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Sample records for zoonoses unusual viral

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Common Bacterial, Parasitic and Viral Zoonoses at the Human-Animal Interface in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M.

    2017-01-01

    Egypt has a unique geographical location connecting the three old-world continents Africa, Asia and Europe. It is the country with the highest population density in the Middle East, Northern Africa and the Mediterranean basin. This review summarizes the prevalence, reservoirs, sources of human infection and control regimes of common bacterial, parasitic and viral zoonoses in animals and humans in Egypt. There is a gap of knowledge conerning the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal interface in different localities in Egypt. Some zoonotic agents are “exotic” for Egypt (e.g., MERS-CoV and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus), others are endemic (e.g., Brucellosis, Schistosomiasis and Avian influenza). Transboundary transmission of emerging pathogens from and to Egypt occurred via different routes, mainly importation/exportation of apparently healthy animals or migratory birds. Control of the infectious agents and multidrug resistant bacteria in the veterinary sector is on the frontline for infection control in humans. The implementation of control programs significantly decreased the prevalence of some zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, in some localities within the country. Sustainable awareness, education and training targeting groups at high risk (veterinarians, farmers, abattoir workers, nurses, etc.) are important to lessen the burden of zoonotic diseases among Egyptians. There is an urgent need for collaborative surveillance and intervention plans for the control of these diseases in Egypt. PMID:28754024

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Common Bacterial, Parasitic and Viral Zoonoses at the Human-Animal Interface in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Yosra A; El-Adawy, Hosny; Abdelwhab, Elsayed M

    2017-07-21

    Egypt has a unique geographical location connecting the three old-world continents Africa, Asia and Europe. It is the country with the highest population density in the Middle East, Northern Africa and the Mediterranean basin. This review summarizes the prevalence, reservoirs, sources of human infection and control regimes of common bacterial, parasitic and viral zoonoses in animals and humans in Egypt. There is a gap of knowledge conerning the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal interface in different localities in Egypt. Some zoonotic agents are "exotic" for Egypt (e.g., MERS-CoV and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus), others are endemic (e.g., Brucellosis, Schistosomiasis and Avian influenza). Transboundary transmission of emerging pathogens from and to Egypt occurred via different routes, mainly importation/exportation of apparently healthy animals or migratory birds. Control of the infectious agents and multidrug resistant bacteria in the veterinary sector is on the frontline for infection control in humans. The implementation of control programs significantly decreased the prevalence of some zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, in some localities within the country. Sustainable awareness, education and training targeting groups at high risk (veterinarians, farmers, abattoir workers, nurses, etc.) are important to lessen the burden of zoonotic diseases among Egyptians. There is an urgent need for collaborative surveillance and intervention plans for the control of these diseases in Egypt.

  3. Viral Metagenomics on Animals as a Tool for the Detection of Zoonoses Prior to Human Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases. PMID:24918293

  4. Serological survey of selected canine viral pathogens and zoonoses in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Chappuis, G; Soulier, M; Kikuchi, Y

    1998-12-01

    Between 1988 and 1991, 644 serum samples were collected from 480 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and 40 black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska, United States of America, and were tested for selected canine viral infections and zoonoses. Antibody prevalence in grizzly bears was 0% for parvovirus, 8.3% (40/480) for distemper, 14% (68/480) for infectious hepatitis, 16.5% (79/480) for brucellosis, 19% (93/480) for tularaemia and 47% (225/478) for trichinellosis. In black bears, prevalence ranged from 0% for distemper and parvovirus to 27.5% for trichinellosis and 32% for tularaemia. Antibody prevalence for brucellosis (2.5%) and tularaemia (32%) were identical for grizzly bears and black bears from the geographical area of interior Alaska. Links between differences in prevalence and the origin of the grizzly bears were observed. Antibodies to canine distemper virus and infectious hepatitis virus were mainly detected in grizzly bears from Kodiak Island and the Alaskan Peninsula. Brucellosis antibodies were prevalent in grizzly bears from western and northern Alaska, whereas tularaemia antibodies were detected in grizzly bears from interior Alaska and the Arctic. There was a strong gradient for antibodies to Trichinella spp. from southern to northern Alaska. For most diseases, antibody prevalence increased with age. However, for several infections, no antibodies were detected in grizzly bears aged from 0 to 2 years, in contrast to the presence of those infections in black bears. Grizzly bears served as excellent sentinels for surveillance of zoonotic infections in wildlife in Alaska.

  5. Building the road to a regional zoonoses strategy: A survey of zoonoses programmes in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Freire de Carvalho, Mary H.; Hoet, Armando E.; Vigilato, Marco A. N.; Pompei, Julio C.; Cosivi, Ottorino; del Rio Vilas, Victor J.

    2017-01-01

    impact. The three priority emerging zoonoses for the MOHs were Ebola viral disease, avian influenza, and Chikungunya while for the MAgs were avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and West Nile virus disease. Surveillance for avian influenza and Ebola, and diagnosis for BSE were quoted as the capacities most needed. For all zoonoses, the majority of respondents (69%) ranked their relationship with the other Ministry as productive or very productive, and 31% minimally productive. Many countries requested a formal regional network, better regional communication and collaboration, and integrated surveillance. Conclusions The survey is the first comprehensive effort to date to inform the status of zoonoses programmes in LAC. The information collected here will be used to develop a regional strategy for zoonoses (both endemic and emerging), increase efforts, advocacy, and promote prompt identification and management of EIDs and improvement of endemic programmes. PMID:28333986

  6. Building the road to a regional zoonoses strategy: A survey of zoonoses programmes in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Melody J; Freire de Carvalho, Mary H; Hoet, Armando E; Vigilato, Marco A N; Pompei, Julio C; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J

    2017-01-01

    emerging zoonoses for the MOHs were Ebola viral disease, avian influenza, and Chikungunya while for the MAgs were avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and West Nile virus disease. Surveillance for avian influenza and Ebola, and diagnosis for BSE were quoted as the capacities most needed. For all zoonoses, the majority of respondents (69%) ranked their relationship with the other Ministry as productive or very productive, and 31% minimally productive. Many countries requested a formal regional network, better regional communication and collaboration, and integrated surveillance. The survey is the first comprehensive effort to date to inform the status of zoonoses programmes in LAC. The information collected here will be used to develop a regional strategy for zoonoses (both endemic and emerging), increase efforts, advocacy, and promote prompt identification and management of EIDs and improvement of endemic programmes.

  7. Unusually severe varicella zoster (VZV) virus viral (aseptic) meningitis in an unimmunized, immunocompetent host with chickenpox.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Warren-Favorito, Heather; Mickail, Nardeen

    2011-01-01

    Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and may be more severe in adults than in children. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of chickenpox and VZV are uncommon, for example, encephalitis and cerebellar ataxis. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is a rare CNS complication of VZV. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile in VZV viral (aseptic) meningitis is indistinguishable from other causes of viral meningitis. The clue to most of the diagnoses of VZV aseptic meningitis is based on the temporal relationship between antecedent or concomitant chickenpox. Chickenpox is a clinical diagnosis based on the appearance and distribution of the rash. The rash of chickenpox is vesicular/pruritic and typically appears in crops over 3 successive days. VZV vesicles are fragile, superficial, and surrounded by a erythematous halo. Common nonspecific laboratory findings in chickenpox include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase/serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is not highly elevated in chickenpox. In VZV aseptic meningitis, the CSF shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis with normal protein, glucose, and lactic acid levels. CSF red blood cells are not a feature of VZV meningitis. We present the case of a healthy unimmunized adult who was hospitalized with chickenpox complicated by VZV aseptic meningitis with an unusually severe headache and nuchal rigidity that occurred during hospitalization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neglected Bacterial Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Chikeka, Ijeuru; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. While many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which a broad spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. Thus, this review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis, and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. PMID:25964152

  9. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Viral phylogeny in court: the unusual case of the Valencian anesthetist

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A large and complex outbreak of hepatitis C virus in Valencia, Spain that began 25 years ago led to the prosecution and conviction of an anesthetist who was accused of infecting hundreds of his patients. Evolutionary analyses of viral gene sequences were presented as evidence in the trial, and these are now described in detail by González-Candelas and colleagues in a paper published in BMC Biology. Their study illustrates the challenges and opportunities that arise from the use of phylogenetic inference in criminal trials concerning virus transmission. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/76 PMID:24059471

  11. Climate change, zoonoses and India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

    2011-12-01

    Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review.

  12. Zoonoses of rabbits and rodents.

    PubMed

    Hill, William Allen; Brown, Julie Paige

    2011-09-01

    Millions of households in the US own rabbits or rodents, including hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. Activities such as hunting and camping also involve human interactions with wild rabbits and rodents. In many environments, feral rabbits and rodents live in close proximity to humans, domesticated animals, and other wildlife. Education of rodent and rabbit owners and individuals with occupational or recreational exposures to these species is paramount to reduce the prevalence of zoonoses associated with rabbit and rodent exposure.

  13. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  14. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures. PMID:22839365

  15. Wildlife, Exotic Pets, and Emerging Zoonoses1

    PubMed Central

    Belotto, Albino; Meslin, François-Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic; wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir. Wildlife can also be a source for reemergence of previously controlled zoonoses. Although the discovery of such zoonoses is often related to better diagnostic tools, the leading causes of their emergence are human behavior and modifications to natural habitats (expansion of human populations and their encroachment on wildlife habitat), changes in agricultural practices, and globalization of trade. However, other factors include wildlife trade and translocation, live animal and bushmeat markets, consumption of exotic foods, development of ecotourism, access to petting zoos, and ownership of exotic pets. To reduce risk for emerging zoonoses, the public should be educated about the risks associated with wildlife, bushmeat, and exotic pet trades; and proper surveillance systems should be implemented. PMID:17370509

  16. Transmission of zoonoses through immigration and tourism.

    PubMed

    Mavroidi, Nikoletta

    2008-01-01

    More than 200 of the documented zoonoses represent a high proportion of the infectious diseases that cause cases of morbidity and mortality and almost 75% are emerging infections. Immigration and tourism are human activities that are included in the broader field of human migration and travel. Travel plays a significant role in the emergence and spread of disease. The migration of humans has provided the route of spread for infectious diseases and zoonoses (for example, plague, yellow fever, monkey pox and severe acute respiratory syndrome). Tourism constitutes a small fraction of overall movements of humans but a point worthy of note is the number of international travellers has increased by more than 1 300% over the last 50 years. In addition, over 80 million people, mostly from developing countries, are legal or illegal immigrants. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveller to the population visited and the ecosystem. Tourism and immigration may constitute an interface for mixing different genetic and ecological profiles, as well as cultural and social aspects, which is of particular interest in regard to zoonoses. Primary prevention, epidemiological surveillance and health education in the framework of intersectoral and international collaboration remain the cornerstone for response to and control of zoonoses in the context of tourism and immigration.

  17. Zoonoses in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. PMID:25491209

  18. Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of viral genomes has accelerated due to improvement in DNA sequencing technology. Sources of animal samples and molecular methods for the identification of novel viral pathogens and steps to determine their pathogenicity are listed. The difficulties for predicting future cross-species transmissions are highlighted by the wide diversity of known viral zoonoses. Recent surveys of viruses in wild and domesticated animals have characterized numerous viruses including some closely related to those infecting humans. The detection of multiple genetic lineages within viral families infecting a single host species, phylogenetically interspersed with viruses found in other host species, reflects frequent past cross-species transmissions. Numerous opportunities for the generation of novel vaccines will arise from a better understanding of animal viromes. PMID:22463981

  19. Zoonoses of ferrets, hedgehogs, and sugar gliders.

    PubMed

    Pignon, Charly; Mayer, Jörg

    2011-09-01

    With urbanization, people live in close proximity to their pets. People often share their living quarters and furniture, and this proximity carries a new potential for pathogen transmission. In addition to the change in lifestyle with our pets, new exotic pets are being introduced to the pet industry regularly. Often, we are unfamiliar with specific clinical signs of diseases in these new exotic pets or the routes of transmission of pathogens for the particular species. This article reviews zoonoses that occur naturally in ferrets, hedgehogs, and sugar gliders, discussing the occurrence and clinical symptoms of these diseases in humans.

  20. Parasite Zoonoses and Wildlife: Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Kutz, Susan J.; Smith, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact. PMID:19440409

  1. One Health and Zoonoses: The Evolution of One Health and Incorporation of Zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Govindaraj V

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic disease outbreaks have surged in the last two decades. These include severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Hendra virus, Nipah virus, influenza viruses, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, and ebola. One Health is the initiative of an inclusive collaboration linking human, animal, and environmental health. One Health is advocated through an intersectoral coordination to combat zoonoses, and the term has evolved over centuries. The primary aim of this literature review was to examine the change in the definition of the term One Health over time, particuarly following the the introduction of the latest definition in 2007 by the American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association. This review was conducted in four phases. The first phase consisted of a general PubMed search for the phrase "One Health" for every literature published up to December 2014. Then an advanced search was carried out using "One Health" in conjunction with the terms "zoonosis" and "zoonoses" in PubMed for the time period between January 2007 and December 2014. The articles found were then categorized based on the type of journals in which the articles were published. For the second phase, "One Health" was searched as a Medical subject heading (MeSH) term, which is the National Library of Medicine controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles. In the third phase, One Health advocate organizations were found using Google search engine. During the final phase, One Health was searched in Google scholar, examined by Google trends, and analyzed by Google ngram. Before 2007, One Health had many connotations to health in the medical literature with an incomplete adherence to the usage of One Health linking zoonoses. The Google trends analysis shows an overal steady increase of the search of One Health from 2007 to 2014, which is consistent with the findings of articles from Pubmed. Our results indicate that the linkage between the

  2. Client knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding zoonoses: a metropolitan experience.

    PubMed

    Steele, S G; Mor, S M

    2015-12-01

    To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to zoonoses among pet owners. Questionnaire completed by 81 clients attending a small animal practice in Sydney, Australia. Most (64.5%) clients reported that they were not concerned about contracting a disease from their pet, but 7.9% and 3.9% of clients were a little or very concerned, respectively; 23.7% of clients stated that they had not considered the possibility. Although respondents indicated that they had heard of a number of zoonoses, knowledge of animal sources and exposure pathways was generally low, particularly for the more important zoonoses in Australia such as toxoplasmosis, psittacosis and Q fever. Only 37.0%, 12.3% and 11.1%, respectively, of clients had heard of these diseases. Most respondents (84.1%) indicated that they viewed veterinarians as having the primary responsibility for providing information about zoonoses, yet less than half (48.1%) recalled ever getting information from their veterinarian. Likewise, many respondents (48.1%) indicated that medical professionals played a role in providing information about zoonoses, yet less than one-quarter (23.5%) recalled ever getting information from their doctor. The low level of knowledge among pet owners about sources and exposure pathways indicates a need to strengthen communication between veterinarians, doctors and their clients around the possible risks of zoonoses and appropriate prevention strategies. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Priorities for research and control of cestode zoonoses in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Globally, cestode zoonoses cause serious public health problems, particularly in Asia. Among all neglected zoonotic diseases, cestode zoonoses account for over 75% of global disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. An international symposium on cestode zoonoses research and control was held in Shanghai, China between 28th and 30th October 2012 in order to establish joint efforts to study and research effective approaches to control these zoonoses. It brought together 96 scientists from the Asian region and beyond to exchange ideas, report on progress, make a gap analysis, and distill prioritizing settings with a focus on the Asian region. Key objectives of this international symposium were to agree on solutions to accelerate progress towards decreasing transmission, and human mortality and morbidity caused by the three major cestode zoonoses (cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis, and cysticercosis); to critically assess the potential to control these diseases; to establish a research and validation agenda on existing and new approaches; and to report on novel tools for the study and control of cestode zoonoses. PMID:23915395

  4. Surveillance for arboviral zoonoses in New Zealand birds

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Cheryl; Jakob-Hoff, Richard; Pulford, David; Castro, Isabel; Mackereth, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Given the significant burden that emerging infectious diseases place on global economies and public health, the monitoring and mitigation of, and early response to, potential infectious diseases are of the highest priority. The objective of this study was to survey for known and other potential arboviral zoonoses in multiple bird species at four locations in New Zealand. Methods Common bird species were targeted for blood sampling during two southern hemisphere summers. Sera from each period (n = 185 and n = 693) were screened in an epitope blocking enzyme immunoassay for flavivirus antibody detection. In the first season, testing for antibodies to specific alphaviruses was conducted on samples with sufficient sera (n = 22). In the second season, blood clots (n = 544) were screened for viral presence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for alphaviral and flaviviral RNA, and virus isolation (n = 146) was conducted. Results Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 13 species, and one Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) from one site was positive for antibodies to Ross River virus. PCR tests and virus isolation were all negative. Discussion: Evidence for flavivirus exposure in seabirds at Kaikoura Peninsula and Cape Kidnappers suggests that viruses isolated from seabirds and associated ticks in New Zealand in the late 1970s are still present. Evidence for flavivirus exposure in passerines at Kaikoura Peninsula, Cape Kidnappers and Mokoia Island is novel. The Ross River virus finding is also new and supports the hypothesis that migratory seabirds are an import pathway for such agents into New Zealand. PMID:24478919

  5. Public health implications of emerging zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D

    2000-04-01

    Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new

  6. [Tasks and duties of veterinary reference laboratories for food borne zoonoses].

    PubMed

    Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Alter, T; Johne, R; Nöckler, K; Beutin, L; Helmuth, R

    2009-02-01

    Reference laboratories are of central importance for consumer protection. Field expertise and high scientific competence are basic requirements for the nomination of a national reference laboratory. To ensure a common approach in the analysis of zoonotic hazards, standards have been developed by the reference laboratories together with national official laboratories on the basis of Art. 33 of Directive (EG) No. 882/2004. Reference laboratories function as arbitrative boards in the case of ambivalent or debatable results. New methods for detection of zoonotic agents are developed and validated to provide tools for analysis, e. g., in legal cases, if results from different parties are disputed. Besides these tasks, national reference laboratories offer capacity building and advanced training courses and control the performance of ring trials to ensure consistency in the quality of analyses in official laboratories. All reference laboratories work according to the ISO standard 17025 which defines the grounds for strict laboratory quality rules and in cooperation with the respective Community Reference Laboratories (CRL). From the group of veterinary reference laboratories for food-borne zoonoses, the national reference laboratories are responsible for Listeria monocytogenes, for Campylobacter, for the surveillance and control of viral and bacterial contamination of bivalve molluscs, for E. coli, for the performance of analysis and tests on zoonoses (Salmonella), and from the group of parasitological zoonotic agents, the national reference laboratory for Trichinella.

  7. Zoonoses in rural veterinarians in the central region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Molineri, Ana; Signorini, Marcelo L; Pérez, Luis; Tarabla, Héctor D

    2013-10-01

    To estimate the frequency of zoonoses in rural veterinarians and to search for risk factors. Cross-sectional study based on an anonymously answered structured questionnaire. The interviewees participated in mandatory continuing education classes scheduled throughout the province by the College of Veterinary Surgeons. Overall, 741 professionals were surveyed, and 75.8% (n = 562) of them completed the structured questionnaire. Cumulative incidence (CIR) and incidence density (IDR) rates, standardised rates, χ(2) , Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and logistic regression. The CIR for all zoonoses was 34.1% (brucellosis, 29.1%; toxoplasmosis, 2.1%; leptospirosis, 0.6%; tuberculosis, 0.6%; anthrax, 0.6%; ringworm, 0.4%; other, 0.6%). The IDR for the period 1964-2008 was estimated to be 20.7% (19.5% for brucellosis). The brucellosis IDR decreased between 1964 and 2008 and was higher during early post-graduation. The risk of brucellosis was associated with the number of years of practice and the geographical area. Sixty-nine respondents had at least one day of absence from work (24.0 ± 27.8 days). A high frequency of zoonoses was reported by veterinarians with a large animal practice. Although the rate of zoonoses may be decreasing, further studies are needed to confirm this finding. A joint effort of all institutions is needed to prevent zoonoses among private practitioners. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  8. Bradford Hill's criteria, emerging zoonoses, and One Health.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Asokan, Vanitha

    2016-09-01

    Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Inappropriate overemphasis of specialization of disciplines has ignored public health. Identifying the causes of disease and determining how exposures are related to outcomes in "emerging zoonoses" affecting multiple species are considered to be the hallmarks of public health research and practice that compels the adoption of "One Health". The interactions within and among populations of vertebrates in the causation and transmissions of emerging zoonotic diseases are inherently dynamic, interdependent, and systems based. Disease causality theories have moved from one or several agents causing disease in a single species, to one infectious agent causing disease in multiple species-emerging zoonoses. Identification of the causative pathogen components or structures, elucidating the mechanisms of species specificity, and understanding the natural conditions of emergence would facilitate better derivation of the causal mechanism. Good quality evidence on causation in emerging zoonoses affecting multiple species makes a strong recommendation under the One Health approach for disease prevention and control from diagnostic tests, treatment, antimicrobial resistance, preventive vaccines, and evidence informed health policies. In the tenets of One Health, alliances work best when the legitimate interests of the different partners combine to prevent and control emerging zoonoses. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  10. Occupational zoonoses in animal husbandry and related activities.

    PubMed

    Battelli, Giorgio; Baldelli, Raffaella; Ghinzelli, Massimo; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The fact that people working with animals or their products may contract some infections has been known for centuries, before the introduction of the concept of zoonoses. Only recently, at least in Italy, was the prevention of occupational risks taken into account by legislation in spite of the fact that some zoonoses of livestock are of noticeable socio-economic importance. Nowadays some factors such as new production technologies, trade globalization, movements of people, changes in working conditions, are generating new zoonotic and occupational risks, some of which are considered re-emerging. The prevention of occupational zoonoses must be implemented jointly by both veterinary and medical services through prevention and epidemiological surveillance of human and animal health, risk evaluation, diagnosis of infections and working safety. Hopefully, we expect that in the future there will be better interdisciplinary collaboration and that legislation be timely tailored to the need to safeguard working health and safety.

  11. Lassa fever or lassa hemorrhagic fever risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control.

  12. [Construction of occupational zoonoses control system at a zoo].

    PubMed

    Hori, Ai; Nakamura, Sachiko; Sotohira, Yukari; Iwano, Toshiro; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2006-12-01

    More than 200 diseases are known to be transmitable from animals to humans. These zoonotic infections (zoonoses) are considered as a major occupational health risk among zoo workers, including veterinarians and animal handlers. In order to prevent possible pathogen transmission, precaution measures for workers, visitors and animals are important, as well as institutional hygiene. Construction of a zoonoses control system at a zoo is presented in this report. There are two main components of this system: 1. routine disease prevention activity, 2. action planning for crisis. Workers, an operating officer, an occupational physician and a veterinarian from the zoo cooperated with infection control professionals from the local community.

  13. NS3 from Hepatitis C Virus Strain JFH-1 Is an Unusually Robust Helicase That Is Primed To Bind and Unwind Viral RNA

    SciT

    Zhou, Ting; Ren, Xiaoming; Adams, Rebecca L.

    Hepatitis C viruses (HCV) encode a helicase enzyme that is essential for viral replication and assembly (nonstructural protein 3 [NS3]). This helicase has become the focus of extensive basic research on the general helicase mechanism, and it is also of interest as a novel drug target. Despite the importance of this protein, mechanistic work on NS3 has been conducted almost exclusively on variants from HCV genotype 1. Our understanding of NS3 from the highly active HCV strains that are used to study HCV genetics and mechanism in cell culture (such as JFH-1) is lacking. We therefore set out to determinemore » whether NS3 from the replicatively efficient genotype 2a strain JFH-1 displays novel functional or structural properties. Using biochemical assays for RNA binding and duplex unwinding, we show that JFH-1 NS3 binds RNA much more rapidly than the previously studied NS3 variants from genotype 1b. Unlike NS3 variants from other genotypes, JFH-1 NS3 binds RNA with high affinity in a functionally active form that is capable of immediately unwinding RNA duplexes without undergoing rate-limiting conformational changes that precede activation. Unlike other superfamily 2 (SF2) helicases, JFH-1 NS3 does not require long 3' overhangs, and it unwinds duplexes that are flanked by only a few nucleotides, as in the folded HCV genome. To understand the physical basis for this, we solved the crystal structure of JFH-1 NS3, revealing a novel conformation that contains an open, positively charged RNA binding cleft that is primed for productive interaction with RNA targets, potentially explaining robust replication by HCV JFH-1. IMPORTANCEGenotypes of HCV are as divergent as different types of flavivirus, and yet mechanistic features of HCV variants are presumed to be held in common. One of the most well-studied components of the HCV replication complex is a helicase known as nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). We set out to determine whether this important mechanical component

  14. The food-borne trematode zoonoses of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    De, Nguyen Van; Murrell, K Darwin; Cong, Le Dinh; Cam, Phung Dac; Chau, Le Van; Toan, Nguyen Duy; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2003-01-01

    During the past couple of decades, numerous surveys for the occurrence and distribution of food-borne trematodes in Vietnam have been carried out. However, the majority of the data obtained have not been published in international journals, and therefore, the seriousness of these trematode parasitic zoonoses in the country has not been fully appreciated. To correct this, over 40 Vietnamese language reports and local publications were translated and organized as a status review for an international audience. The results show that such serious trematode zoonoses as clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis and fascioliasis are common in many regions of Vietnam, and, in the case of fascioliasis and paragonimiasis, are increasing. Data on the species of intermediate hosts involved in the transmission of these zoonoses, and the effect of host sex and age on infection frequencies are presented, along with findings on food preference/behavior investigations. Finally, the authors present recommendations for further research to provide a more comprehensive picture of the status of these zoonoses, and to obtain the risk assessment information needed to design prevention and control programs.

  15. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2005-10-01

    The behaviour of Homo sapiens has a pivotal role to play in the macro and microepidemiology of emerging or re-emerging parasitic zoonoses. Changing demographics and the concomitant alterations to the environment, climate, technology, land use and changes in human behavior, converge to favour the emergence and spread of parasitic zoonoses. The recent unprecedented movements of people, their animals and their parasites around the world, introduce and mix genes, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. The increasing proclivity for eating meat, fish, crabs, shrimp, molluscs raw, undercooked, smoked, pickled or dried facilitates a number of protozoan (Toxoplasma), trematode (Fasciola sp., Paragonimus spp., Clonorchis sp., Opisthorchis spp., Heterophyes sp., Metagonimus sp., Echinostoma spp., Nanophyetus sp.) cestode (Taenia spp, Diphyllobothrum sp.) and nematode (Trichinella spp., Capillaria spp., Gnathostoma spp., Anisakis sp., Parastrongylus spp.) caused zoonoses. The increasing world population and the inability to keep pace with the provision of adequate sanitation and clean, safe drinking water, has led to an increased importance of waterborne zoonoses, such as those caused by Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma. Our close relationship with and the numerous uses to which we put companion animals and their ubiquitous distribution has resulted in dogs and cats unwitting participation in sharing over 60 parasite species including: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, most foodborne trematode species, Diphyllobothrum, Echinococcus spp., Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Changing human behaviour through education, to encourage the proper cooking of food, which may have cultural and social significance, will remain as challenging as controlling stray and feral pet populations, improving hygiene levels and the provision of safe drinking water and the proper use of sanctuary facilities. Long pre-patent periods and the normally insidious sub-clinical nature of

  16. Zoonoses-With Friends Like This, Who Needs Enemies?

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are infections that are spread from animals to humans. Most often, humans are “dead-end” hosts, meaning that there is no subsequent human-to-human transmission. If one considers most of the emerging infections that were recognized at the end of the last century and the beginning of this century, they would fall into the category of zoonoses. One of the most important common traits exhibited by infections that have been or can be eliminated from the face of the earth (e.g. smallpox, measles, polio) is the absence of any host other than humans. Therefore, zoonses represent infections that can never be eliminated and must be considered as permanent and recurrent factors to be dealt with in protecting human health. PMID:18596867

  17. Zoonoses-with friends like this, who needs enemies?

    PubMed

    Baum, Stephen G

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are infections that are spread from animals to humans. Most often, humans are "dead-end" hosts, meaning that there is no subsequent human-to-human transmission. If one considers most of the emerging infections that were recognized at the end of the last century and the beginning of this century, they would fall into the category of zoonoses. One of the most important common traits exhibited by infections that have been or can be eliminated from the face of the earth (e.g. smallpox, measles, polio) is the absence of any host other than humans. Therefore, zoonses represent infections that can never be eliminated and must be considered as permanent and recurrent factors to be dealt with in protecting human health.

  18. Zoonoses, One Health and complexity: wicked problems and constructive conflict.

    PubMed

    Waltner-Toews, David

    2017-07-19

    Infectious zoonoses emerge from complex interactions among social and ecological systems. Understanding this complexity requires the accommodation of multiple, often conflicting, perspectives and narratives, rooted in different value systems and temporal-spatial scales. Therefore, to be adaptive, successful and sustainable, One Health approaches necessarily entail conflicts among observers, practitioners and scholars. Nevertheless, these integrative approaches have, both implicitly and explicitly, tended to marginalize some perspectives and prioritize others, resulting in a kind of technocratic tyranny. An important function of One Health approaches should be to facilitate and manage those conflicts, rather than to impose solutions.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. The Burden of Zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Counotte, Michel J; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Abdykerimov, Kubanychbek; Torgerson, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Zoonotic disease (ZD) pose a serious threat to human health in low-income countries. In these countries the human burden of disease is often underestimated due to insufficient monitoring because of insufficient funding. Quantification of the impact of zoonoses helps in prioritizing healthcare needs. Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with 48% of the population employed in agriculture and one third of the population living below the poverty line. We have assessed the burden of zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan by conducting a systematic review. We have used the collected data to estimate the burden of ZDs and addressed the underestimation in officially reported disease incidence. The estimated incidences of the ZDs were used to calculate incidence-based Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). This standardized health gap measure enhances comparability between injuries and diseases. The combined burden for alveolar echinococcosis, cystic echinococcosis, brucellosis, campylobacteriosis, congenital toxoplasmosis, non-typhoidal salmonellosis and rabies in Kyrgyzstan in 2013 was 35,209 DALYs [95% Uncertainty interval (UI):13,413-83,777]; 576 deaths [95% UI: 279-1,168] were attributed to these infections. We estimate a combined median incidence of ZDs of 141,583 cases [95% UI: 33,912-250,924] in 2013. The highest burden was caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively 14,792 DALYs [95% UI: 3,966-41,532] and 11,915 DALYs [95% UI: 4,705-27,114] per year. The health impact of zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan is substantial, comparable to that of HIV. Community-based surveillance studies and hospital-based registration of all occurrences of zoonoses would increase the accuracy of the estimates.

  20. Uncovering zoonoses awareness in an emerging disease 'hotspot'.

    PubMed

    Paige, Sarah B; Malavé, Carly; Mbabazi, Edith; Mayer, Jonathan; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases from animals pose significant and increasing threats to human health; places of risk are simultaneously viewed as conservation and emerging disease 'hotspots'. The One World/One Health paradigm is an 'assemblage' discipline. Extensive research from the natural and social sciences, as well as public health have contributed to designing surveillance and response policy within the One World/One Health framework. However, little research has been undertaken that considers the lives of those who experience risk in hotspots on a daily basis. As a result, policymakers and practitioners are unable to fully comprehend the social and ecological processes that catalyze cross-species pathogen exchange. This study examined local populations' comprehension of zoonotic disease. From October 2008-May 2009 we collected data from people living on the periphery of Kibale National Park, in western Uganda. We administered a survey to 72 individuals and conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 14 individuals. Results from the survey showed respondents had statistically significant awareness that transmission of diseases from animals was possible compared to those who did not think such transmission was possible (x(2) = 30.68, df = 1, p < 0.05). However, individual characteristics such as gender, occupation, location, and age were not significantly predictive of awareness. Both quantitative and qualitative data show local people are aware of zoonoses and provided biomedically accurate examples of possible infections and corresponding animal sources (e.g., worm infection from pigs and Ebola from primates). Qualitative data also revealed expectations about the role of the State in managing the prevention of zoonoses from wildlife. As a result of this research, we recommend meaningful discourse with people living at the frontlines of animal contact in emerging disease and conservation hotspots in order to develop informed and relevant zoonoses

  1. Viral Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to fight it off. For most viral infections, treatments can only help with symptoms while you wait ... for viral infections. There are antiviral medicines to treat some viral infections. Vaccines can help prevent you ...

  2. [Research on zoonoses: central element of the "One Health" initiative].

    PubMed

    Wieler, Lothar H; Antão, Esther-Maria; Semmler, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    The idea of "Comparative Medicine" was founded by distinguished scientists in the 1900s, in which context the name of Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow always comes into the limelight. This discipline was practiced thoroughly with the study of every infective disease transmitted naturally from vertebrates to man, namely the zoonoses. The following article will highlight the concept of "Comparative Medicine" with the example of tuberculosis research carried out during the second half of the 19th century. After the discipline took an interesting turn toward increasing specialization in the field, particularly after the Second World War, infection research in veterinary and human medicine developed and progressed in different directions. Since the 1990s, this development has contradicted the awareness, that a great number of diseases can be successfully combated through interdisciplinary efforts only, which has now led to the concept of "One health". In view of this, functional molecular epidemiology will play an invaluable role in the future in recognizing associations between host and pathogen-genotypes, particularly in research pertaining to emerging and re-emerging infections, which include the zoonoses. Zoonotic research is the crux of such a concept; hence, this article will portray some of the developments in Germany over the last few years, by virtue of which the "One health" dogma brings zoonotic research to life.

  3. Exploring local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in northern and eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mangesho, Peter Ernest; Neselle, Moses Ole; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mlangwa, James E; Queenan, Kevin; Mboera, Leonard E G; Rushton, Jonathan; Kock, Richard; Häsler, Barbara; Kiwara, Angwara; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Zoonoses account for the most commonly reported emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on how pastoral communities perceive zoonoses in relation to their livelihoods, culture and their wider ecology. This study was carried out to explore local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in Tanzania. This study involved pastoralists in Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania and Kibaha and Bagamoyo districts in eastern Tanzania. Qualitative methods of focus group discussions, participatory epidemiology and interviews were used. A total of 223 people were involved in the study. Among the pastoralists, there was no specific term in their local language that describes zoonosis. Pastoralists from northern Tanzania possessed a higher understanding on the existence of a number of zoonoses than their eastern districts' counterparts. Understanding of zoonoses could be categorized into two broad groups: a local syndromic framework, whereby specific symptoms of a particular illness in humans concurred with symptoms in animals, and the biomedical framework, where a case definition is supported by diagnostic tests. Some pastoralists understand the possibility of some infections that could cross over to humans from animals but harm from these are generally tolerated and are not considered as threats. A number of social and cultural practices aimed at maintaining specific cultural functions including social cohesion and rites of passage involve animal products, which present zoonotic risk. These findings show how zoonoses are locally understood, and how epidemiology and biomedicine are shaping pastoralists perceptions to zoonoses. Evidence is needed to understand better the true burden and impact of zoonoses in these communities. More studies are needed that seek to clarify the common understanding of zoonoses that could be used to guide effective and locally relevant interventions. Such studies should

  4. Exploring local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in northern and eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mangesho, Peter Ernest; Neselle, Moses Ole; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Mlangwa, James E.; Queenan, Kevin; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Rushton, Jonathan; Kock, Richard; Häsler, Barbara; Kiwara, Angwara; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background Zoonoses account for the most commonly reported emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on how pastoral communities perceive zoonoses in relation to their livelihoods, culture and their wider ecology. This study was carried out to explore local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in Tanzania. Methodology and principal findings This study involved pastoralists in Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania and Kibaha and Bagamoyo districts in eastern Tanzania. Qualitative methods of focus group discussions, participatory epidemiology and interviews were used. A total of 223 people were involved in the study. Among the pastoralists, there was no specific term in their local language that describes zoonosis. Pastoralists from northern Tanzania possessed a higher understanding on the existence of a number of zoonoses than their eastern districts' counterparts. Understanding of zoonoses could be categorized into two broad groups: a local syndromic framework, whereby specific symptoms of a particular illness in humans concurred with symptoms in animals, and the biomedical framework, where a case definition is supported by diagnostic tests. Some pastoralists understand the possibility of some infections that could cross over to humans from animals but harm from these are generally tolerated and are not considered as threats. A number of social and cultural practices aimed at maintaining specific cultural functions including social cohesion and rites of passage involve animal products, which present zoonotic risk. Conclusions These findings show how zoonoses are locally understood, and how epidemiology and biomedicine are shaping pastoralists perceptions to zoonoses. Evidence is needed to understand better the true burden and impact of zoonoses in these communities. More studies are needed that seek to clarify the common understanding of zoonoses that could be used to guide

  5. Zoonoses from dogs with special reference to Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-12-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Dogs are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the feces, urine, saliva (eg, bites or contaminated scratches), or respiratory secretions of the animal, or by the dog or cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure or reservoir for vector borne disease. Although dogs have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with dogs is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions.

  6. Humans and Cattle: A Review of Bovine Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Cardwell, Diana M.; Moeller, Robert B.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Infectious disease prevention and control has been among the top public health objectives during the last century. However, controlling disease due to pathogens that move between animals and humans has been challenging. Such zoonotic pathogens have been responsible for the majority of new human disease threats and a number of recent international epidemics. Currently, our surveillance systems often lack the ability to monitor the human–animal interface for emergent pathogens. Identifying and ultimately addressing emergent cross-species infections will require a “One Health” approach in which resources from public veterinary, environmental, and human health function as part of an integrative system. Here we review the epidemiology of bovine zoonoses from a public health perspective. PMID:24341911

  7. Zoonoses in Veterinary Students: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Antonio; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Paterna, Ana; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Corrales, Juan C; Contreras, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary students face diverse potential sources of zoonotic pathogens since the first years of their academic degree. Such sources include different animal species and pathologic materials which are used at university facilities as well as commercial clinics, farms and other external facilities. The present study utilizes a systematic review of the literature to identify zoonoses described in veterinary students. Web of Science and PubMed. Of the 1,254 titles produced by the bibliographic search, 62 were included in this review. Whereas 28 of these articles (45.2%) described individual cases or outbreaks, the remaining 34 (54.8%) reported serological results. The zoonotic etiological agents described were bacteria, in 39 studies (62.9%), parasites, in 12 works (19.4%), virus, in 9 studies (14.5%) and fungi, in 2 (3.2%) of the selected articles. The selected literature included references from 24 different countries and covered the time period of the last 55 years. The fact that common cases of disease or cases of little clinical importance without collective repercussions are not usually published in peer-reviewed journals limits the possibility to reach conclusions from a quantitative point of view. Furthermore, most of the selected works (66.1%) refer to European or North American countries, and thus, the number of cases due to pathogens which could appear more frequently in non-occidental countries might be underestimated. The results of the present systematic review highlight the need of including training in zoonotic diseases since the first years of Veterinary Science degrees, especially focusing on biosecurity measures (hygienic measures and the utilization of the personal protective equipment), as a way of protecting students, and on monitoring programs, so as to adequately advise affected students or students suspicious of enduring zoonoses.

  8. Zoonoses in Veterinary Students: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Antonio; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Paterna, Ana; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Corrales, Juan C.; Contreras, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Veterinary students face diverse potential sources of zoonotic pathogens since the first years of their academic degree. Such sources include different animal species and pathologic materials which are used at university facilities as well as commercial clinics, farms and other external facilities. Objectives The present study utilizes a systematic review of the literature to identify zoonoses described in veterinary students. Data sources Web of Science and PubMed. Results Of the 1,254 titles produced by the bibliographic search, 62 were included in this review. Whereas 28 of these articles (45.2%) described individual cases or outbreaks, the remaining 34 (54.8%) reported serological results. The zoonotic etiological agents described were bacteria, in 39 studies (62.9%), parasites, in 12 works (19.4%), virus, in 9 studies (14.5%) and fungi, in 2 (3.2%) of the selected articles. The selected literature included references from 24 different countries and covered the time period of the last 55 years. Limitations The fact that common cases of disease or cases of little clinical importance without collective repercussions are not usually published in peer-reviewed journals limits the possibility to reach conclusions from a quantitative point of view. Furthermore, most of the selected works (66.1%) refer to European or North American countries, and thus, the number of cases due to pathogens which could appear more frequently in non-occidental countries might be underestimated. Conclusions/implications The results of the present systematic review highlight the need of including training in zoonotic diseases since the first years of Veterinary Science degrees, especially focusing on biosecurity measures (hygienic measures and the utilization of the personal protective equipment), as a way of protecting students, and on monitoring programs, so as to adequately advise affected students or students suspicious of enduring zoonoses. PMID:28052113

  9. Pharyngitis - viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat is due to a viral infection. The antibiotics will not help. Using them to treat viral infections helps bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. With some sore throats (such as those caused ...

  10. [Parasitic zoonoses transmitted by drinking water. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis].

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Gornik, V

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the parasitic zoonose organisms Giardia lamblia und Cryptosporidium spp. are among the most relevant pathogens of drinking water-associated disease outbreaks. These pathogens are transmitted via a fecal-oral route; in both cases the dose of infection is low. Apart from person-to-person or animal-to-person transmissions, the consumption of contaminated food and water are further modes of transmission. The disease is mainly characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. In industrialized countries, the prevalence rate of giardiasis is 2-5 % and of cryptosporidiosis 1-3%. Throughout the world, a large number of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with drinking water were published; in 2001 the first case in Germany was identified. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are detected in surface water and sporadically in unprotected groundwater. Use of these waters for drinking water abstraction makes high demands on the technology of the treatment process: because of the disinfectant resistance of the parasites, safe elimination methods are needed, which even at high contamination levels of source water guarantee safe drinking water. Further measures for prevention and control are implementation of the HACCP concept, which includes the whole chain of procedures of drinking water supply from catchment via treatment to tap and a quality management system.

  11. [Assessment and prevention of zoonoses: "one health approach"].

    PubMed

    Bonizzi, Luigi; Guarino, Marcella; Roncada, Paola; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic pathologies represent diseases that can be transmittable from animals to humans and vice versa. In most cases zoonotic agents are bacteria or viruses and represent a huge problem for health. Zoonosis could represent easily solvable diseases such as simple infections or even deathly such as prion infections. They could be directly transmittable as tuberculosis or brucellosis or indirectly transmittable through vectors as biological fluids or foods from animal production. The increasing production and the globalization of animal food production have caused the spread of zoonosis worldwide turning this topic into a global problem. It is necessary to enforce the actual scientific collaboration between all countries in order to counteract the spread of these pathologies. About this topic WHO, FAO and OIE took part to the world project "one health" highlighting as most important topics the research on Rabies virus, influenza virus and on antibiotic resistance. In particular antibiotic resistance represents one of the most important topics of the last decade due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics, from animal production to human health. This last topic represents a serious problem for health system worldwide. This paper is mainly based on zoonoses such as avian flu, BSE and brucellosis and will describe the strategies used to limit their expansion.

  12. Pentastomiasis and other parasitic zoonoses from reptiles and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Tappe, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles are growing in popularity as pets.The colonization of reptiles and amphibians by parasites and the resulting disease conditions are the most common problems seen in captive animals.This review focuses on pentastomiasis and sparganosis, important parasitic zoonoses of reptiles and amphibians, respectively, and free living-amoebae. Humans are suitable accidental hosts for some pentastomid species (particularly Armillifer and Porocephalus). In geographical areas with special ethnics, such as in West and Central Africa, and East Asia, 8-45% of the human population can be affected. Usually the larvae are coincidentally found during abdominal surgeries. However, fatalities have been described. Extreme caution is necessary when handling infected reptiles. Ocular or cerebral sparganosis is not uncommonly found in humans in East Asia. This disease is caused by spargana, tapeworm larvae (plerocercoids) of Spirometra sp. The infection occurs when uncooked meat from reptiles or amphibians is applied to wounds or eyes and the parasites migrate directly to human tissue, or by consumption of contaminated food or water. As a consequence of the reptile's predatory behaviour, the full spectrum of endo- and ectoparasites from potential prey animals can be found as transiting parasites in the intestinal tract, e. g. Hymenolepis nana, Cryptosporidium (C.) muris, C parvum or Capillaria hepatica. Occasionally, free-living amoebae are also found in reptile faeces (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Hartmanella, Vahlkampfia or Echinamoeba sp.).

  13. A survey of the risk of zoonoses for veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J; Villarroel, A

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with zoonotic infections in veterinarians, the incidence of physician consultation and treatment and the incidence of diagnostic and treatment errors. Veterinarians in any area of practice were solicited to participate in an online survey through an invitation letter sent to the Oregon Veterinary Medical Association. Proportions of respondents to various factors were analyzed for differences among gender, age, time since graduation and type of practice in which they worked. In all, 216 complete responses were received. In all, 13.9% of respondents had never been vaccinated against rabies, and 20.8% had been exposed to suspect rabid animals, mostly (64.4%) a single time. Other zoonoses were reported by 47.2% of respondents: mostly diseases transmitted via contact (57.4%) especially ringworm, followed by those with oral transmission (21.7%). Most zoonotic infections were reportedly acquired by young veterinarians working in primary care veterinary practice. Cats were the species most commonly reported as the animal source of a zoonotic infection. Veterinarians likely self-diagnosed zoonotic diseases, especially those transmitted by contact. Medical care providers were consulted for diagnosis of more serious diseases. Diagnosis and treatment errors were uncommon. Results of this study emphasize the need to educate future veterinarians during their early years in veterinary school about the risks associated with their future jobs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Setting priorities for surveillance, prevention, and control of zoonoses in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cediel, Natalia; Villamil, Luis Carlos; Romero, Jaime; Renteria, Libardo; De Meneghi, Daniele

    2013-05-01

    To establish priorities for zoonoses surveillance, prevention, and control in Bogotá, Colombia. A Delphi panel of experts in veterinary and human medicine was conducted using a validated prioritization method to assess the importance of 32 selected zoonoses. This exercise was complemented by a questionnaire survey, using the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) methodology, administered in 19 districts of Bogotá from September 2009 to April 2010 to an at-risk population (workers at veterinary clinics; pet shops; butcher shops; and traditional food markets that sell poultry, meat, cheese, and eggs). A risk indicator based on level of knowledge about zoonoses was constructed using categorical principal component and logistic regression analyses. Twelve experts participated in the Delphi panel. The diseases scored as highest priority were: influenza A(H1N1), salmonellosis, Escherichia coli infection, leptospirosis, and rabies. The diseases scored as lowest priority were: ancylostomiasis, scabies, ringworm, and trichinellosis. A total of 535 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Respondents claimed to have had scabies (21%), fungi (8%), brucellosis (8%), and pulicosis (8%). Workers with the most limited knowledge on zoonoses and therefore the highest health risk were those who 1) did not have a professional education, 2) had limited or no zoonoses prevention training, and 3) worked in Usme, Bosa, or Ciudad Bolívar districts. According to the experts, influenza A(H1N1) was the most important zoonoses. Rabies, leptospirosis, brucellosis, and toxoplasmosis were identified as priority diseases by both the experts and the exposed workers. This is the first prioritization exercise focused on zoonoses surveillance, prevention, and control in Colombia. These results could be used to guide decision-making for resource allocation in public health.

