Science.gov

Sample records for zoonotic disease risk

  1. Zoonotic disease risk perceptions in the British veterinary profession.

    PubMed

    Robin, Charlotte; Bettridge, Judy; McMaster, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    In human and veterinary medicine, reducing the risk of occupationally-acquired infections relies on effective infection prevention and control practices (IPCs). In veterinary medicine, zoonoses present a risk to practitioners, yet little is known about how these risks are understood and how this translates into health protective behaviour. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions within the British veterinary profession and identify motivators and barriers to compliance with IPCs. A cross-sectional study was conducted using veterinary practices registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Here we demonstrate that compliance with IPCs is influenced by more than just knowledge and experience, and understanding of risk is complex and multifactorial. Out of 252 respondents, the majority were not concerned about the risk of zoonoses (57.5%); however, a considerable proportion (34.9%) was. Overall, 44.0% of respondents reported contracting a confirmed or suspected zoonoses, most frequently dermatophytosis (58.6%). In veterinary professionals who had previous experience of managing zoonotic cases, time or financial constraints and a concern for adverse animal reactions were not perceived as barriers to use of personal protective equipment (PPE). For those working in large animal practice, the most significant motivator for using PPE was concerns over liability. When assessing responses to a range of different "infection control attitudes", veterinary nurses tended to have a more positive perspective, compared with veterinary surgeons. Our results demonstrate that IPCs are not always adhered to, and factors influencing motivators and barriers to compliance are not simply based on knowledge and experience. Educating veterinary professionals may help improve compliance to a certain extent, however increased knowledge does not necessarily equate to an increase in risk-mitigating behaviour. This highlights that the construction of risk is complex and

  2. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  3. Beyond bushmeat: Animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Sarah B.; Frost, Simon D.W.; Gibson, Mhairi A.; Holland, James; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M.; Ting, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/ 1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where “bushmeat hunting” is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:24845574

  4. Beyond bushmeat: animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Paige, Sarah B; Frost, Simon D W; Gibson, Mhairi A; Jones, James Holland; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M; Ting, Nelson; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long-term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where "bushmeat hunting" is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission.

  5. Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Jaspal Singh; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Gupta, Aparna; Singh, Jaswinder; Chahal, Udeybir Singh

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab. 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire, which contained both open and close ended questions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc. Knowledge scorecard was developed, and each correct answer was awarded one mark, and each incorrect answer was given zero mark. Respondents were categorized into low (mean - ½ standard deviation [SD]), moderate (mean ± ½ SD), and high knowledge (Mean + ½ SD) category based on the mean and SD. The information about independent variables viz., age, education, and herd size were collected with the help of structured schedule and scales. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and results were prepared to assess awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Majority of the respondents had age up to 40 years (70%), had their qualification from primary to higher secondary level (77.6%), and had their herd size up to 10 animals (79.6%). About 51.2% and 54.0% respondents had the history of abortion and retained placenta, respectively, at their farms. The respondents not only disposed off the infected placenta (35.6%), aborted fetus (39.6%), or feces (56.4%) from a diarrheic animal but also gave intrauterine medication (23.2%) bare-handedly. About 3.6-69.6% respondents consumed uncooked or unpasteurized animal products. About 84.8%, 46.0%, 32.8%, 4.61%, and 92.4% of livestock farmers were aware of zoonotic nature of rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, and bird flu, respectively. The 55.6%, 67.2%, 52.0%, 64.0%, and 51.2% respondents were aware of the transmission of zoonotic diseases to human being through contaminated milk, meat, air, feed, or through contact with infected animals, respectively. The transmission of rabies through dog bite (98.4%), need of post

  6. Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ≥ 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households

  7. Modelling risk aversion to support decision-making for controlling zoonotic livestock diseases.

    PubMed

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bergevoet, R H M; Ge, L

    2013-12-01

    Zoonotic infectious livestock diseases are becoming a significant burden for both animal and human health and are rapidly gaining the attention of decision-makers who manage public health programmes. If control decisions have only monetary components, governments are generally regarded as being risk-neutral and the intervention strategy with the highest expected benefit (lowest expected net costs) should be preferred. However, preferences will differ and alternative intervention plans will prevail if (human) life and death outcomes are involved. A rational decision framework must therefore consider risk aversion in the decision-maker and controversial values related to public health. In the present study, risk aversion and its impact on both the utility for the monetary component and the utility for the non-monetary component is shown to be an important element when dealing with emerging zoonotic infectious livestock diseases and should not be ignored in the understanding and support of decision-making. The decision framework was applied to several control strategies for the reduction of human cases of brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) originating from sheep in Turkey.

  8. Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer G; Jung, Sherry; Holman, Robert C; Marano, Nina N; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2008-06-15

    OBJECTIVE-To assess the knowledge and use of infection control practices (ICPs) among US veterinarians. DESIGN-Anonymous mail-out population survey. PROCEDURES-In 2005 a questionnaire was mailed to US small animal, large animal, and equine veterinarians who were randomly selected from the AVMA membership to assess precaution awareness (PA) and veterinarians' perceptions of zoonotic disease risks. Respondents were assigned a PA score (0 to 4) on the basis of their responses (higher scores representing higher stringency of ICPs); within a practice type, respondents' scores were categorized as being within the upper 25% or lower 75% of scores (high and low PA ranking, respectively). Characteristics associated with low PA rankings were assessed. RESULTS-Generally, respondents did not engage in protective behaviors or use personal protective equipment considered appropriate to protect against zoonotic disease transmission. Small animal and equine veterinarians employed in practices that had no written infection control policy were significantly more likely to have low PA ranking. Male gender was associated with low PA ranking among small animal and large animal veterinarians; equine practitioners not working in a teaching or referral hospital were more likely to have low PA ranking than equine practitioners working in such institutions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results indicated that most US veterinarians are not aware of appropriate personal protective equipment use and do not engage in practices that may help reduce zoonotic disease transmission. Gender differences may influence personal choices for ICPs. Provision of information and training on ICPs and establishment of written infection control policies could be effective means of improving ICPs in veterinary practices.

  9. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F.; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H.; Graham, Jay P.

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27928092

  10. Zoonotic Diseases--Fostering Awareness in Critical Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Metre, David C.; Morley, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are shared between humans and other vertebrate animals. Extension professionals often serve as consultants and educators to individuals at high risk of zoonotic diseases, such as participants in 4-H livestock projects. Effective education about zoonotic diseases begins with an awareness of the…

  11. Zoonotic risks from small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ganter, M

    2015-12-14

    Zoonoses are infections that spread naturally between species (sometimes by a vector) from animals to other animal species or to humans or from humans to animals. Most of the zoonoses diagnosed in sheep and goats are transmitted by close contact of man with these animals and are, more often, occupational diseases that principally affect breeders, veterinarians and/or slaughterhouse workers. Some other diseases have an airborne transmission and affect the population in the vicinity of sheep/goat farms. Due to the fact that small ruminants are almost the only remaining animals which are migrating in industrialised countries, there is a severe risk for transmitting the diseases. Some other zoonotic diseases are foodborne diseases, which are mainly transmitted from animals to humans and to other animal species by contaminated food and water. Within the last decade central Europe was threatened by some new infections, e.g., bluetongue disease and schmallenberg disease, which although not of zoonotic interest, are caused by pathogens transmitted by vectors. Causal agents of both diseases have found highly effective indigenous vectors. In the future, climate change may possibly modify conditions for the vectors and influence their distribution and competence. By this, other vector-borne zoonotic infections may propagate into former disease free countries. Changes in human behaviour in consummation and processing of food, in animal housing and management may also influence future risks for zoonosis. Monitoring, prevention and control measures are proposed to limit further epidemics and to enable the containment of outbreaks. Measures depend mainly on the damage evoked or anticipated by the disease, the local situation, and the epidemiology of the zoonoses, the presence of the infective agent in wild and other animals, as well as the resistance of the causal microorganisms in the environment and the possibility to breed sheep and goats which are resistant to specific

  12. Review of Nonfoodborne Zoonotic and Potentially Zoonotic Poultry Diseases.

    PubMed

    Agunos, Agnes; Pierson, F William; Lungu, Bwalya; Dunn, Patricia A; Tablante, Nathaniel

    2016-09-01

    Emerging and re-emerging diseases are continuously diagnosed in poultry species. A few of these diseases are known to cross the species barrier, thus posing a public health risk and an economic burden. We identified and synthesized global evidence for poultry nonfoodborne zoonoses to better understand these diseases in people who were exposed to different poultry-related characteristics (e.g., occupational or nonoccupational, operational types, poultry species, outbreak conditions, health status of flocks). This review builds on current knowledge on poultry zoonoses/potentially zoonotic agents transmitted via the nonfoodborne route. It also identifies research gaps and potential intervention points within the poultry industry to reduce zoonotic transmission by using various knowledge synthesis tools such as systematic review (SR) and qualitative (descriptive) and quantitative synthesis methods (i.e., meta-analysis). Overall, 1663 abstracts were screened and 156 relevant articles were selected for further review. Full articles (in English) were retrieved and critically appraised using routine SR methods. In total, eight known zoonotic diseases were reviewed: avian influenza (AI) virus (n = 85 articles), Newcastle disease virus (n = 8), West Nile virus (WNV, n = 2), avian Chlamydia (n = 24), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (n = 3), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, n = 15), Ornithonyssus sylvarium (n = 4), and Microsporum gallinae (n = 3). In addition, articles on other viral poultry pathogens (n = 5) and poultry respiratory allergens derived from mites and fungi (n = 7) were reviewed. The level of investigations (e.g., exposure history, risk factor, clinical disease in epidemiologically linked poultry, molecular studies) to establish zoonotic linkages varied across disease agents and across studies. Based on the multiple outcome measures captured in this review, AI virus seems to be the poultry zoonotic pathogen that may have considerable and

  13. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks Among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H; Graham, Jay P

    2016-12-07

    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Socio-demographic study on extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, K.; Bhattacharya, A.; David, S.; Balaji, S. Hari; Hariharan, R.; Jayakumar, M.; Balaji, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly from eight revenue villages. And each farmer was interviewed with a questionnaire containing both open- and close-ended questions on various aspects of zoonotic diseases, a total of 49 questionnaires were framed to assess the source and transmission of infection to the farmers and to test their knowledge and awareness about zoonotic diseases. The data collected were analyzed by chi-square test using software Graph pad prism, and results were used to assess the relationship between education level and zoonotic disease awareness; risk of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Results: The present survey analysis represents that most of the respondents are belonging to the age group of 41-60 years. About 42.8% of respondents’ household having a graduate. The most of the respondent are small-scale farmers and their monthly income was less than Rs. 10,000. About 61.2% of farmers were keeping their animal shed clean. About 29.6% of the respondents were ignorant about cleaning the dog bitten wound. Only 16.4% of respondents knew that diseases in animals can be transmitted to humans. Only 4.8%, 3.6%, 6.8%, and 22.4% of respondents knew about the zoonotic potential of diseases such as brucellosis, tuberculosis (TB), anthrax, and avian flu, respectively. Only 18% of the respondents were aware about zoonotic diseases from cattle. Regarding the list of zoonotic diseases contracted, 37.7% reported respiratory infection, 31.1% digestive disturbances, 15.5% had dermatological problem, and 15.5% reported indiscrete disease such as fever, body pain, and headache joint pain. From the respondent got the zoonotic disease (n=45), 51.2% of the respondent reported chronic infection and 48.8% of the respondent reported acute

  15. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets.

    PubMed

    Greatorex, Zoe F; Olson, Sarah H; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity.

  16. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets

    PubMed Central

    Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E.; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B.; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O’Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity. PMID:27008628

  17. Zoonotic disease risk perceptions and infection control practices of Australian veterinarians: call for change in work culture.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Karen; Taylor, Melanie; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Hooker, Claire; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of zoonotic disease risk among Australian veterinarians, the infection control practices they use to protect themselves from zoonotic diseases, and the factors influencing their use of these protective practices. A questionnaire was designed and piloted prior to its administration to veterinarians at the annual Australian Veterinary Association Conference in May 2011. The questionnaire comprised 21 closed, semi-closed and open questions. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression analyses to determine significant factors for veterinarians' use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A total of 344 veterinarians completed the questionnaire of which 63.7% were women, 63.2% worked in small/companion animal practice, and 79.9% worked in private veterinary practice. Of the respondents, 44.9% reported contracting a zoonosis during their careers with 19.7% reporting a suspected case and 25.2% reporting a confirmed incidence. Around 40-60% of veterinarians perceived exposure to zoonosis likely or very likely in a variety of situations. With reference to current national industry guidelines, the reported use of PPE was less than "adequate" for most scenarios except for performing postmortems, surgery or dental procedures. No PPE was used by 60-70% of veterinarians for treating respiratory and neurological cases and by 40-50% when treating gastrointestinal and dermatological cases. Workplace conditions need improvement as 34.8% of workplaces did not have isolation units for infected animals, 21.1% did not have separate eating areas for staff, and 57.1% did not have complete PPE kits for use. Veterinarians were more likely to use PPE if they had undertaken postgraduate education, perceived that zoonosis exposure from animals and procedures was likely, consciously considered PPE use for every case they dealt with and believed that liability issues and risks encouraged use of PPE. In contrast

  18. Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  19. Interdisciplinary approaches to zoonotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Robin; Schley, David; Lai, Ka-Man; Ceddia, Graziano M.; Barnett, Julie; Cook, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Zoonotic infections are on the increase worldwide, but most research into the biological, environmental and life science aspects of these infections has been conducted in separation. In this review we bring together contemporary research in these areas to suggest a new, symbiotic framework which recognises the interaction of biological, economic, psychological, and natural and built environmental drivers in zoonotic infection and transmission. In doing so, we propose that some contemporary debates in zoonotic research could be resolved using an expanded framework which explicitly takes into account the combination of motivated and habitual human behaviour, environmental and biological constraints, and their interactions. PMID:24470951

  20. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Barbara A.; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E.; Drake, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States. PMID:26038558

  1. Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in Kenya, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Bitek, Austine; Osoro, Eric; Pieracci, Emily G.; Muema, Josephat; Mwatondo, Athman; Kungu, Mathew; Nanyingi, Mark; Gharpure, Radhika; Njenga, Kariuki; Thumbi, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic diseases have varying public health burden and socio-economic impact across time and geographical settings making their prioritization for prevention and control important at the national level. We conducted systematic prioritization of zoonotic diseases and developed a ranked list of these diseases that would guide allocation of resources to enhance their surveillance, prevention, and control. Methods A group of 36 medical, veterinary, and wildlife experts in zoonoses from government, research institutions and universities in Kenya prioritized 36 diseases using a semi-quantitative One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with slight adaptations. The tool comprises five steps: listing of zoonotic diseases to be prioritized, development of ranking criteria, weighting criteria by pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchical process, scoring each zoonotic disease based on the criteria, and aggregation of scores. Results In order of importance, the participants identified severity of illness in humans, epidemic/pandemic potential in humans, socio-economic burden, prevalence/incidence and availability of interventions (weighted scores assigned to each criteria were 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.17 and 0.17 respectively), as the criteria to define the relative importance of the diseases. The top five priority diseases in descending order of ranking were anthrax, trypanosomiasis, rabies, brucellosis and Rift Valley fever. Conclusion Although less prominently mentioned, neglected zoonotic diseases ranked highly compared to those with epidemic potential suggesting these endemic diseases cause substantial public health burden. The list of priority zoonotic disease is crucial for the targeted allocation of resources and informing disease prevention and control programs for zoonoses in Kenya. PMID:27557120

  2. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to

  3. Disease ecology and the global emergence of zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bruce A; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-09-01

    The incidence and frequency of epidemic transmission of zoonotic diseases, both known and newly recognized, has increased dramatically in the past 30 years. It is thought that this dramatic disease emergence is primarily the result of the social, demographic, and environmental transformation that has occurred globally since World War II. However, the causal linkages have not been elucidated. Investigating emerging zoonotic pathogens as an ecological phenomenon can provide significant insights as to why some of these pathogens have jumped species and caused major epidemics in humans. A review of concepts and theory from biological ecology and of causal factors in disease emergence previously described suggests a general model of global zoonotic disease emergence. The model links demographic and societal factors to land use and land cover change whose associated ecological factors help explain disease emergence. The scale and magnitude of these changes are more significant than those associated with climate change, the effects of which are largely not yet understood. Unfortunately, the complex character and non-linear behavior of the human-natural systems in which host-pathogen systems are embedded makes specific incidences of disease emergence or epidemics inherently difficult to predict. Employing a complex systems analytical approach, however, may show how a few key ecological variables and system properties, including the adaptive capacity of institutions, explains the emergence of infectious diseases and how an integrated, multi-level approach to zoonotic disease control can reduce risk.

  4. The common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion.

    PubMed

    Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystosis) and trypanosomiasis are the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion which caused by single-celled protozoan parasites; Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum , Sarcocystis spp and Trypanosoma evansi, respectively. Toxoplasmosis is generally considered the most important disease that causing abortion of both pregnant women and different female animals throughout the world, about third of human being population had antibodies against T. gondii . The infection can pass via placenta, causing encephalitis, chorio-retinitis, mental retardation and loss of vision in congenitally-infected children and stillbirth or mummification of the aborted fetuses of livestock. Neosporosis is recognized as a major cause of serious abortion in varieties of wild and domestic animals around the world particularly cattle, the disease cause serious economic losses among dairy and beef cattle due to decrease in milk and meat production. While unlike toxoplasmosis, neosporosis is not recognized as a human pathogen and evidence to date shows that neosporosis is only detected by serology in the human population. Sarcosporidiosis also can cause abortion in animals particularly cattle, buffaloes and sheep with acute infection through high dose of infection with sarcocysts. On the other hand, humans have been reported as final and intermediate host for sarcosporidiosis but not represent a serious health problem. Trypanosomiasis by T. evansi cause dangerous infection among domestic animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Several cases of abortion had been recorded in cattle and buffaloes infected with T. evansi while, a single case of human infection was reported in India. Trichomoniasis and babesiosis abortion occurs with non-zoonotic Trichomonas and Babesia species while the zoonotic species had not been incriminated in induction of abortion in both animals and man. The current review article concluded that there is still

  5. Household Animal and Human Medicine Use and Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Risk Factors for Emerging Zoonotic Disease and Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Roess, A A; Winch, P J; Akhter, A; Afroz, D; Ali, N A; Shah, R; Begum, N; Seraji, H R; El Arifeen, S; Darmstadt, G L; Baqui, A H

    2015-11-01

    Animal antimicrobial use and husbandry practices increase risk of emerging zoonotic disease and antibiotic resistance. We surveyed 700 households to elicit information on human and animal medicine use and husbandry practices. Households that owned livestock (n = 265/459, 57.7%) reported using animal treatments 630 times during the previous 6 months; 57.6% obtained medicines, including antibiotics, from drug sellers. Government animal healthcare providers were rarely visited (9.7%), and respondents more often sought animal health care from pharmacies and village doctors (70.6% and 11.9%, respectively), citing the latter two as less costly and more successful based on past performance. Animal husbandry practices that could promote the transmission of microbes from animals to humans included the following: the proximity of chickens to humans (50.1% of households reported that the chickens slept in the bedroom); the shared use of natural bodies of water for human and animal bathing (78.3%); the use of livestock waste as fertilizer (60.9%); and gender roles that dictate that females are the primary caretakers of poultry and children (62.8%). In the absence of an effective animal healthcare system, villagers must depend on informal healthcare providers for treatment of their animals. Suboptimal use of antimicrobials coupled with unhygienic animal husbandry practices is an important risk factor for emerging zoonotic disease and resistant pathogens. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Understanding and Managing Zoonotic Risk in the New Livestock Industries

    PubMed Central

    Waage, Jeff; Barnett, Tony; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Rushton, Jonathan; Rudge, James W.; Loevinsohn, Michael E.; Scoones, Ian; Smith, Richard D.; Cooper, Ben S.; White, Lisa J.; Goh, Shan; Horby, Peter; Wren, Brendan; Gundogdu, Ozan; Woods, Abigail; Coker, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In many parts of the world, livestock production is undergoing a process of rapid intensification. The health implications of this development are uncertain. Intensification creates cheaper products, allowing more people to access animal-based foods. However, some practices associated with intensification may contribute to zoonotic disease emergence and spread: for example, the sustained use of antibiotics, concentration of animals in confined units, and long distances and frequent movement of livestock. Objectives: Here we present the diverse range of ecological, biological, and socioeconomic factors likely to enhance or reduce zoonotic risk, and identify ways in which a comprehensive risk analysis may be conducted by using an interdisciplinary approach. We also offer a conceptual framework to guide systematic research on this problem. Discussion: We recommend that interdisciplinary work on zoonotic risk should take into account the complexity of risk environments, rather than limiting studies to simple linear causal relations between risk drivers and disease emergence and/or spread. In addition, interdisciplinary integration is needed at different levels of analysis, from the study of risk environments to the identification of policy options for risk management. Conclusion: Given rapid changes in livestock production systems and their potential health implications at the local and global level, the problem we analyze here is of great importance for environmental health and development. Although we offer a systematic interdisciplinary approach to understand and address these implications, we recognize that further research is needed to clarify methodological and practical questions arising from the integration of the natural and social sciences. PMID:23665854

  7. Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part I--nonparasitic zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Armstrong, J

    2002-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease ranging from mild and self-limiting to fatal. The risk of development of a zoonotic disease can be lessened by early recognition of infected animals, proper animal handling, basic biosecurity precautions, and, most importantly, personal hygiene.

  8. Sarcoptic mange: a zoonotic ectoparasitic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic.

  9. Sarcoptic Mange: A Zoonotic Ectoparasitic Skin Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic. PMID:23450734

  10. Zoonotic diseases: health aspects of Canadian geese.

    PubMed

    Dieter, R A; Dieter, R S; Dieter, R A; Gulliver, G

    2001-11-01

    Review zoonotic diseases associated with Canadian geese. Review article: A review of the multiple physical, microbiologic and safety concerns, and methods used in controlling this potential problem. Over the last decade the Canadian goose population (protected by international treaties and protection acts) has increased rapidly such that in many cities they have become a pest rather than an admired wild bird. Their increasing numbers have caused a number of potential healthcare concerns including: physical, bacterial, parasitic, allergic and viral potential problems. The Canadian goose fecal droppings of one per minute have caused falls and the flying geese have caused air traffic accidents. Bacterial concerns, including botulism, salmonella and E. coli have all been reviewed and presented concerns. The viral Newcastle disease may be detected with hemagglutination studies and the Giardia psittaci parasites have been repeatedly found in their droppings. The Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes have been present on stool study. Definite links to human infectious diseases have been difficult to prove. Revision of the current laws and new control programs must be developed.

  11. Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, Peter; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Burke, Donald S.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of new zoonotic agents requires knowledge of pathogen biodiversity in wildlife, human-wildlife interactions, anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations, and changes in society and human behavior. We discuss an interdisciplinary approach combining virology, wildlife biology, disease ecology, and anthropology that enables better understanding of how deforestation and associated hunting leads to the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens. PMID:16485465

  12. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  13. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.

    PubMed

    Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States.

  14. Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States. PMID:23297259

  15. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bukachi, Salome; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a ‘One Health’ approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies—trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya—we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of ‘structural violence’ that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an ‘anti-political’ focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584177

  16. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Bukachi, Salome; Leach, Melissa; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian; Wilkinson, Annie

    2017-07-19

    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a 'One Health' approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies-trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya-we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of 'structural violence' that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an 'anti-political' focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Plant-based oral vaccines against zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Naila; Daniell, Henry

    2016-11-01

    The shared diseases between animals and humans are known as zoonotic diseases and spread infectious diseases among humans. Zoonotic diseases are not only a major burden to livestock industry but also threaten humans accounting for >60% cases of human illness. About 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans have been reported to originate from zoonotic pathogens. Because antibiotics are frequently used to protect livestock from bacterial diseases, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is now a major concern. Live attenuated and killed vaccines are the only option to control these infectious diseases and this approach has been used since 1890. However, major problems with this approach include high cost and injectable vaccines is impractical for >20 billion poultry animals or fish in aquaculture. Plants offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against animal diseases because of their low cost, and they are free of attenuated pathogens and cold chain requirement. Therefore, several plant-based vaccines against human and animals diseases have been developed recently that undergo clinical and regulatory approval. Plant-based vaccines serve as ideal booster vaccines that could eliminate multiple boosters of attenuated bacteria or viruses, but requirement of injectable priming with adjuvant is a current limitation. So, new approaches like oral vaccines are needed to overcome this challenge. In this review, we discuss the progress made in plant-based vaccines against zoonotic or other animal diseases and future challenges in advancing this field. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, Do Thuy; Siembieda, Jennifer; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Hung, Pham; Ky, Van Dang; Bandyopahyay, Santanu; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2015-12-30

    Prioritization of zoonotic diseases is critical as it facilitates optimization of resources, greater understanding of zoonotic diseases and implementation of policies promoting multisectoral collaboration. This study aimed to establish strategic priorities for zoonotic diseases in Vietnam taking a key stakeholder approach. Two weeks prior to a workshop on zoonotic diseases a questionnaire was developed and posted to key professionals involved in different areas of zoonotic disease management in Vietnam. Respondents were asked to assess the relative priority of 12 zoonotic diseases using a number of evidence-based criteria, and to provide suggestions to strengthen multisectoral collaboration. A response rate of 69% (51/74) was obtained, and 75% (38/51) respondents worked in non-international Vietnamese organizations. Respondents identified the top five diseases for prioritization in Vietnam as: avian influenza, rabies, Streptococcus suis infection, pandemic influenza and foodborne bacterial diseases. The three criteria most used to rank diseases were severity of disease, outbreak potential and public attention. Avian influenza was ranked as the number one priority zoonotic disease in Vietnam by 57% of the respondents, followed by rabies (18%). Respondents identified coordination mechanisms, information sharing and capacity building as the most important areas for strengthening to enhance multisectoral collaboration. This study is the first systematic and broad-based attempt to prioritize zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam using key stakeholders, and a comparative and transparent method. There is limited literature for policy makers and planners on this topic and the results of this study can be used to guide decision-making.

  19. Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD): Rare Disease of Zoonotic Origin.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, M

    2016-09-01

    Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a rare tick borne zoonotic disease that causes acute febrile hemorrhagic illness in humans and monkeys especially in southern part of India. The disease is caused by highly pathogenic KFD virus (KFDV) which belongs to member of the genus Flavivirus and family Flaviviridae. The disease is transmitted to monkeys and humans by infective tick Haemaphysalisspinigera. Seasonal outbreaks are expected to occur during the months of January to June. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the epidemiology, mode of transmission of KFD virus, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of the disease..

  20. Zoonotic viral diseases and the frontier of early diagnosis, control and prevention.

    PubMed

    Heeney, J L

    2006-11-01

    Public awareness of the human health risks of zoonotic infections has grown in recent years. Currently, concern of H5N1 flu transmission from migratory bird populations has increased with foci of fatal human cases. This comes on the heels of other major zoonotic viral epidemics in the last decade. These include other acute emerging or re-emerging viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West-Nile virus, Ebola virus, monkeypox, as well as the more inapparent insidious slow viral and prion diseases. Virus infections with zoonotic potential can become serious killers once they are able to establish the necessary adaptations for efficient human-to-human transmission under circumstances sufficient to reach epidemic proportions. The monitoring and early diagnosis of these potential risks are overlapping frontiers of human and veterinary medicine. Here, current viral zoonotics and evolving threats are reviewed.

  1. Zoonotic diseases associated with reptiles and amphibians: an update.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Reptiles and amphibians are popular as pets. There are increased concerns among public health officials because of the zoonotic potential associated with these animals. Encounters with reptiles and amphibians are also on the rise in the laboratory setting and with wild animals; in both of these practices, there is also an increased likelihood for exposure to zoonotic pathogens. It is important that veterinarians remain current with the literature as it relates to emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases attributed to reptiles and amphibians so that they can protect themselves, their staff, and their clients from potential problems.

  2. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976–2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04395.001 PMID:25201877

  3. A Review of Zoonotic Infection Risks Associated with the Wild Meat Trade in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cantlay, Jennifer Caroline; Ingram, Daniel J; Meredith, Anna L

    2017-06-01

    The overhunting of wildlife for food and commercial gain presents a major threat to biodiversity in tropical forests and poses health risks to humans from contact with wild animals. Using a recent survey of wildlife offered at wild meat markets in Malaysia as a basis, we review the literature to determine the potential zoonotic infection risks from hunting, butchering and consuming the species offered. We also determine which taxa potentially host the highest number of pathogens and discuss the significant disease risks from traded wildlife, considering how cultural practices influence zoonotic transmission. We identify 51 zoonotic pathogens (16 viruses, 19 bacteria and 16 parasites) potentially hosted by wildlife and describe the human health risks. The Suidae and the Cervidae families potentially host the highest number of pathogens. We conclude that there are substantial gaps in our knowledge of zoonotic pathogens and recommend performing microbial food safety risk assessments to assess the hazards of wild meat consumption. Overall, there may be considerable zoonotic risks to people involved in the hunting, butchering or consumption of wild meat in Southeast Asia, and these should be considered in public health strategies.

  4. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-U.S. border along the Rio Grande

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and inc...

  5. Modeling spatial risk of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Shiravand, Babak; Tafti, Abbas Ali Dehghani; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Almodaresi, S Ali; Mirzaei, Masoud; Abai, Mohammad Reza

    2018-06-18

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is one of the endemic diseases in central part of Iran. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to find the areas with a higher risk of infection considering the distribution of vector, reservoir hosts and human infection. Passive data recorded the positive cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yazd province health center were collected for 10 years, from 2007 to 2016 at the County level. Considering all earlier studies conducted in Yazd province, records of Phlebotomus papatasi, the main vector of ZCL, and Rhombomys opimus, the main reservoir of ZCL, were collected and entered in a database. ArcGIS and MaxEnt model were used to map and predict the best ecological niches for both vector and reservoir. The most cumulative incidence of the disease was found to be in Khatam County, south of Yazd province. The area under curve (AUC) for R. opimus and P. papatasi was 0.955 and 0.914, respectively. We found higher presence probability of both vector and reservoir in central and eastern parts of the province. The jackknife test indicated that temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) had the most effect on the model for the vector and reservoir, respectively. The areas with higher presence probability for the reservoirs and vectors were considered having the higher potential for ZCL transmission. These findings can be used to prevent and control the disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decontamination of High-risk Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Menrath, Andrea; Tomuzia, Katharina; Braeunig, Juliane; Appel, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Preparedness for the decontamination of affected environments, premises, facilities, and products is one prerequisite for an immediate response to an animal disease outbreak. Various information sources provide recommendations on how to proceed in an outbreak situation to eliminate biological contaminants and to stop the spread of the disease. In order to facilitate the identification of the right decontamination strategy, we present an overview of relevant references for a collection of pathogenic agents. The choice of pathogens is based on a survey of lists containing highly pathogenic agents and/or biological agents considered to be potential vehicles for deliberate contamination of food, feed, or farm animals. European legislation and guidelines from national and international institutions were screened to find decontamination protocols for each of the agents. Identified recommendations were evaluated with regard to their area of application, which could be facilities and equipment, wastes, food, and other animal products. The requirements of a disinfectant for large-scale incidents were gathered, and important characteristics (eg, inactivating spectrum, temperature range, toxicity to environment) of the main recommended disinfectants were summarized to assist in the choice of a suitable and efficient approach in a crisis situation induced by a specific high-risk animal or zoonotic pathogen. The literature search revealed numerous relevant recommendations but also legal gaps for certain diseases, such as Q fever or brucellosis, and legal difficulties for the use of recommended disinfectants. A lack of information about effective disinfectants was identified for some agents. PMID:23971795

  7. Decontamination of high-risk animal and zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Frentzel, Hendrik; Menrath, Andrea; Tomuzia, Katharina; Braeunig, Juliane; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Preparedness for the decontamination of affected environments, premises, facilities, and products is one prerequisite for an immediate response to an animal disease outbreak. Various information sources provide recommendations on how to proceed in an outbreak situation to eliminate biological contaminants and to stop the spread of the disease. In order to facilitate the identification of the right decontamination strategy, we present an overview of relevant references for a collection of pathogenic agents. The choice of pathogens is based on a survey of lists containing highly pathogenic agents and/or biological agents considered to be potential vehicles for deliberate contamination of food, feed, or farm animals. European legislation and guidelines from national and international institutions were screened to find decontamination protocols for each of the agents. Identified recommendations were evaluated with regard to their area of application, which could be facilities and equipment, wastes, food, and other animal products. The requirements of a disinfectant for large-scale incidents were gathered, and important characteristics (eg, inactivating spectrum, temperature range, toxicity to environment) of the main recommended disinfectants were summarized to assist in the choice of a suitable and efficient approach in a crisis situation induced by a specific high-risk animal or zoonotic pathogen. The literature search revealed numerous relevant recommendations but also legal gaps for certain diseases, such as Q fever or brucellosis, and legal difficulties for the use of recommended disinfectants. A lack of information about effective disinfectants was identified for some agents.

  8. Interventions to reduce zoonotic and pandemic risks from avian influenza in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Malik; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Wu, Joseph T.; Feng, Luzhao; Guan, Yi; Yu, Hongjie; Leung, Gabriel M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Novel influenza viruses continue to emerge posing zoonotic and potentially pandemic threats, avian influenza A/H7N9 being the most recent example. While closure of live poultry markets in mainland China was effective at aborting A/H7N9 outbreaks temporarily, they are difficult to sustain, given the current poultry production and marketing systems in China. We summarise interventions taken in mainland China to date. We provide evidence for other more sustainable but effective interventions in the live poultry market (LPM) systems that reduce risk of zoonotic influenza including “rest days” in LPM and banning live poultry in markets overnight. On the longer term, separation of live ducks and geese from terrestrial poultry in LPM systems can reduce the risk of emergence of zoonotic, epizootic (and potentially pandemic) viruses at source. Given evidence that A/H7N9 is now endemic in over half of the provinces in mainland China, and will continue to cause recurrent zoonotic disease in the winter months, such interventions should receive high priority in China as well as other Asian countries which are at risk of introduction of A/H7N9 through cross-border poultry movements. Such generic measures are likely to reduce current as well as future threats from zoonotic influenza. PMID:26654122

  9. Lobomycosis: risk of zoonotic transmission from dolphins to humans.

    PubMed

    Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D

    2013-10-01

    Lobomycosis, a fungal disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Lacazia loboi, is sometimes referred to as a zoonotic disease because it affects only specific delphinidae and humans; however, the evidence that it can be transferred directly to humans from dolphins is weak. Dolphins have also been postulated to be responsible for an apparent geographic expansion of the disease in humans. Morphological and molecular differences between the human and dolphin organisms, differences in geographic distribution of the diseases between dolphins and humans, the existence of only a single documented case of presumed zoonotic transmission, and anecdotal evidence of lack of transmission to humans following accidental inoculation of tissue from infected dolphins do not support the hypothesis that dolphins infected with L. loboi represent a zoonotic hazard for humans. In addition, the lack of human cases in communities adjacent to coastal estuaries with a high prevalence of lobomycosis in dolphins, such as the Indian River Lagoon in Florida (IRL), suggests that direct or indirect transmission of L. loboi from dolphins to humans occurs rarely, if at all. Nonetheless, attention to personal hygiene and general principals of infection control are always appropriate when handling tissues from an animal with a presumptive diagnosis of a mycotic or fungal disease.

  10. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thayaparan, S; Robertson, I D; Fairuz, A; Suut, L; Abdullah, M T

    2013-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Malaysia and recently has received increasing attention mainly due to several recent incidents that have resulted in human mortality which have alarmed health professionals in Malaysia. The increasing incidence of leptospirosis in forested regions is associated with the bacteria infecting small wild mammals other than rats. Infection in wildlife could result in the introduction of new serovars to humans and domesticated animals. More research on leptospirosis and the screening of wildlife and humans near wildlife habitats is required to have a better understanding of the involvement of wildlife in the disease.

  12. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  13. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  14. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil: frequency and zoonotic risk.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Fernanda Melo; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Calado, Andréa Maria Campos; Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Ramos, Ingrid Carla do Nascimento; Tenório, Rodrigo Ferreira Lima; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-04-12

    Gastrointestinal helminths are considered to be the most common parasites affecting cats worldwide. Correct diagnosis of these parasites in animals living in urban areas is pivotal, especially considering the zoonotic potential of some species (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.). In this study, a copromicroscopic survey was conducted using fecal samples (n = 173) from domestic cats living in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were examined through the FLOTAC technique and the overall results showed positivity of 65.31% (113/173) among the samples analyzed. Coinfections were observed in 46.01% (52/113) of the positive samples. The most common parasites detected were Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris sp., Dipylidium caninum and Cystoisospora sp. From an epidemiological point of view, these findings are important, especially considering that zoonotic parasites (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.) were the nematodes most frequently diagnosed in this study. Therefore, the human population living in close contact with cats is at risk of infection caused by the zoonotic helminths of these animals. In addition, for the first time the FLOTAC has been used to diagnosing gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil.

  16. Optimal sampling strategies for detecting zoonotic disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jake M; Langebrake, Jessica B; Cannataro, Vincent L; Garcia, Andres J; Hamman, Elizabeth A; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W

    2014-06-01

    The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests.

  17. Modeling risk of occupational zoonotic influenza infection in swine workers.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Jones, Rachael M; Gibbs, Shawn; Kane, Michael J; Torremorell, Montserrat; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    Zoonotic transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) between swine and workers in swine production facilities may play a role in the emergence of novel influenza strains with pandemic potential. Guidelines to prevent transmission of influenza to swine workers have been developed but there is a need for evidence-based decision-making about protective measures such as respiratory protection. A mathematical model was applied to estimate the risk of occupational IAV exposure to swine workers by contact and airborne transmission, and to evaluate the use of respirators to reduce transmission.  The Markov model was used to simulate the transport and exposure of workers to IAV in a swine facility. A dose-response function was used to estimate the risk of infection. This approach is similar to methods previously used to estimate the risk of infection in human health care settings. This study uses concentration of virus in air from field measurements collected during outbreaks of influenza in commercial swine facilities, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction.  It was found that spending 25 min working in a barn during an influenza outbreak in a swine herd could be sufficient to cause zoonotic infection in a worker. However, this risk estimate was sensitive to estimates of viral infectivity to humans. Wearing an excellent fitting N95 respirator reduced this risk, but with high aerosol levels the predicted risk of infection remained high under certain assumptions.  The results of this analysis indicate that under the conditions studied, swine workers are at risk of zoonotic influenza infection. The use of an N95 respirator could reduce such risk. These findings have implications for risk assessment and preventive programs targeting swine workers. The exact level of risk remains uncertain, since our model may have overestimated the viability or infectivity of IAV. Additionally, the potential for partial immunity in swine workers associated with repeated low

  18. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  19. [Pet ownership and health status of pets from immunocompromised children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases].

    PubMed

    Abarca V, Katia; López Del P, Javier; Peña D, Anamaría; López G, J Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To characterize pet ownership and pet health status in families of immunocompromised (IS) children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases. Families of IS children from two hospitals in Santiago, Chile, were interviewed and their pets were evaluated by veterinary examination, coproparasitologic and skin dermatophytes test. In specific cases, other laboratory tests were performed in IS children or their relatives. 47 out of 70 contacted families had pets, 42 participated in the study. Several risk factors for IS children were observed, as having a turtle as a pet and to clean cat or turtle faeces. Lack of adequate veterinary control, immunizations and deparasitation of pets were observed. Some animals showed zoonotic diseases or agents, as Brucella canis, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis, Toxocara canis and scabies. 44% of dogs had ticks and 37% had fleas, both potential vectors of infections. Our results suggest that policies to provide safer pet contact in IS children are needed.

  20. Zoonotic Transmission of Waterborne Disease: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Waters, Edward K; Hamilton, Andrew J; Sidhu, Harvinder S; Sidhu, Leesa A; Dunbar, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne parasites that infect both humans and animals are common causes of diarrhoeal illness, but the relative importance of transmission between humans and animals and vice versa remains poorly understood. Transmission of infection from animals to humans via environmental reservoirs, such as water sources, has attracted attention as a potential source of endemic and epidemic infections, but existing mathematical models of waterborne disease transmission have limitations for studying this phenomenon, as they only consider contamination of environmental reservoirs by humans. This paper develops a mathematical model that represents the transmission of waterborne parasites within and between both animal and human populations. It also improves upon existing models by including animal contamination of water sources explicitly. Linear stability analysis and simulation results, using realistic parameter values to describe Giardia transmission in rural Australia, show that endemic infection of an animal host with zoonotic protozoa can result in endemic infection in human hosts, even in the absence of person-to-person transmission. These results imply that zoonotic transmission via environmental reservoirs is important.

