like shape, whereas in the Belonidae (needlefishes) and Scomberesocidae (sauries) horizontally oriented heavily pigmented curtain-like septa occur that divide the vitreous cavity dorsoventrally. It is suggested that the "typical" processus falciformis represents a plesiomorphic feature within the Atherinomorpha, whereas the pigmented modifications of the falciform process must be seen as a synapomorphic character state of the Belonoidei. The curtain-like septum of the Belonidae and Scomberesocidae might have evolved from the cone-like structures that are found in the Exocoetoidea. The functional significance of the pigmented structures in the eye is as yet not clear, except for the curtain-like septum found in Belonidae. It might play a role in visual orientation near the water surface at Snell's window. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Furness, Andrew I; Reznick, David N; Springer, Mark S; Meredith, Robert W
Annual killifish adapted to life in seasonally ephemeral water-bodies exhibit desiccation resistant eggs that can undergo diapause, a period of developmental arrest, enabling them to traverse the otherwise inhospitable dry season. Environmental cues that potentially indicate the season can govern whether eggs enter a stage of diapause mid-way through development or skip this diapause and instead undergo direct development. We report, based on construction of a supermatrix phylogenetic tree of the order Cyprinodontiformes and a battery of comparative analyses, that the ability to produce diapause eggs evolved independently at least six times within African and South American killifish. We then show in species representative of these lineages that embryos entering diapause display significant reduction in development of the cranial region and circulatory system relative to direct-developing embryos. This divergence along alternative developmental pathways begins mid-way through development, well before diapause is entered, during a period of purported maximum developmental constraint (the phylotypic period). Finally, we show that entering diapause is accompanied by a dramatic reduction in metabolic rate and concomitant increase in long-term embryo survival. Morphological divergence during the phylotypic period thus allows embryos undergoing diapause to conserve energy by shunting resources away from energetically costly organs thereby increasing survival chances in an environment that necessitates remaining dormant, buried in the soil and surrounded by an eggshell for much of the year. Our results indicate that adaptation to seasonal aquatic environments in annual killifish imposes strong selection during the embryo stage leading to marked diversification during this otherwise conserved period of vertebrate development. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Smith, Randolph V.; Stafford, Joshua D.; Yetter, Aaron P.; Horath, Michelle M.; Hine, Christopher S.; Hoover, Jeffery P.
Populations of many shorebird species appear to be declining in North America, and food resources at stopover habitats may limit migratory bird populations. We investigated body condition of, and foraging habitat and diet selection by 4 species of shorebirds in the central Illinois River valley during fall migrations 2007 and 2008 (Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus], Least Sandpiper [Calidris minutilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], and Lesser Yellowlegs [Tringa flavipes]). All species except Killdeer were in good to excellent condition, based on size-corrected body mass and fat scores. Shorebird diets were dominated by invertebrate taxa from Orders Diptera and Coleoptera. Additionally, Isopoda, Hemiptera, Hirudinea, Nematoda, and Cyprinodontiformes contribution to diets varied by shorebird species and year. We evaluated diet and foraging habitat selection by comparing aggregate percent dry mass of food items in shorebird diets and core samples from foraging substrates. Invertebrate abundances at shorebird collection sites and random sites were generally similar, indicating that birds did not select foraging patches within wetlands based on invertebrate abundance. Conversely, we found considerable evidence for selection of some diet items within particular foraging sites, and consistent avoidance of Oligochaeta. We suspect the diet selectivity we observed was a function of overall invertebrate biomass (51.2±4.4 [SE] kg/ha; dry mass) at our study sites, which was greater than estimates reported in most other food selection studies. Diet selectivity in shorebirds may follow tenants of optimal foraging theory; that is, at low food abundances shorebirds forage opportunistically, with the likelihood of selectivity increasing as food availability increases. Nonetheless, relationships between the abundance, availability, and consumption of Oligochaetes for and by waterbirds should be the focus of future research, because estimates of foraging carrying capacity
Grassi Milano, E; Basari, F; Chimenti, C
Morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry of the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary homologs (adrenal glands) of the following developing and adult teleosts were examined: Salmoniformes-Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta fario (brown trout), Coregonus lavaretus (white fish); Cyprinodontiformes-Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish). Perciformes-Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass), Sparus aurata (sea bream), Diplodus sargus (white bream), Oblada melanura (saddled bream). The anatomical relationships of the gland with the renal system and venous vessels were also noted. In adults of all species steroidogenic and catecholaminergic chromaffin cells were found in the head kidney, which is pronephric in origin and subsequently transformed into a hematopoietic lymphatic organ. In Perciformes, chromaffin cells are distributed around the anterior and posterior cardinal veins and ducts of Cuvier; in Salmoniformes, around the posterior cardinal veins and in the hematopoietic tissue; and in G. affinis, around the ducts of Cuvier and posterior cardinal veins, while a few are visible also around the sinus venosus. In Perciformes and Salmoniformes, numerous chromaffin cells are also present in the posterior kidney, derived from the opisthonephros, in contact with the caudal vein. Steroidogenic cells are always confined to the head kidney. During development chromaffin and steroidogenic cells appear early after hatching in the pronephric kidney, at the level of the ducts of Cuvier and of the cephalic part of the posterior cardinal veins. Later, chromaffin cells in Perciformes reach the anterior cardinal veins, and subsequently, in both Perciformes and Salmoniformes, they reach the developing posterior kidney. Their localization along the posterior kidney is still in progress about 4 months after hatching and is completed about a year after hatching. These findings support the concept that the structure of the adrenal gland in teleosts is intermediate between that of the