  15. Viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David R

    2005-01-01

    Viruses probably account for most cases of acute meningitis. Viral meningitis is often assumed to be a largely benign disease. For the commonest pathogens causing meningitis, enteroviruses, this is usually the case; however, for many of the other pathogens causing viral meningitis, and for common pathogens in the immunocompromised or infants, viral meningitis is frequently associated with substantial neurological complications and a significant mortality. Diagnostic methods for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens have improved over recent years, permitting more precise and earlier diagnoses. There have been fewer developments in therapies for viral meningitis, and there remain no effective therapies for most pathogens, emphasising the importance of prevention and early diagnosis. This review focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and management of viral meningitis and also covers the prevention of meningitis for pathogens where effective vaccines are available.

  16. Modeling of Wildlife-Associated Zoonoses: Applications and Caveats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Bryan L.; Marathe, Madhav; Eubank, Stephen; Blackburn, Jason K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wildlife species are identified as an important source of emerging zoonotic disease. Accordingly, public health programs have attempted to expand in scope to include a greater focus on wildlife and its role in zoonotic disease outbreaks. Zoonotic disease transmission dynamics involving wildlife are complex and nonlinear, presenting a number of challenges. First, empirical characterization of wildlife host species and pathogen systems are often lacking, and insight into one system may have little application to another involving the same host species and pathogen. Pathogen transmission characterization is difficult due to the changing nature of population size and density associated with wildlife hosts. Infectious disease itself may influence wildlife population demographics through compensatory responses that may evolve, such as decreased age to reproduction. Furthermore, wildlife reservoir dynamics can be complex, involving various host species and populations that may vary in their contribution to pathogen transmission and persistence over space and time. Mathematical models can provide an important tool to engage these complex systems, and there is an urgent need for increased computational focus on the coupled dynamics that underlie pathogen spillover at the human–wildlife interface. Often, however, scientists conducting empirical studies on emerging zoonotic disease do not have the necessary skill base to choose, develop, and apply models to evaluate these complex systems. How do modeling frameworks differ and what considerations are important when applying modeling tools to the study of zoonotic disease? Using zoonotic disease examples, we provide an overview of several common approaches and general considerations important in the modeling of wildlife-associated zoonoses. PMID:23199265

  17. The Burden of Parasitic Zoonoses in Nepal: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Ale, Anita; Torgerson, Paul; Praet, Nicolas; Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Pandey, Basu Dev; Pun, Sher Bahadur; Lake, Rob; Vercruysse, Jozef; Joshi, Durga Datt; Havelaar, Arie H.; Duchateau, Luc; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko

    2014-01-01

    Background Parasitic zoonoses (PZs) pose a significant but often neglected threat to public health, especially in developing countries. In order to obtain a better understanding of their health impact, summary measures of population health may be calculated, such as the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). However, the data required to calculate such measures are often not readily available for these diseases, which may lead to a vicious circle of under-recognition and under-funding. Methodology We examined the burden of PZs in Nepal through a systematic review of online and offline data sources. PZs were classified qualitatively according to endemicity, and where possible a quantitative burden assessment was conducted in terms of the annual number of incident cases, deaths and DALYs. Principal Findings Between 2000 and 2012, the highest annual burden was imposed by neurocysticercosis and congenital toxoplasmosis (14,268 DALYs [95% Credibility Interval (CrI): 5450–27,694] and 9255 DALYs [95% CrI: 6135–13,292], respectively), followed by cystic echinococcosis (251 DALYs [95% CrI: 105–458]). Nepal is probably endemic for trichinellosis, toxocarosis, diphyllobothriosis, foodborne trematodosis, taeniosis, and zoonotic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections, but insufficient data were available to quantify their health impact. Sporadic cases of alveolar echinococcosis, angiostrongylosis, capillariosis, dirofilariosis, gnathostomosis, sparganosis and cutaneous leishmaniosis may occur. Conclusions/Significance In settings with limited surveillance capacity, it is possible to quantify the health impact of PZs and other neglected diseases, thereby interrupting the vicious circle of neglect. In Nepal, we found that several PZs are endemic and are imposing a significant burden to public health, higher than that of malaria, and comparable to that of HIV/AIDS. However, several critical data gaps remain. Enhanced surveillance for the endemic PZs identified in this

  18. DNA Barcoding of Sigmodontine Rodents: Identifying Wildlife Reservoirs of Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lívia; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Marinho, Jorge R.; Althoff, Sérgio L.; Testoni, André. F.; González, Enrique M.; Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2013-01-01

    Species identification through DNA barcoding is a tool to be added to taxonomic procedures, once it has been validated. Applying barcoding techniques in public health would aid in the identification and correct delimitation of the distribution of rodents from the subfamily Sigmodontinae. These rodents are reservoirs of etiological agents of zoonoses including arenaviruses, hantaviruses, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. In this study we compared distance-based and probabilistic phylogenetic inference methods to evaluate the performance of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) in sigmodontine identification. A total of 130 sequences from 21 field-trapped species (13 genera), mainly from southern Brazil, were generated and analyzed, together with 58 GenBank sequences (24 species; 10 genera). Preliminary analysis revealed a 9.5% rate of misidentifications in the field, mainly of juveniles, which were reclassified after examination of external morphological characters and chromosome numbers. Distance and model-based methods of tree reconstruction retrieved similar topologies and monophyly for most species. Kernel density estimation of the distance distribution showed a clear barcoding gap with overlapping of intraspecific and interspecific densities < 1% and 21 species with mean intraspecific distance < 2%. Five species that are reservoirs of hantaviruses could be identified through DNA barcodes. Additionally, we provide information for the description of a putative new species, as well as the first COI sequence of the recently described genus Drymoreomys. The data also indicated an expansion of the distribution of Calomys tener. We emphasize that DNA barcoding should be used in combination with other taxonomic and systematic procedures in an integrative framework and based on properly identified museum collections, to improve identification procedures, especially in epidemiological surveillance and ecological assessments. PMID:24244670

  19. A strategy to estimate unknown viral diversity in mammals.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Simon J; Epstein, Jonathan H; Murray, Kris A; Navarrete-Macias, Isamara; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M; Solovyov, Alexander; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Arrigo, Nicole C; Islam, Ariful; Ali Khan, Shahneaz; Hosseini, Parviez; Bogich, Tiffany L; Olival, Kevin J; Sanchez-Leon, Maria D; Karesh, William B; Goldstein, Tracey; Luby, Stephen P; Morse, Stephen S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Daszak, Peter; Lipkin, W Ian

    2013-09-03

    The majority of emerging zoonoses originate in wildlife, and many are caused by viruses. However, there are no rigorous estimates of total viral diversity (here termed "virodiversity") for any wildlife species, despite the utility of this to future surveillance and control of emerging zoonoses. In this case study, we repeatedly sampled a mammalian wildlife host known to harbor emerging zoonotic pathogens (the Indian Flying Fox, Pteropus giganteus) and used PCR with degenerate viral family-level primers to discover and analyze the occurrence patterns of 55 viruses from nine viral families. We then adapted statistical techniques used to estimate biodiversity in vertebrates and plants and estimated the total viral richness of these nine families in P. giganteus to be 58 viruses. Our analyses demonstrate proof-of-concept of a strategy for estimating viral richness and provide the first statistically supported estimate of the number of undiscovered viruses in a mammalian host. We used a simple extrapolation to estimate that there are a minimum of 320,000 mammalian viruses awaiting discovery within these nine families, assuming all species harbor a similar number of viruses, with minimal turnover between host species. We estimate the cost of discovering these viruses to be ~$6.3 billion (or ~$1.4 billion for 85% of the total diversity), which if annualized over a 10-year study time frame would represent a small fraction of the cost of many pandemic zoonoses. Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in viral discovery efforts. However, most lack rigorous systematic design, which limits our ability to understand viral diversity and its ecological drivers and reduces their value to public health intervention. Here, we present a new framework for the discovery of novel viruses in wildlife and use it to make the first-ever estimate of the number of viruses that exist in a mammalian host. As pathogens continue to emerge from wildlife, this estimate allows us to put

  20. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sally J.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or reemergence of zoonoses, particularly in the industrialized world, and highlight selected examples to provide a comprehensive view of their range and diversity. PMID:20031035

  1. Risk perception about zoonoses in immigrants and Italian workers in Northwestern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cediel, Natalia; Conte, Valeria; Tomassone, Laura; Tiberti, Donatella; Guiso, Paolo; Romero, Jaime; Villamil, Luis Carlos; De Meneghi, Daniele

    2012-10-01

    To assess factors associated with a low risk perception of zoonoses and to identify the gaps in knowledge about transmission and prevention of zoonoses in immigrant and Italian workers. A cross-sectional study with 175 workers in the agro-livestock and agro-food industry in Piemonte, Italy, was carried out. Data were collected with a semi-structured questionnaire based on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey. We calculated proportions and used chi-square tests and odds ratios to assess associations. Eight individual interviews with key informants on immigration and public health in Piemonte were carried out. Participants were 82 (47%) Italians and 93 (53%) immigrants. Immigrants were from Romania, Morocco, Albania, India, China, Argentina, Peru, Macedonia, Ivory Coast, Ukraine and Colombia. The study revealed significant differences in risk perception at work (p = 0.001). We found associations between "not having correct knowledge about zoonoses" and the following variables: i. "being immigrant" OR = 4.1 (95%CI 1.7;9.8 p ≤ 0.01); ii. "working in the livestock industry" OR = 2.9 (95%CI 1.2;15.4 p = 0.01); and iii. "being an unqualified worker" OR = 4.4 (95%CI 2.9;15.4 p ≤ 0.01). Another strong association was found between being immigrant and having a low job qualification OR = 6.7 (IC95% 2.9 - 15.4 p ≤ 0.01). Asian immigrants were the group with the highest frequency of risky behaviours and the lowest level of knowledge about zoonoses. Our results indicate that there were differences in risk perception of zoonoses between the groups participating in our study. These results suggest that immigrant status can be considered a risk factor for having lower risk perception and lower level of knowledge of zoonoses at work. There is a relationship between this specific knowledge of zoonoses and lack of training and instruction among migrant populations. Our results stress the need for developing education programs on zoonoses prevention among the immigrant

  2. Viral Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Viral Meningitis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... can also be associated with another serious illness, sepsis . Sepsis is the body’s overwhelming and life-threatening ...

  3. Diagnostics and Discovery in Viral Central Nervous System Infections.

    PubMed

    Lipkin, Walter Ian; Hornig, Mady

    2015-09-01

    The range of viruses implicated in central nervous system disease continues to grow with globalization of travel and trade, emergence and reemergence of zoonoses and investments in discovery science. Diagnosis of viral central nervous system infections is challenging in that brain tissue, where the pathogen concentration is likely to be highest, is not readily obtained and sensitive methods for molecular and serological detection of infection are not available in most clinical microbiology laboratories. Here we review these challenges and discuss how they may be addressed using advances in molecular, proteomic and immunological methods. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.

  4. Unusual spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Jonathan V.

    1990-01-01

    For particularly innovative space exploration missions, unusual requirements are levied on the structural components of the spacecraft. In many cases, the preferred solution is the utilization of unusual materials. This trend is forecast to continue. Several hypothetic examples are discussed.

  5. Viral Epitranscriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Edward M.; Courtney, David G.; Tsai, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although it has been known for over 40 years that eukaryotic mRNAs bear internal base modifications, it is only in the last 5 years that the importance of these modifications has begun to come into focus. The most common mRNA modification, the addition of a methyl group to the N6 position of adenosine (m6A), has been shown to affect splicing, translation, and stability, and m6A is also essential for embryonic development in organisms ranging from plants to mice. While all viral transcripts examined so far have been found to be extensively m6A modified, the role, if any, of m6A in regulating viral gene expression and replication was previously unknown. However, recent data generated using HIV-1 as a model system strongly suggest that sites of m6A addition not only are evolutionarily conserved but also enhance virus replication. It is therefore likely that the field of viral epitranscriptomics, which can be defined as the study of functionally relevant posttranscriptional modifications of viral RNA transcripts that do not change the nucleotide sequence of that RNA, is poised for a major expansion in scientific interest and may well fundamentally change our understanding of how viral replication is regulated. PMID:28250115

  6. Zoonoses: an occupational hazard for livestock workers and a public health concern for rural communities.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, J; Kersting, A

    2010-07-01

    Farming employs one of the most diverse work forces, while at the same time it is one of the most dangerous occupations in the U.S. Individuals associated with the livestock industry face an additional risk: zoonotic diseases. In an effort to improve the overall well-being of the farming community, this review addresses zoonoses as a health concern for the farming community. The discussion of agriculturally acquired zoonoses includes infections naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to man (e.g., rabies) and those common to animals and man (e.g., Salmonella). Special consideration is given to identifying individuals potentially at higher risk for developing disease. Case reports and epidemiological studies are reviewed from published veterinary and human-health literature to illustrate exposure scenarios and associated health outcomes. Additionally, key livestock zoonoses in the U.S. are summarized, and an overview of prevention and control strategies is provided. Findings show that livestock can transmit many zoonoses directly and indirectly, and human health can be significantly impacted, but the number of people adversely impacted is largely unknown. This review concludes that more education about zoonosis transmission and prevention is needed, and healthcare providers serving rural communities are a critical link in providing this information. In order for healthcare providers to address the educational gap, we recommend greater collaboration with veterinary specialists schooled in population medicine, zoonosis prevention and control, and animal production.

  7. [Which zoonoses should the general population be more awareness of ? Qualitative research targeted at veterinarians].

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Itsuko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Feng, Qiaolian; Kigawa, Mika; Marui, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which zoonoses should the general population be more aware of. We conducted qualitative research (Delphi method) on thirty veterinarians who were selected from the whole country. Twenty-four diseases were selected. The reasons for their selection were classified into three categories: "Amount of knowledge, attitude and behavior", "Clinicoepidemiologic characteristics" and "Social characteristics". More than half of the top ten zoonoses are those that are not transmitted from humans to humans, with rabies in the first place, avian influenza (with its high pathogenicity) in the second place and psittacosis in the third place. From the top ten diseases, it is considered that the prevention of animal-to-human transmission should be emphasized. In addition, from the reasons for the selection, it is suggested that it is necessary to review social characteristics, such as the inadequacy of quarantine and the insufficiencies of legal systems. As for the zoonoses that are transmitted from humans to humans, it will be indispensable in the future to widely spread information on zoonoses and enlighten the general population about them. It is thought that this survey can be a basis for selecting a zoonosis that should be given priority in enlightening the general population.

  8. The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tung G.; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunlin; Rose, Robert K.; Lipton, Howard L.; Delwart, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in mammals. PMID:21909269

  9. Animal health care seeking behavior of pets or livestock owners and knowledge and awareness on zoonoses in a university community.

    PubMed

    Awosanya, Emmanuel J; Akande, H O

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the attitude of pets or livestock owning households in a university community to animal health care services and assessed the knowledge and awareness level of the residents on zoonoses. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, pet or livestock ownership, animal health care seeking behavior, awareness and knowledge of zoonoses from 246 households. We did descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine the level of association in discrete variables between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock at a significant level of p<0.05. Of the 246 respondents, 80 (32.5%) were either pet or livestock owners. The animal health care seeking behavior of the 80 pets or livestock owners in terms of treatment and vaccination was 70%. Of the 56 (70%) who provided health care services for their animals, about 48 (85.7%) engaged the services of a veterinarian. Dog owning households (42) had the highest frequency of treating their pets against endoparasites (97.6%); ectoparasites (81%) and vaccination against diseases (73.8%). Of the 246 respondents, only 47 (19.1%) have heard of the term zoonoses. Of the considered zoonoses; their awareness of rabies (79.3%) was the highest, followed by Lassa fever (66.3%), the least was pasteurellosis with 18.7%. Having pets or livestock was significantly associated (p=0.04) with rabies awareness. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of zoonoses; knowledge of zoonoses, knowledge of prevention of zoonoses and knowledge of risk of zoonoses between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock. The animal health care seeking behavior of households with pets or livestock is good and should be encouraged. Public education should be created for other zoonoses aside from rabies, Lassa fever, and avian influenza.

  10. Animal health care seeking behavior of pets or livestock owners and knowledge and awareness on zoonoses in a university community

    PubMed Central

    Awosanya, Emmanuel J.; Akande, H. O.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the attitude of pets or livestock owning households in a university community to animal health care services and assessed the knowledge and awareness level of the residents on zoonoses. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, pet or livestock ownership, animal health care seeking behavior, awareness and knowledge of zoonoses from 246 households. We did descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis to determine the level of association in discrete variables between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock at a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Of the 246 respondents, 80 (32.5%) were either pet or livestock owners. The animal health care seeking behavior of the 80 pets or livestock owners in terms of treatment and vaccination was 70%. Of the 56 (70%) who provided health care services for their animals, about 48 (85.7%) engaged the services of a veterinarian. Dog owning households (42) had the highest frequency of treating their pets against endoparasites (97.6%); ectoparasites (81%) and vaccination against diseases (73.8%). Of the 246 respondents, only 47 (19.1%) have heard of the term zoonoses. Of the considered zoonoses; their awareness of rabies (79.3%) was the highest, followed by Lassa fever (66.3%), the least was pasteurellosis with 18.7%. Having pets or livestock was significantly associated (p=0.04) with rabies awareness. However, there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of zoonoses; knowledge of zoonoses, knowledge of prevention of zoonoses and knowledge of risk of zoonoses between owners and non-owners of pets or livestock. Conclusion: The animal health care seeking behavior of households with pets or livestock is good and should be encouraged. Public education should be created for other zoonoses aside from rabies, Lassa fever, and avian influenza. PMID:27047163

  11. Social Environment and Control Status of Companion Animal-Borne Zoonoses in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi; Omoe, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary The risk of companion animal-borne zoonoses has been rising in Japan with the tendency for increasing number of households to ever-growing numbers and varieties of animals as pets. In response, the Japanese government has implemented measures for the domestic and border control of zoonoses. However, it is impossible to determine whether these measures have adequately controlled the transmission of companion animal-borne zoonoses, due to a lack of (i) direct evidence linking companion animal involvement in disease and (ii) understanding of current trends in disease outbreak. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data necessary to make this determination and identify these trends. Abstract Changing social and environmental factors have been the cause of an increase in the number and variety of animals are being imported into Japan. Moreover, the number of Japanese households are keeping companion animals has also risen. These factors, along with the high density of the Japanese population and the low percentage of registered dogs, have increased the risk of animal-to-human transmission of zoonoses. To control zoonosis outbreaks, the Japanese government has implemented a three-stage approach for the border control of zoonoses and has stipulated the monitoring and reporting of eight companion animal-borne zoonoses under the Rabies Prevention Law and the Infectious Diseases Control Law. The fact that no case of human and animal rabies has been reported over the past 50 years indicates that these measures are highly effective in preventing rabies transmission. Although it is known that the total number of possible companion animal-borne zoonosis outbreaks decreased between 2005 and 2009 when compared with numbers between 2001 and 2004, the number of zoonosis cases that can be attributed to transmission by companion animals remains unclear. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data

  12. Scientometrics of zoonoses transmitted by the giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822

    PubMed Central

    Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Calaça, Elaine Alves; Oda, Fabrício Hiroiuki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dissemination of the giant African snail Achatina fulica in several countries has triggered a great number of studies on the mollusk, including those on zoonoses related to health in humans. The current research is a scientific survey on articles published in four databases, namely, PubMed, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs. Results indicate that Brazil has a prominent position in international scientific production on this subject, with focus on Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurrences. PMID:28423090

  13. Scientometrics of zoonoses transmitted by the giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822.

    PubMed

    Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Calaça, Elaine Alves; Oda, Fabrício Hiroiuki

    2017-04-13

    The dissemination of the giant African snail Achatina fulica in several countries has triggered a great number of studies on the mollusk, including those on zoonoses related to health in humans. The current research is a scientific survey on articles published in four databases, namely, PubMed, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs. Results indicate that Brazil has a prominent position in international scientific production on this subject, with focus on Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurrences.

  14. Endemic zoonoses in the tropics: a public health problem hiding in plain sight.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Jo E B; Allan, Kathryn J; Ekwem, Divine; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Crump, John A

    2015-02-28

    Zoonotic diseases are a significant burden on animal and human health, particularly in developing countries. Despite recognition of this fact, endemic zoonoses often remain undiagnosed in people, instead being mistaken for febrile diseases such as malaria. Here, as part of Veterinary Record's ongoing series of articles on One Health, a multidisciplinary team of researchers from Scotland, Tanzania and New Zealand argues that a One Health approach is needed to effectively combat these diseases. British Veterinary Association.

  15. [Knowledge of zoonoses transmission routes and of the species concerned among rural workers].

    PubMed

    Molineri, Ana I; Signorini, Marcelo L; Tarabla, Héctor D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness of zoonoses among rural workers and their potential associations with socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was performed by holding personal interviews (N=110, n=94) using a structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis included the χ(2) test, the Student's t test and Pearson and Spearman correlations. The highest level of awareness was found for trichinosis, rabies and scabies. Species transmitting brucellosis, tuberculosis and anthrax were well known, but not their modes of transmission. The least known diseases were toxocariasis and hydatidosis, followed by leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis. Significant associations were found (p<0.001) between the knowledge of transmitting species and the modes of transmission. Senior male owners, married, and living in urban areas showed the highest overall knowledge of zoonoses. Awareness of zoonoses among rural workers is inadequate. Veterinarians in conjunction with risk insurers may play a key role in providing information to people at risk. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Medlock, JM; Jameson, LJ

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. They are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. Human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. From a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation strategies relies on understanding the natural cycle of pathogen transmission. This requires consideration of, for example, invertebrate and vertebrate ecology and biology, climatology, land use and habitat change. Collectively, these can be referred to as medical entomology and medical ecology. This article reviews the importance for inclusion of such disciplines when assessing the public health risk from vector-borne zoonoses and summarizes the possible future challenges and driving forces for changes in vector status and vector-borne zoonoses emergence, with a particular focus on a UK and European context. PMID:22460391

  17. Zoonoses: a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry of Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Hemberger, Maria Y.; Hoffman, Louw C.; Dziva, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Zoonoses, which account for approximately 75% of emerging human infectious diseases worldwide, pose a re-emerging threat to public health. With an ever-increasing interrelationship between humans, livestock and wildlife species, the threat to human health will rise to unprecedented levels. Wildlife species contribute to the majority of emerging diseases; therefore, there is an urgent need to define control systems of zoonoses of wildlife origin but very little information exists. In this review, we examine prevalent zoonotic infections reported in Namibia between 1990 and 2009 and assess their potential impact on the growing wildlife industry. A wide spectrum of zoonotic diseases was confirmed in both livestock and wildlife species, with rabies and anthrax cases being over-represented and also showing the widest species distribution. Whilst vaccination and ante-mortem inspection against these diseases may curb infected livestock species from entering the human food chain, such practices are difficult to implement in free-ranging wildlife species. In this context, there is a need to improve existing control measures and/or develop novel and better interventional strategies to reduce the threat of this re-emerging global problem. This review provides the basis for initiating a multidisciplinary evidence-based approach to control zoonoses in countries with thriving wildlife and game farming. PMID:23077724

  18. Toxicants exposures as novel zoonoses: reflections on sustainable development, food safety and veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, C; Mantovani, A

    2010-12-01

    The modern concept of zoonosis considers any detriment to the health and/or quality of human life resulting from relationships with (other) vertebrate or edible or toxic invertebrate animals. Whereas exposure to toxicants through foods of animal origin (a.o.) is a well-established issue, hereby we discuss it as novel zoonoses, from the standpoints of health implications as well as similarities and differences with classical zoonoses caused by biological agents. Novel toxicant-related zoonoses are linked with new issues in food safety, such as the environment-feed-food chain. In fact, the potential effect of the combined and repeated exposure to dietary toxicants is generally long-term and not readily discernible. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in staple foods of a.o. are discussed as a telling example of a food safety issue summing up critical points covered by the definition of sustainable development, also implicating health risks for generations to come. We suggest some critical points to implement the veterinary public health action in sustainable food safety, such as enhancement of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points systems for toxicological risk management. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Epidemiology, geographical distribution, and economic consequences of swine zoonoses: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Uddin Khan, Salah; Atanasova, Kalina R; Krueger, Whitney S; Ramirez, Alejandro; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-01-01

    We sought to review the epidemiology, international geographical distribution, and economic consequences of selected swine zoonoses. We performed literature searches in two stages. First, we identified the zoonotic pathogens associated with swine. Second, we identified specific swine-associated zoonotic pathogen reports for those pathogens from January 1980 to October 2012. Swine-associated emerging diseases were more prevalent in the countries of North America, South America, and Europe. Multiple factors were associated with the increase of swine zoonoses in humans including: the density of pigs, poor water sources and environmental conditions for swine husbandry, the transmissibility of the pathogen, occupational exposure to pigs, poor human sanitation, and personal hygiene. Swine zoonoses often lead to severe economic consequences related to the threat of novel pathogens to humans, drop in public demand for pork, forced culling of swine herds, and international trade sanctions. Due to the complexity of swine-associated pathogen ecology, designing effective interventions for early detection of disease, their prevention, and mitigation requires an interdisciplinary collaborative “One Health” approach from veterinarians, environmental and public health professionals, and the swine industry. PMID:26038451

  20. Epidemiological role of birds in the transmission and maintenance of zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Gómez-Martín, A; Paterna, A; Tatay-Dualde, J; Prats-Van Der Ham, M; Corrales, J C; De La Fe, C; Sánchez, A

    2016-12-01

    The risk of zoonoses spreading from birds to humans is lower, quantitatively speaking, than the risk of transmission between other host groups, because the two taxonomic groups share fewer pathogens. Nevertheless, birds have a number of epidemiological characteristics that make them extremely important hosts in the transmission and maintenance of zoonoses, including their susceptibility to pathogens that are extremely hazardous to humans (such as highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, West Nile virus and Chlamydia psittaci) and their ability to travel long distances, especially in the case of migratory birds. The fact that the human diet includes poultry products (meat, eggs and their by-products) also means that most human cases of foodborne zoonoses are infections of avian origin. Lastly, close contact between humans and pet birds or urban birds leads to interactions of public health concern. This article sets out to describe the main factors that determine the role of birds in the epidemiology of zoonotic infections. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  1. Animal migration and risk of spread of viral infections: Chapter 9

    Prosser, Diann J.; Nagel, Jessica; Takekawa, John Y.; Edited by Singh, Sunit K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential contribution of migration towards the spread of disease is as varied as the ecology of the pathogens themselves and their host populations. This chapter outlines multiple examples of viral diseases in animal populations and their mechanisms of viral spread. Many species of insects, mammals, fish, and birds exhibit migratory behavior and have the potential to disperse diseases over long distances. The majority of studies available on viral zoonoses have focused on birds and bats, due to their highly migratory life histories. A number of studies have reported evidence of changes in the timing of animal migrations in response to climate change. The majority indicate an advancement of spring migration, with few or inconclusive results for fall migration. Predicting the combined effects of climate change on migratory patterns of host species and epidemiology of viral pathogens is complex and not fully realistic.

  2. Viral bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Florin, Todd A; Plint, Amy C; Zorc, Joseph J

    2017-01-14

    Viral bronchiolitis is a common clinical syndrome affecting infants and young children. Concern about its associated morbidity and cost has led to a large body of research that has been summarised in systematic reviews and integrated into clinical practice guidelines in several countries. The evidence and guideline recommendations consistently support a clinical diagnosis with the limited role for diagnostic testing for children presenting with the typical clinical syndrome of viral upper respiratory infection progressing to the lower respiratory tract. Management is largely supportive, focusing on maintaining oxygenation and hydration of the patient. Evidence suggests no benefit from bronchodilator or corticosteroid use in infants with a first episode of bronchiolitis. Evidence for other treatments such as hypertonic saline is evolving but not clearly defined yet. For infants with severe disease, the insufficient available data suggest a role for high-flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure use in a monitored setting to prevent respiratory failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Virus zoonoses and their potential for contamination of cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Mahy, B W; Dykewicz, C; Fisher-Hoch, S; Ostroff, S; Tipple, M; Sanchez, A

    1991-01-01

    Silent virus infections of laboratory animals present a human health hazard, from direct exposure and from contamination of biological products for human use. Here we report two recent examples. In 1989, an outbreak of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infections was recognized among workers at a cancer research center after an animal caretaker developed viral meningitis. Investigation revealed that multiple tumor cell lines at the facility were infected with LCMV, as were research animals injected with these cell lines. Of 82 workers tested, eight (10%) were found to have been infected. The infected workers were more likely than other animal handlers to report handling athymic (nude) mice (p less than .0.007). The number of nude mice used in this facilty had increased five-fold in the previous year, possibly explaining the timing of the outbreak. This is the first reported LCMV outbreak since 1975, and the first to implicate nude mice as a source of human LCMV infections. In November 1989 and January 1990, infections caused by two distinct Ebola-like filoviruses were discovered in non-human primates at quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania. Although 22 persons were considered to have high- or medium-risk exposures for Ebola infection, no Ebola-compatible illnesses occurred. One of the medium-risk persons had Ebola IgG antibodies confirmed by IFA and Western blot. Rigorous use of barrier precautions may have limited exposure and infection with these filoviruses. In February 1990, new groups of filovirus-infected monkeys were identified in Virginia and in Texas. Seroconversion occurred in four animal handlers, including one to very high titer, but again no illness was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Containing Unusual Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... by germs resistant to antibiotics. While antibiotic resistance (AR) threats vary nationwide, AR has been found in every state. And unusual ... Coordinate with affected health care facilities, the new AR Lab Network regional labs, and CDC for every ...

  5. An unusual tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Hanon, Sam; Shapiro, Michael; Schweitzer, Paul

    2004-07-01

    The following article presents an unusual case of atrial tachycardia, initially misdiagnosed due to a lack of clear P waves. The diagnosis was eventually confirmed using the atrial electrogram from the patient's pacemaker.

  6. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement. Published by Oxford University Press in

  7. A Serological Survey About Zoonoses in the Verkhoyansk Area, Northeastern Siberia (Sakha Republic, Russian Federation).

    PubMed

    Magnaval, Jean-François; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Gibert, Morgane; Gurieva, Alla; Outreville, Jonathan; Dyachkovskaya, Praskovia; Fabre, Richard; Fedorova, Sardana; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Dubois, Damien; Melnitchuk, Olga; Daviaud-Fabre, Pascale; Marty, Marie; Alekseev, Anatoly; Crubezy, Eric

    2016-02-01

    In 2012, a seroprevalence survey concerning 10 zoonoses, which were bacterial (Lyme borreliosis and Q fever), parasitic (alveolar echinococcosis [AE] and cystic echinococcosis [CE], cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and trichinellosis), or arboviral (tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile virus infection), was conducted among 77 adult volunteers inhabiting Suordakh and Tomtor Arctic villages in the Verkhoyansk area (Yakutia). Following serological testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or western blot, no positive result was found for cysticercosis, CE, toxocariasis, trichinellosis, and both arboviral zoonoses. Four subjects (5.2%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG, without the presence of specific IgM. More importantly, eight subjects (10.4%) tested positive for Lyme borreliosis, two (2.6%) for recently acquired Q fever, and one (1.3%) for AE. Lyme infection and Q fever, whose presence had not been reported so far in Arctic Yakutia, appeared therefore to be a major health threat for people dwelling, sporting, or working in the Arctic area of the Sakha Republic.

  8. Economic Assessment of Zoonoses Surveillance in a 'One Health' Context: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Seroprevalence survey of zoonoses in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Herraez, Oscar; Tenias, Jose Maria; Garduño, Eugenio; Huertas, Maria; Carranza, Rafael; Ramos, Julian Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence rates for the most common types of zoonosis among the population of Extremadura (southwestern Spain) and to identify the associated risk factors. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to collect information on family background and the habits of people residing in Extremadura between 2002 and 2003. Antibodies to Brucella were determined by Rose Bengal staining and a standard tube agglutination test; a titer of 1/80 was considered to be positive. Antibody titers for spotted fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis were determined by enzyme-immunoassays. Independent risk factors identified were age (younger age for brucellosis), male gender (brucellosis, spotted fever, and toxoplasmosis), occupation and contact with animals (brucellosis and spotted fever for those in contact with goats, hydatidosis for those in contact with sheep, leishmaniasis for those in contact with dogs, and toxoplasmosis for those in contact with cats and pigs), and consuming contaminated food (brucellosis by eating fresh cheese, hydatidosis by eating homemade sausages, and toxoplasmosis by eating pork). Except for leishmaniasis, the other zoonoses were more prevalent in rural areas, and, with the exception of brucellosis, they were all more prevalent in Badajoz. The distribution of zoonoses in Extremadura was strongly influenced by keeping livestock and eating habits. Thus, brucellosis was more prevalent in Caceres (associated with cheese consumption), while toxoplasmosis (pork consumption) and spotted fever (from hunting) were more common in Badajoz.

  10. Zoonoses and marginalised infectious diseases of poverty: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing awareness of the importance of controlling neglected tropical diseases as a contribution to poverty alleviation and achieving the Millennium Development Goals, there is a need to up-scale programmes to achieve wider public health benefits. This implementation deficit is attributable to several factors but one often overlooked is the specific difficulty in tackling diseases that involve both people and animals - the zoonoses. A Disease Reference Group on Zoonoses and Marginalised Infectious Diseases (DRG6) was convened by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), a programme executed by the World Health Organization and co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, the World Bank and WHO. The key considerations included: (a) the general lack of reliable quantitative data on their public health burden; (b) the need to evaluate livestock production losses and their additional impacts on health and poverty; (c) the relevance of cross-sectoral issues essential to designing and implementing public health interventions for zoonotic diseases; and (d) identifying priority areas for research and interventions to harness resources most effectively. Beyond disease specific research issues, a set of common macro-priorities and interventions were identified which, if implemented through a more integrated approach by countries, would have a significant impact on human health of the most marginalised populations characteristically dependent on livestock. PMID:21672216

  11. Integrated health messaging for multiple neglected zoonoses: Approaches, challenges and opportunities in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ducrotoy, M J; Yahyaoui Azami, H; El Berbri, I; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Boué, F; Petavy, A F; Dakkak, A; Welburn, S; Bardosh, K L

    2015-12-01

    Integrating the control of multiple neglected zoonoses at the community-level holds great potential, but critical data is missing to inform the design and implementation of different interventions. In this paper we present an evaluation of an integrated health messaging intervention, using powerpoint presentations, for five bacterial (brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis) and dog-associated (rabies, cystic echinococcosis and leishmaniasis) zoonotic diseases in Sidi Kacem Province, northwest Morocco. Conducted by veterinary and epidemiology students between 2013 and 2014, this followed a process-based approach that encouraged sequential adaptation of images, key messages, and delivery strategies using auto-evaluation and end-user feedback. We describe the challenges and opportunities of this approach, reflecting on who was targeted, how education was conducted, and what tools and approaches were used. Our results showed that: (1) replacing words with local pictures and using "hands-on" activities improved receptivity; (2) information "overload" easily occurred when disease transmission pathways did not overlap; (3) access and receptivity at schools was greater than at the community-level; and (4) piggy-backing on high-priority diseases like rabies offered an important avenue to increase knowledge of other zoonoses. We conclude by discussing the merits of incorporating our validated education approach into the school curriculum in order to influence long-term behaviour change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Zoonoses and marginalised infectious diseases of poverty: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David; Hallaj, Zuhair; Keusch, Gerald T; McManus, Donald P; Ngowi, Helena; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ramos-Jimenez, Pilar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Kar, Kamal; Sanchez, Ana; Garba, Amadou; Carabin, Helene; Bassili, Amal; Chaignat, Claire L; Meslin, Francois-Xavier; Abushama, Hind M; Willingham, Arve L; Kioy, Deborah

    2011-06-14

    Despite growing awareness of the importance of controlling neglected tropical diseases as a contribution to poverty alleviation and achieving the Millennium Development Goals, there is a need to up-scale programmes to achieve wider public health benefits. This implementation deficit is attributable to several factors but one often overlooked is the specific difficulty in tackling diseases that involve both people and animals - the zoonoses. A Disease Reference Group on Zoonoses and Marginalised Infectious Diseases (DRG6) was convened by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), a programme executed by the World Health Organization and co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, the World Bank and WHO. The key considerations included: (a) the general lack of reliable quantitative data on their public health burden; (b) the need to evaluate livestock production losses and their additional impacts on health and poverty; (c) the relevance of cross-sectoral issues essential to designing and implementing public health interventions for zoonotic diseases; and (d) identifying priority areas for research and interventions to harness resources most effectively. Beyond disease specific research issues, a set of common macro-priorities and interventions were identified which, if implemented through a more integrated approach by countries, would have a significant impact on human health of the most marginalised populations characteristically dependent on livestock.

  13. Multi-stage Vector-Borne Zoonoses Models: A Global Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bichara, Derdei; Iggidr, Abderrahman; Smith, Laura

    2018-04-25

    A class of models that describes the interactions between multiple host species and an arthropod vector is formulated and its dynamics investigated. A host-vector disease model where the host's infection is structured into n stages is formulated and a complete global dynamics analysis is provided. The basic reproduction number acts as a sharp threshold, that is, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable (GAS) whenever [Formula: see text] and that a unique interior endemic equilibrium exists and is GAS if [Formula: see text]. We proceed to extend this model with m host species, capturing a class of zoonoses where the cross-species bridge is an arthropod vector. The basic reproduction number of the multi-host-vector, [Formula: see text], is derived and shown to be the sum of basic reproduction numbers of the model when each host is isolated with an arthropod vector. It is shown that the disease will persist in all hosts as long as it persists in one host. Moreover, the overall basic reproduction number increases with respect to the host and that bringing the basic reproduction number of each isolated host below unity in each host is not sufficient to eradicate the disease in all hosts. This is a type of "amplification effect," that is, for the considered vector-borne zoonoses, the increase in host diversity increases the basic reproduction number and therefore the disease burden.

  14. Bacterial zoonoses of fishes: a review and appraisal of evidence for linkages between fish and human infections.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T

    2015-01-01

    Human contact with and consumption of fishes presents hazards from a range of bacterial zoonotic infections. Whereas many bacterial pathogens have been presented as fish-borne zoonoses on the basis of epidemiological and phenotypic evidence, genetic identity between fish and human isolates is not frequently examined or does not provide support for transmission between these hosts. In order to accurately assess the zoonotic risk from exposure to fishes in the context of aquaculture, wild fisheries and ornamental aquaria, it is important to critically examine evidence of linkages between bacteria infecting fishes and humans. This article reviews bacteria typically presented as fish-borne zoonoses, and examines the current strength of evidence for this classification. Of bacteria generally described as fish-borne zoonoses, only Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus iniae, Clostridium botulinum, and Vibrio vulnificus appear to be well-supported as zoonoses in the strict sense. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, while transmissible from fishes to humans, does not cause disease in fishes and is therefore excluded from the list. Some epidemiological and/or molecular linkages have been made between other bacteria infecting both fishes and humans, but more work is needed to elucidate routes of transmission and the identity of these pathogens in their respective hosts at the genomic level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hedgehog Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Patricia Y.

    2005-01-01

    Exotic pets, including hedgehogs, have become popular in recent years among pet owners, especially in North America. Such animals can carry and introduce zoonotic agents, a fact well illustrated by the recent outbreak of monkeypox in pet prairie dogs. We reviewed known and potential zoonotic diseases that could be carried and transmitted by pet hedgehogs or when rescuing and caring for wild-caught hedgehogs. PMID:15705314

  16. Costing the Morbidity and Mortality Consequences of Zoonoses Using Health-Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Jordan, H; Dunt, D; Hollingsworth, B; Firestone, S M; Burgman, M

    2016-10-01

    Governments are routinely involved in the biosecurity of agricultural and food imports and exports. This involves controlling the complex ongoing threat of the broad range of zoonoses: endemic, exotic and newly emerging. Policy-related decision-making in these areas requires accurate information and predictions concerning the effects and potential impacts of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this article was to provide information concerning the development and use of utility-based tools, specifically disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for measuring the burden on human disease (morbidity and mortality) as a consequence of zoonotic infections. Issues and challenges to their use are also considered. Non-monetary utility approaches that are reviewed in this paper form one of a number of tools that can be used to estimate the monetary and non-monetary 'cost' of morbidity- and mortality-related consequences. Other tools derive from cost-of-illness, willingness-to-pay and multicriteria approaches. Utility-based approaches are specifically designed to capture the pain, suffering and loss of functioning associated with diseases, zoonotic and otherwise. These effects are typically complicated to define, measure and subsequently 'cost'. Utility-based measures will not be able to capture all of the effects, especially those that extend beyond the health sector. These will more normally be captured in financial terms. Along with other uncommon diseases, the quality of the relevant epidemiological data may not be adequate to support the estimation of losses in utility as a result of zoonoses. Other issues in their use have been identified. New empirical studies have shown some success in addressing these issues. Other issues await further study. It is concluded that, bearing in mind all caveats, utility-based methods are important tools in assessing the magnitude of the impacts of zoonoses in human disease. They make an important contribution to decision-making and priority

  17. Unusual causes of pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Daniel R.; Parrish, Scott; Browning, Robert F.; Turner, J. Francis; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is divided to primary and secondary. It is a situation that requires immediate treatment, otherwise it could have severe health consequences. Pneumothorax can be treated either by thoracic surgeons, or pulmonary physicians. In our current work, we will focus on unusual cases of pneumothorax. We will provide the etiology and treatment for each case, also a discussion will be made for each situation. PMID:25337394

  18. Unusual headache syndromes.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Luiz P

    2013-01-01

    Some headache syndromes have few cases reported in the literature. Their clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, and treatment may have not been completely defined. They may not actually be uncommon but rather under-recognized and/or underreported. A literature review of unusual headache syndromes, searching PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, was performed. After deciding which disorders to study, relevant publications in scientific journals, including original articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, and letters or correspondences to the editors were searched. This paper reviewed the clinical characteristics, the pathogenesis, the diagnosis, and the treatment of five interesting and unusual headache syndromes: exploding head syndrome, red ear syndrome, neck-tongue syndrome, nummular headache, and cardiac cephalgia. Recognizing some unusual headaches, either primary or secondary, may be a challenge for many non-headache specialist physicians. It is important to study them because the correct diagnosis may result in specific treatments that may improve the quality of life of these patients, and this can even be life saving. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  19. Zoonoses from pets horses, donkeys and mules: with special references to Egypt.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ayman T A; Saleh, Mostafa S M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-04-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Pets are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the saliva (e.g., bites or contaminated scratches), feces, respiratory secretions, direct contact, or by the animal acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure. Although pets have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with pets is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions.

  20. Stakeholder prioritization of zoonoses in Japan with analytic hierarchy process method.

    PubMed

    Kadohira, M; Hill, G; Yoshizaki, R; Ota, S; Yoshikawa, Y

    2015-05-01

    There exists an urgent need to develop iterative risk assessment strategies of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study is to develop a method of prioritizing 98 zoonoses derived from animal pathogens in Japan and to involve four major groups of stakeholders: researchers, physicians, public health officials, and citizens. We used a combination of risk profiling and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Profiling risk was accomplished with semi-quantitative analysis of existing public health data. AHP data collection was performed by administering questionnaires to the four stakeholder groups. Results showed that researchers and public health officials focused on case fatality as the chief important factor, while physicians and citizens placed more weight on diagnosis and prevention, respectively. Most of the six top-ranked diseases were similar among all stakeholders. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Ebola fever were ranked first, second, and third, respectively.

  1. Descriptive study of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada, from 2010 - 2012.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Yvonne; Johnson, Karen; Hobbs, Leigh; Middleton, Dean; Dhar, Badal; Vrbova, Linda

    2017-02-21

    Contact with animals and their environment has long been recognized as an important source of enteric zoonoses. However, there are limited data available on the burden of illness associated with specific types of animals in Canada. This study describes the overall burden of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada from 2010 to 2012. Confirmed cases of seven enteric zoonotic diseases (campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, listeriosis, salmonellosis, verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) infection, and yersiniosis) with episode dates from 2010 to 2012 were extracted from the integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS). Reported exposures were categorized as animal contact, foodborne, waterborne and 'other', with animal contact grouped into nine sub-categories based on the type of animal or transmission setting. Overall incidence rates and proportions by animal exposure categories, age and sex-specific incidence rates and hospitalization and death proportions were calculated and sex proportions compared. Our study found that approximately 26% of the enteric pathogens assessed during the 2010 to 2012 period reported contact with animals and their environments as the mode of transmission. Of enteric disease cases reporting animal contact, farm exposures were reported for 51.3%, dog or cat exposures for 26.3%, and reptile or amphibian exposures for 8.9%. Contact with animals was reported more frequently during the period 2010 to 2012 in comparison to the period 1997 to 2003 when 6% or less of enteric cases were associated with animal contact. Public health professionals, stakeholders associated with animals and their related industries (e.g., pet treats, mobile zoos, abattoirs), and the public should recognize that animal contact is an important source of enteric illnesses in order to take measures to reduce the burden of illness from animal sources.