  1. Updates to the zoonotic niche map of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Millear, Anoushka I; Earl, Lucas; Morozoff, Chloe; Han, Barbara A; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Golding, Nick; Hay, Simon I

    2016-01-01

    As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa is now contained, attention is turning from control to future outbreak prediction and prevention. Building on a previously published zoonotic niche map (Pigott et al., 2014), this study incorporates new human and animal occurrence data and expands upon the way in which potential bat EVD reservoir species are incorporated. This update demonstrates the potential for incorporating and updating data used to generate the predicted suitability map. A new data portal for sharing such maps is discussed. This output represents the most up-to-date estimate of the extent of EVD zoonotic risk in Africa. These maps can assist in strengthening surveillance and response capacity to contain viral haemorrhagic fevers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16412.001 PMID:27414263

  2. Multisectoral prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda, 2017: A One Health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bulage, Lilian; Kihembo, Christine; Nantima, Noelina; Monje, Fred; Ndumu, Deo; Sentumbwe, Juliet; Mbolanyi, Betty; Aruho, Robert; Kaboyo, Winyi; Mutonga, David; Basler, Colin; Paige, Sarah; Barton Behravesh, Casey

    2018-01-01

    Background Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. Materials and methods The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was used for the prioritization of zoonoses. Workshop participants included voting members and observers representing multiple government and non-governmental sectors. During the workshop, criteria for prioritization were selected, and questions and weights relevant to each criterion were determined. We used a decision tree to provide a ranked list of zoonoses. Participants then established next steps for multisectoral engagement for the prioritized zoonoses. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated how criteria weights impacted disease prioritization. Results Forty-eight zoonoses were considered during the workshop. Criteria selected to prioritize zoonotic diseases were (1) severity of disease in humans in Uganda, (2) availability of effective control strategies, (3) potential to cause an epidemic or pandemic in humans or animals, (4) social and economic impacts, and (5) bioterrorism potential. Seven zoonotic diseases were identified as priorities for Uganda: anthrax, zoonotic influenza viruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, African trypanosomiasis, plague, and rabies. Sensitivity analysis did not indicate significant changes in zoonotic disease prioritization based on criteria weights. Discussion One Health approaches and multisectoral collaborations are crucial to the surveillance, prevention, and control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Uganda used such an approach to identify zoonoses of

  3. Predicting Zoonotic Risk of Influenza A Viruses from Host Tropism Protein Signature Using Random Forest

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Christine L. P.; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses remain a significant health problem, especially when a novel subtype emerges from the avian population to cause severe outbreaks in humans. Zoonotic viruses arise from the animal population as a result of mutations and reassortments, giving rise to novel strains with the capability to evade the host species barrier and cause human infections. Despite progress in understanding interspecies transmission of influenza viruses, we are no closer to predicting zoonotic strains that can lead to an outbreak. We have previously discovered distinct host tropism protein signatures of avian, human and zoonotic influenza strains obtained from host tropism predictions on individual protein sequences. Here, we apply machine learning approaches on the signatures to build a computational model capable of predicting zoonotic strains. The zoonotic strain prediction model can classify avian, human or zoonotic strains with high accuracy, as well as providing an estimated zoonotic risk. This would therefore allow us to quickly determine if an influenza virus strain has the potential to be zoonotic using only protein sequences. The swift identification of potential zoonotic strains in the animal population using the zoonotic strain prediction model could provide us with an early indication of an imminent influenza outbreak. PMID:28587080

  4. Predicting Zoonotic Risk of Influenza A Viruses from Host Tropism Protein Signature Using Random Forest.

    PubMed

    Eng, Christine L P; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2017-05-25

    Influenza A viruses remain a significant health problem, especially when a novel subtype emerges from the avian population to cause severe outbreaks in humans. Zoonotic viruses arise from the animal population as a result of mutations and reassortments, giving rise to novel strains with the capability to evade the host species barrier and cause human infections. Despite progress in understanding interspecies transmission of influenza viruses, we are no closer to predicting zoonotic strains that can lead to an outbreak. We have previously discovered distinct host tropism protein signatures of avian, human and zoonotic influenza strains obtained from host tropism predictions on individual protein sequences. Here, we apply machine learning approaches on the signatures to build a computational model capable of predicting zoonotic strains. The zoonotic strain prediction model can classify avian, human or zoonotic strains with high accuracy, as well as providing an estimated zoonotic risk. This would therefore allow us to quickly determine if an influenza virus strain has the potential to be zoonotic using only protein sequences. The swift identification of potential zoonotic strains in the animal population using the zoonotic strain prediction model could provide us with an early indication of an imminent influenza outbreak.

  5. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  6. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  7. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, Ma

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  8. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tebug, Stanly Fon; Njunga, Gilson R; Chagunda, Mizeck G G; Mapemba, Jacob P; Awah-Ndukum, Julius; Wiedemann, Steffi

    2014-02-28

    Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers' awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers' general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1%) knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%). The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0%) and meat (56.0%). Almost all survey participants (96.4%) practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0%) and consumption (34.0%) of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%), whilst one animal (1.1%) reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease prevention

  9. Seroprevalence of major bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Vongxay, Khamphouth; Conlan, James V; Khounsy, Syseng; Dorny, Pierre; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2012-10-01

    Bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases pose a significant threat to human health in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In all, 905 cattle and buffalo serum samples collected in northern Lao PDR in 2006 were used to determine seroprevalence of five major bovine zoonotic infectious diseases that included Taenia saginata cysticercosis, bovine tuberculosis, Q-fever, bovine brucellosis, and bovine leptospirosis. Five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to test for the presence of antibodies to the diseases, except Taenia saginata, for which we tested for the presence of Taenia metacestode circulating antigens. The overall highest prevalence was for T. saginata (46.4%), with lower prevalence for Q-fever (4%), leptospirosis (3%), tuberculosis (1%), and brucellosis (0.2%). Although there were no significant differences in the proportion of seroprevalence between sex and age of the animals sampled, there were significant differences between the provincial distributions. Further studies are required to determine the seroprevalence of these infections in other locations in Lao PDR, as well as other animal species including humans, in order to develop effective prevention and control strategies. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of bovine zoonotic infectious agents in the Lao PDR. Positivity was demonstrated for all diseases investigated, with the highest prevalence for T. saginata antigen and Coxiella burnetti antibodies. For T. saginata, there were significant differences in the provincial distribution. Approximately 16% seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetti was noted in Xayabuly Province; however, there are no clear reasons why this was the case, and further studies are required to determine risk factors associated with this observation.

  10. Overview of Zoonotic Diseases in Turkey: The One Health Concept and Future Threats.

    PubMed

    İnci, Abdullah; Doğanay, Mehmet; Özdarendeli, Aykut; Düzlü, Önder; Yıldırım, Alparslan

    2018-03-01

    Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections. The natural location of Turkey allows many emerged or re-emerged infections with zoonotic characteristics by animal movements, such as bird immigrations, and by human movements due to civil wars as seen with regional refugees. Numerous zoonotic diseases, including 37 bacterial, 13 fungal, 29 viral, 28 parasitic (3 trematodes, 7 cestodes, 10 nematodes, and 8 protozoan), and totally 107 infections, have been reported from Turkey to date. Additionally, many ectoparasitic zoonoses within 15 different arthropod groups and one leech infestation have been reported from Turkey to date. The "One Health" initiative is particularly relevant for developing strategies to combat zoonotic diseases. In this article, we review the occurrence of zoonotic diseases in man and animals in Turkey in the light of the "One Health" perspective.

  11. Information to prevent human exposure to disease agents associated with wildlife—U.S. Geological Survey circulars on zoonotic disease

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others have published reports with information about geographic distribution, specific pathogens, disease ecology, and strategies to avoid exposure and infection for a selection of zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be passed from animals to humans, such as rabies and plague. This summary factsheet highlights the reports on plague, bat rabies, and raccoon roundworm with links to all seven zoonotic diseases covered in this series.

  12. Use of a modified Delphi panel to identify and weight criteria for prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stebler, N; Schuepbach-Regula, G; Braam, P; Falzon, L C

    2015-09-01

    Zoonotic diseases have a significant impact on public health globally. To prevent or reduce future zoonotic outbreaks, there is a constant need to invest in research and surveillance programs while updating risk management strategies. However, given the limited resources available, disease prioritization based on the need for their control and surveillance is important. This study was performed to identify and weight disease criteria for the prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland using a semi-quantitative research method based on expert opinion. Twenty-eight criteria relevant for disease control and surveillance, classified under five domains, were selected following a thorough literature review, and these were evaluated and weighted by seven experts from the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office using a modified Delphi panel. The median scores assigned to each criterion were then used to rank 16 notifiable and/or emerging zoonoses in Switzerland. The experts weighted the majority of the criteria similarly, and the top three criteria were Severity of disease in humans, incidence and prevalence of the disease in humans and treatment in humans. Based on these weightings, the three highest ranked diseases were Avian Influenza, Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis, and Bovine Tuberculosis. Overall, this study provided a preliminary list of criteria relevant for disease prioritization in Switzerland. These were further evaluated in a companion study which involved a quantitative prioritization method and multiple stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations.

    PubMed

    Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella . Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis , the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen.

  14. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella. Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis, the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen. PMID:28386446

  15. Individualistic values are related to an increase in the outbreaks of infectious diseases and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Walther, Bruno A

    2018-03-01

    Collectivist versus individualistic values are important attributes of intercultural variation. Collectivist values favour in-group members over out-group members and may have evolved to protect in-group members against pathogen transmission. As predicted by the pathogen stress theory of cultural values, more collectivist countries are associated with a higher historical pathogen burden. However, if lifestyles of collectivist countries indeed function as a social defence which decreases pathogen transmission, then these countries should also have experienced fewer disease outbreaks in recent times. We tested this novel hypothesis by correlating the values of collectivism-individualism for 66 countries against their historical pathogen burden, recent number of infectious disease outbreaks and zoonotic disease outbreaks and emerging infectious disease events, and four potentially confounding variables. We confirmed the previously established negative relationship between individualism and historical pathogen burden with new data. While we did not find a correlation for emerging infectious disease events, we found significant positive correlations between individualism and the number of infectious disease outbreaks and zoonotic disease outbreaks. Therefore, one possible cost for individualistic cultures may be their higher susceptibility to disease outbreaks. We support further studies into the exact protective behaviours and mechanisms of collectivist societies which may inhibit disease outbreaks.

  16. Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: water and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Austin, Zoë; Alcock, Ruth E; Christley, Robert M; Haygarth, Philip M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Latham, Sophia M; Mort, Maggie; Oliver, David M; Pickup, Roger; Wastling, Jonathan M; Wynne, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Decision making for zoonotic disease management should be based on many forms of appropriate data and sources of evidence. However, the criteria and timing for policy response and the resulting management decisions are often altered when a disease outbreak occurs and captures full media attention. In the case of waterborne disease, such as the robust protozoa, Cryptosporidium spp, exposure can cause significant human health risks and preventing exposure by maintaining high standards of biological and chemical water quality remains a priority for water companies in the UK. Little has been documented on how knowledge and information is translated between the many stakeholders involved in the management of Cryptosporidium, which is surprising given the different drivers that have shaped management decisions. Such information, coupled with the uncertainties that surround these data is essential for improving future management strategies that minimise disease outbreaks. Here, we examine the interplay between scientific information, the media, and emergent government and company policies to examine these issues using qualitative and quantitative data relating to Cryptosporidium management decisions by a water company in the North West of England. Our results show that political and media influences are powerful drivers of management decisions if fuelled by high profile outbreaks. Furthermore, the strength of the scientific evidence is often constrained by uncertainties in the data, and in the way knowledge is translated between policy levels during established risk management procedures. In particular, under or over-estimating risk during risk assessment procedures together with uncertainty regarding risk factors within the wider environment, was found to restrict the knowledge-base for decision-making in Cryptosporidium management. Our findings highlight some key current and future challenges facing the management of such diseases that are widely applicable to other

  17. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people

    PubMed Central

    Davaasuren, Anu; Baasandagva, Uyanga; Gray, Gregory C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection. Methods Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle. Results The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a) animal contact, b) food preparation and diet, and c) household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat. Conclusion Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal

  18. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Amber N; Davaasuren, Anu; Baasandagva, Uyanga; Gray, Gregory C

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection. Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle. The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a) animal contact, b) food preparation and diet, and c) household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat. Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal-to-human pathogens must incorporate a One Health

  19. Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Environmentally Forced Zoonotic Disease Emergence: Sin Nombre Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Scott; Mills, James N.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Parmenter, Robert R.; Richardson, Kyle S.; Harris, Rachel L.; Douglass, Richard J.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Luis, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. We propose a mechanistic understanding of human–reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. Crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. We found that disease cases were greatest in arid states and declined exponentially with increasing precipitation. Within arid environments, relatively rare climatic conditions (e.g., El Niño) are associated with increased rainfall and reservoir abundance, producing more frequent virus transmission and host dispersal. We suggest that deer mice increase their occupancy of peridomestic structures during spring–summer, amplifying intraspecific transmission and human infection risk. Disease incidence in arid states may increase with predicted climatic changes. Mechanistic approaches incorporating reservoir behavior, reservoir–human interactions, and pathogen spillover could enhance our understanding of global hantavirus ecology, with applications to other directly transmitted zoonoses. PMID:26955081

  20. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Buza, Teresia M; Jack, Sherman W; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L; Lawrence, Mark L; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database (http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu). This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information. Database URL: http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Buza, Teresia M.; Jack, Sherman W.; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L.; Lawrence, Mark L.; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database (http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu). This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information. Database URL: http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu PMID:26581408

  3. Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis: emerging zoonotic diseases in the South.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Today most emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), arise in the natural environment as zoonoses and are often imported into the United States (US). The most common helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) in the US, neuroangiostrongyliasis and baylisascariasis, share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases. Neuroangiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is now endemic in the US following the importation of infected rats on container ships and African land snails, the parasite's intermediate hosts, as biological controls and exotic pets. Baylisascariasis, a raccoon zoonosis, caused by the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, has extended its US distribution range from suburban neighborhoods in the northern US to the Southeast and West Coast since the 1980s. Both A. cantonensis and B. procyonis are now enzootic in Louisiana and have caused EoM in humans. This review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2008, in order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EoM in the US, and specifically in Louisiana; and to alert Louisiana clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EoM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel in the Americas or Caribbean. Most parasitic diseases causing EoM are no longer confined to tropical countries; they are now endemic in the US and in Louisiana and more cases may be anticipated.

  4. Level of awareness regarding some zoonotic diseases, among dog owners of ithaca, new york.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Gursimrat Kaur; Singh, Devinder

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, dogs and cats are the two most common household companion animals. Because of this, they can be direct or indirect source of many human infections. Fortunately, most of these zoonotic infections can be clinically prevented by appropriate prophylactic interventions. Present kind of cross-sectional study, for the first time, was conducted in city of Ithaca, New York. People visiting local animal hospitals, dog parks, library and shoppers at Walmart supermarket were personally interviewed and a pre-tested questionnaire was got filled from every individual. The collected data were analyzed for percentage proportions using Microsoft Excel(®) and the results had been presented in graphical as well as tabulated forms. Out of 100 participants responding to the request for participation, gender-wise, 45% of the participants were male while 55% of the participants were females. Demographically, 50% participants lived in rural, 35% in urban while 15% participants lived in suburban areas. Educational background of the participants ranged from High school pass-outs to Graduates. Participants were aware about the zoonotic potential of leptospirosis, giardiasis, rabies, hookworms, coccidiosis, lyme disease, roundworms, toxoplasma, leishmaniasis, salmonellosis and ringworm disease. Knowledge gaps in the sampled population, in terms of lack of awareness about zoonotic diseases vectored by mosquitoes, ticks and fleas; practice of not doing regular deworming and prophylactic control of fleas and ticks on pet dogs; and lack of practice among physicians to discuss zoonotic canine diseases with their clients were revealed by this study.

  5. Level of Awareness Regarding Some Zoonotic Diseases, Among Dog Owners of Ithaca, New York

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gursimrat Kaur; Singh, Devinder

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Worldwide, dogs and cats are the two most common household companion animals. Because of this, they can be direct or indirect source of many human infections. Fortunately, most of these zoonotic infections can be clinically prevented by appropriate prophylactic interventions. Materials and Methods: Present kind of cross-sectional study, for the first time, was conducted in city of Ithaca, New York. People visiting local animal hospitals, dog parks, library and shoppers at Walmart supermarket were personally interviewed and a pre-tested questionnaire was got filled from every individual. The collected data were analyzed for percentage proportions using Microsoft Excel® and the results had been presented in graphical as well as tabulated forms. Results: Out of 100 participants responding to the request for participation, gender-wise, 45% of the participants were male while 55% of the participants were females. Demographically, 50% participants lived in rural, 35% in urban while 15% participants lived in suburban areas. Educational background of the participants ranged from High school pass-outs to Graduates. Conclusions: Participants were aware about the zoonotic potential of leptospirosis, giardiasis, rabies, hookworms, coccidiosis, lyme disease, roundworms, toxoplasma, leishmaniasis, salmonellosis and ringworm disease. Knowledge gaps in the sampled population, in terms of lack of awareness about zoonotic diseases vectored by mosquitoes, ticks and fleas; practice of not doing regular deworming and prophylactic control of fleas and ticks on pet dogs; and lack of practice among physicians to discuss zoonotic canine diseases with their clients were revealed by this study. PMID:25657956

  6. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Despite the enormous relevance of zoonotic infections to world-wide public health, and despite much effort in modeling individual zoonoses, a fundamental understanding of the disease dynamics and the nature of outbreaks emanating from such a complex system is still lacking. We introduce a simple sto...

  7. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Johan L; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J

    2012-12-05

    With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring the utilisation of meat from hunted or harvested game. The expanding interface or increased interaction between livestock and wildlife increases the risk of disease incidence and the emergence of new diseases or the re-emergence of previously diagnosed diseases. The risk is not only related to domestic and wild animal health, but also to the occupational hazards that it poses to animal handlers and the consumers of game meat. This review endeavours to highlight the role that game plays in the spreading of zoonotic diseases to other animals and humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in the past, their relevance and risk have been summarised and should function as a quick reference guide for wildlife veterinarians, ecologists, farmers, hunters, slaughter staff, processors and public health professionals.

  8. Zoonotic hepatitis E: animal reservoirs and emerging risks

    PubMed Central

    Pavio, Nicole; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Renou, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis in humans with two distinct epidemiological patterns. In endemic regions, large waterborne epidemics with thousands of people affected have been observed, and, in contrast, in non-endemic regions, sporadic cases have been described. Although contaminated water has been well documented as the source of infection in endemic regions, the modes of transmission in non-endemic regions are much less known. HEV is a single-strand, positive-sense RNA virus which is classified in the Hepeviridae family with at least four known main genotypes (1–4) of mammalian HEV and one avian HEV. HEV is unique among the known hepatitis viruses, in which it has an animal reservoir. In contrast to humans, swine and other mammalian animal species infected by HEV generally remain asymptomatic, whereas chickens infected by avian HEV may develop a disease known as Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are found exclusively in humans while genotypes 3 and 4 are found both in humans and other mammals. Several lines of evidence indicate that, in some cases involving HEV genotypes 3 and 4, animal to human transmissions occur. Furthermore, individuals with direct contact with animals are at higher risk of HEV infection. Cross-species infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have been demonstrated experimentally. However, not all sources of human infections have been identified thus far and in many cases, the origin of HEV infection in humans remains unknown. PMID:20359452

  9. Parasitic diseases of zoonotic importance in humans of northeast India, with special reference to ocular involvement.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipankar; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Deka, Angshuman; Yambem, Dinakumar; Tahiliani, Prerana Sushil; Deka, Panna; Bhattacharyya, Pankaj; Deka, Satyen; Das, Kalyan; Bharali, Gayatri; Deka, Apurba; Paul, Rajashree

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent in India, including the northeastern states. Proper epidemiological data are lacking from this part of the country on zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in the current scenario. Systemic manifestation of such diseases as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. The incidence of acquired toxoplasmal infection is showing an increasing trend in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Among the ocular parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, dirofilariasis, gnathostomiasis, hydatidosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, etc, are the real problems that are seen in this subset of the population. Therefore, proper coordination between various medical specialities, including veterinary science and other governing bodies, is needed for better and more effective strategic planning to control zoonoses.

  10. [Bartonella henselae, an ubiquitous agent of proteiform zoonotic disease].

    PubMed

    Edouard, S; Raoult, D

    2010-06-01

    Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease, a human infection usually characterized by persistent regional lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted to humans by cat scratches or bites. Cats are the major reservoir for this bacterium thus B. henselae has a worldwide distribution. The bacterial pathogenicity may bay emphasized by the immune status of the infected host. Angiomatosis or hepatic peliosis are the most frequent clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. B. henselae is also responsible for endocarditis in patients with valvular diseases, and may induce various clinical presentations such as: bacteriemia, retinitis, musculoskeletal disorders, hepatic or splenic diseases, encephalitis, or myocarditis. Several diagnostic tools are available; they may be combined and adapted to every clinical setting. B. henselae is a fastidious bacterium; its diagnosis is mainly made by PCR and blood tests. No treatment is required for the benign form of cat scratch disease. For more severe clinical presentations, the treatment must be adapted to every clinical presentation.

  11. A meta-analysis suggesting that the relationship between biodiversity and risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission is idiosyncratic.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Padgett, Kerry A; Jones, James Holland

    2013-05-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are significant burdens on global public health. Because they are transmitted to humans from non-human animals, the transmission dynamics of zoonoses are necessarily influenced by the ecology of their animal hosts and vectors. The 'dilution effect' proposes that increased species diversity reduces disease risk, suggesting that conservation and public health initiatives can work synergistically to improve human health and wildlife biodiversity. However, the meta-analysis that we present here indicates a weak and highly heterogeneous relationship between host biodiversity and disease. Our results suggest that disease risk is more likely a local phenomenon that relies on the specific composition of reservoir hosts and vectors, and their ecology, rather than patterns of species biodiversity. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  12. [Parasitic zoonotic disease agents in human and animal drinking water].

    PubMed

    Karanis, P

    2000-08-01

    Human- and veterinary important parasites of the subkingdom of protozoans and helminths infect humans and animals by ingestion of parasites in contaminated water. The parasites are excreted from the body of infected humans, livestock, zoo animals, companion animals or wild animals in the feces. Recreational waters, agricultural practices and wild animals serve as vehicles of transmission of the parasites in the water supplies. The following topics are addressed: a) the life cycles of parasitic diseases-causing agents with proven or potential transmission via water b) the development and the current research status of the analytical techniques for the detection of parasitic diseases-causing agents from water c) the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water supplies and in treated water d) the possible water sources and transmission ways of the parasites into the water supplies e) the behaviour and the possibilities for the removal or elimination of the parasites by water treatment.

  13. [The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis)--no zoonotic risk for Brandenburg?].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Sabine; Sutor, Astrid; Mattis, Roswitha; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of the raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris [B.] procyonis), a dangerous zoonotic pathogen for humans, in raccoons living in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany. In the years 2008 to 2013, a total of 762 raccoons, dating from hunting bags, were examined for intestinal helminths. No raccoon roundworm specimen was detected, but 27 samples were positive for Mesocestoides spp. Earlier studies had proved the presence of B. procyonis in Hesse and since 2005 the parasite has also been found in the western part of Saxony-Anhalt. The migration ability of raccoons may promote a further distribution of this parasite and could increase the risk for zoonotic infections in humans.

  14. Veterinary public health capacity-building in India: a grim reflection of the developing world's underpreparedness to address zoonotic risks.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Manish; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kumar, Ashok; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Sharma, Kavya; Bhatt, Purvi Mehta; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) is ideally suited to promote convergence between human, animal and environmental sectors. Recent zoonotic and emerging infectious disease events have given rise to increasing calls for efforts to build global VPH capacities. However, even with their greater vulnerability to such events, including their economic and livelihood impacts, the response from low-and middle-income countries such as India has been suboptimal, thereby elevating global health risks. Addressing risks effectively at the human-animal interface in these countries will require a clear vision, consistent policies, strategic approach and sustained political commitment to reform and refine the current VPH capacity-building efforts. Only then can the discipline serve its goal of disease prevention, poverty alleviation and support for sustainable livelihoods through improvements in human and animal health.

  15. Zoonotic and infectious disease surveillance in Central America: Honduran feral cats positive for toxoplasma, trypanosoma, leishmania, rickettsia, and Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.

  16. Starting from the bench--prevention and control of foodborne and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Foodborne diseases are estimated to cause around 50 million disease cases and 3000 deaths a year in the US. Worldwide, food and waterborne diseases are estimated to cause more than 2 million deaths per year. Lab-based research is a key component of efforts to prevent and control foodborne diseases. Over the last two decades, molecular characterization of pathogen isolates has emerged as a key component of foodborne and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Characterization methods have evolved from banding pattern-based subtyping methods to sequenced-based approaches, including full genome sequencing. Molecular subtyping methods not only play a key role for characterizing pathogen transmission and detection of disease outbreaks, but also allow for identification of clonal pathogen groups that show distinct transmission characteristics. Importantly, the data generated from molecular characterization of foodborne pathogens also represent critical inputs for epidemiological and modeling studies. Continued and enhanced collaborations between infectious disease related laboratory sciences and epidemiologists, modelers, and other quantitative scientists will be critical to a One-Health approach that delivers societal benefits, including improved surveillance systems and prevention approaches for zoonotic and foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating Burdens of Neglected Tropical Zoonotic Diseases on Islands with Introduced Mammals.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Luz A; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Newton, Kelly M; Spatz, Dena R; Holmes, Nick D; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-03-01

    AbstractMany neglected tropical zoonotic pathogens are maintained by introduced mammals, and on islands the most common introduced species are rodents, cats, and dogs. Management of introduced mammals, including control or eradication of feral populations, which is frequently done for ecological restoration, could also reduce or eliminate the pathogens these animals carry. Understanding the burden of these zoonotic diseases is crucial for quantifying the potential public health benefits of introduced mammal management. However, epidemiological data are only available from a small subset of islands where these introduced mammals co-occur with people. We examined socioeconomic and climatic variables as predictors for disease burdens of angiostrongyliasis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and rabies from 57 islands or island countries. We found strong correlates of disease burden for leptospirosis, Toxoplasma gondii infection, angiostrongyliasis, and toxocariasis with more than 50% of the variance explained, and an average of 57% (range = 32-95%) predictive accuracy on out-of-sample data. We used these relationships to provide estimates of leptospirosis incidence and T. gondii seroprevalence infection on islands where nonnative rodents and cats are present. These predicted estimates of disease burden could be used in an initial assessment of whether the costs of managing introduced mammal reservoirs might be less than the costs of perpetual treatment of these diseases on islands.

  18. Early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases with animal morbidity and mortality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Ssebide, Benard J; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Diseases transmitted between animals and people have made up more than 50% of emerging infectious diseases in humans over the last 60 years and have continued to arise in recent months. Yet, public health and animal disease surveillance programs continue to operate independently. Here, we assessed whether recent emerging zoonotic pathogens (n = 143) are known to cause morbidity or mortality in their animal host and if so, whether they were first detected with an animal morbidity/mortality event. We show that although sick or dead animals are often associated with these pathogens (52%), only 9% were first detected from an animal morbidity or mortality event prior to or concurrent with signs of illness in humans. We propose that an animal morbidity and mortality reporting program will improve detection and should be an essential component of early warning systems for zoonotic diseases. With the use of widespread low-cost technology, such a program could engage both the public and professionals and be easily tested and further incorporated as part of surveillance efforts by public health officials.

  19. Protocol for developing a Database of Zoonotic disease Research in India (DoZooRI).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Kakkar, Manish

    2017-12-10

    Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses. A large-scale systematic mapping of the published peer-reviewed research conducted in India will be undertaken. All published research will be included in the database, without any prejudice for quality screening, to broaden the scope of included studies. Structured search strategies will be developed for priority zoonotic diseases (leptospirosis, rabies, anthrax, brucellosis, cysticercosis, salmonellosis, bovine tuberculosis, Japanese encephalitis and rickettsial infections), and multiple databases will be searched for studies conducted in India. The database will be managed and hosted on a cloud-based platform called Rayyan. Individual studies will be tagged based on key preidentified parameters (disease, study design, study type, location, randomisation status and interventions, host involvement and others, as applicable). The database will incorporate already published studies, obviating the need for additional ethical clearances. The database will be made available online, and in collaboration with multisectoral teams, domains of enquiries will be identified and subsequent research questions will be raised. The database will be queried for these and resulting evidence will be analysed and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  20. Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in Children in Northeast China and Assessment of Risk of Zoonotic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinping; Song, Mingxin; Wan, Qiang; Li, Yijing; Lu, Yixin; Jiang, Yanxue; Tao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence (7.5%, 19/255) and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in children of various age categories and clinical presentations were determined herein. The co-occurrence of the known genotypes (CS-4, EbpC, and Henan-IV) in children and pigs in the same study area, the phylogenetic characterization of novel genotypes (NEC1 to NEC5), and the assessment of potential risk factors associated with zoonotic transmission robustly suggested that pigs could be a significant source of human E. bieneusi infections in northeast China. PMID:25274994

  1. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions

    Hayman, D.T.; Bowen, R.A.; Cryan, P.M.; McCracken, G.F.; O'Shea, T.J.; Peel, A.J.; Gilbert, A.; Webb, C.T.; Wood, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics.

  2. Views from many worlds: unsettling categories in interdisciplinary research on endemic zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research on zoonotic disease has tended to focus on ‘risk’ of disease transmission as a conceptual common denominator. With reference to endemic zoonoses at the livestock–human interface, we argue for considering a broader sweep of disciplinary insights from anthropology and other social sciences in interdisciplinary dialogue, in particular cross-cultural perspectives on human–animal engagement. We consider diverse worldviews where human–animal encounters are perceived of in terms of the kinds of social relations they generate, and the notion of culture is extended to the ‘natural’ world. This has implications for how animals are valued, treated and prioritized. Thinking differently with and about animals and about species' boundaries could enable ways of addressing zoonotic diseases which have closer integration with people's own cultural norms. If we can bring this kind of knowledge into One Health debates, we find ourselves with a multiplicity of worldviews, where bounded categories such as human:animal and nature:culture cannot be assumed. This might in turn influence our scientific ways of seeing our own disciplinary cultures, and generate novel ways of understanding zoonoses and constructing solutions. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584178

  3. Ecology of Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, D T S; Bowen, R A; Cryan, P M; McCracken, G F; O’Shea, T J; Peel, A J; Gilbert, A; Webb, C T; Wood, J L N

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics. PMID:22958281

  4. An Invasive Vector of Zoonotic Disease Sustained by Anthropogenic Resources: The Raccoon Dog in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010–2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1%) and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%). Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with ‘carrion’ and ‘anthropogenic plants’ making up the bulk of both species’ diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, ‘anthropogenic plants’ and ‘carrion’ provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa), this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange. PMID:24852942

  5. An invasive vector of zoonotic disease sustained by anthropogenic resources: the raccoon dog in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010-2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1%) and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%). Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with 'carrion' and 'anthropogenic plants' making up the bulk of both species' diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, 'anthropogenic plants' and 'carrion' provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa), this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange.

  6. A Quantitative Approach to the Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in North America: A Health Professionals’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Victoria; Sargeant, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, zoonoses account for 58% to 61% of all communicable diseases causing illness in humans globally and up to 75% of emerging human pathogens. Although the impact of zoonoses on animal health and public health in North America is significant, there has been no published research involving health professionals on the prioritization of zoonoses in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings We used conjoint analysis (CA), a well-established quantitative method in market research, to identify the relative importance of 21 key characteristics of zoonotic diseases for their prioritization in Canada and the US. Relative importance weights from the CA were used to develop a point-scoring system to derive a recommended list of zoonoses for prioritization in Canada and the US. Study participants with a background in epidemiology, public health, medical sciences, veterinary sciences and infectious disease research were recruited to complete the online survey (707 from Canada and 764 from the US). Hierarchical Bayes models were fitted to the survey data to derive CA-weighted scores for disease criteria. Scores were applied to 62 zoonotic diseases to rank diseases in order of priority. Conclusions/Significance We present the first zoonoses prioritization exercise involving health professionals in North America. Our previous study indicated individuals with no prior knowledge in infectious diseases were capable of producing meaningful results with acceptable model fits (79.4%). This study suggests health professionals with some knowledge in infectious diseases were capable of producing meaningful results with better-fitted models than the general public (83.7% and 84.2%). Despite more similarities in demographics and model fit between the combined public and combined professional groups, there was more uniformity across priority lists between the Canadian public and Canadian professionals and between the US public and US professionals. Our study suggests that

  7. Human-Dromedary Camel Interactions and the Risk of Acquiring Zoonotic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gossner, C; Danielson, N; Gervelmeyer, A; Berthe, F; Faye, B; Kaasik Aaslav, K; Adlhoch, C; Zeller, H; Penttinen, P; Coulombier, D

    2016-02-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases without documented contact with another human MERS-CoV case make up 61% (517/853) of all reported cases. These primary cases are of particular interest for understanding the source(s) and route(s) of transmission and for designing long-term disease control measures. Dromedary camels are the only animal species for which there is convincing evidence that it is a host species for MERS-CoV and hence a potential source of human infections. However, only a small proportion of the primary cases have reported contact with camels. Other possible sources and vehicles of infection include food-borne transmission through consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and raw meat, medicinal use of camel urine and zoonotic transmission from other species. There are critical knowledge gaps around this new disease which can only be closed through traditional field epidemiological investigations and studies designed to test hypothesis regarding sources of infection and risk factors for disease. Since the 1960s, there has been a radical change in dromedary camel farming practices in the Arabian Peninsula with an intensification of the production and a concentration of the production around cities. It is possible that the recent intensification of camel herding in the Arabian Peninsula has increased the virus' reproductive number and attack rate in camel herds while the 'urbanization' of camel herding increased the frequency of zoonotic 'spillover' infections from camels to humans. It is reasonable to assume, although difficult to measure, that the sensitivity of public health surveillance to detect previously unknown diseases is lower in East Africa than in Saudi Arabia and that sporadic human cases may have gone undetected there. © 2014 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J; Gerlach, Robert; Berner, James

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  9. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J.; Gerlach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations. PMID:23399790

  10. Role of India's wildlife in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, risk factors and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Gajadhar, A A

    2014-10-01

    Evolving land use practices have led to an increase in interactions at the human/wildlife interface. The presence and poor knowledge of zoonotic pathogens in India's wildlife and the occurrence of enormous human populations interfacing with, and critically linked to, forest ecosystems warrant attention. Factors such as diverse migratory bird populations, climate change, expanding human population and shrinking wildlife habitats play a significant role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens from India's wildlife. The introduction of a novel Kyasanur forest disease virus (family flaviviridae) into human populations in 1957 and subsequent occurrence of seasonal outbreaks illustrate the key role that India's wild animals play in the emergence and reemergence of zoonotic pathogens. Other high priority zoonotic diseases of wildlife origin which could affect both livestock and humans include influenza, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, plague, leptospirosis, anthrax and leishmaniasis. Continuous monitoring of India's extensively diverse and dispersed wildlife is challenging, but their use as indicators should facilitate efficient and rapid disease-outbreak response across the region and occasionally the globe. Defining and prioritizing research on zoonotic pathogens in wildlife are essential, particularly in a multidisciplinary one-world one-health approach which includes human and veterinary medical studies at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. This review indicates that wild animals play an important role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens and provides brief summaries of the zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in India. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The social and political lives of zoonotic disease models: narratives, science and policy.

    PubMed

    Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research Options for Controlling Zoonotic Disease in India, 2010–2015

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Background Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Methods and Findings Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to ‘social, political and economic’ factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to ‘health policy and systems’ scored highest while those related to ‘research for development of new interventions’ scored the lowest. Conclusions We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors

  13. Research options for controlling zoonotic disease in India, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-02-25

    Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to 'social, political and economic' factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to 'health policy and systems' scored highest while those related to 'research for development of new interventions' scored the lowest. We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors. The identified research options capture the need for

  14. Governance and One Health: Exploring the Impact of Federalism and Bureaucracy on Zoonotic Disease Detection and Reporting.

    PubMed

    Allen, Heather A

    2015-05-13

    The merits of One Health have been thoroughly described in the literature, but how One Health operates in the United States federal system of government is rarely discussed or analyzed. Through a comparative case-study approach, this research explores how federalism, bureaucratic behavior, and institutional design in the United States may influence zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting, a key One Health activity. Using theoretical and empirical literature, as well as a survey/interview instrument for individuals directly involved in a past zoonotic disease outbreak, the impacts of governance are discussed. As predicted in the theoretical literature, empirical findings suggest that federalism, institutional design, and bureaucracy may play a role in facilitating or impeding zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting. Regulatory differences across states as well as compartmentalization of information within agencies may impede disease detection. However, the impact may not always be negative: bureaucracies can also be adaptive; federalism allows states important opportunities for innovation. While acknowledging there are many other factors that also matter in zoonotic disease detection and reporting, this research is one of the first attempts to raise awareness in the literature and stimulate discussion on the intersection of governance and One Health.

  15. Governance and One Health: Exploring the Impact of Federalism and Bureaucracy on Zoonotic Disease Detection and Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The merits of One Health have been thoroughly described in the literature, but how One Health operates in the United States federal system of government is rarely discussed or analyzed. Through a comparative case-study approach, this research explores how federalism, bureaucratic behavior, and institutional design in the United States may influence zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting, a key One Health activity. Using theoretical and empirical literature, as well as a survey/interview instrument for individuals directly involved in a past zoonotic disease outbreak, the impacts of governance are discussed. As predicted in the theoretical literature, empirical findings suggest that federalism, institutional design, and bureaucracy may play a role in facilitating or impeding zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting. Regulatory differences across states as well as compartmentalization of information within agencies may impede disease detection. However, the impact may not always be negative: bureaucracies can also be adaptive; federalism allows states important opportunities for innovation. While acknowledging there are many other factors that also matter in zoonotic disease detection and reporting, this research is one of the first attempts to raise awareness in the literature and stimulate discussion on the intersection of governance and One Health. PMID:29061932

  16. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    PubMed

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  17. Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Randolph, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging vector-borne diseases represent an important issue for global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, and many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and local emergence are frequently considered distinct processes, many emerging endemic pathogens are in fact invading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We highlight key differences in the dynamics and disease burden that result from increased pathogen transmission following habitat change compared with the introduction of pathogens to new regions. Truly in situ emergence is commonly driven by changes in human factors as much as by enhanced enzootic cycles whereas pathogen invasion results from anthropogenic trade and travel and suitable conditions for a pathogen, including hosts, vectors, and climate. Once established, ecological factors related to vector characteristics shape the evolutionary selective pressure on pathogens that may result in increased use of humans as transmission hosts. We describe challenges inherent in the control of vector-borne zoonotic diseases and some emerging non-traditional strategies that may be more effective in the long term. PMID:23200503

  18. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults.

    PubMed

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-09-13

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by human pathogens, and the incidence has a strong regional distribution. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is mainly associated with animal contact, consumption of animal products, and an immunocompromised state of the patient. In a high proportion of zoonotic bacterial meningitis cases, CSF analysis showed only a mildly elevated leukocyte count. The recommended antibiotic therapy differs per pathogen, and the overall mortality is low. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon but is associated with specific complications. The suspicion should be raised in patients with bacterial meningitis who have recreational or professional contact with animals and in patients living in regions endemic for specific zoonotic pathogens. An immunocompromised state is associated with a worse prognosis. Identification of risk factors and underlying disease is necessary to improve treatment. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  20. Metacommunity and phylogenetic structure determine wildlife and zoonotic infectious disease patterns in time and space.

    PubMed

    Suzán, Gerardo; García-Peña, Gabriel E; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Rico, Oscar; Rubio, André V; Tolsá, María J; Roche, Benjamin; Hosseini, Parviez R; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Murray, Kris A; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Vittecoq, Marion; Bailly, Xavier; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene; Mills, James N; Guégan, Jean-Francois

    2015-02-01

    The potential for disease transmission at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans has become a major concern for public health and conservation biology. Research in this subject is commonly conducted at local scales while the regional context is neglected. We argue that prevalence of infection at local and regional levels is influenced by three mechanisms occurring at the landscape level in a metacommunity context. First, (1) dispersal, colonization, and extinction of pathogens, reservoir or vector hosts, and nonreservoir hosts, may be due to stochastic and niche-based processes, thus determining distribution of all species, and then their potential interactions, across local communities (metacommunity structure). Second, (2) anthropogenic processes may drive environmental filtering of hosts, nonhosts, and pathogens. Finally, (3) phylogenetic diversity relative to reservoir or vector host(s), within and between local communities may facilitate pathogen persistence and circulation. Using a metacommunity approach, public heath scientists may better evaluate the factors that predispose certain times and places for the origin and emergence of infectious diseases. The multidisciplinary approach we describe fits within a comprehensive One Health and Ecohealth framework addressing zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks and their relationship to their hosts, other animals, humans, and the environment.

  1. Genomic Dissection of an Icelandic Epidemic of Respiratory Disease in Horses and Associated Zoonotic Cases

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Harris, Simon R.; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Gammeljord, Kristina; Steward, Karen F.; Newton, J. Richard; Robinson, Carl; Charbonneau, Amelia R. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iceland is free of the major infectious diseases of horses. However, in 2010 an epidemic of respiratory disease of unknown cause spread through the country’s native horse population of 77,000. Microbiological investigations ruled out known viral agents but identified the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) in diseased animals. We sequenced the genomes of 257 isolates of S. zooepidemicus to differentiate epidemic from endemic strains. We found that although multiple endemic clones of S. zooepidemicus were present, one particular clone, sequence type 209 (ST209), was likely to have been responsible for the epidemic. Concurrent with the epidemic, ST209 was also recovered from a human case of septicemia, highlighting the pathogenic potential of this strain. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the incursion of this strain into one training yard during February 2010 provided a nidus for the infection of multiple horses that then transmitted the strain to farms throughout Iceland. This study represents the first time that whole-genome sequencing has been used to investigate an epidemic on a national scale to identify the likely causative agent and the link to an associated zoonotic infection. Our data highlight the importance of national biosecurity to protect vulnerable populations of animals and also demonstrate the potential impact of S. zooepidemicus transmission to other animals, including humans. PMID:28765219

  2. From Barnyard to Food Table: the Omnipresence of Hepatitis E virus and Risk for Zoonotic Infection and Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important but extremely understudied pathogen. The mechanisms of HEV replication and pathogenesis are poorly understood, and a vaccine against HEV is not yet available. HEV is classified in the family Hepeviridae consisting of at least four recognized major genotypes. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans and associated with epidemics in developing countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic cases worldwide. The identification and characterization of a number of animal strains of HEV from pigs, chickens, rabbits, rats, mongoose, deer, and possibly cattle and sheep have significantly broadened the host range and diversity of HEV. The demonstrated ability of cross-species infection by some animal strains of HEV raises public health concerns for zoonotic HEV infection. Pigs are a recognized reservoir for HEV, and pig handlers are at increased risk of zoonotic HEV infection. Sporadic cases of hepatitis E have been definitively linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked animal meats such as pig livers, sausages, and deer meats. In addition, since large amounts of viruses excreted in feces, animal manure land application and runoffs can contaminate irrigation and drinking water with concomitant contamination of produce or shellfish. HEV RNA of swine origin has been detected in swine manure, sewage water and oysters, and consumption of contaminated shellfish has also been implicated in sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Therefore, the animal strains of HEV pose not only a zoonotic risk but also food and environmental safety concerns. PMID:21316404

  3. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David

    2004-01-01

    Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area. PMID:18159512

  4. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R.; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David

    2005-01-01

    Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area. PMID:15759832

  5. Zoonotic Agents in Feral Pigeons (Columba livia) from Costa Rica: Possible Improvements to Diminish Contagion Risks.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mejía, Ana María; Blanco-Peña, Kinndle; Rodríguez, César; Duarte, Francisco; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Esperón, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Most studies on zoonotic agents in pigeons have been conducted in the Palearctic region, but the scarcity of data is notorious in the Neotropical region, where these birds can breed all year around and are in close contact with humans. In this study, we used a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to identify infectious agents in 141 fecal samples from pigeons collected at four urban parks from Costa Rica. Of these we identified 34 positive samples for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Braenderup (24.1%), 13 for Chlamydophila psittaci (9.2%), 9 for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (6.4% eaeA, 0% stx-1 and 0% stx-2), and 2 for Campylobacter jejuni (1.4%). These populations of pigeons pose low risk for healthy adult humans, however, they may pose a health risk to immunocompromised patients or children. This study provides scientific data, which can be incorporated into educational programs aiming to reverse the public attitude toward pigeon feeding and to rationally justify population control efforts.