Ortaz, Mario; Martín, Ricardo; López-Ordaz, Adriana
Invertivores fishes are an important component of neotropical streams and they represent a link between aquatic invertebrates and piscivorous species. This study evaluated the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap of nine invertivores fish species during three consecutive hydrological phases: falling (December/07, January/08, February/08 and March/08), low (April/08) and rising waters (June/08), in two sections of a Venezuelan neotropical stream, which were located at different elevation, high watershed (HW) and low watershed (LW). The fishes were collected with a beach seine (5mm mesh) between 8:00 and 11:00 hours. The diet of each species was evaluated using an index of relative importance (IRI), which includes as variables the number, weight and occurrence frequency of food items consumed. The Levin' index (B ) and Morisita (IM) were used to estimate the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap, respectively. All estimations were made using the numeric proportion of preys. Nine fish species were captured, eight Characiformes, of which three were captured in HW (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari and C. melasma) and five in LW (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus and Aphyocharax alburnus), and one Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata), which was also found in HW. In HW aquatic insects were the main resource consumed by fishes while plant material and terrestrial arthropods were secondary resources. In LW the fishes ingested all of these items in addition to zooplankton (Copepoda, Cladocera and larval stages of Decapoda). However, there was a temporal replacement with a predominance of zooplankton in falling and low water. In general, the breadth diet decreased during the falling water in both sections and increased in rising water. However, the average breadth diet was higher in HW. The interspecific food overlap was high in HW while low values were more frequent in LW and its temporal
Costa, Wilson J E M; Amorim, Pedro F; Mattos, José Leonardo O
The rich biological diversity of South America has motivated a series of studies associating evolution of endemic taxa with the dramatic geologic and climatic changes that occurred during the Cainozoic. The organism here studied is the killifish tribe Cynolebiini, a group of seasonal fishes uniquely inhabiting temporary pools formed during the rainy seasons. The Cynolebiini are found in open vegetation areas inserted in the main tropical and subtropical South American phytogeographical regions east of the Andes. Here, we present the first molecular phylogeny sampling all the eight genera of the Cynolebiini, using fragments of two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes for 35 species of Cynolebiini plus 19 species as outgroups. The dataset, 4448bp, was analysed under Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches, providing a relatively well solved tree, which retrieves high support values for the Cynolebiini and most included clades. The resulting tree was used to estimate the time of divergence in included lineages using two cyprinodontiform fossils to calibrate the tree. We further investigated historical biogeography through the likelihood-based DEC model. Our estimates indicate that divergence between the clades comprising New World and Old World aplocheiloids occurred during the Eocene, about 50Mya, much more recent than the Gondwanan fragmentation scenario assumed in previous studies. This estimation is nearly synchronous to estimated splits involving other South American and African vertebrate clades, which have been explained by transoceanic dispersal through an ancient Atlantic island chain during the Palaeogene. We estimate that Cynolebiini split from its sister group Cynopoecilini in the Oligocene, about 25Mya and that Cynolebiini started to diversify giving origin to the present genera during the Miocene, about 20-14Mya. The Cynolebiini had an ancestral origin in the Atlantic Forest and probably were not present in the open vegetation formations of central
Jimenez, Miguel; Goodchild, Shawn C; Stockwell, Craig A; Lema, Sean C
The Pahrump poolfish (Empetrichthys latos) and White River springfish (Crenichthys baileyi) are small-bodied teleost fishes (order Cyprinodontiformes) endemic to the arid Great Basin and Mojave Desert regions of western North America. These taxa survive as small, isolated populations in remote streams and springs and evolved to tolerate extreme conditions of high temperature and low dissolved oxygen. Both species have experienced severe population declines over the last 50-60years that led to some subspecies being categorized with protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Here we report the first sequencing of the complete mitochondrial DNA genomes for both E. l. latos and the moapae subspecies of C. baileyi. Complete mitogenomes of 16,546bp nucleotides were obtained from two E. l. latos individuals collected from introduced populations at Spring Mountain Ranch State Park and Shoshone Ponds Natural Area, Nevada, USA, while a single mitogenome of 16,537bp was sequenced for C. b. moapae. The mitogenomes of both species contain 13 protein-encoding genes, twenty-two tRNAs, and two rRNAs (12S and 18S) following the syntenic arrangement typical of Actinopterygiian fish mitogenomes, as well as D-loop control regions of 858bp for E. latos and 842bp for C. baileyi moapae. The two E. latos individuals exhibited only 0.0181% nucleotide sequence divergence across the entire mitogenome, implying little intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the poolfish and springfish mitochondrial genomes to available mitogenomes of other Cyprinodontoid fishes confirmed the close relationship of these oviparous Empetrichthys and Crenichthys genera to the viviparous goodeid fishes of central Mexico, and showed the combined clade of these fishes to be a sister group to the Profundulidae killifishes. Despite several significant life history and morphological differences between the Empetrichthyinae and Goodienae, estimates of evolutionary genetic