  2. The neglected zoonoses--the case for integrated control and advocacy.

    PubMed

    Welburn, S C; Beange, I; Ducrotoy, M J; Okello, A L

    2015-05-01

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries, but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This neglect is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. Increasing awareness about the causes of NZDs and how they can be prevented could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Addressing NZDs by targeting the animal reservoir can deliver a double benefit, as enhanced animal health means a reduced risk of infection for humans, as well as improved livelihoods through increased animal productivity. Advocacy for NZD control is increasing, but with it comes a growing awareness that NZD control demands activities both in the short term and over a long period of time. Moreover, despite the promise of cheap, effective vaccines or other control tools, these endemic diseases will not be sustainably controlled in the near future without long-term financial commitment, particularly as disease incidence decreases and other health priorities take hold. NZD intervention costs can seem high when compared with the public health benefits alone, but these costs are easily outweighed when a full cross-sector analysis is carried out and monetary/non-monetary benefits--particularly regarding the livestock sector--are taken into account. Public-private partnerships have recently provided advocacy for human disease control, and could prove equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses through harnessing social impact investments. Evidence of the disease burdens imposed on communities by the NZDs and demonstration of the cost-effectiveness of integrated control can strengthen the case for a One Health approach to endemic zoonotic disease control. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. DALYs, dollars and dogs: how best to analyse the economics of controlling zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A P M; Rushton, J; Roth, F; Torgerson, P R

    2017-04-01

    Decision-makers increasingly require comprehensive economic metrics summarising and comparing the benefits and costs of controlling zoonotic diseases. The impact of disease in people is conventionally quantified in non-monetary terms, usually a disability-adjusted life year (DALY), whereas the losses due to disease in animals, particularly livestock, are quantified in monetary terms. The potential for the development of a non-monetary metric for ill health in animals, based on life years lost and disability, is discussed and rejected. Within and across animal species and livestock production systems, maximising life spans is not a consistent goal and morbidity/disabilities have very different weights and often lead to culling. By relating livestock losses to a measure of national income forgone, the recently developed alternative of converting monetary losses due to livestock illness into an animal loss equivalent (ALE) provides a viable solution. Based on this, the literature on the economics of controlling zoonoses is revisited and four options for quantifying and comparing benefits and costs are examined and illustrated using numerical examples. These are i) the simplistic grouping of all monetary elements and their comparison to DALYs averted (described as the aggregate net cost method), ii) the separable costs method, iii) the use of ALEs to convert all benefits to a non-monetary equivalent, termed the zoonotic DALY (zDALY), or iv) the use of a full monetary cost-benefit analysis, based on converting DALYs to a monetary equivalent. The strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed. For effective prioritisation and decision-making, it is vital that an analytical approach is widely adopted which yields consistent results and which supports the control of zoonoses.

  4. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Virus Families Arenaviruses Old World/New World ...

  5. Canine viral infections.

    PubMed

    Willis, A M

    2000-09-01

    The ophthalmic effects of viral infection are varied. With the added possibility for pathologic effects of attenuated vaccine viruses, the diagnosis of viral diseases can be a challenge. In many cases, ocular manifestations can provide added support to a presumptive diagnosis of viral disease, thereby underscoring the benefit of thorough ophthalmic examination of any animal with nonspecific signs of illness.

  6. Unusual fentanyl patch administration.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sandra; Winecker, Ruth; Pestaner, Joseph P

    2008-06-01

    Fentanyl is an extremely potent narcotic analgesic that is becoming more popular as a drug of abuse. Because of the unique way in which the drug is packaged and delivered, the potential for unusual methods of abuse exists. We report the first case of true fentanyl patch ingestion in the medical literature. Initially, though unusual, cases of fentanyl ingestion were thought to have been reported, but further investigation of the literature revealed that in other case reports the patches had been held in the mouth and chewed. Because no reports of swallowing the patch had been published, suicide was initially a strong consideration in this case; however, further investigation showed that the decedent and his brother enjoyed swallowing the patches for quick "highs." Cases such as these serve to remind medical examiners and law enforcement officials of the value of performing thorough death investigations by performing complete autopsies with toxicological testing and correlating with investigation information to form an opinion with regard to the cause and manner of death.

  7. Food-borne zoonoses, the EU zoonosis legislation and the prospects for food safety and consumer protection during primary animal production.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Frans J M; Vågsholm, Ivar; Korkeala, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted naturally between animals and humans. The control of food-borne zoonoses within the European Union is a prerequisite for assuring a functional internal market and consequently represents an important item on the political agenda. Unfortunately, until recently, gaining a clear view of the current incidence of food-borne zoonoses and the prevalence of its causative agents has been frustrated by the absence of reliable monitoring and reporting systems. Similarly, it has become clear that, Europe wide, one has witnessed only limited success with regard to the control of important food-borne agents such as Salmonella spp. The European Union has adopted legislation to remedy this situation and to control food-borne zoonoses in primary production. This contribution discusses the incentives for introducing EU Directive 2003/99/EC and EU Regulation No. 2160/2003, summarises their essentials and discusses major ramifications of both pieces of legislation for the prevention of food-borne zoonoses. It is concluded that there is reason for cautious optimism concerning human salmonellosis, while for other food-borne zoonoses there should be a call for action.

  8. Emerging zoonoses in the southern United States: toxocariasis, bovine tuberculosis and southern tick-associated rash illness.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Rachel M; Carabin, Hélène; Little, Susan E

    2010-09-01

    The majority of emerging diseases in humans have been linked to zoonotic pathogens originating in domestic animals or wildlife. This is a public health concern because zoonotic infections affect several aspects of the society. The complex interactions among pathogen, host and environment also pose challenges in estimating the true burden of those infections. However, the recent development of new molecular diagnostic tools has allowed for better diagnosis of zoonotic infections. This review focuses on 3 emerging zoonoses, namely toxocariasis, bovine tuberculosis and southern tick-associated rash illness, and demonstrates that these infections may be more prevalent in the southern United States than previously recognized. This review places special emphasis on the recent epidemiologic trends, intra/interspecies transmission and clinical features of each of these zoonoses. In addition, treatment and prevention for each zoonotic pathogen are discussed. Clinicians working in the southern United States should be aware of the presence of those zoonotic infections.

  9. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector.

  10. Unusual ISS Rate Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    On November 23, 2011 International Space Station Guidance, Navigation, and Control reported unusual pitch rate disturbance. These disturbances were an order of magnitude greater than nominal rates. The Loads and Dynamics team was asked to review and analyze current accelerometer data to investigate this disturbance. This paper will cover the investigation process under taken by the Loads and Dynamics group. It will detail the accelerometers used and analysis performed. The analysis included performing Frequency Fourier Transform of the data to identify the mode of interest. This frequency data is then reviewed with modal analysis of the ISS system model. Once this analysis is complete and the disturbance quantified, a forcing function was produced to replicate the disturbance. This allows the Loads and Dynamics team to report the load limit values for the 100's of interfaces on the ISS.

  11. Living at the edge of an interface area in Zimbabwe: cattle owners, commodity chain and health workers' awareness, perceptions and practices on zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Gadaga, B M; Etter, E M C; Mukamuri, B; Makwangudze, K J; Pfukenyi, D M; Matope, G

    2016-01-28

    In the great Limpopo transfrontier conservation area (GLTFCA), there is an increased interface between wildlife and domestic animals, because rural households move their cattle into the game park in search of grazing and watering resources. This creates opportunities for inter-species transmission of infectious diseases, including zoonoses like brucellosis and tuberculosis, which may also pose a health risk to the local rural communities. This study investigated the awareness, perceptions and practices on zoonoses amongst rural cattle owners, commodity chain- and health-workers in three different localities around Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe, where the interface between wild and domestic animals varies. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Malipati, Chikombedzi and Chiredzi that are considered to be high-, medium- and low-domestic animal-wildlife interface areas, respectively. Data was collected from cattle owners, commodity chain and health-workers using a semi-structured questionnaire. To determine the public health risk of food-borne zoonoses, their practices with regard to meat and milk consumptions, and measures they take to prevent exposure to infections were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. Most respondents (52.8 %, 102/193) were cattle owners, followed by health (30.1 %, 58/193) and lastly commodity chain workers (17.1 %, 33/193). Overall 67.4 % (130/193) of the respondents were aware of zoonoses with respective 48, 81.8, and 93.1 % of cattle owners, commodity chain, and health workers, being aware. Significantly more cattle owners (P < 0.05) from medium and low interface areas were aware of zoonoses compared to those from high interface areas. All categories of respondents cited anthrax (69.2 %), rabies (57.7 %), tuberculosis (41.5 %) and brucellosis (23.9 %) as important zoonoses. About half (46.1 %; 89/193) of the respondents perceive wildlife as important reservoirs of zoonoses

  12. Cannabinoids and Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Carol Shoshkes

    2010-01-01

    Exogenous cannabinoids or receptor antagonists may influence many cellular and systemic host responses. The anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids may compromise host inflammatory responses to acute viral infections, but may be beneficial in persistent infections. In neurons, where innate antiviral/pro-resolution responses include the activation of NOS-1, inhibition of Ca2+ activity by cannabinoids, increased viral replication and disease. This review examines the effect(s) of cannabinoids and their antagonists in viral infections. PMID:20634917

  13. Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.

    PubMed

    Olival, Kevin J; Hosseini, Parviez R; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Ross, Noam; Bogich, Tiffany L; Daszak, Peter

    2017-06-29

    The majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, HIV, Ebola and SARS). Understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. However, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species boundaries. Here we conduct a comprehensive analysis of mammalian host-virus relationships and show that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable. After controlling for research effort, the proportion of zoonotic viruses per species is predicted by phylogenetic relatedness to humans, host taxonomy and human population within a species range-which may reflect human-wildlife contact. We demonstrate that bats harbour a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than all other mammalian orders. We also identify the taxa and geographic regions with the largest estimated number of 'missing viruses' and 'missing zoonoses' and therefore of highest value for future surveillance. We then show that phylogenetic host breadth and other viral traits are significant predictors of zoonotic potential, providing a novel framework to assess if a newly discovered mammalian virus could infect people.

  14. Knowledge and attitude towards zoonoses among animal health workers and livestock keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Swai, Emanuel S; Schoonman, Luuk; Daborn, Chris J

    2010-10-01

    Zoonoses are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. An exploratory questionnaire-based survey of animal health workers(n=36) and livestock keepers(n=43) was carried out from April 2001 to March 2002 in Tanga and Arusha regions, northern Tanzania, to assess local knowledge, attitudes and public awareness for animal zoonoses. A combination of closed and open-ended questions, focus group discussions and ranking techniques were employed to gather information on perceptions concerning the type of zoonotic diseases prevalent in the study area, level of risk, mode of transmission and methods of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans. The results demonstrated that rabies, tuberculosis and anthrax were considered the three most common zoonotic diseases. Sharing living accommodation with animals, consumption of un-treated livestock products (i.e. milk, meat or eggs) and attending to parturition were perceived as routes of transmission. Knowledge about zoonosis was higher in smallholder dairy (92%; 33/36) than traditional livestock keepers (P<0.05). On the contrary, the perceived risk of contracting a zoonosis was significantly higher in traditional livestock (86%; 6/7) than smallholder dairy keepers (P<0.05). Stratification of the risk of zoonosis by farm location revealed that rural farms (85%; 7/8) were considered significantly at a higher risk when compared to peri or urban located farms (P<0.05). Most of the respondents stated cooking of meat or boiling of milk as a way to prevent transmission. However, there was a significant difference in the perception of the risk posed by contact with potentially infected animals /or animal products with animal health workers having a much higher level of perception compared to livestock keepers. These results suggest that in the Tanga and Arusha, Tanzania, patchy awareness and knowledge of zoonoses, combined with food consumption habits and poor animal husbandry are likely to expose

  15. Targeting Cattle-Borne Zoonoses and Cattle Pathogens Using a Novel Trypanosomatid-Based Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Mott, G. Adam; Wilson, Raymond; Fernando, Anuruddika; Robinson, Ailie; MacGregor, Paula; Kennedy, David; Schaap, Dick; Matthews, Jacqueline B.; Matthews, Keith R.

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis. PMID:22046137

  16. Owner-collected swabs of pets: a method fit for the purpose of zoonoses research.

    PubMed

    Möbius, N; Hille, K; Verspohl, J; Wefstaedt, P; Kreienbrock, L

    2013-09-01

    As part of the preparation of a large cohort study in the entire German population, this study examined the feasibility of cat and dog owners collecting nasal and oral swabs of their animals at home as a method of assessing exposure to zoonoses. In veterinary clinics in Hannover, Germany, 100 pet owners were recruited. Nasal and oral swabs of pets were taken by a veterinarian at the clinic and owners took swabs at home. Swabs were analysed regarding bacterial growth and compared (owner vs. vet) using Cohen's kappa and McNemar's test. The return rate of kits was 92%, and 77% of owners thought it unnecessary to have veterinarian assistance to swab the mouth. McNemar's test results: oral swabs 78% agreement with Gram-positive bacterial growth, 87% agreement with Gram-negative bacterial growth; with similar results for nasal swabs. Although sample quality differed, this method allowed the receipt of swabs from pets in order to obtain information about colonization with zoonotic pathogens.

  17. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  18. Zoonoses action plan Salmonella monitoring programme: an investigation of the sampling protocol.

    PubMed

    Snary, E L; Munday, D K; Arnold, M E; Cook, A J C

    2010-03-01

    The Zoonoses Action Plan (ZAP) Salmonella Programme was established by the British Pig Executive to monitor Salmonella prevalence in quality-assured British pigs at slaughter by testing a sample of pigs with a meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against group B and C(1) Salmonella. Farms were assigned a ZAP level (1 to 3) depending on the monitored prevalence, and ZAP 2 or 3 farms were required to act to reduce the prevalence. The ultimate goal was to reduce the risk of human salmonellosis attributable to British pork. A mathematical model has been developed to describe the ZAP sampling protocol. Results show that the probability of assigning a farm the correct ZAP level was high, except for farms that had a seroprevalence close to the cutoff points between different ZAP levels. Sensitivity analyses identified that the probability of assigning a farm to the correct ZAP level was dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the test, the number of batches taken to slaughter each quarter, and the number of samples taken per batch. The variability of the predicted seroprevalence was reduced as the number of batches or samples increased and, away from the cutoff points, the probability of being assigned the correct ZAP level increased as the number of batches or samples increased. In summary, the model described here provided invaluable insight into the ZAP sampling protocol. Further work is required to understand the impact of the program for Salmonella infection in British pig farms and therefore on human health.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, A; Kennedy, P

    2002-01-01

    Acute encephalitis constitutes a medical emergency. In most cases, the presence of focal neurological signs and focal seizures will distinguish encephalitis from encephalopathy. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a non-infective inflammatory encephalitis that may require to be treated with steroids. Acute infective encephalitis is usually viral. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the commonest sporadic acute viral encephalitis in the Western world. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain is the investigation of choice in HSE and the diagnosis may be confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction test for the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. In this article, we review the diagnosis, investigations, and management of acute encephalitis. With few exceptions (for example, aciclovir for HSE), no specific therapy is available for most forms of viral encephalitis. Mortality and morbidity may be high and long term sequelae are known among survivors. The emergence of unusual forms of zoonotic encephalitis has posed an important public health problem. Vaccination and vector control measures are useful preventive strategies in certain arboviral and zoonotic encephalitis. However, we need better antiviral therapy to meet the challenge of acute viral encephalitis more effectively. PMID:12415078

  20. Metabolism Goes Viral

    PubMed Central

    Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki J.; O’Shea, Clodagh C.

    2014-01-01

    Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. In this issue, Thai et al. (2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication. PMID:24703688

  1. Viral respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Moise, N S

    1985-09-01

    An overview of the more commonly encountered viral diseases of the dog and cat is presented. The reader is acquainted with the principles of antiviral therapy and the drugs that have been studied for use in animal viral respiratory diseases. An update on vaccination principles and guidelines is provided.

  2. Marine Viral Pathogens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-13

    coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. Experiments are continuing to determine whether the pathogens are viral. We have continued the development of PCR primers... Emiliania huxleyi; further work will be required to determine if the pathogen is viral. We have also continued methodological work to improve our ability

  3. Viral Disease Networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  4. Zoonoses research in the German National Cohort : feasibility of parallel sampling of pets and owners.

    PubMed

    Hille, Katja; Möbius, Nadine; Akmatov, Manas K; Verspohl, Jutta; Rabold, Denise; Hartmann, Maria; Günther, Kathrin; Obi, Nadia; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    Cats and dogs live in more than 20 % of German households and the contact between these pets and their owners can be very close. Therefore, a transmission of zoonotic pathogens may occur. To investigate whether zoonotic research questions can be examined in the context of population-based studies like the German National Cohort (GNC), two studies on different study populations were conducted as part of the feasibility tests of the GNC. The aim of the first study was to quantify the actual exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs. In the second study summarised here the feasibility of the sampling of cats and dogs by their owners was tested. To quantify the exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs 744 study participants of the Pretests of the GNC were asked whether they had contact with animals. Currently 10 % have a dog and 14 % have a cat in their household. These figures confirm that a large proportion of the German population has contact with pets and that there is a need for further zoonoses research. To establish the collection of biological samples from cats and dogs in the context of large-scale population-based studies feasible methods are needed. Therefore, a study was conducted to test whether pet owners can take samples from their cats and dogs and whether the quality of these samples is comparable to samples taken by a qualified veterinarian. A total of 82 dog and 18 cat owners were recruited in two veterinary practices in Hannover and the Clinic for Small Animals at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover. Sampling instructions and sample material for nasal and buccal swabs, faecal samples and, in the case of cat owners, a brush for fur samples, were given to the pet owners. The pet owners were asked to take the samples from their pets at home and to send the samples by surface mail. Swab samples were cultured and bacterial growth was quantified independent of bacterial species. The growth of Gram-positive and

  5. Zoonoses in humans from small rural properties in Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Alves, Lucimara Aparecida; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Santana, Maria Aparecida Zanella; dos Santos, Luís Roberto Alves; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa; de Freitas, Julio Cesar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a serological survey for Lyme diseases, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis and identify the risk variables related to these zoonoses in humans living in the rural area of Jataizinho, state of Parana, Brazil. A total of 63 rural properties were surveyed. Additionally, 207 serum samples collected from these rural area inhabitants were tested for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and western blots (WB) were performed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato); a tamponated acidified antigen test (AAT) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) were used to detect antibodies of Brucella abortus; the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was carried out to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. and IFI was used to find antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii. Two of the samples (0.96%) were reactive for Lyme borreliosis, three (1.4%) for brucellosis, 25 (12.1%) for leptospirosis and 143 (69.1%) for toxoplasmosis. Although the town of Jataizinho has a human development index (IDH) that was considered to be average (0.733) in the state of Parana, the low social, economic and cultural conditions of the population from small rural properties have resulted in lack of basic information on animal health and direct or indirect contact with the various species of domestic animals, wildlife and ticks have probably contributed to the prevalence levels found. These results show the need for additional regional studies in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases as well as their respective vectors and reservoirs so that effective prophylaxis can be administered in the human population. PMID:24159294

  6. Experiments with Unusual Oxidation States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, G. B.

    1975-01-01

    Describes four synthesis experiments, adapted for the general chemistry laboratory, in which compounds in unusual oxidation are prepared. The abnormal oxidation states involved in the synthesis products are: silver (II), chromium (II), lead (IV), and bromine (I). (MLH)

  7. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  8. Modeling Viral Spread

    PubMed Central

    Graw, Frederik; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    The way in which a viral infection spreads within a host is a complex process that is not well understood. Different viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus, have evolved different strategies, including direct cell-to-cell transmission and cell-free transmission, to spread within a host. To what extent these two modes of transmission are exploited in vivo is still unknown. Mathematical modeling has been an essential tool to get a better systematic and quantitative understanding of viral processes that are difficult to discern through strictly experimental approaches. In this review, we discuss recent attempts that combine experimental data and mathematical modeling in order to determine and quantify viral transmission modes. We also discuss the current challenges for a systems-level understanding of viral spread, and we highlight the promises and challenges that novel experimental techniques and data will bring to the field. PMID:27618637

  9. Mechanisms of viral mutation.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Domingo-Calap, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    The remarkable capacity of some viruses to adapt to new hosts and environments is highly dependent on their ability to generate de novo diversity in a short period of time. Rates of spontaneous mutation vary amply among viruses. RNA viruses mutate faster than DNA viruses, single-stranded viruses mutate faster than double-strand virus, and genome size appears to correlate negatively with mutation rate. Viral mutation rates are modulated at different levels, including polymerase fidelity, sequence context, template secondary structure, cellular microenvironment, replication mechanisms, proofreading, and access to post-replicative repair. Additionally, massive numbers of mutations can be introduced by some virus-encoded diversity-generating elements, as well as by host-encoded cytidine/adenine deaminases. Our current knowledge of viral mutation rates indicates that viral genetic diversity is determined by multiple virus- and host-dependent processes, and that viral mutation rates can evolve in response to specific selective pressures.

  10. VIRAL INFECTIONS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Racicot, Karen; Kwon, Ja-Young; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be “immunosuppressed”, the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy, and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

  11. Metabolism goes viral.

    PubMed

    Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki J; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2014-04-01

    Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. In this issue, Thai et al. (2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A survey of Tennessee veterinarian and physician attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding zoonoses prevention among animal owners with HIV infection or AIDS.

    PubMed

    Hill, William Allen; Petty, Gregory C; Erwin, Paul C; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-06-15

    To examine the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of Tennessee veterinarians and physicians engaged in clinical practice regarding the risk for and prevention of zoonoses in people with HIV infection or AIDS. Cross-sectional survey. Licensed Tennessee veterinarians and physicians engaged in clinical practice. A survey was mailed in January 2010 to 454 licensed veterinarians and 1,737 licensed physicians. 181 of 419 (43.20%) eligible veterinarians and 201 of 1,376 (14.61%) eligible physicians responded to the survey. A majority of both veterinarians (131/179 [73.18%]) and physicians (97/192 [50.52%]) indicated that veterinarians should always or almost always be involved in advising clients with HIV infection or AIDS. The majority of veterinarians (120/173 [69.36%]) indicated they always or almost always discussed with clients the potential risk to immune-compromised persons after diagnosing a zoonosis. A high proportion (88/94 [93.62%]) of physicians indicated they never or rarely initiated discussions about zoonoses with patients with HIV infection or AIDS. All physicians (94/94 [100%]) indicated they never or rarely contacted veterinarians for advice on zoonoses. Similarly, 174 of 180 (96.76%) veterinarians had never or rarely contacted physicians for advice on zoonoses risks. Only 25.97% of veterinarians and 33.33% of physicians were correctly able to identify zoonotic pathogens of greatest concern to people with HIV infection or AIDS. We identified several implications for veterinary medical and medical practice that may reduce zoonoses transmission risks for people with HIV infection or AIDS, including increased communication between veterinarians and physicians, increased communication between people with HIV infection or AIDS and health-care providers, increased availability of client educational materials, and increased participation in zoonoses continuing education opportunities by health-care providers.

  13. Herpes zoster involving penis and scrotum: an unusual occurrence.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Abdul Rehman; Alvi, Kamran Yousaf; Chaudhary, Ammad Akram

    2015-03-01

    Herpes zoster is an infectious vesicular skin rash in a dermatomal distribution caused by Varicella zoster virus. It occurs very uncommonly in sacral dermatomes. We describe a case with rash on penis and scrotum due to involvement of S2 dermatome in a young male. The disease followed an uneventful course and the patient recovered completely without any sequelae or complications. This case is being presented to highlight its unusual location and to discuss differentiation from another viral infection commonly seen at this site.

  14. Integrated data collection on zoonoses in the European Union, from animals to humans, and the analyses of the data.

    PubMed

    Ammon, Andrea; Makela, Pia

    2010-05-30

    The European Community (EC) has been collecting for 15 years data on zoonoses and agents thereof that integrate the information from human cases and their occurrence in food and animals. The current data collection covers 11 zoonotic agents: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), Yersinia spp., Brucella, Mycobacterium bovis, Trichinella and Echinoccoccus, as well as rabies and food-borne outbreaks. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is assigned the tasks of examining the data collected and publishing the Community Summary Report. This Report is prepared in close collaboration with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) responsible for the surveillance of the communicable diseases in humans, and with EFSA's Zoonoses Collaboration Centre (ZCC, in the Technical University of Denmark). Member States report the data on animals, feed, food and food-borne outbreaks to EFSA's web-based reporting system and the data on the human cases are reported to ECDC's web-application for The European Surveillance System (TESSy). The flow and analysis of data are described as well as an outline of the future plans to improve the comparability of the data. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Household knowledge, attitudes and practices related to pet contact and associated zoonoses in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general public’s knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853) of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55%) for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., < 5 yrs, ≥ 65 yrs, immunocompromised). Most respondents (64%) indicated that they had never received information regarding pet-associated disease risks. When given a list of 11 infectious pathogens, respondents were only able to correctly classify just over half on their potential to be transmitted from pets to people (mean 6.4); independently, pet owners and those who recalled receiving information in the past about this topic were able to make significantly more correct identifications. Pet (36%) and non-pet owning households (10%) reported dog or cat bites or scratches during the preceding year. Households with individuals at higher risk for an infection did not differ from the remaining households regarding their perceived disease risk of pets, zoonotic disease knowledge, recall of being asked by their medical provider if they owned any pets, or recall of

  16. Viral posterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanne H.; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Lee, Cecilia S.; Gupta, Vishali; Pavesio, Carlos E.; Agrawal, Rupesh

    2017-01-01

    The causes of posterior uveitis can be divided into infectious, autoimmune, or masquerade syndromes. Viral infections, a significant cause of sight-threatening ocular diseases in the posterior segment, include human herpesviruses, measles, rubella, and arboviruses such as dengue, West Nile, and chikungunya virus. Viral posterior uveitis may occur as an isolated ocular disease in congenital or acquired infections or as part of a systemic viral illness. Many viruses remain latent in the infected host with a risk of reactivation that depends on various factors, including virulence and host immunity, age, and comorbidities. Although some viral illnesses are self-limiting and have a good visual prognosis, others, such as cytomegalovirus retinitis or acute retinal necrosis, may result in serious complications and profound vision loss. Since some of these infections may respond well to antiviral therapy, it is important to work up all cases of posterior uveitis to rule out an infectious etiology. We review the clinical features, diagnostic tools, treatment regimens, and long-term outcomes for each of these viral posterior uveitides. PMID:28012878

  17. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  18. An unusual case of priapism.

    PubMed Central

    Jam, M.; Datta, N. S.; Askari, A.

    1993-01-01

    A case of sickle cell disease with 63 documented episodes of priapism that were managed medically is presented. The case is very unusual because of the fact that despite so many episodes of priapism, he did not lose sexual potency. On the contrary, over a period of time, his penis hypertrophied. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case with so many episodes of priapism reported in the English literature. We present a hypothesis for such unusual occurrence. PMID:8366540

  19. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  20. Viral meningitis and encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tuppeny, Misti

    2013-09-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, whereas encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchymal brain tissue. The single distinguishing element between the 2 diagnoses is the altered state of consciousness, focal deficits, and seizures found in encephalitis. Consequently meningoencephalitis is a term used when both findings are present in the patient. Viral meningitis is not necessarily reported as it is often underdiagnosed, whereas encephalitis cases are on the increase in various areas of North America. Improved imaging and viral diagnostics, as well as enhanced neurocritical care management, have improved patient outcomes to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Major emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in China: a matter of global health and socioeconomic development for 1.3 billion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Cao, Lili; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-08-01

    Emerging and re-emerging zoonoses are a significant public health concern and cause considerable socioeconomic problems globally. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, avian influenza H7N9, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and the re-emergence of rabies, brucellosis, and other zoonoses have had a significant effect on the national economy and public health in China, and have affected other countries. Contributing factors that continue to affect emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in China include social and environmental factors and microbial evolution, such as population growth, urbanization, deforestation, livestock production, food safety, climate change, and pathogen mutation. The Chinese government has devised new strategies and has taken measures to deal with the challenges of these diseases, including the issuing of laws and regulations, establishment of disease reporting systems, implementation of special projects for major infectious diseases, interdisciplinary and international cooperation, exotic disease surveillance, and health education. These strategies and measures can serve as models for the surveillance and response to continuing threats from emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in other countries. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Congenital syphilis: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Dzebolo, N N

    1980-08-01

    Congenital syphilis was discovered in a neonate with the unusual radiographic presentation of unilateral involvement of three bones showing lytic lesions and periostitis. Congenital syphilis should be considered in a newborn infant with these radiographic manifestations, especially when a suggestive history is obtained.

  3. Pemphigus vegetans: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Dhamija, Ashish; D’souza, Paschal; Meherda, Ashok; Kothiwala, Raj K.

    2012-01-01

    Pemphigus vegetans is a rare variant of pemphigus vulgaris that is characterized by vegetating lesions primarily in the flexures. We report a 45-year-old male patient with an unusual presentation of the disease. A careful analysis of the clinical and laboratory findings enabled us to reach a diagnosis and successfully treat the patient. PMID:23189253

  4. "Unusually Successful": Pittsfield Chapter 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiminski, James A.

    The United States Education Department recognizes projects that effectively meet the special needs of educationally deprived students. In 1992, the Pittsfield, Massachusetts, Chapter 1 preschool program earned national validation as an "unusually successful" compensatory education program. The program has served as a statewide model, and…

  5. Leafhopper viral pathogens

    Four newly discovered viral pathogens in leafhopper vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes, have been shown to replicate in sharpshooter leafhoppers; the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, and Oncometopia nigricans (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The viruses were classified as memb...

  6. BIOMARKERS OF VIRAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viral and protozoan pathogens associated with raw sludge can cause encephalitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and a number of other diseases. Raw sludge that has been treated to reduce these pathogens can be used for land application according to the regulations spec...

  7. Viral Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckler, A.; Butterfield, M. C.

    2012-09-01

    Viral SSA takes advantage of the amateur astronomy community to provide an extremely low-cost and geographically-diverse network of optical SSA sites. In the spirit of programs such as DARPA's Grand Challenge and the National Weather Service's program of providing amateur meteorologists with weather stations linked to a central professional meteorological facility, we form a cooperative bond with a willing community of technically-minded individuals. We term this program "viral" because we will qualify an initial set of astronomers for SSA operation and then use word of mouth in the astronomy community, as well as an outreach program, to pull in new observers. The use of modern remote controlled telescopes allows the incorporation of certified amateur, university, and commercial telescope systems. The availability of the local Viral SSA member for troubleshooting eliminates most significant costs of operating a large network. In this talk, we discuss the key concepts of Viral SSA and the route to a network of 100+ sites in a three year or less timeframe.

  8. Food Safety Hazards and Microbiological Zoonoses in European Meat Imports Detected in Border Inspection in the Period 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Jansen, W; Grabowski, N; Gerulat, B; Klein, G

    2016-02-01

    Microbiological contaminations and other food safety hazards are omnipresent within the European Union (EU) and a considerable risk for consumers, particularly in imported meat and meat products. The number of rejections at external EU borders has been increasing in recent years. Official authorities in each member state are therefore obliged to notify border rejections of food and animal feed due to a direct or indirect risk to human or animal health. This study explored the trends and temporal and spatial distribution of notifications on food safety hazards between January 2008 and December 2013 with a special emphasis on microbiological zoonoses in meat and meat products including poultry at border checks resulting from the rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF). Results indicated that border rejection notifications are increasing exponentially, frequently due to Salmonella in poultry and shiga-toxin-producing E. coli in meat and meat products. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  10. Joint use of Disparate Data for the Surveillance of Zoonoses: A Feasibility Study for a One Health Approach in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wendt, A; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A

    2016-11-01

    Zoonotic diseases concern human and animal populations and are transmitted between both humans and animals. Nevertheless, surveillance data on zoonoses are collected separately for the most part in different databases for either humans or animals. Bearing in mind the concept of One Health, it is assumed that a global view of these data might help to prevent and control zoonotic diseases. In following this approach, we wanted to determine which zoonotic data are routinely collected in Germany and whether these data could be integrated in a useful way to improve surveillance. Therefore, we conducted an inventory of the existing data collections and gathered information on possible One Health surveillance areas in Germany by approaching experts through a scoping survey, personal interviews and during a workshop. In matching the information between the status quo for existing data collections and the possible use cases for One Health surveillance, this study revealed that data integration is currently hindered by missing data, missing pathogen information or a lack of timeliness, depending on the surveillance purpose. Therefore, integrating the existing data would require substantial efforts and changes to adapt the collection procedures for routine databases. Nevertheless, during this study, we observed a need for different stakeholders from the human and animal health sectors to share information to improve the surveillance of zoonoses. Therefore, our findings suggest that before the data sets from different databases are integrated for joint analyses, the surveillance could be improved by the sharing of information and knowledge through a collaboration of stakeholders from different sectors and institutions. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Targeted Research and Policy Actions.

    PubMed

    Damborg, P; Broens, E M; Chomel, B B; Guenther, S; Pasmans, F; Wagenaar, J A; Weese, J S; Wieler, L H; Windahl, U; Vanrompay, D; Guardabassi, L

    2016-07-01

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six zoonoses representing distinct transmission routes were selected arbitrarily based on the available information on incidence and severity of pet-associated disease caused by zoonotic bacteria: bite infections and cat scratch disease (physical injuries), psittacosis (inhalation), leptospirosis (contact with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal-oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population and on the incidence of human infections attributable to pets. In order to address these gaps in knowledge, and to minimize the risk of human infection, actions at several levels are recommended, including: (1) coordinated surveillance of zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in household pets, (2) studies to estimate the burden of human disease attributable to pets and to identify risk behaviours facilitating transmission, and (3) education of those in charge of pets, animal caretakers, veterinarians and human medical healthcare practitioners on the potential zoonotic risks associated with exposure to pets. Disease-specific recommendations include incentives to undertake research aimed at the development of new diagnostic tests, veterinary-specific antimicrobial products and vaccines, as well as initiatives to promote best practices in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and prudent antimicrobial usage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. UNUSUAL BACTEROIDES-LIKE ORGANISM

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Herbert S.; Barnes, Ella M.; Charles, Anthony B.

    1964-01-01

    Goldberg, Herbert S. (University of Missouri, Columbia), Ella M. Barnes, and Anthony B. Charles. Unusual Bacteroides-like organism. J. Bacteriol. 87:737–742. 1964.—An organism is described which appears to be a new species of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporulating rod. It was isolated from poultry caeca at levels of 107 to 108 per g. It is primarily distinguished from related organisms by its unusual size (2.0 by 10.0 μ). It is biochemically differentiated from known species of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Sphaerophorous, and other accepted related genera. Its presence in large numbers in the gut of poultry, and its high metabolic activity would seem to indicate an important intestinal organism. Images PMID:14127590

  13. An Ecological and Conservation Perspective on Advances in the Applied Virology of Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Wale, Nina; Epstein, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to describe how modern advances in our knowledge of viruses and viral evolution can be applied to the fields of disease ecology and conservation. We review recent progress in virology and provide examples of how it is informing both empirical research in field ecology and applied conservation. We include a discussion of needed breakthroughs and ways to bridge communication gaps between the field and the lab. In an effort to foster this interdisciplinary effort, we have also included a table that lists the definitions of key terms. The importance of understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir hosts is emphasized as a tool to both assess risk factors for spillover and to test hypotheses related to treatment and/or intervention strategies. In conclusion, we highlight the need for smart surveillance, viral discovery efforts and predictive modeling. A shift towards a predictive approach is necessary in today’s globalized society because, as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic demonstrated, identification post-emergence is often too late to prevent global spread. Integrating molecular virology and ecological techniques will allow for earlier recognition of potentially dangerous pathogens, ideally before they jump from wildlife reservoirs into human or livestock populations and cause serious public health or conservation issues. PMID:21994738

  14. Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, C E; Burgess, G W

    2015-05-01

    As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological

  15. Unusual headaches in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Cynthia C; Mays, MaryAnn; Tepper, Stewart J

    2011-08-01

    Prevalence of headache lowers with age, and headaches of elderly adults tend to be different than those of the younger population. Secondary headaches, such as headaches associated with vascular disease, head trauma, and neoplasm, are more common. Also, certain headache types tend to be geriatric disorders, such as primary cough headache, hypnic headache, typical aura without headache, exploding head syndrome, and giant cell arteritis. This review provides an overview of some of the major and unusual geriatric headaches, both primary and secondary.

  16. Understanding Image Virality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-07

    anno - tations for these 5 attributes we achieve (65.18%) accuracy, better than human performance (60.12%) at predicting rel- ative virality directly...Nature, 2005. 1 [3] A. Berg, T. Berg, H. Daume, J . Dodge, A. Goyal, X. Han, A. Mensch, M. Mitchell, A. Sood, K. Stratos, et al. Understanding and...predicting importance in images. In CVPR, 2012. 2 [4] J . Berger. Arousal increases social transmission of information. Psy- chological science, 2011. 1

  17. Viral membrane fusion

    SciT

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formedmore » draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.« less

  18. [History of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  19. Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David M

    2013-06-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. These pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (Leptospira interrogans, Yersina pestis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (Seoul hantavirus), and parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). A more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is critical for determining the public health risks associated with urban rats and for developing strategies to monitor and mitigate those risks. Although the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses is complex, due to the multiple ways in which rats, people, pathogens, vectors, and the environment may interact, common determinants of human disease can still be identified. This review summarizes the ecology of zoonoses associated with urban rats with a view to identifying similarities, critical differences, and avenues for further study.

  20. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Philippa J.; Roberts, Teri; Sands, Anita; Peeling, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV–HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016–2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. Recent findings Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. Summary Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for

  1. Uniportal anatomic combined unusual segmentectomies.

    PubMed

    González-Rivas, Diego; Lirio, Francisco; Sesma, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, sublobar anatomic resections are gaining momentum as a valid alternative for early stage lung cancer. Despite being technically demanding, anatomic segmentectomies can be performed by uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach to combine the benefits of minimally invasiveness with the maximum lung sparing. This procedure can be even more complex if a combined resection of multiple segments from different lobes has to be done. Here we report five cases of combined and unusual segmentectomies done by the same experienced surgeon in high volume institutions to show uniportal VATS is a feasible approach for these complex resections and to share an excellent educational resource.

  2. Uniportal anatomic combined unusual segmentectomies

    PubMed Central

    Lirio, Francisco; Sesma, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, sublobar anatomic resections are gaining momentum as a valid alternative for early stage lung cancer. Despite being technically demanding, anatomic segmentectomies can be performed by uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach to combine the benefits of minimally invasiveness with the maximum lung sparing. This procedure can be even more complex if a combined resection of multiple segments from different lobes has to be done. Here we report five cases of combined and unusual segmentectomies done by the same experienced surgeon in high volume institutions to show uniportal VATS is a feasible approach for these complex resections and to share an excellent educational resource. PMID:29078653

  3. The characteristics of wild rat (Rattus spp.) populations from an inner-city neighborhood with a focus on factors critical to the understanding of rat-associated zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Jardine, Claire M; Parsons, Kirbee L; Feng, Alice Y T; Patrick, David M

    2014-01-01

    Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are among the most ubiquitous urban wildlife species and are the source of a number of zoonotic diseases responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. Rodent ecology is a primary determinant of the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in rodent populations and the risk of pathogen transmission to people, yet many studies of rat-associated zoonoses do not account for the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations. This hinders the development of an in-depth understanding of the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses, limits comparability among studies, and can lead to erroneous conclusions. We conducted a year-long trapping-removal study to describe the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. The study focused on factors that might influence the ecology of zoonotic pathogens in these populations and/or our understanding of that ecology. We found that rat population density varied remarkably over short geographical distances, which could explain observed spatial distributions of rat-associated zoonoses and have implications for sampling and data analysis during research and surveillance. Season appeared to influence rat population composition even within the urban environment, which could cause temporal variation in pathogen prevalence. Body mass and bite wounds, which are often used in epidemiologic analyses as simple proxies for age and aggression, were shown to be more complex than previously thought. Finally, we found that factors associated with trapping can determine the size and composition of sampled rat population, and thus influence inferences made about the source population. These findings may help guide future studies of rats and rat-associated zoonoses.

  4. The Characteristics of Wild Rat (Rattus spp.) Populations from an Inner-City Neighborhood with a Focus on Factors Critical to the Understanding of Rat-Associated Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Jardine, Claire M.; Parsons, Kirbee L.; Feng, Alice Y. T.; Patrick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are among the most ubiquitous urban wildlife species and are the source of a number of zoonotic diseases responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. Rodent ecology is a primary determinant of the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in rodent populations and the risk of pathogen transmission to people, yet many studies of rat-associated zoonoses do not account for the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations. This hinders the development of an in-depth understanding of the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses, limits comparability among studies, and can lead to erroneous conclusions. We conducted a year-long trapping-removal study to describe the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. The study focused on factors that might influence the ecology of zoonotic pathogens in these populations and/or our understanding of that ecology. We found that rat population density varied remarkably over short geographical distances, which could explain observed spatial distributions of rat-associated zoonoses and have implications for sampling and data analysis during research and surveillance. Season appeared to influence rat population composition even within the urban environment, which could cause temporal variation in pathogen prevalence. Body mass and bite wounds, which are often used in epidemiologic analyses as simple proxies for age and aggression, were shown to be more complex than previously thought. Finally, we found that factors associated with trapping can determine the size and composition of sampled rat population, and thus influence inferences made about the source population. These findings may help guide future studies of rats and rat-associated zoonoses. PMID:24646877

  5. The geo-spatial information infrastructure at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses, University of Ibadan, Nigeria: an emerging sustainable One-Health pavilion.

    PubMed

    Olugasa, B O

    2014-12-01

    The World-Wide-Web as a contemporary means of information sharing offers a platform for geo-spatial information dissemination to improve education about spatio-temporal patterns of disease spread at the human-animal-environment interface in developing countries of West Africa. In assessing the quality of exposure to geospatial information applications among students in five purposively selected institutions in West Africa, this study reviewed course contents and postgraduate programmes in zoonoses surveillance. Geospatial information content and associated practical exercises in zoonoses surveillance were scored.. Seven criteria were used to categorize and score capability, namely, spatial data capture; thematic map design and interpretation; spatio-temporal analysis; remote sensing of data; statistical modelling; the management of spatial data-profile; and web-based map sharing operation within an organization. These criteria were used to compute weighted exposure during training at the institutions. A categorical description of institution with highest-scoring of computed Cumulative Exposure Point Average (CEPA) was based on an illustration with retrospective records of rabies cases, using data from humans, animals and the environment, that were sourced from Grand Bassa County, Liberia to create and share maps and information with faculty, staff, students and the neighbourhood about animal bite injury surveillance and spatial distribution of rabies-like illness. Uniformly low CEPA values (0-1.3) were observed across academic departments. The highest (3.8) was observed at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses (CCPZ), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where geospatial techniques were systematically taught, and thematic and predictive maps were produced and shared online with other institutions in West Africa. In addition, a short course in zoonosis surveillance, which offers inclusive learning in geospatial applications, is taught at CCPZ. The paper

  6. [Emergent viral infections].

    PubMed

    Galama, J M

    2001-03-31

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infections such as dengue and hepatitis E, but also of hepatitis A, which is no longer endemic. Apart from import diseases new viruses have appeared (Nipah-virus and transfusion-transmitted virus). Existing viruses may suddenly cause more severe diseases, e.g. infection by enterovirus 71. The distribution area of a virus may change, e.g. in case of West Nile virus, an Egyptian encephalitis virus that appears to have established itself in the USA. Furthermore, there is no such thing as a completely new virus; it is always an existing virus that has adapted itself to another host or that was already present in humans but has only recently been discovered. A number of factors facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases. These include intensive animal husbandry and the transport of animals. The unexpected appearance of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere was possibly due to animal transportation.

  7. Establishment of serological herd profiles for zoonoses and production diseases in pigs by "meat juice multi-serology".

    PubMed

    Meemken, Diana; Tangemann, Anna Helene; Meermeier, Dieter; Gundlach, Susanne; Mischok, Dieter; Greiner, Matthias; Klein, Guenter; Blaha, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The most important pork-borne zoonotic diseases in humans such as Salmonelloses and Yersinioses cause only latent infections in pigs. Thus, the infection of pigs does not result in apparent or palpable alterations in the pig carcasses. This is the major reason, why the traditional meat inspection with adspection, palpation and incision is not able to control the food safety risks of today. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a set of serological tests, which provides a classification of pig herds into "zoonoses risk categories" as demanded by EU law and into "herd health risk categories" by using meat juice as diagnostic specimen for ELISA tests. Serological data that were obtained by testing meat juice samples from various pig herds were analyzed as proof of the "meat juice multi-serology" concept. For that, at least 60 meat juice samples from 49 pig herds each were taken between September 2010 and March 2011 and tested for antibodies against zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii) and against pathogens causing production diseases (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, influenza A virus subtype H1N1, influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and PRRSV). Apparent and true animal prevalence, herd prevalence values and intra-herd seroprevalence values as well as the predictive values for the herd and the animal prevalence values were calculated for each pathogen and each of the 49 randomly selected herds. The herd seroprevalence values (one seropositive sample per herd determined a "positive herd") for Y. enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., T. gondii, M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV were higher than 80%, respectively, for the influenza A viruses between 60% and 14% and for Trichinella spp. 0%. Although all herds were located in the same area in the Northwest of Germany within a radius of 250 km, the intra-herd seroprevalence values for all tested pathogens, except for Trichinella spp., varied remarkably from herd to herd. In the

  8. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  9. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  10. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-03-11

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors.

  11. Screening for Viral Pathogens in African Simian Bushmeat Seized at A French Airport.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Chaber, Anne-Lise; Lignereux, Yves; Michelle, Caroline; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2017-08-01

    Illegal bushmeat traffic is an important threat to biodiversity conservation of several endangered species and may contribute to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases in humans. The hunting, manipulation and consumption of wildlife-based products, especially those of primate origin, may be a threat to human health; however, few studies have investigated the role of bushmeat trade and consumption as a potential source of human infections to date. In this study, we report the screening of viral pathogens in African simian game seized by French customs at Toulouse Blagnac Airport. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of virus-like particles in the samples, and further metagenomic sequencing of the DNA and RNA viromes confirmed the presence of sequences related to the Siphoviridae, Myoviridae and Podoviridae bacteriophage families; some of them infecting bacterial hosts that could be potentially pathogenic for humans. To increase the sensitivity of detection, twelve pan-generic PCRs targeting several viral zoonoses were performed, but no positive signal was detected. A large-scale inventory of bacteria, viruses and parasites is urgently needed to globally assess the risk for human health of the trade, manipulation and consumption of wildlife-related bushmeat. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Viral hepatitis in India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S K; Madan, Kaushal; Dattagupta, S; Panda, S K

    2006-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a

  13. Viral pathogen discovery

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  14. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Racsa, Lori D.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Olinger, Gene G.; Hensley, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  15. Viral Quasispecies Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Julie; Perales, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Evolution of RNA viruses occurs through disequilibria of collections of closely related mutant spectra or mutant clouds termed viral quasispecies. Here we review the origin of the quasispecies concept and some biological implications of quasispecies dynamics. Two main aspects are addressed: (i) mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic variants for virus adaptability and (ii) the internal interactions that are established within mutant spectra that render a virus ensemble the unit of selection. The understanding of viruses as quasispecies has led to new antiviral designs, such as lethal mutagenesis, whose aim is to drive viruses toward low fitness values with limited chances of fitness recovery. The impact of quasispecies for three salient human pathogens, human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B and C viruses, is reviewed, with emphasis on antiviral treatment strategies. Finally, extensions of quasispecies to nonviral systems are briefly mentioned to emphasize the broad applicability of quasispecies theory. PMID:22688811

  16. Nuclear targeting of viral and non-viral DNA.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, E H

    2009-07-01

    The nuclear envelope presents a major barrier to transgene delivery and expression using a non-viral vector. Virus is capable of overcoming the barrier to deliver their genetic materials efficiently into the nucleus by virtue of the specialized protein components with the unique amino acid sequences recognizing cellular nuclear transport machinery. However, considering the safety issues in the clinical gene therapy for treating critical human diseases, non-viral systems are highly promising compared with their viral counterparts. This review summarizes the progress on exploring the nuclear traffic mechanisms for the prominent viral vectors and the technological innovations for the nuclear delivery of non-viral DNA by mimicking those natural processes evolved for the viruses as well as for many cellular proteins.