  6. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances.

  7. The role of native birds and other wildlife on the emergence of zoonotic diseases

    Friend, Milton; McLean, Robert G.; Burroughs, T.; Knobler, S.; Lederberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wildlife can be an important source of transmission of infectious disease to humans. One potential transmission route involves hunting and fishing, both common activities in the United States and worldwide. For example, during 1996, approximately 11 million Americans, about 40 percent of the total population 16 years of age and older, took part in some recreational activity relating to wildlife and fish. Another potential route of infection focuses on urban and suburban environments. These locations are of special concern because of their increasing role as wildlife habitat, the greater interface between humans and wildlife that takes place within those environments, the paucity of knowledge about disease in those wildlife populations, and the general lack of orderly management for wildlife within those environments. In the wild, several trends are contributing to the growing importance of zoonotic diseases. First, the spectrum of infectious diseases affecting wildlife today is greater than at any time during the previous century. Second, the occurrence of infectious diseases has changed, from sporadic, self-limiting outbreaks that generally resulted in minor losses to frequently occurring events that generally result in major losses of wildlife. Third, disease emergence has occurred on a worldwide scale in a broad spectrum of wildlife species and habitats. Given the scope of the problem, current disease surveillance efforts are inadequate. Few state wildlife agencies allocate personnel and resources to address wildlife disease, despite their statutory responsibility for managing nonmigratory wildlife. Some state agencies provide minimal support for regional programs based at universities. At the federal level, the primary surveillance effort is conducted by the National Wildlife Health Center, operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Outside of government, some veterinary schools, agriculture diagnostic laboratories, and other programs provide additional

  8. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    PubMed

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. A Quantitative and Novel Approach to the Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in North America: A Public Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Victoria; Sargeant, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Zoonoses account for over half of all communicable diseases causing illness in humans. As there are limited resources available for the control and prevention of zoonotic diseases, a framework for their prioritization is necessary to ensure resources are directed into those of highest importance. Although zoonotic outbreaks are a significant burden of disease in North America, the systematic prioritization of zoonoses in this region has not been previously evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings This study describes the novel use of a well-established quantitative method, conjoint analysis (CA), to identify the relative importance of 21 key characteristics of zoonotic diseases that can be used for their prioritization in Canada and the US. Relative importance weights from the CA were used to develop a point-scoring system to derive a recommended list of zoonoses for prioritization in Canada and the US. Over 1,500 participants from the general public were recruited to complete the online survey (761 from Canada and 778 from the US). Hierarchical Bayes models were fitted to the survey data to derive CA-weighted scores. Scores were applied to 62 zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada and the US to rank diseases in order of priority. Conclusions/Significance This was the first study to describe a systematic and quantitative approach to the prioritization of zoonoses in North America involving public participants. We found individuals with no prior knowledge or experience in prioritizing zoonoses were capable of producing meaningful results using CA as a novel quantitative approach to prioritization. More similarities than differences were observed between countries suggesting general agreement in disease prioritization between Canadians and Americans. We demonstrate CA as a potential tool for the prioritization of zoonoses; other prioritization exercises may also consider this approach. PMID:23133639

  10. Risks for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia production systems in Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Murrell, K Darwin; Liu, Liping; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-11-15

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia culture in China. However, it is also an endemic region for fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which pose a risk to human food safety and health. A study was designed to assess the status of trematode parasite infections in tilapia aquaculture systems as an indicator of potential risks from FZT associated with consumption of tilapia. Tilapia from nursery and grow-out ponds were sampled from monoculture, polyculture and integrated aquaculture systems. The results from 388 tilapia examined revealed a very low prevalence (1.5%) of trematode infections (Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae). Integrated systems using animal manure and latrine wastes as fertilizer did not show a higher prevalence of FZT. Because it was not clear whether the low risk of infection was attributable to existing effective pond management practices or a low risk of spillover of FZT from area sylvatic reservoir hosts, a survey of local wild-caught fish was conducted. Five species of FZT were discovered from a total of 271 wild-caught fish and a mean infection density of 4.0 metacercariae/100g; FZT discovered included intestinal flukes (Haplorchis spp., Procerovum varium, and Metagonimus spp.) and metacercariae tentatively identified as Clonorchis sinenesis. The common occurrence of FZT in wild-caught fish suggests that the presence of FZT in local wild animal reservoirs is substantial, and that although the current aquaculture management systems for tilapia are generally effective in preventing transmission of these parasites into tilapia production systems, the improvement of pond management practices and biosecurity must be maintained at a high level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Strategies for collaboration in the interdisciplinary field of emerging zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Anholt, R M; Stephen, C; Copes, R

    2012-06-01

    The integration of the veterinary, medical and environmental sciences necessary to predict, prevent or respond to emerging zoonotic diseases requires effective collaboration and exchange of knowledge across these disciplines. There has been no research into how to connect and integrate these professions in the pursuit of a common task. We conducted a literature search looking at the experiences and wisdom resulting from collaborations built in health partnerships, health research knowledge transfer and exchange, business knowledge management and systems design engineering to identify key attributes of successful interdisciplinary (ID) collaboration. This was followed by a workshop with 16 experts experienced in ID collaboration including physicians, veterinarians and biologists from private practice, academia and government agencies. The workshop participants shared their perspectives on the facilitators and barriers to ID collaboration. Our results found that the elements that can support or impede ID collaboration can be categorized as follows: the characteristics of the people, the degree to which the task is a shared goal, the policies, practices and resources of the workplace, how information technology is used and the evaluation of the results. Above all, personal relationships built on trust and respect are needed to best assemble the disciplinary strength of the professions. The challenge of meeting collaborators outside the boundaries of one's discipline or jurisdiction may be met by an independent third party, an ID knowledge broker. The broker would know where the knowledge could be found, would facilitate introductions and would help to build effective ID teams. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  13. One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Smith, James; Taylor, Emma Michelle; Kingsley, Pete

    2015-03-01

    This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World-One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) international, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved district health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  15. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS)

    PubMed Central

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Tue, Ngo T.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V.; Hoa, Ngo T.; An, Nguyen N.; Hien, Vo B.; Lao, Pham V.; Tu, Nguyen C.; Chuyen, Nguyen K.; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Tan, Dinh V.; Duong, Hoang Van V.; Toan, Tran K.; Chi, Nguyen T.Y.; Campbell, James; Rabaa, Maia A.; Nadjm, Behzad; Woolhouse, Mark; Wertheim, Heiman; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based ‘high-risk sentinel cohort’ (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health workers (8.5%). Nasal/pharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from HRSC members at recruitment and after notifying illness. Exposure to exotic animals (including wild pigs, porcupine, monkey, civet, bamboo rat and bat) was highest for the Dak Lak cohort (53.7%), followed by Ha Noi (13.7%) and Dong Thap (4.0%). A total of 26.8% of individuals reported consumption of raw blood over the previous year; 33.6% slaughterers reported no use of protective equipment at work. Over 686 person-years of observation, 213 episodes of suspect infectious disease were notified, equivalent of 0.35 reports per person-year. Responsive samples were collected from animals in the farm cohort. There was noticeable time and space clustering of disease episodes suggesting that the VIZIONS set up is also suitable for the formal epidemiological investigation of disease outbreaks. PMID:26659094

  16. Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: a model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E S; Zhou, Y; Sall, M; Faramawi, M El; Shah, N; Christopher, A; Lewis, N

    2007-01-01

    Background Current research efforts have mainly concentrated on evaluating the role of substances present in animal food in the aetiology of chronic diseases in humans, with relatively little attention given to evaluating the role of transmissible agents that are also present. Meat workers are exposed to a variety of transmissible agents present in food animals and their products. This study investigates mortality from non-malignant diseases in workers with these exposures. Methods A cohort mortality study was conducted between 1949 and 1989, of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to transmissible agents. Mortality in meat workers was compared with that in a control group of 6081 workers in the same union, and also with the US general population. Risk was estimated by proportional mortality and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative SMR. Results A clear excess of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, acute and subacute endocarditis, functional diseases of the heart, and decreased risk of mortality from pre-cerebral, cerebral artery stenosis were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the US general population. Conclusions The authors hypothesise that zoonotic transmissible agents present in food animals and their products may be responsible for the occurrence of some cases of circulatory, neurological and other diseases in meat workers, and possibly in the general population exposed to these agents. PMID:17604337

  17. Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: a model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E S; Zhou, Y; Sall, M; Faramawi, M El; Shah, N; Christopher, A; Lewis, N

    2007-12-01

    Current research efforts have mainly concentrated on evaluating the role of substances present in animal food in the aetiology of chronic diseases in humans, with relatively little attention given to evaluating the role of transmissible agents that are also present. Meat workers are exposed to a variety of transmissible agents present in food animals and their products. This study investigates mortality from non-malignant diseases in workers with these exposures. A cohort mortality study was conducted between 1949 and 1989, of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to transmissible agents. Mortality in meat workers was compared with that in a control group of 6081 workers in the same union, and also with the US general population. Risk was estimated by proportional mortality and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative SMR. A clear excess of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, acute and subacute endocarditis, functional diseases of the heart, and decreased risk of mortality from pre-cerebral, cerebral artery stenosis were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the US general population. The authors hypothesise that zoonotic transmissible agents present in food animals and their products may be responsible for the occurrence of some cases of circulatory, neurological and other diseases in meat workers, and possibly in the general population exposed to these agents.

  18. Waterborne zoonotic helminthiases.

    PubMed

    Nithiuthai, Suwannee; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2004-12-09

    This review deals with waterborne zoonotic helminths, many of which are opportunistic parasites spreading directly from animals to man or man to animals through water that is either ingested or that contains forms capable of skin penetration. Disease severity ranges from being rapidly fatal to low-grade chronic infections that may be asymptomatic for many years. The most significant zoonotic waterborne helminthic diseases are either snail-mediated, copepod-mediated or transmitted by faecal-contaminated water. Snail-mediated helminthiases described here are caused by digenetic trematodes that undergo complex life cycles involving various species of aquatic snails. These diseases include schistosomiasis, cercarial dermatitis, fascioliasis and fasciolopsiasis. The primary copepod-mediated helminthiases are sparganosis, gnathostomiasis and dracunculiasis, and the major faecal-contaminated water helminthiases are cysticercosis, hydatid disease and larva migrans. Generally, only parasites whose infective stages can be transmitted directly by water are discussed in this article. Although many do not require a water environment in which to complete their life cycle, their infective stages can certainly be distributed and acquired directly through water. Transmission via the external environment is necessary for many helminth parasites, with water and faecal contamination being important considerations. Human behaviour, particularly poor hygiene, is a major factor in the re-emergence, and spread of parasitic infections. Also important in assessing the risk of infection by water transmission are human habits and population density, the prevalence of infection in them and in alternate animal hosts, methods of treating sewage and drinking water, and climate. Disease prevention methods, including disease surveillance, education and improved drinking water treatment are described.

  19. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  20. Cultural Practices Shaping Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Thailand Native Chicken Farmers.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Tatong, D; Chumkaeo, A; Binot, A; Fournié, G; Pilot, E; Phimpraphi, W; Kasemsuwan, S; Paul, M C; Duboz, R; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of current passive zoonotic disease surveillance systems is limited by the under-reporting of disease outbreaks in the domestic animal population. Evaluating the acceptability of passive surveillance and its economic, social and cultural determinants appears a critical step for improving it. A participatory rural appraisal was implemented in a rural subdistrict of Thailand. Focus group interviews were used to identify sanitary risks perceived by native chicken farmers and describe the structure of their value chain. Qualitative individual interviews with a large diversity of actors enabled to identify perceived costs and benefits associated with the reporting of HPAI suspicions to sanitary authorities. Besides, flows of information on HPAI suspected cases were assessed using network analysis, based on data collected through individual questionnaires. Results show that the presence of cockfighting activities in the area negatively affected the willingness of all chicken farmers and other actors to report suspected HPAI cases. The high financial and affective value of fighting cocks contradicted the HPAI control policy based on mass culling. However, the importance of product quality in the native chicken meat value chain and the free veterinary services and products delivered by veterinary officers had a positive impact on suspected case reporting. Besides, cockfighting practitioners had a significantly higher centrality than other actors in the information network and they facilitated the spatial diffusion of information. Social ties built in cockfighting activities and the shared purpose of protecting valuable cocks were at the basis of the diffusion of information and the informal collective management of diseases. Building bridges with this informal network would greatly improve the effectiveness of passive surveillance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Human and Avian Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections, Zoonotic Risks, and Antibiotic Resistance Trends

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) constitutes ongoing health concerns for women, newborns, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals due to increased numbers of urinary tract infections (UTIs), newborn meningitis, abdominal sepsis, and septicemia. E. coli remains the leading cause of UTIs, with recent investigations reporting the emergence of E. coli as the predominant cause of nosocomial and neonatal sepsis infections. This shift from the traditional Gram-positive bacterial causes of nosocomial and neonatal sepsis infections could be attributed to the use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis against Gram-positive bacteria and the appearance of antibiotic (ATB) resistance in E. coli. While ExPEC strains cause significant healthcare concerns, these bacteria also infect chickens and cause the poultry industry economic losses due to costs of containment, mortality, and disposal of carcasses. To circumvent ExPEC-related costs, ATBs are commonly used in the poultry industry to prevent/treat microbial infections and promote growth and performance. In an unfortunate linkage, chicken products are suspected to be a source of foodborne ExPEC infections and ATB resistance in humans. Therefore, the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) among avian E. coli has created major economic and health concerns, affecting both human healthcare and poultry industries. Increased numbers of immunocompromised individuals, including the elderly, coupled with MDR among ExPEC strains, will continue to challenge the treatment of ExPEC infections and likely lead to increased treatment costs. With ongoing complications due to emerging ATB resistance, novel treatment strategies are necessary to control ExPEC infections. Recognizing and treating the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC would greatly enhance food safety and positively impact human health. PMID:23962019

  2. Bat Hunting and Bat-Human Interactions in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bat Conservation.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, J J; Hegde, S; Sazzad, H M S; Khan, S U; Hossain, M J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P

    2017-08-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Highly suspected cases of salmonellosis in two cats fed with a commercial raw meat-based diet: health risks to animals and zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Magarotto, Jacopo; Serraino, Andrea; Piva, Silvia

    2017-07-24

    Feeding raw meat-based diets (RMBD) to companion animals raises public health concerns for both animals and humans. While considerable attention has been paid to bacterial contamination of commercial pet food, few literature studies have investigated foodborne disease in companion animals. Salmonellosis is reported to be infrequent in cats but no known data or studies estimating feline salmonellosis are available or large-scale epidemiological studies assessing Salmonella risk factors. Two highly suspected cases of salmonellosis in two cats fed with a commercial frozen poultry RMBD are presented, for the first time from the same household. The clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and follow-up are reported and the zoonotic implications are discussed. This case highlights the health risks posed to both animals and owners by feeding RMBD to pets, and suggests that these risks should be considered by veterinary practitioners.

  4. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  5. Fascioliasis: An Ongoing Zoonotic Trematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nyindo, Mramba; Lukambagire, Abdul-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic trematode infections are an area of the neglected tropical diseases that have become of major interest to global and public health due to their associated morbidity. Human fascioliasis is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health. It affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and over 180 million are at risk of infection in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The one health paradigm is an area that seeks to address the problem of zoonotic infections through a comprehensive and sustainable approach. This review attempts to address the major challenges in managing human and animal fascioliasis with valuable insights gained from the one health paradigm to global health and multidisciplinary integration. PMID:26417603

  6. Fascioliasis: An Ongoing Zoonotic Trematode Infection.

    PubMed

    Nyindo, Mramba; Lukambagire, Abdul-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic trematode infections are an area of the neglected tropical diseases that have become of major interest to global and public health due to their associated morbidity. Human fascioliasis is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health. It affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and over 180 million are at risk of infection in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The one health paradigm is an area that seeks to address the problem of zoonotic infections through a comprehensive and sustainable approach. This review attempts to address the major challenges in managing human and animal fascioliasis with valuable insights gained from the one health paradigm to global health and multidisciplinary integration.

  7. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  8. Cost-effective control strategies for animal and zoonotic diseases in pastoralist populations.

    PubMed

    Zinsstag, J; Abakar, M F; Ibrahim, M; Tschopp, R; Crump, L; Bonfoh, B; Schelling, E

    2016-11-01

    Animal diseases and zoonoses abound among pastoralist livestock, which is composed of cattle, sheep, goats, yak, camels, llamas, reindeer, horses and donkeys. There is endemic and, periodically, epidemic transmission of highly contagious viral and bacterial diseases in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Pastoralist livestock is often multiparasitised with endo- and ectoparasites, as well as being affected by vectorborne viral and protozoal diseases. Pastoral livestock can be a reservoir of such diseases and can also, conversely, be at risk from exposure to wildlife reservoirs. Public and private animal health services currently underperform in almost all pastoral areas due to structural reforms and lack of income, as indicated in assessments of national Veterinary Services by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Control of infectious disease in industrialised countries has been achieved through large-scale public funding of control measures and compensation for culled stock. Such means are not available in pastoralist areas of most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While the cost-effectiveness and profitability of the control of animal diseases and zoonoses is less of a consideration for industrialised countries, in the experience of the authors, understanding the economic implications of a control programme is a prerequisite for successful attempts to improve animal health in LMICs. The incremental costs of animal disease control can potentially be shared using crosssector assessments, integrated control, and regional coordination efforts to mitigate transboundary disease risks. In this paper, the authors discuss cost-effective animal disease and zoonoses control in LMICs. It illustrates frameworks and examples of integrated control and cross-sector economics, showing conditions under which these diseases could be controlled in a cost-effective way.

  9. Experts' Perceptions on China's Capacity to Manage Emerging and Re-emerging Zoonotic Diseases in an Era of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A; Xiang, J; Liu, Q; Tong, M X; Sun, Y; Liu, X; Chen, K; Cameron, S; Hanson-Easey, S; Han, G-S; Weinstein, P; Williams, C; Bi, P

    2017-11-01

    Zoonotic diseases transmitted by arthropods and rodents are a major public health concern in China. However, interventions in recent decades have helped lower the incidence of several diseases despite the country's large, frequently mobile population and socio-economic challenges. Increasing globalization, rapid urbanization and a warming climate now add to the complexity of disease control and prevention and could challenge China's capacity to respond to threats of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. To investigate this notion, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 30 infectious disease experts in four cities in China. The case study diseases under discussion were malaria, dengue fever and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, all of which may be influenced by changing meteorological conditions. Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. The study participants viewed the current disease prevention and control system favourably and were optimistic about China's capacity to manage climate-sensitive diseases in the future. Several recommendations emerged from the data including the need to improve health literacy in the population regarding the transmission of infectious diseases and raising awareness of the health impacts of climate change amongst policymakers and health professionals. Participants thought that research capacity could be strengthened and human resources issues for front-line staff should be addressed. It was considered important that authorities are well prepared in advance for outbreaks such as dengue fever in populous subtropical areas, and a prompt and coordinated response is required when outbreaks occur. Furthermore, health professionals need to remain skilled in the identification of diseases for which incidence is declining, so that re-emerging or emerging trends can be rapidly identified. Recommendations such as these may be useful in formulating adaptation plans and capacity building for the future control and

  10. A one health framework for estimating the economic costs of zoonotic diseases on society.

    PubMed

    Narrod, Clare; Zinsstag, Jakob; Tiongco, Marites

    2012-06-01

    This article presents an integrated epidemiological and economic framework for assessing zoonoses using a "one health" concept. The framework allows for an understanding of the cross-sector economic impact of zoonoses using modified risk analysis and detailing a range of analytical tools. The goal of the framework is to link the analysis outputs of animal and human disease transmission models, economic impact models and evaluation of risk management options to gain improved understanding of factors affecting the adoption of risk management strategies so that investment planning includes the most promising interventions (or sets of interventions) in an integrated fashion. A more complete understanding of the costs of the disease and the costs and benefits of control measures would promote broader implementation of the most efficient and effective control measures, contributing to improved animal and human health, better livelihood outcomes for the poor and macroeconomic growth.

  11. Seroepidemiological Survey of Zoonotic Diseases in Small Mammals with PCR Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Chiggers, Gwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Wook; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Sun Hee; Cho, Sun Ju; Ha, Yi Deun; Jung, So Hyang; Park, Hye Jung; Song, Hyun Jae; Lee, Jung Yoon; Kim, Dong Min; Pyus, Jah; Ha, Dong Ryong; Kim, Eun Sun; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Serosurveillance for zoonotic diseases in small mammals and detection of chiggers, the vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi, were conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in Gwangju Metropolitan Area. Apodemus agrarius was the most commonly collected small mammals (158; 91.8%), followed by Myodes regulus (8; 4.6%), and Crocidura lasiura (6; 3.5%). The highest seroprevalence of small mammals for O. tsutsugamushi (41; 26.3%) was followed by hantaviruses (24; 15.4%), Rickettsia spp. (22; 14.1%), and Leptospira (2; 1.3%). A total of 3,194 chiggers were collected from small mammals, and 1,236 of 3,194 chiggers were identified with 7 species of 3 genera: Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most commonly collected species (585; 47.3%), followed by L. orientale (422; 34.1%), Euchoengastia koreaensis (99; 8.0%), L. palpale (58; 4.7%), L. pallidum (36; 2.9%), Neotrombicula gardellai (28; 2.3%), and L. zetum (8; 0.6%). L. scutellare was the predominant species. Three of 1,236 chigger mites were positive for O. tsutsugamushi by PCR. As a result of phylogenetic analysis, the O. tsutsugamushi strain of chigger mites had sequence homology of 90.1-98.2% with Boryong. This study provides baseline data on the distribution of zoonotic diseases and potential vectors for the development of prevention strategies of vector borne diseases in Gwangju metropolitan area. PMID:27417085

  12. A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, James L. N.; Leach, Melissa; Waldman, Linda; MacGregor, Hayley; Fooks, Anthony R.; Jones, Kate E.; Restif, Olivier; Dechmann, Dina; Hayman, David T. S.; Baker, Kate S.; Peel, Alison J.; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Fahr, Jakob; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breiman, Robert F.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial societal challenge. In the context of disease emergence from wildlife, wildlife and habitat should be conserved, which in turn will preserve vital ecosystem structure and function, which has broader implications for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, while simultaneously minimizing the spillover of pathogens from wild animals into human beings. In this review, we propose a novel framework for the holistic and interdisciplinary investigation of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers, using the spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. This study has been developed to gain a detailed interdisciplinary understanding, and it combines cutting-edge perspectives from both natural and social sciences, linked to policy impacts on public health, land use and conservation. PMID:22966143

  13. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the United Kingdom: Incidence, risks, control measures and review of the zoonotic aspects of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    -standing latent infections acquired before widespread adoption of milk pasteurization, or (ii) M. bovis infections contracted abroad. Since 1990, only one case has been documented in the UK of confirmed, indigenous human M. bovis infection recently acquired from an animal source. Therefore, for the overwhelming majority of the population, the risk of contracting M. bovis infection from animals appears to be extremely low. However, bovine TB is once again a major animal health problem in the UK. Given the increasing numbers of cattle herds being affected each year, physicians and other public health professionals must remember that zoonotic TB is not just a disease of the past. A significant risk of M. bovis infection remains in certain segments of the UK population in the form of (i) continuing on-farm consumption of unpasteurized cows' milk, (ii) retail sales by approved establishments of unpasteurized milk and dairy products and (iii) occupational exposure to infectious aerosols from tuberculous animals and their carcases.

  14. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops.

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, P A M; Avermaete, K H A van; Mertens, C A R M; Meijer, M; Schoemaker, N J

    2017-06-01

    Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop. All animals were investigated for fur mite using a flea comb, a magnifying glass and white paper. From the fur of 3.8% (8/213) of the rabbits and 16.8% (30/179) of the guinea pigs, T. mentagrophytes was isolated. From 1 guinea pig (0,6%) Chrysosporium keratinophilum was isolated. Dermatophyte-positive rabbits and guinea pigs originated from 5.6% (5/90) and 27.3% (24/88) of the investigated pet shops, respectively. Fur mites were not found. Pet shops can play an important role in preventing transmission of zoonotic ringworm infections (dermatophytosis) and educating their customers. Specific preventive measures such as routine screening examinations and (prophylactic) treatment of rabbits and guinea pigs are recommended next to regular hygiene when handling animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Landscape characteristics influence helminth infestations in a peri-domestic rodent--implications for possible zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Froeschke, Götz; Matthee, Sonja

    2014-08-26

    Anthropogenic habitat change often results in altered landscapes that can provide new environments where hosts, parasites and pathogens can interact. The latter can have implications for human and animal health when in close proximity to developed areas. We recorded the helminth species richness and level of infestation in the peri-domestic rodent, Rhabdomys pumilio, in three different human linked landscapes. The aim was, to investigate the potential of R. pumilio to act as a reservoir host for zoonotic helminths and to compare the effect of anthropogenic habitat change on its parasite infestation patterns. Rodents (n = 518) were trapped in natural areas (nature reserves) and in three human linked landscapes (crop, livestock and urban fragments). Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were recovered and helminths identified from each animal. Generalized linear models were applied to investigate the effect of different landscape types on helminth infestation. Rhabdomys pumilio was the most abundant rodent species within each landscape type. Eight helminths species were recovered and overall helminth prevalence was 86.68%. Mean helminth species richness, prevalence and abundance were significantly higher in crop fragments compared to natural landscapes and overall lower for nematodes in livestock and urban areas. Cestode prevalence showed a tendency to be elevated at anthropogenic linked landscape types. Host parameters and parasite infestations were strongly influenced by landscape characteristics. Resource-rich landscapes (crop fragments) provide favorable conditions for helminth infestations, while landscapes that are more closely associated with humans (livestock and urban landscapes) pose a larger risk by zoonotic species.

  16. Evidence of zoonotic leprosy in Pará, Brazilian Amazon, and risks associated with human contact or consumption of armadillos.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Moises B; Portela, Juliana M; Li, Wei; Jackson, Mary; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Andrea Sánchez; Belisle, John T; Bouth, Raquel C; Gobbo, Angélica R; Barreto, Josafá G; Minervino, Antonio H H; Cole, Stewart T; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Frade, Marco A C; Geluk, Annemieke; Salgado, Claudio G; Spencer, John S

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) is a human pathogen and the causative agent for leprosy, a chronic disease characterized by lesions of the skin and peripheral nerve damage. Zoonotic transmission of M. leprae to humans by nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) has been shown to occur in the southern United States, mainly in Texas, Louisiana, and Florida. Nine-banded armadillos are also common in South America, and residents living in some areas in Brazil hunt and kill armadillos as a dietary source of protein. This study examines the extent of M. leprae infection in wild armadillos and whether these New World mammals may be a natural reservoir for leprosy transmission in Brazil, similar to the situation in the southern states of the U.S. The presence of the M. leprae-specific repetitive sequence RLEP was detected by PCR amplification in purified DNA extracted from armadillo spleen and liver tissue samples. A positive RLEP signal was confirmed in 62% of the armadillos (10/16), indicating high rates of infection with M. leprae. Immunohistochemistry of sections of infected armadillo spleens revealed mycobacterial DNA and cell wall constituents in situ detected by SYBR Gold and auramine/rhodamine staining techniques, respectively. The M. leprae-specific antigen, phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) was detected in spleen sections using a rabbit polyclonal antibody specific for PGL-I. Anti-PGL-I titers were assessed by ELISA in sera from 146 inhabitants of Belterra, a hyperendemic city located in western Pará state in Brazil. A positive anti-PGL-I titer is a known biomarker for M. leprae infection in both humans and armadillos. Individuals who consumed armadillo meat most frequently (more than once per month) showed a significantly higher anti-PGL-I titer than those who did not eat or ate less frequently than once per month. Armadillos infected with M. leprae represent a potential environmental reservoir. Consequently, people who hunt, kill, or process or eat armadillo

  17. Modelling H5N1 in Bangladesh across spatial scales: Model complexity and zoonotic transmission risk.

    PubMed

    Hill, Edward M; House, Thomas; Dhingra, Madhur S; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Morzaria, Subhash; Osmani, Muzaffar G; Yamage, Mat; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius; Tildesley, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a persistent public health threat, capable of causing infection in humans with a high mortality rate while simultaneously negatively impacting the livestock industry. A central question is to determine regions that are likely sources of newly emerging influenza strains with pandemic causing potential. A suitable candidate is Bangladesh, being one of the most densely populated countries in the world and having an intensifying farming system. It is therefore vital to establish the key factors, specific to Bangladesh, that enable both continued transmission within poultry and spillover across the human-animal interface. We apply a modelling framework to H5N1 epidemics in the Dhaka region of Bangladesh, occurring from 2007 onwards, that resulted in large outbreaks in the poultry sector and a limited number of confirmed human cases. This model consisted of separate poultry transmission and zoonotic transmission components. Utilising poultry farm spatial and population information a set of competing nested models of varying complexity were fitted to the observed case data, with parameter inference carried out using Bayesian methodology and goodness-of-fit verified by stochastic simulations. For the poultry transmission component, successfully identifying a model of minimal complexity, which enabled the accurate prediction of the size and spatial distribution of cases in H5N1 outbreaks, was found to be dependent on the administration level being analysed. A consistent outcome of non-optimal reporting of infected premises materialised in each poultry epidemic of interest, though across the outbreaks analysed there were substantial differences in the estimated transmission parameters. The zoonotic transmission component found the main contributor to spillover transmission of H5N1 in Bangladesh was found to differ from one poultry epidemic to another. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for these discrepancies in

  18. [Zoonotic diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella genus: new reservoirs ? New vectors?].

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2005-03-01

    Domestic animals and wildlife represent a large reservoir for bartonellae, at least eight species or subspecies of which have been reported to cause zoonotic infections. In addition, numerous orphan clinical syndromes are now being attributed to Bartonella henselae infection. Many mammalian species, including cats, dogs, rodents and ruminants are the main bartonellae reservoirs. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae. It appears that domestic dogs, at least in non tropical regions, are more likely to be accidental hosts than reservoirs, and constitute excellent sentinels for human infections. Bartonellae are vector-borne bacteria. The mode of B. henselae transmission by cat fleas is now better understood, but new potential vectors have recently been identified, including ticks and biting flies. This articles summarizes current knowledge of the etiology, new clinical features and epidemiological characteristics of these emerging zoonoses.

  19. Farm Fairs and Petting Zoos: A Review of Animal Contact as a Source of Zoonotic Enteric Disease.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Cheyenne C; Stanford, Kim; Narvaez-Bravo, Claudia; Callaway, Todd; McAllister, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Many public venues such as farms, fairs, and petting zoos encourage animal contact for both educational and entertainment purposes. However, healthy farm animals, including cattle, small ruminants, and poultry, can be reservoirs for enteric zoonotic pathogens, with human infections resulting in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and, in some cases, severe complications that can lead to death. As animals shed these organisms in their feces, contamination of themselves and their surroundings is unavoidable. The majority of North Americans reside in urban and suburban settings, and the general public often possess limited knowledge of agricultural practices and minimal contact with farm animals. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding of zoonotic pathogens, particularly how these pathogens are spread and the human behaviors that may increase the risk of infection. Human risk behaviors include hand-to-mouth contact immediately after physical contact with animals and their environments, a practice that facilitates the ingestion of pathogens. It is often young children who become ill due to their under-developed immune systems and poorer hygienic practices compared with adults, such as more frequent hand-to-mouth behaviors, and infrequent or improper hand washing. These illnesses are often preventable, simply through adequate hygiene and hand washing. Our objective was to use a structured approach to review the main causal organisms responsible for human illnesses acquired in petting zoo and open farm environments, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, nontyphoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium. Notable outbreaks involving direct contact with farm animals and farm, fair, or petting zoo environments are discussed and recommendations for how public venues can increase safety and hand hygiene compliance among visitors are proposed. The most effective protective measures against enteric illnesses include education of the public, increasing overall awareness

  20. Geographical Information Systems risk assessment models for zoonotic fascioliasis in the South American Andes region.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M V; Sainz-Elipe, S; Nieto, P; Malone, J B; Mas-Coma, S

    2005-03-01

    The WHO recognises Fasciola hepatica to be an important human health problem. The Andean countries of Peru, Bolivia and Chile are those most severely affected by this distomatosis, though areas of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela are also affected. As part of a multidisciplinary project, we present results of use of a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) forecast model to conduct an epidemiological analysis of human and animal fasciolosis in the central part of the Andes mountains. The GIS approach enabled us to develop a spatial and temporal epidemiological model to map the disease in the areas studied and to classify transmission risk into low, moderate and high risk areas so that areas requiring the implementation of control activities can be identified. Current results are available on a local scale for: (1) the northern Bolivian Altiplano, (2) Puno in the Peruvian Altiplano, (3) the Cajamarca and Mantaro Peruvian valleys, and (4) the Ecuadorian provinces of Azuay, Cotopaxi and Imbabura. Analysis of results demonstrated the validity of a forecast model that combines use of climatic data to calculate of forecast indices with remote sensing data, through the classification of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps.

  1. One Health Integration: A Proposed Framework for a Study on Veterinarians and Zoonotic Disease Management in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Valeix, Sophie Françoise

    2018-01-01

    In parallel with the recent world-wide promotion of One Health (OH) as a policy concept, a growing body of social science studies has raised questions about how successful OH policies and programs have been in managing some global health issues, such as zoonotic diseases. This paper briefly reviews this literature to clarify its critical perspective. Much of the literature on OH also is focused on health management at an international level and has paid less attention to implementation programs and policies for OH at the national and local levels, especially in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). Programs to implement OH often are linked to the concept of "integration", a notion that lacks a universal definition, but is nonetheless a central tenet and goal in many OH programs. At the local and national levels, strong differences in perspectives about OH among different professions can be major barriers to integration of those professions into OH implementation. Policies based on integration among professions in sectors like animal, human and environmental health can threaten professions' identities and thus may meet with resistance. Taking into account these criticisms of OH research and implementation, this paper proposes a research framework to probe the dominant social dimensions and power dynamics among professional participants that affect OH implementation programs at the local and national levels in a low-income country. The proposed research focus is the veterinary profession and one aspect of OH in which veterinarians are necessary actors: zoonotic disease management. Results from research framed in this way can have immediate application to the programs under study and can inform more expansive research on the social determinants of successful implementation of OH programs and policies.

  2. The molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium species in relinquished dogs in Great Britain: a novel zoonotic risk?

    PubMed

    Rosanowski, S M; Banica, M; Ellis, E; Farrow, E; Harwood, C; Jordan, B; James, C; McKenna, D; Fox, M; Blake, D P

    2018-05-01

    Surveillance was conducted to investigate the occurrence of protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium in dogs newly admitted to a dog rehoming charity in London, Great Britain. Voided faecal samples were collected from all new admissions between 2011 and 2012 during six separate 4-week sampling periods. Information on host signalment, including age, breed and reason for submission and faecal consistency, was collected. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, confirmed by sequencing, was conducted on the faecal samples to detect Cryptosporidium genomic DNA and determine Cryptosporidium identity. In total, 677 dogs were included in the study. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium-positive faecal samples was 4.6% (31/676). There were positive samples in all of the six sampling periods. Cryptosporidium canis (n = 28), C. parvum (n = 2) and C. andersoni (n = 1) were identified. Sixty KDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene amplicon sequencing of the C. parvum samples identified genotypes IIaA17G1R1 and IIaA15G2R1 for the first time from a dog. There were no significant associations between signalment data and Cryptosporidium status. While this was a study of one rehoming shelter, the presence of the potentially zoonotic C. parvum and C. canis in dogs highlights a public health concern. Further research is needed to better understand the epidemiology and potential impacts of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs.

  3. West Nile virus lineage 2 as a cause of zoonotic neurological disease in humans and horses in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, Marietjie; Swanepoel, Robert

    2010-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in South Africa, but since a few cases of neurological disease have been reported from this region, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be of low virulence. Several cases of nonfatal encephalitis in humans as well as fatal cases in a foal, dog, and ostrich chicks have, however, been associated with lineage 2 WNV in South Africa. The pathogenesis of lineage 2 WNV strains was investigated using mouse neuroinvasive experiments, gene expression experiments, and genome sequence comparisons which indicated that lineage 2 strains that are highly pathogenic exist. To determine whether cases of WNV were being missed in South Africa, horses with fever and neurological disease were investigated. Several cases of WNV were identified, all associated with severe neurological disease, 85% of which had to be euthanized or died. All cases positive by RT-PCR were shown to belong to lineage 2 WNV by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Two cases of occupational infection were investigated, including a case of zoonotic transmission to a veterinarian who performed an autopsy on one of the horses as well as a laboratory infection after a needle stick injury with a neuroinvasive lineage 2 strain. Both resulted in neurological disease. Cytokine expression was investigated in the second case to assess the immunopathogenesis of WNV. Collectively, these studies suggest that lineage 2 WNV may be significantly under estimated as a cause of neurological disease in South Africa.

  4. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastocystis sp. in Various Animal Groups from Two French Zoos and Evaluation of Potential Zoonotic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Moriniere, Romain; Gantois, Nausicaa; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Guyot, Karine; Li, Luen-Luen; Monchy, Sébastien; Noël, Christophe; Poirier, Philippe; Nourrisson, Céline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Delbac, Frédéric; Bosc, Stéphanie; Chabé, Magali; Petit, Thierry; Certad, Gabriela; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite infecting humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. It exhibits an extensive genetic diversity and 17 subtypes (STs) have thus far been identified in mammalian and avian hosts. Since several STs are common to humans and animals, it was proposed that a proportion of human infections may result from zoonotic transmission. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infection remains to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the epidemiology and host specificity of this parasite by performing the largest epidemiological survey ever conducted in animal groups in terms of numbers of species screened. A total of 307 stool samples from 161 mammalian and non-mammalian species in two French zoos were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of Blastocystis sp. Overall, 32.2% of the animal samples and 37.9% of the species tested were shown to be infected with the parasite. A total of 111 animal Blastocystis sp. isolates were subtyped, and 11 of the 17 mammalian and avian STs as well as additional STs previously identified in reptiles and insects were found with a varying prevalence according to animal groups. These data were combined with those obtained from previous surveys to evaluate the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. through the comparison of ST distribution between human and animal hosts. This suggests that non-human primates, artiodactyls and birds may serve as reservoirs for human infection, especially in animal handlers. In contrast, other mammals such as carnivores, and non-mammalian groups including reptiles and insects, do not seem to represent significant sources of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans. In further studies, more intensive sampling and screening of potential new animal hosts will reinforce these statements and expand our understanding of the circulation of Blastocystis sp. in animal and human populations. PMID

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastocystis sp. in Various Animal Groups from Two French Zoos and Evaluation of Potential Zoonotic Risk.

    PubMed

    Cian, Amandine; El Safadi, Dima; Osman, Marwan; Moriniere, Romain; Gantois, Nausicaa; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Guyot, Karine; Li, Luen-Luen; Monchy, Sébastien; Noël, Christophe; Poirier, Philippe; Nourrisson, Céline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Delbac, Frédéric; Bosc, Stéphanie; Chabé, Magali; Petit, Thierry; Certad, Gabriela; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite infecting humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. It exhibits an extensive genetic diversity and 17 subtypes (STs) have thus far been identified in mammalian and avian hosts. Since several STs are common to humans and animals, it was proposed that a proportion of human infections may result from zoonotic transmission. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infection remains to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the epidemiology and host specificity of this parasite by performing the largest epidemiological survey ever conducted in animal groups in terms of numbers of species screened. A total of 307 stool samples from 161 mammalian and non-mammalian species in two French zoos were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of Blastocystis sp. Overall, 32.2% of the animal samples and 37.9% of the species tested were shown to be infected with the parasite. A total of 111 animal Blastocystis sp. isolates were subtyped, and 11 of the 17 mammalian and avian STs as well as additional STs previously identified in reptiles and insects were found with a varying prevalence according to animal groups. These data were combined with those obtained from previous surveys to evaluate the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. through the comparison of ST distribution between human and animal hosts. This suggests that non-human primates, artiodactyls and birds may serve as reservoirs for human infection, especially in animal handlers. In contrast, other mammals such as carnivores, and non-mammalian groups including reptiles and insects, do not seem to represent significant sources of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans. In further studies, more intensive sampling and screening of potential new animal hosts will reinforce these statements and expand our understanding of the circulation of Blastocystis sp. in animal and human populations.