  17. The spread of zoonoses and other infectious diseases through the international trade of animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarhos M

    2008-01-01

    For trade purposes, ever increasing quantities of food animals and animal products that are transported more rapidly than ever before are contributing to the spread of zoonoses and are creating threats on a permanent basis. Most countries in south-eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East are increasing imports of food animals and meat and products of animal origin. They can become potential sources of zoonotic and other infectious diseases if controls are not performed under the most effective conditions. Developing countries with their organisational weakness are particularly vulnerable to fraudulent international trade practices of animals and animal products. To prevent such risks, the World Trade Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and their member countries support the measures stipulated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement which targets the liberalisation of trade in animals and animal products under specific conditions while protecting public health and national economies. Vigilance must be exercised and appropriate inspection made at points of entry by veterinary and other authorities to ensure the strict implementation of international and national regulations. National legislation, appropriate infrastructures and the respect of international regulations can become barriers to avoid animal trade, contributing to the spread of zoonotic and other infectious diseases.

  18. A Case of Unusual Clitoromegaly.

    PubMed

    Wooi Ch'ng, Tong; Umpaichitra, Vatcharapan

    2018-05-03

    Mild degree of clitoromegaly can be associated with patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We describe an unusually significant clitoromegaly in a patient with PCOS. An 18-year old non-obese female referred for clitoromegaly. Her genitalia exam showed significant clitoral enlargement with a well-formed glans, clitoris measured at 35 mm for length and 10 mm for width. Pelvic ultrasound showed left ovarian cyst. Testosterone level ranged from 28.8 to 64.1 ng/dl (normal: 8.4-48.1 ng/dl) with normal sex hormone binding globulin. Other ovarian hormones were in acceptable ranges. This case demonstrates the coexistence of significant clitoromegaly, PCOS, and non-functioning ovarian cyst. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Unusual Fears in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santosh; Molitoris, Sarah; Mayes, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Unusual fears have long been recognized as common in autism, but little research exists. In our sample of 1033 children with autism, unusual fears were reported by parents of 421 (41%) of the children, representing 92 different fears. Many additional children had common childhood fears (e.g., dogs, bugs, and the dark). More than half of children…

  20. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipović, Sanja Kurecić; Nemeth-Blazić, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunović, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radić, Ivan; Pavlić, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis

  1. A viral deubiquitylating enzyme targets viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and affects viral infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chenon, Mélanie; Camborde, Laurent; Cheminant, Soizic; Jupin, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Selective protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an essential role in many major cellular processes, including host–pathogen interactions. We previously reported that the tightly regulated viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the positive-strand RNA virus Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) is degraded by the UPS in infected cells, a process that affects viral infectivity. Here, we show that the TYMV 98K replication protein can counteract this degradation process thanks to its proteinase domain. In-vitro assays revealed that the recombinant proteinase domain is a functional ovarian tumour (OTU)-like deubiquitylating enzyme (DUB), as is the 98K produced during viral infection. We also demonstrate that 98K mediates in-vivo deubiquitylation of TYMV RdRp protein—its binding partner within replication complexes—leading to its stabilization. Finally, we show that this DUB activity contributes to viral infectivity in plant cells. The identification of viral RdRp as a specific substrate of the viral DUB enzyme thus reveals the intricate interplay between ubiquitylation, deubiquitylation and the interaction between viral proteins in controlling levels of RdRp and viral infectivity. PMID:22117220

  2. Viral meningitis: which patients can be discharged from the emergency department?

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Michael M; Wilde, James A

    2012-12-01

    Even in an era when cases of viral meningitis outnumber bacterial meningitis by at least 25:1, most patients with clinical meningitis are hospitalized. We describe the clinical characteristics of an unusual outbreak of viral meningitis that featured markedly elevated cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell counts (CSF WBC). A validated prediction model for viral meningitis was applied to determine which hospital admissions could have been avoided. Data were collected retrospectively from patients presenting to our tertiary care center. Charts were reviewed in patients with CSF pleocytosis (CSF WBC > 7 cells/mm(3)) and a clinical diagnosis of meningitis between March 1, 2003 and July 1, 2003. Cases were identified through hospital infection control and by surveying all CSF specimens submitted to the microbiology laboratory during the outbreak. There were 78 cases of viral meningitis and 1 case of bacterial meningitis identified. Fifty-eight percent of the viral meningitis cases were confirmed by culture or polymerase chain reaction to be due to Enterovirus. Mean CSF WBC count was 571 cells/mm(3), including 20 patients with a CSF WBC count > 750 cells/mm(3) (25%) and 11 patients with values > 1000 cells/mm(3) (14%). Sixty-four of 78 patients (82%) were hospitalized. Rates of headache, photophobia, nuchal rigidity, vomiting, and administration of intravenous fluids in the Emergency Department were no different between admitted and discharged patients. Only 26/78 (33%) patients with viral meningitis would have been admitted if the prediction model had been used. Although not all cases of viral meningitis are necessarily suitable for outpatient management, use of a prediction model for viral meningitis may have helped decrease hospitalization by nearly 60%, even though this outbreak was characterized by unusually high levels of CSF pleocytosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  4. Viral myositis in children.

    PubMed

    Magee, Haley; Goldman, Ran D

    2017-05-01

    Question I recently evaluated a child in my clinic after an emergency department visit where she presented having woken up that morning refusing to walk and was crawling around the house. The parents reported she was getting over a cold, and I recall similar cases of myositis during the H1N1 influenza epidemic a few years ago. What are the key features of myositis that I should recognize? Which investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis and how should affected patients be managed? Answer Benign acute childhood myositis is a mild and self-limited sudden onset of lower extremity pain during or following recovery from a viral illness. Presentation can include tiptoe gait or refusal to walk, secondary to symmetric bilateral lower extremity pain that resolves quickly, usually within 3 days. In general, no investigation is needed except in severe cases for which screening bloodwork and a urine myoglobin test can confirm the diagnosis and rule out complications. Myoglobinuria and highly elevated creatine phosphokinase levels are rare but should be a consideration for admission to hospital. Prognosis is excellent and management might include rest and analgesia. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  5. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  6. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  7. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kneeland, Rachel E.; Fatemi, S. Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bacterial infection or injected with a synthetic viral mimic (PolyI:C) also demonstrating brain structural and behavioral abnormalities. Moreover, human serologic data has been indispensible in supporting the viral theory of schizophrenia. Individuals born seropositive for bacterial and viral agents are at a significantly elevated risk of developing schizophrenia. While the specific mechanisms of prenatal viral/bacterial infections and brain disorder are unclear, recent findings suggest that the maternal inflammatory response may be associated with fetal brain injury. Preventive and therapeutic treatment options are also proposed. This review presents data related to epidemiology, human serology, and experimental animal models which support the viral model of schizophrenia. PMID:22349576

  8. Parasitic zoonoses associated with dogs and cats: a survey of Portuguese pet owners' awareness and deworming practices.

    PubMed

    Pereira, André; Martins, Ângela; Brancal, Hugo; Vilhena, Hugo; Silva, Pedro; Pimenta, Paulo; Diz-Lopes, Duarte; Neves, Nuno; Coimbra, Mónica; Alves, Ana Catarina; Cardoso, Luís; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Parasitic diseases of companion animals comprise a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused by a wide range of arthropods, helminths and protozoa. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these parasites can also affect the human population, due to their zoonotic potential. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the knowledge of Portuguese pet owners regarding the zoonotic potential of parasites that dogs and cats can harbour, most common drugs, frequency of use and reasons for endo- and ectoparasite control. Seventy hundred and fifty multiple-choice questionnaires designed to obtain data knowledge about the meaning of zoonosis, knowledge about parasitic diseases and perception regarding their zoonotic potential, as well as the drugs, frequency and reason for deworming their animals were delivered to dog and/or cat owners from non-rural (i.e. urban or semi-urban) and rural parishes who attended veterinary medical centres from continental Portugal. A total of 536 (71.5 %) questionnaires were retrieved. Two hundred and ninety five (56.5 %) responders had heard of zoonosis/zoonoses, but only 184 (35.2 %) knew their meaning. Tick fever, mange, leishmaniosis and ascaridiosis/roundworms were the parasitic diseases from pets most frequently identified. The number of owners who recognized the different parasitoses, who stated to have heard about zoonoses and who were aware of the potential transmission of parasites from animals to humans was significantly higher in those with intermediate (i.e. ≥9 and ≤ 12 years of schooling) and/or higher academic degree (i.e. licentiate, master's and/or doctorate degrees). The combinations of febantel-pyrantel-praziquantel (23.5 %) and milbemycin-praziquantel (34.5 %) were the most widely endoparasitic drugs used in dogs and in cats, respectively. The most common ectoparasiticide used in dogs was a combination of imidacloprid-permethrin (33.4 %), while in cats it was

  9. The Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)) target diseases in face of climate change.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Utzinger, Jürg; Lv, Shan; Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Shi-Zhu; Wang, Qiang; Bergquist, Robert; Vounatsou, Penelope; Li, Wei; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Climate change-according to conventional wisdom-will result in an expansion of tropical parasitic diseases in terms of latitude and altitude, with vector-borne diseases particularly prone to change. However, although a significant rise in temperature occurred over the past century, there is little empirical evidence whether climate change has indeed favoured infectious diseases. This might be explained by the complex relationship between climate change and the frequency and the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases, which is characterised by nonlinear associations and countless other complex factors governing the distribution of infectious diseases. Here, we explore whether and how climate change might impact on diseases targeted by the Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)). We start our review with a short summary of the current evidence-base how climate change affects the distribution of infectious diseases. Next, we introduce biology-based models for predicting the distribution of infectious diseases in a future, warmer world. Two case studies are presented: the classical RNAS(+) disease schistosomiasis and an emerging disease, angiostrongyliasis, focussing on their occurrences in the People's Republic of China. Strengths and limitations of current models for predicting the impact of climate change on infectious diseases are discussed, and we propose model extensions to include social and ecological factors. Finally, we recommend that mitigation and adaptation strategies to diminish potential negative effects of climate change need to be developed in concert with key stakeholders so that surveillance and early-warning systems can be strengthened and the most vulnerable population groups protected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Tiemann, Tassilo T; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Phengvilaysouk, Ammaly; Keonouchanh, Soukanh; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Blaszak, Kate; Blacksell, Stuart D; Okello, Walter O; Allen, John

    2017-11-01

    Lao PDR's recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study was conducted to improve understanding of the interrelations between market chains and zoonotic infection risks at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses-including hepatitis E virus (HEV), Taenia solium (T. solium) and trichinella-to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella, and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. The linkages identified when assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlight the importance of a systems-based approach for the detection and control of zoonotic disease, and contributes to an improved understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector.

  11. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    PubMed Central

    Nassi, Jonathan J.; Cepko, Constance L.; Born, Richard T.; Beier, Kevin T.

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist’s toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic spread, and

  12. Strengthening the diagnostic capacity to detect Bio Safety Level 3 organisms in unusual respiratory viral outbreaks.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Liselotte; van der Lubben, Mariken; van den Wijngaard, Cees; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Verheij, Robert; Jacobi, Andre; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Luijt, Dirk; Claas, Eric; Hermans, Mirjam; Melchers, Willem; Rossen, John; Schuurman, Rob; Wolffs, Petra; Boucher, Charles; Bouchier, Charles; Schirm, Jurjen; Kroes, Louis; Leenders, Sander; Galama, Joep; Peeters, Marcel; van Loon, Anton; Stobberingh, Ellen; Schutten, Martin; Koopmans, Marion

    2009-07-01

    Experience with a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands (2003) illustrated that the diagnostic demand for respiratory viruses at different biosafety levels (including BSL3), can increase unexpectedly and dramatically. We describe the measures taken since, aimed at strengthening national laboratory surge capacity and improving preparedness for dealing with diagnostic demand during outbreaks of (emerging) respiratory virus infections, including pandemic influenza virus. Academic and peripheral medical-microbiological laboratories collaborated to determine minimal laboratory requirements for the identification of viruses in the early stages of a pandemic or a large outbreak of avian influenza virus. Next, an enhanced collaborative national network of outbreak assistance laboratories (OAL) was set up. An inventory was made of the maximum diagnostic throughput that this network can deliver in a period of intensified demand. For an estimate of the potential magnitude of this surge demand, historical counts were calculated from hospital- and physician-based registries of patients presenting with respiratory symptoms. Number of respiratory physician-visits ranged from 140,000 to 615,000 per month and hospitalizations ranged from 3000 to 11,500 per month. The established OAL-network provides rapid diagnostic response with agreed quality requirements and a maximum throughput capacity of 1275 samples/day (38,000 per month), assuming other routine diagnostic work needs to be maintained. Thus surge demand for diagnostics for hospitalized cases (if not distinguishable from other respiratory illness) could be handled by the OAL network. Assessing etiology of community acquired acute respiratory infection however, may rapidly exceed the capacity of the network. Therefore algorithms are needed for triaging for laboratory diagnostics; currently this is not addressed in pandemic preparedness plans.

  13. Statistical Mechanics of Viral Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses that have lipid-membrane envelopes infect cells by fusing with the cell membrane to release viral genes. Membrane fusion is known to be hindered by high kinetic barriers associated with drastic structural rearrangements—yet viral infection, which occurs by fusion, proceeds on remarkably short time scales. Here, we present a quantitative framework that captures the principles behind the invasion strategy shared by all enveloped viruses. The key to this strategy—ligand-triggered conformational changes in the viral proteins that pull the membranes together—is treated as a set of concurrent, bias field-induced activated rate processes. The framework results in analytical solutions for experimentally measurable characteristics of virus-cell fusion and enables us to express the efficiency of the viral strategy in quantitative terms. The predictive value of the theory is validated through simulations and illustrated through recent experimental data on influenza virus infection.

  14. Aseptic Meningitis and Viral Myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Irani, David N.

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS), respectively. Indeed, the number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal CNS infections, on the other hand, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with non-infectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). This chapter will review some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus will be placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses (EVs), which as a group account for the vast majority of all aseptic meningitis cases as well as many focal infections of the spinal cord. PMID:18657719

  15. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  16. Viral Hepatitis in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Alastal, Yaseen; Khan, Zubair; Darr, Umar

    2017-01-01

    In South Korea (S. Korea), viral hepatitis is a major public health burden. Advances in healthcare policy, evidence-based medicine, and therapeutic strategies in S. Korea have brought a rapid change in the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of viral hepatitis. This review discusses the innovative approaches that S. Korea has taken to curb the epidemic of viral hepatitis. In addition, the efficacy of various preventive and therapeutic modalities is discussed. This review aims to provide a brief overview to guide future research direction and healthcare policy changes. How to cite this article: Pak SC, Alastal Y, Khan Z, Darr U. Viral Hepatitis in South Korea. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(2):163-165. PMID:29201801

  17. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis.

    PubMed

    Irani, David N

    2008-08-01

    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively. The number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal central nervous system infections, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with noninfectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis. This article reviews some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus is placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses, which as a group account for most aseptic meningitis cases and many focal infections of the spinal cord.

  18. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  19. Viral infections in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Razonable, R R; Eid, A J

    2009-12-01

    Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to develop clinical illness, often with increased severity, due to a variety of common and opportunistic viruses. Patients may acquire viral infections from the donor (donor-derived infections), from reactivation of endogenous latent virus, or from the community. Herpes viruses, most notably cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus, are the most common among opportunistic viral pathogens that cause infection after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The polyoma BK virus causes opportunistic clinical syndromes predominantly in kidney and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The agents of viral hepatitis B and C present unique challenges particularly among liver transplant recipients. Respiratory viral illnesses due to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus may affect all types of transplant recipients, although severe clinical disease is observed more commonly among lung and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Less common viral infections affecting transplant recipients include those caused by adenoviruses, parvovirus B19, and West Nile virus. Treatment for viruses with proven effective antiviral drug therapies should be complemented by reduction in the degree of immunosuppression. For others with no proven antiviral drugs for therapy, reduction in the degree of immunosuppression remains as the sole effective strategy for management. Prevention of viral infections is therefore of utmost importance, and this may be accomplished through vaccination, antiviral strategies, and aggressive infection control measures.

  20. Viral-associated lymphoid proliferations☆

    PubMed Central

    Pittaluga, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The histological spectrum of viral-associated lymphoid proliferations is quite broad, ranging from reactive lymphadenitis to atypical proliferations mimicking classical Hodgkin lymphoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Virally associated reactive lesions can appear quite alarming on histological examination, because of direct (cytopathic) and indirect viral-induced changes eliciting a polymorphic cellular host response. In addition, the atypical lymphoid proliferation may show aberrant phenotypic features as well as restricted/clonal gene immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor rearrangements, further complicating the interpretation. In order to achieve an accurate diagnosis, it is important to be aware of the clinical history, including family history and ethnic background, clinical presentation, symptoms, and extent of the disease. Among the clinical data, particular emphasis should be placed on serology and viral load studies, and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. The clinical course and outcome vary greatly, from an indolent, self-limited to aggressive clinical course, blurring at times the distinction between neoplastic and reactive proliferations. It is now recognized that immunosenescence also plays a significant role in the development of these viral-associated lymphoid proliferations, and new entities have been described in recent years. In this review we discuss mostly Epstein–Barr virus-associated viral proliferations that may be confused with lymphomas, which the practicing pathologist may encounter. PMID:23537914

  1. General Information about Unusual Cancers of Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Unusual Cancers of Childhood Go to Health ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  2. Massive activation of archaeal defense genes during viral infection.

    PubMed

    Quax, Tessa E F; Voet, Marleen; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnes; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Sezonov, Guennadi; Forterre, Patrick; van der Oost, John; Lavigne, Rob; Prangishvili, David

    2013-08-01

    Archaeal viruses display unusually high genetic and morphological diversity. Studies of these viruses proved to be instrumental for the expansion of knowledge on viral diversity and evolution. The Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) is a model to study virus-host interactions in Archaea. It is a lytic virus that exploits a unique egress mechanism based on the formation of remarkable pyramidal structures on the host cell envelope. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing, we present here a global map defining host and viral gene expression during the infection cycle of SIRV2 in its hyperthermophilic host S. islandicus LAL14/1. This information was used, in combination with a yeast two-hybrid analysis of SIRV2 protein interactions, to advance current understanding of viral gene functions. As a consequence of SIRV2 infection, transcription of more than one-third of S. islandicus genes was differentially regulated. While expression of genes involved in cell division decreased, those genes playing a role in antiviral defense were activated on a large scale. Expression of genes belonging to toxin-antitoxin and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems was specifically pronounced. The observed different degree of activation of various CRISPR-Cas systems highlights the specialized functions they perform. The information on individual gene expression and activation of antiviral defense systems is expected to aid future studies aimed at detailed understanding of the functions and interplay of these systems in vivo.

  3. [Neuropsychiatric sequelae of viral meningitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2011-10-10

    Viral meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with only mild symptoms. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from viral meningitis may experience cognitive impairment following the acute course of infection. Larger controlled studies are needed to elucidate the potential neuropsychiatric adverse outcome of viral meningitis.

  4. Unusual enzymatic glycoside cleavage mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jongkees, Seino A K; Withers, Stephen G

    2014-01-21

    lyases can then serve as a substrate for a hydration reaction carried out by unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases. This hydration is initiated by protonation at C4 and proceeds in a Markovnikov fashion rather than undergoing a Michael-type addition, giving a hemiketal at C5. This hemiketal then undergoes a rearrangement that results in cleavage of the anomeric bond. These enzymes can also hydrolyze thioglycosides efficiently and slowly turn over substrates with inverted anomeric configuration. The mechanisms discussed in this Account proceed through transition states that involve either positive or negative charges, unlike the exclusively cationic transition states of the classical Koshland retaining and inverting glycosidases. In addition, the distribution of this charge throughout the substrate can vary substantially. The nature of these mechanisms and their transition states means that any inhibitors or inactivators of these unusual enzymes probably differ from those presently used for Koshland retaining or inverting glycosidases.

  5. A solitary bronchial papilloma with unusual endoscopic presentation: case study and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Paganin, Fabrice; Prevot, Martine; Noel, Jean Baptiste; Frejeville, Marie; Arvin-Berod, Claude; Bourdin, Arnaud

    2009-01-01

    Background Solitary endobronchial papillomas (SEP) are rare tumors and most of them are described by case report. A misdiagnosis is common with viral related papillomas. A histopathological classification has recently permitted a major advancement in the understanding of the disease. Case Presentation We report a case of a mixed bronchial papilloma with an unusual endoscopic presentation. The literature was extensively reviewed to ascertain the unusual characteristics of the current case. A 39-year of age male was referred to our institution for the investigation of a slight hemoptysis. Routine examination was normal. A fibroscopy revealed an unusual feature of the right main bronchus. The lesion was a plane, non-bleeding, non-glistering sub-mucosal proliferation. No enhanced coloration was noticed. Biopsies revealed a mixed solitary bronchial papilloma. In situ HPV hybridization was negative. Endoscopic treatment (electrocautery) was effective with no relapse. Conclusion This lesion contrasts with the data of the literature where papilloma were described as wart-like lesions or cauliflower tumors, with symptoms generally related to bronchial obstruction. We advise chest physicians to be cautious with unusually small swollen lesions of the bronchi that may reveal a solitary bronchial papilloma. Endoscopic imaging can significantly contribute to the difficult diagnosis of SEP by pulmonary physicians and endoscopists. PMID:19689808

  6. More bark than bite: Comparative studies are needed to determine the importance of canine zoonoses in Aboriginal communities. A critical review of published research.

    PubMed

    Smout, F; Schrieber, L; Speare, R; Skerratt, L F

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this review was to identify and critique over forty years of peer-reviewed literature concerned with the transmission of canine zoonoses to Aboriginal people and determine the zoonotic organisms documented in dogs in Australian Aboriginal communities. A systematic literature search of public health, medical and veterinary databases identified 19 articles suitable for critical appraisal. Thirteen articles documented the occurrence of recognized zoonotic organisms in dogs in Aboriginal communities, including Toxocara canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Rickettsia felis, Sarcoptes scabiei and Giardia. Currently, there is definitive evidence indicating that dogs act as a reservoir for human scabies in Aboriginal communities. However, there is a need for large-scale, high-quality, comparative studies of dogs and humans from the same household to assess the occurrence and importance of transmission of S. scabiei and other diseases between dogs and humans. These studies should use current genetic and molecular techniques along with traditional techniques to identify and type organisms in order to better understand their epidemiology. This review has revealed that there is a lack of high-quality comparative studies to determine whether dogs are contributing to human disease by transmitting zoonoses. Our recommendations differ significantly from current public health policy and may have substantial implications for human and dog health. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Computational mechanics of viral capsids.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Perotti, Luigi E; Klug, William S

    2015-01-01

    Viral capsids undergo significant mechanical deformations during their assembly, maturation, and infective life-span. In order to characterize the mechanics of viral capsids, their response to applied external forces is analyzed in several experimental studies using, for instance, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) indentation experiments. In recent years, a broader approach to study the mechanics of viral capsids has leveraged the theoretical tools proper of continuum mechanics. Even though the theory of continuum elasticity is most commonly used to study deformable bodies at larger macroscopic length scales, it has been shown that this very rich theoretical field can still offer useful insights into the mechanics of viral structures at the nanometer scale. Here we show the construction of viral capsid continuum mechanics models starting from different forms of experimental data. We will discuss the kinematics assumptions, the issue of the reference configuration, the material constitutive laws, and the numerical discretization necessary to construct a complete Finite Element capsid mechanical model. Some examples in the second part of the chapter will show the predictive capabilities of the constructed models and underline useful practical aspects related to efficiency and accuracy. We conclude each example by collecting several key findings discovered by simulating AFM indentation experiments using the constructed numerical models.

  8. Focal posterior pole viral retinitis.

    PubMed

    Hazirolan, Dicle; Sungur, Gulten; Demir, Necati; Kasim, Remzi; Duman, Sunay

    2010-01-01

    To describe the clinical features of an atypical form of viral retinitis in immunocompetent patients. This was a retrospective noncomparative case series. The charts of 8 patients diagnosed with and treated for focal posterior viral retinitis were reviewed. Clinical and demographic features were evaluated. All the patients had extensive laboratory tests, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography of macula, and polymerase chain reaction of vitreous. All the patients were referred to our Uveitis Service from other hospitals, as their uveitis symptoms deteriorated in spite of treatment. The mean age of 4 male and 4 female patients was 32.1 years (range, 22-42 years). The mean follow-up period was 10 months (range, 6-18 months). All of the patients had unilateral disease. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of vitreous specimen was positive for herpes simplex virus-1 in 5 patients and varicella zoster virus in 3 patients. Retinitis resolved after systemic acyclovir treatment in all patients. Viral etiology must be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of atypical retinitis. It can be a milder form of viral retinitis like focal viral retinitis, as mentioned in this study. The prognosis of this disease is better than the other forms of necrotizing retinopathies involving a larger area of retina.

  9. P‐TEFb goes viral

    PubMed Central

    Zaborowska, Justyna; Isa, Nur F.

    2015-01-01

    Positive transcription elongation factor b (P‐TEFb), which comprises cyclin‐dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) kinase and cyclin T subunits, is an essential kinase complex in human cells. Phosphorylation of the negative elongation factors by P‐TEFb is required for productive elongation of transcription of protein‐coding genes by RNA polymerase II (pol II). In addition, P‐TEFb‐mediated phosphorylation of the carboxyl‐terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of pol II mediates the recruitment of transcription and RNA processing factors during the transcription cycle. CDK9 also phosphorylates p53, a tumor suppressor that plays a central role in cellular responses to a range of stress factors. Many viral factors affect transcription by recruiting or modulating the activity of CDK9. In this review, we will focus on how the function of CDK9 is regulated by viral gene products. The central role of CDK9 in viral life cycles suggests that drugs targeting the interaction between viral products and P‐TEFb could be effective anti‐viral agents. PMID:27398404

  10. The Unusual Genetics and Biochemistry of Bovine Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, Robyn L; Haakenson, Jeremy; Deiss, Thaddeus C; Criscitiello, Michael F; Wilson, Ian A; Smider, Vaughn V

    2018-01-01

    Antibodies are the key circulating molecules that have evolved to fight infection by the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Typical antibodies of most species contain six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), where the third CDR of the heavy chain (CDR H3) has the greatest diversity and often makes the most significant contact with antigen. Generally, the process of V(D)J recombination produces a vast repertoire of antibodies; multiple V, D, and J gene segments recombine with additional junctional diversity at the V-D and D-J joints, and additional combinatorial possibilities occur through heavy- and light-chain pairing. Despite these processes, the overall structure of the resulting antibody is largely conserved, and binding to antigen occurs predominantly through the CDR loops of the immunoglobulin V domains. Bovines have deviated from this general paradigm by having few VH regions and thus little germline combinatorial diversity, but their antibodies contain long CDR H3 regions, with substantial diversity generated through somatic hypermutation. A subset of the repertoire comprises antibodies with ultralong CDR H3s, which can reach over 70 amino acids in length. Structurally, these unusual antibodies form a β-ribbon "stalk" and disulfide-bonded "knob" that protrude far from the antibody surface. These long CDR H3s allow cows to mount a particularly robust immune response when immunized with viral antigens, particularly to broadly neutralizing epitopes on a stabilized HIV gp140 trimer, which has been a challenge for other species. The unusual genetics and structural biology of cows provide for a unique paradigm for creation of immune diversity and could enable generation of antibodies against especially challenging targets and epitopes. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unusual Dengue Virus 3 Epidemic in Nicaragua, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Gamaliel; Standish, Katherine; Narvaez, Federico; Perez, Maria Angeles; Saborio, Saira; Elizondo, Douglas; Ortega, Oscar; Nuñez, Andrea; Kuan, Guillermina; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1–4) cause the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease affecting humans worldwide. In 2009, Nicaragua experienced the largest dengue epidemic in over a decade, marked by unusual clinical presentation, as observed in two prospective studies of pediatric dengue in Managua. From August 2009–January 2010, 212 dengue cases were confirmed among 396 study participants at the National Pediatric Reference Hospital. In our parallel community-based cohort study, 170 dengue cases were recorded in 2009–10, compared to 13–65 cases in 2004–9. In both studies, significantly more patients experienced “compensated shock” (poor capillary refill plus cold extremities, tachycardia, tachypnea, and/or weak pulse) in 2009–10 than in previous years (42.5% [90/212] vs. 24.7% [82/332] in the hospital study (p<0.001) and 17% [29/170] vs. 2.2% [4/181] in the cohort study (p<0.001). Signs of poor peripheral perfusion presented significantly earlier (1–2 days) in 2009–10 than in previous years according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. In the hospital study, 19.8% of subjects were transferred to intensive care, compared to 7.1% in previous years – similar to the cohort study. DENV-3 predominated in 2008–9, 2009–10, and 2010–11, and full-length sequencing revealed no major genetic changes from 2008–9 to 2010–11. In 2008–9 and 2010–11, typical dengue was observed; only in 2009–10 was unusual presentation noted. Multivariate analysis revealed only “2009–10” as a significant risk factor for Dengue Fever with Compensated Shock. Interestingly, circulation of pandemic influenza A-H1N1 2009 in Managua was shifted such that it overlapped with the dengue epidemic. We hypothesize that prior influenza A H1N1 2009 infection may have modulated subsequent DENV infection, and initial results of an ongoing study suggest increased risk of shock among children with anti-H1N1-2009 antibodies. This study demonstrates that

  12. Noncoding RNPs of viral origin.

    PubMed

    Steitz, Joan; Borah, Sumit; Cazalla, Demian; Fok, Victor; Lytle, Robin; Mitton-Fry, Rachel; Riley, Kasandra; Samji, Tasleem

    2011-03-01

    Like their host cells, many viruses produce noncoding (nc)RNAs. These show diversity with respect to time of expression during viral infection, length and structure, protein-binding partners and relative abundance compared with their host-cell counterparts. Viruses, with their limited genomic capacity, presumably evolve or acquire ncRNAs only if they selectively enhance the viral life cycle or assist the virus in combating the host's response to infection. Despite much effort, identifying the functions of viral ncRNAs has been extremely challenging. Recent technical advances and enhanced understanding of host-cell ncRNAs promise accelerated insights into the RNA warfare mounted by this fascinating class of RNPs.

  13. Noncoding RNPs of Viral Origin

    PubMed Central

    Steitz, Joan; Borah, Sumit; Cazalla, Demian; Fok, Victor; Lytle, Robin; Mitton-Fry, Rachel; Riley, Kasandra; Samji, Tasleem

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Like their host cells, many viruses produce noncoding (nc)RNAs. These show diversity with respect to time of expression during viral infection, length and structure, protein-binding partners and relative abundance compared with their host-cell counterparts. Viruses, with their limited genomic capacity, presumably evolve or acquire ncRNAs only if they selectively enhance the viral life cycle or assist the virus in combating the host’s response to infection. Despite much effort, identifying the functions of viral ncRNAs has been extremely challenging. Recent technical advances and enhanced understanding of host-cell ncRNAs promise accelerated insights into the RNA warfare mounted by this fascinating class of RNPs. PMID:20719877

  14. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Bartt, Russell

    2012-12-01

    Most cases of acute meningitis are infectious and result from a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Acute meningitis is infectious in most cases and caused by a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Shifts in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens have been influenced by changes in vaccines and their implementation. Seasonal and environmental changes influence the likely viral and rickettsial pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Pertinent testing and treatment can vary with the clinical presentation, season, and possible exposures. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of acute meningitis.

  15. [Emerging viral diseases in Europe].

    PubMed

    Löbermann, M; Gürtler, L G; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Reisinger, E C

    2012-04-01

    Emergence of viral agents in Europe is influenced by various factors. Climatic changes influencing possible vectors, insufficient vaccination, and travel of man and goods are among the most important reasons to explain these changes. Fever and arthralgia are the leading symptoms in infection with Dengue, Sindbis, or Chikungunya virus. In contrast, tick-born encephalitis (TBE), Toscana, or West Nile virus infections mainly lead to meningo-encephalitis. In Europe, hemorrhagic fever is caused by Crimean Congo and Hanta virus. Protective vaccines are available for emerging viral agents like TBE, influenza and measles. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Myasthenia Gravis: Unusual Presentations and Diagnostic Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rodolico, Carmelo; Parisi, Daniela; Portaro, Simona; Biasini, Fiammetta; Sinicropi, Stefano; Ciranni, Annamaria; Toscano, Antonio; Messina, Sonia; Musumeci, Olimpia; Vita, Giuseppe; Girlanda, Paolo

    2016-08-30

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder presenting with fluctuating, fatigable muscle weakness. Initial symptoms classically involve ocular and proximal limb muscles. Rarely, MG may onset with unusual features, so it can be misdiagnosed with other neuromuscular diseases. To describe unusual and atypical presentations of MG in a large cohort of patients, considering and discussing diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls. We report on 21 out of 508 MG patients, coming to our department in the last 27 years and presenting with atypical or unusual features. The diagnosis was achieved performing a careful clinical examination, a proper neurophysiological assessment, the neostigmine test, the AChR and MuSK antibodies assay and chest CT-scan. Patients with atypical/unusual MG onset were the 4.4% of all MG patients population. We describe seven different clinical categories: asymmetric distal upper limbs weakness, foot drop, isolated triceps brachii weakness and foot drop, post exertional axial weakness with dropped head, acute facial dyplegia, limb-girdle MG and MG with sudden lower limbs weakness and recurrent falls. Atypical and unusual presentations may increase the risk to misdiagnose or delay MG diagnosis. Isolated limb-girdle presentation is the most frequent atypical form in our series.

  17. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  18. The Paradigm of Viral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welker, Carl B.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the concepts of idea viruses and viral communication, a technology-based communication that spreads ideas quickly. Explains its applicability in the area of direct marketing and discusses a technology platform that provides the opportunity of sending a message to a large number of people and emotional or pecuniary incentives to…

  19. Nosocomial Spread of Viral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Celia; Jeffries, Donald J.

    2001-01-01

    Viruses are important causes of nosocomial infection, but the fact that hospital outbreaks often result from introduction(s) from community-based epidemics, together with the need to initiate specific laboratory testing, means that there are usually insufficient data to allow the monitoring of trends in incidences. The most important defenses against nosocomial transmission of viruses are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. Protocols must be available to assist in the management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral infection in the health care setting. In this review, we present details on general measures to prevent the spread of viral infection in hospitals and other health care environments. These include principles of accommodation of infected patients and approaches to good hygiene and patient management. They provide detail on individual viral diseases accompanied in each case with specific information on control of the infection and, where appropriate, details of preventive and therapeutic measures. The important areas of nosocomial infection due to blood-borne viruses have been extensively reviewed previously and are summarized here briefly, with citation of selected review articles. Human prion diseases, which present management problems very different from those of viral infection, are not included. PMID:11432812

  20. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  1. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  2. Small molecules targeting viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Highly conserved noncoding RNA (ncRNA) elements in viral genomes and transcripts offer new opportunities to expand the repertoire of drug targets for the development of antiinfective therapy. Ligands binding to ncRNA architectures are able to affect interactions, structural stability or conformational changes and thereby block processes essential for viral replication. Proof of concept for targeting functional RNA by small molecule inhibitors has been demonstrated for multiple viruses with RNA genomes. Strategies to identify antiviral compounds as inhibitors of ncRNA are increasingly emphasizing consideration of drug-like properties of candidate molecules emerging from screening and ligand design. Recent efforts of antiviral lead discovery for RNA targets have provided drug-like small molecules that inhibit viral replication and include inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), and influenza A virus. While target selectivity remains a challenge for the discovery of useful RNA-binding compounds, a better understanding is emerging of properties that define RNA targets amenable for inhibition by small molecule ligands. Insight from successful approaches of targeting viral ncRNA in HIV, HCV, SARS CoV, and influenza A will provide a basis for the future exploration of RNA targets for therapeutic intervention in other viral pathogens which create urgent, unmet medical needs. Viruses for which targeting ncRNA components in the genome or transcripts may be promising include insect-borne flaviviruses (Dengue, Zika, and West Nile) and filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg). WIREs RNA 2016, 7:726-743. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1373 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intraductal fibroadenomatosis: an unusual variant of fibroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Alice; Scharre, Karen; Wilson, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a benign breast lesion that contains histopathologic characteristics of fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumor, intraductal adenoma and papilloma. This may represent an unusual variant of fibroadenoma that has not been described in the literature and its likelihood of recurrence is unknown.

  4. Normothermic thyroid storm: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Sada, Kabiru; Yusuf, Bashir O.; Aliyu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening emergency due to thyrotoxicosis. A 30-year-old female presented with restlessness, tachycardia and vomiting but with normothermia which is an unusual presentation. There is the need for clinicians to be aware of atypical clinical features that can make the diagnosis of thyroid storm difficult. PMID:27540465

  5. Several unusual cases of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Palmer, H; Weston, J T

    1976-10-01

    All childhood deaths which occurred in New Mexico during 1974 and 1975 were reviewed. Nine fatal instances of abuse were identified representing the entire spectrum of physical abuse: neglect, abuse in a single episode of injury, repetitive abuse, or sexual abuse. Several cases are summarized. These are unusual either in the distribution of pathologic findings or in the problems encountered in court presentation.

  6. [Clinical dilemma: an unusual case of ascites].

    PubMed

    Romi, Hila; Hausman, Michael; Kachko, Leonid; Emanuel, Sikuler

    2012-12-01

    Cirrhotic portal hypertension is the major cause of ascites. Ascites is the most common expression of decompensated liver disease. However, other etiologies may occur and may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A patient with chronic hepatitis C and an unusual cause of ascites is presented.

  7. [The Adamant, an unusual care centre].

    PubMed

    Khidichian, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    The day care centre of the central Paris area has established itself in an unusual location--a 650 m2 floating building moored on the right bank of the Seine. Patients and caregivers were involved in the design of this original and ecological care centre, which places the emphasis on comfort and safety.

  8. Unusual Applications of Ultrasound in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilman, George

    The application of physical acoustics in industry has been accelerated by increased understanding of the physics of industrial processes, coupled with rapid advancements in transducers, microelectronics, data acquisition, signal processing, and related software fields. This has led to some unusual applications of ultrasound to improve industrial processes.

  9. An unusual location of a papillary fibroelastoma.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Sharad; Nandigam, Harish; Gupta, Nishant; Alkhouri, Yazan; Galldin, Lars M; Parikh, Nalini S; Patel, Nilesh; Shamoon, Fayez

    2014-03-01

    Papillary fibroelastomas are benign, avascular tumors and 90 % of them are attached to the cardiac valves. We present an unusual case, where papillary fibroelastoma was found attached to the interventricular septum, flopping in and out of the left ventricular outflow tract.

  10. Viral Immunotherapy to Eradicate Subclinical Brain Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0124 TITLE: Viral Immunotherapy to...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 September 2011 – 31 August 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Viral Immunotherapy to Eradicate Subclinical Brain Metastases...re-activated to enter and destroy early BM by viral infection of Her2-positive breast BM by a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which

  11. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    will in due course approach DOD for approval of the animal protocol. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Viral oncolysis, neoplastic meningitis , cell lines, HSV-1...proposed study is to develop novel, safe and efficient therapy for neoplastic meningitis – that of HSV-1 oncolysis. The viral genome is genetically...1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0388 TITLE: Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic

  12. Using routine surveillance data to estimate the epidemic potential of emerging zoonoses: application to the emergence of US swine origin influenza A H3N2v virus.

    PubMed

    Cauchemez, Simon; Epperson, Scott; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Swerdlow, David; Finelli, Lyn; Ferguson, Neil M

    2013-01-01

    Prior to emergence in human populations, zoonoses such as SARS cause occasional infections in human populations exposed to reservoir species. The risk of widespread epidemics in humans can be assessed by monitoring the reproduction number R (average number of persons infected by a human case). However, until now, estimating R required detailed outbreak investigations of human clusters, for which resources and expertise are not always available. Additionally, existing methods do not correct for important selection and under-ascertainment biases. Here, we present simple estimation methods that overcome many of these limitations. Our approach is based on a parsimonious mathematical model of disease transmission and only requires data collected through routine surveillance and standard case investigations. We apply it to assess the transmissibility of swine-origin influenza A H3N2v-M virus in the US, Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh, and also present a non-zoonotic example (cholera in the Dominican Republic). Estimation is based on two simple summary statistics, the proportion infected by the natural reservoir among detected cases (G) and among the subset of the first detected cases in each cluster (F). If detection of a case does not affect detection of other cases from the same cluster, we find that R can be estimated by 1-G; otherwise R can be estimated by 1-F when the case detection rate is low. In more general cases, bounds on R can still be derived. We have developed a simple approach with limited data requirements that enables robust assessment of the risks posed by emerging zoonoses. We illustrate this by deriving transmissibility estimates for the H3N2v-M virus, an important step in evaluating the possible pandemic threat posed by this virus. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  13. Prospects for new viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marmion, B P

    1980-08-11

    Animal virology has made outstanding contributions to preventive medicine by the development of vaccines for the control of infectious disease in man and animals. Cost-benefit analysis indicates substantial savings in health care costs from the control of diseases such as smallpox, poliomyelitis, yellow fever and measels. Areas for further development include vaccines for influenza (living, attenuated virus), the herpes group (varicella: cytomegalovirus), respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus and hepatitis A, B, and non A/non B. The general options for vaccine formulation are discussed with particular emphasis on approaches with the use of viral genetics to 'tailor make' vaccine viruses with defined growth potential in laboratory systems, low pathogenicity, and defined antigens. Current progress with the development of an inactivated hepatitis B vaccine is reviewed as a case study in vaccine development. The impact of recent experiments in cloning hepatitis B virus DNA in E. coli on the production of a purified viral polypeptide vaccine is assessed.

  14. [Immunotherapy for refractory viral infections].

    PubMed

    Morio, Tomohiro; Fujita, Yuriko; Takahashi, Satoshi

    Various antiviral agents have been developed, which are sometimes associated with toxicity, development of virus-resistant strain, and high cost. Virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy provides an alternative curative therapy that can be effective for a prolonged time without eliciting drug resistance. VSTs can be directly separated using several types of capture devices and can be obtained by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral antigens (virus, protein, or peptide) loaded on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC can be transduced with virus-antigen coding plasmid or pulsed with overlapping peptides. VST therapy has been studied in drug non-responsive viral infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of VST therapy without significant severe GVHD. In addition, VSTs from a third-party donor have been prepared and administered for post-HCT viral infection. Although target viruses of VSTs include herpes virus species and polyomavirus species, a wide variety of pathogens, such as papillomavirus, intracellular bacteria, and fungi, can be treated by pathogen-specific T-cells. Perhaps, these specific T-cells could be used for opportunistic infections in other immunocompromised hosts in the near future.

  15. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition. PMID:27005655

  16. Laboratory procedures to generate viral metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Rebecca V; Haynes, Matthew; Breitbart, Mya; Wegley, Linda; Rohwer, Forest

    2009-01-01

    This collection of laboratory protocols describes the steps to collect viruses from various samples with the specific aim of generating viral metagenome sequence libraries (viromes). Viral metagenomics, the study of uncultured viral nucleic acid sequences from different biomes, relies on several concentration, purification, extraction, sequencing and heuristic bioinformatic methods. No single technique can provide an all-inclusive approach, and therefore the protocols presented here will be discussed in terms of hypothetical projects. However, care must be taken to individualize each step depending on the source and type of viral-particles. This protocol is a description of the processes we have successfully used to: (i) concentrate viral particles from various types of samples, (ii) eliminate contaminating cells and free nucleic acids and (iii) extract, amplify and purify viral nucleic acids. Overall, a sample can be processed to isolate viral nucleic acids suitable for high-throughput sequencing in approximately 1 week.

  17. Pelvic abscess associated with a Lippes loop. An unusual case.

    PubMed

    Hochner-Celnikier, D; Milwidsky, A; Menashe, M; Ariel, I; Palti, Z

    1983-08-01

    An unusual case occurred of Lippes-Loop-associated pelvic abscess, characterized by a relatively mild clinical course and an unusual localization in the pelvis. This case emphasizes the importance of considering the association between intrauterine devices and pelvic abscess.

  18. An unusual case of posttrabeculectomy conjunctival granuloma.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Samiksha; Sen, Swarnali; Gupta, Omprakash

    2018-01-01

    We report an unusual case of granulomatous inflammation that presented adjacent to bleb 3 weeks postoperatively after combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy surgery with mitomycin-C due to retained microfragments of methyl cellulose sponge. The commonly used antimetabolite delivery devices are made of cellulose. Methyl cellulose sponges are friable, and they are likely to leave behind microfragments in subconjunctival space. In our case, bleb integrity was maintained, unlike the earlier reported cases which presented with bleb leak. Hence, one should have high index of suspicion in unusual cases of postoperative inflammation not resolving conservatively. Although rare, retained sponge particles can be a cause of early bleb-related inflammation which can lead to bleb failure.

  19. Unusual Supernovae and Alternative Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, Daniel

    Recent observations have revealed a diverse class of peculiar supernovae, among them transients that are extremely luminous and unusually dim, or that evolve remarkably rapidly or slowly over time. The light curves of some of these events cannot be powered by ordinary energy sources such as the decay of radioactive isotopes. This chapter begins with a brief description of certain types of unusual supernovae and then reviews the basic physics of supernova light curves, deriving in a pedagogical way the analytic scalings that characterize the peak brightness and duration. After illustrating that ordinary power sources cannot explain all of the observed events, we turn to theoretical ideas involving less common mechanisms, such as energy injection from a long-lived central engine (a rapidly rotating magnetar or an accreting black hole). We conclude by speculating how alternative power sources may be manifest in observations of the assorted classes of peculiar supernovae.

  20. An unusual case of posttrabeculectomy conjunctival granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Samiksha; Sen, Swarnali; Gupta, Omprakash

    2018-01-01

    We report an unusual case of granulomatous inflammation that presented adjacent to bleb 3 weeks postoperatively after combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy surgery with mitomycin-C due to retained microfragments of methyl cellulose sponge. The commonly used antimetabolite delivery devices are made of cellulose. Methyl cellulose sponges are friable, and they are likely to leave behind microfragments in subconjunctival space. In our case, bleb integrity was maintained, unlike the earlier reported cases which presented with bleb leak. Hence, one should have high index of suspicion in unusual cases of postoperative inflammation not resolving conservatively. Although rare, retained sponge particles can be a cause of early bleb-related inflammation which can lead to bleb failure. PMID:29563697

  1. 48 CFR 1332.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 1332.114 Unusual contract financing. The designee authorized to approve unusual contract financing arrangements is set forth in CAM...

  2. 48 CFR 32.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.114 Unusual contract financing. Any contract financing arrangement that deviates from this part is unusual contract financing...

  3. 48 CFR 432.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 432.114 Unusual contract financing. The HCA is authorized to approve unusual contract financing. The signed determination and finding...

  4. Spectroscopy of asteroids in unusual orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, W. D.; Cochran, A. L.; Barker, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    Medium-resolution spectroscopy of a collection of nonmain-belt asteroids has been obtained in order to search for possible cometlike spectral features. The asteroids include nine earth approachers, two Trojans, and the unusual object 2060 Chiron. All spectra were obtained and reduced in the same manner as comet data in the McDonald Observatory Faint Comet Survey. No indication of cometary activity was found in any of the asteroids observed.

  5. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  6. Population Dynamics of Viral Inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Krista; Li, Dong; Behrens, Manja; Streletzky, Kiril; Olsson, Ulf; Evilevitch, Alex

    We have investigated the population dynamics of viral inactivation in vitrousing time-resolved cryo electron microscopy combined with light and X-ray scattering techniques. Using bacteriophage λ as a model system for pressurized double-stranded DNA viruses, we found that virions incubated with their cell receptor eject their genome in a stochastic triggering process. The triggering of DNA ejection occurs in a non synchronized manner after the receptor addition, resulting in an exponential decay of the number of genome-filled viruses with time. We have explored the characteristic time constant of this triggering process at different temperatures, salt conditions, and packaged genome lengths. Furthermore, using the temperature dependence we determined an activation energy for DNA ejections. The dependences of the time constant and activation energy on internal DNA pressure, affected by salt conditions and encapsidated genome length, suggest that the triggering process is directly dependent on the conformational state of the encapsidated DNA. The results of this work provide insight into how the in vivo kinetics of the spread of viral infection are influenced by intra- and extra cellular environmental conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1252522.

  7. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    SciT

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''nearmore » neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.« less

  8. Commercialization of veterinary viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Flore, P H

    2004-12-01

    If vaccines are to reliably prevent disease, they must be developed, produced and quality-controlled according to very strict regulations and procedures. Veterinary viral vaccine registrations are governed by different rules in different countries, but these rules all emphasize that the quality of the raw materials--the cells, eggs, animals or plants that are used in production--need to be carefully controlled. The veterinary vaccine business is also very cost-conscious. Emphasis over the last 5-10 years has therefore been to develop culture systems that minimize labor and sterility problems and thus provide for reliable and cost-effective production. Implementing these often more complex systems in a production environment takes considerable effort, first in scale-up trials and further down the line in convincing production personnel to change their familiar system for something new and possibly untried. To complete scale-up trials successfully, it is absolutely necessary to understand the biochemistry of the cells and the influence of the virus on the cells under scale-up and later production conditions. Once a viral product can be produced on a large scale, it is imperative that the quality of the end-product is controlled in an intelligent way. One needs to know whether the end-product performs in the animal as was intended during its conception in the research and development department. The development of the appropriate tests to demonstrate this plays an important role in the successful development of a vaccine.

  9. Oncolytic Viral Therapy for Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Pease, Daniel F.; Kratzke, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    The limited effectiveness of conventional therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma demands innovative approaches to this difficult disease. Even with aggressive multimodality treatment of surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy, the median survival is only 1–2 years depending on stage and histology. Oncolytic viral therapy has emerged in the last several decades as a rapidly advancing field of immunotherapy studied in a wide spectrum of malignancies. Mesothelioma makes an ideal candidate for studying oncolysis given the frequently localized pattern of growth and pleural location providing access to direct intratumoral injection of virus. Therefore, despite being a relatively uncommon disease, the multitude of viral studies for mesothelioma can provide insight for applying such therapy to other malignancies. This article will begin with a review of the general principles of oncolytic therapy focusing on antitumor efficacy, tumor selectivity, and immune system activation. The second half of this review will detail results of preclinical models and human studies for oncolytic virotherapy in mesothelioma. PMID:28884088

  10. Viral Organization of Human Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wuchty, Stefan; Siwo, Geoffrey; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF) allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus. PMID:20827298

  11. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0388 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER... viral and cellular kinetics with bioluminescence and PET are being written up for publication. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Neoplastic meningitis , mouse...model of meningeal metastases, breast cancer, bioluminescence, MRI, viral oncolysis, HSV- 1. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  12. Multi-criteria decision analysis as an innovative approach to managing zoonoses: results from a study on Lyme disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zoonoses are a growing international threat interacting at the human-animal-environment interface and call for transdisciplinary and multi-sectoral approaches in order to achieve effective disease management. The recent emergence of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada is a good example of a complex health issue for which the public health sector must find protective interventions. Traditional preventive and control interventions can have important environmental, social and economic impacts and as a result, decision-making requires a systems approach capable of integrating these multiple aspects of interventions. This paper presents the results from a study of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach for the management of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada. MCDA methods allow a comparison of interventions or alternatives based on multiple criteria. Methods MCDA models were developed to assess various prevention and control decision criteria pertinent to a comprehensive management of Lyme disease: a first model was developed for surveillance interventions and a second was developed for control interventions. Multi-criteria analyses were conducted under two epidemiological scenarios: a disease emergence scenario and an epidemic scenario. Results In general, we observed a good level of agreement between stakeholders. For the surveillance model, the three preferred interventions were: active surveillance of vectors by flagging or dragging, active surveillance of vectors by trapping of small rodents and passive surveillance of vectors of human origin. For the control interventions model, basic preventive communications, human vaccination and small scale landscaping were the three preferred interventions. Scenarios were found to only have a small effect on the group ranking of interventions in the control model. Conclusions MCDA was used to structure key decision criteria and capture the complexity of Lyme disease management. This facilitated the

  13. Multi-criteria decision analysis as an innovative approach to managing zoonoses: results from a study on Lyme disease in Canada.

    PubMed

    Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Hongoh, Valérie; Cissé, Hassane Djibrilla; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Samoura, Karim; Michel, Pascal; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Bélanger, Denise

    2013-09-30

    Zoonoses are a growing international threat interacting at the human-animal-environment interface and call for transdisciplinary and multi-sectoral approaches in order to achieve effective disease management. The recent emergence of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada is a good example of a complex health issue for which the public health sector must find protective interventions. Traditional preventive and control interventions can have important environmental, social and economic impacts and as a result, decision-making requires a systems approach capable of integrating these multiple aspects of interventions. This paper presents the results from a study of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach for the management of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada. MCDA methods allow a comparison of interventions or alternatives based on multiple criteria. MCDA models were developed to assess various prevention and control decision criteria pertinent to a comprehensive management of Lyme disease: a first model was developed for surveillance interventions and a second was developed for control interventions. Multi-criteria analyses were conducted under two epidemiological scenarios: a disease emergence scenario and an epidemic scenario. In general, we observed a good level of agreement between stakeholders. For the surveillance model, the three preferred interventions were: active surveillance of vectors by flagging or dragging, active surveillance of vectors by trapping of small rodents and passive surveillance of vectors of human origin. For the control interventions model, basic preventive communications, human vaccination and small scale landscaping were the three preferred interventions. Scenarios were found to only have a small effect on the group ranking of interventions in the control model. MCDA was used to structure key decision criteria and capture the complexity of Lyme disease management. This facilitated the identification of gaps in the scientific literature

  14. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

    2014-05-01

    The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5(th) and 6(th) decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed.

  15. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

    2014-01-01

    The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5th and 6th decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed. PMID:25328314

  16. Unusually severe food poisoning from vanilla slices.

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, P. A.; Dobson, K. W.; Eyre, A.; McKendrick, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty six people suffered from severe vomiting and diarrhoea 15 min to 3 h after eating vanilla slices from the same bakery. Five patients were admitted to hospital, and one developed unusual skin lesions after admission. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in large numbers from vanilla slices of the same batch as those giving rise to symptoms, and from five faecal specimens obtained from affected persons. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis were also isolated from the slices. Unbaked custard provides an ideal environment for bacterial multiplication, especially when (as on this occasion) the ambient temperature is persistently high. PMID:6438231

  17. Amyloidoma, an Unusual Cause of Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Prati, Clément; Wendling, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a spontaneous hip fracture in a context of dysglobulinemia. The bone histologic examination found amyloidoma. Amyloidoma is an overload pathology and an unusual cause of fracture. In most of the cases, it is associated with myeloma and the difference between bone invasion of myeloma and amyloidoma in an osteolytic radiographic picture is not easy but is of importance because prognosis and treatment may be totally different. Thus, in the context of dysglobulinemia, one must keep in mind that spontaneous bone fracture may be due to amyloidoma with another prognosis. PMID:24744947

  18. Classical and unusual imaging appearances of melorheostosis.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S; Muthukumar, T; Saifuddin, A

    2010-08-01

    This comprehensive review will discuss the classical and unusual radiological features of melorheostosis, which is an uncommon, non-hereditary, benign, sclerosing mesodermal disease with an incidence of 0.9 cases per million. The presentation of melorheostosis in the appendicular skeleton (more commonly involved) and in the axial skeleton (very few documented case reports) will be discussed. The aim of the review is to illustrate the associations and rare, but recognized, complications of the disorder. The role of cross-sectional imaging in the form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in revealing the spectrum of disease manifestation and differentiation from other disease entities and malignancy will be explored.

  19. Keratinous inclusion cyst of oesophagus: unusual finding

    PubMed Central

    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Mutum, Samarendra Singh; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi

    2013-01-01

    Cysts of the oesophagus are unusual findings and they are classified according to the embryological site of origin. It may represent inclusion cysts, retention cysts and developmental cysts. We present a case of keratinous inclusion cyst of the lower oesophagus in a 71-year-old Malay woman who presented with dyspepsia and severe epigastric pain. An oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy demonstrated a sliding hiatus hernia with whitish ulcer-like lesion at the lower oesophagus. Biopsy from the lesion revealed a keratinous inclusion cyst. The patient was given pantoprazole and put on regular follow-up for monitoring any other development. PMID:23878290

  20. Unusual and Interesting Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Masatkar, Vaishali; Nagure, Ashok; Gupta, Lalit Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Any drug can cause any rash! Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) are great mimickers and can be included in the differential diagnosis of any inflammatory dermatoses. Several drugs can cause rash of similar morphology and the same drug can cause rash of different morphology. While some common and specific drug reaction patterns are recognized easily by the clinicians, many a times unusual and interesting patterns can be induced by drug(s), thus leading to erroneous diagnosis and mistreatment. This review aims to familiarize clinicians with some rare, yet interesting patterns of CADR.

  1. Sporotrichosis in an unusual location - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Brisa Dondoni; Cobucci, Fernanda Oliveira; Zacaron, Luciana Helena; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous mycosis. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, and the infection is usually acquired by traumatic inoculation. We describe a case of sporotrichosis in an uncommon location with an unusual mode of transmission. A 49-year-old female patient who lived in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro presented with involvement of the left ear. No history of contact with soil, plants or animals was elicited. The suspected source of infection was a pair of handmade wooden earrings. The delay in the diagnosis and treatment resulted in higher morbidity, unsightly scarring and loss of ear lobe. PMID:26312682

  2. Forced flow evaporator for unusual gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niggemann, Richard E. (Inventor); Ellis, Wilbert E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Low efficiency heat transfer in evaporators subject to unusual gravitational conditions is avoided through the use of a spiral evaporator conduit 12 receiving at an inlet 14 a vaporizable coolant at least partly in the liquid phase. Flow of the coolant through the conduit 12 demists the coolant by centrifuging the liquid phase against a pressurre wall 44 of the conduit 12. Vapor flow 40 induces counterrotating vortices 46, 48 which circulate the liquid phase coolant around the interior of the conduit 12 to wet all surfaces thereof.

  3. Unusual and Interesting Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Masatkar, Vaishali; Nagure, Ashok; Gupta, Lalit Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Any drug can cause any rash! Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) are great mimickers and can be included in the differential diagnosis of any inflammatory dermatoses. Several drugs can cause rash of similar morphology and the same drug can cause rash of different morphology. While some common and specific drug reaction patterns are recognized easily by the clinicians, many a times unusual and interesting patterns can be induced by drug(s), thus leading to erroneous diagnosis and mistreatment. This review aims to familiarize clinicians with some rare, yet interesting patterns of CADR. PMID:29692451

  4. Viral Activation of Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Erica L.; Lagunoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To ensure optimal environments for their replication and spread, viruses have evolved to alter many host cell pathways. In the last decade, metabolomic studies have shown that eukaryotic viruses induce large-scale alterations in host cellular metabolism. Most viruses examined to date induce aerobic glycolysis also known as the Warburg effect. Many viruses tested also induce fatty acid synthesis as well as glutaminolysis. These modifications of carbon source utilization by infected cells can increase available energy for virus replication and virion production, provide specific cellular substrates for virus particles and create viral replication niches while increasing infected cell survival. Each virus species also likely requires unique metabolic changes for successful spread and recent research has identified additional virus-specific metabolic changes induced by many virus species. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations required for each virus may lead to novel therapeutic approaches through targeted inhibition of specific cellular metabolic pathways. PMID:25812764

  5. Ferret models of viral pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Enkirch, T; von Messling, V

    2015-05-01

    Emerging and well-known viral diseases remain one the most important global public health threats. A better understanding of their pathogenesis and mechanisms of transmission requires animal models that accurately reproduce these aspects of the disease. Here we review the role of ferrets as an animal model for the pathogenesis of different respiratory viruses with an emphasis on influenza and paramyxoviruses. We will describe the anatomic and physiologic characteristics that contribute to the natural susceptibility of ferrets to these viruses, and provide an overview of the approaches available to analyze their immune responses. Recent insights gained using this model will be highlighted, including the development of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. To provide decision criteria for the use of this animal model, its strengths and limitations will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  7. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Luis P.

    2011-01-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features. PMID:22069523

  8. Viral hepatitis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, elderly adults represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population. The likelihood of complications of acute and chronic liver disease and overall mortality are higher in elderly populations. Several physiological changes associated with aging, greater prevalence of co-morbid conditions, and cumulative exposure to hepatotropic viruses and environmental hepatotoxins may contribute to worse outcomes of viral hepatitis in the elderly. Although pharmacotherapy for hepatitis B and C continues to evolve, the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of these agents have not been studied extensively in elderly adults. Immunization against hepatitis A and B in naïve elderly adults is an important public health intervention that needs to be revised and broadened.

  9. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-02

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

  10. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy. PMID:26833263

  11. An unusual case of vaginal myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Brian L.; Coyne, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Myiasis, a term used to describe the infestation of a live animal by fly larvae, is rarely reported in human subjects. The adult fly lays its eggs on living tissue that progresses to become larvae that feed on living tissue having gone through three developmental stages known as the first, second and third instar. The larvae become pupae before finally developing into adults. Case presentation: We describe an unusual case of a 79-year-old female who collapsed in her garden and lay there for several days before presenting to her local hospital Accident and Emergency department with an infestation of larvae in her vagina labia, identified as those from the Protophormia species northern blowfly. After complete removal of the larvae using tweezers followed by cleansing of the affected area and a course of antibiotics, the patient’s condition improved. A follow-up review by the local gynaecology team revealed no evidence of further infestation. Conclusion: It is our understanding that this is the first highly unusual case of a blowfly larvae infestation to be reported in a human within the UK. PMID:28348792

  12. Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

    PubMed Central

    Klepper, Arielle; Branch, Andrea D

    2016-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are key components of the innate immune system yet they are often the victims of attack by infectious agents. This review examines the significance of viral infection of macrophages. The central hypothesis is that macrophage tropism enhances viral dissemination and persistence, but these changes may come at the cost of reduced replication in cells other than macrophages. PMID:26949751

  13. Computational clustering for viral reference proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Mazumder, Raja; Natale, Darren A.; McGarvey, Peter B.; Zhang, Jian; Polson, Shawn W.; Wang, Yuqi; Wu, Cathy H.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The enormous number of redundant sequenced genomes has hindered efforts to analyze and functionally annotate proteins. As the taxonomy of viruses is not uniformly defined, viral proteomes pose special challenges in this regard. Grouping viruses based on the similarity of their proteins at proteome scale can normalize against potential taxonomic nomenclature anomalies. Results: We present Viral Reference Proteomes (Viral RPs), which are computed from complete virus proteomes within UniProtKB. Viral RPs based on 95, 75, 55, 35 and 15% co-membership in proteome similarity based clusters are provided. Comparison of our computational Viral RPs with UniProt’s curator-selected Reference Proteomes indicates that the two sets are consistent and complementary. Furthermore, each Viral RP represents a cluster of virus proteomes that was consistent with virus or host taxonomy. We provide BLASTP search and FTP download of Viral RP protein sequences, and a browser to facilitate the visualization of Viral RPs. Availability and implementation: http://proteininformationresource.org/rps/viruses/ Contact: chenc@udel.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153712

  14. Production of non viral DNA vectors.

    PubMed

    Schleef, Martin; Blaesen, Markus; Schmeer, Marco; Baier, Ruth; Marie, Corinne; Dickson, George; Scherman, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    After some decades of research, development and first clinical approaches to use DNA vectors in gene therapy, cell therapy and DNA vaccination, the requirements for the pharmaceutical manufacturing of gene vectors has improved significantly step by step. Even the expression level and specificity of non viral DNA vectors were significantly modified and followed the success of viral vectors. The strict separation of "viral" and "non viral" gene transfer are historic borders between scientist and we will show that both fields together are able to allow the next step towards successful prevention and therapy. Here we summarize the features of producing and modifying these non-viral gene vectors to ensure the required quality to modify cells and to treat human and animals.

  15. Origins and challenges of viral dark matter.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Siddharth R; Wang, David

    2017-07-15

    The accurate classification of viral dark matter - metagenomic sequences that originate from viruses but do not align to any reference virus sequences - is one of the major obstacles in comprehensively defining the virome. Depending on the sample, viral dark matter can make up from anywhere between 40 and 90% of sequences. This review focuses on the specific nature of dark matter as it relates to viral sequences. We identify three factors that contribute to the existence of viral dark matter: the divergence and length of virus sequences, the limitations of alignment based classification, and limited representation of viruses in reference sequence databases. We then discuss current methods that have been developed to at least partially circumvent these limitations and thereby reduce the extent of viral dark matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Itchy fish and viral dermatopathies: sampling, diagnosis, and management of common viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Weber, E P Scott

    2013-09-01

    Viral dermatopathies of fish bear clinical signs similar to those of dermatopathies from other causes. This article offers an overview to approaching dermatologic presentations in fish, with an emphasis on sampling, diagnosis, and management of viral dermatopathies, building on previous publications. It is vital to recognize clinical signs associated with viral dermatopathies because there are currently no treatments available. Avoidance and prevention is the key to controlling viral diseases in fish. Optimizing husbandry practices and providing appropriate quarantine procedures can help prevent viral disease outbreaks in collection and aquaculture stocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Paracoccidioidomycosis: an unusual presentation in a young girl disclosing an unnoted HIV-infection.

    PubMed

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Camargo, Rosangela M P; Abbade, Luciana P F; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno C B; Marques, Mariangela E A

    2010-02-01

    The association of paracoccidioidomycosis with AIDS is apparently less frequent than expected. The authors present an unusual case of paracoccidioidomycosis in a 13-year-old female student which was later found to be the first opportunistic infection in the course of the patient's HIV-infection. The clinical presentation followed an accidental incised wound on the palmar region initially described as a 'sporotrichotic-chancre'. After good response under sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprin, the patient relapsed and presented an associated oral candidiasis. HIV-infection was documented and additional investigation showed CD4(+) T-cells=22/mm(3), CD8(+)=280 cell/mm(3) and viral load=4,043 log. This case report presents an uncommon dermatological-clinical picture in the youngest patient in which such association has been reported to date.

  19. Elimination of antiviral defense by viral RNase III

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar, Wilmer J.; Kreuze, Jan F.; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Cruzado, Karin R.; Untiveros, Milton; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2009-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is an important subsistence and famine reserve crop grown in developing countries where Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; Closteroviridae), a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) crinivirus, synergizes unrelated viruses in co-infected sweet potato plants. The most severe disease and yield losses are caused by co-infection with SPCSV and a potyvirus, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; Potyviridae). Potyviruses synergize unrelated viruses by suppression of RNA silencing with the P1/HC-Pro polyprotein; however, the SPCSV-SPFMV synergism is unusual in that the potyvirus is the beneficiary. Our data show that transformation of an SPFMV-resistant sweet potato variety with the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-specific class 1 RNA endoribonuclease III (RNase3) of SPCSV broke down resistance to SPFMV, leading to high accumulation of SPFMV antigen and severe disease symptoms similar to the synergism in plants co-infected with SPCSV and SPFMV. RNase3-transgenic sweet potatoes also accumulated higher concentrations of 2 other unrelated viruses and developed more severe symptoms than non-transgenic plants. In leaves, RNase3 suppressed ssRNA-induced gene silencing (RNAi) in an endonuclease activity-dependent manner. It cleaved synthetic double-stranded small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of 21, 22, and 24 bp in vitro to products of approximately 14 bp that are inactive in RNAi. It also affected total siRNA isolated from SPFMV-infected sweet potato plants, suggesting a viral mechanism for suppression of RNAi by cleavage of siRNA. Results implicate RNase3 in suppression of antiviral defense in sweet potato plants and reveal RNase3 as a protein that mediates viral synergism with several unrelated viruses, a function previously described only for P1/HC-Pro. PMID:19515815

  20. Emerging complexities of APOBEC3G action on immunity and viral fitness during HIV infection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Monajemi, Mahdis; Woodworth, Claire F; Benkaroun, Jessica; Grant, Michael; Larijani, Mani

    2012-04-30

    The enzyme APOBEC3G (A3G) mutates the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome by converting deoxycytidine (dC) to deoxyuridine (dU) on minus strand viral DNA during reverse transcription. A3G restricts viral propagation by degrading or incapacitating the coding ability of the HIV genome. Thus, this enzyme has been perceived as an innate immune barrier to viral replication whilst adaptive immunity responses escalate to effective levels. The discovery of A3G less than a decade ago led to the promise of new anti-viral therapies based on manipulation of its cellular expression and/or activity. The rationale for therapeutic approaches has been solidified by demonstration of the effectiveness of A3G in diminishing viral replication in cell culture systems of HIV infection, reports of its mutational footprint in virions from patients, and recognition of its unusually robust enzymatic potential in biochemical studies in vitro. Despite its effectiveness in various experimental systems, numerous recent studies have shown that the ability of A3G to combat HIV in the physiological setting is severely limited. In fact, it has become apparent that its mutational activity may actually enhance viral fitness by accelerating HIV evolution towards the evasion of both anti-viral drugs and the immune system. This body of work suggests that the role of A3G in HIV infection is more complex than heretofore appreciated and supports the hypothesis that HIV has evolved to exploit the action of this host factor. Here we present an overview of recent data that bring to light historical overestimation of A3G's standing as a strictly anti-viral agent. We discuss the limitations of experimental systems used to assess its activities as well as caveats in data interpretation.

  1. Inflammasome control of viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Lupfer, Christopher; Malik, Ankit; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-01-01

    The inflammasome is a caspase-1 containing complex that activates the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and results in the proinflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. Numerous recent publications have highlighted the importance of inflammasome activation in the control of virus infection. Inflammasome activation during viral infection is dependent on a variety of upstream receptors including the NOD-Like receptor, RIG-I-Like receptor and AIM2-Like receptor families. Various receptors also function in inflammasome activation in different cellular compartments, including the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The effectiveness of inflammasomes at suppressing virus replication is highlighted by the prevalence and diversity of virus encoded inflammasome inhibitors. Also, the host has a myriad of regulatory mechanisms in place to prevent unwanted inflammasome activation and overt inflammation. Finally, recent reports begin to suggest that inflammasome activation and inflammasome modulation may have important clinical applications. Herein, we highlight recent advances and discuss potential future directions toward understanding the role of inflammasomes during virus infection. PMID:25771504

  2. Unusual early-onset Huntingtons disease.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Antonio P; Carod-Artal, Francisco J; Bomfim, Denise; Vázquez-Cabrera, Carolina; Dantas-Barbosa, Carmela

    2003-06-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary movements, cognitive decline, and behavioral disorders leading to functional disability. In contrast to patients with adult onset, in which chorea is the major motor abnormality, children often present with spasticity, rigidity, and significant intellectual decline associated with a more rapidly progressive course. An unusual early-onset Huntington's disease case of an 11-year-old boy with severe hypokinetic/rigid syndrome appearing at the age of 2.5 years is presented. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction study of the expanded IT-15 allele with a compatible size of 102 cytosine-adenosine-guanosine repeats L-Dopa mildly ameliorated rigidity, bradykinesia, and dystonia. We conclude that Huntington's disease should be included in the differential diagnoses of regressive syndromes of early childhood.

  3. Clinical Significance of an Unusual Variation

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, M. Senthil; Sudha, R.; Bhargavan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The infrahyoid muscles are involved in vocalisation and swallowing; among these, the sternothyroid muscle is derived from the common primitive sheet. The improper differentiation of this muscle may therefore result in morphological variations. We report an unusual variation found during the dissection of a 65-year-old male cadaver at the Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Madagadipet, Pondicherry, India, in 2015. An anomalous belly of the right sternothyroid muscle was observed between the internal jugular (IJ) vein and the internal carotid artery with an additional insertion into the tympanic plate and petrous part of the temporal bone and the presence of a levator glandulae thyroideae muscle. The anomalous muscle may compress the IJ vein if it is related to the neurovascular structures of neck; hence, knowledge of variations of the infrahyoid muscles can aid in the evaluation of IJ vein compression among patients with idiopathic symptoms resulting from venous congestion. PMID:28003898

  4. Birth of an Unusual Planetary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's animation shows a brown dwarf surrounded by a swirling disc of planet-building dust. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope spotted such a disc around a surprisingly low-mass brown dwarf, or 'failed star.' The brown dwarf, called OTS 44, is only 15 times the size of Jupiter, making it the smallest brown dwarf known to host a planet-forming, or protoplanetary disc.

    Astronomers believe that this unusual system will eventually spawn planets. If so, they speculate that OTS 44's disc has enough mass to make one small gas giant and a few Earth-sized rocky planets.

    OTS 44 is about 2 million years old. At this relatively young age, brown dwarfs are warm and appear reddish in color. With age, they grow cooler and darker.

  5. Planned complex suicide: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Gavaudan, Gilles; Bartoli, Christophe; Kintz, Pascal; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Desfeux, Jacques; Leonetti, Georges

    2008-07-01

    We report an unusual case of planned complex suicide. The victim was a woman aged 67 years, who was found dead in her bath in a state of advanced putrefaction. A plugged-in hairdryer was submerged in the water and the electrical fuses in the room had short-circuited. A kitchen knife lay below the body of the victim, whose left forearm bore incisions suggestive of wrist-cutting. At autopsy, no sign suggesting electrocution could be observed because of the advanced state of putrefaction of the body. Toxicological analysis revealed massive ingestion of tianeptine (blood concentration 15.5 mg/L). Although the exact cause of death could not be determined because of the state of the corpse, meticulous examination of the scene and information obtained from the victim's relatives led to the conclusion of suicide.

  6. Viral kinetic modeling: state of the art

    DOE PAGES

    Canini, Laetitia; Perelson, Alan S.

    2014-06-25

    Viral kinetic modeling has led to increased understanding of the within host dynamics of viral infections and the effects of therapy. Here we review recent developments in the modeling of viral infection kinetics with emphasis on two infectious diseases: hepatitis C and influenza. We review how viral kinetic modeling has evolved from simple models of viral infections treated with a drug or drug cocktail with an assumed constant effectiveness to models that incorporate drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as phenomenological models that simply assume drugs have time varying-effectiveness. We also discuss multiscale models that include intracellular events in viralmore » replication, models of drug-resistance, models that include innate and adaptive immune responses and models that incorporate cell-to-cell spread of infection. Overall, viral kinetic modeling has provided new insights into the understanding of the disease progression and the modes of action of several drugs. In conclusion, we expect that viral kinetic modeling will be increasingly used in the coming years to optimize drug regimens in order to improve therapeutic outcomes and treatment tolerability for infectious diseases.« less

  7. Acute HIV infection presenting as hemophagocytic syndrome with an unusual serological and virological response to ART.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Rita Veiga; Carvalho, Ana Cláudia; Araújo, Fernando; Koch, Carmo; Abreu, Cândida; Sarmento, António

    2016-10-28

    HIV clinical presentation in the acute stage is variable and some of its virological and immunological aspects are not completely understood. Most cases of HIV- associated reactive hemophagocytic syndrome have been reported in patients with advanced stages of HIV and to our knowledge, there are only 8 cases in the English literature presenting during acute HIV infection, most in East Asia, being this the first case in a European patient. We report a case of a European Caucasian 27- year old woman with a primary HIV- infection presenting with extremely low CD4+ T cell count who developed a haemophagocytic syndrome after starting ART and in whom we documented a very unusual serological and virological response, characterized by an impaired HIV- antibody production and a 12 month time frame to reach an undetectable viral load, despite no evidence of resistance. This case report apart from describing an unusual clinical presentation of an acute HIV infection as hemophagocytic syndrome provides useful information that might contribute for understanding some subtle issues in acute HIV infection, namely the dynamics of virological and immunological aspects after antiretroviral therapy initiation.

  8. Unusual benign polypoid and papular neoplasms and tumor-like lesions of the vulva.

    PubMed

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Keloth, Tasnim R; Raman, Lakshmiah G; Mahmood, Suaad; Almulla, Amal; AlMarzouqi, Mamoun; Al-Hasani, Salam

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and spectrum of unusual benign neoplasms and tumor-like lesions presenting as vulvar polyps and papules, to study their clinical, pathologic, hormonal, and developmental features and whether they have important associations with other pathologic lesions or clinical diseases. We conducted a retrospective review study of 115 vulvar specimens over 7 years. Common lesions, for example, fibroepithelial polyps, skin tags, papillomas, abscesses, viral warts and common cysts, were excluded. We found 21 cases (18%) with uncommon benign vulvar lesions. They included 7 epithelial cysts, 3 vascular lesions, 3 glandular neoplasms, 3 endometrioses, 1 caruncle, 1 pilonidal sinus, 1 prolapsed urethra, 1 seborrheic keratosis, and 1 granular cell tumor. The age range was between 1 and 64 years with a mean age of 33 years. Most (86%) were 2.5 cm or less. Many were asymptomatic incidental pathologic findings that can be missed clinically. Nine cases have important clinical associations or coexisting incidental pathologic lesions. Some lesions demonstrated hormone receptors. Some were clinically confused with fibroepithelial polyps, abscesses, warts, melanocytic lesions, and tumors. In conclusion, although the vulva is a small compartment, its developmental and histologic complexity can result in a variety of unusual and rare benign polypoid and papular lesions, some unique to the vulva, which might present diagnostic challenges to the clinicians and pathologists. In addition, many bear controversy regarding their histogenesis and origin of development in the vulva. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New Metrics for Evaluating Viral Respiratory Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Baric, Ralph S.; Ferris, Martin T.

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogenesis studies in mice have relied on markers of severe systemic disease, rather than clinically relevant measures, to evaluate respiratory virus infection; thus confounding connections to human disease. Here, whole-body plethysmography was used to directly measure changes in pulmonary function during two respiratory viral infections. This methodology closely tracked with traditional pathogenesis metrics, distinguished both virus- and dose-specific responses, and identified long-term respiratory changes following both SARS-CoV and Influenza A Virus infection. Together, the work highlights the utility of examining respiratory function following infection in order to fully understand viral pathogenesis. PMID:26115403

  10. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections. PMID:27077876

  11. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-04-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  12. Comparing viral metagenomics methods using a highly multiplexed human viral pathogens reagent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Mee, Edward T.; Collot-Teixeira, Sophie; Anderson, Rob; Schepelmann, Silke; Minor, Philip D.; Delwart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Unbiased metagenomic sequencing holds significant potential as a diagnostic tool for the simultaneous detection of any previously genetically described viral nucleic acids in clinical samples. Viral genome sequences can also inform on likely phenotypes including drug susceptibility or neutralization serotypes. In this study, different variables of the laboratory methods often used to generate viral metagenomics libraries on the efficiency of viral detection and virus genome coverage were compared. A biological reagent consisting of 25 different human RNA and DNA viral pathogens was used to estimate the effect of filtration and nuclease digestion, DNA/RNA extraction methods, pre-amplification and the use of different library preparation kits on the detection of viral nucleic acids. Filtration and nuclease treatment led to slight decreases in the percentage of viral sequence reads and number of viruses detected. For nucleic acid extractions silica spin columns improved viral sequence recovery relative to magnetic beads and Trizol extraction. Pre-amplification using random RT-PCR while generating more viral sequence reads resulted in detection of fewer viruses, more overlapping sequences, and lower genome coverage. The ScriptSeq library preparation method retrieved more viruses and a greater fraction of their genomes than the TruSeq and Nextera methods. Viral metagenomics sequencing was able to simultaneously detect up to 22 different viruses in the biological reagent analyzed including all those detected by qPCR. Further optimization will be required for the detection of viruses in biologically more complex samples such as tissues, blood, or feces. PMID:25497414

  13. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Antunes, Tathiana F. S.; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A.; Fernandes, Antonio A. R.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  14. A current overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an unusual plant virus.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Antonio A R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2015-04-08

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection.

  15. The surface of Mars: An unusual laboratory that preserves a record of catastrophic and unusual events

    Chapman, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Catastrophic and unusual events on Earth such as bolide impacts, megafloods, supereruptions, flood volcanism, and subice volcanism may have devastating effects when they occur. Although these processes have unique characteristics and form distinctive features and deposits, we have diffi culties identifying them and measuring the magnitude of their effects. Our diffi culties with interpreting these processes and identifying their consequences are understandable considering their infrequency on Earth, combined with the low preservation potential of their deposits in the terrestrial rock record. Although we know these events do happen, they are infrequent enough that the deposits are poorly preserved on the geologically active face of the Earth, where erosion, volcanism, and tectonism constantly change the surface. Unlike the Earth, on Mars catastrophic and unusual features are well preserved because of the slow modifi cation of the surface. Signifi cant precipitation has not occurred on Mars for billions of years and there appears to be no discrete crustal plates to have undergone subduction and destruction. Therefore the ancient surface of Mars preserves geologic features and deposits that result from these extraordinary events. Also, unlike the other planets, Mars is the most similar to our own, having an atmosphere, surface ice, volcanism, and evidence of onceflowing water. So although our understanding of precursors, processes, and possible biological effects of catastrophic and unusual processes is limited on Earth, some of these mysteries may be better understood through investigating the surface of Mars. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  16. An integrated database on ticks and tick-borne zoonoses in the tropics and subtropics with special reference to developing and emerging countries.

    PubMed

    Vesco, Umberto; Knap, Nataša; Labruna, Marcelo B; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Bechara, Gervasio H; Gueye, Arona; Lakos, Andras; Grindatto, Anna; Conte, Valeria; De Meneghi, Daniele

    2011-05-01

    Tick-borne zoonoses (TBZ) are emerging diseases worldwide. A large amount of information (e.g. case reports, results of epidemiological surveillance, etc.) is dispersed through various reference sources (ISI and non-ISI journals, conference proceedings, technical reports, etc.). An integrated database-derived from the ICTTD-3 project ( http://www.icttd.nl )-was developed in order to gather TBZ records in the (sub-)tropics, collected both by the authors and collaborators worldwide. A dedicated website ( http://www.tickbornezoonoses.org ) was created to promote collaboration and circulate information. Data collected are made freely available to researchers for analysis by spatial methods, integrating mapped ecological factors for predicting TBZ risk. The authors present the assembly process of the TBZ database: the compilation of an updated list of TBZ relevant for (sub-)tropics, the database design and its structure, the method of bibliographic search, the assessment of spatial precision of geo-referenced records. At the time of writing, 725 records extracted from 337 publications related to 59 countries in the (sub-)tropics, have been entered in the database. TBZ distribution maps were also produced. Imported cases have been also accounted for. The most important datasets with geo-referenced records were those on Spotted Fever Group rickettsiosis in Latin-America and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in Africa. The authors stress the need for international collaboration in data collection to update and improve the database. Supervision of data entered remains always necessary. Means to foster collaboration are discussed. The paper is also intended to describe the challenges encountered to assemble spatial data from various sources and to help develop similar data collections.

  17. Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) as an occupational hazard: 1. Knowledge of B. procyonis and attitudes towards it and other zoonoses among wildlife rehabilitators.

    PubMed

    Sapp, S G H; Murray, B A; Hoover, E R; Green, G T; Yabsley, M J

    2018-02-01

    Wildlife rehabilitators are at risk of zoonotic diseases because they often have prolonged contact with many species of wildlife and their bodily fluids. Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) is a common zoonotic parasite of raccoons that has the potential to cause severe or fatal neurologic disease in a broad variety of hosts if the eggs within raccoon faeces are ingested. We administered an online survey to wildlife rehabilitators to assess their knowledge regarding aspects of transmission, biology and disease caused by B. procyonis, and also to evaluate attitudes towards wildlife diseases and B. procyonis as an occupational hazard. Knowledge was assessed using multiple choice and true-false questions; attitudes were measured using Likert-type items. A total of 659 complete or near-complete responses (missing fewer than three knowledge or attitudes items and/or non-response to some demographic fields) were collected. The median knowledge score was 7/14 questions correct (range: 0-14 correct). Generally, individuals with higher levels of education and rehabilitation experience, veterinary professionals and those who are members of professional wildlife rehabilitation groups scored above the median significantly more often (p < .01). Significantly more rehabilitators who were located in the south-east and those with part-time or infrequent commitments scored below the median overall knowledge score. There was general agreement that B. procyonis is a health risk of rehabilitators and that measures should be taken to control transmission to people and animals. Some factors explaining differences in attitudes include setting of rehabilitation (home versus animal care facility), veterinary profession, region, membership in a wildlife rehabilitation group and rehabilitation of raccoons. Findings emphasize the importance of awareness and mentorship to inform rehabilitators on the potential risks of B. procyonis and other potential zoonoses within captive

  18. [Unusual location of giant seborrhoeic keratoses].

    PubMed

    Naciri, Ilhame; Ismaili, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Seborrhoeic keratoses (SK) are benign tumors that mainly occur in the head and in the trunk. Their size generally varies from a few millimeters up to a few centimeters. Giant lesions are very rare but pose a problem in terms both of treatment and transformation. Their occurrence in the genital area is even more rare, posing a problem in differential diagnosis of genital warts. Differentiation is only based on histopathology. We report the case of a 80-year old man, with no particular past medical history, who presented with asymptomatic abdominal and genital lesions evolving over the last twenty years. Clinical examination showed four hyperpigmented, humped, well-defined tumors, with warty surface measuring 2-10 cm along its longer axis (A). Dermoscopic examination showed cerebriform convolutions appearance suggesting seborrhoeic keratoses (B). Histology confirmed the diagnosis, without signs of viral infection or malignant transformation. The patient underwent surgical resection resulting in permanent scar.

  19. 48 CFR 235.070 - Indemnification against unusually hazardous risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indemnification against unusually hazardous risks. 235.070 Section 235.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 235.070 Indemnification against unusually hazardous risks. ...

  20. Unusual tumour ablations: report of difficult and interesting cases.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Giovanni; Nicosia, Luca; Varano, Gianluca Maria; Shyn, Paul; Sartori, Sergio; Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca; Orsi, Franco; Solbiati, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Image-guided ablations are nowadays applied in the treatment of a wide group of diseases and in different organs and regions, and every day interventional radiologists have to face more difficult and unusual cases of tumour ablation. In the present case review, we report four difficult and unusual cases, reporting some tips and tricks for a successful image-guided treatment.

  1. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.25 Unusual items and...

  2. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.25 Unusual items and...

  3. 48 CFR 632.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing. 632.114 Section 632.114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 632.114 Unusual contract financing. The...

  4. 48 CFR 2432.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Unusual contract financing... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 2432.114 Unusual contract financing. The Senior Procurement Executive is the agency head for the purpose of...

  5. 48 CFR 2832.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Unusual contract financing... Contracting Requirements CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 2832.114 Unusual contract financing. The HCA, or designee at a level not lower than the BPC, is the official authorized to approve...

  6. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.25 Unusual items and...

  7. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Antunes, André; Alam, Intikhab; Simões, Marta Filipa; Daniels, Camille; Ferreira, Ari J S; Siam, Rania; El-Dorry, Hamza; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-10-01

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine-seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine-seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure and Function of Viral Deubiquitinating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bailey-Elkin, Ben A; Knaap, Robert C M; Kikkert, Marjolein; Mark, Brian L

    2017-11-10

    Post-translational modification of cellular proteins by ubiquitin regulates numerous cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitin-mediated control over these processes can be reversed by cellular deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which remove ubiquitin from cellular targets and depolymerize polyubiquitin chains. The importance of protein ubiquitination to host immunity has been underscored by the discovery of viruses that encode proteases with deubiquitinating activity, many of which have been demonstrated to actively corrupt cellular ubiquitin-dependent processes to suppress innate antiviral responses and promote viral replication. DUBs have now been identified in diverse viral lineages, and their characterization is providing valuable insights into virus biology and the role of the ubiquitin system in host antiviral mechanisms. Here, we provide an overview of the structural biology of these fascinating viral enzymes and their role innate immune evasion and viral replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Viral fitness: definitions, measurement, and current insights

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Viral fitness is an active area of research, with recent work involving an expanded number of human, non-human vertebrate, invertebrate, plant, and bacterial viruses. Many publications deal with RNA viruses associated with major disease emergence events, such as HIV-1, influenza virus, and Dengue virus. Study topics include drug resistance, immune escape, viral emergence, host jumps, mutation effects, quasispecies diversity, and mathematical models of viral fitness. Important recent trends include increasing use of in vivo systems to assess vertebrate virus fitness, and a broadening of research beyond replicative fitness to also investigate transmission fitness and epidemiologic fitness. This is essential for a more integrated understanding of overall viral fitness, with implications for disease management in the future.

  10. Immunity: Insect Immune Memory Goes Viral.

    PubMed

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-11-20

    Adaptive memory in insect immunity has been controversial. In this issue, Andino and co-workers propose that acquisition of viral sequences in the host genome gives rise to anti-sense, anti-viral piRNAs. Such sequences can be regarded as both a genomic archive of past infections and as an armour of potential heritable memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  12. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    SciT

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr; Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris; Casetti, Luana

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections andmore » Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.« less

  13. Membrane dynamics associated with viral infection.

    PubMed

    de Armas-Rillo, Laura; Valera, María-Soledad; Marrero-Hernández, Sara; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2016-05-01

    Viral replication and spreading are fundamental events in the viral life cycle, accounting for the assembly and egression of nascent virions, events that are directly associated with viral pathogenesis in target hosts. These processes occur in cellular compartments that are modified by specialized viral proteins, causing a rearrangement of different cell membranes in infected cells and affecting the ER, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, vesicles and endosomes, as well as processes such as autophagic membrane flux. In fact, the activation or inhibition of membrane trafficking and other related activities are fundamental to ensure the adequate replication and spreading of certain viruses. In this review, data will be presented that support the key role of membrane dynamics in the viral cycle, especially in terms of the assembly, egression and infection processes. By defining how viruses orchestrate these events it will be possible to understand how they successfully complete their route of infection, establishing viral pathogenesis and provoking disease. © 2015 The Authors Reviews in Medical Virology Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Viral proteases: an emerging therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Korant, B D

    1988-01-01

    Only a few viral diseases are presently treatable because of our limited knowledge of specific viral target molecules. An attractive class of viral molecules toward which chemotherapeutic agents could be aimed are proteases coded by some virus groups such as retro- or picornaviruses (poliomyelitis, common cold virus). The picornavirus enzymes were discovered first, and they have now been characterized by a combination of molecular-genetic and biochemical approaches. Several laboratories have expressed the picornaviral enzymes in heterologous systems and have reported proteolytic activity, as well as the high cleavage fidelity diagnostic of the viral proteases. After dealing with several technical difficulties often encountered in standard genetic engineering approaches, one viral protease is now available to us in quantity and is amendable to mutagenic procedures. The initial outcome of the mutagenesis studies has been the confirmation of our earlier work with inhibitors, which suggested a cysteine active-site class. There is a clustering of active-site residues which may be unique to these viruses. The requirement for an active-site cysteine-histidine pair in combination with detailed information on the viral cleavage sites has permitted design of selective inhibitors with attractive antiviral properties. Future goals include investigation of the structural basis for selective processing and application of the cleavage specificity to general problems in genetic engineering.

  15. Trauma: An Unusual Cause of Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Braga, Ana; Marques, Marta; Abecacis, Miguel; Neves, José Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a dangerous condition with considerable associated mortality. Usual risk factors for IE include the presence of a prosthetic heart valve, structural or congenital heart disease, intravenous drug use, and a recent history of invasive procedures. The authors describe the case report of a patient with IE having trauma as an unusual risk factor. A 33-year old male patient was referred to our department due to infective endocarditis. The patient had a fever of unknown origin for 15 days before going to the emergency department. After admission it was identified by transthoracic echocardiography a 14mm posterior abscess of the aortic valve provoking major aortic regurgitation with moderate LV dysfunction. After careful evaluation of the clinical history it was found that the patient had a known bicuspid aortic valve with follow-up since the age of 14. All other usual risk factors for IE were excluded, including intravenous drug use and recent history of invasive procedures. The only relevant previous event was a traumatic haemathoma in his left jaw caused by a working accident with an iron beam in a construction site as the patient is a civil engineer. Vancomycin plus gentamicin were empirically started after blood cultures taken. The isolated infective agent was Staphylococcus lugdunensis methicillin sensitive and the antibiotherapy was de-escalated to flucloxacilin plus gentamicin. Due to cardiac dysfunction the patient was submitted to cardiac surgery on the fourth day of directed antibiotic therapy and a replacement of the aortic valve by a mechanical prosthetic valve and closure of the abscess with bovine pericardial patch was performed. The valve sent to microbiology evaluation showed the same infective provocative agent. The patient had a good clinical and laboratorial recovery completing the 42-day antibiotic scheme. After antibiotherapy period completion, echocardiography was repeated and the abscess found was larger then the

  16. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    polishing by Karl Habel (a superb senior virologist who left the National Institutes of Health and came to Scripps), and the gifted postdoctoral fellows who joined my laboratory over four decades form the log of my scientific voyage. The strong friendships and collaborations developed with other young but growing experimentalists like Bernie Fields and Abner Notkins are the fabric of the tale I will weave and were pivotal in the establishment of viral pathogenesis as a discipline.