  7. Mammal decline, linked to invasive Burmese python, shifts host use of vector mosquito towards reservoir hosts of a zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Isaiah J; Blosser, Erik M; Acevedo, Carolina; Thompson, Anna Carels; Reeves, Lawrence E; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2017-10-01

    Invasive apex predators have profound impacts on natural communities, yet the consequences of these impacts on the transmission of zoonotic pathogens are unexplored. Collapse of large- and medium-sized mammal populations in the Florida Everglades has been linked to the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl. We used historic and current data to investigate potential impacts of these community effects on contact between the reservoir hosts (certain rodents) and vectors of Everglades virus, a zoonotic mosquito-borne pathogen that circulates in southern Florida. The percentage of blood meals taken from the primary reservoir host, the hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord, increased dramatically (422.2%) from 1979 (14.7%) to 2016 (76.8%), while blood meals from deer, raccoons and opossums decreased by 98.2%, reflecting precipitous declines in relative abundance of these larger mammals, attributed to python predation. Overall species diversity of hosts detected in Culex cedecei blood meals from the Everglades declined by 40.2% over the same period ( H (1979) = 1.68, H (2016) = 1.01). Predictions based upon the dilution effect theory suggest that increased relative feedings upon reservoir hosts translate into increased abundance of infectious vectors, and a corresponding upsurge of Everglades virus occurrence and risk of human exposure, although this was not tested in the current study. This work constitutes the first indication that an invasive predator can increase contact between vectors and reservoirs of a human pathogen and highlights unrecognized indirect impacts of invasive predators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Paramyosin of canine Onchocerca lupi: usefulness for the diagnosis of a neglected zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bronwyn; Cortes, Helder; Annoscia, Giada; Giannelli, Alessio; Parisi, Antonio; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-09-07

    Of increasing importance to the medical and veterinary communities is the zoonotic filarioid nematode Onchocerca lupi. Onchocercosis, thus far found in wolves, dogs, cats and humans, is diagnosed via skin snips to detect microfilariae and surgical removal of adults from the eye of the host. These methods are time-consuming, laborious and invasive, highlighting the need for new tools for the diagnosis of O. lupi in susceptible hosts. Symptoms related to the presence of the adults in the eye can range from none apparent to severe, including blindness. No reliable chemotherapeutic protocols are available, as yet, to eliminate the infection. Paramyosin, an invertebrate-specific protein, has been well-studied as an allergen, diagnostic marker and vaccine candidate. The aim of this study, therefore, was to isolate and characterise paramyosin from O. lupi to assess its suitability for the development of a serological diagnostic assay. The adult and microfilarial stages of O. lupi were isolated from the eyes and skin of a 3-year-old male dog. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into single stranded cDNA. Reverse-transcription PCR was used to isolate a full-length paramyosin cDNA from adult worms and to investigate the temporal expression patterns of this gene. All amplicons were sequenced using dideoxy chain termination sequencing. Bioinformatics was used to predict the amino acid sequence of the gene, to compare the DNA and protein sequences with those available in public databases and to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of all molecules. Antibody binding sites were predicted using bioinformatics and mapped along with published antigenic epitopes against the O. lupi paramyosin protein. The native protein, and three smaller recombinantly expressed peptides, were subjected to western blot using serum from dogs both positive and negative for O. lupi. Paramyosin of O. lupi was herein molecularly characterized, encoded by a transcript of 2,643 bp and

  9. Abundance, zoonotic potential and risk factors of intestinal parasitism amongst dog and cat populations: The scenario of Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulou, Despoina; Claerebout, Edwin; Arvanitis, Dimitrios; Ligda, Panagiota; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Casaert, Stijn; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2017-01-25

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and infection intensity of intestinal parasites in different dog and cat populations in Crete, Greece, estimate the zoonotic risk and identify risk factors. Faecal samples from shelter, household and shepherd dogs and shelter and household cats were analyzed using sedimentation/flotation techniques. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected by a quantitative direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). PCR and sequencing was performed to evaluate the zoonotic potential of Giardia and Cryptosporidium positive samples. Totals of 879 dog and 264 cat faecal samples were examined. In dogs, the overall prevalence was 25.2% (CI: 22.4-28.1) for Giardia spp.; 9.2% (CI: 7.3-11.1) for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp.; 7.6% (CI: 5.9-9.4) for Toxocara spp.; 5.9% (CI: 4.4-7.5) for Cryptosporidium spp.; 4.6% (CI: 3.2-5.9) for Cystoisospora spp.; 2.7% (CI: 1.7-3.8) for Toxascaris leonina; 1.7% (CI: 0.9-2.6) for Capillaria spp.; 0.8% (CI: 0.2-1.4) for taeniid eggs; 0.2% (CI: 0-0.5) for Dipylidium caninum; and 0.1% (CI: 0-0.3) for Strongyloides stercoralis. In cats, the prevalence was 20.5% (CI: 15.6-25.3) for Giardia spp.; 9.5% (CI: 5.9-13.0) for Cystoisospora spp.; 8.3% (CI: 5.0-11.7) for Toxocara spp.; 7.6% (CI: 4.4-10.8) for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp.; 6.8% (CI: 3.8-9.9) for Cryptosporidium spp.; 4.2% (CI: 1.8-6.6) for Capillaria spp.; 0.8% (CI: 0-1.8) for taeniid eggs; and 0.4% (CI: 0-1.1) for Hammondia/Toxoplasma. Concerning the risk factors evaluated, there was a negative association between age and Giardia infection and between age and T. leonina infection intensity for dogs. Sequencing results revealed the presence of mainly animal-specific G. duodenalis assemblages C and D in dogs and assemblages F, C and BIV-like in cats, with only a limited number of (co-)infections with assemblage A. As for Cryptosporidium, the dog-specific C. canis and the pig-specific C. scrofarum were detected in dogs and the cat-specific C. felis was

  10. Observation of practices at petting zoos and the potential impact on zoonotic disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott; McCarthy, Lisa; Mossop, Michael; Martin, Hayley; Lefebvre, Sandi

    2007-07-01

    Although petting zoos are common at public events and allow the public to interact with animals, there has been minimal evaluation of practices at petting zoos. Unannounced observation was performed at 36 petting zoos in Ontario, Canada. Observers recorded information, including physical layout, animal species, animal health, types of animal contact permitted, animal sources, hand hygiene facilities, signage, sale of food for human consumption, and hand hygiene compliance. The majority of petting zoos (24 [67%] of 36 petting zoos) were part of temporary events, particularly agricultural fairs (21 [58%] of 36 petting zoos). A variety of animal species were present, including some animals that are considered to be at particularly high risk for disease transmission (neonatal calves and baby chicks). The following items that would come into contact with the mouths of infants and children were carried into the petting zoos: baby bottles (at 17 petting zoos; 50%), pacifiers (at 24 petting zoos; 71%), spill-proofs cups (at 19 petting zoos; 56%), and infant toys (at 22 petting zoos; 65%). Hand hygiene facilities were provided at 34 (94%) of 36 events, and hand hygiene compliance ranged from 0% through 77% (mean compliance [+/-SD], 30.9%+/-22.1%; median compliance, 26.5%). Predictors for increased hand hygiene compliance included the location of a hand hygiene station on an exit route, the presence of hand hygiene reminder signs, and the availability of running water. Numerous deficiencies were encountered. Better education of petting zoo operators and the general public is needed. Provision of hand hygiene stations with running water that are placed near exits is one effective way to encourage compliance.

  11. Disease risk curves.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G; Burnett, F J; Havis, N D

    2013-11-01

    Disease risk curves are simple graphical relationships between the probability of need for treatment and evidence related to risk factors. In the context of the present article, our focus is on factors related to the occurrence of disease in crops. Risk is the probability of adverse consequences; specifically in the present context it denotes the chance that disease will reach a threshold level at which crop protection measures can be justified. This article describes disease risk curves that arise when risk is modeled as a function of more than one risk factor, and when risk is modeled as a function of a single factor (specifically the level of disease at an early disease assessment). In both cases, disease risk curves serve as calibration curves that allow the accumulated evidence related to risk to be expressed on a probability scale. When risk is modeled as a function of the level of disease at an early disease assessment, the resulting disease risk curve provides a crop loss assessment model in which the downside is denominated in terms of risk rather than in terms of yield loss.

  12. Intestinal parasites of owned dogs and cats from metropolitan and micropolitan areas: prevalence, zoonotic risks, and pet owner awareness in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.

  13. Bat–man disease transmission: zoonotic pathogens from wildlife reservoirs to human populations

    PubMed Central

    Allocati, N; Petrucci, A G; Di Giovanni, P; Masulli, M; Di Ilio, C; De Laurenzi, V

    2016-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts and sources of infection of several microorganisms, many of which cause severe human diseases. Because of contact between bats and other animals, including humans, the possibility exists for additional interspecies transmissions and resulting disease outbreaks. The purpose of this article is to supply an overview on the main pathogens isolated from bats that have the potential to cause disease in humans. PMID:27551536

  14. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control.

    PubMed

    Olveda, Remigio M; Tallo, Veronica; Olveda, David U; Inobaya, Marianette T; Chau, Thao N; Ross, Allen G

    2016-04-01

    Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is <1%, hence the disease is now close to elimination. However, the evidence for such a claim is weak, given that less than a third of the human population is currently being treated annually within endemic zones and only a third of those treated actually swallow the tablets. For those who consume the drug at the single oral dose of 40mg/kg, the estimated cure rate is 52% based on a recent meta-analysis. Thus, approximately 5% of the endemic human population is in reality receiving the appropriate treatment. To compound this public health problem, most of the bovines in the endemic communities are concurrently infected but are not treated under the current national control programme. Given this evidence, it is believed that the human prevalence of schistosomiasis within endemic regions has been grossly underestimated. Inherent flaws in the reporting of national schistosomiasis prevalence data are reported here, and the problems of utilizing national retrospective data in making geographic information system (GIS) risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review of the Current Status of Relevant Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Swine (Sus scrofa) Populations: Changes Modulating the Risk of Transmission to Humans.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, F

    2017-02-01

    Many wild swine populations in different parts of the World have experienced an unprecedented demographic explosion that may result in increased exposure of humans to wild swine zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between humans and wild swine leading to pathogen transmission could come from different ways, being hunters and game professionals the most exposed to acquiring infections from wild swine. However, increasing human settlements in semi-natural areas, outdoor activities, socio-economic changes and food habits may increase the rate of exposure to wild swine zoonotic pathogens and to potentially emerging pathogens from wild swine. Frequent and increasing contact rate between humans and wild swine points to an increasing chance of zoonotic pathogens arising from wild swine to be transmitted to humans. Whether this frequent contact could lead to new zoonotic pathogens emerging from wild swine to cause human epidemics or emerging disease outbreaks is difficult to predict, and assessment should be based on thorough epidemiologic surveillance. Additionally, several gaps in knowledge on wild swine global population dynamics trends and wild swine-zoonotic pathogen interactions should be addressed to correctly assess the potential role of wild swine in the emergence of diseases in humans. In this work, viruses such as hepatitis E virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Influenza virus and Nipah virus, and bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. and Leptospira spp. have been identified as the most prone to be transmitted from wild swine to humans on the basis of geographic spread in wild swine populations worldwide, pathogen circulation rates in wild swine populations, wild swine population trends in endemic areas, susceptibility of humans to infection, transmissibility from wild swine to humans and existing evidence of wild swine-human transmission events. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a horse: zoonotic concerns and limitations of antemortem testing

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...

  17. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response. PMID:26954882

  18. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-06-10

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.

  19. Intervention strategies to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza viruses: scientific basis, challenges and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Sims, Leslie D

    2013-09-01

    A range of measures has been recommended and used for the control and prevention of avian influenza. These measures are based on the assessment of local epidemiological situations, field observations and other scientific information. Other non-technical factors are (or in some cases should be) taken into account when developing and recommending control measures. The precise effects under field conditions of most individual interventions applied to control and prevent avian influenza have not been established or subjected to critical review, often because a number of measures are applied simultaneously without controls. In most cases, the combination of measures used results in control or elimination of the virus although there are some countries where this has not been the case. In others, especially those with low poultry density, it is not clear whether the link between the adoption of a set of measures and the subsequent control of the disease is causative. This article discusses the various measures recommended, with particular emphasis on stamping out and vaccination, examines how these measures assist in preventing zoonotic infections with avian influenza viruses and explores gaps in knowledge regarding their effectiveness. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. A Hidden Markov Model for Analysis of Frontline Veterinary Data for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Gunawardana, Walimunige S. N.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Nathoo, Farouk; Stephen, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance systems tracking health patterns in animals have potential for early warning of infectious disease in humans, yet there are many challenges that remain before this can be realized. Specifically, there remains the challenge of detecting early warning signals for diseases that are not known or are not part of routine surveillance for named diseases. This paper reports on the development of a hidden Markov model for analysis of frontline veterinary sentinel surveillance data from Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians collected data on syndromes and diagnoses using mobile phones. A model for submission patterns accounts for both sentinel-related and disease-related variability. Models for commonly reported cattle diagnoses were estimated separately. Region-specific weekly average prevalence was estimated for each diagnoses and partitioned into normal and abnormal periods. Visualization of state probabilities was used to indicate areas and times of unusual disease prevalence. The analysis suggests that hidden Markov modelling is a useful approach for surveillance datasets from novel populations and/or having little historical baselines. PMID:21949763

  1. Complex Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Disease in a Culturally Diverse Region: Phylogeography of Rabies Virus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Daniel L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Marston, Denise A.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Goharrriz, Hooman; Wise, Emma; Breed, Andrew C.; Saturday, Greg; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Zilahi, Erika; Al-Kobaisi, Muhannad F.; Nowotny, Norbert; Mueller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination. PMID:25811659

  2. Hepatitis E Virus: A Cross-Sectional Serological and Virological Study in Pigs and Humans at Zoonotic Risk within a High-Density Pig Farming Area.

    PubMed

    Caruso, C; Peletto, S; Rosamilia, A; Modesto, P; Chiavacci, L; Sona, B; Balsamelli, F; Ghisetti, V; Acutis, P L; Pezzoni, G; Brocchi, E; Vitale, N; Masoero, L

    2017-10-01

    An increase in autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections has been recorded in Italy suspected to be zoonotically transmitted from pigs; this study was carried out to determinate the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with hepatitis HEV exposition, both in swine and humans working in pig farms, located within a high-density pig farming area in Piedmont region, north-western Italy. The presence of viral RNA in human and swine samples was also evaluated, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on HEV-positive samples. Forty-two swine farms were sampled; 142 workers were enrolled in the study and classified into two groups: (i) 69 workers with occupational contact with swine (including veterinarians and farmers) recruited in the 42 sampled farms; (ii) 73 without occupational contact with swine. Forty-one of 42 (97%) swine farms resulted positive to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for HEV antibodies (Abs). Overall seroprevalence in swine was 50% (441/879), with seropositivity rate higher in sows (333/469, 71%). HEV RNA in stool samples was detected in animals from 13 of 42 tested farms (31%), and a higher positivity resulted in weaners (40/246, 16.3%). Phylogenetic analysis classified all HEV isolates within genotype 3 (subtypes 3f, 3e, 3c). All humans were negative for HEV viral genome in blood. Five of 142 sera were positive for IgG anti-HEV with an overall prevalence of 3.52% with no statistically significant differences in prevalence rates between workers at zoonotic risk and the control group (5.7% versus 1.3%). In contrast, a significant difference (OR 10.1) was observed within the subgroup including subjects exposed for short periods (veterinarians) compared with those who worked for long periods (farmers) suggesting a correlation between the time of exposure and the likelihood of HEV infection. Reporting HEV infection is not mandatory in Italy, but a constant epidemiological surveillance should be ensured to clarify the epidemiology of this

  3. Using administrative medical claims data to supplement state disease registry systems for reporting zoonotic infections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen G; Coulter, Steven; Conner, William

    2013-01-01

    To determine what, if any, opportunity exists in using administrative medical claims data for supplemental reporting to the state infectious disease registry system. Cases of five tick-borne (Lyme disease (LD), babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), tularemia) and two mosquito-borne diseases (West Nile virus, La Crosse viral encephalitis) reported to the Tennessee Department of Health during 2000-2009 were selected for study. Similarly, medically diagnosed cases from a Tennessee-based managed care organization (MCO) claims data warehouse were extracted for the same time period. MCO and Tennessee Department of Health incidence rates were compared using a complete randomized block design within a general linear mixed model to measure potential supplemental reporting opportunity. MCO LD incidence was 7.7 times higher (p<0.001) than that reported to the state, possibly indicating significant under-reporting (∼196 unreported cases per year). MCO data also suggest about 33 cases of RMSF go unreported each year in Tennessee (p<0.001). Three cases of babesiosis were discovered using claims data, a significant finding as this disease was only recently confirmed in Tennessee. Data sharing between MCOs and health departments for vaccine information already exists (eg, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Rapid Cycle Analysis project). There may be a significant opportunity in Tennessee to supplement the current passive infectious disease reporting system with administrative claims data, particularly for LD and RMSF. There are limitations with administrative claims data, but health plans may help bridge data gaps and support the federal administration's vision of combining public and private data into one source.

  4. Campylobacteriosis, Salmonellosis, Yersiniosis, and Listeriosis as Zoonotic Foodborne Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chlebicz, Agnieszka; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans, posing a great threat to the health and life of people all over the world. According to WHO estimations, 600 million cases of diseases caused by contaminated food were noted in 2010, including almost 350 million caused by pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter, Salmonella, as well as Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes may dwell in livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine) but are also found in wild animals, pets, fish, and rodents. Animals, often being asymptomatic carriers of pathogens, excrete them with faeces, thus delivering them to the environment. Therefore, pathogens may invade new individuals, as well as reside on vegetables and fruits. Pathogenic bacteria also penetrate food production areas and may remain there in the form of a biofilm covering the surfaces of machines and equipment. A common occurrence of microbes in food products, as well as their improper or careless processing, leads to common poisonings. Symptoms of foodborne infections may be mild, sometimes flu-like, but they also may be accompanied by severe complications, some even fatal. The aim of the paper is to summarize and provide information on campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis and the aetiological factors of those diseases, along with the general characteristics of pathogens, virulence factors, and reservoirs. PMID:29701663

  5. Risk for interspecies transmission of zoonotic pathogens during poultry processing and pork production in Peru: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Carnero, A M; Kitayama, K; Diaz, D A; Garvich, M; Angulo, N; Cama, V A; Gilman, R H; Bayer, A M

    2018-03-30

    Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as "mixing vessels" for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains. Thus, understanding practices that lead to interspecies interactions is crucial. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate poultry processing practices in formal and informal markets and the use of leftovers by swine farmers in three Peruvian cities: Lima (capital), Tumbes (coastal) and Tarapoto (jungle). We conducted 80 direct observations at formal and informal markets and interviewed 15 swine farmers. Processors slaughter and pluck chickens and vendors and/or processors eviscerate chickens. Food safety and hygiene practices were suboptimal or absent, although some heterogeneity was observed between cities and chicken vendors versus processors. Both vendors (76%) and processors (100%) sold the chicken viscera leftovers to swine farmers, representing the main source of chicken viscera for swine farms (53%). Swine farmers fed the chicken viscera to their swine. Chicken viscera cooking times varied widely and were insufficient in some cases. Non-abattoired poultry leads to the sale of poultry leftovers to small-scale swine farms, resulting in indirect but frequent interspecies contacts that can lead to interspecies transmission of bacterial pathogens or the reassortment of influenza A viruses. These interactions are exacerbated by suboptimal safety and hygiene conditions. People involved in these activities constitute an at-risk population who could play a central role in preventing the transmission of pathogens between species. Educational

  6. Q fever is an old and neglected zoonotic disease in Kenya: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Njeru, J; Henning, K; Pletz, M W; Heller, R; Neubauer, H

    2016-04-05

    Q fever is a neglected zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The knowledge of the epidemiology of Q fever in Kenya is limited with no attention to control and prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to understand the situation of Q fever in human and animal populations in Kenya in the past 60 years, and help identify future research priorities for the country. Databases were searched for national and international scientific studies or reports on Q fever. We included studies and reports published between 1950 and 2015 if they reported on Q fever prevalence, incidence, and infection control programs in Kenya. Data were extracted with respect to studies on prevalence of Coxiella infections, study design, study region, the study populations involved, and sorted according to the year of the study. We identified 15 studies and reports which qualified for data extraction. Human seroprevalence studies revealed evidence of C. burnetii infections ranging from 3 to 35.8% in all regions in which surveys were made and two Q fever outbreak episodes. Coxiella burnetii infections found in cattle 7.4-51.1%, sheep 6.7-20%, camels 20-46%, and goats 20-46% revealed variation based on ecoregions and the year of study. Farming and lack of protective clothing were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. However, high quality data is lacking on Q fever awareness, underlying cultural-economic factors influencing C. burnetii infection, and how the pathogen cycles may be embedded in livestock production and management systems in the economically and ecologically different Kenyan regions. We found no studies on national disease incidence estimates or disease surveillance and control efforts. Coxiella burnetii infections are common in human and in a wide range of animal populations but are still unrecognized and underestimated thus presenting a significant human and animal health threat in Kenya. The factors influencing pathogen transmission

  7. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BRUCELLA SUIS IN PIGS AS ZOONOTIC DISEASE IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF EAST JAVA, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    S, Emy Koestanti; Misaco, Wiwik; Chusniati, Sri; Maslachah, Lilik

    2018-01-01

    Brucellosis in pigs at East Java Indonesia has not only cause great economic losses due to a decrease in productivity of livestock but also are zoonotic. Infection on free brucelosis pigs were initially begun with the infected pigs both male and female, or the use of superior male pigs together. The elimination of the disease either on a group or population is considered as the most effective way to prevent the spread of the disease in pigs. Prevention efforts mainly addressed to vaccination, sanitary maintenace and government policy. The purpose of this study was to isolated and identified Brucella suis as the causative agent. The survey area were the pig farm owned by breeder farmers in the area of East Java Indonesia, at Kediri, Malang, Blitar and Probolinggo district. Blood samples obtained were tested with RBT. Pigs are suspected of being infected with Brucella if the RBT was positive that characterized with agglutination in the test results. If RBT was positive, bacteriological examination will be performed, with samples of visceral foetus organ, ie liver, spleen, placenta and amniotic fluid. Isolation and identification of Brucella suis were used Brucella Broth and Brucella Agar, and if the bacteri growthwill be continued with biochemical test ie H2S, urease, citrate, catalase and oxidase test. The positive results of Brucella suis showed positive urease, catalase andoxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. RBT and bacteriolgical examination showed that 1 sample was positive Brucella suis , and 19 negative. The positive results showed positive urease, catalase and oxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. Based on RBT test and bacteriological examination, there was 1 positive sample of brucellla suis, that is sample coming from Kediri district.

  8. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BRUCELLA SUIS IN PIGS AS ZOONOTIC DISEASE IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

    PubMed Central

    S, Emy Koestanti; Misaco, Wiwik; Chusniati, Sri; Maslachah, Lilik

    2018-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis in pigs at East Java Indonesia has not only cause great economic losses due to a decrease in productivity of livestock but also are zoonotic. Infection on free brucelosis pigs were initially begun with the infected pigs both male and female, or the use of superior male pigs together. The elimination of the disease either on a group or population is considered as the most effective way to prevent the spread of the disease in pigs. Prevention efforts mainly addressed to vaccination, sanitary maintenace and government policy. The purpose of this study was to isolated and identified Brucella suis as the causative agent. Material and Methods: The survey area were the pig farm owned by breeder farmers in the area of East Java Indonesia, at Kediri, Malang, Blitar and Probolinggo district. Blood samples obtained were tested with RBT. Pigs are suspected of being infected with Brucella if the RBT was positive that characterized with agglutination in the test results. If RBT was positive, bacteriological examination will be performed, with samples of visceral foetus organ, ie liver, spleen, placenta and amniotic fluid. Isolation and identification of Brucella suis were used Brucella Broth and Brucella Agar, and if the bacteri growthwill be continued with biochemical test ie H2S, urease, citrate, catalase and oxidase test. The positive results of Brucella suis showed positive urease, catalase andoxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. Results: RBT and bacteriolgical examination showed that 1 sample was positive Brucella suis, and 19 negative. The positive results showed positive urease, catalase and oxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. Conclusion: Based on RBT test and bacteriological examination, there was 1 positive sample of brucellla suis, that is sample coming from Kediri district. PMID:29619446

  9. Engaging research with policy and action: what are the challenges of responding to zoonotic disease in Africa?

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Scoones, Jake Cornwall; Grace, Delia; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Jones, Kate E; de Balogh, Katinka; Waltner-Toews, David; Bett, Bernard; Welburn, Susan C; Mumford, Elizabeth; Dzingirai, Vupenyu

    2017-07-19

    Zoonotic diseases will maintain a high level of public policy attention in the coming decades. From the spectre of a global pandemic to anxieties over agricultural change, urbanization, social inequality and threats to natural ecosystems, effectively preparing and responding to endemic and emerging diseases will require technological, institutional and social innovation. Much current discussion emphasizes the need for a 'One Health' approach: bridging disciplines and sectors to tackle these complex dynamics. However, as attention has increased, so too has an appreciation of the practical challenges in linking multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral research with policy, action and impact. In this commentary paper, we reflect on these issues with particular reference to the African sub-continent. We structure the themes of our analysis on the existing literature, expert opinion and 11 interviews with leading One Health scholars and practitioners, conducted at an international symposium in 2016. We highlight a variety of challenges in research and knowledge production, in the difficult terrain of implementation and outreach, and in the politicized nature of decision-making and priority setting. We then turn our attention to a number of strategies that might help reconfigure current pathways and accepted norms of practice. These include: (i) challenging scientific expertise; (ii) strengthening national multi-sectoral coordination; (iii) building on what works; and (iv) re-framing policy narratives. We argue that bridging the research-policy-action interface in Africa, and better connecting zoonoses, ecosystems and well-being in the twenty-first century, will ultimately require greater attention to the democratization of science and public policy.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Engaging research with policy and action: what are the challenges of responding to zoonotic disease in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Scoones, Jake Cornwall; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; de Balogh, Katinka; Bett, Bernard; Welburn, Susan C.; Mumford, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases will maintain a high level of public policy attention in the coming decades. From the spectre of a global pandemic to anxieties over agricultural change, urbanization, social inequality and threats to natural ecosystems, effectively preparing and responding to endemic and emerging diseases will require technological, institutional and social innovation. Much current discussion emphasizes the need for a ‘One Health’ approach: bridging disciplines and sectors to tackle these complex dynamics. However, as attention has increased, so too has an appreciation of the practical challenges in linking multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral research with policy, action and impact. In this commentary paper, we reflect on these issues with particular reference to the African sub-continent. We structure the themes of our analysis on the existing literature, expert opinion and 11 interviews with leading One Health scholars and practitioners, conducted at an international symposium in 2016. We highlight a variety of challenges in research and knowledge production, in the difficult terrain of implementation and outreach, and in the politicized nature of decision-making and priority setting. We then turn our attention to a number of strategies that might help reconfigure current pathways and accepted norms of practice. These include: (i) challenging scientific expertise; (ii) strengthening national multi-sectoral coordination; (iii) building on what works; and (iv) re-framing policy narratives. We argue that bridging the research-policy-action interface in Africa, and better connecting zoonoses, ecosystems and well-being in the twenty-first century, will ultimately require greater attention to the democratization of science and public policy. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584180

  11. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  12. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P<0.006 and P<0.01, respectively) associated with Brucella abortus seropositivity. Herd composition, abortion in herd, exchange of bulls for mating, introduction of new cattle, and socio-cultural practices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Zoonotic disease transmission associated with feral cats in a metropolitan area: A geospatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Taetzsch, S J; Bertke, A S; Gruszynski, K R

    2018-06-01

    Feral cats raise public health concerns due to their large population numbers and ability to harbour pathogens that cause disease in people, pets, and wildlife. Information regarding the potential for feral cats to intersect with areas frequented by humans is lacking. This study examined the potential for feral cats and human territories to overlap in the Richmond metropolitan area of Central Virginia. Feral cats (n = 275) were trapped for monthly trap-neuter-release (TNR) clinics from July to November 2016. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to map feral cat trapping locations, elementary and preschools, public parks, and community gardens, and to evaluate the potential for cat interaction with these areas, presuming a maximum habitat radius of 0.44 miles. We found that 8.0% of feral cats in the Richmond metropolitan area had potential to range onto public elementary or preschool property, and 81.5% of feral cats trapped in Richmond City had potential to roam into one or more places of interest, including elementary and preschool grounds, public parks, and community gardens. This provides public health, veterinary, and human health professionals with important information that can be used to focus resources in an effort to reduce zoonosis associated with feral cat populations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Zoonotic Risk, Pathogenesis, and Transmission of Avian-Origin H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hailiang; Blackmon, Sherry; Yang, Guohua; Waters, Kaitlyn; Li, Tao; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Xu, Yifei; Shyu, Daniel; Wen, Feng; Cooley, Jim; Senter, Lucy; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard; Hanson, Larry; Webby, Richard

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV H3N8 (CIV-H3N8), are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have been demonstrated to seroconvert in response to diverse IAVs, and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antiserum, we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting that there may be minimal herd immunity in humans. We assessed the public health risk of CIV-H3N2 × pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) reassortants by characterizing their in vitro genetic compatibility and in vivo pathogenicity and transmissibility. Using a luciferase minigenome assay, we quantified the polymerase activity of all possible 16 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes (PB2, PB1, PA, NP) between CIV-H3N2 and pdmH1N1, identifying some combinations that were more active than either parental virus complex. Using reverse genetics and fixing the CIV-H3N2 hemagglutinin (HA), we found that 51 of the 127 possible reassortant viruses were viable and able to be rescued. Nineteen of these reassortant viruses had high-growth phenotypes in vitro, and 13 of these replicated in mouse lungs. A single reassortant with the NP and HA gene segments from CIV-H3N2 was selected for characterization in ferrets. The reassortant was efficiently transmitted by contact but not by the airborne route and was pathogenic in ferrets. Our results suggest that CIV-H3N2 reassortants may pose a moderate risk to public health and that the canine host should be monitored for emerging IAVs. IMPORTANCE IAV pandemics are caused by the introduction of novel viruses that are capable of efficient and sustained transmission into a human population with limited herd immunity. Dogs are a a potential mixing vessel for

  15. Zoonotic Risk, Pathogenesis, and Transmission of Avian-Origin H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hailiang; Blackmon, Sherry; Yang, Guohua; Waters, Kaitlyn; Li, Tao; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Xu, Yifei; Shyu, Daniel; Wen, Feng; Cooley, Jim; Senter, Lucy; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard; Hanson, Larry; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-11-01

    Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV H3N8 (CIV-H3N8), are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have been demonstrated to seroconvert in response to diverse IAVs, and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antiserum, we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting that there may be minimal herd immunity in humans. We assessed the public health risk of CIV-H3N2 × pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) reassortants by characterizing their in vitro genetic compatibility and in vivo pathogenicity and transmissibility. Using a luciferase minigenome assay, we quantified the polymerase activity of all possible 16 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes (PB2, PB1, PA, NP) between CIV-H3N2 and pdmH1N1, identifying some combinations that were more active than either parental virus complex. Using reverse genetics and fixing the CIV-H3N2 hemagglutinin (HA), we found that 51 of the 127 possible reassortant viruses were viable and able to be rescued. Nineteen of these reassortant viruses had high-growth phenotypes in vitro , and 13 of these replicated in mouse lungs. A single reassortant with the NP and HA gene segments from CIV-H3N2 was selected for characterization in ferrets. The reassortant was efficiently transmitted by contact but not by the airborne route and was pathogenic in ferrets. Our results suggest that CIV-H3N2 reassortants may pose a moderate risk to public health and that the canine host should be monitored for emerging IAVs. IMPORTANCE IAV pandemics are caused by the introduction of novel viruses that are capable of efficient and sustained transmission into a human population with limited herd immunity. Dogs are a a potential mixing vessel for avian

  16. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: Another Zoonotic Betacoronavirus Causing SARS-Like Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The source of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic was traced to wildlife market civets and ultimately to bats. Subsequent hunting for novel coronaviruses (CoVs) led to the discovery of two additional human and over 40 animal CoVs, including the prototype lineage C betacoronaviruses, Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 and Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5; these are phylogenetically closely related to the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV, which has affected more than 1,000 patients with over 35% fatality since its emergence in 2012. All primary cases of MERS are epidemiologically linked to the Middle East. Some of these patients had contacted camels which shed virus and/or had positive serology. Most secondary cases are related to health care-associated clusters. The disease is especially severe in elderly men with comorbidities. Clinical severity may be related to MERS-CoV's ability to infect a broad range of cells with DPP4 expression, evade the host innate immune response, and induce cytokine dysregulation. Reverse transcription-PCR on respiratory and/or extrapulmonary specimens rapidly establishes diagnosis. Supportive treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and dialysis is often required in patients with organ failure. Antivirals with potent in vitro activities include neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, antiviral peptides, interferons, mycophenolic acid, and lopinavir. They should be evaluated in suitable animal models before clinical trials. Developing an effective camel MERS-CoV vaccine and implementing appropriate infection control measures may control the continuing epidemic. PMID:25810418

  17. Are Swine Workers in the United States at Increased Risk of Infection with Zoonotic Influenza Virus?

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kendall P.; Olsen, Christopher W.; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Capuano, Ana W.; Donham, Kelley J.; Thacker, Eileen L.; Merchant, James A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza strains originate in nonhuman species. Pigs have an important role in interspecies transmission of the virus. We examined multiple swine-exposed human populations in the nation's number 1 swine-producing state for evidence of previous swine influenza virus infection. Methods We performed controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among 111 farmers, 97 meat processing workers, 65 veterinarians, and 79 control subjects using serum samples collected during the period of 2002–2004. Serum samples were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against the following 6 influenza A virus isolates collected recently from pigs and humans: A/Swine/WI/238/97 (H1N1), A/Swine/WI/R33F/01 (H1N2), A/Swine/Minnesota/593/99 (H3N2), A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2), and A/Nanchang/933/95 (H3N2). Results Using multivariable proportional odds modeling, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Farmers had the strongest indication of exposure to swine H1N1 virus infection (odds ratio [OR], 35.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7–161.8), followed by veterinarians (OR, 17.8; 95% CI, 3.8–82.7), and meat processing workers (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4–29.5). Similarly, farmers had the highest odds for exposure to swine H1N2 virus (OR, 13.8; 95% CI, 5.4–35.4), followed by veterinarians (OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 3.6–24.6) and meat processing workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1–6.7). Conclusions Occupational exposure to pigs greatly increases workers' risk of swine influenza virus infection. Swine workers should be included in pandemic surveillance and in antiviral and immunization strategies. PMID:16323086

  18. Molecular, biochemical, and morphometric characterization of Fasciola species potentially causing zoonotic disease in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Rahimy, Hoda H; Mahgoub, Abeer M A; El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M; Mousa, Wahid M A; Antably, Abeer S A E

    2012-09-01

    Fascioliasis is an important disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The distributions of both species overlap in many areas of Asia and Africa including Egypt. Fifty adult Fasciola worms were collected from livers of cattle and sheep slaughtered in abattoirs, Cairo, Egypt. They were subjected to morphological and metric assessment of external features of fresh adults, morphological and metric assessment of internal anatomy of stained mounted worms, determination of electrophorezed bands of crude adult homogenates using SDS-PAGE, and molecular characterization of species-specific DNA segments using RFLP-PCR. It was found that the correlation between conventional morphology and its morphotype was statistically significant (P value = 0.00). Using SDS-PAGE, 13 bands were detected among both genotypes of Fasciola (35.7, 33.6, 32.4, 29.3, 27.5, 26, 24.4, 23, 21.45, 19, 16.75, 12.5, and 9.1 kDa).The most prevalent bands were that with a molecular weight of 29.3, 26, and 19 kDa. Bands detected were common for both species, but protein bands could not distinguish between F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The result of PCR for the amplification of the selected 28S rDNA fragment with the designed primer set yielded 618 bp long PCR products for F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Different band patterns generated after digestion of the 618 bp segment by the enzyme AvaII obtained with F. hepatica showed segments of the length 529, 62, 27 bp, while with F. gigantica 322, 269, 27 bp bands were obtained. Genotyping revealed no equivocal results. The conventional morphological parameters for species determination of Fasciola spp. endemic in Egypt were evaluated versus protein bands characterization and genotyping. It was concluded that conventional morphological and metric assessments were not useful for differentiation between F. gigantica and F. hepatica due to extensive overlap in the relative ranges. Similar conclusion was reached concerning protein band

  19. Informal value chain actors' knowledge and perceptions about zoonotic diseases and biosecurity in Kenya and the importance for food safety and public health.

    PubMed

    Nyokabi, Simon; Birner, Regina; Bett, Bernard; Isuyi, Linda; Grace, Delia; Güttler, Denise; Lindahl, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    Zoonotic diseases, transmitted from animals to humans, are a public health challenge in developing countries. Livestock value chain actors have an important role to play as the first line of defence in safeguarding public health. However, although the livelihood and economic impacts of zoonoses are widely known, adoption of biosecurity measures aimed at preventing zoonoses is low, particularly among actors in informal livestock value chains in low and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to investigate knowledge of zoonoses and adoption of biosecurity measures by livestock and milk value chain actors in Bura, Tana River County, in Kenya, where cattle, camels, sheep and goats are the main livestock kept. The study utilised a mixed methods approach, with a questionnaire survey administered to 154 value chain actors. Additional information was elicited through key informant interviews and participatory methods with relevant stakeholders outside the value chain. Our results found low levels of knowledge of zoonoses and low levels of adherence to food safety standards, with only 37% of milk traders knowing about brucellosis, in spite of a sero-prevalence of 9% in the small ruminants tested in this study, and no slaughterhouse worker knew about Q fever. Actors had little formal education (between 0 and 10%) and lacked training in food safety and biosecurity measures. Adoption of biosecurity measures by value chain actors was very low or non-existent, with only 11% of butchers wearing gloves. There was a gendered dimension, evidenced by markedly different participation in value chains and lower adoption rates and knowledge levels among female actors. Finally, cultural and religious practices were shown to play an important role in exposure and transmission of diseases, influencing perceptions and attitudes to risks and adoption of biosecurity measures.

  20. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: Linking systems biology with vaccine development

    SciT

    Adams, Leslie G.; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D.

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhancedmore » approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic *sipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host

  1. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: linking systems biology with vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Adams, L Garry; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D; Rossetti, Carlos A; Lewin, Harris A; Lipton, Mary S; Turse, Joshua E; Wylie, Dennis C; Bai, Yu; Drake, Kenneth L

    2011-09-22

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhanced approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host-pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic ΔsipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host's biosignatures

  2. Zoonotic Poxviruses Associated with Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Danielle M.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Contemporary enthusiasm for the ownership of exotic animals and hobby livestock has created an opportunity for the movement of poxviruses—such as monkeypox, cowpox, and orf—outside their traditional geographic range bringing them into contact with atypical animal hosts and groups of people not normally considered at risk. It is important that pet owners and practitioners of human and animal medicine develop a heightened awareness for poxvirus infections and understand the risks that can be associated with companion animals and livestock. This article reviews the epidemiology and clinical features of zoonotic poxviruses that are most likely to affect companion animals. Abstract Understanding the zoonotic risk posed by poxviruses in companion animals is important for protecting both human and animal health. The outbreak of monkeypox in the United States, as well as current reports of cowpox in Europe, point to the fact that companion animals are increasingly serving as sources of poxvirus transmission to people. In addition, the trend among hobbyists to keep livestock (such as goats) in urban and semi-urban areas has contributed to increased parapoxvirus exposures among people not traditionally considered at high risk. Despite the historic notoriety of poxviruses and the diseases they cause, poxvirus infections are often missed. Delays in diagnosing poxvirus-associated infections in companion animals can lead to inadvertent human exposures. Delays in confirming human infections can result in inappropriate treatment or prolonged recovery. Early recognition of poxvirus-associated infections and application of appropriate preventive measures can reduce the spread of virus between companion animals and their owners. This review will discuss the epidemiology and clinical features associated with the zoonotic poxvirus infections most commonly associated with companion animals. PMID:26486622

  3. Molecular Screening and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Species in Household Dogs and In-Contact Children in Egypt: Risk Factor Analysis and Zoonotic Importance.

    PubMed

    Gharieb, Rasha M A; Merwad, Abdallah M A; Saleh, Ayman A; El-Ghany, Amany M Abd

    2018-06-12

    Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic zoonosis implicated in severe diarrhoea in pets and humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. in household dogs and in-contact children, and the risk factors associated with infection in children in Sharkia Province, Egypt. Fecal samples of 100 children (2-12 years old) and 50 dogs (3 months-1 year old) were randomly collected from both rural (children: n = 85, dogs: n = 40) and urban (children: n = 15, dogs: n = 10) households. Initial parasite detection was done by light microscopy, while, genotyping was based on molecular diagnostic assays. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in children was 35% using microscopy and 14% using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In dogs, it was 34% using microscopy and 24% using nested PCR. Cryptosporidium spp. from children were identified as distinct genotypes, with the predominance of human genotype I (Cryptosporidium hominis) over the zoonotic genotype II (Cryptosporidium parvum). Moreover, only zoonotic genotype II (C. parvum) was identified in dog samples. The significant risk factors associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in children were the presence of diarrheal episodes during time of survey, improper disposal of garbage, and dog feces and contact with other livestock (p ≤ 0.05). This study concluded that the existence of C. parvum in children and dogs residing the same households confirm the zoonotic transmission and its public health significance. Also, the study recommended the necessity of hygienic disposal of dog feces and preventing direct contact of dogs with other livestock.

  4. High Prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Asymptomatic Pigs and Assessment of Zoonotic Risk at the Genotype Level

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Yang, Fengkun; Cao, Jianping; Liu, Hua; Yang, Dong; Shen, Yujuan

    2014-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and clinically significant enteric parasite infecting humans and animals and can cause life-threatening diarrhea in immunocompromised people. Pigs are considered to be one of the main reservoir hosts of E. bieneusi based on their high prevalence rates and zoonotic genotypes in pigs. As an opportunistic pathogen, E. bieneusi infection of pigs can be inapparent, which leads to neglect in detecting this parasite in pigs and assessing the epidemiological role of pigs in the transmission of human microsporidiosis. In the present study, 95 healthy pigs aged 2 or 3 months were randomly selected from three areas in Heilongjiang Province, China. E. bieneusi isolates were identified and genotyped based on the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene by PCR and sequencing. A high prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed, 83.2% (79/95) at the SSU rRNA locus versus 89.5% (85/95) at the ITS locus. Ten ITS genotypes were obtained, comprising six known genotypes—EbpA (n = 30), D (n = 19), H (n = 18), O (n = 11), CS-1 (n = 1), and LW1 (n = 1)—and four novel genotypes named HLJ-I to HLJ-IV; 70.6% (60/85) of E. bieneusi genotypes were zoonotic (genotypes EbpA, D, and O). The findings of a high prevalence of E. bieneusi in pigs and a large percentage of zoonotic genotypes indicate that pigs may play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans and may become an important source of water contamination in our investigated areas. PMID:24727270

  5. Public farms: hygiene and zoonotic agents.

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, A E; Valkenburgh, S M; Tilburg, J J H C; Van Heerwaarden, C; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, J T M; De Boer, E

    2007-10-01

    In three successive years, we visited petting farms (n=132), care farms (n=91), and farmyard campsites (n=84), respectively, and completed a standard questionnaire with the objective of determining the hygienic status of these farms and describing hygiene measures implemented to reduce the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents from the animals to humans. For at least 85% of the farms, the overall impression of hygiene was recorded as good. However, more attention must be paid to: informing visitors on hygiene and handwashing, provision of handwashing facilities, and a footwear cleaning facility. Examination of samples of freshly voided faeces resulted in the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and/or Salmonella spp. and/or Campylobacter spp. at almost two-thirds (64.9%) of the petting farms, and around half of the care farms (56.0%) and farmyard campsites (45.2%). These data reinforce the need for control measures for both public and private farms to reduce human exposure to livestock faeces and thus the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases. Public awareness of the risk associated with handling animals or faecal material should be increased.

  6. Collection and Utilization of Animal Carcasses Associated with zoonotic Disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Doty, Jeffrey B; Moses, Cynthia; Ibata, Saturnin; Reynolds, Mary; Carroll, Darin

    2015-07-01

    The collection and consumption of animal carcasses is a common activity in forested areas of the Congo River basin and creates sustainability, conservation, and health concerns. Residents of the Tshuapa District reported collecting the remains of 5,878 animals from >30 species when surveyed about their wildlife consumption habits. Carcasses were discovered in varying degrees of decomposition and were often consumed at home or sold in local markets. The most commonly collected animals were Cricetomys gambianus (Northern giant pouched rat), Cercopithecus ascanius (red-tailed monkey), and Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel). Many of the species recorded may be hosts of zoonotic pathogens, creating concern for spillover events.