  17. The unusual helium variable AM Canum Venaticorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Robinson, E. L.; Solheim, J.-E.; Clemens, J. C.; Bradley, J. L.; Kleinman, S. J.; Kanaan, A.; Claver, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    The unusual variable star AM CVn has puzzled astronomers for over 40 years. This object, both a photometric and spectroscopic variable, is believed to contain a pair of hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs of extreme mass ratio, transferring material via an accretion disk. We examine the photometric properties of AM CVn, analyzing 289 hours of high-speed photometric data spanning 1976 to 1992. The power spectrum displays significant peaks at 988.7, 1248.8, 1902.5, 2853.8, 3805.2, 4756.5, and 5707.8 microHz (1011.4, 800.8, 525.6, 350.4, 262.8, 210.2, and 175.2 s). We find no detectable power at 951.3 microHz (1051 s), the previously reported main frequency. The 1902.5, 2853.9, and 3805.2 microHz peaks are multiplets, with frequency splitting in each case of 20.77 +/- 0.05 microHz. The 1902.5 microHz seasonal pulse shapes are identical, within measurement noise, and maintain the same amplitude and phase as a function of color. We have determined the dominant frequency to be 1902.50902 +/- 0.00001 microHz with dot P = +1.71 (+/- 0.04) x 10(exp -11) s/s. We discuss the implications of these findings on a model for AM CVn.

  18. Unusual arsenic metabolism in Giant Pandas.

    PubMed

    Braeuer, Simone; Dungl, Eveline; Hoffmann, Wiebke; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Hemin; Goessler, Walter

    2017-12-01

    The total arsenic concentration and the arsenic speciation in urine and feces samples of the two Giant Pandas living at Vienna zoo and of their feed, bamboo, were determined with ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. Urine was the main excretion route and accounted for around 90% of the ingested arsenic. The urinary arsenic concentrations were very high, namely up to 179 μg/L. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was the dominating arsenic compound in the urine samples and ranged from 73 to 92% of the total arsenic, which is unusually high for a terrestrial mammal. The feces samples contained around 70% inorganic arsenic and 30% DMA. The arsenic concentrations in the bamboo samples were between 16 and 920 μg/kg dry mass. The main arsenic species in the bamboo extracts was inorganic arsenic. This indicates that the Giant Panda possesses a unique way of very efficiently methylating and excreting the provided inorganic arsenic. This could be essential for the survival of the animal in its natural habitat, because parts of this area are contaminated with arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unusual molecular findings in Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arita, K; Wessagowit, V; Inamadar, A C; Palit, A; Fassihi, H; Lai-Cheong, J E; Pourreyron, C; South, A P; McGrath, J A

    2007-12-01

    Kindler syndrome (KS) is a rare inherited skin disorder with blistering and poikiloderma as its main clinical features. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the C20orf42 (KIND1) gene which encodes kindlin-1, an actin cytoskeleton-focal contact-associated protein which is predominantly expressed in keratinocytes. We investigated the molecular basis of KS in a 16-year-old Indian boy who had additional clinical findings, including scleroatrophic changes of the hands and feet, pseudoainhum and early onset of squamous cell carcinoma on his foot. Immunostaining for kindlin-1 in the patient's skin was completely absent and sequencing of C20orf42 (KIND1) genomic DNA showed a homozygous splice-site mutation at the -6 position, IVS9-6T-->A. Amplification and sequencing of cDNA from the skin revealed aberrant splicing with either deletion of exon 10 or deletion of exons 9, 10 and 11, both of which involve loss of the pleckstrin homology domain of kindlin-1 that is thought to play a role in cytoskeletal attachment and integrin-mediated cell signalling. Pathogenic splice-site mutations at the -6 position are unusual and have rarely been reported for any genetic disorder. Collectively, these findings extend the spectrum of clinical and molecular abnormalities in this rare genodermatosis.

  20. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Bally, John; Masci, Frank; Cody, Ann Marie; Bond, Howard E.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Armus, Lee; Boyer, Martha; Cantiello, Matteo; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Cook, David; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph; Fox, Ori D.; Green, Wayne; Gehrz, R. D.; Helou, George; Hsiao, Eric; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab M.; Lau, Ryan M.; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Milne, Peter; Mohamed, Shazrene; Morrell, Nidia; Monson, Andy; Moore, Anna; Ofek, Eran O.; O' Sullivan, Donal; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Perez, Andres; Perley, Daniel A.; Phillips, Mark; Prince, Thomas A.; Shenoy, Dinesh; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Williams, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer/IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between -11 and -14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]-[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr-1 to >7 mag yr-1. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  1. [Granulomatous sporotrichosis: report of two unusual cases].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Soto, Max; Lizárraga-Trujillo, José

    2013-10-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix complex, endemic in Abancay, Peru. Is acquired by traumatic inoculation with plant material. Common clinical presentations are lymphatic cutaneous and fixed cutaneous disease. We report 2 cases of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with granulomatous appearance. The first case was a patient of 65 years old with no risk factors and the second case was a 67 year old diabetic patient. Subjects underwent mycological culture with Sabouraud agar, with isolation of Sporothrix schenckii and clinical dignosis of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with granulomatous appearance. One patient received oral treatment with saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) with a initial dose of 3 drops tid up to a maximum dose of 40 drops tid. Mycological and clinical cure was achieved after 2 months of treatment. We should consider the unusual clinical presentations of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with granulomatous appearance that present morphological and clinical features in diabetic and nondiabetic patients older than 60 years from endemic areas and communicate adequate response to treatment with SSKI in one case.

  2. Short report of an unusual ballistic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Pinto, Giorgia; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Portable firearms have a relevant medico-legal interest, being a major cause of injury. Bullet entry wounds generally have a particular appearance, including contusion, skin introflection, and simple or excoriated ecchymosis. The skin wound is typically a hole with frayed margins, whose diameter is smaller than that of the bullet. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 19-year-old man with ballistic trauma. Examination of the patient's lesions indicated that the bullet had entered from the left mandibular parasymphysis, creating a small hole without the typical bullet wipe and blackening. Subsequently, the bullet seemed to have fractured the left chin region immediately below the lower alveolar process, and it finally stopped in the submandibular area in the suprahyoid region of the neck. DISCUSSION This case is peculiar because the distinctive features of a firearm injury were absent; the lack of bleeding and edema made the case difficult to interpret without additional diagnostic investigations. CONCLUSION Ballistic trauma can manifest in different ways; therefore, internal trauma should be suspected even in the absence of clear external signs. This case report shows how an unusual bullet entry hole can mask quite serious injuries. PMID:22096751

  3. More Unusual Light Curves from Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    Twenty-three new objects have been added to the growing collection of stars observed to have unusual dips in their light curves. A recent study examines these stars and the potential causes of their strange behavior.An Influx of DataThe primary Kepler mission provided light curves for over 100,000 stars, and its continuation K2 is observing another 20,000 stars every three months. As we enter an era where these enormous photometric data sets become commonplace Gaia will obtain photometry for millions of stars, and LSST billions its crucial that we understand the different categories of variability observed in these stars.The authors find three different types of light curves among their 23 unusual stars. Scallop-shell curves (top) show many undulations; persistent flux-dip class curves (middle) have discrete triangularly shaped flux dips; transient, narrow dip class curves (bottom) have only one dip that is variable in depth. The authors speculate a common cause for the scallop-shell and persistent flux-dip stars, and a different cause for the transient flux-dip stars. [Stauffer et al. 2017]After filtering out the stars with planets, those in binary systems, those with circumstellar disks, and those with starspots, a number of oddities remain: a menagerie of stars with periodic variability that cant be accounted for in these categories. Some of these stars are now famous (for instance, Boyajians star); some are lesser known. But by continuing to build up this sample of stars with unusual light curves, we have a better chance of understanding the sources of variability.Building the MenagerieTo this end, a team of scientists led by John Stauffer (Spitzer Science Center at Caltech) has recently hunted for more additions to this sample in the K2 data set. In particular, they searched through the light curves from stars in the Oph and Upper Scorpius star-forming region a data set that makes up the largest collection of high-quality light curves for low-mass, pre

  4. Unusual multiscale mechanics of biomimetic nanoparticle hydrogels

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Yunlong; Damasceno, Pablo F.; Somashekar, Bagganahalli S.; ...

    2018-01-12

    Viscoelastic properties are central for gels and other materials. Simultaneously, high storage and loss moduli are difficult to attain due to their contrarian requirements to chemical structure. Biomimetic inorganic nanoparticles offer a promising toolbox for multiscale engineering of gel mechanics, but a conceptual framework for their molecular, nanoscale, mesoscale, and microscale engineering as viscoelastic materials is absent. Here we show nanoparticle gels with simultaneously high storage and loss moduli from CdTe nanoparticles. Viscoelastic figure of merit reaches 1.83 MPa exceeding that of comparable gels by 100–1000 times for glutathione-stabilized nanoparticles. The gels made from the smallest nanoparticles display the highestmore » stiffness, which was attributed to the drastic change of GSH configurations when nanoparticles decrease in size. A computational model accounting for the difference in nanoparticle interactions for variable GSH configurations describes the unusual trends of nanoparticle gel viscoelasticity. These observations are generalizable to other NP gels interconnected by supramolecular interactions and lead to materials with high-load bearing abilities and energy dissipation needed for multiple technologies.« less

  5. Unusual foreign bodies in the orofacial region.

    PubMed

    Passi, Sidhi; Sharma, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Foreign bodies may be deposited in the oral cavity either by traumatic injury or iatrogenically. Among the commonly encountered iatrogenic foreign bodies are restorative materials like amalgam, obturation materials, broken instruments, needles, and so forth. The discovery of foreign bodies in the teeth is a special situation, which is often diagnosed accidentally. Detailed case history, clinical and radiographic examinations are necessary to come to a conclusion about the nature, size, location of the foreign body, and the difficulty involved in its retrieval. It is more common to find this situation in children as it is a well-known fact that children often tend to have the habit of placing foreign objects in the mouth. Sometimes the foreign objects get stuck in the root canals of the teeth, which the children do not reveal to their parents due to fear. These foreign objects may act as a potential source of infection and may later lead to a painful condition. This paper discusses the presence of unusual foreign bodies-a tip of the metallic compass, stapler pin, copper strip, and a broken sewing needle impregnated in the gingiva and their management.

  6. Unusual Foreign Bodies in the Orofacial Region

    PubMed Central

    Passi, Sidhi; Sharma, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Foreign bodies may be deposited in the oral cavity either by traumatic injury or iatrogenically. Among the commonly encountered iatrogenic foreign bodies are restorative materials like amalgam, obturation materials, broken instruments, needles, and so forth. The discovery of foreign bodies in the teeth is a special situation, which is often diagnosed accidentally. Detailed case history, clinical and radiographic examinations are necessary to come to a conclusion about the nature, size, location of the foreign body, and the difficulty involved in its retrieval. It is more common to find this situation in children as it is a well-known fact that children often tend to have the habit of placing foreign objects in the mouth. Sometimes the foreign objects get stuck in the root canals of the teeth, which the children do not reveal to their parents due to fear. These foreign objects may act as a potential source of infection and may later lead to a painful condition. This paper discusses the presence of unusual foreign bodies—a tip of the metallic compass, stapler pin, copper strip, and a broken sewing needle impregnated in the gingiva and their management. PMID:22830058

  7. An Unusual Stellar Death on Christmas Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thone, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Aloy, M. A.; Perley, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Janka, H. T.; Mimica, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most dramatic examples of massive stellar deaths, usually associated with supernovae. They release ultra-relativistic jets producing non-thermal emission through synchrotron radiation as they interact with the surrounding medium. Here we report observations of the peculiar GRB 101225A (the "Christmas burst"). Its gamma-ray emission was exceptionally long and followed by a bright X-ray transient with a hot thermal component and an unusual optical couuterpart. During the first 10 days, the optical emission evolved as an expanding, cooling blackbody after which an additional component, consistent with a faint supernova, emerged. We determine its distance to 1.6 Gpc by fitting the spectral-energy distribution and light curve of the optical emission with a GRB-supernova template. Deep optical observations may have revealed a faint, unresolved host galaxy. Our proposed progenitor is a helium star-neutron star merger that underwent a common envelope phase expelling its hydrogen envelope. The resulting explosion created a GRB-like jet which gets thermalized by interacting with the dense, previously ejected material and thus creating the observed black-body, until finally the emission from the supernova dominated. An alternative explanation is a minor body falling onto a neutron star io the Galaxy

  8. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    SciT

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors betweenmore » 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.« less

  9. Unusual multiscale mechanics of biomimetic nanoparticle hydrogels

    SciT

    Zhou, Yunlong; Damasceno, Pablo F.; Somashekar, Bagganahalli S.

    Viscoelastic properties are central for gels and other materials. Simultaneously, high storage and loss moduli are difficult to attain due to their contrarian requirements to chemical structure. Biomimetic inorganic nanoparticles offer a promising toolbox for multiscale engineering of gel mechanics, but a conceptual framework for their molecular, nanoscale, mesoscale, and microscale engineering as viscoelastic materials is absent. Here we show nanoparticle gels with simultaneously high storage and loss moduli from CdTe nanoparticles. Viscoelastic figure of merit reaches 1.83 MPa exceeding that of comparable gels by 100–1000 times for glutathione-stabilized nanoparticles. The gels made from the smallest nanoparticles display the highestmore » stiffness, which was attributed to the drastic change of GSH configurations when nanoparticles decrease in size. A computational model accounting for the difference in nanoparticle interactions for variable GSH configurations describes the unusual trends of nanoparticle gel viscoelasticity. These observations are generalizable to other NP gels interconnected by supramolecular interactions and lead to materials with high-load bearing abilities and energy dissipation needed for multiple technologies.« less

  10. Lichen amyloidosis in an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Jhingan, A; Lee, J S S; Kumarasinghe, S P W

    2007-06-01

    We report lichen amyloidosis occurring on the upper lip and nasolabial folds of a 61-year-old woman from Singapore. She had a past history of systemic lupus erythematosus, which was in remission for three years. There had been no lesions of lupus erythematosus in this area. Clinically, the lesions were skin-coloured, firm papules and our differential diagnoses included trichoepithelioma, papular sarcoid or lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei. Skin biopsy from one of the lesions showed amyloid deposits in the dermis which were Congo red stain positive. These deposits also showed apple green birefringence. Immunohistochemical staining of the amyloid deposits stained positive for cytokeratins (CK) 5 and 6, and negative for CK 14. The kappa and lambda stains were equivocal. Further investigations, including multiple myeloma screen and rectal biopsy, ruled out systemic amyloidosis. There was no other evidence of cutaneous amyloidosis on her limbs or trunk. She refused treatment for her lesions. This case highlights the commonly-seen form of primary localised cutaneous amyloidosis in an unusual location.

  11. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

  12. Cooperative action in eukaryotic gene regulation: Physical properties of a viral example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Maria; Zhu, Lizhe; Aurell, Erik

    2007-12-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of the human population, and causes glandular fever as well as several more serious diseases. It is a tumor virus, and has been widely studied as a model system for cell transformation in humans. A central feature of the EBV life cycle is its ability to persist in human B cells in different latency states, denoted latency I, II, and III. In latency III the host cell is driven to cell proliferation and hence expansion of the viral population without entering the lytic pathway, while the latency I state is almost completely dormant. We here study the effective cooperativity of the viral C promoter, active in latency III EBV cell lines. We show that the unusually large number of binding sites of two competing transcription factors, one viral and one from the host, serves to make the switch sharper (higher Hill coefficient), either by cooperative binding between molecules of the same species when they bind, or by competition between the two species if there is sufficient steric hindrance.

  13. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    MedlinePlus

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by one of several ... each virus is spread in different ways. Are gay and bisexual men at risk for viral hepatitis? ...

  14. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  15. Lactoferrin for prevention of common viral infections.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Hirotsugu; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2014-11-01

    Although lactoferrin has many biological functions, the host-protective effects against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses are regarded as one of the most important. Here, we review research on the protective role of lactoferrin administration against common viral infections. Many studies have shown the in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against viral pathogens that cause common infections such as the common cold, influenza, gastroenteritis, summer cold, and herpes, where lactoferrin inhibits mainly viral attachment to the target cells. Recently, studies indicating the in vivo protective effects of lactoferrin by oral administration against common viral infections have been increasing. For instance, norovirus is an extremely important emerging human pathogen that causes a majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide that may be a target candidate for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin consumption reduced the incidence of noroviral gastroenteritis in children and a similar effect was observed in a wide range of ages in a preliminary survey. A recent in vitro study reported that lactoferrin inhibits both cellular attachment of the murine norovirus, a virus closely-related to the human norovirus, and viral replication in the cells by inducing antiviral cytokines interferon (IFN)-α/β. Lactoferrin administration also enhances NK cell activity and Th1 cytokine responses, which lead to protection against viral infections. In conclusion, lactoferrin consumption may protect the host from viral infections through inhibiting the attachment of a virus to the cells, replication of the virus in the cells, and enhancement of systemic immune functions. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Building an Unusual White-Dwarf Duo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    A new study has examined how the puzzling wide binary system HS 2220+2146 which consists of two white dwarfs orbiting each other might have formed. This system may be an example of a new evolutionary pathway for wide white-dwarf binaries.Evolution of a BinaryMore than 100 stellar systems have been discovered consisting of two white dwarfs in a wide orbit around each other. How do these binaries form? In the traditional picture, the system begins as a binary consisting of two main-sequence stars. Due to the large separation between the stars, the stars evolve independently, each passing through the main-sequence and giant branches and ending their lives as white dwarfs.An illustration of a hierarchical triple star system, in which two stars orbit each other, and a third star orbits the pair. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Because more massive stars evolve more quickly, the most massive of the two stars in a binary pair should be the first to evolve into a white dwarf. Consequently, when we observe a double-white-dwarf binary, its usually a safe bet that the more massive of the two white dwarfs will also be the older and cooler of the pair, since it should have formed first.But in the case of the double-white-dwarf binary HS 2220+2146, the opposite is true: the more massive of the two white dwarfs appears to be the younger and hotter of the pair. If it wasnt created in the traditional way, then how did this system form?Two From Three?Led by Jeff Andrews (Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Greece and Columbia University), a team of scientists recently examined this system more carefully, analyzing its spectra to confirm our understanding of the white dwarfs temperatures and masses.Based on their observations, Andrews and collaborators determined that there are no hidden additional companions that could have caused the unusual evolution of this system. Instead, the team proposed that this unusual binary might be an example of an evolutionary channel that involves three

  17. Unusual Metals in Galactic Center Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    Far from the galactic suburbs where the Sun resides, a cluster of stars in the nucleus of the Milky Way orbits a supermassive black hole. Can chemical abundance measurements help us understand the formation history of the galactic center nuclear star cluster?Studying Stellar PopulationsMetallicity distributions for stars in the inner two degrees of the Milky Way (blue) and the central parsec (orange). [Do et al. 2018]While many galaxies host nuclear star clusters, most are too distant for us to study in detail; only in the Milky Way can we resolve individual stars within one parsec of a supermassive black hole. The nucleus of our galaxy is an exotic and dangerous place, and its not yet clear how these stars came to be where they are were they siphoned off from other parts of the galaxy, or did they form in place, in an environment rocked by tidal forces?Studying the chemical abundances of stars provides a way to separate distinct stellar populations and discern when and where these stars formed. Previous studies using medium-resolution spectroscopy have revealed that many stars within the central parsec of our galaxy have very high metallicities possibly higher than any other region of the Milky Way. Can high-resolution spectroscopy tell us more about this unusual population of stars?Spectral Lines on DisplayTuan Do (University of California, Los Angeles, Galactic Center Group) and collaborators performed high-resolution spectroscopic observations of two late-type giant starslocated half a parsec from the Milky Ways supermassive black hole.Comparison of the observed spectra of the two galactic center stars (black) with synthetic spectra with low (blue) and high (orange) [Sc/Fe] values. Click to enlarge. [Do et al. 2018]In order to constrain the metallicities of these stars, Do and collaborators compared the observed spectra to a grid of synthetic spectra and used a spectral synthesis technique to determine the abundances of individual elements. They found that

  18. UNUSUAL MANIFESTATION OF NEUROBORELIOSIS (CASE REPORT).

    PubMed

    Beridze, M; Khizanishvili, N; Mdivani, M; Samushia, O; Gogokhia, N

    2017-03-01

    The paper reported the verified case of neuroboreliosis with unusual clinical presentation of Parkinsonism. Study aimed at establishing the significance of a precise differential diagnosis with substantial analysis of the symptoms of several diseases to avoid the false diagnosis and to conduct the opportune and adequate therapeutic management. We described the case of the diagnosed neuroboreliosis with clinical expression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Parkinsonism. A 44 years old man was diagnosed as MS according to the McDonald's Criteria, who within two years developed typical clinical signs of Parkinsonism. Patient investigated neurologically, Brain contrast MRI (1.5 Tesla) was performed; Cerebrospinal fluid was researched for oligoclonal bands. Blood IgM and IgG were researched against Chlamidia pneumonie, Micoplasma pneumonie, Borrelia Burgdorferi, Herpes simplex 1/2, Cytomegalovirus by ELISA method. Clinically the patient expressed amimic face, oligobradikinesia, extrapiramidal rigidity in all limbs, resting tremor in upper limb fingers, horizontal nystagmus. Brain MRI showed multiple gadolinium enhanced demyelization lesions in periventricular and sub-cortical white matter. CSF oligoclonal bands were positive without dysfunction of blood-brain barrier. Blood IgM, IgG detected to be negative against Chlamidia pneumonie, Micoplasma pneumonie, cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex ½, while the blood IgG was strongly positive against Borrelia burgdorferi, confirmed by followed Western blot test. Patient was stabilized by puls-therapy with 1 gr/intravenous Solumedrol (5 days) along with Rocephin treatment (2 gr /iv) for 21 days followed by long term treatment with Antiparkin (Carbidopa 250 mg, Levodopa 25 mg). MS and even Parkinsonism in suspicious cases should thoroughly be investigated for differentiation from chronic Neuroboreliosis.

  19. Unusually severe case of dermatosis neglecta.

    PubMed

    Turrentine, Jake E; Blalock, Travis W; Davis, Loretta S

    2012-01-01

    An 18-year-old black woman with cerebral palsy was admitted for evaluation of an intrathecal baclofen pump site infection. The dermatology service was consulted for treatment suggestions of a presumed diagnosis of chronic tinea capitis. Three courses of oral griseofulvin during the past 2 years failed to resolve the patient's chronic scalp dermatosis. Scalp lesions first began about 2 years earlier after hospitalization for placement of an intrathecal baclofen pump. The patient was unable to care for her scalp due to her cerebral palsy, and her mother interpreted the scalp condition as infectious. No routine shampoo care, scalp care, or topical treatment was performed for more than 1 1/2 years. The mother felt that touching the patient's scalp might cause pain and noted that the majority of her time was spent concentrating on more critical medical issues. Physical examination revealed coalescing hyperkeratotic plaques extending dorsally from the anterior hairline to the occipital scalp with small flecks of keratinous debris throughout the remaining hair (Figure 1). The plate-like plaques were devoid of hair, except at a few fissures where a few tufts of hair emerged. No cervical lymph nodes were appreciated on palpation. Treatment was initiated with compresses consisting of large warm water-soaked towels 4 times daily. Three times a day, a nursing staff applied 5% salicylic acid in olive oil to the scalp under a shower cap for approximately 1 hour. Over the following 2 days, a significant reduction in keratinous debris was appreciated. Within 2 weeks, the bulk of the plaques had been removed (Figure 2). At 6-week follow-up, the underlying scalp showed areas of fibrosis and possible scarring with a few emerging tufts of hair. On the basis of history and response to treatment with salicylic acid and routine scalp care, the patient was diagnosed with an unusually severe case of dermatosis neglecta.

  20. Learning optimal eye movements to unusual faces

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew F.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2014-01-01

    Eye movements, which guide the fovea’s high resolution and computational power to relevant areas of the visual scene, are integral to efficient, successful completion of many visual tasks. How humans modify their eye movements through experience with their perceptual environments, and its functional role in learning new tasks, has not been fully investigated. Here, we used a face identification task where only the mouth discriminated exemplars to assess if, how, and when eye movement modulation may mediate learning. By interleaving trials of unconstrained eye movements with trials of forced fixation, we attempted to separate the contributions of eye movements and covert mechanisms to performance improvements. Without instruction, a majority of observers substantially increased accuracy and learned to direct their initial eye movements towards the optimal fixation point. The proximity of an observer’s default face identification eye movement behavior to the new optimal fixation point and the observer’s peripheral processing ability were predictive of performance gains and eye movement learning. After practice in a subsequent condition in which observers were directed to fixate different locations along the face, including the relevant mouth region, all observers learned to make eye movements to the optimal fixation point. In this fully learned state, augmented fixation strategy accounted for 43% of total efficiency improvements while covert mechanisms accounted for the remaining 57%. The findings suggest a critical role for eye movement planning to perceptual learning, and elucidate factors that can predict when and how well an observer can learn a new task with unusual exemplars. PMID:24291712

  1. Chronic viral hepatitis: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Guido, Maria; Mangia, Alessandra; Faa, Gavino

    2011-03-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis, the role of liver biopsy as a diagnostic test has seen a decline, paralleled by its increasing importance for prognostic purposes. Nowadays, the main indication for liver biopsy in chronic viral hepatitis is to assess the severity of the disease, in terms of both necro-inflammation (grade) and fibrosis (stage), which is important for prognosis and therapeutic management. Several scoring systems have been proposed for grading and staging chronic viral hepatitis and there is no a general consensus on the best system to be used in the daily practice. All scoring systems have their drawbacks and all may be affected by sampling and observer variability. Whatever the system used, a histological score is a reductive approach since damage in chronic viral hepatitis is a complex biological process. Thus, scoring systems are not intended to replace the detailed, descriptive, pathology report. In fact, lesions other than those scored for grading and staging may have clinical relevance and should be assessed and reported. This paper aims to provide a systematic approach to the interpretation of liver biopsies obtained in cases of chronic viral hepatitis, with the hope of helping general pathologists in their diagnostic practice. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral assembly of oriented quantum dot nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chuanbin; Flynn, Christine E; Hayhurst, Andrew; Sweeney, Rozamond; Qi, Jifa; Georgiou, George; Iverson, Brent; Belcher, Angela M

    2003-06-10

    The highly organized structure of M13 bacteriophage was used as an evolved biological template for the nucleation and orientation of semiconductor nanowires. To create this organized template, peptides were selected by using a pIII phage display library for their ability to nucleate ZnS or CdS nanocrystals. The successful peptides were expressed as pVIII fusion proteins into the crystalline capsid of the virus. The engineered viruses were exposed to semiconductor precursor solutions, and the resultant nanocrystals that were templated along the viruses to form nanowires were extensively characterized by using high-resolution analytical electron microscopy and photoluminescence. ZnS nanocrystals were well crystallized on the viral capsid in a hexagonal wurtzite or a cubic zinc blende structure, depending on the peptide expressed on the viral capsid. Electron diffraction patterns showed single-crystal type behavior from a polynanocrystalline area of the nanowire formed, suggesting that the nanocrystals on the virus were preferentially oriented with their [001] perpendicular to the viral surface. Peptides that specifically directed CdS nanocrystal growth were also engineered into the viral capsid to create wurtzite CdS virus-based nanowires. Lastly, heterostructured nucleation was achieved with a dual-peptide virus engineered to express two distinct peptides within the same viral capsid. This work represents a genetically controlled biological synthesis route to a semiconductor nanoscale heterostructure.

  3. Viral assembly of oriented quantum dot nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chuanbin; Flynn, Christine E.; Hayhurst, Andrew; Sweeney, Rozamond; Qi, Jifa; Georgiou, George; Iverson, Brent; Belcher, Angela M.

    2003-06-01

    The highly organized structure of M13 bacteriophage was used as an evolved biological template for the nucleation and orientation of semiconductor nanowires. To create this organized template, peptides were selected by using a pIII phage display library for their ability to nucleate ZnS or CdS nanocrystals. The successful peptides were expressed as pVIII fusion proteins into the crystalline capsid of the virus. The engineered viruses were exposed to semiconductor precursor solutions, and the resultant nanocrystals that were templated along the viruses to form nanowires were extensively characterized by using high-resolution analytical electron microscopy and photoluminescence. ZnS nanocrystals were well crystallized on the viral capsid in a hexagonal wurtzite or a cubic zinc blende structure, depending on the peptide expressed on the viral capsid. Electron diffraction patterns showed single-crystal type behavior from a polynanocrystalline area of the nanowire formed, suggesting that the nanocrystals on the virus were preferentially oriented with their [001] perpendicular to the viral surface. Peptides that specifically directed CdS nanocrystal growth were also engineered into the viral capsid to create wurtzite CdS virus-based nanowires. Lastly, heterostructured nucleation was achieved with a dual-peptide virus engineered to express two distinct peptides within the same viral capsid. This work represents a genetically controlled biological synthesis route to a semiconductor nanoscale heterostructure.

  4. Viral quasispecies inference from 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many potentially life-threatening infectious viruses are highly mutable in nature. Characterizing the fittest variants within a quasispecies from infected patients is expected to allow unprecedented opportunities to investigate the relationship between quasispecies diversity and disease epidemiology. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed the study of virus diversity with high-throughput sequencing, although these methods come with higher rates of errors which can artificially increase diversity. Results Here we introduce a novel computational approach that incorporates base quality scores from next-generation sequencers for reconstructing viral genome sequences that simultaneously infers the number of variants within a quasispecies that are present. Comparisons on simulated and clinical data on dengue virus suggest that the novel approach provides a more accurate inference of the underlying number of variants within the quasispecies, which is vital for clinical efforts in mapping the within-host viral diversity. Sequence alignments generated by our approach are also found to exhibit lower rates of error. Conclusions The ability to infer the viral quasispecies colony that is present within a human host provides the potential for a more accurate classification of the viral phenotype. Understanding the genomics of viruses will be relevant not just to studying how to control or even eradicate these viral infectious diseases, but also in learning about the innate protection in the human host against the viruses. PMID:24308284

  5. Neutral Theory and Rapidly Evolving Viral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Frost, Simon D W; Magalis, Brittany Rife; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2018-06-01

    The evolution of viral pathogens is shaped by strong selective forces that are exerted during jumps to new hosts, confrontations with host immune responses and antiviral drugs, and numerous other processes. However, while undeniably strong and frequent, adaptive evolution is largely confined to small parts of information-packed viral genomes, and the majority of observed variation is effectively neutral. The predictions and implications of the neutral theory have proven immensely useful in this context, with applications spanning understanding within-host population structure, tracing the origins and spread of viral pathogens, predicting evolutionary dynamics, and modeling the emergence of drug resistance. We highlight the multiple ways in which the neutral theory has had an impact, which has been accelerated in the age of high-throughput, high-resolution genomics.

  6. Molecular basis of viral and microbial pathogenesis

    SciT

    Rott, R.; Goebel, W.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Correlation Between Viroid Structure and Pathogenicty; Antigenicity of the Influenza Haemagglutinia Membrane Glycoprotein; Viral Glycoproteins as Determinants of Pathogenicity; Virus Genes Involved in Host Range and Pathogenicity; Molecular Heterogenetiy of Pathogenic Herpus Viruses; Recombination of Foreign (Viral) DNA with Host Genome: Studies in Vivo and in a Cell-Free system; Disorders of Cellular Neuro-Functions by Persistent Viral Infection; Pathogenic Aspects of Measles Virus-Persistent Infections in Man; Analysis of the Dual Lineage Specificity of E26 Avian Leukemia Virus; Mx Gene Control of Influenza Virus Susceptibility; Shiga and Shika-Like Toxins: A Family of Related Cytokinons; and Molecularmore » Mechanisms of Pathogenicity in Shigella Flexneri.« less

  7. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  8. [Viral retinitis following intravitreal triamcinolone injection].

    PubMed

    Zghal, I; Malek, I; Amel, C; Soumaya, O; Bouguila, H; Nacef, L

    2013-09-01

    Necrotizing viral retinitis is associated with infection by the Herpes family of viruses, especially herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and occasionally cytomegalovirus (CMV). When the diagnosis is suspected clinically, antiviral therapy must be instituted immediately. We report the case of a patient presenting with necrotizing viral retinitis 3 months following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a superior temporal occlusive vasculitis. A diagnostic anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to obtain deoxyribo-nucleic acid (DNA) for a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for viral retinitis. PCR was positive for CMV. The patient was placed on intravenous ganciclovir. CMV retinitis is exceedingly rare in immunocompetent patients; however, it remains the most common cause of posterior uveitis in immunocompromised patients. The incidence of this entity remains unknown. Local immunosuppression, the dose and the frequency of injections may explain the occurrence of this severe retinitis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rory D; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2016-11-01

    Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors.

  10. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  11. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-12-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance.

  12. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance. PMID:29271914

  13. Shedding new light on viral photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Puxty, Richard J; Millard, Andrew D; Evans, David J; Scanlan, David J

    2015-10-01

    Viruses infecting the environmentally important marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus encode 'auxiliary metabolic genes' (AMGs) involved in the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. Here, we discuss progress on the inventory of such AMGs in the ever-increasing number of viral genome sequences as well as in metagenomic datasets. We contextualise these gene acquisitions with reference to a hypothesised fitness gain to the phage. We also report new evidence with regard to the sequence and predicted structural properties of viral petE genes encoding the soluble electron carrier plastocyanin. Viral copies of PetE exhibit extensive modifications to the N-terminal signal peptide and possess several novel residues in a region responsible for interaction with redox partners. We also highlight potential knowledge gaps in this field and discuss future opportunities to discover novel phage-host interactions involved in the photosynthetic process.

  14. Enterobius vermicularis in the kidney: an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Cateau, Estelle; Yacoub, Mokrane; Tavilien, Christian; Becq-Giraudon, Bertrand; Rodier, Marie-Hélène

    2010-07-01

    A woman was admitted to hospital with abdominal pain. A large kidney stone was recovered and a nephrectomy was performed. Histology revealed the unusual presence of multiple Enterobius vermicularis ova. However, no other parasitic element was recovered on further investigations.

  15. Acute non-traumatic spinal subdural haematoma: an unusual aetiology.

    PubMed

    Seizeur, Romuald; Ahmed, Seddik Sid; Simon, Alexandre; Besson, Gérard; Forlodou, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    We report an unusual case of a spinal subdural haematoma associated with a ruptured spinal aneurysm. The delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis of this rare entity can have disastrous consequences. We discuss various possible aetiologies and its association with spinal aneurysms.

  16. Spontaneous haemothorax: an unusual presentation of primary lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, S. H.; Cheng, Y. J.; Kao, E. L.; Chai, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    An unusual case of spontaneous haemothorax caused by a subpleural primary lung cancer is reported. Tumour invasion of the pulmonary vessels and visceral pleura was the possible cause. Images PMID:8296269

  17. 19. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM SHOWING DOOR TO NORTH BEDROOM UNUSUAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM SHOWING DOOR TO NORTH BEDROOM UNUSUAL PAIRED ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL LIGHT FIXTURES ON WALL ABOVE SINK AND MIRROR. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  18. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... recorded in the company's books of account without prior Commission approval. [65 FR 16334, Mar. 28, 2000] ... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.25 Unusual items and...

  19. Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Treatment for unusual cancers of childhood depends on the specific cancer (e.g., nasopharyngeal, thyroid, oral, laryngeal, lung, esophageal, cardiac). See the full list and learn more about treatment for these cancers in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. IFITM Proteins Restrict Viral Membrane Hemifusion

    PubMed Central

    Golfetto, Ottavia; Bungart, Brittani; Li, Minghua; Ding, Shilei; He, Yuxian; Liang, Chen; Lee, James C.; Gratton, Enrico; Cohen, Fredric S.; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2013-01-01

    The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein family represents a new class of cellular restriction factors that block early stages of viral replication; the underlying mechanism is currently not known. Here we provide evidence that IFITM proteins restrict membrane fusion induced by representatives of all three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins. IFITM1 profoundly suppressed syncytia formation and cell-cell fusion induced by almost all viral fusion proteins examined; IFITM2 and IFITM3 also strongly inhibited their fusion, with efficiency somewhat dependent on cell types. Furthermore, treatment of cells with IFN also markedly inhibited viral membrane fusion and entry. By using the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope and influenza A virus hemagglutinin as models for study, we showed that IFITM-mediated restriction on membrane fusion is not at the steps of receptor- and/or low pH-mediated triggering; instead, the creation of hemifusion was essentially blocked by IFITMs. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a chemical known to promote the transition from hemifusion to full fusion, was unable to rescue the IFITM-mediated restriction on fusion. In contrast, oleic acid (OA), a lipid analog that generates negative spontaneous curvature and thereby promotes hemifusion, virtually overcame the restriction. To explore the possible effect of IFITM proteins on membrane molecular order and fluidity, we performed fluorescence labeling with Laurdan, in conjunction with two-photon laser scanning and fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). We observed that the generalized polarizations (GPs) and fluorescence lifetimes of cell membranes expressing IFITM proteins were greatly enhanced, indicating higher molecularly ordered and less fluidized membranes. Collectively, our data demonstrated that IFITM proteins suppress viral membrane fusion before the creation of hemifusion, and suggested that they may do so by reducing membrane fluidity and conferring a positive spontaneous

  1. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  2. An ovary as unusual contents of an incarcerated umbilical hernia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, R; Kamat, S; Elkholy, K

    2014-01-01

    We present the unusual case of a woman presenting with an incarcerated umbilical hernia. Intraoperatively, the contents of the hernia were found to be an ovary. We outline the clinical presentation of our patient, investigations and management as well as a discussion on unusual contents of umbilical hernias. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a non-malignant ovary incarcerated in an umbilical hernia. PMID:25198958

  3. An ovary as unusual contents of an incarcerated umbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, U; Ahmed, R; Kamat, S; Elkholy, K

    2014-09-01

    We present the unusual case of a woman presenting with an incarcerated umbilical hernia. Intraoperatively, the contents of the hernia were found to be an ovary. We outline the clinical presentation of our patient, investigations and management as well as a discussion on unusual contents of umbilical hernias. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a non-malignant ovary incarcerated in an umbilical hernia.

  4. The Art of Engineering Viral Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pokorski, Jonathan K.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2011-01-01

    Viral nanotechnology is an emerging and highly interdisciplinary field in which viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are applied in diverse areas such as electronics, energy and next-generation medical devices. VNPs have been developed as candidates for novel materials, and are often described as “programmable” because they can be modified and functionalized using a number of techniques. In this review, we discuss the concepts and methods that allow VNPs to be engineered, including (i) bioconjugation chemistries, (ii) encapsulation techniques, (iii) mineralization strategies, and (iv) film and hydrogel development. With all these techniques in hand, the potential applications of VNPs are limited only by the imagination. PMID:21047140

  5. Temporary divergence paralysis in viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Stef L M; Gan, Ivan M

    2008-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman who reported diplopia and headache was found to have comitant esotropia at distance fixation and normal alignment at reading distance (divergence paralysis). Eye movement, including abduction, was normal as was the rest of the neurologic examination. Brain MRI was normal. Lumbar puncture showed an elevated opening pressure and a cerebrospinal fluid formula consistent with viral meningitis. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and analgesics and with a temporary prism to alleviate diplopia. Within 3 weeks, she had fully recovered. This is the first report of divergence palsy in viral meningitis.

  6. Molecular biology of human herpesvirus 8: novel functions and virus-host interactions implicated in viral pathogenesis and replication.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Emily; Nicholas, John

    2014-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the second identified human gammaherpesvirus. Like its relative Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-8 is linked to B-cell tumors, specifically primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, in addition to endothelial-derived KS. HHV-8 is unusual in its possession of a plethora of "accessory" genes and encoded proteins in addition to the core, conserved herpesvirus and gammaherpesvirus genes that are necessary for basic biological functions of these viruses. The HHV-8 accessory proteins specify not only activities deducible from their cellular protein homologies but also novel, unsuspected activities that have revealed new mechanisms of virus-host interaction that serve virus replication or latency and may contribute to the development and progression of virus-associated neoplasia. These proteins include viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), viral chemokines (vCCLs), viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs), and viral antiapoptotic proteins homologous to FLICE (FADD-like IL-1β converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (FLIP) and survivin. Other HHV-8 proteins, such as signaling membrane receptors encoded by open reading frames K1 and K15, also interact with host mechanisms in unique ways and have been implicated in viral pathogenesis. Additionally, a set of micro-RNAs encoded by HHV-8 appear to modulate expression of multiple host proteins to provide conditions conducive to virus persistence within the host and could also contribute to HHV-8-induced neoplasia. Here, we review the molecular biology underlying these novel virus-host interactions and their potential roles in both virus biology and virus-associated disease.

  7. High viral abundance as a consequence of low viral decay in the Baltic Sea redoxcline

    PubMed Central

    Scharnreitner, Lisa; Jürgens, Klaus; Labrenz, Matthias; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Winter, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the Baltic Sea redoxcline, virus production and the frequency of lytically-infected prokaryotic cells were estimated from parallel incubations of undiluted seawater and seawater that contained prokaryotes with substantially reduced numbers of viruses (virus dilution approach), effectively preventing viral reinfection during the incubation period. Undiluted seawater incubations resulted in much higher estimates of virus production (6–35×104 mL-1 h-1) and the frequency of infected cells (5–84%) than the virus dilution approach (virus production: 1–3×104 mL-1 h-1; frequency of infected cells: 1–11%). Viral production and the frequency of infected cells from both approaches, however, cannot be directly compared, as data obtained from undiluted incubations were biased by viral reinfection and other uncontrollable processes during the incubation period. High in situ viral abundance (1–2×107 mL-1) together with low virus production rates based on the virus dilution approach resulted in some of the longest viral turnover times (24–84 d) ever reported for the epipelagial. Throughout a wide range of environmental conditions, viral turnover time and burst size were negatively correlated. Given that viral decay estimated in ultra-filtered water was below the detection limit and the burst size was low (1–17), we conclude that prokaryotic viruses in the Baltic Sea redoxcline are investing most of their resources into stress defense (strong capsids) rather than proliferation (high burst size). In summary, the Baltic Sea redoxcline constitutes an environment where low virus production is found in combination with low viral decay, resulting in high viral abundance. PMID:28594863

  8. Optimal Cytoplasmic Transport in Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.; Chou, Tom

    2009-01-01

    For many viruses, the ability to infect eukaryotic cells depends on their transport through the cytoplasm and across the nuclear membrane of the host cell. During this journey, viral contents are biochemically processed into complexes capable of both nuclear penetration and genomic integration. We develop a stochastic model of viral entry that incorporates all relevant aspects of transport, including convection along microtubules, biochemical conversion, degradation, and nuclear entry. Analysis of the nuclear infection probabilities in terms of the transport velocity, degradation, and biochemical conversion rates shows how certain values of key parameters can maximize the nuclear entry probability of the viral material. The existence of such “optimal” infection scenarios depends on the details of the biochemical conversion process and implies potentially counterintuitive effects in viral infection, suggesting new avenues for antiviral treatment. Such optimal parameter values provide a plausible transport-based explanation of the action of restriction factors and of experimentally observed optimal capsid stability. Finally, we propose a new interpretation of how genetic mutations unrelated to the mechanism of drug action may nonetheless confer novel types of overall drug resistance. PMID:20046829

  9. Neutron diffraction studies of viral fusion peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Jeremy P.; J. M. Darkes, Malcolm; Katsaras, John; Epand, Richard M.

    2000-03-01

    Membrane fusion plays a vital role in a large and diverse number of essential biological processes. Despite this fact, the precise molecular events that occur during fusion are still not known. We are currently engaged on a study of membrane fusion as mediated by viral fusion peptides. These peptides are the N-terminal regions of certain viral envelope proteins that mediate the process of fusion between the viral envelope and the membranes of the host cell during the infection process. As part of this study, we have carried out neutron diffraction measurements at the ILL, BeNSC and Chalk River, on a range of viral fusion peptides. The peptides, from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), influenza A and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), were incorporated into stacked phospholipid bilayers. Some of the peptides had been specifically deuterated at key amino acids. Lamellar diffraction data were collected and analysed to yield information on the peptide conformation, location and orientation relative to the bilayer.

  10. Visualizing viral transport and host infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andres; Sullivan, Matthew; Stocker, Roman; MIT Team

    2013-11-01

    A virus is a non-motile infectious agent that can only replicate inside a living host. They consist of a <100 nm diameter capsid which houses their DNA, and a <20 nm diameter tail used to inject DNA to the host, which are classified into three different morphologies by the tail type: short tail (~ 10 nm, podovirus), rigid contractile tail (~ 100 nm, myovirus), or flexible noncontractile tail (~ 300 nm, siphovirus). Combining microfluidics with epifluorescent microscopy, we studied the simultaneous diffusive transport governing the initial encounter and ultimately the infection of a non-motile cyanobacteria host (~ 1 μm prochlorococcus) and their viral (phage) counterparts in real time. This methodology allows us to quantify the virus-host encounter/adsorption dynamics and subsequently the effectiveness of various tail morphologies for viral infection. Viral transport and the role of viral morphology in host-virus interactions are critical to our understanding of both ecosystem dynamics and human health, as well as to the evolution of virus morphology.

  11. Shape transformation of viral capsids and HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Toan

    2005-03-01

    We present a continuum description of the shape transformation of viral capsids. The cone-like HIV virus is shown to be an thermodynamic stable shape, intermediate between icosahedral and sphero-cylinder capsid shapes. A generalized Caspar-Klug classification is introduced to describe spherical, conical and cylinderical shapes of virus.