  7. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Malone, John B

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

  8. Assessment of community awareness and risk perceptions of zoonotic causes of abortion in cattle at three selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndengu, M; DE Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Pfukenyi, D M; Tivapasi, M; Mukamuri, B; Matope, G

    2017-05-01

    due to exposure to wildlife or other factors. The government of Zimbabwe needs to launch educational programmes on public health awareness in these remote areas at the periphery of transfrontier conservation areas where livestock-wildlife interface exists to help mitigate the morbidity and mortality of people from some of the known zoonotic diseases.

  9. Environmental Factors and Zoonotic Pathogen Ecology in Urban Exploiter Species.

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Himsworth, Chelsea H; Nemeth, Nicole M; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R. rattus] and house mice [Mus musculus]). Pathogen ecology, including prevalence and pathogen characteristics, is influenced by geographical location, habitat, season and weather. The prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in mice and rats varies markedly over short geographical distances, but tends to be highest in ports, disadvantaged (e.g., low income) and residential areas. Future research should use epidemiological approaches, including random sampling and robust statistical analyses, to evaluate a range of biotic and abiotic environmental factors at spatial scales suitable for host home range sizes. Moving beyond descriptive studies to uncover the causal factors contributing to uneven pathogen distribution among wildlife hosts in urban environments may lead to targeted surveillance and intervention strategies. Application of this knowledge to urban maintenance and planning may reduce the potential impacts of urban wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases on people.

  10. Multifactorial disease risk calculator: Risk prediction for multifactorial disease pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Yiming; Sham, Pak C

    2018-03-01

    Construction of multifactorial disease models from epidemiological findings and their application to disease pedigrees for risk prediction is nontrivial for all but the simplest of cases. Multifactorial Disease Risk Calculator is a web tool facilitating this. It provides a user-friendly interface, extending a reported methodology based on a liability-threshold model. Multifactorial disease models incorporating all the following features in combination are handled: quantitative risk factors (including polygenic scores), categorical risk factors (including major genetic risk loci), stratified age of onset curves, and the partition of the population variance in disease liability into genetic, shared, and unique environment effects. It allows the application of such models to disease pedigrees. Pedigree-related outputs are (i) individual disease risk for pedigree members, (ii) n year risk for unaffected pedigree members, and (iii) the disease pedigree's joint liability distribution. Risk prediction for each pedigree member is based on using the constructed disease model to appropriately weigh evidence on disease risk available from personal attributes and family history. Evidence is used to construct the disease pedigree's joint liability distribution. From this, lifetime and n year risk can be predicted. Example disease models and pedigrees are provided at the website and are used in accompanying tutorials to illustrate the features available. The website is built on an R package which provides the functionality for pedigree validation, disease model construction, and risk prediction. Website: http://grass.cgs.hku.hk:3838/mdrc/current. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Nipah virus: transmission of a zoonotic paramyxovirus.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Bronwyn Anne

    2017-02-01

    Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions. While Nipah virus isolates associated with outbreaks of human infection have not resulted in sustained transmission to date, specific exposures carry a high risk of person-to-person transmission, an observation which is supported by recent findings in animal models. Novel paramyxoviruses continue to emerge from wildlife hosts, and represent an ongoing threat to human health globally. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of zoonotic infections among Auckland Zoo staff: 1991-2010.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, M B; Morris, A J; Sinclair, D A; Pritchard, C P

    2012-12-01

    Investigation was undertaken to assess the occurrence of zoonotic infection among staff at Auckland Zoological Park, New Zealand, in 1991, 2002 and 2010. Serial cross-sectional health surveys in 1991, 2002 and 2010 comprising a health questionnaire, and serological, immunological and microbiological analysis for a range of potential zoonotic infections were performed. Laboratory results for zoo animals were also reviewed for 2004-2010 to assess the occurrence of potential zoonotic infections. Veterinary clinic, animal handler, grounds, maintenance and administrative staff participated in the surveys, with 49, 42 and 46 participants in the 1991, 2002 and 2010 surveys, respectively (29% of total zoo staff in 2010). A small number of staff reported work-related infections, including erysipelas (1), giardiasis (1) and campylobacteriosis (1). The seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus and Toxoplasma gondii closely reflected those in the Auckland community. No carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected, and most of those with anti-HBV antibodies had been vaccinated. Few staff had serological evidence of past leptospiral infection. Three veterinary clinic staff had raised Chlamydophila psittaci antibodies, all < 1 : 160 indicating past exposure. Two staff (in 1991) had asymptomatic carriage of Giardia lamblia and one person (in 2010) had a dermatophyte infection. After 1991, positive tests indicating exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis were < 10%, comparable to the general New Zealand population. Zoo animals had infections with potential zoonotic agents, including G. lamblia, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and T. gondii, although the occurrence was low. Zoonotic agents pose an occupational risk to zoo workers. While there was evidence of some zoonotic transmission at Auckland Zoo, this was uncommon and risks appear to be adequately managed under current policies and procedures. Nevertheless, ongoing assessment of risk factors is needed as

  13. Prevalence and genetic diversity of the intestinal parasites Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in household dogs in France and evaluation of zoonotic transmission risk.

    PubMed

    Osman, Marwan; Bories, Jessica; El Safadi, Dima; Poirel, Marie-Thérèse; Gantois, Nausicaa; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Delhaes, Laurence; Hugonnard, Marine; Certad, Gabriela; Zenner, Lionel; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2015-11-30

    Several parasites including the protozoa Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. may be causative agents of gastrointestinal symptoms in domestic dogs, and there may be a potential risk of transmission to owners. While France is one of the largest European countries in terms of its canine population, little data is available about the molecular epidemiology of these two parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in household dogs in France, and to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by genotyping the corresponding isolates. To this end, 116 faecal samples were collected from household dogs regardless of breed, age or gender, living in the Lyons area, France. Various intestinal protozoa and helminths were identified by light microscopy. Screening for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were subsequently performed by PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rDNA coding region, followed by direct sequencing of the PCR products and analysis of the sequences obtained for genotyping. The overall prevalence of dogs infected with at least one gastrointestinal parasite was 42.2% (49/116). After light microscopy examination of faecal samples, the most common parasites found were the protozoa Giardia sp. (25.0%) and Cystoisospora sp. (19.8%). Using molecular methods, four dogs (3.4%) were shown to be infected by Blastocystis sp. and carried either subtype (ST) 2, commonly identified in various animal groups, or ST10, frequently found in bovids. Three dogs (2.6%) were positive for C. canis, infecting humans episodically. The low prevalence of both parasites, combined with the identification of C. canis and Blastocystis sp. ST2 and ST10 in the canine population, strongly suggests that dogs play a negligible role as zoonotic reservoirs for both parasites and do not seem to be natural hosts of Blastocystis sp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Lassa fever in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mylne, Adrian Q. N.; Pigott, David M.; Longbottom, Joshua; Shearer, Freya; Duda, Kirsten A.; Messina, Jane P.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Golding, Nick; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic illness responsible for disease outbreaks across West Africa. It is a zoonosis, with the primary reservoir species identified as the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis. The host is distributed across sub-Saharan Africa while the virus' range appears to be restricted to West Africa. The majority of infections result from interactions between the animal reservoir and human populations, although secondary transmission between humans can occur, particularly in hospital settings. Methods Using a species distribution model, the locations of confirmed human and animal infections with Lassa virus (LASV) were used to generate a probabilistic surface of zoonotic transmission potential across sub-Saharan Africa. Results Our results predict that 37.7 million people in 14 countries, across much of West Africa, live in areas where conditions are suitable for zoonotic transmission of LASV. Four of these countries, where at-risk populations are predicted, have yet to report any cases of Lassa fever. Conclusions These maps act as a spatial guide for future surveillance activities to better characterise the geographical distribution of the disease and understand the anthropological, virological and zoological interactions necessary for viral transmission. Combining this zoonotic niche map with detailed patient travel histories can aid differential diagnoses of febrile illnesses, enabling a more rapid response in providing care and reducing the risk of onward transmission. PMID:26085474

  15. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Lassa fever in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mylne, Adrian Q N; Pigott, David M; Longbottom, Joshua; Shearer, Freya; Duda, Kirsten A; Messina, Jane P; Weiss, Daniel J; Moyes, Catherine L; Golding, Nick; Hay, Simon I

    2015-08-01

    Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic illness responsible for disease outbreaks across West Africa. It is a zoonosis, with the primary reservoir species identified as the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis. The host is distributed across sub-Saharan Africa while the virus' range appears to be restricted to West Africa. The majority of infections result from interactions between the animal reservoir and human populations, although secondary transmission between humans can occur, particularly in hospital settings. Using a species distribution model, the locations of confirmed human and animal infections with Lassa virus (LASV) were used to generate a probabilistic surface of zoonotic transmission potential across sub-Saharan Africa. Our results predict that 37.7 million people in 14 countries, across much of West Africa, live in areas where conditions are suitable for zoonotic transmission of LASV. Four of these countries, where at-risk populations are predicted, have yet to report any cases of Lassa fever. These maps act as a spatial guide for future surveillance activities to better characterise the geographical distribution of the disease and understand the anthropological, virological and zoological interactions necessary for viral transmission. Combining this zoonotic niche map with detailed patient travel histories can aid differential diagnoses of febrile illnesses, enabling a more rapid response in providing care and reducing the risk of onward transmission. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Species loss on spatial patterns and composition of zoonotic parasites

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Nyeema C.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Species loss can result in the subsequent loss of affiliate species. Though largely ignored to date, these coextinctions can pose threats to human health by altering the composition, quantity and distribution of zoonotic parasites. We simulated host extinctions from more than 1300 host–parasite associations for 29 North American carnivores to investigate changes in parasite composition and species richness. We also explored the geography of zoonotic parasite richness under three carnivore composition scenarios and examined corresponding levels of human exposure. We found that changes in parasite assemblages differed among parasite groups. Because viruses tend to be generalists, the proportion of parasites that are viruses increased as more carnivores went extinct. Coextinction of carnivore parasites is unlikely to be common, given that few specialist parasites exploit hosts of conservation concern. However, local extirpations of widespread carnivore hosts can reduce overall zoonotic richness and shift distributions of parasite-rich areas. How biodiversity influences disease risks remains the subject of debate. Our results make clear that hosts vary in their contribution to human health risks. As a consequence, so too does the loss (or gain) of particular hosts. Anticipating changes in host composition in future environments may help inform parasite conservation and disease mitigation efforts. PMID:24068356

  17. Building a foundation for 'One Health': an education strategy for enhancing and sustaining national and regional capacity in endemic and emerging zoonotic disease management.

    PubMed

    Vink, W D; McKenzie, Joanna S; Cogger, Naomi; Borman, Barry; Muellner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The rapid global spread of diseases such as SARS, H5N1, and H1N1 influenza has emphasized the pressing need for trans-disciplinary collaboration and cross-border action, and has also exposed a serious deficit of capacity and coordination in dealing effectively with emerging disease threats. The need for capacity development is particularly acute in the developing world, which is the least well-equipped to respond adequately. Such capacity development can be achieved through education and the implementation of applied 'One Health' activities. This chapter describes the establishment of a 'One Health' capacity development program in South Asia, consisting of two phases. The first phase provides Masters level training for public health doctors and veterinarians, with a focus on epidemiology, and disease control. The second phase reinforces the postgraduate training by establishing a sustainable framework for the implementation of collaborative 'One Health' activities such as the development of multidisciplinary professional networks, implementation of applied zoonotic disease investigation projects, and support for continuing professional development. The objectives are to provide individual skills required to strengthen capacity; to develop an appreciation of the cross-cutting issues which affect human and animal health, set within an institutional context; and to facilitate the development of regional professional networks which will be instrumental in implementing 'One Health' activities.

  18. Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Revich, Boris; Tokarevich, Nikolai; Parkinson, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax. PMID:22868189

  19. Tick-borne disease risk in a forest food web.

    PubMed

    Ostfeld, Richard S; Levi, Taal; Keesing, Felicia; Oggenfuss, Kelly; Canham, Charles D

    2018-05-08

    Changes to the community ecology of hosts for zoonotic pathogens, particularly rodents, are likely to influence the emergence and prevalence of zoonotic diseases worldwide. However, the complex interactions between abiotic factors, pathogens, vectors, hosts, and both food resources and predators of hosts are difficult to disentangle. Here we (1) use 19 years of data from six large field plots in southeastern New York to compare the effects of hypothesized drivers of interannual variation in Lyme disease risk, including the abundance of acorns, rodents, and deer, as well as a series of climate variables; and (2) employ landscape epidemiology to explore how variation in predator community structure and forest cover influences spatial variation in the infection prevalence of ticks for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, and two other important tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti. Acorn-driven increases in the abundance of mice were correlated with a lagged increase in the abundance of questing nymph-stage Ixodes scapularis ticks infected with Lyme disease bacteria. Abundance of white-tailed deer two years prior also correlated with increased density of infected nymphal ticks, although the effect was weak. Density of rodents in the current year was a strong negative predictor of nymph density, apparently because high current abundance of these hosts can remove nymphs from the host-seeking population. Warm, dry spring or winter weather was associated with reduced density of infected nymphs. At the landscape scale, the presence of functionally diverse predator communities or of bobcats, the only obligate carnivore, was associated with reduced infection prevalence of I. scapularis nymphs with all three zoonotic pathogens. In the case of Lyme disease, infection prevalence increased where coyotes were present but smaller predators were displaced or otherwise absent. For all pathogens, infection prevalence was lowest when forest

  20. Fleas, hosts and habitat: What can we predict about the spread of vector-borne zoonotic diseases?

    Megan M. Friggens

    2010-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases of humans and wildlife are experiencing resurgence across the globe. I examine the dynamics of flea borne diseases through a comparative analysis of flea literature and analyses of field data collected from three sites in New Mexico: The Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, the Sandia Mountains and the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP). My...

  1. Zoonotic Hookworm FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... when exposed skin comes in contact with contaminated soil or sand. The larvae in the contaminated soil or sand will burrow into the skin and ... measures to avoid skin contact with sand or soil will prevent infection with zoonotic hookworms. Travelers to ...

  2. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  3. Economic growth, urbanization, globalization, and the risks of emerging infectious diseases in China: A review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Collins, James P; Minteer, Ben A; Daszak, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Three interrelated world trends may be exacerbating emerging zoonotic risks: income growth, urbanization, and globalization. Income growth is associated with rising animal protein consumption in developing countries, which increases the conversion of wild lands to livestock production, and hence the probability of zoonotic emergence. Urbanization implies the greater concentration and connectedness of people, which increases the speed at which new infections are spread. Globalization-the closer integration of the world economy-has facilitated pathogen spread among countries through the growth of trade and travel. High-risk areas for the emergence and spread of infectious disease are where these three trends intersect with predisposing socioecological conditions including the presence of wild disease reservoirs, agricultural practices that increase contact between wildlife and livestock, and cultural practices that increase contact between humans, wildlife, and livestock. Such an intersection occurs in China, which has been a "cradle" of zoonoses from the Black Death to avian influenza and SARS. Disease management in China is thus critical to the mitigation of global zoonotic risks.

  4. Global partnerships are critical to advance the control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases: The case of the Global Alliance for Rabies Control.

    PubMed

    Nel, Louis H; Taylor, Louise H; Balaram, Deepashree; Doyle, Kim A S

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for innovation to improve control of all Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs). The Global Alliance for Rabies Control was formed to prevent human deaths from rabies and relieve the burden of rabies in other animal populations, especially dogs. It aims to identify reasons for the neglect of rabies in developing countries and to develop strategies to improve rabies control. Through initiatives such as World Rabies Day and the Partners for Rabies Prevention, progress has been made towards increased awareness of the burden of rabies transmitted by dogs at scales from local to international. An evidence base of the feasibility of canine rabies elimination has been built up and now easier access to information and tools enables countries to design and implement rabies elimination strategies in a logical way, utilizing the structures of regional networks for rabies control. The body of evidence has built consensus amongst international stakeholders in rabies control and is now being used to encourage international policy change, attract investment and increase delivery of effective rabies control programmes in canine rabies endemic countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the raccoon (Procyon lotor)-their role and impact of maintaining and transmitting zoonotic diseases in Austria, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Tanja; Hodžić, Adnan; Glawischnig, Walter; Duscher, Georg G

    2017-04-01

    The neozoan species raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) are widespread in Europe and potential vectors of many diseases that can threaten human and domestic animal health. Facing a further spread of these species, it is important to know about (i) pathogens imported and/or (ii) pathogens acquired in the new habitat. Thus, we investigated the parasite fauna of wild raccoon dogs and raccoons from Austria, at the edge of their new distribution range. The eight examined raccoons were nearly free of pathogens including Baylisascaris procyonis, and thus assumed to have a low epidemiological impact, so far. Out of ten raccoon dog specimens, we found one from western Austria to be infected with Echinococcus multilocularis and another three from the eastern wetland regions to harbour adults of Alaria alata. Furthermore, we detected Babesia cf. microti in five of eight raccoon dogs all over Austria but none of our samples were tested positive for Trichinella spp. Nevertheless, the raccoon dog seems to be a relevant host, at least for the zoonotic pathogens E. multilocularis and A. alata, and we suggest to further monitor the raccoon dogs parasite fauna.

  6. Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-06-05

    Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered to be sources of infection were analysed for Cryptosporidium spp. by a modified Ziehl Neelsen technique and molecular typing. C. parvum subtype IIaA16G1R1 was detected from the human case and from calves from one of nine farms enrolled in the study providing strong circumstantial evidence of zoonotic transmission from calves to humans. Cryptosporidiosis presents an occupational risk to people with cattle contact, and may also be a risk to the human population in general. Thus increased public and medical awareness is warranted.

  7. Zoonotic disease in a peripheral population: persistence and transmission of Leishmania major in a putative sink-source system in the Negev Highlands, Israel.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ruti; Wasserberg, Gideon; Warburg, Alon; Orshan, Laor; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-08-01

    Populations at the edge of their geographic distributions are referred to as peripheral populations. Very little attention has been given to this topic in the context of persistence of infectious disease in natural populations. In this study, we examined this question using zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused by Leishmania major in the Negev Desert of Israel as a model system. Here, we suggest that the regional persistence of Phlebotomus papatasi populations and L. major transmission in the Sede Boqer region could be explained through processes akin to sink-source and/or mainland-island metapopulation dynamics. Given its potentially enzootically superior ecological conditions, we hypothesize that the Zin Valley ecotope constitutes the "mainland" or the "source" patch for the Sede Boqer area where L. major transmission is persistent and resistant to local extinctions (die-outs) whereas the local sand fly populations on the Zin Plateau ("island patch" or "sink patch") are more prone to local extinctions. Between 2007 and 2008, we trapped sand flies and sand rats in the two areas and compared sand fly abundance and L. major infection prevalence in both. In both 2007 and 2008, sand fly abundance was high and continuous in the Zin Wadi but low and discontinuous in the Zin Plateau. Infection prevalence of sand rats was significantly higher in the Wadi (13%) compared with the Zin Plateau (3%). Minimum infection rate in sand flies did not differ significantly between the two areas. Overall, our results are consistent with the premise that the Zin Valley population is relatively robust in terms of L. major transmission, whereas transmission is potentially more tenuous in the plateau. Understanding the biotic and abiotic processes enabling the persistence of L. major and other vector-borne diseases in peripheral disease foci is important for predicting the effect of anthropogenic land use and climate change.

  8. Zoonotic Disease in a Peripheral Population: Persistence and Transmission of Leishmania major in a Putative Sink-Source System in the Negev Highlands, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Ruti; Warburg, Alon; Orshan, Laor; Kotler, Burt P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Populations at the edge of their geographic distributions are referred to as peripheral populations. Very little attention has been given to this topic in the context of persistence of infectious disease in natural populations. In this study, we examined this question using zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused by Leishmania major in the Negev Desert of Israel as a model system. Here, we suggest that the regional persistence of Phlebotomus papatasi populations and L. major transmission in the Sede Boqer region could be explained through processes akin to sink-source and/or mainland-island metapopulation dynamics. Given its potentially enzootically superior ecological conditions, we hypothesize that the Zin Valley ecotope constitutes the “mainland” or the “source” patch for the Sede Boqer area where L. major transmission is persistent and resistant to local extinctions (die-outs) whereas the local sand fly populations on the Zin Plateau (“island patch” or “sink patch”) are more prone to local extinctions. Between 2007 and 2008, we trapped sand flies and sand rats in the two areas and compared sand fly abundance and L. major infection prevalence in both. In both 2007 and 2008, sand fly abundance was high and continuous in the Zin Wadi but low and discontinuous in the Zin Plateau. Infection prevalence of sand rats was significantly higher in the Wadi (13%) compared with the Zin Plateau (3%). Minimum infection rate in sand flies did not differ significantly between the two areas. Overall, our results are consistent with the premise that the Zin Valley population is relatively robust in terms of L. major transmission, whereas transmission is potentially more tenuous in the plateau. Understanding the biotic and abiotic processes enabling the persistence of L. major and other vector-borne diseases in peripheral disease foci is important for predicting the effect of anthropogenic land use and climate change. PMID:25072990

  9. Difficulties experienced by veterinarians when communicating about emerging zoonotic risks with animal owners: the case of Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana H; Büttner, Petra; Kelly, Jenny; Nowak, Madeleine; Speare Posthumously, Rick

    2017-02-18

    Communication skills are essential for veterinarians who need to discuss animal health related matters with their clients. When dealing with an emerging zoonosis, such as Hendra virus (HeV), veterinarians also have a legal responsibility to inform their clients about the associated risks to human health. Here we report on part of a mixed methods study that examined the preparedness of, and difficulties experienced by, veterinarians communicating about HeV-related risks with their clients. Phase 1 was an exploratory, qualitative study that consisted of a series of face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with veterinary personnel from Queensland, Australia (2009-10) to identify the barriers to HeV management in equine practices. Phase 2a was a quantitative study that surveyed veterinarians from the same region (2011) and explored the veterinarians' preparedness and willingness to communicate about HeV-related risks, and the reactions of their clients that they experienced. The second study included both multiple choice and open-ended questions. The majority of the participants from Phase 2a (83.1%) declared they had access to a HeV management plan and over half (58.6%) had ready-to-use HeV information available for clients within their practice. Most (87%) reported "always or sometimes" informing clients about HeV-related risks when a horse appeared sick. When HeV was suspected, 58.1% of participants reported their clients were receptive to their safety directives and 24.9% of clients were either initially unreceptive, overwhelmed by fear, or in denial of the associated risks. The thematic analysis of the qualitative data from Phases 1 and 2a uncovered similar themes in relation to HeV-related communication issues experienced by veterinarians: "clients' intent to adhere"; "adherence deemed redundant"; "misunderstanding or denial of risk"; "cost"; "rural culture"; "fear for reputation". The theme of "emotional state of clients" was only identified during Phase 1

  10. Seroepidemiology of Human Brucellosis Among Blood Donors in Southern Ethiopia: Calling Attention to a Neglected Zoonotic Disease.

    PubMed

    Workalemahu, Bereket; Sewunet, Tsegaye; Astatkie, Ayalew

    2017-01-11

    Human brucellosis is neglected in southern Ethiopia. Although traditional food processing practices and animal husbandry which increase the risk of brucellosis are common, it has not been properly studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of brucellosis among apparently healthy individuals in southern Ethiopia. In the study, blood samples were collected to screen for serum agglutinins reactive to stained antigen of Brucella abortus Standard tube titration was performed for reactive serum to determine the titer of the agglutinin. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on possible risk factors for brucellosis. The seroprevalence of human brucellosis in this study was found to be 10.6% (95% confidence interval = 7.0, 14.0). Possession of domestic ruminant animals, contact with ruminant animals, and husbandry practices at home were associated with seropositivity. The higher seroprevalence of human brucellosis in the study area needs attention and additional confirmatory investigation. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. ZOONOTIC PARASITES, OUR ENVIROMENT AND CHANGE

    Environmental changes arising from nature and human activity are affecting patterns for the occurrence and significance of many infectious diseases, including zoonotic parasites, which are those naturally transmitted between domestic animals or wildlife and people. As these changes continue, and pe...

  12. Characterization of influenza a outbreaks in Minnesota swine herds and measures taken to reduce the risk of zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, A; Johnson, S; Davies, P; Bender, J; Gramer, M

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus infections commonly cause respiratory disease in swine and can be transmitted between people and pigs, with potentially novel strains introduced into herds and spilling back into the human population. The goals of this study were to characterize influenza infections in Minnesota pigs and assess biosecurity measures used by swine workers. Veterinarians submitting influenza-positive swine samples to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory between October 2007 and April 2009 were surveyed regarding disease-related information and biosecurity procedures at each farm. Influenza-positive samples were submitted year-round, peaking in spring and fall. H1N1 was the most commonly detected subtype (56%), followed by H3N2 (14%) and H1N2 (12%). Most positive submissions were associated with illness in growing pigs (median age 8.8 weeks, IQR 5-15). Median morbidity and mortality were 25% (IQR 10-48) and 2% (IQR 0.5-3.5), respectively. Vaccination of sows and growing pigs was conducted at 71% and 7.9% of the swine farms, respectively. Specialized footwear was reported as the most common form of protective equipment used by workers. Employee vaccination for seasonal influenza was 19%. The sow vaccination rate in this study is consistent with national data, although growing pig vaccination is lower than the national average. Seasonal and age trends identified here may provide diagnostic guidance when growing pigs experience respiratory disease. Inconsistent use of protective equipment and employee vaccination at swine farms indicates the need for further discussion and research of approaches to minimize interspecies influenza transmission on swine farms. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Capacity building efforts and perceptions for wildlife surveillance to detect zoonotic pathogens: comparing stakeholder perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schwind, Jessica S; Goldstein, Tracey; Thomas, Kate; Mazet, Jonna A K; Smith, Woutrina A

    2014-07-04

    The capacity to conduct zoonotic pathogen surveillance in wildlife is critical for the recognition and identification of emerging health threats. The PREDICT project, a component of United States Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats program, has introduced capacity building efforts to increase zoonotic pathogen surveillance in wildlife in global 'hot spot' regions where zoonotic disease emergence is likely to occur. Understanding priorities, challenges, and opportunities from the perspectives of the stakeholders is a key component of any successful capacity building program. A survey was administered to wildlife officials and to PREDICT-implementing in-country project scientists in 16 participating countries in order to identify similarities and differences in perspectives between the groups regarding capacity needs for zoonotic pathogen surveillance in wildlife. Both stakeholder groups identified some human-animal interfaces (i.e. areas of high contact between wildlife and humans with the potential risk for disease transmission), such as hunting and markets, as important for ongoing targeting of wildlife surveillance. Similarly, findings regarding challenges across stakeholder groups showed some agreement in that a lack of sustainable funding across regions was the greatest challenge for conducting wildlife surveillance for zoonotic pathogens (wildlife officials: 96% and project scientists: 81%). However, the opportunity for improving zoonotic pathogen surveillance capacity identified most frequently by wildlife officials as important was increasing communication or coordination among agencies, sectors, or regions (100% of wildlife officials), whereas the most frequent opportunities identified as important by project scientists were increasing human capacity, increasing laboratory capacity, and the growing interest or awareness regarding wildlife disease or surveillance programs (all identified by 69% of project scientists). A One

  14. Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases of dogs in North-west New South Wales and the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Amanda J; Brown, Graeme; Norris, Jacqueline M; Bosward, Katrina L; Marriot, Debbie J; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Malik, Richard

    2017-08-15

    Vector-borne diseases of dogs in Australian Aboriginal communities are relatively unexplored. These dogs represent a unique group with variable ecto- and endo-parasitic burdens, nutritional stresses and a general lack of veterinary intervention. We investigated haemoprotozoal and bacterial pathogen prevalences in relation to erythrocyte and platelet numbers in dogs from North-West New South Wales (N-W NSW) and the Northern Territory (NT; Central Australia). Real-time PCR (qPCR) amplification of Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, Mycoplasma haemocanis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum and Bartonella spp., serological screening for Coxiella burnetii, and Bartonella spp. and haematological analyses were performed on dogs from the two cohorts (96 dogs in total). Brucella suis serology was determined additionally for the N-W NSW cohort. Anaplasma platys (n = 26 dogs), Babesia vogeli (n = 7), Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum (n = 10 dogs), and Mycoplasma haemocanis (n = 14) were detected in the sample population (n = 96) using qPCR. There were significant associations between (i) A. platys and anaemia (OR 8.7, CI 2.4-31.7; P < 0.001), thrombocytopenia (OR 12.1, CI 3.4-43.2; P < 0.001) and breed (OR 16.1, CI 2.1-121.5; P = 0.007), and (ii) between B. vogeli and anaemia (OR 11.8, CI 2.3-61.6; P = 0.003). Neither protozoal nor bacterial DNA loads, estimated using qPCR, were positively correlated with anaemia or thrombocytopenia. Haemotropic mycoplasmas were not associated with any haematologic abnormality. Four dogs from the NT were seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, while no dogs were seropositive for Brucella suis or to a panel of Bartonella spp. antigens. Despite directed efforts, Bartonella DNA was not detected in blood from any of the cohorts studied. A sample of dogs from the NT recruited specifically for Bartonella α-proteobacteria growth medium enrichment blood culture were also Bartonella PCR negative. Vector-borne pathogens occur in dogs

  15. Assessment of potential zoonotic disease exposure and illness related to an annual bat festival--Idanre, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Vora, Neil M; Osinubi, Modupe; Wallace, Ryan M; Aman-Oloniyo, Abimbola; Gbadegesin, Yemi H; Sebastian, Yennan Kerecvel; Saliman, Olugbon Abdullateef; Niezgoda, Mike; Davis, Lora; Recuenco, Sergio

    2014-04-18

    Bats provide vital ecologic services that humans benefit from, such as seed dispersal and pest control, and are a food source for some human populations. However, bats also are reservoirs for a number of high-consequence zoonoses, including paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and lyssaviruses. The variety of viruses that bats harbor might be related to their evolutionary diversity, ability to fly large distances, long lifespans, and gregarious roosting behaviors. Every year a festival takes place in Idanre, Nigeria, in which males of all ages enter designated caves to capture bats; persons are forbidden from entering the caves outside of these festivities. Festival participants use a variety of techniques to capture bats, but protective equipment rarely is used, placing hunters at risk for bat scratches and bites. Many captured bats are prepared as food, but some are transported to markets in other parts of the country for sale as bushmeat. Bats also are presented to dignitaries in elaborate rituals. The health consequences of contact with these bats are unknown, but a number of viruses have been previously identified among Nigerian bats, including lyssaviruses, pegiviruses, and coronaviruses. Furthermore, the caves are home to Rousettus aegyptiacus bats, which are reservoirs for Marburg virus in other parts of Africa.

  16. Rodents and Risk in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: Seroprevalence of Selected Zoonotic Viruses in Rodents and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Van Cuong, Nguyen; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Vo Be, Hien; An, Nguyen Ngoc; Tue, Ngo Tri; Anh, Nguyet Lam; Anh, Pham Hong; Phuc, Nguyen The; Baker, Stephen; Voutilainen, Liina; Jääskeläinen, Anne; Huhtamo, Eili; Utriainen, Mira; Sironen, Tarja; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Chaval, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam, rats are commonly traded in wet markets and sold live for food consumption. We investigated seroprevalence to selected groups of rodent-borne viruses among human populations with high levels of animal exposure and among co-located rodent populations. The indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine seropositivity to representative reference strains of hantaviruses (Dobrava virus [DOBV], Seoul virus [SEOV]), cowpox virus, arenaviruses (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]), flaviviruses (tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), and rodent parechoviruses (Ljungan virus), using sera from 245 humans living in Dong Thap Province and 275 rodents representing the five common rodent species sold in wet markets and present in peridomestic and farm settings. Combined seropositivity to DOBV and SEOV among the rodents and humans was 6.9% (19/275) and 3.7% (9/245), respectively; 1.1% (3/275) and 4.5% (11/245) to cowpox virus; 5.4% (15/275) and 47.3% (116/245) for TBEV; and exposure to Ljungan virus was 18.8% (46/245) in humans, but 0% in rodents. Very little seroreactivity was observed to LCMV in either rodents (1/275, 0.4%) or humans (2/245, 0.8%). Molecular screening of rodent liver tissues using consensus primers for flaviviruses did not yield any amplicons, whereas molecular screening of rodent lung tissues for hantavirus yielded one hantavirus sequence (SEOV). In summary, these results indicate low to moderate levels of endemic hantavirus circulation, possible circulation of a flavivirus in rodent reservoirs, and the first available data on human exposures to parechoviruses in Vietnam. Although the current evidence suggests only limited exposure of humans to known rodent-borne diseases, further research is warranted to assess public health implications of the rodent trade. PMID:25629782

  17. [New insight into bacterial zoonotic pathogens posing health hazards to humans].

    PubMed

    Ciszewski, Marcin; Czekaj, Tomasz; Szewczyk, Eligia Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the problem of evolutionary changes of zoonotic pathogens responsible for human diseases. Everyone is exposed to the risk of zoonotic infection, particularly employees having direct contact with animals, i.e. veterinarians, breeders, butchers and workers of animal products' processing industry. The article focuses on pathogens monitored by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), which has been collecting statistical data on zoonoses from all European Union countries for 19 years and publishing collected data in annual epidemiological reports. Currently, the most important 11 pathogens responsible for causing human zoonotic diseases are being monitored, of which seven are bacteria: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetti and Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC)/Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli (STEC). As particularly important are considered foodborne pathogens. The article also includes new emerging zoonotic bacteria, which are not currently monitored by ECDC but might pose a serious epidemiological problem in a foreseeable future: Streptococcus iniae, S. suis, S. dysgalactiae and staphylococci: Staphylococcus intermedius, S. pseudintermedius. Those species have just crossed the animal-human interspecies barrier. The exact mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown, it is connected, however, with genetic variability, capability to survive in changing environment. These abilities derive from DNA rearrangement and horizontal gene transfer between bacterial cells. Substantial increase in the number of scientific publications on this subject, observed over the last few years, illustrates the importance of the problem.

  18. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Helen L.; Mnzava, Kunda W.; Mitchell, Sarah T.; Melubo, Matayo L.; Kibona, Tito J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Crump, John A.; Sharp, Joanne P.; Halliday, Jo E. B.

    2016-01-01

    capacity alongside healthcare provider education and improved clinical guidelines for syndrome-based disease management to provoke diagnostic consideration of locally relevant zoonoses in the absence of laboratory confirmation. PMID:26943334

  19. Potential risk of zoonotic transmission from young swine to human: seroepidemiological and genetic characterization of hepatitis E virus in human and various animals in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Geng, J; Wang, L; Wang, X; Fu, H; Bu, Q; Liu, P; Zhu, Y; Wang, M; Sui, Y; Zhuang, H

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the prevalence of infection and genotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV) among different species of animals, people whose works are related to pigs and the general population in the suburb of Beijing, China. Serum and faecal samples were collected from 10 animal species and humans. Anti-HEV was detected by enzyme immunoassays (EIA); HEV RNA was amplified by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method. PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The isolated swine HEV sequences were analysed phylogenetically. The positive rates of serum anti-HEV in swine, cattle, milk cow, horse, sheep, donkey, dog, duck, chicken, pig farm workers and slaughterhouse workers, and general population were 81.17% (802/988), 25.29% (66/261), 14.87% (40/269), 14.29% (40/280), 9.30% (53/514), 0 (0/25), 0 (0/20), 2.53% (8/316), 3.03% (7/231), 58.73% (37/63), 35.87% (66/184) and 20.06% (538/2682), respectively. The anti-HEV prevalence in adult swine (≥ 6 months) and younger swine (≤ 3 months) was 91.49% (591/646) and 61.7% (211/342), respectively. The positive rate of HEV RNA in young swine faeces was 47.94% (93/194). All 93 isolates from the younger swine shared 87.8-100% nucleotide homology with each other and had identities of 75.6-78.9%, 73.9-76.1%, 76.4-80.6% and 83.1-95.0% with the corresponding regions of genotypes 1-4 HEV, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, subgenotype 4d. These results suggest a potential risk of zoonotic transmission of HEV from younger swine to farmers who rear pigs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Impacts of an introduced forest pathogen on the risk of Lyme disease in California.

    PubMed

    Swei, Andrea; Briggs, Cheryl J; Lane, Robert S; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2012-08-01

    Global changes such as deforestation, climate change, and invasive species have the potential to greatly alter zoonotic disease systems through impacts on biodiversity. This study examined the impact of the invasive pathogen that causes sudden oak death (SOD) on the ecology of Lyme disease in California. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in the far western United States by a suite of animal reservoirs including the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), and is transmitted by the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus). Other vertebrates, such as the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), are important tick hosts but are not reservoirs of the pathogen. Previous work found that higher levels of SOD are correlated with greater abundance of P. maniculatus and S. occidentalis and lower N. fuscipes abundance. Here we model the contribution of these tick hosts to Lyme disease risk and also evaluate the potential impact of SOD on infection prevalence of the tick vector. By empirically parameterizing a static model with field and laboratory data on tick hosts, we predict that SOD reduces an important index of disease risk, nymphal infection prevalence, leading to a reduction in Lyme disease risk in certain coastal woodlands. Direct observational analysis of the impact of SOD on nymphal infection prevalence supports these model results. This study underscores the important direct and indirect impacts of invasive plant pathogens on biodiversity, the transmission cycles of zoonotic diseases, and ultimately human health.

  1. Chagas disease risk in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Strutz, Stavana E; Frank, David M; Rivaldi, Chissa-Louise; Sissel, Blake; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor

    2010-10-05

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five-stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post-1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc-minute). The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence-based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag-York-Mollié model and post-1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This risk is concentrated in south Texas. 3. The

  2. Investigation for zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in Duhok region of Northern Iraq by molecular methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Kamiran Abdulrahman; Arabacı, Muhammed; Önalan, Şükrü

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in Duhok region of the Northern Iraq. Carp is the main fish species cultured in the Duhok region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 20 carp farms in the Duhok Region of the Northern Iraq. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney tissue samples and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Than head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled. The total bacterial DNA extraction from the pooled each 20 head kidney tissue samples and pooled each 20 intestinal tissue samples. Primers for pathogens were originally designed from 16S Ribosomal gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples by absent / present analysis in the RT-PCR. After RT-PCR, Capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for the confirmation of the size of amplicon which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, one sample was positive in respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, from intestine and one carp farm was positive in respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from intestine and two carp farms were positive in respect to Streptococcus iniae. Totally 17 of 20 carp farms were negative in respect to the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion the zoonotic bacteria were very low (15 %) in carp farms from the Duhok Region in the Northern Iraq. Only in one Carp farms, both Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens were positive. Also Streptococcus inia were positive in two carp farms.

  3. Investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region by molecular methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Azad Saber; Önalan, Şükrü; Arabacı, Muhammed

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Carp is the main fish species cultured in Erbil region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 25 carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Then head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled separately from each carp farm. Total bacterial DNA had been extracted from the 25 pooled head kidney and 25 intestinal tissue samples. The pathogen Primers were originally designed from 16S RNA gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples with absent/present analysis by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for confirmation of amplicon size which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, thirteen carp farms were positive in the respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, eight carp farms were positive from head kidney and six carp farms were positive from the intestine, only one carp farm was positive from both head kidney and the intestine tissue samples. In the respect to Streptococcus iniae, four carp farms were positive from head kidney and two carp farms were positive from the intestine. Only one carp farm was positive in the respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from the intestine. Totally, 9 of 25 carp farms were cleared (negative) the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion, the zoonotic bacteria were high (64 %) in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region.

  4. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products

    Smith, Kristine M.; Anthony, Simon J.; Switzer, William M.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Seimon, Tracie; Jia, Hongwei; Sanchez, Maria D.; Huynh, Thanh Thao; Galland, G. Gale; Shapiro, Sheryl E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; McAloose, Denise; Stuchin, Margot; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lipkin, W. Ian; Karesh, William B.; Daszak, Peter; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.

  5. Zoonotic Viruses Associated with Illegally Imported Wildlife Products

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Seimon, Tracie; Jia, Hongwei; Sanchez, Maria D.; Huynh, Thanh Thao; Galland, G. Gale; Shapiro, Sheryl E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; McAloose, Denise; Stuchin, Margot; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lipkin, W. Ian; Karesh, William B.; Daszak, Peter; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence. PMID:22253731

  6. Seroprevalence of seven zoonotic infections in Nunavik, Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Messier, V; Lévesque, B; Proulx, J-F; Rochette, L; Serhir, B; Couillard, M; Ward, B J; Libman, M D; Dewailly, E; Déry, S

    2012-03-01

    In Nunavik, common practices and food habits such as consumption of raw meat and untreated water place the Inuit at risk for contracting zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic infections among the permanent residents of Nunavik. The study was conducted in the fall 2004 as part of the Nunavik Health Survey. Blood samples from adults aged 18-74 years (n = 917) were collected and analysed for the presence of antibodies against Trichinella spp., Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp. and Francisella tularensis. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, traditional activities, drinking water supply and nutrition was gathered using english/inuktitut bilingual questionnaires. The chi-squared test was used to evaluate associations between seropositivity and other measured variables. Statistically significant variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression model to control for confounding factors. Estimated seroprevalences were 8.3% for E. granulosus, 3.9% for T. canis, 5.9% for Leptospira spp. and 18.9% for F. tularensis. Seroprevalence was ≤ 1% for Trichinella spiralis, Brucella spp. and C. burnetii. For most infections, seropositivity tended to increase with age. In multivariate analyses, seroprevalence was positively (i.e. directly) associated with age and residence in the Ungava coast area for F. tularensis; age and residence in the Hudson coast area for T. canis; female gender, lower level of schooling and frequent cleaning of water reservoirs for E. granulosus. No risk factor for Leptospira spp. infection was identified. No associations were detected with regards to food habits or environmental exposures. A small but significant portion of the Nunavik population has serologic evidence of exposure to at least one of the pathogenic microorganisms investigated. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms for transmission

  7. Ectoparasites and other epifaunistic arthropods of sympatric cotton mice and golden mice: comparisons and implications for vector-borne zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Durden, Lance A; Polur, Ram N; Nims, Todd; Banks, Craig W; Oliver, James H

    2004-12-01

    Ectoparasite and epifaunistic arthropod biodiversity and infestation parameters were compared between 2 sympatric small rodent species, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus (Le Conte)) and golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli (Harlan)), in southern Georgia from 1992 to 2003. Because the cotton mouse is known to be a reservoir of more vector-borne zoonotic pathogens than the golden mouse, we hypothesized that it would be parasitized by more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of these pathogens. Cotton mice (n = 202) were parasitized by 19 species of arthropods, whereas golden mice (n = 46) were parasitized by 12 species. Eleven species of arthropods were recovered from both host species, whereas 7 were recorded only from cotton mice, and 1 species only from golden mice. Infestation prevalences (percent of mice parasitized) were significantly higher for 1 species of arthropod (the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) infesting cotton mice and for 4 species (the flea Peromyscopsylla scotti Fox and the mites Glycyphagus hypudaei Koch, Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese), and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese)) infesting golden mice. Mean intensities (mean per infested mouse) were significantly higher for 2 species (the flea Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) and the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis Say) infesting cotton mice and for 2 species (G. hypudaei and A. fahrenholzi) infesting golden mice. Ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens were significantly more common on cotton mice than on golden mice. These ectoparasites included the rhopalopsyllid flea Polygenis gwyni (Fox), a vector of the agent of murine typhus; I. scapularis, the principal vector of the agents of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis; and O. bacoti, a laboratory vector of several zoonotic pathogens. However, 2 species of ixodid ticks that can transmit zoonotic pathogens were recovered from both host species. These were the American

  8. Risk profiles of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Bilbul, Melanie; Schipper, Hyman M

    2011-07-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a dementing, neurodegenerative disorder that affects approximately 500,000 Canadians and its prevalence is expected to double over the next 30 years. Although several medications may temporarily augment cognitive abilities in AD, there presently exists no proven method to avoid the inevitable clinical deterioration in this devastating condition. The delineation of risk factors for the development of AD offers hope for the advent of effective prevention or interventions that might retard the onset of symptoms. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of midlife risk factors implicated in the etiopathogenesis of sporadic AD. Although some risk factors are heritable and largely beyond our control, others are determined by lifestyle or environment and are potentially modifiable. In a companion paper, we introduce the concept of an Alzheimer Risk Assessment Clinic for ascertainment and mitigation of these and other putative dementia risk factors in middle-aged adults.