  12. History and Global Burden of Viral Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Hubert E

    Between 1963 and 1989, 5 hepatotropic viruses have been discovered that are the major causes of viral hepatitides worldwide: hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis delta virus and hepatitis E virus. Their epidemiology and pathogenesis have been studied in great detail. Furthermore, the structure and genetic organization of their DNA or RNA genome including the viral life cycle have been elucidated and have been successfully translated into important clinical applications, such as the specific diagnosis, therapy and prevention of the associated liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of acute and chronic viral hepatitis A-E shows distinct geographic differences. The global burden of disease (prevalence, incidence, death, disability-adjusted life years) has been analyzed in seminal studies that show that the worldwide prevalence of hepatitis A-E has significantly decreased between 1990 and 2013. During the same time, the incidence of HBV-related liver cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, also decreased or increased slightly, the incidence of the HCV-related liver cirrhosis remained stable and the incidence of HCV-related HCC showed a major increase. During the coming years, we expect to improve our ability to prevent and effectively treat viral hepatitis A-E, resulting in the control of these global infections and the elimination of their associated morbidities and mortalities. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Chromatin organization regulates viral egress dynamics

    SciT

    Aho, Vesa; Myllys, Markko; Ruokolainen, Visa

    Various types of DNA viruses are known to elicit the formation of a large nuclear viral replication compartment and marginalization of the cell chromatin. We used three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography, confocal and electron microscopy, combined with numerical modelling of capsid diffusion to analyse the molecular organization of chromatin in herpes simplex virus 1 infection and its effect on the transport of progeny viral capsids to the nuclear envelope. Our data showed that the formation of the viral replication compartment at late infection resulted in the enrichment of heterochromatin in the nuclear periphery accompanied by the compaction of chromatin. Random walkmore » modelling of herpes simplex virus 1–sized particles in a three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography reconstruction of an infected cell nucleus demonstrated that the peripheral, compacted chromatin restricts viral capsid diffusion, but due to interchromatin channels capsids are able to reach the nuclear envelope, the site of their nuclear egress.« less

  14. Chromatin organization regulates viral egress dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Aho, Vesa; Myllys, Markko; Ruokolainen, Visa; ...

    2017-06-16

    Various types of DNA viruses are known to elicit the formation of a large nuclear viral replication compartment and marginalization of the cell chromatin. We used three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography, confocal and electron microscopy, combined with numerical modelling of capsid diffusion to analyse the molecular organization of chromatin in herpes simplex virus 1 infection and its effect on the transport of progeny viral capsids to the nuclear envelope. Our data showed that the formation of the viral replication compartment at late infection resulted in the enrichment of heterochromatin in the nuclear periphery accompanied by the compaction of chromatin. Random walkmore » modelling of herpes simplex virus 1–sized particles in a three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography reconstruction of an infected cell nucleus demonstrated that the peripheral, compacted chromatin restricts viral capsid diffusion, but due to interchromatin channels capsids are able to reach the nuclear envelope, the site of their nuclear egress.« less

  15. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-31

    with subsequent seroconversion or susceptibility to illness in a naturally occurring outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis among American teen ... anorexia , myalgia and malaise. It can be severe, indeed fatal, in the elderly, infant, debilitated or malnourished pa- tient. Viral gastroenteritis...community-wide outbreaks of gastroenteritis among older children and adults. The older medical literature gives a variety of descriptive labels to this

  17. Bacterial food-borne zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Thorns, C J

    2000-04-01

    In many countries of the world, bacterial food-borne zoonotic infections are the most common cause of human intestinal disease. Salmonella and Campylobacter account for over 90% of all reported cases of bacteria-related food poisoning world-wide. Poultry and poultry products have been incriminated in the majority of traceable food-borne illnesses caused by these bacteria, although all domestic livestock are reservoirs of infection. In contrast to the enzootic nature of most Salmonella and Campylobacter infections, Salmonella Enteritidis caused a pandemic in both poultry and humans during the latter half of the 20th Century. Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter appear to be more ubiquitous in the environment, colonising a greater variety of hosts and environmental niches. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) also emerged as a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in the 1980s and 1990s. Although infection is relatively rare in humans, clinical disease is often severe, with a significant mortality rate among the young and elderly. The epidemiology of VTEC O157 is poorly understood, although ruminants, especially cattle and sheep, appear to be the major source of infection. The dissemination of S. Enteritidis along the food chain is fairly well understood, and control programmes have been developed to target key areas of poultry meat and egg production. Recent evidence indicates that these control programmes have been associated with an overall reduction of S. Enteritidis along the food chain. Unfortunately, existing controls do not appear to reduce the levels of Campylobacter and VTEC O157 infections. Future control strategies need to consider variations in the epidemiologies of food-borne zoonotic infections, and apply a quantitative risk analysis approach to ensure that the most cost-effective programmes are developed.

  18. An Unusual View: MISR sees the Moon

    2017-08-17

    The job of the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite is to view Earth. For more than 17 years, its nine cameras have stared downward 24 hours a day, faithfully collecting images used to study Earth's surface and atmosphere. On August 5, however, MISR captured some very unusual data as the Terra satellite performed a backflip in space. This maneuver was performed to allow MISR and the other instruments on Terra to catch a glimpse of the Moon, something that has been done only once before, in 2003. Why task an elderly satellite with such a radical maneuver? Since we can be confident that the Moon's brightness has remained very constant over the mission, MISR's images of the Moon can be used as a check of the instrument's calibration, allowing an independent verification of the procedures used to correct the images for any changes the cameras have experienced over their many years in space. If changes in the cameras' responses to light aren't properly accounted for, the images captured by MISR would make it appear as if Earth were growing darker or lighter, which would throw off scientists' efforts to characterize air pollution, cloud cover and Earth's climate. Because of this, the MISR team uses several methods to calibrate the data, all of which involve imaging something with a known (or independently measured) brightness and correcting the images to match that brightness. Every month, MISR views two panels of a special material called Spectralon, which reflects sunlight in a very particular way, onboard the instrument. Periodically, this calibration is checked by a field team who measures the brightness of a flat, uniformly colored surface on Earth, usually a dry desert lakebed, as MISR flies overhead. The lunar maneuver offers a third opportunity to check the brightness calibration of MISR's images. While viewing Earth, MISR's cameras are fixed at nine different angles, with one (called An) pointed straight down, four

  19. Acute Viral Hepatitis in Pediatric Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Kc, Sudhamshu; Sharma, Dilip; Poudyal, Nandu; Basnet, Bhupendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Our clinical experience showed that there has been no decrease in pediatric cases of acute viral hepatitis in Kathmandu. The objective of the study was to analyze the etiology, clinical features, laboratory parameters, sonological findings and other to determine the probable prognostic factors of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Consecutive patients of suspected Acute Viral Hepatitis, below the age of 15 years, attending the liver clinic between January 2006 and December 2010 were studied. After clinical examination they were subjected to blood tests and ultrasound examination of abdomen. The patients were divided in 3 age groups; 0-5, 5-10 and 5-15 years. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, ultrasound findings were compared in three age groups. Etiology of Acute Viral Hepatitis was Hepatitis A virus 266 (85%), Hepatitis E virus in 24 (8%), Hepatitis B virus in 15 (5%). In 7(2%) patients etiology was unknown. Three patients went to acute liver failure but improved with conservative treatment. There was no statistical difference in most of the parameters studied in different age groups. Ascites was more common in 5-10 years age group. Patients with secondary bacterial infection, ultrasound evidence of prominent biliary tree and ascites were associated with increased duration of illness. Patients with history of herbal medications had prolonged cholestasis. Hepatitis A is most common cause of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Improper use of herbal medications, secondary bacterial infection and faulty dietary intake was associated with prolonged illness. Patients with prominent biliary radicals should be treated with antibiotics even with normal blood counts for earlier recovery.

  20. Macular pigmentation complicating irritant contact dermatitis and viral warts in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhoyrul, B; Paulus, J

    2016-04-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is a rare acquired disorder characterized by macu-lar pigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa, with frequent longitudinal melanonychia. Involvement of other areas, such as the genitalia and fingers, has rarely been described. LHS is a benign condition with no known systemic manifestations. We report the case of a woman who developed melanotic macules on her fingers and elbow 16 years after the onset of pigmentation of her lips. This unusual feature of LHS in our patient was associated with irritant contact dermatitis and viral warts. Only two cases of an association with an inflammatory dermatosis have been reported previously in the literature. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  2. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Hershberger, P.; Gregg, J.; Grady, C.; Collins, R.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 10 1 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml-1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 ?? ?10 8 pfu fish-1 d-1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? Inter-Research 2010.

  3. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources Call for ...

  4. Comparative Viral Metagenomics of Environmental Samples from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Whon, Tae Woong

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of metagenomics into the field of virology has facilitated the exploration of viral communities in various natural habitats. Understanding the viral ecology of a variety of sample types throughout the biosphere is important per se, but it also has potential applications in clinical and diagnostic virology. However, the procedures used by viral metagenomics may produce technical errors, such as amplification bias, while public viral databases are very limited, which may hamper the determination of the viral diversity in samples. This review considers the current state of viral metagenomics, based on examples from Korean viral metagenomic studies-i.e., rice paddy soil, fermented foods, human gut, seawater, and the near-surface atmosphere. Viral metagenomics has become widespread due to various methodological developments, and much attention has been focused on studies that consider the intrinsic role of viruses that interact with their hosts. PMID:24124407

  5. Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P.; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; DeCaprio, James A.; Cusick, Michael E.; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E.; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

  6. An unusual neuroimaging finding and response to immunotherapy in a child with genetically confirmed vanishing white matter disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul Raman; Livingston, John; Lim, Ming; Berry, Ian R; Siddiqui, Ata

    2017-03-01

    We present an unusual neuroimaging finding in a young girl with genetically confirmed vanishing white matter disease and a possible response to immunotherapy. 2.5 yr old girl, presented with acute onset unsteadiness and encephalopathy following a viral illness. MRI showed global symmetric white matter abnormality, with symmetric enhancement of cranial nerves (III and V) and of cervical and lumbar roots. She received immunotherapy for her encephalopathic illness with white matter changes. Follow up neuroimaging showed resolution of white matter edema and resolution of the change in the brainstem. Genetic testing confirmed a diagnosis of vanishing white matter disease (VWMD). Craniospinal nerve enhancement and possible response to immunotherapy has not been described in vanishing white matter disease. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concurrent Fowlpox and Candidiasis Diseases in Backyard Chickens with Unusual Pox Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Fusae; Yamamoto, Yu; Sato, Yasuo; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Goto, Makiko; Murakami, Ryukoh

    2016-09-01

    Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca. Interestingly, hyperplastic interfollicular epithelium with rare virus inclusions was observed in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Some bursal follicles were replaced by proliferating epithelial cells. These proliferating cells immunohistochemically stained positive for cytokeratin. PCR and subsequent genetic sequencing detected the C. albicans gene in the crop, and fowlpox virus genes in the BF. These results indicate that this outbreak was a rare presentation of fowlpox in spontaneously infected chickens, with unusual pox lesions in the BF.

  8. An unusual internal ribosomal entry site of inverted symmetry directs expression of a potato leafroll polerovirus replication-associated protein

    PubMed Central

    Jaag, Hannah Miriam; Kawchuk, Lawrence; Rohde, Wolfgang; Fischer, Rainer; Emans, Neil; Prüfer, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Potato leafroll polerovirus (PLRV) genomic RNA acts as a polycistronic mRNA for the production of proteins P0, P1, and P2 translated from the 5′-proximal half of the genome. Within the P1 coding region we identified a 5-kDa replication-associated protein 1 (Rap1) essential for viral multiplication. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) with unusual structure and location was identified that regulates Rap1 translation. Core structural elements for internal ribosome entry include a conserved AUG codon and a downstream GGAGAGAGAGG motif with inverted symmetry. Reporter gene expression in potato protoplasts confirmed the internal ribosome entry function. Unlike known IRES motifs, the PLRV IRES is located completely within the coding region of Rap1 at the center of the PLRV genome. PMID:12835413

  9. An unusual presentation of pseudocowpox associated with an outbreak of pustular ulcerative vulvovaginitis in a Swedish dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Gunilla; Ullman, Karin; Segall, Thomas; Hauzenberger, Elenor; Renström, Lena; Persson-Waller, Karin; Leijon, Mikael; Valarcher, Jean-Francois

    2018-03-01

    Species Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV; family Poxviridae) is known to cause pustular cutaneous disease in cattle. We describe an outbreak of pseudocowpox with an unusual clinical picture in a free-stall dairy herd of ~80 cows. Approximately 90% of the cows had vesicles, erosions, papules, and scabs on the vulva and vaginal mucosa. Histologic analysis of biopsy tissues indicated a primary, although not specified, viral infection. Transmission electron microscopy revealed parapoxvirus particles in both tissue and vesicular materials. Deep sequencing analysis of extracted DNA from swabbed vesicle areas gave a contig of nearly 120,000 nucleotides, matching the PCPV strain VR 634 with 100% identity. Analyses confirmed the absence of other potential causes of pustular vulvovaginitis such as bovine herpesvirus 1 and Ureaplasma diversum. A rolling cow brush was suspected to be the fomite.

  10. Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Therapy Against Viral Biothreat Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-12

    economy. Vaccine development is an important strategy to thwart the threat of these viral biothreat agents. There is an urgent need to improve...Alberta, Tl A 8K6. Canada E-mail: josh. wu@drdc-rddc.gc.ca .• 78 JoshQ.H. Wu existing vaccines against these agents and to develop new ones. Gene...of vaccines against viral biothreat agents. Genes encoding protective antigens of viral biothreat agents can be carried by these viral vectors and

  11. Unusual pattern of the first dorsal metacarpal artery.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Homero; Saravia, Diego; Ottone, Nicolas Ernesto

    2017-07-01

    This report describes an unusual pattern of the first dorsal metacarpal artery (FDMA) regarding its course and termination. This FDMA had an abnormal course, passing deep to various anatomical elements related to the index finger, with unusual termination in the radial and ulnar proper palmar digital arteries feeding the second and third fingers, respectively. There is no mention of this anatomical variation in the literature. We report the possible embryological origin of this case and other variations related to the FDMA. This unusual pattern represents a new reason to consider anatomical knowledge important for surgeons whose procedures are in this area and to ensure an accurate diagnosis and safe treatment of pathologies that might engage this anatomical variation.

  12. Factors affecting the stability of viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Peetermans, J

    1996-01-01

    The stability of viral vaccines is determined by the rate of loss of "integrity" of the viral antigen during storage. For live vaccines, such as measles, mumps, rubella, canine distemper, stability is equivalent to the preservation of the infectious titres. For inactivated and subunit vaccines, the preservation of the antigenic structure and the correct steric presentation of the relevant epitopes are the parameters which determine their stability. In general, the following factors may have a negative effect on stability: temperature, pH outside the physiological limits, organic solvents, repeated freezing and thawing, some antiseptics and inactivating agents, and light. However their negative effect is in most cases specific for the individual viruses. Approaches to stabilisation of most vaccines are based on the elimination or neutralisation of the negative factors. Practical examples for the most relevant existing vaccines are described.

  13. Immunological features underlying viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Broad-spectrum antivirals against viral fusion

    PubMed Central

    Vigant, Frederic; Santos, Nuno C.; Lee, Benhur

    2015-01-01

    Effective antivirals have been developed against specific viruses, such as HIV, Hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. This ‘one bug–one drug’ approach to antiviral drug development can be successful, but it may be inadequate for responding to an increasing diversity of viruses that cause significant diseases in humans. The majority of viral pathogens that cause emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are membrane-enveloped viruses, which require the fusion of viral and cell membranes for virus entry. Therefore, antivirals that target the membrane fusion process represent new paradigms for broad-spectrum antiviral discovery. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the fusion between virus and cell membranes and explore how broad-spectrum antivirals target this process to prevent virus entry. PMID:26075364

  15. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Tenorio, Alberto; Casas, Inmaculada; Pozo, Francisco; Ruiz, Guillermo; Pérez-Breña, Pilar

    2009-03-01

    Acute respiratory infection is the most common disease occurring over a person's lifetime, with etiological variations determined mainly by age, environmental circumstances, the healthcare setting, and the underlying pathology. More than 200 different viruses distributed in six viral families have been implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infection. These facts are generating an increasing diagnostic demand that should be incorporated into the healthcare setting without delay. To meet this demand, the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology has updated its Standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of viral respiratory infection. This document contains an update primarily of infections caused by influenza viruses, and secondarily, infections due to other conventional and emerging respiratory viruses. In all cases, the methods for direct virological diagnosis (cell culture, and detection of antigens and nucleic acid) are reviewed, with special reference to techniques for molecular detection and genetic characterization.

  16. Multiplexing Short Primers for Viral Family PCR

    SciT

    Gardner, S N; Hiddessen, A L; Hara, C A

    We describe a Multiplex Primer Prediction (MPP) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets for large, diverse, and unalignable sets of target sequences. The MPP algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. We applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly large number of primers ({approx}3700 18-mers or {approx}2000 10-mers) to generate amplicons from all sequenced viruses. We then designed primer sets separately for each viral family, and formore » several diverse species such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments of influenza A virus, Norwalk virus, and HIV-1.« less

  17. Lytic to temperate switching of viral communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, B.; Silveira, C. B.; Bailey, B. A.; Barott, K.; Cantu, V. A.; Cobián-Güemes, A. G.; Coutinho, F. H.; Dinsdale, E. A.; Felts, B.; Furby, K. A.; George, E. E.; Green, K. T.; Gregoracci, G. B.; Haas, A. F.; Haggerty, J. M.; Hester, E. R.; Hisakawa, N.; Kelly, L. W.; Lim, Y. W.; Little, M.; Luque, A.; McDole-Somera, T.; McNair, K.; de Oliveira, L. S.; Quistad, S. D.; Robinett, N. L.; Sala, E.; Salamon, P.; Sanchez, S. E.; Sandin, S.; Silva, G. G. Z.; Smith, J.; Sullivan, C.; Thompson, C.; Vermeij, M. J. A.; Youle, M.; Young, C.; Zgliczynski, B.; Brainard, R.; Edwards, R. A.; Nulton, J.; Thompson, F.; Rohwer, F.

    2016-03-01

    Microbial viruses can control host abundances via density-dependent lytic predator-prey dynamics. Less clear is how temperate viruses, which coexist and replicate with their host, influence microbial communities. Here we show that virus-like particles are relatively less abundant at high host densities. This suggests suppressed lysis where established models predict lytic dynamics are favoured. Meta-analysis of published viral and microbial densities showed that this trend was widespread in diverse ecosystems ranging from soil to freshwater to human lungs. Experimental manipulations showed viral densities more consistent with temperate than lytic life cycles at increasing microbial abundance. An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes showed a relative increase in the abundance of hallmark genes encoded by temperate viruses with increased microbial abundance. Based on these four lines of evidence, we propose the Piggyback-the-Winner model wherein temperate dynamics become increasingly important in ecosystems with high microbial densities; thus ‘more microbes, fewer viruses’.

  18. Viral activity in two contrasting lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bettarel, Yvan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Amblard, Christian; Dolan, John

    2004-05-01

    For aquatic systems, especially freshwaters, there is little data on the long-term (i.e., >6-month period) and depth-related variability of viruses. In this study, we examined virus-induced mortality of heterotrophic bacteria over a 10-month period and throughout the water column in two lakes of the French Massif Central, the oligomesotrophic Lake Pavin and the eutrophic Lake Aydat. Concurrently, we estimated nonviral mortality through heterotrophic nanoflagellate and ciliate bacterivory. Overall, viral infection parameters were much less variable than bacterial production. We found that the frequency of visibly infected cells (FVIC), estimated using transmission electron microscopy, peaked in both lakes at the end of spring (May to June) and in early autumn (September to October). FVIC values were significantly higher in Lake Pavin (mean [M] = 1.6%) than in Lake Aydat (M = 1.1%), whereas the opposite trend was observed for burst sizes, which averaged 25.7 and 30.2 virus particles bacterium(-1), respectively. We detected no significant depth-related differences in FVIC or burst size. We found that in both lakes the removal of bacterial production by flagellate grazing (M(Pavin) = 37.7%, M(Aydat) = 18.5%) was nearly always more than the production removed by viral lysis (M(Pavin) = 16.2%, M(Aydat) = 19%) or ciliate grazing (M(Pavin) = 2.7%, M(Aydat) = 8.8%). However, at specific times and locations, viral lysis prevailed over protistan grazing, for example, in the anoxic hypolimnion of Lake Aydat. In addition, viral mortality represented a relatively constant mortality source in a bacterial community showing large variations in growth rate and subject to large variations in loss rates from grazers. Finally, although viruses did not represent the main agent of bacterial mortality, our data seem to show that their relative importance was higher in the less productive system.

  19. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  20. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Sierra Leone in West Africa is in a Lassa fever – hyperendemic region that also includes Guinea and Li- beria. Each year...suspected Lassa fever cases result in submission of ≈500–700 samples to the Kenema Govern- ment Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory in eastern Si- erra...patients have acute diseases of unknown origin. To investigate what other ar- thropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might cause serious

  1. MRI-Guided Delivery of Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Salegio, Ernesto A; Bringas, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy has emerged as a potential avenue of treatment for many neurological disorders. Technological advances in imaging techniques allow for the monitoring of real-time infusions into the brain of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. Here, we discuss the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in the delivery of adeno-associated viral (AAV) particles into brain of nonhuman primates.

  2. Viral Immunotherapy to Eradicate Subclinical Brain Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    host innate and adaptive immune cells in metastases and normal tissues i. Months 6-21 ii. Basse Brain tissue with D2F2/E2 tumors from animals...and viral antigens which could activate memory T- cells in the draining lymphoid organs. Time course studies showed that virus infection produced a 2.6... lymphoid tissues. III. ACTIVATED NK CELLS LOCALIZE EFFICIENTLY AT TUMOR SITES The densities of NK cells found in well-established tumors in most

  3. Maintaining a low viral load with Nevirapine?

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    A study called INCAS enrolled 150 treatment-naive subjects. Half of the subjects had CD4+ counts of 370 and a viral load of about 32,000 copies. Subjects were divided into groups that received AZT and Nevirapine, ddI and Nevirapine, or AZT with ddI and Nevirapine. Researchers monitored the subjects for 1 year. Results indicated that subjects who received the triple drug combination had fewer complications and infections.

  4. Global issues related to enteric viral infections.

    PubMed

    Desselberger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral gastroenteritis is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with high annual mortality, particularly in children of developing countries. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses are the main causes. Accurate diagnoses are possible by recently developed molecular techniques. In many setups, zoonotic transmission is an important epidemiological factor. Treatment consists of rehydration and is otherwise symptomatic. The worldwide introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination of infants has significantly reduced rotavirus disease and mortality.

  5. An unusual complication of a "blind" femoral embolectomy.

    PubMed

    Karkos, Christos D; Karamanos, Dimitrios G; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios N; Demiropoulos, Filippos; Zambas, Neophytos; Gerassimidis, Thomas S

    2010-08-01

    Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms after femoral embolectomy are unusual and have been described in the peroneal, posterior tibial, and popliteal arteries. We present an unusual case of such a pseudoaneurysm originating from a medial superior genicular collateral vessel that was coming off the proximal popliteal artery at an acute angle. It is likely that the embolectomy catheter had accidentally entered this branch, which ruptured when the balloon was inflated. Transcatheter coil embolization resulted in successful thrombosis of the pseudoaneurysm. Copyright 2010 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of IPv6 Internet topology with unusual sudden changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jun; Zhao, Hai; Kathleen, M. Carley; Su, Zhan; Li, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The evolution of Internet topology is not always smooth but sometimes with unusual sudden changes. Consequently, identifying patterns of unusual topology evolution is critical for Internet topology modeling and simulation. We analyze IPv6 Internet topology evolution in IP-level graph to demonstrate how it changes in uncommon ways to restructure the Internet. After evaluating the changes of average degree, average path length, and some other metrics over time, we find that in the case of a large-scale growing the Internet becomes more robust; whereas in a top—bottom connection enhancement the Internet maintains its efficiency with links largely decreased.

  7. Nail Scabies: An Unusual Presentation Often Overlooked and Mistreated.

    PubMed

    Tempark, Therdpong; Lekwuttikarn, Ramrada; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2017-04-01

    Nail scabies is an interesting clinical presentation of scabies. Although it is usually found concomitant with characteristic dermatologic manifestations, it may present as an isolated finding in the immunocompromised host. This condition is commonly mistaken with other diseases such as nail dystrophy, nail psoriasis and onychomycosis. We report two cases of unusual nail presentations that provide clues to diagnosis. Also, literature on unusual nail and dermatologic presentations was reviewed to recognize dermatologist consideration for appropriate treatment options. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Viral antibody dynamics in a chiropteran host

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate S; Suu-Ire, Richard; Barr, Jennifer; Hayman, David T S; Broder, Christopher C; Horton, Daniel L; Durrant, Christopher; Murcia, Pablo R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N

    2014-01-01

    Bats host many viruses that are significant for human and domestic animal health, but the dynamics of these infections in their natural reservoir hosts remain poorly elucidated. In these, and other, systems, there is evidence that seasonal life-cycle events drive infection dynamics, directly impacting the risk of exposure to spillover hosts. Understanding these dynamics improves our ability to predict zoonotic spillover from the reservoir hosts. To this end, we followed henipavirus antibody levels of >100 individual E. helvum in a closed, captive, breeding population over a 30-month period, using a powerful novel antibody quantitation method. We demonstrate the presence of maternal antibodies in this system and accurately determine their longevity. We also present evidence of population-level persistence of viral infection and demonstrate periods of increased horizontal virus transmission associated with the pregnancy/lactation period. The novel findings of infection persistence and the effect of pregnancy on viral transmission, as well as an accurate quantitation of chiropteran maternal antiviral antibody half-life, provide fundamental baseline data for the continued study of viral infections in these important reservoir hosts. PMID:24111634

  9. TRIM proteins: another class of viral victims.

    PubMed

    Munir, Muhammad

    2010-04-20

    TRIM (tripartite motif) proteins are a family of RING (really interesting new gene) domain-containing proteins comprising more than 70 human members, with new members still being described. In addition to their involvement in cell proliferation, differentiation, development, morphogenesis, and apoptosis, roles in immune signaling and antiviral functions are emerging. In response to viral infection, TRIM25 ubiquitinates the N terminus of the viral RNA receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I), and this modification is essential for RIG-I to interact with its downstream partner mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). TRIM25 activity thus leads to activation of the RIG-I signaling pathway, which results in type I interferon production to limit viral replication. Recently, it has been demonstrated that influenza A viruses target TRIM25 and disable its antiviral function, thereby suppressing the host interferon response. This Journal Club article highlights the emerging roles of TRIM proteins in antiviral defense mechanisms and an immune evasion strategy in which influenza viruses target a member of the TRIM family.

  10. Metabolic reprogramming: a hallmark of viral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lévy, P; Bartosch, B

    2016-08-11

    More than 1 in 10 cases of cancer in the world are due to chronic viral infections. Viruses induce oncogenesis by targeting the same pathways known to be responsible for neoplasia in tumor cells, such as control of cell cycle progression, cell migration, proliferation and evasion from cell death and the host's immune defense. In addition, metabolic reprogramming has been identified over a century ago as a requirement for growth of transformed cells. Renewed interest in this topic has emerged recently with the discovery that basically all metabolic changes in tumor cells are finely orchestrated by oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Indeed, cancer cells activate biosynthetic pathways in order to provide them with sufficient levels of energy and building blocks to proliferate. Interestingly, viruses introduce into their host cells similar metabolic adaptations, and importantly, it seems that they depend on these changes for their persistence and amplification. The central carbon metabolism, for example, is not only frequently altered in tumor cells but also modulated by human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated virus. Moreover, adenoviruses (Ad) and human cytomegalovirus, which are not directly oncogenic but present oncomodulatory properties, also divert cellular metabolism in a tumor cell-like mnner. Thus, metabolic reprogramming appears to be a hallmark of viral infection and provides an interesting therapeutic target, in particular, for oncogenic viruses. Therapeutic targeting of metabolic pathways may not only allow to eliminate or control the viral infection but also to prevent virus-induced carcinogenesis.

  11. Biological species in the viral world.

    PubMed

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Ochman, Howard

    2018-06-05

    Due to their dependence on cellular organisms for metabolism and replication, viruses are typically named and assigned to species according to their genome structure and the original host that they infect. But because viruses often infect multiple hosts and the numbers of distinct lineages within a host can be vast, their delineation into species is often dictated by arbitrary sequence thresholds, which are highly inconsistent across lineages. Here we apply an approach to determine the boundaries of viral species based on the detection of gene flow within populations, thereby defining viral species according to the biological species concept (BSC). Despite the potential for gene transfer between highly divergent genomes, viruses, like the cellular organisms they infect, assort into reproductively isolated groups and can be organized into biological species. This approach revealed that BSC-defined viral species are often congruent with the taxonomic partitioning based on shared gene contents and host tropism, and that bacteriophages can similarly be classified in biological species. These results open the possibility to use a single, universal definition of species that is applicable across cellular and acellular lifeforms.

  12. Molecular Determinants of Enterovirus 71 Viral Entry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Song, Zilin; Qi, Yonghe; Feng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Naiqing; Sun, Yinyan; Wu, Xing; Yao, Xin; Mao, Qunyin; Li, Xiuling; Dong, Wenjuan; Wan, Xiaobo; Huang, Niu; Shen, Xinliang; Liang, Zhenglun; Li, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major pathogens that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreaks in young children in the Asia-Pacific region in recent years. Human scavenger receptor class B 2 (SCARB2) is the main cellular receptor for EV71 on target cells. The requirements of the EV71-SCARB2 interaction have not been fully characterized, and it has not been determined whether SCARB2 serves as an uncoating receptor for EV71. Here we compared the efficiency of the receptor from different species including human, horseshoe bat, mouse, and hamster and demonstrated that the residues between 144 and 151 are critical for SCARB2 binding to viral capsid protein VP1 of EV71 and seven residues from the human receptor could convert murine SCARB2, an otherwise inefficient receptor, to an efficient receptor for EV71 viral infection. We also identified that EV71 binds to SCARB2 via a canyon of VP1 around residue Gln-172. Soluble SCARB2 could convert the EV71 virions from 160 S to 135 S particles, indicating that SCARB2 is an uncoating receptor of the virus. The uncoating efficiency of SCARB2 significantly increased in an acidic environment (pH 5.6). These studies elucidated the viral capsid and receptor determinants of enterovirus 71 infection and revealed a possible target for antiviral interventions. PMID:22219187

  13. Viral vectors for therapy of neurologic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Sourav R.; Hudry, Eloise; Maguire, Casey A.; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Grandi, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Neurological disorders – disorders of the brain, spine and associated nerves – are a leading contributor to global disease burden with a shockingly large associated economic cost. Various treatment approaches – pharmaceutical medication, device-based therapy, physiotherapy, surgical intervention, among others – have been explored to alleviate the resulting extent of human suffering. In recent years, gene therapy using viral vectors – encoding a therapeutic gene or inhibitory RNA into a “gutted” viral capsid and supplying it to the nervous system – has emerged as a clinically viable option for therapy of brain disorders. In this Review, we provide an overview of the current state and advances in the field of viral vector-mediated gene therapy for neurological disorders. Vector tools and delivery methods have evolved considerably over recent years, with the goal of providing greater and safer genetic access to the central nervous system. Better etiological understanding of brain disorders has concurrently led to identification of improved therapeutic targets. We focus on the vector technology, as well as preclinical and clinical progress made thus far for brain cancer and various neurodegenerative and neurometabolic disorders, and point out the challenges and limitations that accompany this new medical modality. Finally, we explore the directions that neurological gene therapy is likely to evolve towards in the future. PMID:26905292

  14. A Viral Pilot for HCMV Navigation?

    PubMed

    Adler, Barbara

    2015-07-15

    gH/gL virion envelope glycoprotein complexes of herpesviruses serve as entry complexes and mediate viral cell tropism. By binding additional viral proteins, gH/gL forms multimeric complexes which bind to specific host cell receptors. Both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) express alternative multimeric gH/gL complexes. Relative amounts of these alternative complexes in the viral envelope determine which host cells are preferentially infected. Host cells of EBV can modulate the gH/gL complex complement of progeny viruses by cell type-dependent degradation of one of the associating proteins. Host cells of HCMV modulate the tropism of their virus progenies by releasing or not releasing virus populations with a specific gH/gL complex complement out of a heterogeneous pool of virions. The group of Jeremy Kamil has recently shown that the HCMV ER-resident protein UL148 controls integration of one of the HCMV gH/gL complexes into virions and thus creates a pool of virions which can be routed by different host cells. This first mechanistic insight into regulation of the gH/gL complex complement of HCMV progenies presents UL148 as a pilot candidate for HCMV navigation in its infected host.

  15. A Viral Pilot for HCMV Navigation?

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    gH/gL virion envelope glycoprotein complexes of herpesviruses serve as entry complexes and mediate viral cell tropism. By binding additional viral proteins, gH/gL forms multimeric complexes which bind to specific host cell receptors. Both Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) express alternative multimeric gH/gL complexes. Relative amounts of these alternative complexes in the viral envelope determine which host cells are preferentially infected. Host cells of EBV can modulate the gH/gL complex complement of progeny viruses by cell type-dependent degradation of one of the associating proteins. Host cells of HCMV modulate the tropism of their virus progenies by releasing or not releasing virus populations with a specific gH/gL complex complement out of a heterogeneous pool of virions. The group of Jeremy Kamil has recently shown that the HCMV ER-resident protein UL148 controls integration of one of the HCMV gH/gL complexes into virions and thus creates a pool of virions which can be routed by different host cells. This first mechanistic insight into regulation of the gH/gL complex complement of HCMV progenies presents UL148 as a pilot candidate for HCMV navigation in its infected host. PMID:26184287

  16. Bat rabies surveillance in France: first report of unusual mortality among serotine bats.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Wasniewski, Marine; Gaillard, Matthieu; Borel, Christophe; Cliquet, Florence

    2017-12-13

    Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus species, the majority of rabid bats being attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). In France, rabies in bats is under surveillance since 1989, with 77 positive cases reported between 1989 and 2016. In the frame of the bat rabies surveillance, an unusual mortality of serotine bats was reported in 2009 in a village in North-East France. Six juvenile bats from an E. serotinus maternity colony counting ~200 individuals were found to be infected with EBLV-1. The active surveillance of the colony by capture sessions of bats from July to September 2009 showed a high detection rate of neutralising EBLV-1 antibodies (≈ 50%) in the colony. Moreover, one out of 111 animals tested was found to shed viable virus in saliva, while lyssavirus RNA was detected by RT-PCR for five individuals. This study demonstrated that the lyssavirus infection in the serotine maternity colony was followed by a high rate of bat rabies immunity after circulation of the virus in the colony. The ratio of seropositive bats is probably indicative of an efficient virus transmission coupled to a rapid circulation of EBLV-1 in the colony.

  17. Unusual MRI findings in an immunocompetent patient with EBV encephalitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Blackground It is well-known that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can affect the central nervous system (CNS). Case presentation Herein the authors report unusual timely Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scan findings in an immunocompetent patient with EBV encephalitis. Diffusion weighted MRI sequence performed during the acute phase of the disease was normal, whereas the Fast Relaxation Fast Spin Echo T2 image showed diffuse signal intensity changes in white matter. The enhancement pattern suggested an inflammatory response restricted to the brain microcirculation. Acyclovir and corticosteroid therapy was administered. After three weeks, all signal intensities returned to normal and the patient showed clinical recovery. Conclusion This report demonstrates that EBV in an immunocompetent adult can present with diffuse, reversible brain white matter involvement in the acute phase of mononucleosis. Moreover, our case suggests that a negative DWI sequence is associated with a favorable improvement in severe EBV CNS infection. More extensive studies are needed to assess what other instrumental data can help to distinguish viral lesions from other causes in the acute phase of disease. PMID:21435249

  18. An unusual presentation of a chronic ingested foreign body in an adult.

    PubMed

    Kropf, Jesse A H; Jeanmonod, Rebecca; Yen, David M

    2013-01-01

    Sore throat is a common complaint for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Although most are caused by viral and bacterial sources, an ingested foreign body must be considered in the right patient population. Retained foreign bodies occur in both children and adults. In children, the objects are usually non-food items, whereas adults are more likely to have impacted food boluses. Typically, patients present acutely, and chronic foreign bodies are rare, especially in adults. We use an unusual presentation of a retained foreign body in a previously undiagnosed Zenker diverticulum to review ingested foreign bodies and Zenker diverticuli. We report the case of an 82-year-old woman who presented to the ED with a chief complaint of 12 h of worsening pharyngitis and odynophagia. She reported she had a capsule endoscopy performed approximately 4 months earlier during which the device had malfunctioned and no images were transmitted from beyond the esophagus. A soft tissue film of the neck showed the endoscopic capsule retained at the level of the clavicles. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated a previously undiagnosed Zenker diverticulum containing the endoscope capsule. This was subsequently removed with laryngoscopy. Complaints related to sore throat commonly have a simple explanation. Recurrent symptoms and a physical examination inconsistent with common explanations require the differential to be broadened and less common causes considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An unusual case of acute encephalitic syndrome: Is it acute measles encephalitis or subacute sclerosing panencephalitis?

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra K; Malhotra, Hardeep S; Rizvi, Imran; Kumar, Neeraj; Jain, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a late complication of measles infection and develops usually 6 to 15 years after the primary measles infection. Fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is an infrequently encountered form wherein the disease rapidly progresses to death. A six-year old male child presented with fever, abnormal movements of the left side of body followed by weakness of the left side of the body, and involuntary abnormal movements of right upper and lower limbs. On examination, he was drowsy and was unable to communicate. He had right-sided hemiballismus. He also had left-sided hemiparesis and the left plantar reflex was extensor. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated protein and cells. In the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, anti-measles IgG antibodies were found to be positive. No other viral marker was noted in the cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed extensive damage to the right temporal, parietal, and to a lesser extent, the frontal region as well as subcortical structures of these regions. Electroencephalography revealed generalized slowing of waves. Over a period of the next 3 days, the intensity and frequency of choreiform movements markedly reduced and the patient developed periodic generalized myoclonus, which was predominantly present on the right side. The patient succumbed to his illness and died after one month. Fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may have unusual clinical manifestations such as hemiballismus. In fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, neuroimaging may show extensive cortical damage.

  20. Viral Diversity, Prey Preference, and Bartonella Prevalence in Desmodus rotundus in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Amy K.; Olival, Kevin J.; Morán, David; Lopez, Maria Renee; Alvarez, Danilo; Navarrete-Macias, Isamara; Liang, Eliza; Simmons, Nancy B.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Daszak, Peter; Anthony, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Certain bat species serve as natural reservoirs for pathogens in several key viral families including henipa-, lyssa-, corona-, and filoviruses, which may pose serious threats to human health. The Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus), due to its abundance, sanguivorous feeding habit involving humans and domestic animals, and highly social behavioral ecology, may have an unusually high potential for interspecies disease transmission. Previous studies have investigated rabies dynamics in D. rotundus, yet the diversity of other viruses, bacteria, and other microbes that these bats may carry remains largely unknown. We screened 396 blood, urine, saliva, and fecal samples from D. rotundus captured in Guatemala for 13 viral families and genera. Positive results were found for rhabdovirus, adenovirus, and herpesvirus assays. We also screened these samples for Bartonella spp. and found that 38% of individuals tested positive. To characterize potential for interspecies transmission associated with feeding behavior, we also analyzed cytochrome B sequences from fecal samples to identify prey species and found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) made up the majority of blood meals. Our findings suggest that the risk of pathogen spillover from Desmodus rotundus, including between domestic animal species, is possible and warrants further investigation to characterize this microbial diversity and expand our understanding of foraging ecology in their populations. PMID:27660213

  1. Role of viral coinfections in asthma development.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, Maria Luz; Calvo, Cristina; Ruiz, Sara; Pozo, Francisco; Del Pozo, Victoria; Remedios, Laura; Exposito, Nadia; Tellez, Ana; Casas, Inmaculada

    2017-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections, especially acute bronchiolitis, play a key role in the development of asthma in childhood. However, most studies have focused on respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus infections and none of them have compared the long-term evolution of single versus double or multiple viral infections. Our aim was to compare the frequency of asthma development at 6-8 years in children with previous admission for bronchiolitis associated with single versus double or multiple viral infection. A cross-sectional study was performed in 244 children currently aged 6-8 years, previously admitted due to bronchiolitis between September 2008 and December 2011. A structured clinical interview and the ISAAC questionnaire for asthma symptoms for 6-7-year-old children, were answered by parents by telephone. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate for virological study (polymerase chain reaction) and clinical data were prospectively taken during admission for bronchiolitis. Median current age at follow-up was 7.3 years (IQR: 6.7-8.1). The rate of recurrent wheezing was 82.7% in the coinfection group and 69.7% in the single-infection group, p = 0.06. The number of wheezing-related admissions was twice as high in coinfections than in single infections, p = 0.004. Regarding the ISAAC questionnaire, 30.8% of coinfections versus 15% of single infections, p = 0.01, presented "wheezing in the last 12 months", data that strongly correlate with current prevalence of asthma. "Dry cough at night" was also reported more frequently in coinfections than in single infections, p = 0.02. The strongest independent risk factors for asthma at 6-8 years of age were: age > 9 months at admission for bronchiolitis (OR: 3.484; CI95%: 1.459-8.317, p:0.005), allergic rhinitis (OR: 5.910; 95%CI: 2.622-13.318, p<0.001), and viral coinfection-bronchiolitis (OR: 3.374; CI95%: 1.542-7.386, p:0.01). Asthma at 6-8 years is more frequent and severe in those children previously hospitalized with viral

  2. Viral Vectors for in Vivo Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thévenot, E.; Dufour, N.; Déglon, N.

    The transfer of DNA into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell (gene transfer) is a central theme of modern biology. The transfer is said to be somatic when it refers to non-germline organs of a developed individual, and germline when it concerns gametes or the fertilised egg of an animal, with the aim of transmitting the relevant genetic modification to its descendents [1]. The efficient introduction of genetic material into a somatic or germline cell and the control of its expression over time have led to major advances in understanding how genes work in vivo, i.e., in living organisms (functional genomics), but also to the development of innovative therapeutic methods (gene therapy). The efficiency of gene transfer is conditioned by the vehicle used, called the vector. Desirable features for a vector are as follows: Easy to produce high titer stocks of the vector in a reproducible way. Absence of toxicity related to transduction (transfer of genetic material into the target cell, and its expression there) and no immune reaction of the organism against the vector and/or therapeutic protein. Stability in the expression of the relevant gene over time, and the possibility of regulation, e.g., to control expression of the therapeutic protein on the physiological level, or to end expression at the end of treatment. Transduction of quiescent cells should be as efficient as transduction of dividing cells. Vectors currently used fall into two categories: non-viral and viral vectors. In non-viral vectors, the DNA is complexed with polymers, lipids, or cationic detergents (described in Chap. 3). These vectors have a low risk of toxicity and immune reaction. However, they are less efficient in vivo than viral vectors when it comes to the number of cells transduced and long-term transgene expression. (Naked DNA transfer or electroporation is rather inefficient in the organism. This type of gene transfer will not be discussed here, and the interested reader is referred to the

  3. Advances in Non-Viral DNA Vectors for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hardee, Cinnamon L.; Arévalo-Soliz, Lirio Milenka; Hornstein, Benjamin D.; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Uses of viral vectors have thus far eclipsed uses of non-viral vectors for gene therapy delivery in the clinic. Viral vectors, however, have certain issues involving genome integration, the inability to be delivered repeatedly, and possible host rejection. Fortunately, development of non-viral DNA vectors has progressed steadily, especially in plasmid vector length reduction, now allowing these tools to fill in specifically where viral or other non-viral vectors may not be the best options. In this review, we examine the improvements made to non-viral DNA gene therapy vectors, highlight opportunities for their further development, address therapeutic needs for which their use is the logical choice, and discuss their future expansion into the clinic. PMID:28208635

  4. Non-mumps Viral Parotitis During the 2014-2015 Influenza Season in the United States.

    PubMed

    Elbadawi, Lina I; Talley, Pamela; Rolfes, Melissa A; Millman, Alexander J; Reisdorf, Erik; Kramer, Natalie A; Barnes, John R; Blanton, Lenee; Christensen, Jaime; Cole, Stefanie; Danz, Tonya; Dreisig, John J; Garten, Rebecca; Haupt, Thomas; Isaac, Beth M; Jackson, Mary Anne; Kocharian, Anna; Leifer, Daniel; Martin, Karen; McHugh, Lisa; McNall, Rebecca J; Palm, Jennifer; Radford, Kay W; Robinson, Sara; Rosen, Jennifer B; Sakthivel, Senthilkumar K; Shult, Peter; Strain, Anna K; Turabelidze, George; Webber, Lori A; Weinberg, Meghan Pearce; Wentworth, David E; Whitaker, Brett L; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A; Lynfield, Ruth; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2018-03-30

    During the 2014-2015 US influenza season, 320 cases of non-mumps parotitis (NMP) among residents of 21 states were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We conducted an epidemiologic and laboratory investigation to determine viral etiologies and clinical features of NMP during this unusually large occurrence. NMP was defined as acute parotitis or other salivary gland swelling of >2 days duration in a person with a mumps- negative laboratory result. Using a standardized questionnaire, we collected demographic and clinical information. Buccal samples were tested at the CDC for selected viruses, including mumps, influenza, human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) 1-4, adenoviruses, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) 1 and 2, and human herpes viruses (HHVs) 6A and 6B. Among the 320 patients, 65% were male, median age was 14.5 years (range, 0-90), and 67% reported unilateral parotitis. Commonly reported symptoms included sore throat (55%) and fever (48%). Viruses were detected in 210 (71%) of 294 NMP patients with adequate samples for testing, ≥2 viruses were detected in 37 samples, and 248 total virus detections were made among all samples. These included 156 influenza A(H3N2), 42 HHV6B, 32 EBV, 8 HPIV2, 2 HPIV3, 3 adenovirus, 4 HSV-1, and 1 HSV-2. Influenza A(H3N2), HHV6B, and EBV were the most frequently codetected viruses. Our findings suggest that, in addition to mumps, clinicians should consider respiratory viral (influenza) and herpes viral etiologies for parotitis, particularly among patients without epidemiologic links to mumps cases or outbreaks.

  5. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis: a case with unusual radiological features.

    PubMed

    Yeşildağ, Ahmet; Senol, Altuğ; Köroğlu, Mert; Koçkar, Cem; Oyar, Orhan; Işler, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    We report a case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis presenting with unusual radiological findings that have not been reported previously. Imaging studies revealed hepatic cystic pouches communicating with intrahepatic bile ducts. Snail-like, oval shaped and conglomerated echogenic particles with no acoustic shadowing, suggesting F. hepatica, were detected in these cystic pouches. In addition, secondary sclerosing cholangitis developed after fascioliasis.

  6. Another Demo of the Unusual Thermal Properties of Rubber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liff, Mark I.

    2010-01-01

    The unusual thermal behavior of rubbers, though discovered a long time ago, can still be mind-boggling for students and teachers who encounter this class of polymeric systems. Unlike other solids, stretched elastic polymers shrink upon heating. This is a manifestation of the Gough-Joule (G-J) effect. Joule in the 1850s studied the thermal behavior…

  7. Unusual case of post-traumatic lingual paraesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tekeli, K M; Agrawal, T; Worrall, S F

    2008-03-01

    We report an unusual case of lingual paraesthesia caused by a fracture of the base of the skull involving the foramen ovale. As far as we know, lingual sensory neuropathy associated purely with a fracture of the base of the skull has not been reported before.