  9. Frameworks for risk communication and disease management: the case of Lyme disease and countryside users

    PubMed Central

    Quine, Christopher P.; Barnett, Julie; Dobson, Andrew D. M.; Marcu, Afrodita; Marzano, Mariella; Moseley, Darren; O'Brien, Liz; Randolph, Sarah E.; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Uzzell, David

    2011-01-01

    Management of zoonotic disease is necessary if countryside users are to gain benefit rather than suffer harm from their activities, and to avoid disproportionate reaction to novel threats. We introduce a conceptual framework based on the pressure–state–response model with five broad responses to disease incidence. Influencing public behaviour is one response and requires risk communication based on an integration of knowledge about the disease with an understanding of how publics respond to precautionary advice. A second framework emphasizes how risk communication involves more than information provision and should address dimensions including points-of-intervention over time, place and audience. The frameworks are developed by reference to tick-borne Lyme borreliosis (also known as Lyme disease), for which informed precautionary behaviour is particularly relevant. Interventions to influence behaviour can be directed by knowledge of spatial and temporal variation of tick abundance, what constitutes risky behaviour, how people respond to information of varying content, and an understanding of the social practices related to countryside use. The frameworks clarify the response options and help identify who is responsible for risk communication. These aspects are not consistently understood, and may result in an underestimation of the role of land-based organizations in facilitating appropriate precautionary behaviour. PMID:21624921

  10. Frameworks for risk communication and disease management: the case of Lyme disease and countryside users.

    PubMed

    Quine, Christopher P; Barnett, Julie; Dobson, Andrew D M; Marcu, Afrodita; Marzano, Mariella; Moseley, Darren; O'Brien, Liz; Randolph, Sarah E; Taylor, Jennifer L; Uzzell, David

    2011-07-12

    Management of zoonotic disease is necessary if countryside users are to gain benefit rather than suffer harm from their activities, and to avoid disproportionate reaction to novel threats. We introduce a conceptual framework based on the pressure-state-response model with five broad responses to disease incidence. Influencing public behaviour is one response and requires risk communication based on an integration of knowledge about the disease with an understanding of how publics respond to precautionary advice. A second framework emphasizes how risk communication involves more than information provision and should address dimensions including points-of-intervention over time, place and audience. The frameworks are developed by reference to tick-borne Lyme borreliosis (also known as Lyme disease), for which informed precautionary behaviour is particularly relevant. Interventions to influence behaviour can be directed by knowledge of spatial and temporal variation of tick abundance, what constitutes risky behaviour, how people respond to information of varying content, and an understanding of the social practices related to countryside use. The frameworks clarify the response options and help identify who is responsible for risk communication. These aspects are not consistently understood, and may result in an underestimation of the role of land-based organizations in facilitating appropriate precautionary behaviour.

  11. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Cholesterol Salt Video: Know Your Risk Factors YouTube embed video: YouTube ... https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/GQ0f7-ksmGI Video: José’s Story YouTube embed video: YouTube embed video: ...

  12. Hantavirus infection: a global zoonotic challenge.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Zheng, Xuyang; Wang, Limei; Du, Hong; Wang, Pingzhong; Bai, Xuefan

    2017-02-01

    Hantaviruses are comprised of tri-segmented negative sense single-stranded RNA, and are members of the Bunyaviridae family. Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are important zoonotic pathogens that can have severe adverse effects in humans. They are naturally maintained in specific reservoir hosts without inducing symptomatic infection. In humans, however, hantaviruses often cause two acute febrile diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). In this paper, we review the epidemiology and epizootiology of hantavirus infections worldwide.

  13. Consequences of Landscape Fragmentation on Lyme Disease Risk: A Cellular Automata Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sen; Hartemink, Nienke; Speybroeck, Niko; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance of infected Ixodid ticks is an important component of human risk of Lyme disease, and various empirical studies have shown that this is associated, at least in part, to landscape fragmentation. In this study, we aimed at exploring how varying woodland fragmentation patterns affect the risk of Lyme disease, through infected tick abundance. A cellular automata model was developed, incorporating a heterogeneous landscape with three interactive components: an age-structured tick population, a classical disease transmission function, and hosts. A set of simplifying assumptions were adopted with respect to the study objective and field data limitations. In the model, the landscape influences both tick survival and host movement. The validation of the model was performed with an empirical study. Scenarios of various landscape configurations (focusing on woodland fragmentation) were simulated and compared. Lyme disease risk indices (density and infection prevalence of nymphs) differed considerably between scenarios: (i) the risk could be higher in highly fragmented woodlands, which is supported by a number of recently published empirical studies, and (ii) grassland could reduce the risk in adjacent woodland, which suggests landscape fragmentation studies of zoonotic diseases should not focus on the patch-level woodland patterns only, but also on landscape-level adjacent land cover patterns. Further analysis of the simulation results indicated strong correlations between Lyme disease risk indices and the density, shape and aggregation level of woodland patches. These findings highlight the strong effect of the spatial patterns of local host population and movement on the spatial dynamics of Lyme disease risks, which can be shaped by woodland fragmentation. In conclusion, using a cellular automata approach is beneficial for modelling complex zoonotic transmission systems as it can be combined with either real world landscapes for exploring direct spatial

  14. Dentistry: risks for addictive disease.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Chemical dependence is chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental contributing factors and neurological characteristics. Dentists may be at an increased risk for addiction because they are in a helping profession, work in a stressful environment in which drugs are readily available, often exhibit perfectionist personality traits, and function in isolation. Treatment can be effective, especially when provided by staff skilled in working with healthcare professionals, using the Twelve-Step approach, involving families, and addressing related dysfunctional behavior patterns and psychological issues.

  15. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium Species in Animals Inhabiting Sydney Water Catchments

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Alireza; Monis, Paul; Aucote, Sarah; King, Brendon; Paparini, Andrea; Jian, Fuchun; Yang, Rongchang; Oskam, Charlotte; Ball, Andrew; Robertson, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most common zoonotic waterborne parasitic diseases worldwide and represents a major public health concern of water utilities in developed nations. As animals in catchments can shed human-infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, determining the potential role of animals in dissemination of zoonotic Cryptosporidium to drinking water sources is crucial. In the present study, a total of 952 animal faecal samples from four dominant species (kangaroos, rabbits, cattle and sheep) inhabiting Sydney’s drinking water catchments were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) and positives sequenced at multiple loci. Cryptosporidium species were detected in 3.6% (21/576) of kangaroos, 7.0% (10/142) of cattle, 2.3% (3/128) of sheep and 13.2% (14/106) of rabbit samples screened. Sequence analysis of a region of the 18S rRNA locus identified C. macropodum and C. hominis in 4 and 17 isolates from kangaroos respectively, C. hominis and C. parvum in 6 and 4 isolates respectively each from cattle, C. ubiquitum in 3 isolates from sheep and C. cuniculus in 14 isolates from rabbits. All the Cryptosporidium species identified were zoonotic species with the exception of C. macropodum. Subtyping using the 5’ half of gp60 identified C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 12) and IdA15G1 (n = 2) in kangaroo faecal samples; C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 4) and C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 (n = 4) in cattle faecal samples, C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa (n = 1) in sheep and C. cuniculus VbA23 (n = 9) in rabbits. Additional analysis of a subset of samples using primers targeting conserved regions of the MIC1 gene and the 3’ end of gp60 suggests that the C. hominis detected in these animals represent substantial variants that failed to amplify as expected. The significance of this finding requires further investigation but might be reflective of the ability of this C. hominis variant to infect animals. The finding of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in these

  16. Occurrence, Molecular Characterization and Assessment of Zoonotic Risk of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Pigs in Henan, Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Yayun; Li, Junqiang; Qi, Meng; Li, Tingwen; Wang, Jianling; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2018-05-12

    Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal pathogens in humans and animals. Little is known about them and the range of species/assemblages/genotypes occurring in domestic pigs in China. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of these pathogens detected in the faeces from farms in Henan, central China. Of 897 fecal samples tested, 28 (3.1%), 15 (1.7%) and 408 (45.5%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi, respectively. Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis were most frequently detected in piglets, while E. bieneusi was markedly more prevalent in fattening pigs. Sequence analysis of SSU rRNA gene revealed that positive Cryptosporidium strains belonged to C. suis (n=18) and C. scrofarum (n=10). G. duodenalis assemblages E (n=9), assemblages A (n=3) and assemblages C (n=3) were characterized based on the sequence analysis of tpi gene. Thirteen E. bieneusi genotypes comprising four novel (pigHN-I to pigHN-IV) and nine known (EbpC, EbpA, pigEbITS5, LW1, H, CM8, G, CHG19, and CHS5) genotypes were identified by ITS sequence analysis of a large proportion (n=200) of E. bieneusi-positive samples. EbpC was the most frequent genotype, detected in 60 specimens. All 13 genotypes identified in this study clustered in zoonotic Group 1. The findings indicate that the presence of zoonotic species/assemblages/genotypes of these pathogens poses a threat to public health, suggesting that pigs in Henan province could be a significant source of human infection and water pollution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The Converged Experience of Risk and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aronowitz, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Context: One underappreciated consequence of modern clinical and public health practices is that the experience of being at risk for disease has been converging with the experience of disease itself. This is especially true for certain chronic diseases, in which early diagnosis and aggressive treatment have led to symptom-less and sign-less disease and in which treatments have largely been aimed at altering the disease's future course. Methods: This article reviews the historical scholarship and medical literature pertinent to transformations in the chronic disease and risk experiences. Findings: The experience of chronic disease increasingly resembles or has become indistinguishable from risk because of (1) new clinical interventions that have directly changed the natural history of disease; (2) increased biological, clinical, and epidemiological knowledge about the risk of chronic disease; (3) the recruitment of larger numbers into chronic disease diagnoses via new screening and diagnostic technology and disease definitions; (4) new ways of conceptualizing efficacy; and (5) intense diagnostic testing and medical interventions. Conclusions: The converged experience of risk and disease has led to some unsettling and generally underappreciated consequences that might be subjected to more clinical and policy reflection and response: (1) some puzzling trends in medical decision making, such as the steep and uniform increase in the numbers of women across a broad spectrum of risk/disease in breast cancer who have opted for prophylactic mastectomies; (2) a larger and highly mobilized disease/risk population, resulting in an expanded market for interventions and greater clout for disease advocates; (3) shifts in the perceived severity of the disease, with ripple effects on how people experience and understand their illness and risk of disease; and (4) interventions that promise both to reduce the risk of disease and to treat its symptoms. PMID:19523124

  18. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  19. Multiflora rose invasion amplifies prevalence of Lyme disease pathogen, but not necessarily Lyme disease risk.

    PubMed

    Adalsteinsson, Solny A; Shriver, W Gregory; Hojgaard, Andrias; Bowman, Jacob L; Brisson, Dustin; D'Amico, Vincent; Buler, Jeffrey J

    2018-01-23

    Forests in urban landscapes differ from their rural counterparts in ways that may alter vector-borne disease dynamics. In urban forest fragments, tick-borne pathogen prevalence is not well characterized; mitigating disease risk in densely-populated urban landscapes requires understanding ecological factors that affect pathogen prevalence. We trapped blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs in urban forest fragments on the East Coast of the United States and used multiplex real-time PCR assays to quantify the prevalence of four zoonotic, tick-borne pathogens. We used Bayesian logistic regression and WAIC model selection to understand how vegetation, habitat, and landscape features of urban forests relate to the prevalence of B. burgdorferi (the causative agent of Lyme disease) among blacklegged ticks. In the 258 nymphs tested, we detected Borrelia burgdorferi (11.2% of ticks), Borrelia miyamotoi (0.8%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1.9%), but we did not find Babesia microti (0%). Ticks collected from forests invaded by non-native multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) had greater B. burgdorferi infection rates (mean = 15.9%) than ticks collected from uninvaded forests (mean = 7.9%). Overall, B. burgdorferi prevalence among ticks was positively related to habitat features (e.g. coarse woody debris and total understory cover) favorable for competent reservoir host species. Understory structure provided by non-native, invasive shrubs appears to aggregate ticks and reservoir hosts, increasing opportunities for pathogen transmission. However, when we consider pathogen prevalence among nymphs in context with relative abundance of questing nymphs, invasive plants do not necessarily increase disease risk. Although pathogen prevalence is greater among ticks in invaded forests, the probability of encountering an infected tick remains greater in uninvaded forests characterized by thick litter layers, sparse understories, and relatively greater questing tick abundance in

  20. Borrelia infection and risk of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Alaedini, Armin; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wormser, Gary P; Green, Peter H; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-09-15

    Environmental factors, including infectious agents, are speculated to play a role in the rising prevalence and the geographic distribution of celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder. In the USA and Sweden where the regional variation in the frequency of celiac disease has been studied, a similarity with the geographic distribution of Lyme disease, an emerging multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, has been found, thus raising the possibility of a link. We aimed to determine if infection with Borrelia contributes to an increased risk of celiac disease. Biopsy reports from all of Sweden's pathology departments were used to identify 15,769 individuals with celiac disease. Through linkage to the nationwide Patient Register, we compared the rate of earlier occurrence of Lyme disease in the patients with celiac disease to that in 78,331 matched controls. To further assess the temporal relationship between Borrelia infection and celiac disease, we also examined the risk of subsequent Lyme disease in patients with a diagnosis of celiac disease. Twenty-five individuals (0.16%) with celiac disease had a prior diagnosis of Lyme disease, whereas 79 (0.5%) had a subsequent diagnosis of Lyme disease. A modest association between Lyme disease and celiac disease was seen both before (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-2.47) and after the diagnosis of celiac disease (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.40-2.35), with the risk of disease being highest in the first year of follow-up. Only a minor fraction of the celiac disease patient population had a prior diagnosis of Lyme disease. The similar association between Lyme disease and celiac disease both before and after the diagnosis of celiac disease is strongly suggestive of surveillance bias as a likely contributor. Taken together, the data indicate that Borrelia infection is not a substantive risk factor in the development of celiac disease.

  1. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children With Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Sethna, Christine B; Merchant, Kumail; Reyes, Abigail

    2018-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in individuals diagnosed with kidney disease during childhood. Children with kidney disease often incur a significant cardiovascular burden that leads to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Evidence has shown that children with kidney disease, including chronic kidney disease, dialysis, kidney transplantation, and nephrotic syndrome, develop abnormalities in cardiovascular markers such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and aortic stiffness. Early identification of modifiable risk factors and treatment may lead to a decrease of long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but evidence in this population is lacking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Multi-Host Agent-Based Model for a Zoonotic, Vector-Borne Disease. A Case Study on Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, Ewan T.; Anderson, Neil E.; Schaten, Kathrin; Kuleszo, Joanna; Simuunza, Martin; Welburn, Susan C.; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper presents a new agent-based model (ABM) for investigating T. b. rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease dynamics, produced to aid a greater understanding of disease transmission, and essential for development of appropriate mitigation strategies. Methods The ABM was developed to model rHAT incidence at a fine spatial scale along a 75 km transect in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The method offers a complementary approach to traditional compartmentalised modelling techniques, permitting incorporation of fine scale demographic data such as ethnicity, age and gender into the simulation. Results Through identification of possible spatial, demographic and behavioural characteristics which may have differing implications for rHAT risk in the region, the ABM produced output that could not be readily generated by other techniques. On average there were 1.99 (S.E. 0.245) human infections and 1.83 (S.E. 0.183) cattle infections per 6 month period. The model output identified that the approximate incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) was lower amongst cattle owning households (0.079, S.E. 0.017), than those without cattle (0.134, S.E. 0.017). Immigrant tribes (e.g. Bemba I.R. = 0.353, S.E.0.155) and school-age children (e.g. 5–10 year old I.R. = 0.239, S.E. 0.041) were the most at-risk for acquiring infection. These findings have the potential to aid the targeting of future mitigation strategies. Conclusion ABMs provide an alternative way of thinking about HAT and NTDs more generally, offering a solution to the investigation of local-scale questions, and which generate results that can be easily disseminated to those affected. The ABM can be used as a tool for scenario testing at an appropriate spatial scale to allow the design of logistically feasible mitigation strategies suggested by model output. This is of particular importance where resources are limited and management strategies are often pushed to the local scale. PMID:28027323

  3. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium Species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in HIV-Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhao, Xudong; Zhang, Longxian; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Meijin; Liu, Lili; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic tools have been used increasingly in the characterization of the transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis in developing countries. However, few studies have examined the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. In the present study, 683 HIV-positive patients in the National Free Antiretroviral Therapy Program in China and 683 matched HIV-negative controls were enrolled. Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes were detected and differentiated by PCR and DNA sequencing. The infection rates were 1.5% and 0.15% for Cryptosporidium and 5.7% and 4.2% for E. bieneusi in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants, respectively. The majority (8/11) of Cryptosporidium cases were infections by zoonotic species, including Cryptosporidium meleagridis (5), Cryptosporidium parvum (2), and Cryptosporidium suis (1). Prevalent E. bieneusi genotypes detected, including EbpC (39), D (12), and type IV (7), were also potentially zoonotic. The common occurrence of EbpC was a feature of E. bieneusi transmission not seen in other areas. Contact with animals was a risk factor for both cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. The results suggest that zoonotic transmission was significant in the epidemiology of both diseases in rural AIDS patients in China. PMID:23224097

  4. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: Testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recent ideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found that non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  5. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found t h at non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk.

  6. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife

  7. Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals

    PubMed Central

    Olival, Kevin J.; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Ross, Noam; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Daszak, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The majority of human emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonotic, with viruses originating in wild mammals of particular concern (e.g. HIV, Ebola, SARS)1–3. Understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs4. However, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species likely harbor the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species boundaries5–7. Here we conduct the most comprehensive analysis yet of mammalian host-virus relationships and show that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species, and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable. After controlling for research effort, the proportion of zoonotic viruses per species is predicted by phylogenetic relatedness to humans, host taxonomy, and human population within a species range – which may reflect human-wildlife contact. We demonstrate for the first time that bats harbor a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than all other mammalian orders. We identify the taxa and geographic regions with the largest estimated number of ‘missing viruses’ and ‘missing zoonoses’ and therefore of highest value for future surveillance. We then show that phylogenetic host breadth and other viral traits are significant predictors of zoonotic potential, providing a novel framework to assess if a newly discovered mammalian virus could infect people. PMID:28636590

  8. Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.

    PubMed

    Olival, Kevin J; Hosseini, Parviez R; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Ross, Noam; Bogich, Tiffany L; Daszak, Peter

    2017-06-29

    The majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, HIV, Ebola and SARS). Understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. However, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species boundaries. Here we conduct a comprehensive analysis of mammalian host-virus relationships and show that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable. After controlling for research effort, the proportion of zoonotic viruses per species is predicted by phylogenetic relatedness to humans, host taxonomy and human population within a species range-which may reflect human-wildlife contact. We demonstrate that bats harbour a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than all other mammalian orders. We also identify the taxa and geographic regions with the largest estimated number of 'missing viruses' and 'missing zoonoses' and therefore of highest value for future surveillance. We then show that phylogenetic host breadth and other viral traits are significant predictors of zoonotic potential, providing a novel framework to assess if a newly discovered mammalian virus could infect people.

  9. A Framework to Reduce Infectious Disease Risk from Urban Poultry in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Molly R.; Goldshear, Jesse L.; Price, Lance B.; Graham, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Backyard poultry ownership is increasingly common in U.S. cities and is regulated at the local level. Human contact with live poultry is a well-known risk for infection with zoonotic pathogens, notably Salmonella, yet the ability of local jurisdictions to reduce the risk of infectious disease transmission from poultry to humans is unstudied. We reviewed urban poultry ordinances in the United States and reported Salmonella outbreaks from backyard poultry to identify regulatory gaps in preventing zoonotic pathogen transmission. Based on this analysis, we propose regulatory guidelines for U.S. cities to reduce infectious disease risk from backyard poultry ownership. Methods We assessed local ordinances in the 150 most populous U.S. jurisdictions for content related to noncommercial poultry ownership using online resources and communications with government officials. We also performed a literature review using publicly available data sources to identify human infectious disease outbreaks caused by contact with backyard poultry. Results Of the cities reviewed, 93% (n=139) permit poultry in some capacity. Most urban poultry ordinances share common characteristics focused on reducing nuisance to neighbors. Ordinances do not address many pathways of transmission relevant to poultry-to-human transmission of pathogens, such as manure management. Conclusions To reduce the risk of pathogen exposure from backyard poultry, urban ordinances should incorporate the following seven components: limited flock size, composting of manure in sealed containers, prohibition of slaughter, required veterinary care to sick birds, appropriate disposal of dead birds, annual permits linked to consumer education, and a registry of poultry owners. PMID:26346104

  10. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Claire; Furlano, Raoul I; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2016-02-01

    An increased risk of autoimmune disease has been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink [CPRD], this study set out to further examine this relationship. Patients with a first-time IBD diagnosis were randomly matched to an equal-sized IBD-free comparison group. Incidence rates for new-onset autoimmune diseases were estimated. A nested case-control analysis comprising IBD patients was conducted, using conditional logistic regression to assess whether IBD severity, duration, or treatment influences the risk of developing autoimmune diseases. During follow-up, 1069 IBD and 585 IBD-free patients developed an incident autoimmune disease. An increased incidence of autoimmune disease was observed in IBD patients (incidence rate [IR] 9.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.09-10.24) compared with the non-IBD comparison group [IR 5.22, 95% CI 4.82-5.66]. In IBD patients, increased disease severity was associated with an increased risk of autoimmune disease development (odds ratio [OR] 1.62, 95% CI 1.28-2.05). Current antibiotic use was also associated with an increased risk [adjusted OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.07-2.78]. A reduced risk of incident autoimmune diseases was observed for current long-term users of aminosalicylates [adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.91]. Individuals with IBD had an increased risk of developing an autoimmune disease. Increased disease severity and current antibiotic use were associated with an increased relative risk of developing additional autoimmune diseases in IBD patients. Long-term current aminosalicylate use was associated with a reduced risk. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Overview of zoonotic infections from fish and shellfish

    Zoonosis refers to diseases that can be transferred from animals, whether wild or domesticated, to humans. Zoonotic infections can be divided into: 1) topically acquired infection caused by contact with aquatic animals or their products and 2) food borne infection caused by eating raw or undercooked...

  12. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

  13. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  14. Modern risk stratification in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, C; Bejan, I; Ceck, C D

    2011-11-14

    The prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases in the world are growing. There are 2 million deaths due to cardiovascular disease each year in the European Union; the main cause of death being the coronary heart disease responsible for 16% of deaths in men and 15% in women. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Romania is estimated at 7 million people, of which 2.8 million have ischemic heart disease. In this epidemiological context, risk stratification is required for individualization of therapeutic strategies for each patient. The continuing evolution of the diagnosis and treatment techniques combines personalized medicine with the trend of therapeutic management leveling, based on guidelines and consensus, which are in constant update. The guidelines used in clinical practice have involved risk stratification and identification of patient groups in whom the risk-benefit ratio of using new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has a positive value. Presence of several risk factors may indicate a more important total risk than the presence / significant increase from normal values of a single risk factor. Modern trends in risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease are polarized between the use of simple data versus complex scores, traditional data versus new risk factors, generally valid scores versus personalized scores, depending on patient characteristics, type of coronary artery disease, with impact on the suggested therapy. All known information and techniques can be integrated in a complex system of risk assessment. The current trend in risk assessment is to identify coronary artery disease in early forms, before clinical manifestation, and to guide therapy, particularly in patients with intermediate risk, which can be classified in another class of risk based on new obtained information.

  15. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  16. Climate, Deer, Rodents, and Acorns as Determinants of Variation in Lyme-Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Charles D; Oggenfuss, Kelly; Winchcombe, Raymond J; Keesing, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Risk of human exposure to vector-borne zoonotic pathogens is a function of the abundance and infection prevalence of vectors. We assessed the determinants of Lyme-disease risk (density and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks) over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of US Lyme disease (Dutchess County, New York). We used a model comparison approach to simultaneously test the importance of ambient growing-season temperature, precipitation, two indices of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) abundance, and densities of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and acorns ( Quercus spp.), in both simple and multiple regression models, in predicting entomological risk. Indices of deer abundance had no predictive power, and precipitation in the current year and temperature in the prior year had only weak effects on entomological risk. The strongest predictors of a current year's risk were the prior year's abundance of mice and chipmunks and abundance of acorns 2 y previously. In no case did inclusion of deer or climate variables improve the predictive power of models based on rodents, acorns, or both. We conclude that interannual variation in entomological risk of exposure to Lyme disease is correlated positively with prior abundance of key hosts for the immature stages of the tick vector and with critical food resources for those hosts. PMID:16669698

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  19. Infectious disease risks in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jay A

    2018-03-07

    Hurdles exist to clinical xenotransplantation including potential infectious transmission from nonhuman species to xenograft recipients. In anticipation of clinical trials of xenotransplantation, the associated infectious risks have been investigated. Swine and immunocompromised humans share some potential pathogens. Swine herpesviruses including porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV) are largely species-specific and do not, generally, infect human cells. Human cellular receptors exist for porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), which infects certain human-derived cell lines in vitro. PERV-inactivated pigs have been produced recently. Human infection due to PERV has not been described. A screening paradigm can be applied to exclude potential human pathogens from "designated pathogen free" breeding colonies. Various microbiological assays have been developed for screening and diagnosis including antibody-based tests and qualitative and quantitative molecular assays for viruses. Additional assays may be required to diagnose pig-specific organisms in human xenograft recipients. Significant progress has been made in the evaluation of the potential infectious risks of clinical xenotransplantation. Infectious risk would be amplified by intensive immunosuppression. The available data suggest that risks of xenotransplant-associated recipient infection are manageable and that clinical trials can be performed safely. Possible infectious risks of xenotransplantation to the community at large are undefined but merit consideration. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Prevalence of Hookworm infection and Strongyloidiasis in Cats and Potential Risk Factor of Human Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedionoto, Blego; Anamnart, Witthaya

    2018-02-01

    Hookworm infection and Stronyloidiasis are public health problem in the worldwide which both of them could infective in human by penetrated on skin and they have potential risk from Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of pets, including cats. We investigated the prevalence soil transmitted helminths infection in human and cats used modified Formal-Ether Concentration and agar plate culture. Fecal samples of 23 cats and human from Naitung and Subua Villages (area study 1), and fecal samples of 15 cats and 17 humans from Thasala Beach villages (area study 2) were collected. Result of study in area study 1 showed prevalence of infection in human was not hookworm and strongyloidiasis but 10% humans have infected Ascaris and Tricuris, and in cats have infected by hookworm 75.2% and S. strercoralis 8.5%, toxocara 13%, spirometra 13% and overall prevalence 82.5%. In area study 2 showed in human has infected by Trichuris 100% and S. stercoralis 29.4% and in cats have infected by hookworm 100% and S. strercoralis 40%, toxocora 20%, and spirometra 20%. Helminth infection found in both humans in two areas study are S. strercoralis. Hookworms were the most common helminth in cats but did not connection with infection in human, while S. strercoralis was helminth infection in cats which has potential zoonotic disease to human.

  1. Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Dominique S.; Fu, Zhuxuan; Shi, Jian; Chung, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal disease, which includes gingivitis and periodontitis, is highly prevalent in adults and disease severity increases with age. The relationship between periodontal disease and oral cancer has been examined for several decades, but there is increasing interest in the link between periodontal disease and overall cancer risk, with systemic inflammation serving as the main focus for biological plausibility. Numerous case-control studies have addressed the role of oral health in head and neck cancer, and several cohort studies have examined associations with other types of cancers over the past decade. For this review, we included studies that were identified from either 11 published reviews on this topic or an updated literature search on PubMed (between 2011 and July 2016). A total of 50 studies from 46 publications were included in this review. Meta-analyses were conducted on cohort and case-control studies separately when at least 4 studies could be included to determine summary estimates of the risk of cancer in relation to 1) periodontal disease or 2) tooth number (a surrogate marker of periodontal disease) with adjustment for smoking. Existing data provide support for a positive association between periodontal disease and risk of oral, lung, and pancreatic cancers; however, additional prospective studies are needed to better inform on the strength of these associations and to determine whether other cancers are associated with periodontal disease. Future studies should include sufficiently large sample sizes, improved measurements for periodontal disease, and thorough adjustment for smoking and other risk factors. PMID:28449041

  2. Zoonotic Potential and Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia Species and Giardiasis†

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Molecular diagnostic tools have been used recently in assessing the taxonomy, zoonotic potential, and transmission of Giardia species and giardiasis in humans and animals. The results of these studies have firmly established giardiasis as a zoonotic disease, although host adaptation at the genotype and subtype levels has reduced the likelihood of zoonotic transmission. These studies have also identified variations in the distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes among geographic areas and between domestic and wild ruminants and differences in clinical manifestations and outbreak potentials of assemblages A and B. Nevertheless, our efforts in characterizing the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis and the roles of various animals in the transmission of human giardiasis are compromised by the lack of case-control and longitudinal cohort studies and the sampling and testing of humans and animals living in the same community, the frequent occurrence of infections with mixed genotypes and subtypes, and the apparent heterozygosity at some genetic loci for some G. duodenalis genotypes. With the increased usage of multilocus genotyping tools, the development of next-generation subtyping tools, the integration of molecular analysis in epidemiological studies, and an improved understanding of the population genetics of G. duodenalis in humans and animals, we should soon have a better appreciation of the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis, the disease burden of zoonotic transmission, the taxonomy status and virulences of various G. duodenalis genotypes, and the ecology of environmental contamination. PMID:21233509

  3. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Paparini, Andrea; Jian, Fuchun; Robertson, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal-oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  4. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Adults Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Pour les personnes atteintes de diabète ou d’hypertension artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney ...

  5. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666

  6. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  7. Occurrence of selected zoonotic food-borne parasites and first molecular identification of Alaria alata in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Villa, Luca; Riehn, Katharina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Minazzi, Stefano; Olivieri, Emanuela; Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2018-05-11

    Wild boar is a source of human infections with zoonotic pathogens, including food-borne parasites. With the aim of a characterization of the human exposure risk, a survey on wild boars intended for human consumption was planned, selecting three pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii, Alaria alata, and Trichinella spp., as markers of meat infection. Diaphragm muscle samples from 100 wild boars hunted in Piedmont region (Northern Italy) in two hunting seasons (2015-2016) were collected. Concerning T. gondii, a combined approach of antibody detection and molecular techniques with genotyping was performed. For the detection of A. alata and Trichinella spp., the larva migration technique and the magnetic stirrer method were employed, respectively; in addition, molecular confirmation of the morphological identification of the recovered specimen was performed. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in meat juice samples (43.3%) and T. gondii DNA (type II) was detected in three animals (7.1%) out of 42 seropositive examined. In none of the sampled wild boars (0%), Trichinella spp. larvae were found, whereas one animal (1%) scored positive to A. alata mesocercariae. The molecular diagnosis proved the morphological identification of the trematode. This is the first finding of A. alata in Italian wild boar population. The present study confirmed the role of wild boars as a source of parasitic zoonotic diseases and thus the risk derived for humans posed by the consumption of game meat. Considering the zoonotic implications, the results underline the importance of monitoring and surveillance of zoonotic parasites in Italian wild boar populations.

  8. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Wild boars, Sus scrofa , are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin's solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli , 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki , 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  9. General health risk of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Slots, J; Kamma, J J

    2001-12-01

    The possibility that periodontal disease might influence the morbidity and mortality of systemic diseases constitutes a research topic of great current interest. Human periodontal disease is associated with a complex microbiota containing approximately 500 microbial taxa and various human viruses, many of which possess significant virulence potential. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and other periodontopathic bacteria that are unique to the oral cavity and may disseminate to other body sites comprise the best-documented form of dental focal infection. However, systemically healthy individuals seem to be at low risk of acquiring acute non-oral diseases from direct infections by periodontal pathogens. Research data from various laboratories point to periodontal infections as a risk factor for chronic medical disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular accidents and low-birth-weight infants. However, recent epidemiological studies have failed to show a significant relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. This review paper evaluates the current status of knowledge on dental focal infection and suggests avenues for further research into the topic of general health risks of periodontal disease.

  10. Dysbiosis a risk factor for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Girbovan, Anamaria; Sur, Genel; Samasca, Gabriel; Lupan, Iulia

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria. There is a strong relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and celiac disease, and recent studies are aimed at determining whether the celiac disease is a risk factor for dysbiosis or dysbiosis is for celiac disease. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the latest findings regarding the gut microbiota and its impact on the celiac disease, including therapeutic aspects.

  11. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Risk for zoonotic Salmonella transmission from pet reptiles: A survey on knowledge, attitudes and practices of reptile-owners related to reptile husbandry.

    PubMed

    Corrente, Marialaura; Sangiorgio, Giancarlo; Grandolfo, Erika; Bodnar, Livia; Catella, Cristiana; Trotta, Adriana; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    Reptiles are becoming increasingly popular as pets. Those animals are reservoirs of a wide variety of Salmonella serotypes, that may be transmitted to warm-blooded animals, including humans. Accordingly, good hygiene practices related to husbandry are important for prevention of Reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS). A cross-sectional study was conducted among reptile owners, by administration of a detailed questionnaire. In addition, the cloacal swabs of the sampled reptiles were screened for Salmonella spp. and the husbandry management practices were evaluated in order to assess any possible link between the presence of Salmonella spp. and the hygiene practices. The response rate to the questionnaire was 66.6% (100 out of 150 contacted owners). In 26 out of 100 families, members at risk of RAS (children and elderly) were present. One hundred animals were screened for the presence of Salmonella spp. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. carriers was 57% (Confidence interval 47-66%). Co-habitation of the animals with other reptiles in the same terrarium was associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of infection by Salmonella spp.(Odds ratio=2.3, CI 1.2;13, p=0.02). Animals handled by owners that did not report washing their hands after the cleaning procedures or the handling were exposed to a 3-fold increase in the risk of infection (OR=3.1, CI 1.1;16, p=0.019). When drinking water was not replaced regularly, the animals were 7 times more exposed to infection (OR=6.8, CI 1.8;25, p=0.005). When the diet was constituted by rodents, 27 out of 48 reptiles (56.3%) were fed with live animals. In the present survey the typical reptile owner was a person, aware of ethological aspects of reptile husbandry but ignorant of some ethical recommendations and poorly informed about the health risks for himself and for the other family members. Prevention of RAS must rely mainly on information and education, with the veterinarian health bodies primarily involved in this difficult

  13. Zoonotic aspects of vector-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Failloux, A-B; Moutailler, S

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are principally zoonotic diseases transmitted to humans by animals. Pathogens such as bacteria, parasites and viruses are primarily maintained within an enzootic cycle between populations of non-human primates or other mammals and largely non-anthropophilic vectors. This 'wild' cycle sometimes spills over in the form of occasional infections of humans and domestic animals. Lifestyle changes, incursions by humans into natural habitats and changes in agropastoral practices create opportunities that make the borders between wildlife and humans more permeable. Some vector-borne diseases have dispensed with the need for amplification in wild or domestic animals and they can now be directly transmitted to humans. This applies to some viruses (dengue and chikungunya) that have caused major epidemics. Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have reduced their transmission cycle to the minimum, with humans acting as reservoir, amplifier and disseminator. The design of control strategies for vector-borne diseases should be guided by research into emergence mechanisms in order to understand how a wild cycle can produce a pathogen that goes on to cause devastating urban epidemics.

  14. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals: an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective.

    PubMed

    Rijks, J M; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    , indicating a clear knowledge gap. There were not enough assessments for any of the 15 diseases to allow meta-analyses, whether these assessments dealt with companion animal disease risk or companion animal-associated human disease risk. Important method and technology gaps were the lack of harmonization in the case definitions used for a given disease and the lack of good diagnostics allowing pathogen identification to taxonomic levels that are meaningful for risk analysis. Molecular epidemiology studies on zoonotic pathogens, which included companion animals among the potential human risk factors, were not found, although such studies would provide good preliminary insights without requiring any tracing of people or any interviews. In addition to performing further risk studies that take into account these issues, there is a need for responsible pet ownership and continued education of professionals in companion animal zoonoses. Additional risk assessment studies should allow more targeted actions to reduce the risk of zoonotic diseases transferred via companion animals and provide information that will promote risk-awareness in healthy human-animal relationships. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in domestic and stray dogs in a rural area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Beiromvand, Molouk; Akhlaghi, Lame; Fattahi Massom, Seyed Hossein; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Motevalian, Abbas; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Razmjou, Elham

    2013-04-01

    Certain zoonotic parasites are enteropathogens in dogs that cause serious human disease such as cystic echinococcosis, human alveolar echinococcosis, visceral larva migrans, and ocular larva migrans. This study investigated the prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs in the Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. Sampling was carried out randomly in 17 villages from November 2009 to January 2010. Seventy-seven fecal samples from 28 domestic and 49 stray dogs were examined using sieving/flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Intestinal parasites were found in 51 of the 77 (66%) dogs most common being Toxascaris leonina (29%, 22/77), Toxocara spp. (25%, 19/77), Eimeria spp. (19%, 15/77), Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (18%, 14/77), Sarcocystis spp. (17%, 13/77), and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (14%, 11/77). Lower infection rates of parasites were observed for Trichuris vulpis (6%, 5/77), Cryptosporidium spp. (5%, 4/77), and Physaloptera spp. (3%, 2/77). Prevalence of infection by Dipylidium caninum, Capillaria spp., Cystoisospora spp., and hookworms was similar (1%, 1/77). This study is the first report of the prevalence of intestinal parasites of domestic and stray dogs in Chenaran County, Northeast Iran. The higher prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites such as Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara spp. and Taenia/Echinococcus spp. compared to other parasites indicates the need for control programs to minimize the risk of transmission of zoonotic disease, particularly cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis, visceral larva migrans, and ocular larva migrans to people living in these areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Zoonotic illness--determining risks and measuring effects: association between current animal exposure and a history of illness in a well characterised rural population in the UK.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D R; Salmon, R L; Kench, S M; Meadows, D; Coleman, T J; Morgan-Capner, P; Morgan, K L

    1994-04-01

    To recruit a representative sample of farmworkers, accurately quantify the range and extent of their animal exposures, and measure the associated risks of illness. Inception cohort. The study was undertaken among farmworkers living in five local authority areas in the catchment of Hereford and Preston Public Health Laboratories, England. A quota sample of 404 people on 255 agricultural holdings took part. The holdings were selected at random from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food register. Altogether 58% of eligible subjects approached agreed to participate. The sample had the same sex distribution as the 1991 census for those giving their occupation as agriculture. The mean age was significantly (p < 0.01) higher (44.6 years v 42.2 years) than that of those giving their occupation as agriculture, forestry or fishing in the census, although the modal range (45-59 years) was the same. At enrollment interviews, subjects individually reported contact with up to nine animal species (mode 4) out of 26 reported in all. Based on the numbers contacted and the frequency and intimacy of contact, scores on a ranked ordinal scale from 0-5 were constructed for each species and frequencies for each score were plotted. Subjects also reported past operations and serious illness. A history of pneumonia was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with a pigeon loft on the farm (relative risk (RR) 7.3) and attending farrowing pigs (RR 6.6), and one of leptospirosis with a rat problem on the farm (RR 28.1). Cattle contact was associated with a significantly lower likelihood (protective) of glandular fever (RR 0.19) and rheumatic or scarlet fever (RR 0.12). These effects were significantly related to rankings of the extent of exposure. It is possible to recruit a representative sample of farmworkers and measure their animal exposures in great detail. Among these exposures, associations with plausible risk factors for pneumonia and leptospirosis and apparently protective

  17. Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Fu, Zhuxuan; Shi, Jian; Chung, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease, which includes gingivitis and periodontitis, is highly prevalent in adults and disease severity increases with age. The relationship between periodontal disease and oral cancer has been examined for several decades, but there is increasing interest in the link between periodontal disease and overall cancer risk, with systemic inflammation serving as the main focus for biological plausibility. Numerous case-control studies have addressed the role of oral health in head and neck cancer, and several cohort studies have examined associations with other types of cancers over the past decade. For this review, we included studies that were identified from either 11 published reviews on this topic or an updated literature search on PubMed (between 2011 and July 2016). A total of 50 studies from 46 publications were included in this review. Meta-analyses were conducted on cohort and case-control studies separately when at least 4 studies could be included to determine summary estimates of the risk of cancer in relation to 1) periodontal disease or 2) tooth number (a surrogate marker of periodontal disease) with adjustment for smoking. Existing data provide support for a positive association between periodontal disease and risk of oral, lung, and pancreatic cancers; however, additional prospective studies are needed to better inform on the strength of these associations and to determine whether other cancers are associated with periodontal disease. Future studies should include sufficiently large sample sizes, improved measurements for periodontal disease, and thorough adjustment for smoking and other risk factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease: environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Campdelacreu, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to update and summarise available evidence on environmental risk factors that have been associated with risk of Parkinson disease (PD) or Alzheimer disease (AD) and discuss their potential mechanisms. Evidence consistently suggests that a higher risk of PD is associated with pesticides and that a higher risk of AD is associated with pesticides, hypertension and high cholesterol levels in middle age, hyperhomocysteinaemia, smoking, traumatic brain injury and depression. There is weak evidence suggesting that higher risk of PD is associated with high milk consumption in men, high iron intake, chronic anaemia and traumatic brain injury. Weak evidence also suggests that a higher risk of AD is associated with high aluminium intake through drinking water, excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields from electrical grids, DM and hyperinsulinaemia, obesity in middle age, excessive alcohol consumption and chronic anaemia. Evidence consistently suggests that a lower risk of PD is associated with hyperuricaemia, tobacco and coffee use, while a lower risk of AD is associated with moderate alcohol consumption, physical exercise, perimenopausal hormone replacement therapy and good cognitive reserve. Weak evidence suggests that lower risk of PD is associated with increased vitamin E intake, alcohol, tea, NSAIDs, and vigorous physical exercise, and that lower risk of AD is associated with the Mediterranean diet, coffee and habitual NSAID consumption. Several environmental factors contribute significantly to risk of PD and AD. Some may already be active in the early stages of life, and some may interact with other genetic factors. Population-based strategies to modify such factors could potentially result in fewer cases of PD or AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  20. Molecular identification of Ancylostoma species from dogs and an assessment of zoonotic risk in low-income households, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Arbex, A P; David, E B; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Katagiri, S; Coradi, S T; Guimarães, S

    2017-01-01

    Hookworm infection stands out for its worldwide distribution and for its veterinary and public health relevance. Based on copromicroscopic examinations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, we assessed, respectively, the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the identification of canine hookworm species in faeces recovered from 278 dogs living in households of an inland municipality of São Paulo State, Brazil. Intestinal parasites were found in 67.3% of dogs and hookworm infection was found at the highest prevalence rate (56.6%), followed by Toxocara canis (11.9%), Isospora spp. (11.9%), Giardia spp. (5.8%), Sarcocystis spp. (4.0%), 'Hammondia-like' (1.4%), Dipylidium caninum (1.1%) and Trichuris vulpis (0.7%). Of 158 samples positive for hookworm eggs, 106 (67.1%) were amplified by PCR and, of those, 88 (55.7%) were successfully sequenced for species identification. Single infections with Ancylostoma caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense were recorded in 61.4% and 12.5%, respectively, and mixed infections were found in 26.1%. The nucleotide sequences of both species showed high identity rates (98-100%) when compared with reference sequences. Although A. caninum was the most prevalent hookworm in the dogs assessed, the occurrence of both A. caninum and A. braziliense in single and/or mixed infections poses a potential risk for the local population in a low-income area, especially children, to acquire cutaneous larva migrans (CLM).

  1. Zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products and eggs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Natalie M; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha

    2015-02-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Zoonotic Potential of Escherichia coli Isolates from Retail Chicken Meat Products and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Natalie M.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. PMID:25480753

  3. Impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation on infectious disease hospitalization risk in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fisman, David N; Tuite, Ashleigh R; Brown, Kevin A

    2016-12-20

    Although the global climate is changing at an unprecedented rate, links between weather and infectious disease have received little attention in high income countries. The "El Niño Southern Oscillation" (ENSO) occurs irregularly and is associated with changing temperature and precipitation patterns. We studied the impact of ENSO on infectious diseases in four census regions in the United States. We evaluated infectious diseases requiring hospitalization using the US National Hospital Discharge Survey (1970-2010) and five disease groupings that may undergo epidemiological shifts with changing climate: (i) vector-borne diseases, (ii) pneumonia and influenza, (iii) enteric disease, (iv) zoonotic bacterial disease, and (v) fungal disease. ENSO exposure was based on the Multivariate ENSO Index. Distributed lag models, with adjustment for seasonal oscillation and long-term trends, were used to evaluate the impact of ENSO on disease incidence over lags of up to 12 mo. ENSO was associated more with vector-borne disease [relative risk (RR) 2.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-8.48] and less with enteric disease (0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.87) in the Western region; the increase in vector-borne disease was attributable to increased risk of rickettsioses and tick-borne infectious diseases. By contrast, ENSO was associated with more enteric disease in non-Western regions (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.15). The periodic nature of ENSO may make it a useful natural experiment for evaluation of the impact of climatic shifts on infectious disease risk. The impact of ENSO suggests that warmer temperatures and extreme variation in precipitation events influence risks of vector-borne and enteric disease in the United States.

  4. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F; Grant, Donald S; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M; Nichols, Gordon; Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Webb, Colleen T; Wood, James L N

    2016-09-01

    A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir.

  5. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F.; Grant, Donald S.; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M.; Nichols, Gordon; Schieffelin, John S.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Webb, Colleen T.; Wood, James L. N.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: ‘spillover’, i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and ‘stuttering transmission’, i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir. PMID:27588425

  6. Disease state fingerprint for fall risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla

    2014-01-01

    Fall prevention is an important and complex multifactorial challenge, since one third of people over 65 years old fall at least once every year. A novel application of Disease State Fingerprint (DSF) algorithm is presented for holistic visualization of fall risk factors and identifying persons with falls history or decreased level of physical functioning based on fall risk assessment data. The algorithm is tested with data from 42 older adults, that went through a comprehensive fall risk assessment. Within the study population the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale score, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score and the number of drugs in use were the three most relevant variables, that differed between the fallers and non-fallers. This study showed that the DSF visualization is beneficial in inspection of an individual's significant fall risk factors, since people have problems in different areas and one single assessment scale is not enough to expose all the people at risk.

  7. TOXICOGENOMICS AND HUMAN DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Toxicogenomics and Human Disease Risk Assessment.

    Complete sequencing of human and other genomes, availability of large-scale gene
    expression arrays with ever-increasing numbers of genes displayed, and steady
    improvements in protein expression technology can hav...

  8. Participation of women and children in hunting activities in Sierra Leone and implications for control of zoonotic infections

    PubMed Central

    Kandeh, Martin; Dawson, Michael; Ansumana, Rashid; Sahr, Foday; Kelly, Ann H.; Brown, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases of zoonotic origin highlights the need to understand social practices at the animal-human interface. This study provides a qualitative account of interactions between humans and wild animals in predominantly Mende villages of southern Sierra Leone. We conducted fieldwork over 4 months including participant and direct observations, semi-structured interviews (n = 47), spontaneously occurring focus group discussions (n = 12), school essays and informal interviews to describe behaviours that may serve as pathways for zoonotic infection. In this region, hunting is the primary form of contact with wild animals. We describe how these interactions are shaped by socio-cultural contexts, including opportunities to access economic resources and by social obligations and constraints. Our research suggests that the potential for exposure to zoonotic pathogens is more widely distributed across different age, gender and social groups than previously appreciated. We highlight the role of children in hunting, an age group that has previously not been discussed in the context of hunting. The breadth of the "at risk" population forces reconsideration of how we conceptualize, trace and monitor pathogen exposure. PMID:28749933

  9. Culinary delights and travel? A review of zoonotic cestodiases and metacestodiases.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Budke, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased globalization, food-borne parasitic infections are becoming more prevalent worldwide, including in countries where these parasites and parasitic diseases had previously been well controlled or eradicated. Improved sanitation, health education, and establishment of appropriate food safety mechanisms can go a long way towards the control of many these infections. However, food-borne parasitic infections are still common diseases in developing countries, especially in rural areas. As many of today's travelers are looking to explore more distant locations and partake in the local cuisine, they may be at greater risk of acquiring a food-borne parasitic infection, including those caused by a number of adult and larval tapeworms. This review discusses fish and meat-borne tapeworms and zoonotic metacestodiases of public health importance to both developing and developed countries, with a focus on infection prevention in travelers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk factors: a childhood perspective.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Pradeep A; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-03-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide including in developing countries like India. Indians are known to be predisposed to CVD, which occur almost a decade earlier in them. Though these diseases manifest in the middle age and beyond, it is now clear that the roots of CVD lie in childhood and adolescence. Many of the conventional risk factors of CVD such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity have their beginnings in childhood and then track overtime. It is thus important to screen and identify these risk factors early and treat them to prevent onset of CVD. Similarly community based strategies to prevent onset of these risk factors is imperative to tackle this burgeoning public health crisis especially in countries like ours with limited resources.

  11. Heart Disease in Women: Understand Symptoms and Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... menopause pose a significant risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease in the smaller blood vessels (coronary microvascular disease). ... treat breast cancer, may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Pregnancy complications. High blood pressure or diabetes during ...

  12. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE) may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis), food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis) and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis). Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs) or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber) causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears PMID:21429191

  13. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  14. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    PubMed Central

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  15. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers.

    PubMed

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.

  16. The zoonotic potential of Clostridium difficile from small companion animals and their owners.

    PubMed

    Rabold, Denise; Espelage, Werner; Abu Sin, Muna; Eckmanns, Tim; Schneeberg, Alexander; Neubauer, Heinrich; Möbius, Nadine; Hille, Katja; Wieler, Lothar H; Seyboldt, Christian; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in humans range from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening intestinal disease. Findings on C. difficile in various animal species and an overlap in ribotypes (RTs) suggest potential zoonotic transmission. However, the impact of animals for human CDI remains unclear. In a large-scale survey we collected 1,447 fecal samples to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in small companion animals (dogs and cats) and their owners and to assess potential epidemiological links within the community. The Germany-wide survey was conducted from July 2012-August 2013. PCR ribotyping, Multilocus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) and PCR detection of toxin genes were used to characterize isolated C. difficile strains. A database was defined and logistic regression used to identify putative factors associated with fecal shedding of C. difficile. In total, 1,418 samples met the inclusion criteria. The isolation rates for small companion animals and their owners within the community were similarly low with 3.0% (25/840) and 2.9% (17/578), respectively. PCR ribotyping revealed eight and twelve different RTs in animals and humans, respectively, whereas three RTs were isolated in both, humans and animals. RT 014/0, a well-known human hospital-associated lineage, was predominantly detected in animal samples. Moreover, the potentially highly pathogenic RTs 027 and 078 were isolated from dogs. Even though, C. difficile did not occur simultaneously in animals and humans sharing the same household. The results of the epidemiological analysis of factors associated with fecal shedding of C. difficile support the hypothesis of a zoonotic potential. Molecular characterization and epidemiological analysis revealed that the zoonotic risk for C. difficile associated with dogs and cats within the community is low but cannot be excluded.

  17. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks

    SciT

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities ofmore » potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.« less

  18. Zoonotic pathogens from feral swine that pose a significant threat to public health.

    PubMed

    Brown, V R; Bowen, R A; Bosco-Lauth, A M

    2018-06-01

    The natural fecundity of suids, great ability to adapt to new habitats and desire for local hunting opportunities leading to translocation of feral pigs to regions where they are not yet established have all been instrumental in the home range expansion of feral swine. Feral swine populations in the United States continue to expand, wreaking havoc on agricultural lands, further compromising threatened and endangered species, and posing a microbiological threat to humans, domestic livestock and companion animals. This manuscript thoroughly reviews zoonotic diseases of concern including brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, leptospirosis, enteric pathogens, both Salmonella spp. and shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and hepatitis E. These pathogens are not a comprehensive list of microbes that are capable of infecting both humans and feral swine, but rather have been selected as they are known to infect US feral swine, direct transmission between wild suids and humans has previously been documented, or they have been shown to be readily transmitted during processing or consumption of feral swine pork. Humans that interact directly or indirectly with feral swine are at much higher risk for the development of a number of zoonotic pathogens. Numerous case reports document transmission events from feral swine and wild boar to humans, and the resulting diseases may be mild and self-limiting, chronic or fatal. Individuals that interact with feral swine should take preventative measures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and all meat should be thoroughly cooked. Additionally, public health campaigns to increase knowledge of the risks associated with feral swine are imperative. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Constructing Rigorous and Broad Biosurveillance Networks for Detecting Emerging Zoonotic Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; Powell, Dennis; LaBute, Montiago; Hyman, James M.; Rivas, Ariel; Jankowski, Mark; Berendzen, Joel; Loeppky, Jason; Manore, Carrie; Fair, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities of potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic. PMID:25946164

  20. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; ...

    2015-05-06

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities ofmore » potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.« less

  1. Endometriosis and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Fan; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rimm, Eric B.; Spiegelman, Donna; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a prevalent gynecologic disease associated with systemic chronic inflammation, heightened oxidative stress and atherogenic lipid profile that may increase women's risk for Coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and Results We examined the prospective association between laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis and subsequent CHD among 116,430 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (1989-2009). Participants with a history of heart disease and stroke were excluded. Compared to women without endometriosis, women with laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis had a higher risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.98), angiographically-confirmed angina (1.91; 1.59-2.29), coronary artery bypass graft surgery/coronary angioplasty procedure/stent (1.35; 1.08-1.69), or any of these CHD endpoints combined (1.62; 1.39-1.89), independent of potential demographic, anthropometric, family history, reproductive, and lifestyle confounders. Relative risk for the combined CHD endpoint was highest among women age ≤40 (3.08; 2.02-4.70), and decreased as age increased (4055, 0.98, 0.56-1.72; p-value, test for heterogeneity=0.001). Having had a hysterectomy/oophorectomy was associated with higher risk of combined CHD compared to not having had a hysterectomy/oophorectomy (1.51, 1.34-1.71). 42% of the association between endometriosis and CHD could be explained by greater frequency of hysterectomy/oophorectomy and earlier age at surgery following endometriosis diagnosis. Conclusions In this large, prospective cohort, laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis was associated with increased risk of CHD. The association was strongest among young women. Hysterectomy/oophorectomy was associated with higher risk of CHD and could partially explain the association between endometriosis and CHD. PMID:27025928

  2. Zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in relation to knowledge level of dog owners.

    PubMed

    Raval, Heli S; Nayak, J B; Patel, B M; Bhadesiya, C M

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to understand the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis with special reference to the knowledge level of dog owners in urban areas of Gujarat. The study was carried out in randomly selected 120 dog owners of 3 urban cities (viz., Ahmedabad, Anand and Vadodara) of Gujarat state, India. Dog owners (i.e., respondents) were subjected to a detailed interview regarding the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in dogs. Ex-post-facto research design was selected because of the independent variables of the selected respondent population for the study. The crucial method used in collecting data was a field survey to generate null hypothesis (Ho1). Available data was subjected to statistical analysis. The three independent variables, viz., extension contact (r=0.522**), mass-media exposure (r=0.205*) and management orientation (r=0.264**) had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Other independent variables, viz., education, experience in dog keeping and housing space were observed to have negative and non-significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Extension contact, exposure to extension mass-media, management orientation and innovation proneness among dog owners of 3 urban cities of Gujarat state had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners on zoonotic aspects of canine scabies and dermatophytosis. Data provided new insights on the present status of zoonotic disease-awareness, which would be an aid to plan preventive measures.

  3. Brake mechanics, asbestos, and disease risk.

    PubMed

    Huncharek, M

    1990-09-01

    Health risks posed by inhalable asbestos fibers are known to exist in a variety of industrial and nonindustrial settings. Although early studies described an increased risk of asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma in asbestos-industry workers, subsequent research revealed the existence of a potential asbestos-related health hazard in nonasbestos industries such as the textile and railroad industries. Brake mechanics and garage workers constitute a large work force with potential exposures to levels of asbestos capable of producing disease. Unfortunately, the health risk faced by these workers has received little attention. This article briefly discusses currently available information on the asbestos health risks of workers in this setting, and highlights the need for further investigations of this occupational group.

  4. [Chronic renal disease as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Hermans, M M H; Kooman, J P; Stehouwer, C D A

    2008-07-19

    A lowering of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and/or the presence of albuminuria are signs of chronic renal disease. Both variables are for the most part independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Albuminuria is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. A decrease of the GFR is associated with non-traditional risk factors, e.g. renal anaemia, uraemic toxins due to a decrease of the renal clearance, hyperhomocysteinaemia caused by a diminished homocysteine metabolism, excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system which is related to sleep apnoea syndrome, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia associated with the formation of vasotoxic, oxidised LDL cholesterol. These non-traditional risk factors may, alone or in combination with traditional atherogenic risk factors (e.g. age, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, obesity, positive family history and diabetes mellitus), partially via endothelial dysfunction, result in harmful effects on arterial function, increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Different stages of chronic kidney disease are associated with specific risk factors, making a specific therapeutic approach essential.

  5. Spatial forecasting of disease risk and uncertainty

    De Cola, L.

    2002-01-01

    Because maps typically represent the value of a single variable over 2-dimensional space, cartographers must simplify the display of multiscale complexity, temporal dynamics, and underlying uncertainty. A choropleth disease risk map based on data for polygonal regions might depict incidence (cases per 100,000 people) within each polygon for a year but ignore the uncertainty that results from finer-scale variation, generalization, misreporting, small numbers, and future unknowns. In response to such limitations, this paper reports on the bivariate mapping of data "quantity" and "quality" of Lyme disease forecasts for states of the United States. Historical state data for 1990-2000 are used in an autoregressive model to forecast 2001-2010 disease incidence and a probability index of confidence, each of which is then kriged to provide two spatial grids representing continuous values over the nation. A single bivariate map is produced from the combination of the incidence grid (using a blue-to-red hue spectrum), and a probabilistic confidence grid (used to control the saturation of the hue at each grid cell). The resultant maps are easily interpretable, and the approach may be applied to such problems as detecting unusual disease occurences, visualizing past and future incidence, and assembling a consistent regional disease atlas showing patterns of forecasted risks in light of probabilistic confidence.

  6. Use of Bioclimatic Factors to Determine Potential Niche of Vaccinia Virus, an Emerging and Zoonotic Pathogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiner, C. A.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Emerging and understudied pathogens often lack information that most commonly used analytical tools require, such as negative controls or baseline data making public health control of emerging pathogens challenging. In lieu of opportunities to collect more data from larger outbreaks or formal epidemiological studies, new analytical strategies, merging case data with publically available datasets, can be used to understand transmission patterns and drivers of disease emergence. Zoonotic infections with Vaccinia virus (VACV) were first reported in Brazil in 1999, VACV is an emerging zoonotic Orthopoxvirus, which primarily infects dairy cattle and farmers in close contact with infected cows. Prospective studies of emerging pathogens could provide critical data that would inform public health planning and response to outbreaks. By using the location of 87-recorded outbreaks and publicly available bioclimatic data we demonstrate one such approach. Using an Ecological Niche Model (ENM), we identify the environmental conditions under which VACV outbreaks have occurred, and determine additional locations in two affected South American countries that may be susceptible to transmission. Further, we show how suitability for the virus responds to different levels of various environmental factors and highlight the most important climatic factors in determining its transmission. The final ENM predicted all areas where Brazilian outbreaks occurred, two out of five Colombian outbreaks and identified new regions within Brazil that are suitable for transmission based on bioclimatic factors. Further, the most important factors in determining transmission suitability are precipitation of the wettest quarter, annual precipitation, mean temperature of the coldest quarter and mean diurnal range. The analyses here provide a means by which to study patterns of an emerging infectious disease, and regions that are potentially at risk for it, in spite of the paucity of critical data. Policy

  7. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with migraine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest a higher prevalence of unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors amongst migraineurs, but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and newly recognized risk factors as well as other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in obese and normal weight women with migraine. Methods Fifty-nine adult female probands participated in this case–control study. The sample was divided into normal weight and obese migraineurs and age- and body mass index-matched control groups. The following cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed: serum levels of lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin; insulin resistance; blood pressure; smoking (categorized as current, past or never); Framingham 10-year risk of general cardiovascular disease score; C-reactive protein; family history of cardiovascular disease; physical activity; sleep disturbances; depression; and bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The means of continuous variables were compared using Student’s t-test for independent samples or the Mann–Whitney U-test (for 2 groups) and ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test (for 4 groups) depending on the distribution of data. Results All migraineurs were sedentary irrespective of nutritional status. Migraineurs had higher depression scores and shorter sleep duration, and obese migraineurs, in particular, had worse sleep quality scores. Insulin resistance and insulinaemia were associated with obesity, and obese migraineurs had lower HDL-c than normal weight controls and migraineurs. Also, the Framingham risk score was higher in obese migraineurs. Conclusion These findings suggest that female migraineurs experience marked inactivity, depression, and some sleep disturbance, that higher insulin resistance and insulinaemia are related to obesity, and that obesity and migraine probably exert overlapping effects on HDL-c levels and Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk. PMID:24011175

  8. Facts, myths and hypotheses on the zoonotic nature of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Raja; Bülte, Michael; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W; Köhler, Heike; Meens, Jochen; Möbius, Petra; Roeb, Elke; Weiss, Siegfried

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease [JD]), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. JD is one of the most widespread bacterial diseases of domestic animals with significant economic impact. The histopathological picture of JD resembles that of Crohn's disease (CD), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease of still unresolved aetiology. An aetiological relevance of MAP for CD has been proposed. This and the ambiguity of other published epidemiological findings raise the question whether MAP represents a zoonotic agent. In this review, we will discuss evidence that MAP has zoonotic capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinct Host Tropism Protein Signatures to Identify Possible Zoonotic Influenza A Viruses.

    PubMed

    Eng, Christine L P; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic influenza A viruses constantly pose a health threat to humans as novel strains occasionally emerge from the avian population to cause human infections. Many past epidemic as well as pandemic strains have originated from avian species. While most viruses are restricted to their primary hosts, zoonotic strains can sometimes arise from mutations or reassortment, leading them to acquire the capability to escape host species barrier and successfully infect a new host. Phylogenetic analyses and genetic markers are useful in tracing the origins of zoonotic infections, but there are still no effective means to identify high risk strains prior to an outbreak. Here we show that distinct host tropism protein signatures can be used to identify possible zoonotic strains in avian species which have the potential to cause human infections. We have discovered that influenza A viruses can now be classified into avian, human, or zoonotic strains based on their host tropism protein signatures. Analysis of all influenza A viruses with complete proteome using the host tropism prediction system, based on machine learning classifications of avian and human viral proteins has uncovered distinct signatures of zoonotic strains as mosaics of avian and human viral proteins. This is in contrast with typical avian or human strains where they show mostly avian or human viral proteins in their signatures respectively. Moreover, we have found that zoonotic strains from the same influenza outbreaks carry similar host tropism protein signatures characteristic of a common ancestry. Our results demonstrate that the distinct host tropism protein signature in zoonotic strains may prove useful in influenza surveillance to rapidly identify potential high risk strains circulating in avian species, which may grant us the foresight in anticipating an impending influenza outbreak.

  10. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  11. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  12. Polygenic risk scores in familial Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Bird, Thomas D.; Tsuang, Debby; Bennett, David A.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Faber, Kelley; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Farlow, Martin; Goate, Alison M.; Bertlesen, Sarah; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Medrano, Martin; Lantigua, Rafael; Manly, Jennifer; Ottman, Ruth; Rosenberg, Roger; Schaid, Daniel J.; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov; Sweet, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between a genetic risk score (GRS) and familial late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) and its predictive value in families multiply affected by the disease. Methods: Using data from the National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease (National Institute on Aging–Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Family Study), mixed regression models tested the association of familial LOAD with a GRS based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with LOAD. We modeled associations using unweighted and weighted scores with estimates derived from the literature. In secondary models, we adjusted subsequent models for presence of the APOE ε4 allele and further tested the interaction between APOE ε4 and the GRS. We constructed a similar GRS in a cohort of Caribbean Hispanic families multiply affected by LOAD by selecting the SNP with the strongest p value within the same regions. Results: In the NIA-LOAD families, the GRS was significantly associated with LOAD (odds ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% confidence interval 1.21–1.37). The results did not change after adjusting for APOE ε4. In Caribbean Hispanic families, the GRS also significantly predicted LOAD (OR 1.73; 1.57–1.93). Higher scores were associated with lower age at onset in both cohorts. Conclusions: High GRS increases the risk of familial LOAD and lowers the age at onset, regardless of ethnic group. PMID:28213371

  13. Polygenic risk scores in familial Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Bird, Thomas D; Tsuang, Debby; Bennett, David A; Boeve, Bradley F; Cruchaga, Carlos; Faber, Kelley; Foroud, Tatiana M; Farlow, Martin; Goate, Alison M; Bertlesen, Sarah; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Medrano, Martin; Lantigua, Rafael; Manly, Jennifer; Ottman, Ruth; Rosenberg, Roger; Schaid, Daniel J; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov; Sweet, Robert A; Mayeux, Richard

    2017-03-21

    To investigate the association between a genetic risk score (GRS) and familial late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) and its predictive value in families multiply affected by the disease. Using data from the National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease (National Institute on Aging-Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Family Study), mixed regression models tested the association of familial LOAD with a GRS based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with LOAD. We modeled associations using unweighted and weighted scores with estimates derived from the literature. In secondary models, we adjusted subsequent models for presence of the APOE ε4 allele and further tested the interaction between APOE ε4 and the GRS. We constructed a similar GRS in a cohort of Caribbean Hispanic families multiply affected by LOAD by selecting the SNP with the strongest p value within the same regions. In the NIA-LOAD families, the GRS was significantly associated with LOAD (odds ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.37). The results did not change after adjusting for APOE ε4. In Caribbean Hispanic families, the GRS also significantly predicted LOAD (OR 1.73; 1.57-1.93). Higher scores were associated with lower age at onset in both cohorts. High GRS increases the risk of familial LOAD and lowers the age at onset, regardless of ethnic group. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  16. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Kohansal, Mohammad Hasan; Mirshafiee, Siavash; Siyadatpanah, Abolghasem; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Gholami, Shirzad

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Parasitic infections, especially of the zoonotic-parasitic type, are the most important health, economic, and social problems in developing countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the available data on gastrointestinal parasites of carnivores in Iran and their ability to infect humans. Materials and Methods: Studies reporting intestinal parasites of carnivores were systematically collected from nine electronic English and Persian databases and Proceedings of Iranian parasitology and veterinary congresses published between 1997 and 2015. A total of 26 studies issued from 1997 to 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Results: The pooled proportion of intestinal parasites of carnivores was estimated as 80.4% (95% confidence interval=70.2-88.8%). The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, and jackals were 57.89%, 90.62%, 89.17%, and 97.32%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum (20.45%), Toxocara spp. (18.81%), Taenia hydatigena (15.28%), Mesocestoides lineatus (11.83%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), and Toxascaris leonina (8.69%) were the most frequently observed parasites. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores particularly Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections such as cystic hydatid, alveolar cysts, and visceral or ocular larva migrants in Iranian people. Therefore, it is essential for public health centers to develop more effective control strategies to decrease infections rates in carnivores’ populations. PMID:29479158

  17. Hepatitis E Virus: Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yugo, Danielle M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1–4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEVs only affect humans, while Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic and autochthonous infections in both humans and several other animal species worldwide. HEV has an ever-expanding host range and has been identified in numerous animal species. Swine serve as a reservoir species for HEV transmission to humans; however, it is likely that other animal species may also act as reservoirs. HEV poses an important public health concern with cases of the disease definitively linked to handling of infected pigs, consumption of raw and undercooked animal meats, and animal manure contamination of drinking or irrigation water. Infectious HEV has been identified in numerous sources of concern including animal feces, sewage water, inadequately-treated water, contaminated shellfish and produce, as well as animal meats. Many aspects of HEV pathogenesis, replication, and immunological responses remain unknown, as HEV is an extremely understudied but important human pathogen. This article reviews the current understanding of HEV transmission routes with emphasis on food and environmental sources and the prevalence of HEV in animal species with zoonotic potential in humans. PMID:24071919

  18. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  19. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can't Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Heart disease risk factors you can't control Some factors you can't control, like pregnancy ... 2018. Heart disease risk factors you can't control Age and menopause As you get older, your ...

  20. Detecting At-Risk Alzheimer's Disease Cases.

    PubMed

    Fladby, Tormod; Pålhaugen, Lene; Selnes, Per; Waterloo, Knut; Bråthen, Geir; Hessen, Erik; Almdahl, Ina Selseth; Arntzen, Kjell-Arne; Auning, Eirik; Eliassen, Carl Fredrik; Espenes, Ragna; Grambaite, Ramune; Grøntvedt, Gøril Rolfseng; Johansen, Krisztina Kunszt; Johnsen, Stein Harald; Kalheim, Lisa Flem; Kirsebom, Bjørn-Eivind; Müller, Kai Ivar; Nakling, Arne Exner; Rongve, Arvid; Sando, Sigrid Botne; Siafarikas, Nikias; Stav, Ane Løvli; Tecelao, Sandra; Timon, Santiago; Bekkelund, Svein Ivar; Aarsland, Dag

    2017-01-01

    While APOEɛ4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid dysmetabolism is an initial or early event predicting clinical disease and is an important focus for secondary intervention trials. To improve identification of cases with increased AD risk, we evaluated recruitment procedures using pathological CSF concentrations of Aβ42 (pAβ) and APOEɛ4 as risk markers in a multi-center study in Norway. In total, 490 subjects aged 40-80 y were included after response to advertisements and media coverage or memory clinics referrals. Controls (n = 164) were classified as normal controls without first-degree relatives with dementia (NC), normal controls with first-degree relatives with dementia (NCFD), or controls scoring below norms on cognitive screening. Patients (n = 301) were classified as subjective cognitive decline or mild cognitive impairment. Subjects underwent a clinical and cognitive examination and MRI according to standardized protocols. Core biomarkers in CSF from 411 and APOE genotype from 445 subjects were obtained. Cases (both self-referrals (n = 180) and memory clinics referrals (n = 87)) had increased fractions of pAβ and APOEɛ4 frequency compared to NC. Also, NCFD had higher APOEɛ4 frequencies without increased fraction of pAβ compared to NC, and cases recruited from memory clinics had higher fractions of pAβ and APOEɛ4 frequency than self-referred. This study shows that memory clinic referrals are pAβ enriched, whereas self-referred and NCFD cases more frequently are pAβ negative but at risk (APOEɛ4 positive), suitable for primary intervention.

  1. Retrospective and prospective perspectives on zoonotic brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Brucella are pathogenic bacteria exceedingly well adapted to their hosts. The bacterium is transmitted by direct contact within the same host species or accidentally to secondary hosts, such as humans. Human brucellosis is strongly linked to the management of domesticated animals and ingestion of their products. Since the domestication of ungulates and dogs in the Fertile Crescent and Asia in 12000 and 33000 ya, respectively, a steady supply of well adapted emergent Brucella pathogens causing zoonotic disease has been provided. Likewise, anthropogenic modification of wild life may have also impacted host susceptibility and Brucella selection. Domestication and human influence on wild life animals are not neutral phenomena. Consequently, Brucella organisms have followed their hosts’ fate and have been selected under conditions that favor high transmission rate. The “arm race” between Brucella and their preferred hosts has been driven by genetic adaptation of the bacterium confronted with the evolving immune defenses of the host. Management conditions, such as clustering, selection, culling, and vaccination of Brucella preferred hosts have profound influences in the outcome of brucellosis and in the selection of Brucella organisms. Countries that have controlled brucellosis systematically used reliable smooth live vaccines, consistent immunization protocols, adequate diagnostic tests, broad vaccination coverage and sustained removal of the infected animals. To ignore and misuse tools and strategies already available for the control of brucellosis may promote the emergence of new Brucella variants. The unrestricted use of low-efficacy vaccines may promote a “false sense of security” and works towards selection of Brucella with higher virulence and transmission potential. PMID:24860561

  2. Chronic Inflammatory Disease, Lifestyle and Risk of Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-06

    Autoimmune Diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Crohn Disease (CD); Ulcerative Colitis (UC); Arthritis, Rheumatoid (RA); Spondylarthropathies; Arthritis, Psoriatic (PsA); Psoriasis (PsO); Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

  3. Surveillance and diagnosis of zoonotic foodborne parasites.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza; Purmonen, Sami; Sukura, Antti; Parkkila, Seppo

    2018-01-01

    Foodborne parasites are a source of human parasitic infection. Zoonotic infections of humans arise from a variety of domestic and wild animals, including sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses, pigs, boars, bears, felines, canids, amphibians, reptiles, poultry, and aquatic animals such as fishes and shrimp. Therefore, the implementation of efficient, accessible, and controllable inspection policies for livestock, fisheries, slaughterhouses, and meat processing and packaging companies is highly recommended. In addition, more attention should be paid to the education of auditors from the quality control (QC) and assurance sectors, livestock breeders, the fishery sector, and meat inspection veterinarians in developing countries with high incidence of zoonotic parasitic infections. Furthermore, both the diagnosis of zoonotic parasitic infections by inexpensive, accessible, and reliable identification methods and the organization of effective control systems with sufficient supervision of product quality are other areas to which more attention should be paid. In this review, we present some examples of successful inspection policies and recent updates on present conventional, serologic, and molecular diagnostic methods for zoonotic foodborne parasites from both human infection and animal-derived foods.

  4. Preclinical Alzheimer disease and risk of falls.

    PubMed

    Stark, Susan L; Roe, Catherine M; Grant, Elizabeth A; Hollingsworth, Holly; Benzinger, Tammie L; Fagan, Anne M; Buckles, Virginia D; Morris, John C

    2013-07-30

    We determined the rate of falls among cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults, some of whom had presumptive preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) as detected by in vivo imaging of fibrillar amyloid plaques using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) and PET and/or by assays of CSF to identify Aβ₄₂, tau, and phosphorylated tau. We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study to examine the cumulative incidence of falls. Participants were evaluated clinically and underwent PiB PET imaging and lumbar puncture. Falls were reported monthly using an individualized calendar journal returned by mail. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to test whether time to first fall was associated with each biomarker and the ratio of CSF tau/Aβ₄₂ and CSF phosphorylated tau/Aβ₄₂, after adjustment for common fall risk factors. The sample (n = 125) was predominately female (62.4%) and white (96%) with a mean age of 74.4 years. When controlled for ability to perform activities of daily living, higher levels of PiB retention (hazard ratio = 2.95 [95% confidence interval 1.01-6.45], p = 0.05) and of CSF biomarker ratios (p < 0.001) were associated with a faster time to first fall. Presumptive preclinical AD is a risk factor for falls in older adults. This study suggests that subtle noncognitive changes that predispose older adults to falls are associated with AD and may precede detectable cognitive changes.

  5. Entomologic index for human risk of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Mather, T N; Nicholson, M C; Donnelly, E F; Matyas, B T

    1996-12-01

    An entomologic index based on density estimates of Lyme disease spirochete-infected nymphal deer ticks (lxodes scapularis) was developed to assess human risk of Lyme disease. The authors used a standardized protocol to determine tick density and infection in numerous forested sites in six Rhode Island towns. An entomologic risk index calculated for each town was compared with the number of human Lyme disease cases reported to the Rhode Island State Health Department for the same year. A strong positive relation between entomologic risk index and the Lyme disease case rate for each town suggested that the entomologic index was predictive of Lyme disease risk.

  6. Dietary patterns: biomarkers and chronic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K

    2010-04-01

    With increasing appreciation of the complexity of diets consumed by free-living individuals, there is interest in the assessment of the overall diet or dietary patterns in which multiple related dietary characteristics are considered as a single exposure. The 2 most frequently used methods to derive dietary patterns use (i) scores or indexes based on prevailing hypotheses about the role of dietary factors in disease prevention; and (ii) factors and clusters from exploration of available dietary data. A third method, a hybrid of the hypothesis-driven and data-driven methods, attempts to predict food combinations related to nutrients or biomarkers with hypothesized associations with particular health outcomes. Dietary patterns derived from the first 2 approaches have been examined in relation to nutritional and disease biomarkers and various health outcomes, and generally show the desirable dietary pattern to be consistent with prevalent beliefs about what constitutes a healthful diet. Results from observational studies suggest that the healthful dietary patterns were associated with significant but modest risk reduction (15%-30%) for all-cause mortality and coronary heart disease. Findings for various cancers have been inconsistent. The available randomized controlled intervention trials with a long-term follow-up to examine dietary patterns in relation to health outcome have generally produced null findings. Novel findings with the potential to change existing beliefs about diet and health relationships are yet to emerge from the dietary patterns research. The field requires innovation in methods to derive dietary patterns, validation of prevalent methods, and assessment of the effect of dietary measurement error on dietary patterns.

  7. Occupational risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Leso, V; Ricciardi, W; Iavicoli, I

    2015-08-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the aetiology of IBD is not completely understood, an interaction between genetic and environmental factors has been proposed. In this context, however, environmental epidemiology lacks a comprehensive evaluation of the possible role of occupational exposures in IBD development and progression. Therefore, aim of our review was to evaluate how certain occupational risk factors may affect IBD pathogenesis, clinical history and severity of disease manifestations. A critical revision of available literature concerning exposure to groups of potential workplace hazardous agents and IBD, as it appears in Medline and Web of knowledge, was performed. The role of workplace exposures to chemical and biological agents, ionizing or non-ionizing radiations, shift-works, indoor, and sedentary works as well as job strain on IBD has been critically revised. However, the limited number of studies addressing these issues prevented us from extrapolating definite conclusions. Our review pointed out some critical aspects concerning the relationship between occupational factors and IBD, in terms of causative pathways, hazardous exposure, susceptibility and consequences of IBD functional limitations on career choice and fitness for work that need future investigations. Overall, this seems a challenging public health issue, considering the strong IBD impact on patients' quality of life, work productivity and costs to society. Moreover, this review may encourage concerted actions of health care specialists, occupational physicians, employers and IBD workers to plan preventive and protective measures for "healthier patterns of work" for IBD and to develop innovative perspectives for an integrated management of "IBD at work".

  8. Heart Disease Risk Perception in College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John S.; Grant, Melinda; Hill, Kathy L.; Brizzolara, Jeff; Belmont, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The authors sought to assess the perception of risks for coronary heart disease (CHD) in college men and women. They surveyed 470 undergraduates from 2 major 4-year institutions who completed a questionnaire that measured perceived risks for heart disease. Sixty-eight percent of the respondents rated their risks as lower or much lower than those…

  9. Zoonotic parapoxviruses detected in symptomatic cattle in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Edith; Khan, Salah Uddin; Luby, Stephen; Zhao, Hui; Braden, Zachary; Gao, JinXin; Karem, Kevin; Damon, Inger; Reynolds, Mary; Li, Yu

    2014-11-19

    Application of molecular diagnostic methods to the determination of etiology in suspected poxvirus-associated infections of bovines is important both for the diagnosis of the individual case and to form a more complete understanding of patterns of strain occurrence and spread. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize bovine-associated zoonotic poxviruses in Bangladesh which are relevant to animal and human health. Investigators from the International Center Diarrhoeal Disease Research (icddr,b), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Bangladesh Department of Livestock Services traveled to three districts in Bangladesh-Siranjganj, Rangpur and Bhola-to collect diagnostic specimens from dairy cattle and buffalo that had symptoms consistent with poxvirus-associated infections. Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) DNA was obtained from lesion material (teat) and an oral swab collected from an adult cow and calf (respectively) from a dairy production farm in Siranjganj. Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) DNA signatures were obtained from a scab and oral swab collected from a second dairy cow and her calf from Rangpur. We report the first detection of zoonotic poxviruses from Bangladesh and show phylogenetic comparisons between the Bangladesh viruses and reference strains based on analyses of the B2L and J6R loci (vaccinia orthologs). Understanding the range and diversity of different species and strains of parapoxvirus will help to spotlight unusual patterns of occurrence that could signal events of significance to the agricultural and public health sectors.

  10. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  11. (Highly pathogenic) avian influenza as a zoonotic agent.

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Donata; Globig, Anja; Beer, Martin

    2010-01-27

    Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence by mutation after transmission and adaptation to susceptible gallinaceous poultry. Those so-called highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) then cause mass die-offs in susceptible birds and lead to tremendous economical losses when poultry is affected. Besides a number of avian influenza virus subtypes that have sporadically infected mammals, the HPAIV H5N1 Asia shows strong zoonotic characteristics and it was transmitted from birds to different mammalian species including humans. Theoretically, pandemic viruses might derive directly from avian influenza viruses or arise after genetic reassortment between viruses of avian and mammalian origin. So far, HPAIV H5N1 already meets two conditions for a pandemic virus: as a new subtype it has been hitherto unseen in the human population and it has infected at least 438 people, and caused severe illness and high lethality in 262 humans to date (August 2009). The acquisition of efficient human-to-human transmission would complete the emergence of a new pandemic virus. Therefore, fighting H5N1 at its source is the prerequisite to reduce pandemic risks posed by this virus. Other influenza viruses regarded as pandemic candidates derive from subtypes H2, H7, and H9 all of which have infected humans in the past. Here, we will give a comprehensive overview on avian influenza viruses in concern to their zoonotic potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in relation to knowledge level of dog owners

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Heli S.; Nayak, J. B.; Patel, B. M.; Bhadesiya, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to understand the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis with special reference to the knowledge level of dog owners in urban areas of Gujarat. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in randomly selected 120 dog owners of 3 urban cities (viz., Ahmedabad, Anand and Vadodara) of Gujarat state, India. Dog owners (i.e., respondents) were subjected to a detailed interview regarding the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in dogs. Ex-post-facto research design was selected because of the independent variables of the selected respondent population for the study. The crucial method used in collecting data was a field survey to generate null hypothesis (Ho1). Available data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The three independent variables, viz., extension contact (r=0.522**), mass-media exposure (r=0.205*) and management orientation (r=0.264**) had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Other independent variables, viz., education, experience in dog keeping and housing space were observed to have negative and non-significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Conclusion: Extension contact, exposure to extension mass-media, management orientation and innovation proneness among dog owners of 3 urban cities of Gujarat state had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners on zoonotic aspects of canine scabies and dermatophytosis. Data provided new insights on the present status of zoonotic disease-awareness, which would be an aid to plan preventive measures. PMID:27065644

  13. Molecular Barriers to Zoonotic Transmission of Prions

    PubMed Central

    Barria, Marcelo A.; Balachandran, Aru; Morita, Masanori; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Barron, Rona; Manson, Jean; Knight, Richard; Ironside, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The risks posed to human health by individual animal prion diseases cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to address empirically. The fundamental event in prion disease pathogenesis is thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein to its pathologic isoform. We used a rapid molecular conversion assay (protein misfolding cyclic amplification) to test whether brain homogenates from specimens of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical BSE (H-type BSE and L-type BSE), classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, and chronic wasting disease can convert normal human prion protein to the abnormal disease-associated form. None of the tested prion isolates from diseased animals were as efficient as classical BSE in converting human prion protein. However, in the case of chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein. PMID:24377702

  14. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1±4.60 (SD) to 24.8±4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8±23.02 (SD) to 123.8±21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1,210 persons) from 79.8±12.7 (SD) to 77.5±11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86±0.95 (SD) to 4.32±0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31±1.59 (SD) to 3.88±1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  15. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    of benign histology in predicting risk of future breast cancer, examining in detail the role of proliferative disease, atypia , papillomas, radial...who had proliferative disease with atypia , especially those of younger age. • We identified a marked increased risk of breast cancer in women with...imparts an increased risk of developing a subsequent carcinoma similar to other forms of proliferative breast disease without atypia . Atypical

  17. Preclinical Alzheimer disease and risk of falls

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Catherine M.; Grant, Elizabeth A.; Hollingsworth, Holly; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Fagan, Anne M.; Buckles, Virginia D.; Morris, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We determined the rate of falls among cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults, some of whom had presumptive preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) as detected by in vivo imaging of fibrillar amyloid plaques using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) and PET and/or by assays of CSF to identify Aβ42, tau, and phosphorylated tau. Methods: We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study to examine the cumulative incidence of falls. Participants were evaluated clinically and underwent PiB PET imaging and lumbar puncture. Falls were reported monthly using an individualized calendar journal returned by mail. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to test whether time to first fall was associated with each biomarker and the ratio of CSF tau/Aβ42 and CSF phosphorylated tau/Aβ42, after adjustment for common fall risk factors. Results: The sample (n = 125) was predominately female (62.4%) and white (96%) with a mean age of 74.4 years. When controlled for ability to perform activities of daily living, higher levels of PiB retention (hazard ratio = 2.95 [95% confidence interval 1.01–6.45], p = 0.05) and of CSF biomarker ratios (p < 0.001) were associated with a faster time to first fall. Conclusions: Presumptive preclinical AD is a risk factor for falls in older adults. This study suggests that subtle noncognitive changes that predispose older adults to falls are associated with AD and may precede detectable cognitive changes. PMID:23803314

  18. Risk of Disease from Mosquito and Tick Bites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Insect repellents help reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, which can transmit diseases including West Nile Virus, malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis.