  8. An unusual foreign body in the preputial sac.

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, A K

    1992-01-01

    A 28 year old Indian male presented with an unusual foreign body, a penicillin bottle containing tincture of iodine, in the preputial sac. The purpose of introducing the bottle was to tickle his glans penis as a form of masturbation. The bottle was so firmly impacted that it could be removed only under general anaesthesia. Images PMID:1427809

  9. An unusual cause of stridor in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Fah, K K; Tan, H K

    1994-01-01

    We report an unusual case of unilateral vocal fold palsy due to intracranial haemorrhage in a neonate with undiagnosed haemophilia A. Bleeding disorders in neonates are briefly discussed and the importance of a systemic investigation of stridor in children is emphasized.

  10. 40 CFR 190.11 - Variances for unusual operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Variances for unusual operations. 190.11 Section 190.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental...

  11. 40 CFR 190.11 - Variances for unusual operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Variances for unusual operations. 190.11 Section 190.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental...

  12. Unusual Features of Crystal Structures of Some Simple Copper Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Bodie

    2009-01-01

    Some simple copper compounds have unusual crystal structures. Cu[subscript 3]N is cubic with N atoms at centers of octahedra formed by 6 Cu atoms. Cu[subscript 2]O (cuprite) is also cubic; O atoms are in tetrahedra formed by 4 Cu atoms. These tetrahedra are linked by sharing vertices forming two independent networks without linkages between them.…

  13. 40 CFR 190.11 - Variances for unusual operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Variances for unusual operations. 190.11 Section 190.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental...

  14. 40 CFR 190.11 - Variances for unusual operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Variances for unusual operations. 190.11 Section 190.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental...

  15. 40 CFR 190.11 - Variances for unusual operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Variances for unusual operations. 190.11 Section 190.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental...

  16. Two Cases of Melasma with Unusual Histopathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Won-Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    We reported two cases of clinically typical melasma presenting with unusual histopathologic findings. In one case, the epidermal melanocytes were markedly increased in number and protruded into the dermis, and in the other case, increased epidermal pigmentation as well as dermal melanocytosis were found. We suggested that the various treatment modalities of melasma should be applied depend on its histopathologic finding. PMID:16614533

  17. 41 CFR 101-39.206 - Seasonal or unusual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services... requirements for vehicles or related services shall inform the GSA IFMS fleet management center as far in... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Seasonal or unusual...

  18. Breast reconstruction of an unusual configuration using two paranemic implants.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Naohiro; Ando, Jiro; Harao, Michiko; Takemae, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Implant-based breast reconstruction can be performed using a choice of various types of breast implants. However, cases where the breast shapes are unsuitable for implant-based reconstruction method are occasionally encountered. We present two patients with wide trunks who underwent breast reconstruction using an unusual configuration that involved a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with two paranemic implants.

  19. Unusual blunt force wound produced by a gun muzzle.

    PubMed

    Hanzlick, R; Zaki, S A

    1986-09-01

    Most blunt force injuries produced by guns are associated with gun butts, and patterned, muzzle/sight impressions are usually produced by discharging firearms. An unusual and distinct forehead laceration produced by a blow with the muzzle end of a .32 caliber revolver is presented.

  20. Embolia cutis medicamentosa: an unusual adverse reaction to terlipressin

    PubMed Central

    Gatos-Gatopoulos, Polychronis; Kostantoudakis, Stephanos; Panayiotides, Ioannis G.; Dimitriadis, George D.; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Terlipressin is a synthetic long-acting analog of vasopressin widely used to control variceal bleeding by lowering portal venous pressure. We report an unusual adverse reaction to terlipressin in a 78-year-old patient with esophageal variceal bleeding who developed skin necrosis soon after treatment initiation. Skin biopsy revealed embolia cutis medicamentosa. PMID:29118569

  1. Observations of Spacecraft Targets, Unusual Asteroids, and Targets of Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Obtain physical and astrometric observations of: (1) spacecraft targets to support mission operations; (2) known asteroids with unusual orbits to help determine their origin; and (3) newly discovered minor planets (including both asteroids and comets) that represent a particular opportunity to add significant new knowledge of the Solar System.

  2. 46 CFR 153.1020 - Unusually toxic cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unusually toxic cargoes. 153.1020 Section 153.1020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo...

  3. 46 CFR 153.1020 - Unusually toxic cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unusually toxic cargoes. 153.1020 Section 153.1020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo...

  4. 46 CFR 153.1020 - Unusually toxic cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unusually toxic cargoes. 153.1020 Section 153.1020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo...

  5. 46 CFR 153.1020 - Unusually toxic cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusually toxic cargoes. 153.1020 Section 153.1020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo...

  6. 46 CFR 153.1020 - Unusually toxic cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unusually toxic cargoes. 153.1020 Section 153.1020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo...

  7. ASASSN-17oz: Discovery of an Unusual, Ongoing Stellar Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasinghe, T.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Prieto, J. L.; Shields, J. V.; Thompson, T. A.; Dong, Subo; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Falco, E.; Leadbeater, R.; Rupert, J.; Brimacombe, J.; Koff, R. A.; Post, R. S.

    2017-11-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014, Kochanek et al. 2017), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" (Haleakala, Hawaii) and "Leavitt" (Fort Davis, Texas) telescopes, we discovered an unusual transient source that is indicative of a stellar outburst.

  8. Underreporting of Viral Encephalitis and Viral Meningitis, Ireland, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    O’Lorcain, Piaras; Moran, Joanne; Garvey, Patricia; McKeown, Paul; Connell, Jeff; Cotter, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) and viral meningitis (VM) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the Republic of Ireland since 1981. Laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. To determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ireland during 2005–2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: Hospital In-patient Enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through Health Intelligence Ireland, laboratory confirmations from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, and events from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting surveillance system. We found that the national surveillance system underestimates the incidence of these diseases in Ireland with a 10-fold higher VE hospitalization rate and 3-fold higher VM hospitalization rate than the reporting rate. Herpesviruses were responsible for most specified VE and enteroviruses for most specified VM from all 3 sources. Recommendations from this study have been implemented to improve the surveillance of these diseases in Ireland. PMID:23965781

  9. Underreporting of viral encephalitis and viral meningitis, Ireland, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tara A; O'Lorcain, Piaras; Moran, Joanne; Garvey, Patricia; McKeown, Paul; Connell, Jeff; Cotter, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) and viral meningitis (VM) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the Republic of Ireland since 1981. Laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. To determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ireland during 2005-2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: Hospital In-patient Enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through Health Intelligence Ireland, laboratory confirmations from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, and events from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting surveillance system. We found that the national surveillance system underestimates the incidence of these diseases in Ireland with a 10-fold higher VE hospitalization rate and 3-fold higher VM hospitalization rate than the reporting rate. Herpesviruses were responsible for most specified VE and enteroviruses for most specified VM from all 3 sources. Recommendations from this study have been implemented to improve the surveillance of these diseases in Ireland.

  10. KSHV encoded ORF59 modulates histone arginine methylation of the viral genome to promote viral reactivation

    PubMed Central

    McDowell-Sargent, Maria; Uppal, Timsy; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar

    2017-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) persists in a highly-ordered chromatin structure inside latently infected cells with the majority of the viral genome having repressive marks. However, upon reactivation the viral chromatin landscape changes into ‘open’ chromatin through the involvement of lysine demethylases and methyltransferases. Besides methylation of lysine residues of histone H3, arginine methylation of histone H4 plays an important role in controlling the compactness of the chromatin. Symmetric methylation of histone H4 at arginine 3 (H4R3me2s) negatively affects the methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), an active epigenetic mark deposited on the viral chromatin during reactivation. We identified a novel binding partner to KSHV viral DNA processivity factor, ORF59-a protein arginine methyl transferase 5 (PRMT5). PRMT5 is an arginine methyltransferase that dimethylates arginine 3 (R3) of histone H4 in a symmetric manner, one hallmark of condensed chromatin. Our ChIP-seq data of symmetrically methylated H4 arginine 3 showed a significant decrease in H4R3me2s on the viral genome of reactivated cells as compared to the latent cells. Reduction in arginine methylation correlated with the binding of ORF59 on the viral chromatin and disruption of PRMT5 from its adapter protein, COPR5 (cooperator of PRMT5). Binding of PRMT5 through COPR5 is important for symmetric methylation of H4R3 and the expression of ORF59 competitively reduces the association of PRMT5 with COPR5, leading to a reduction in PRMT5 mediated arginine methylation. This ultimately resulted in a reduced level of symmetrically methylated H4R3 and increased levels of H3K4me3 marks, contributing to the formation of an open chromatin for transcription and DNA replication. Depletion of PRMT5 levels led to a decrease in symmetric methylation and increase in viral gene transcription confirming the role of PRMT5 in viral reactivation. In conclusion, ORF59 modulates histone

  11. KSHV encoded ORF59 modulates histone arginine methylation of the viral genome to promote viral reactivation.

    PubMed

    Strahan, Roxanne C; McDowell-Sargent, Maria; Uppal, Timsy; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Verma, Subhash C

    2017-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) persists in a highly-ordered chromatin structure inside latently infected cells with the majority of the viral genome having repressive marks. However, upon reactivation the viral chromatin landscape changes into 'open' chromatin through the involvement of lysine demethylases and methyltransferases. Besides methylation of lysine residues of histone H3, arginine methylation of histone H4 plays an important role in controlling the compactness of the chromatin. Symmetric methylation of histone H4 at arginine 3 (H4R3me2s) negatively affects the methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), an active epigenetic mark deposited on the viral chromatin during reactivation. We identified a novel binding partner to KSHV viral DNA processivity factor, ORF59-a protein arginine methyl transferase 5 (PRMT5). PRMT5 is an arginine methyltransferase that dimethylates arginine 3 (R3) of histone H4 in a symmetric manner, one hallmark of condensed chromatin. Our ChIP-seq data of symmetrically methylated H4 arginine 3 showed a significant decrease in H4R3me2s on the viral genome of reactivated cells as compared to the latent cells. Reduction in arginine methylation correlated with the binding of ORF59 on the viral chromatin and disruption of PRMT5 from its adapter protein, COPR5 (cooperator of PRMT5). Binding of PRMT5 through COPR5 is important for symmetric methylation of H4R3 and the expression of ORF59 competitively reduces the association of PRMT5 with COPR5, leading to a reduction in PRMT5 mediated arginine methylation. This ultimately resulted in a reduced level of symmetrically methylated H4R3 and increased levels of H3K4me3 marks, contributing to the formation of an open chromatin for transcription and DNA replication. Depletion of PRMT5 levels led to a decrease in symmetric methylation and increase in viral gene transcription confirming the role of PRMT5 in viral reactivation. In conclusion, ORF59 modulates histone

  12. An unusual renal manifestation of chronic HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Ananthakrishnapuram; Yong, Jim; Killingsworth, Murray; Strasser, Simone; Suranyi, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis B viral infection is usually a self-limiting disease in immunocompetent individuals. Chronic infection can be seen in up to 5% of infected patients. Renal manifestations of chronic HBV infection are usually glomerular. We describe here an uncommon presentation of a patient with chronic HBV infection with very high viral load and rapidly progressive renal failure. Renal biopsy showed features of tubulointerstitial nephritis and tubular epithelial inclusion bodies suggestive of HBV infection. Entecavir treatment slowed down the progression of his renal disease. Tubulointerstitial nephritis should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis in patients with HBV infection. Early antiviral treatment may halt the progression of renal disease.

  13. Viral coinfection in childhood respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Roig, A; Salvadó, M; Caballero-Rabasco, M A; Sánchez-Buenavida, A; López-Segura, N; Bonet-Alcaina, M

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of molecular techniques has enabled better understanding of the etiology of respiratory tract infections in children. The objective of the study was to analyze viral coinfection and its relationship to clinical severity. Hospitalized pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory infection were studied during the period between 2009-2010. Clinical and epidemiological data, duration of hospitalization, need for oxygen therapy, bacterial coinfection and need for mechanical ventilation were collected. Etiology was studied by multiplex PCR and low-density microarrays for 19 viruses. A total of 385 patients were positive, 44.94% under 12 months. The most frequently detected viruses were RSV-B: 139, rhinovirus: 114, RSV-A: 111, influenza A H1N1-2009: 93 and bocavirus: 77. Coinfection was detected in 61.81%, 36.36% with 2 viruses, 16.10% and 9.35% with 3 to 4 or more. Coinfection was higher in 2009 with 69.79 vs. 53.88% in 2010. Rhinovirus/RSV-B on 10 times and RSV-A/RSV-B on 5 times were the most detected coinfections. Hospitalization decreased with greater number of viruses (P<0,001). Oxygen therapy was required by 26.75% (one virus was detected in 55.34% of cases). A larger number of viruses resulted in less need for oxygen (P<0,001). Ten cases required mechanical ventilation, 4 patients with bacterial coinfection and 5 with viral coinfection (P=0,69). An inverse relationship was found between the number of viruses detected in nasopharyngeal aspirate, the need for oxygen therapy and hospitalization days. More epidemiological studies and improved quantitative detection techniques are needed to define the role of viral coinfections in respiratory disease and its correlation with the clinical severity. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available.

  15. Replacement of Murine Leukemia Virus Readthrough Mechanism by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Frameshift Allows Synthesis of Viral Proteins and Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Brakier-Gingras, Léa; Lemay, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Retroviruses use unusual recoding strategies to synthesize the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor of viral enzymes. In human immunodeficiency virus, ribosomes translating full-length viral RNA can shift back by 1 nucleotide at a specific site defined by the presence of both a slippery sequence and a downstream stimulatory element made of an extensive secondary structure. This so-called frameshift mechanism could become a target for the development of novel antiviral strategies. A different recoding strategy is used by other retroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses, to synthesize the Gag-Pol precursor; in this case, a stop codon is suppressed in a readthrough process, again due to the presence of a specific structure adopted by the mRNA. Development of antiframeshift agents will greatly benefit from the availability of a simple animal and virus model. For this purpose, the murine leukemia virus readthrough region was rendered inactive by mutagenesis and the frameshift region of human immunodeficiency virus was inserted to generate a chimeric provirus. This substitution of readthrough by frameshift allows the synthesis of viral proteins, and the chimeric provirus sequence was found to generate infectious viruses. This system could be a most interesting alternative to study ribosomal frameshift in the context of a virus amenable to the use of a simple animal model. PMID:12584361

  16. [Decimeter-wave physiotherapy in viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kents, V V; Mavrodiĭ, V M

    1995-01-01

    Effectiveness was evaluated of magnetotherapy, inductothermy, UNF electric field and electromagnetic waves of decimetric wave band (460 MHz) on the projection of the liver, adrenals and thyroid gland in controlled trials enrolling a total of 835 patients with viral hepatitis (type A, B, associated forms). A conclusion is reached that optimum effectiveness of decimetric field on the projection of the adrenals and thyroid gland can be achieved through the application of minimum power and everyday alternation of exposures. It has been estimated that as many as 69 percent of the patients derive benefit from the above treatment.

  17. Current status and strategies for viral hepatitis control in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Dong Hyun; Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Choi, Moon Seok

    2017-09-01

    Viral hepatitis is one of major global health challenges with increasing disease burden worldwide. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are major causes of chronic liver diseases. They can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death in significant portion of affected people. Transmission of hepatitis B virus can be blocked by vaccination. Progression of hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases can be prevented by long-term viral suppression with effective drugs. Although vaccine for hepatitis C virus is currently unavailable, hepatitis C virus infection can be eradicated by oral direct antiviral agents. To eliminate viral hepatitis, World Health Organization (WHO) has urged countries to develop national goals and targets through reducing 90% of new infections and providing universal access to key treatment services up to 80%. This can lead to 65% reduction of viral hepatitis-related mortality. Here, we discuss some key features of viral hepatitis, strategies to control viral hepatitis suggested by WHO, and current status and strategies for viral hepatitis control in South Korea. To achieve the goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 in South Korea, an independent 'viral hepatitis sector' in Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) needs to be established to organize and execute comprehensive strategy for the management of viral hepatitis in South Korea.

  18. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    SciT

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set ofmore » unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of

  19. Broad Surveys of DNA Viral Diversity Obtained through Viral Metagenomics of Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Willner, Dana L.; Lim, Yan Wei; Schmieder, Robert; Chau, Betty; Nilsson, Christina; Anthony, Simon; Ruan, Yijun; Rohwer, Forest; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes. PMID:21674005

  20. Molecular pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Basler, Christopher F

    2017-07-01

    The clinical syndrome referred to as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) can be caused by several different families of RNA viruses, including select members of the arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, filoviruses, and flaviviruses. VHF is characterized by malaise, fever, vascular permeability, decreased plasma volume, coagulation abnormalities, and varying degrees of hemorrhage. Study of the filovirus Ebola virus has demonstrated a critical role for suppression of innate antiviral defenses in viral pathogenesis. Additionally, antigen-presenting cells are targets of productive infection and immune dysregulation. Among these cell populations, monocytes and macrophages are proposed to produce damaging inflammatory cytokines, while infected dendritic cells fail to undergo proper maturation, potentially impairing adaptive immunity. Uncontrolled virus replication and accompanying inflammatory responses are thought to promote vascular leakage and coagulopathy. However, the specific molecular pathways that underlie these features of VHF remain poorly understood. The arenavirus Lassa virus and the flavivirus yellow fever virus exhibit similar molecular pathogenesis suggesting common underlying mechanisms. Because non-human primate models that closely mimic VHF are available for Ebola, Lassa, and yellow fever viruses, we propose that comparative molecular studies using these models will yield new insights into the molecular underpinnings of VHF and suggest new therapeutic approaches.

  1. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Winton, James; Kurath, Gael; Batts, William

    2007-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is considered to be one of the most important viral pathogens of finfish and is listed as reportable by many nations and international organizations (Office International des Epizooties 2006). Prior to 1988, VHSV was thought to be limited to Europe (Wolf 1988; Smail 1999). Subsequently, it was shown that the virus is endemic among many marine and anadromous fish species in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005). Genetic analysis reveals that isolates of VHSV can be divided into four genotypes that generally correlate with geographic location with the North American isolates generally falling into VHSV Genotype IV (Snow et al. 2004). In 2005-2006, reports from the Great Lakes region indicated that wild fish had experienced disease or, in some cases, very large die-offs from VHSV (Elsayed et al. 2006, Lumsden et al. 2007). The new strain from the Great Lakes, now identified as VHSV Genotype IVb, appears most closely related to isolates of VHSV from mortalities that occurred during 2000-2004 in rivers and near-shore areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada (Gagne et al. 2007). The type IVb isolate found in the Great Lakes region is the only strain outside of Europe that has been associated with significant mortality in freshwater species.

  2. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  3. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping point" and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  4. Persistent viral infections and immune aging.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Stefan; Herndler-Brandstetter, Dietmar; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2011-07-01

    Immunosenescence comprises a set of dynamic changes occurring to both, the innate as well as the adaptive immune system that accompany human aging and result in complex manifestations of still poorly defined deficiencies in the elderly population. One of the most prominent alterations during aging is the continuous involution of the thymus gland which is almost complete by the age of 50. Consequently, the output of naïve T cells is greatly diminished in elderly individuals which puts pressure on homeostatic forces to maintain a steady T cell pool for most of adulthood. In a great proportion of the human population, this fragile balance is challenged by persistent viral infections, especially Cytomegalovirus (CMV), that oblige certain T cell clones to monoclonally expand repeatedly over a lifetime which then occupy space within the T cell pool. Eventually, these inflated memory T cell clones become exhausted and their extensive accumulation accelerates the age-dependent decline of the diversity of the T cell pool. As a consequence, infectious diseases are more frequent and severe in elderly persons and immunological protection following vaccination is reduced. This review therefore aims to shed light on how various types of persistent viral infections, especially CMV, influence the aging of the immune system and highlight potential measures to prevent the age-related decline in immune function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Viral genetic variation accounts for a third of variability in HIV-1 set-point viral load in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blanquart, François; Wymant, Chris; Cornelissen, Marion; Gall, Astrid; Bakker, Margreet; Bezemer, Daniela; Hall, Matthew; Hillebregt, Mariska; Ong, Swee Hoe; Albert, Jan; Bannert, Norbert; Fellay, Jacques; Fransen, Katrien; Gourlay, Annabelle J; Grabowski, M Kate; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Günthard, Huldrych F; Kivelä, Pia; Kouyos, Roger; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Liitsola, Kirsi; Meyer, Laurence; Porter, Kholoud; Ristola, Matti; van Sighem, Ard; Vanham, Guido; Berkhout, Ben; Kellam, Paul; Reiss, Peter; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    HIV-1 set-point viral load-the approximately stable value of viraemia in the first years of chronic infection-is a strong predictor of clinical outcome and is highly variable across infected individuals. To better understand HIV-1 pathogenesis and the evolution of the viral population, we must quantify the heritability of set-point viral load, which is the fraction of variation in this phenotype attributable to viral genetic variation. However, current estimates of heritability vary widely, from 6% to 59%. Here we used a dataset of 2,028 seroconverters infected between 1985 and 2013 from 5 European countries (Belgium, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and estimated the heritability of set-point viral load at 31% (CI 15%-43%). Specifically, heritability was measured using models of character evolution describing how viral load evolves on the phylogeny of whole-genome viral sequences. In contrast to previous studies, (i) we measured viral loads using standardized assays on a sample collected in a strict time window of 6 to 24 months after infection, from which the viral genome was also sequenced; (ii) we compared 2 models of character evolution, the classical "Brownian motion" model and another model ("Ornstein-Uhlenbeck") that includes stabilising selection on viral load; (iii) we controlled for covariates, including age and sex, which may inflate estimates of heritability; and (iv) we developed a goodness of fit test based on the correlation of viral loads in cherries of the phylogenetic tree, showing that both models of character evolution fit the data well. An overall heritability of 31% (CI 15%-43%) is consistent with other studies based on regression of viral load in donor-recipient pairs. Thus, about a third of variation in HIV-1 virulence is attributable to viral genetic variation.

  6. Viral genetic variation accounts for a third of variability in HIV-1 set-point viral load in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wymant, Chris; Cornelissen, Marion; Gall, Astrid; Bakker, Margreet; Bezemer, Daniela; Hall, Matthew; Hillebregt, Mariska; Ong, Swee Hoe; Albert, Jan; Bannert, Norbert; Fellay, Jacques; Fransen, Katrien; Gourlay, Annabelle J.; Grabowski, M. Kate; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Kivelä, Pia; Kouyos, Roger; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Liitsola, Kirsi; Meyer, Laurence; Porter, Kholoud; Ristola, Matti; van Sighem, Ard; Vanham, Guido; Berkhout, Ben; Kellam, Paul; Reiss, Peter; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 set-point viral load—the approximately stable value of viraemia in the first years of chronic infection—is a strong predictor of clinical outcome and is highly variable across infected individuals. To better understand HIV-1 pathogenesis and the evolution of the viral population, we must quantify the heritability of set-point viral load, which is the fraction of variation in this phenotype attributable to viral genetic variation. However, current estimates of heritability vary widely, from 6% to 59%. Here we used a dataset of 2,028 seroconverters infected between 1985 and 2013 from 5 European countries (Belgium, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and estimated the heritability of set-point viral load at 31% (CI 15%–43%). Specifically, heritability was measured using models of character evolution describing how viral load evolves on the phylogeny of whole-genome viral sequences. In contrast to previous studies, (i) we measured viral loads using standardized assays on a sample collected in a strict time window of 6 to 24 months after infection, from which the viral genome was also sequenced; (ii) we compared 2 models of character evolution, the classical “Brownian motion” model and another model (“Ornstein–Uhlenbeck”) that includes stabilising selection on viral load; (iii) we controlled for covariates, including age and sex, which may inflate estimates of heritability; and (iv) we developed a goodness of fit test based on the correlation of viral loads in cherries of the phylogenetic tree, showing that both models of character evolution fit the data well. An overall heritability of 31% (CI 15%–43%) is consistent with other studies based on regression of viral load in donor–recipient pairs. Thus, about a third of variation in HIV-1 virulence is attributable to viral genetic variation. PMID:28604782

  7. Viral Evasion and Manipulation of Host RNA Quality Control Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to maximize the functional and coding capacities of their genetic material. Individual viral RNAs are often used as substrates for both replication and translation and can contain multiple, sometimes overlapping open reading frames. Further, viral RNAs engage in a wide variety of interactions with both host and viral proteins to modify the activities of important cellular factors and direct their own trafficking, packaging, localization, stability, and translation. However, adaptations increasing the information density of small viral genomes can have unintended consequences. In particular, viral RNAs have developed features that mark them as potential targets of host RNA quality control pathways. This minireview focuses on ways in which viral RNAs run afoul of the cellular mRNA quality control and decay machinery, as well as on strategies developed by viruses to circumvent or exploit cellular mRNA surveillance. PMID:27226372

  8. Viral Evasion and Manipulation of Host RNA Quality Control Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hogg, J Robert

    2016-08-15

    Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to maximize the functional and coding capacities of their genetic material. Individual viral RNAs are often used as substrates for both replication and translation and can contain multiple, sometimes overlapping open reading frames. Further, viral RNAs engage in a wide variety of interactions with both host and viral proteins to modify the activities of important cellular factors and direct their own trafficking, packaging, localization, stability, and translation. However, adaptations increasing the information density of small viral genomes can have unintended consequences. In particular, viral RNAs have developed features that mark them as potential targets of host RNA quality control pathways. This minireview focuses on ways in which viral RNAs run afoul of the cellular mRNA quality control and decay machinery, as well as on strategies developed by viruses to circumvent or exploit cellular mRNA surveillance. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Exploring viral infection using single-cell sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rato, Sylvie; Golumbeanu, Monica; Telenti, Amalio; Ciuffi, Angela

    2017-07-15

    Single-cell sequencing (SCS) has emerged as a valuable tool to study cellular heterogeneity in diverse fields, including virology. By studying the viral and cellular genome and/or transcriptome, the dynamics of viral infection can be investigated at single cell level. Most studies have explored the impact of cell-to-cell variation on the viral life cycle from the point of view of the virus, by analyzing viral sequences, and from the point of view of the cell, mainly by analyzing the cellular host transcriptome. In this review, we will focus on recent studies that use single-cell sequencing to explore viral diversity and cell variability in response to viral replication. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibitor-Based Therapeutics for Treatment of Viral Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2016-09-28

    Viral hepatitis remains a significant worldwide threat, in spite of the availability of several successful therapeutic and vaccination strategies. Complications associated with acute and chronic infections, such as liver failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, are the cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Given the significant burden on the healthcare system caused by viral hepatitis, it is essential that novel, more effective therapeutics be developed. The present review attempts to summarize the current treatments against viral hepatitis, and provides an outline for upcoming, promising new therapeutics. Development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of the viral life cycles and viral effectors in molecular detail. As such, this review also discusses virally-encoded effectors, found to be essential for virus survival and replication in the host milieu, which may be utilized as potential candidates for development of alternative therapies in the future.

  11. Silencing and innate immunity in plant defense against viral and non-viral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zvereva, Anna S; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2012-10-29

    The frontline of plant defense against non-viral pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and oomycetes is provided by transmembrane pattern recognition receptors that detect conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), leading to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). To counteract this innate defense, pathogens deploy effector proteins with a primary function to suppress PTI. In specific cases, plants have evolved intracellular resistance (R) proteins detecting isolate-specific pathogen effectors, leading to effector-triggered immunity (ETI), an amplified version of PTI, often associated with hypersensitive response (HR) and programmed cell death (PCD). In the case of plant viruses, no conserved PAMP was identified so far and the primary plant defense is thought to be based mainly on RNA silencing, an evolutionary conserved, sequence-specific mechanism that regulates gene expression and chromatin states and represses invasive nucleic acids such as transposons. Endogenous silencing pathways generate 21-24 nt small (s)RNAs, miRNAs and short interfering (si)RNAs, that repress genes post-transcriptionally and/or transcriptionally. Four distinct Dicer-like (DCL) proteins, which normally produce endogenous miRNAs and siRNAs, all contribute to the biogenesis of viral siRNAs in infected plants. Growing evidence indicates that RNA silencing also contributes to plant defense against non-viral pathogens. Conversely, PTI-based innate responses may contribute to antiviral defense. Intracellular R proteins of the same NB-LRR family are able to recognize both non-viral effectors and avirulence (Avr) proteins of RNA viruses, and, as a result, trigger HR and PCD in virus-resistant hosts. In some cases, viral Avr proteins also function as silencing suppressors. We hypothesize that RNA silencing and innate immunity (PTI and ETI) function in concert to fight plant viruses. Viruses counteract this dual defense by effectors that suppress both PTI-/ETI-based innate responses and RNA

  12. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1982-09-01

    Samples of hibonite, black rim, and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, named HAL, were analyzed by INAA and RNAA for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. An unusually low amount of Ce was found in HAL, although it otherwise was highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os, and Ir relative to other refractory elements. It is concluded that the distribution of REE between hibonite and rims was established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. Possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are considered to be in ejecta from the low temperature helium-burning zone of a supernova and in the locally oxidizing environment generated by evaporation of interstellar grains of near-chondritic chemical composition.

  13. Skin, ear and testis--unusual sites of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ene, Cătălina Elena; Toma, Claudia; Belaconi, Ionela; Dumitrache-Rujinski, Stefan; Jipa, Daniela; Tudor, Adrian; Leonte, Diana; Bogdan, Miron Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary localization is the most common site of tuberculosis (TB)and the most contagious form. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis with the rarest and most unexpected localizations represents a significant proportion of all cases of tuberculosis and remains an important public health problem. We report three unusual TB locations: skin, ear and testis occurred in three immunocompetent patients. In the case of skin and testicular lesions, diagnosis was based on pathological confirmation of granulomas with caseous necrosis. In the third case the diagnosis was made possible by identification of positive Acid-Fast Bacilli smear and positive culture from othic drainage fluid. The outcome at all three patients was good with antituberculous treatment. These unusual localization of tuberculosis also highlight the possibility of extrapulmonary tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis in many common diseases.

  14. Rigor mortis in an unusual position: Forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepak H; Harish, S; Rajesh, M; Kiran, J

    2011-07-01

    We report a case in which the dead body was found with rigor mortis in an unusual position. The dead body was lying on its back with limbs raised, defying gravity. Direction of the salivary stains on the face was also defying the gravity. We opined that the scene of occurrence of crime is unlikely to be the final place where the dead body was found. The clues were revealing a homicidal offence and an attempt to destroy the evidence. The forensic use of 'rigor mortis in an unusual position' is in furthering the investigations, and the scientific confirmation of two facts - the scene of death (occurrence) is different from the scene of disposal of dead body, and time gap between the two places.

  15. Rigor mortis in an unusual position: Forensic considerations

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Deepak H; Harish, S; Rajesh, M.; Kiran, J

    2011-01-01

    We report a case in which the dead body was found with rigor mortis in an unusual position. The dead body was lying on its back with limbs raised, defying gravity. Direction of the salivary stains on the face was also defying the gravity. We opined that the scene of occurrence of crime is unlikely to be the final place where the dead body was found. The clues were revealing a homicidal offence and an attempt to destroy the evidence. The forensic use of ‘rigor mortis in an unusual position’ is in furthering the investigations, and the scientific confirmation of two facts - the scene of death (occurrence) is different from the scene of disposal of dead body, and time gap between the two places. PMID:23776792

  16. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of hibonite, black rim, and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, named HAL, were analyzed by INAA and RNAA for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. An unusually low amount of Ce was found in HAL, although it otherwise was highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os, and Ir relative to other refractory elements. It is concluded that the distribution of REE between hibonite and rims was established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. Possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are considered to be in ejecta from the low temperature helium-burning zone of a supernova and in the locally oxidizing environment generated by evaporation of interstellar grains of near-chondritic chemical composition.

  17. A gravitational lens candidate with an unusually red optical counterpart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, J. N.; Turner, E. L.; Lawrence, C. R.; Schneider, D. P.; Brody, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of the strong radio source MG0414 + 0534 are described. It is found to display many of the properties expected in a gravitational lens system. At radio wavelengths and 0.5-arcsec resolution, MG0414 + 0534 is made up of four compact components whose unusual configuration and relative flux densities are similar to those found in confirmed four-image gravitational lens systems. At optical wavelengths three objects are detected, consistent with there being optical objects at the positions of the radio components, given the lower optical resolution. The radio and optical centroid positions agree within the astrometric errors, and the relative ordering of the fluxes is the same. The colors and radiooptical spectral indices are similar, but there are differences larger than the photometric errors and the measured variability (about 30 percent). Extinction by dust might simultaneously explain the unusually red color and the absence of light from a lens.

  18. An Unusual Transorbital Penetrating Injury and Principles of Management

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Andrew Peter; El-Sawy, Abdel Hamid; Rejali, Darius Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present an unusual low velocity transorbital penetrating injury. The study design was a clinical record (case report). A 38-year-old gentleman tripped and fell face first onto the wing of an ornamental brass eagle. This penetrated the inferomedial aspect of the right orbit, breaching the lamina papyracea to extend into the ethmoid sinuses and reaching the dura of the anterior cranial fossa. The foreign body was removed in theater under a joint ophthalmology and ENT procedure. The patient was left with reduced visual acuity in the right eye but no other long-term sequelae. Transorbital penetrating injury presents unusual challenges to investigation and management requiring a multidisciplinary approach to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. If managed well the prognosis is good. PMID:25383154

  19. An unusual case of severe primary molar infraocclusion.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Juliana Oliveira; Neto, José Jeová Siebra Moreira; de Carvalho, Fernanda Matias; da Costa, Raquel Campelo Ferreira; Monteiro, Aline Levi Baratta; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Dentoalveolar ankylosis is described as the direct union between root cementum/dentin and alveolar bone. Its etiology is unknown, and conflicting opinions have been presented to explain it. Late detection of ankylosed primary teeth may cause serious problems to the occlusion and generally demands a more complex treatment approach. The purpose of this report is to present an unusual case of severe infraocclusion of the primary maxillary right second molar associated with a posterior crossbite in a 6-year-old child. The initial treatment option was tooth extraction, but the tooth resumed eruption spontaneously. After correction of the posterior crossbite and a 1-year follow-up, the tooth remained in occlusion and the permanent successor was developing without problems. From this unusual outcome, it may be concluded that further investigation of this anomaly of eruption is needed.

  20. Unusual larval habitats and life history of chironomid (Diptera) genera

    Hudson, Patrick L.

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-three genera, representing all subfamilies of Chironomidae, are organized into 9 categories of unusual habitats or life history including hygropetric, riparian (bank, floodplain, upland), hyporheic, symbiotic, and intertidal; others live in water held in plants or mine into unusual substrates. In riparian zones precise location of optimum habitat is difficult to determine as is definition of habitat within the continuum from shoreline to upland areas. The ecological importance of the riparian group appears to lie in its processing of coarse particulate matter along the floodplain of streams and rivers. All riparian genera are zoogeographically useful and can be used in reconstructing evolutionary dispersal pathways because they are adapted to unique habits that have remained largely undisturbed by human activities.

  1. Myopericytoma proliferating in an unusual anastomosing multinodular fashion.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Misago, Noriyuki; Asami, Akihiko; Tokunaga, Osamu; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    We herein describe a case of myopericytoma that proliferated in an unusual fashion. Myopericytoma is described as a group of rare, benign, dermal or subcutaneous tumors that are characterized histologically by a striking, concentric, perivascular proliferation of spindle cells and showing apparent differentiation towards perivascular myoid cells. Myopericytoma forms a morphological continuum with myofibroma/myofibromatosis, glomus tumor and angioleiomyoma. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who demonstrated a recurrent ulcer on an atrophic plaque on her left shin. A histopathological examination of the plaque demonstrated that tumor cells proliferated in an anastomosing multinodular fashion along the vessels in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. In those nodules, there were numerous, small, concentric proliferations of myoid-appearing spindle cells around small vascular lumina. The present case is an unusual example of myopericytoma, manifesting in a characteristic anastomosing, multinodular, infiltrating fashion. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. An unusual case of calcineurine inhibitor pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nickavar, Azar; Mehrazma, Mitra; Hallaji, Farideh

    2014-09-01

    Cyclosporine induced pain syndrome (CIPS) is a newly diagnosed complication of calcineurine inhibitors, mainly observed in solid organ and hematopoetic transplantations. The present case is a male child with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome on low therapeutic level cyclosporine treatment. He presented with intractable and debilitating leg pain, with no reported history of previous injury or trauma. The pain was reluctant to antimicrobial and sedative treatment. MRI revealed bone marrow and soft tissue edema in the mid shaft of patient's right leg. Inspite of unusual manifestations, CIPS was suggested and cyclosporine discontinued. However, the pain did not improve and was resistant to calcium blocker. Subsequently, core decompression was performed as an unusual treatment of CIPS, revealing normal bone morphology. The pain improved rapidly and the patient was discharged a few days later.

  3. An unusual transorbital penetrating injury and principles of management.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Andrew Peter; El-Sawy, Abdel Hamid; Rejali, Darius Stephen

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to present an unusual low velocity transorbital penetrating injury. The study design was a clinical record (case report). A 38-year-old gentleman tripped and fell face first onto the wing of an ornamental brass eagle. This penetrated the inferomedial aspect of the right orbit, breaching the lamina papyracea to extend into the ethmoid sinuses and reaching the dura of the anterior cranial fossa. The foreign body was removed in theater under a joint ophthalmology and ENT procedure. The patient was left with reduced visual acuity in the right eye but no other long-term sequelae. Transorbital penetrating injury presents unusual challenges to investigation and management requiring a multidisciplinary approach to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. If managed well the prognosis is good.

  4. The Relationship between Clinical Presentation and Unusual Sensory Interests in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ben-Itzchak, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Unusual responses to sensory stimuli have been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).The study examined the frequencies of "unusual sensory interests" and "negative sensory responses" and their relation to functioning in a large ASD population (n = 679). Having "unusual sensory interests" was reported in 70.4%…

  5. Viral load of patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Carla María; Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2015-11-01

    Hantavirus causes severe illness including pneumonia, which leads to hospitalization and often death. At present, there is no specific treatment available. The hantavirus pathogenesis is not well understood, but most likely both virus-mediated and host-mediated mechanisms, are involved. The aim of this study was to correlate viral load in samples of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and hantavirus infected individuals, with clinical epidemiological parameters and disease outcome. The variables that could potentially be related with viral load were analyzed. The retrospective study included 73 cases or household contacts, with different clinical evolution. Viral load was measured by reverse-transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. There was no statistically significant association between blood viral RNA levels and severity of disease. However, viral load was inversely correlated with IgG response in a statistically significant manner. The level of viral RNA was significantly higher in patients infected with Andes virus South lineage, and was markedly low in persons infected with Laguna Negra virus. These results suggest that the infecting viral genotype is associated with disease severity, and that high viral load is associated with a low specific IgG response. Sex, age and disease severity were not related with viral load. Further investigations increasing strikingly the number of cases and also limiting the variables to be studied are necessary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Viral loads of cerebrospinal fluid in infants with enterovirus meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hisashi; Ioi, Hiroaki; Ishii, Chiako; Hasegawa, Yuka; Amaha, Masahiro; Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Takekuma, Kouji; Hoshika, Akinori; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    For a better understanding of the role of the viral load, free radicals, and cytokines in viral meningitis, we surveyed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from patients below 1 year of age who showed positive for enterovirus. In their first examinations interleukin (IL)-6 and free radicals increased whereas pleocytosis was rarely observed. IL-6 decreased within the short period. Viral loads and free radicals increased simultaneously. IL-6 and free radicals of CSF are helpful for diagnosis and treatment of viral meningitis at an early stage. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Unusual extension of the first branchial cleft anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ada, Mehmet; Korkut, Nazim; Güvenç, M Güven; Acioğlu, Engin; Yilmaz, Süleyman; Cevikbaş, Uğur

    2006-03-01

    First branchial cleft is the only branchial structure that persists as the external ear canal, while all other clefts are resorbed. Incomplete obliteration and the degree of closure cause the varied types of first branchial cleft anomalies. They were classified based on the anatomical and histological features. We present an unusual type of first branchial cleft anomaly involving the external auditory canal, the middle ear and the nasopharynx through the eustachian tube.

  8. 2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE DUE TO THE COMBINATION OF UNIT 24 BEING DOWN FOR REWINDING AND TWO UNITS COMING ON LINE UNEXPECTEDLY AT ROSS POWERHOUSE LED TO WATER FLOWING OVER THE SPILLGATES. EACH GATE IF 47 FEET WIDE AND 50 FEET HIGH, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  9. An unusual burn caused by hot argy wormwood leaf water

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xun; Chen, Xu-Lin; Wang, Fei; Guo, Feng

    2011-01-01

    An unusual burn case caused by hot wormwood leaf water was discussed. A 29-year-old woman sustained a 7% second-degree burn on both buttocks and left thigh. This case report highlights a rare cause of a chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of this Chinese traditional medicine. The prevention measures of this burn injury were also presented. PMID:24765332

  10. An unusual burn caused by hot argy wormwood leaf water

    PubMed Central

    Liang, X.; Chen, X.-L.; Wang, F.; Guo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary An unusual burn case caused by hot wormwood leaf water is discussed. A 29-yr-old woman sustained a 7% seconddegree burn on both buttocks and the left thigh. This case report highlights a rare cause of chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of this method of traditional Chinese medicine. Measures for preventing this type of burn injury are also presented. PMID:22396673

  11. Strange Horizons: Teaching Usual and Unusual Atmospheric Effects using APOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Unusual Sun and moonsets are not only photogenic -- they are educational. Images appearing on the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) that demonstrate dramatic examples of the green flash, the Moon illusion, Fata Morgana, and the Etruscan vase effect are discussed in terms of how they demonstrate atmospheric refraction, chromatic aberration, and temperature inversions. A lesson plan is given for undergraduate classrooms as well as estimates of how each effect might alter the perceived time of a common sunset.

  12. Pedunculated and Telangiectatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Errichetti, Enzo; Piccirillo, Angelo; Ricciuti, Federico; Ricciuti, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin that classically presents on chronic sun-damaged skin as a skin-colored, red or violaceous, firm and nontender papule or nodule with a smooth and shiny surface. Ulcerations can be observed very seldom and only in very advanced lesions. We present a unique case of a MCC presenting with two unusual clinical features: The Telangiectatic surface and the pedunculated aspect. PMID:23723504

  13. Pedunculated and telangiectatic merkel cell carcinoma: an unusual clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; Piccirillo, Angelo; Ricciuti, Federico; Ricciuti, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin that classically presents on chronic sun-damaged skin as a skin-colored, red or violaceous, firm and nontender papule or nodule with a smooth and shiny surface. Ulcerations can be observed very seldom and only in very advanced lesions. We present a unique case of a MCC presenting with two unusual clinical features: The Telangiectatic surface and the pedunculated aspect.

  14. Conservative multidisciplinary treatment approach in an unusual odontodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Y; Harnik, J; Becker, A; Shapira, J

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of odontodysplasia is presented, involving both primary and permanent dentition, with oligodontia of permanent teeth and hypoplasia, taurodontism and incomplete eruption of a first permanent molar. In order to improve the patient's appearance, occlusion and function, his intra- and inter-arch relationships were altered. To accomplish this, a multidisciplinary treatment approach was adopted, involving restorative and prosthetic treatments by a pediatric dentist, accompanied by periodontal surgery, endodontics and orthodontics.

  15. Unusual presentation of Enterobius vermicularis in conjunctival sac.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Ranadeep; Banerjee, Arup Kumar

    2015-10-01

    We report an unusual case of extraintestinal infection with adult Enterobius vermicularis worms in the conjunctival sac of a two-and-a-half year old boy from Alipurduar, West Bengal, India. Only two other similar cases have been reported in the English literature, one from Assam, India in 1976, and the other from Illinois and California in 2011. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Unusual Clinical Presentation of Hemobilia with Recurrent Vasovagal Episodes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Hammad, Tariq; Sharma, Himani; Qamar, Khola; Khan, Mohammad Saud; Khan, Zubair; Nawras, Ali; Sodeman, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hemobilia is caused by the abnormal connection between a blood vessel and the bile duct, which is usually iatrogenic and caused by hepatobiliary procedures. The classic triad of hemobilia includes biliary colic, obstructive jaundice, and gastrointestinal bleeding. We present the case of an 80-year-old man who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy complicated by hemobilia. He had an unusual presentation of hemobilia in the form of transient vasovagal episodes in addition to abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  17. Queensland tick typhus: three cases with unusual clinical features.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P A; Tierney, L; Lai, K; Graves, S

    2013-07-01

    Queensland tick typhus (QTT), caused by Rickettsia australis, is usually a relatively mild illness but can occasionally be severe. We describe three cases of probable QTT with unusual clinical features, namely splenic infarction, fulminant myopericarditis and severe leukocytoclastic vasculitis. QTT may present with uncommon clinical features in addition to the more common manifestations. A high index of suspicion enables specific antibiotic therapy that may hasten recovery. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. A rectangular Ni-Fe cluster with unusual cyanide bridges.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christoph; Sato, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Takuto; Shiga, Takuya; Newton, Graham N; Renz, Franz; Oshio, Hiroki

    2012-10-07

    An asymmetric polycyanide iron complex, K(2)[Fe(III)(L1)(CN)(4)](MeOH) (HL1 = 2,2'-(1H-pyrazole-3,5-diyl)bis-pyridine), was synthesized and its complexation compatibility with nickel ions was examined. Two kinds of enantiomeric nickel-iron squares were obtained in the presence of a chiral bidentate capping ligand. The compounds display unusual cyanide bridge geometry and have ferromagnetic interactions between nickel and iron ions.

  19. Mineralogy of an unusual CM clast in the Kaidun meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Ivanov, A. V.; Yang, S. V.; Barrett, R. A.; Browning, L.

    1994-01-01

    Kaidun is breccia of disparate enstatite and carbonaceous chondrite clasts, and continues to provide real surprises. Many Daidun clasts have been intensely altered by an aqueous fluid, as evidenced by the widespread occurrence of ferromagnesian phyllosilicates and presence of carbonate- and phyllosilicate-filled veins. In this report we describe an unusual CM lithology containing beautiful aggregates of jackstraw pyrrhotites, not previously reported from any meteorite.

  20. Collagenous gastritis: an unusual association with profound weight loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanlin L; Shah, Amit G; Yerian, Lisa M; Cohen, Russell D; Hart, John

    2004-02-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a distinctive disorder characterized by thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer in the gastric mucosa. Although this entity was recognized in 1989, its etiology, pathogenesis, and clinicopathologic features remain poorly understood because of its rarity. An unusual case of collagenous gastritis was observed in a 37-year-old man who presented with profound weight loss, a feature that has not previously been emphasized.