  19. Coronary heart disease risk stratification: pitfalls and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Negi, Smita; Nambi, Vijay

    Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, or coronary heart disease (CHD), is the most common cause of mortality in U.S. adults. The pathobiology of atherosclerosis and its complications is a continuum. At one end of the spectrum are young individuals without atherosclerotic disease who have not yet been exposed to lifestyle or other risk factors, and at the other end are patients with manifest atherosclerosis - myocardial infarction, stroke, and disabling peripheral arterial disease - where risk of recurrent disease and death is driven by the same factors initially responsible for the emergence of disease. However, it is clear that while risk factors are important in the development of CHD, not everyone with risk factors develops the disease and not everyone with CHD has risk factors. Furthermore, even similar degrees of exposure to a risk factor leads to disease in some individuals and not in others. Risk prediction, which is crucial in predicting and hence preventing disease, therefore becomes very challenging. In this article we review the currently available risk stratification tools for predicting CHD risk and discuss potential ways to improve risk prediction.

  20. Paternal epigenetic programming: evolving metabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Hur, Suzy S J; Cropley, Jennifer E; Suter, Catherine M

    2017-04-01

    Parental health or exposures can affect the lifetime health outcomes of offspring, independently of inherited genotypes. Such 'epigenetic' effects occur over a broad range of environmental stressors, including defects in parental metabolism. Although maternal metabolic effects are well documented, it has only recently been established that that there is also an independent paternal contribution to long-term metabolic health. Both paternal undernutrition and overnutrition can induce metabolic phenotypes in immediate offspring, and in some cases, the induced phenotype can affect multiple generations, implying inheritance of an acquired trait. The male lineage transmission of metabolic disease risk in these cases implicates a heritable factor carried by sperm. Sperm-based transmission provides a tractable system to interrogate heritable epigenetic factors influencing metabolism, and as detailed here, animal models of paternal programming have already provided some significant insights. Here, we review the evidence for paternal programming of metabolism in humans and animal models, and the available evidence on potential underlying mechanisms. Programming by paternal metabolism can be observed in multiple species across animal phyla, suggesting that this phenomenon may have a unique evolutionary significance. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. PMID:27382078

  2. Effect of lysozyme or antibiotics on fecal zoonotic pathogens in nursery pigs

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lysozyme and antibiotics on zoonotic pathogen shedding in feces from nursery pigs housed without and with an indirect disease challenge. Two replicates of 600 pigs each were weaned and randomly assigned to one of 24 pens in either a nursery...

  3. Effect of lysozyme or antibiotics on fecal zoonotic pathogens in nursery pigs

    Lysozyme is a 1,4-ß-N-acetylmuramidase that has antimicrobial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lysozyme and antibiotics on zoonotic pathogen shedding in feces in nursery pigs housed without and with an indirect disease challenge. Two replicates of 600 pigs eac...

  4. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-10-05

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. On the difficulty to delimit disease risk hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charras-Garrido, M.; Azizi, L.; Forbes, F.; Doyle, S.; Peyrard, N.; Abrial, D.

    2013-06-01

    Representing the health state of a region is a helpful tool to highlight spatial heterogeneity and localize high risk areas. For ease of interpretation and to determine where to apply control procedures, we need to clearly identify and delineate homogeneous regions in terms of disease risk, and in particular disease risk hot spots. However, even if practical purposes require the delineation of different risk classes, such a classification does not correspond to a reality and is thus difficult to estimate. Working with grouped data, a first natural choice is to apply disease mapping models. We apply a usual disease mapping model, producing continuous estimations of the risks that requires a post-processing classification step to obtain clearly delimited risk zones. We also apply a risk partition model that build a classification of the risk levels in a one step procedure. Working with point data, we will focus on the scan statistic clustering method. We illustrate our article with a real example concerning the bovin spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) an animal disease whose zones at risk are well known by the epidemiologists. We show that in this difficult case of a rare disease and a very heterogeneous population, the different methods provide risk zones that are globally coherent. But, related to the dichotomy between the need and the reality, the exact delimitation of the risk zones, as well as the corresponding estimated risks are quite different.

  6. Serosurvey for Zoonotic Viral and Bacterial Pathogens Among Slaughtered Livestock in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Katherine C.; Wasfy, Momtaz; Samaha, Hamed; Abdel-Rahman, Bassem; Safwat, Sameh; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa; Mohareb, Emad; Dueger, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic diseases are an important cause of human morbidity and mortality. Animal populations at locations with high risk of transmission of zoonotic pathogens offer an opportunity to study viral and bacterial pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Methods Blood samples were collected from domestic and imported livestock slaughtered at the Muneeb abattoir in central Egypt in 2009. Samples were collected from cattle (n = 161), buffalo (n = 153), sheep (n = 174), and camels (n = 10). Samples were tested for antibodies against Leptospira spp. by a microscopy agglutination test, Coxiella burnetii by enzyme immunoassay, Brucella spp. by standard tube agglutination, and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV), Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), and sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Antibodies against Leptospira spp. were identified in 64 (40%) cattle, 45 (29%) buffalo, 71 (41%) sheep, and five (50%) camels; antibodies against C. burnetii in six (4%) buffalo, 14 (8%) sheep, and seven (70%) camels; and antibodies against Brucella spp. in 12 (8%) cattle, one (1%) buffalo, seven (4%) sheep, and one (10%) camel. Antibodies against RVFV were detected in two (1%) cattle and five (3%) buffalo, and antibodies against CCHFV in one (1%) cow. No antibodies against SFSV or SFNV were detected in any species. Discussion Results indicate that livestock have been exposed to a number of pathogens, although care must be taken with interpretation. It is not possible to determine whether antibodies against Leptospira spp. and RVFV in cattle and buffalo are due to prior vaccination or natural exposure. Similarly, antibodies identified in animals less than 6 months of age may be maternal antibodies transferred through colostrum rather than evidence of prior exposure. Results provide baseline evidence to indicate that surveillance within animal populations may be a useful tool to

  7. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    AlJehani, Yousef A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors. PMID:24963294

  8. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; Annajar, Badereddin B; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A Townsend

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country.

  9. Coarse-resolution Ecology of Etiological Agent, Vector, and Reservoirs of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; Annajar, Badereddin B.; Dokhan, Mostafa Ramadhan; Boussaa, Samia; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis ranks among the tropical diseases least known and most neglected in Libya. World Health Organization reports recognized associations of Phlebotomus papatasi, Psammomys obesus, and Meriones spp., with transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL; caused by Leishmania major) across Libya. Here, we map risk of ZCL infection based on occurrence records of L. major, P. papatasi, and four potential animal reservoirs (Meriones libycus, Meriones shawi, Psammomys obesus, and Gerbillus gerbillus). Ecological niche models identified limited risk areas for ZCL across the northern coast of the country; most species associated with ZCL transmission were confined to this same region, but some had ranges extending to central Libya. All ENM predictions were significant based on partial ROC tests. As a further evaluation of L. major ENM predictions, we compared predictions with 98 additional independent records provided by the Libyan National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC); all of these records fell inside the belt predicted as suitable for ZCL. We tested ecological niche similarity among vector, parasite, and reservoir species and could not reject any null hypotheses of niche similarity. Finally, we tested among possible combinations of vector and reservoir that could predict all recent human ZCL cases reported by NCDC; only three combinations could anticipate the distribution of human cases across the country. PMID:26863317

  10. European bats as carriers of viruses with zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Claudia; Kurth, Andreas

    2014-08-13

    Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses). While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.

  11. Interacting Symbionts and Immunity in the Amphibian Skin Mucosome Predict Disease Risk and Probiotic Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Woodhams, Douglas C.; Brandt, Hannelore; Baumgartner, Simone; Kielgast, Jos; Küpfer, Eliane; Tobler, Ursina; Davis, Leyla R.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Bel, Christian; Hodel, Sandro; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis is strongly dependent on microbial context, but development of probiotic therapies has neglected the impact of ecological interactions. Dynamics among microbial communities, host immune responses, and environmental conditions may alter the effect of probiotics in human and veterinary medicine, agriculture and aquaculture, and the proposed treatment of emerging wildlife and zoonotic diseases such as those occurring on amphibians or vectored by mosquitoes. Here we use a holistic measure of amphibian mucosal defenses to test the effects of probiotic treatments and to assess disease risk under different ecological contexts. We developed a non-invasive assay for antifungal function of the skin mucosal ecosystem (mucosome function) integrating host immune factors and the microbial community as an alternative to pathogen exposure experiments. From approximately 8500 amphibians sampled across Europe, we compared field infection prevalence with mucosome function against the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Four species were tested with laboratory exposure experiments, and a highly susceptible species, Alytes obstetricans, was treated with a variety of temperature and microbial conditions to test the effects of probiotic therapies and environmental conditions on mucosome function. We found that antifungal function of the amphibian skin mucosome predicts the prevalence of infection with the fungal pathogen in natural populations, and is linked to survival in laboratory exposure experiments. When altered by probiotic therapy, the mucosome increased antifungal capacity, while previous exposure to the pathogen was suppressive. In culture, antifungal properties of probiotics depended strongly on immunological and environmental context including temperature, competition, and pathogen presence. Functional changes in microbiota with shifts in temperature provide an alternative mechanistic explanation for patterns of disease susceptibility related

  12. Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Infections Among Urban Homeless and Marginalized People in the United States and Europe, 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Leibler, Jessica H; Zakhour, Christine M; Gadhoke, Preety; Gaeta, Jessie M

    2016-07-01

    In high-income countries, homeless individuals in urban areas often live in crowded conditions with limited sanitation and personal hygiene. The environment of homelessness in high-income countries may result in intensified exposure to ectoparasites and urban wildlife, which can transmit infections. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the published literature to assess vector-borne and zoonotic disease risk to these populations. The primary objectives of this study were to identify diversity, prevalence, and risk factors for vector-borne and zoonotic infections among people experiencing homelessness and extreme poverty in urban areas of high-income countries. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of published epidemiologic studies of zoonotic and vector-borne infections among urban homeless and very poor people in the United States and Europe from 1990 to 2014. Thirty-one observational studies and 14 case studies were identified (n = 45). Seroprevalence to the human louse-borne pathogen Bartonella quintana (seroprevalence range: 0-37.5%) was identified most frequently, with clinical disease specifically observed among HIV-positive individuals. Seropositivity to Bartonella henselae (range: 0-10.3%) and Rickettsia akari (range: 0-16.2%) was noted in multiple studies. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella elizabethae, West Nile virus, Borellia recurrentis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Wohlfartiimonas chitiniclastica, Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), and Leptospira species was also identified in published studies, with SEOV associated with chronic renal disease later in life. HIV infection, injection drug use, and heavy drinking were noted across multiple studies as risk factors for infection with vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens. B. quintana was the most frequently reported vector-borne infection identified in our article. Delousing efforts and active surveillance among HIV

  13. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination For Clinicians Streptococcus pneumoniae Transmission Clinical Features Risk Factors Diagnosis & Management Prevention For Laboratorians Drug Resistance Surveillance & Reporting Global ...

  14. Apolipoprotein E: Risk factor for Alzheimer disease

    SciT

    Tsai, M.S.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Tangalos, E.G.

    1994-04-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (E2, E3, and E4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, the authors examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-E4 allele. They show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-E4/E3 genotype being the most common in the ADmore » group and the APOE-E3/E3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for E4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two E4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-E4, was 3.6 (05% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-E4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). The data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-E4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. 30 refs., 5 tabs.« less

  15. Resilience of diversity-disease risk interactions following wildfire disturbance

    Devon A. Gaydos; Krishna Pacifici; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David. M. Rizzo

    2017-01-01

    The potential for biodiversity to mitigate risk of infectious diseases in ecological communities – known as the diversity-disease risk hypothesis – is fundamental to understanding links between landscape change and environmental health of forests affected by sudden oak death (SOD). Previous research of the Phytophthora ramorum pathosystem...

  16. Is oral health a risk for malignant disease?

    PubMed

    Seymour, Robin A

    2010-06-01

    Poor oral health has been associated with a variety of systemic diseases. More recent evidence suggests that the extent and severity of periodontal disease and tooth loss may be associated with an increased risk of malignant disease. An association between poor oral health, smoking, increased alcohol consumption as a risk for oral cancer is well established. Associations between oral health and tooth loss with gastric, lung and pancreatic cancers are explored. Some of the associations need further evaluation before patients are warned about their periodontal health increasing the risk of malignant changes elsewhere in the body. The smoking factor may have a commonality linking oral health with an increased risk for malignant disease. This paper reviews the association between oral health (especially the extent and severity of periodontal disease and tooth loss) as a risk for certain malignancies.

  17. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Iran: a GIS-based spatio-temporal multi-criteria decision-making approach.

    PubMed

    Mollalo, A; Khodabandehloo, E

    2016-07-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) constitutes a serious public health problem in many parts of the world including Iran. This study was carried out to assess the risk of the disease in an endemic province by developing spatial environmentally based models in yearly intervals. To fill the gap of underestimated true burden of ZCL and short study period, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy AHP decision-making methods were used to determine the ZCL risk zones in a Geographic Information System platform. Generated risk maps showed that high-risk areas were predominantly located at the northern and northeastern parts in each of the three study years. Comparison of the generated risk maps with geocoded ZCL cases at the village level demonstrated that in both methods more than 90%, 70% and 80% of the cases occurred in high and very high risk areas for the years 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Moreover, comparison of the risk categories with spatially averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and a digital elevation model of the study region indicated persistent strong negative relationships between these environmental variables and ZCL risk degrees. These findings identified more susceptible areas of ZCL and will help the monitoring of this zoonosis to be more targeted.

  18. Quantifying climate change impacts on runoff of zoonotic pathogens from land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterk, Ankie; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Stergiadi, Maria; de Nijs, Ton; Schijven, Jack

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown a correlation between rainfall and waterborne disease outbreaks. One of the mechanisms whereby rainfall may cause outbreaks is through an increase in runoff of animal faeces from fields to surface waters. Faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by water recreation or drinking-water consumption. Climate changes affect runoff because of increasing winter precipitation and more extreme precipitation events, as well as changes in evaporation. Furthermore, drier summers are leading to longer periods of high soil moisture deficits, increasing the hydrophobicity of soil and consequently changing infiltration capacities. A conceptual model is designed to describe the impacts of climate changes on the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, which are both directly and indirectly affecting pathogen loads in the environment and subsequent public health risks. One of the major outcomes was the lack of quantitative data and limited qualitative analyses of impacts of climate changes on pathogen runoff. Quantifying the processes by which micro-organisms are transported from fields to waters is important to be able to estimate such impacts to enable targeted implementation of effective intervention measures. A quantitative model using Mathematica software will be developed to estimate concentrations of pathogens originating from overland flow during runoff events. Different input sources will be included by applying different land-use scenarios, including point source faecal pollution from dairy cows and geese and diffuse source pollution by fertilization. Zoonotic pathogens, i.e. Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter, were selected based on transport properties, faecal loads and disease burden. Transport and survival rates of these pathogens are determined including effects of changes in precipitation but also temperature induced

  19. Divorce and risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Davidsen, Rie B; Hviid, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Although, divorce is considered to have a negative impact on morbidity, very little is known concerning exposure to divorce and risk of infectious diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between divorce and subsequent hospital contacts with infectious diseases. We performed a nation-wide cohort study, including all Danish men and women (n≈5.6 million) alive on the 1 January 1982 or later, and followed them for infectious disease diagnosed in hospital settings from 1982 to 2010. The association between divorce and risk of infectious diseases was evaluated through rate ratios (RRs) comparing incidence rates of infectious diseases between divorced and married pesons. Compared with married persons, divorced persons were overall at a 1.48 fold (RR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.47-1.50)) increased risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases (RR adjusted for sex, age, period, income and education). The risk of infectious diseases was slightly more pronounced for divorced women (RR=1.54 (1.52-1.56)) than divorced men ((RR=1.42 (1.41-1.44)). The increased risk remained almost unchanged even more than 15 years after the divorce. Young age at divorce, short duration of marriage and number of divorces further increased the risk of infectious diseases, whereas number of children at time of divorce had no impact on risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases following the divorce. Divorce appears to have a moderate but long lasting impact on the risk of infectious diseases the underlying mechanism is unknown but shared risk factors predicting divorce and infectious diseases could contribute to our findings. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. [Evidence based risk assessment of coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Filzmaier, K

    2010-06-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) poses a special challenge for risk assessments. Various kinds of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, concomitant diseases, risk factors and symptoms need to be connected logically in order to assess the risk of each individual applicant. "Reinsurance manuals" are available to risk assessors in life insurance for this purpose. Using these manuals, the risk assessor can calculate the risk loadings for applicants with specific pre-existing conditions, e.g., CHD. Various tasks thus fall to the reinsurer, which must be able to give grounds for the increased risk loadings, provide the manuals with a process-oriented structure and simultaneously support the primary insurer's business objectives via an intelligent risk assessment. Taking CHD as an example, the following article explains how these tasks can be solved with the aid of medical and mathematical approaches, and how the insurability of applicants with CHD can be extended via the re-evaluation of risks.

  1. Genetic variation associated with cardiovascular risk in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Perrotti, Pedro P.; Aterido, Adrià; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Cañete, Juan D.; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Tornero, Jesús; Gisbert, Javier P.; Domènech, Eugeni; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Gomollón, Fernando; García-Planella, Esther; Fernández, Emilia; Sanmartí, Raimon; Gratacós, Jordi; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luís; Palau, Núria; Tortosa, Raül; Corbeto, Mireia L.; Lasanta, María L.; Marsal, Sara; Julià, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular events compared to the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in autoimmunity. We analyzed genome-wide genotyping data from 6,485 patients from six autoimmune diseases that are associated with a high socio-economic impact. First, for each disease, we tested the association of established CVD risk loci. Second, we analyzed the association of autoimmune disease susceptibility loci with CVD. Finally, to identify genetic patterns associated with CVD risk, we applied the cross-phenotype meta-analysis approach (CPMA) on the genome-wide data. A total of 17 established CVD risk loci were significantly associated with CVD in the autoimmune patient cohorts. From these, four loci were found to have significantly different genetic effects across autoimmune diseases. Six autoimmune susceptibility loci were also found to be associated with CVD risk. Genome-wide CPMA analysis identified 10 genetic clusters strongly associated with CVD risk across all autoimmune diseases. Two of these clusters are highly enriched in pathways previously associated with autoimmune disease etiology (TNFα and IFNγ cytokine pathways). The results of this study support the presence of specific genetic variation associated with the increase of CVD risk observed in autoimmunity. PMID:28982122

  2. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  3. Prediction and Informative Risk Factor Selection of Bone Diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Ramanathan, Murali; Zhang, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    With the booming of healthcare industry and the overwhelming amount of electronic health records (EHRs) shared by healthcare institutions and practitioners, we take advantage of EHR data to develop an effective disease risk management model that not only models the progression of the disease, but also predicts the risk of the disease for early disease control or prevention. Existing models for answering these questions usually fall into two categories: the expert knowledge based model or the handcrafted feature set based model. To fully utilize the whole EHR data, we will build a framework to construct an integrated representation of features from all available risk factors in the EHR data and use these integrated features to effectively predict osteoporosis and bone fractures. We will also develop a framework for informative risk factor selection of bone diseases. A pair of models for two contrast cohorts (e.g., diseased patients versus non-diseased patients) will be established to discriminate their characteristics and find the most informative risk factors. Several empirical results on a real bone disease data set show that the proposed framework can successfully predict bone diseases and select informative risk factors that are beneficial and useful to guide clinical decisions.

  4. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, S. Monira; Oldenburg, Brian; Zoungas, Sophia; Tonkin, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk. PMID:24163770

  5. Awareness and practices regarding zoonotic influenza prevention in Romanian swine workers.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Huang, Eileen; Paccha, Blanca; Vegso, Sally; Gurzau, Anca

    2013-12-01

    Swine workers may play a key role in transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses. At the same time, little is known about the extent and effectiveness of influenza prevention programs for these at-risk workers. To characterize practices and attitudes regarding zoonotic influenza transmission among swine workers in Romania. We conducted a convenience survey of swine workers in Romania. The confidential survey included questions about awareness of zoonotic influenza risk, work tasks performed, flu vaccination status, and reported influenza-like illness. A total of 103 workers at seven farms completed the survey. The percentage of workers reporting concern about either contracting influenza from pigs or giving influenza to pigs was 78% and 70%, respectively. Although 60% of workers reported having a sick-leave policy at work, only 7% of workers reported receiving seasonal influenza vaccination during the past flu season. Only 5% of the workers reported flu-like illness during the past year while 3% of workers reported that pigs appeared sick with influenza over the same time period. The majority of workers reported using protective overalls and rubber boots during swine work, with lower rates of use of gloves. Reported use of respiratory protection was rare, and use of any personal protective equipment did not differ when pigs appeared ill. Despite awareness and concern regarding zoonotic influenza, Romanian swine workers report low rates of influenza vaccine or respiratory protection. As part of global pandemic influenza preparedness, enhanced prevention programs for swine workers should address such gaps. © 2013 Blackwell publishing Ltd.

  6. SURVEYING THE RISKS FROM EMERGING DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite advances in sanitation and public health, new waterborne diseases have continued to cause outbreaks in humans. The reason why these organisms can cause disease outbreaks, is that their biology allows them to circumvent the safeguards put in place to prevent transmission ...

  7. Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Transmission of Plague Disease in Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nyirenda, Stanley S; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Machang'u, Robert; Mwanza, Jackson; Kilonzo, Bukheti S

    2017-09-01

    Plague is a fatal, primarily rodent-flea-borne zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis . The identification of risk factors of plague was investigated through questionnaire interview and conducting focus group discussion (FGD) in Sinda and Nyimba districts of eastern Zambia. A total of 104 questionnaires were administered to individual respondents and 20 groups consisting of 181 discussants, which comprised FGD team in this study. The study revealed that trapping, transportation, and preparation of rodents for food exposed the community to rodent and their fleas suggesting that plague may have occurred primarily by either flea bites or contact with infected wild rodents. The study also revealed that most people in communities consumed rodents as part of their regular diet; therefore, contact with small wild mammals was a common practice. The mode of transportation of freshly trapped rodents, in particular, carcasses risked human to flea bites. Questionnaire respondents (75%) and FGD discussants (55%) indicated that trappers preferred to carry rodent carcasses in small bags, whereas 55.8% and 20% respectively, reported hunters carrying carcasses in their pockets. Carrying of carcass skewers on trappers' shoulders was reported by 38.4% and 20% of individual respondents and FGD, respectively. All these activities were exposing humans to rodents and their fleas, the natural reservoirs and vectors of plague, respectively. This study also showed that there is a statistically significant (χ 2 = 4.6878, P < 0.05), between digging of rodents from their burrows and the presence of fleas on the hunter's bodies or clothes, which exposes humans to potentially flea bites in an enzootic cycle.

  8. Zoonotic encephalitides caused by arboviruses: transmission and epidemiology of alphaviruses and flaviviruses

    PubMed Central

    Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.; Lee, Chong-kyo

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we mainly focus on zoonotic encephalitides caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of the families Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus) and Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus) that are important in both humans and domestic animals. Specifically, we will focus on alphaviruses (Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus) and flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus). Most of these viruses were originally found in tropical regions such as Africa and South America or in some regions in Asia. However, they have dispersed widely and currently cause diseases around the world. Global warming, increasing urbanization and population size in tropical regions, faster transportation and rapid spread of arthropod vectors contribute in continuous spreading of arboviruses into new geographic areas causing reemerging or resurging diseases. Most of the reemerging arboviruses also have emerged as zoonotic disease agents and created major public health issues and disease epidemics. PMID:24427764

  9. Zoonotic encephalitides caused by arboviruses: transmission and epidemiology of alphaviruses and flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Go, Yun Young; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Chong-Kyo

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we mainly focus on zoonotic encephalitides caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of the families Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus) and Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus) that are important in both humans and domestic animals. Specifically, we will focus on alphaviruses (Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus) and flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus). Most of these viruses were originally found in tropical regions such as Africa and South America or in some regions in Asia. However, they have dispersed widely and currently cause diseases around the world. Global warming, increasing urbanization and population size in tropical regions, faster transportation and rapid spread of arthropod vectors contribute in continuous spreading of arboviruses into new geographic areas causing reemerging or resurging diseases. Most of the reemerging arboviruses also have emerged as zoonotic disease agents and created major public health issues and disease epidemics.

  10. The Impact of Personalized Risk Feedback on Mexican Americans' Perceived Risk for Heart Disease and Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovick, Shelly R.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of personalized risk information on risk perceptions over time, particularly among ethnically diverse subpopulations. The present study examines Mexican American's (MAs) risk perceptions for heart disease and diabetes at baseline and following receipt of risk feedback based on family health history. Participants…

  11. Zoonotic potential of emerging paramyxoviruses: knowns and unknowns

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Patricia A; Watkinson, Ruth E; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Drexler, Jan Felix; Lee, Benhur

    2017-01-01

    The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses, and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations, are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly-lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown potential to spill over into humans. We outline our current understanding of paramyxovirus reservoir hosts and the ecological factors that may drive spillover, and we explore the molecular barriers to spillover that emergent paramyxoviruses may encounter. By outlining what is known about enzootic paramyxovirus receptor usage, mechanisms of innate immune evasion, and other host-specific interactions, we highlight the breadth of unexplored avenues that may be important in understanding paramyxovirus emergence. PMID:28433050

  12. Zoonotic pathogens in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil: Bartonella and Coxiella infections.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Tatiana; Ferreira, Michelle Santos; Guterres, Alexandro; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Gonçalves, Jonathan; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2017-04-01

    Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1.5% (2/131) of rodents. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 4.6% (6/131) of the wild animals, 17.6% of the rodents harbored Bartonella spp. No cases of Rickettsia were identified. Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella vinsonii were the species found on the wild mammals. This report is the first to note C. burnetii, B. doshiae and B. vinsonii natural infections in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil. Our work highlights the potential risk of transmission to humans, since most of the infected specimens belong to generalist species that live near human dwellings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Public health significance of zoonotic tapeworms in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, J R

    1976-06-01

    Through an epidemiological review on the zoonotic tapeworms in Korea, the frequency and severity of the zoonoses have been recognized. Taeniasis and human cysticercosis are of importance to the public health in Korea. The frequency of taeniasis is 0.3% to 12.7% discovered by stool examination and 4.5% to 38.0% discovered by questionaire survey. Taeniasis occurs more frequently in males than in females and, especially, in both sexes in the age-group of 20 to 49. T. saginata is more common that T. solium. No case of human cysticercosis caused by T.saginata has been reported in Korea. To the contrary, human cysticercosis caused by T. solium has been reported frequently during the 1960's. The severity of human cysticercosis is a significant problem of public health in Korea. Old data on bovine cysticercosis in the 1920's and 1930's are not useful for present control measures. Systematic surveys on bovine and swine cysticercosis as well as taeniasis and human cysticercosis are needed in Korea. Cases of sparganosis have been reported frequently during the past 15 years. Most of the 34 cases of sparganosis reported involved the eating of raw snakes and frogs. Most of the cases occurred in older males. Sparganosis in snakes, frogs, chickens, and swine has been reported in Korea. Human infection of Hymenolepis nana ranged from 0.2% to 1.4% discovered by stool examination. A few cases of adult worm collections of Diphyllobothrium latum and Hymenolepis diminuta have been reported in Korea. Two cases of human hydatid disease have been reported in Korea. No study on the disease in domestic animals is available. No case of human infection with dog tapeworm has been reported, even though it is highly prevalent in the indigenous dogs in Korea. I recommend that further study on the zoonotic tapeworms be conducted epidemiologically in Korea to get basic data for the public health programming.

  14. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teens at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascola, Laurene

    1987-01-01

    Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)

  15. Adaptive genetic variation and heart disease risk

    Purpose of review: Obesity, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease are complex and determined by both genetic and environmental factors and their interrelationships. Many associations from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene approaches have described a multitude of polymorphis...

  16. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease. They have a condition known as "prediabetes," in which blood glucose levels are higher than ... heart problems." — Ann Preventing Diabetes If you have "prediabetes"—higher than normal glucose levels—you are more ...

  17. One Health in Practice: A Pilot Project for Integrated Care of Zoonotic Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Their Pets in Chile.

    PubMed

    Peña, A; Abarca, K; Weitzel, T; Gallegos, J; Cerda, J; García, P; López, J

    2016-08-01

    Although pets provide physiological and psychological benefits to their owners, they are a potential source of zoonotic infections, especially for vulnerable individuals such as immunocompromised patients. During 1 year, we therefore performed a pilot project, which included 32 immunocompromised Chilean children and their family pets (35 dogs and 9 cats) with the aim of detecting, treating and preventing zoonotic infections. Children were examined by Infectious Diseases paediatricians and demographical and clinical information related to zoonotic infections were recorded. Pets were examined and sampled by veterinarians, who also administered missing routine vaccines and anti-parasitics. During family visits, all members were informed and educated about zoonoses and a satisfaction survey was performed. Visits also included vector control and indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids. Children were re-examined and re-tested according to the findings of their pets, and all detected zoonotic infections were treated both in children and pets. Physical examination revealed abnormalities in 18 dogs (51.4%) and three cats (33.3%). Twenty-eight (63.6%) of the pets were diagnosed with a zoonotic pathogen, and seven (15.9%) with a facultative pathogen. Most zoonotic agents were isolated from the pet's external ear and intestine. Bacteria with the highest pathogenic potential were Campylobacter jejuni and Brucella canis. In two children and their respective pets, the same zoonotic diseases were diagnosed (toxocariasis and giardiasis). Arthropods serving as potential vectors of zoonotic infections were found in 49% of dogs and 44% of cats. The pilot project was positively evaluated by the participating families. Our pilot project confirmed that pets are reservoir for various zoonotic agents in Chile and that the implementation of an integrated multidisciplinary programme was a valuable tool to prevent, diagnose and treat such zoonotic infections in vulnerable patients such as

  18. The impact of multiplex genetic testing on disease risk perceptions.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, S; deHeer, H D; Peleg, S; Hensley Alford, S; Skapinsky, K; Roberts, J S; Hadley, D W

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the effects of multiplex genetic testing on disease risk perceptions among 216 healthy adults. Participants, aged 25-40, were recruited through the Multiplex Initiative, which offered a genetic susceptibility test for eight common diseases. Participants completed baseline telephone and web-based surveys prior to making the testing decision. Three months after the receipt of mailed test results, participants completed a follow-up telephone survey. Risk perceptions for the eight diseases were measured at baseline and follow-up, along with beliefs about genetic causation of those diseases. The main results were: (i) mean risk perceptions were considerably stable from baseline to follow-up; (ii) the best predictors of follow-up risk perceptions were the corresponding baseline perceptions and family history; and (iii) within-individuals, most participants increased or decreased their risk perceptions for specific diseases in concordance with the number of risk markers they carry, their family history and their beliefs about genetic causality of diseases. In conclusion, participants presented a vigilant approach to the interpretation of genetic test results, which provides reassurance with regard to a potential inflation of risk perceptions in the population because of multiplex genetic testing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Huakang; Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wen, Christopher; Ye, Yuanqing; Zhao, Hua; Tsai, Min Kuang; Huang, Maosheng; Dinney, Colin P; Tsao, Chwen Keng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To assess the independent and joint associations of major chronic diseases and disease markers with cancer risk and to explore the benefit of physical activity in reducing the cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Standard medical screening program in Taiwan. Participants 405 878 participants, for whom cardiovascular disease markers (blood pressure, total cholesterol, and heart rate), diabetes, chronic kidney disease markers (proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate), pulmonary disease, and gouty arthritis marker (uric acid) were measured or diagnosed according to standard methods, were followed for an average of 8.7 years. Main outcome measures Cancer incidence and cancer mortality. Results A statistically significantly increased risk of incident cancer was observed for the eight diseases and markers individually (except blood pressure and pulmonary disease), with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.07 to 1.44. All eight diseases and markers were statistically significantly associated with risk of cancer death, with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.12 to 1.70. Chronic disease risk scores summarizing the eight diseases and markers were positively associated with cancer risk in a dose-response manner, with the highest scores associated with a 2.21-fold (95% confidence interval 1.77-fold to 2.75-fold) and 4.00-fold (2.84-fold to 5.63-fold) higher cancer incidence and cancer mortality, respectively. High chronic disease risk scores were associated with substantial years of life lost, and the highest scores were associated with 13.3 years of life lost in men and 15.9 years of life lost in women. The population attributable fractions of cancer incidence or cancer mortality from the eight chronic diseases and markers together were comparable to those from five major lifestyle factors combined (cancer incidence: 20.5% v 24.8%; cancer mortality: 38.9% v 39.7%). Among

  20. Cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tu, Huakang; Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wen, Christopher; Ye, Yuanqing; Zhao, Hua; Tsai, Min Kuang; Huang, Maosheng; Dinney, Colin P; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng

    2018-01-31

    To assess the independent and joint associations of major chronic diseases and disease markers with cancer risk and to explore the benefit of physical activity in reducing the cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers. Prospective cohort study. Standard medical screening program in Taiwan. 405 878 participants, for whom cardiovascular disease markers (blood pressure, total cholesterol, and heart rate), diabetes, chronic kidney disease markers (proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate), pulmonary disease, and gouty arthritis marker (uric acid) were measured or diagnosed according to standard methods, were followed for an average of 8.7 years. Cancer incidence and cancer mortality. A statistically significantly increased risk of incident cancer was observed for the eight diseases and markers individually (except blood pressure and pulmonary disease), with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.07 to 1.44. All eight diseases and markers were statistically significantly associated with risk of cancer death, with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.12 to 1.70. Chronic disease risk scores summarizing the eight diseases and markers were positively associated with cancer risk in a dose-response manner, with the highest scores associated with a 2.21-fold (95% confidence interval 1.77-fold to 2.75-fold) and 4.00-fold (2.84-fold to 5.63-fold) higher cancer incidence and cancer mortality, respectively. High chronic disease risk scores were associated with substantial years of life lost, and the highest scores were associated with 13.3 years of life lost in men and 15.9 years of life lost in women. The population attributable fractions of cancer incidence or cancer mortality from the eight chronic diseases and markers together were comparable to those from five major lifestyle factors combined (cancer incidence: 20.5% v 24.8%; cancer mortality: 38.9% v 39.7%). Among physically active (versus inactive) participants, the increased cancer risk

  1. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    McConnell, T J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J

    2017-06-01

    Previous small studies have shown either no difference or a lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. This study examined the incidence of symptomatic gallstone disease in a cohort of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians, and investigated the associations between nutrient intake and risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. The data were analysed from 49 652 adults enroled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study, one-third of whom were vegetarian. The linked databases of hospital records were used to identify incident cases. Risk by diet group was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Further analysis quantified risk by intakes of selected macronutrients. There were 1182 cases of symptomatic gallstone disease during 687 822 person-years of follow-up (mean=13.85 years). There was a large significant association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease (overall trend P<0.001). After adjustment for BMI and other risk factors, vegetarians had a moderately increased risk compared with non-vegetarians (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06-1.41; P=0.006). Although starch consumption was positively associated with gallstones risk (P=0.002 for trend), it did not explain the increased risk in vegetarians. There is a highly significant association of increased BMI with risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. After adjusting for BMI, there is a small but statistically significant positive association between vegetarian diet and symptomatic gallstone disease.

  2. Chronic disease as risk multiplier for disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Stutzin Donoso, Francisca

    2018-03-06

    This paper starts by establishing a prima facie case that disadvantaged groups or individuals are more likely to get a chronic disease and are in a disadvantaged position to adhere to chronic treatment despite access through Universal Health Coverage. However, the main aim of this paper is to explore the normative implications of this claim by examining two different but intertwined argumentative lines that might contribute to a better understanding of the ethical challenges faced by chronic disease health policy. The paper develops the argument that certain disadvantages which may predispose to illness might overlap with disadvantages that may hinder self-management, potentially becoming disadvantageous in handling chronic disease. If so, chronic diseases may be seen as disadvantages in themselves, describing a reproduction of disadvantage among the chronically ill and a vicious circle of disadvantage that could both predict and shed light on the catastrophic health outcomes among disadvantaged groups-or individuals-dealing with chronic disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. [Celiac disease - disease of children and adults: symptoms, disease complications, risk groups and comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Majsiak, Emilia; Cichoż-Lach, Halina; Gubska, Olena; Cukrowska, Bożena

    2018-01-23

    About 1% of human population suffers from celiac disease (CD) and it is one of the most commonly diagnosed autoimmune disorders. Until recently it was believed that CD affects mainly children, but as the newest studies show, up to 60% recently diagnosed patients are adults, often over the age of 60. CD's medical signs are nonspecific. Atypical course of the disease with extraintestinal symptoms is being increasingly observed. The disease may also be asymptomatic over many years. The studies show that the average diagnosis of CD takes more than 10 years since the first symptoms appear. Nonspecific medical signs cause undiagnosed patients suffering from CD to visit gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, allergists, gynaecologists and other medical specialists. However, most frequently general practitioners have the first encounter with patients suffering from CD, therefore they are able to recognize symptoms of the disease at the earliest and refer the patient to a gastroenterologist. Early diagnosis and beginning of the treatment reduce complications of untreated CD. The aim of this paper is to show general practitioners symptoms, disease complications, risk groups and comorbidities of CD.

  4. Screening for nutritional risk in hospitalized children with liver disease.

    PubMed

    Song, Tiantian; Mu, Ying; Gong, Xue; Ma, Wenyan; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality from pediatric liver disease. We investigated the prevalence of both malnutrition and high nutritional risk in hospitalized children with liver disease as well as the rate of in-hospital nutritional support. A total of 2,874 hospitalized children and adolescents with liver disease aged 1 to 17 years (inclusive) were enrolled. Malnutrition was screened by anthropometric measures (height-for-age, weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and BMI- for-age z-scores). The Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids) was used to evaluate nutritional risk status. Nutrition markers in blood, rate of nutritional support, length of hospital stay, and hospital fees were compared among nutritional risk groups. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 38.6%. About 20.0% of children had high nutritional risk, and prevalence of malnutrition was markedly greater in the high nutritional risk group compared with the moderate risk group (67.9% vs 31.3%). Serum albumin and prealbumin differed significantly between high and moderate risk groups (p<0.001). Only 8.9% of children with high nutritional risk and 3.5% with moderate nutritional risk received nutrition support during hospitalization. Children with high nutritional risk had longer hospital stays and greater hospital costs (p<0.001). The prevalence of malnutrition is high in children with liver disease. High nutritional risk is also prevalent at admission. Albumin and prealbumin are sensitive markers for distinguishing nutritional risk groups. High nutritional risk prolongs length of stay and increases hospital costs. The nutritional support rate is still low and requires standardization.

  5. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy weight is important for a long, vigorous life. Yet overweight and obesity (extreme overweight) have reached epidemic levels in the ...

  6. Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Case Study of HIV and Inflammatory Joint Disease.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Faisal; Martin, Seth S; Whelton, Seamus P; Mody, Freny V; Vaishnav, Joban; McEvoy, John William

    2018-04-01

    The epidemiologic data associating infection and inflammation with increased risk of cardiovascular disease is well established. Patients with chronically upregulated inflammatory pathways, such as those with HIV and inflammatory joint diseases, often have a risk of future cardiovascular risk that is similar to or higher than patients with diabetes. Thus, it is of heightened importance for clinicians to consider the cardiovascular risk of patients with these conditions. HIV and inflammatory joint diseases are archetypal examples of how inflammatory disorders contribute to vascular disease and provide illustrative lessons that can be leveraged in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Managing chronic inflammatory diseases calls for a multifaceted approach to evaluation and treatment of suboptimal lifestyle habits, accurate estimation of cardiovascular disease risk with potential upwards recalibration due to chronic inflammation, and more intensive treatment of risk factors because current tools often underestimate the risk in this population. This approach is further supported by the recently published CANTOS trial demonstrating that reducing inflammation can serve as a therapeutic target among persons with residual inflammatory risk for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Arterial hypertension in gravidity - a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kováčová, M; Kiňová, S

    2012-12-01

    Gravidity is a dynamic process and complications may occur at any stage and anytime during a thus far physiological gravidity. Such gravidity puts the mother, the foetus and, later, the newborn at a greater risk. The incidence of arterial hypertension is between 7 and 15% and is one of the 4 main causes of maternal and perinatal mortality. Cardiovascular stress test, such as gravidity, might help to identify women at a greater risk of cardiovascular diseases or with a subclinical vascular disease. Women with a history of preeclampsia are more likely to develop chronic arterial hypertension in the future either alone or associated with a cardiovascular disease. Arterial hypertension during gravidity should be considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases during later stages of maternal life. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases should be a life-long aspiration.

  8. Zoonotic potential of Enterocytozoon genotypes in humans and pigs in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prasertbun, Rapeepun; Mori, Hirotake; Pintong, Ai-Rada; Sanyanusin, Suparut; Popruk, Supaluk; Komalamisra, Chalit; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Buddhirongawatr, Ruangrat; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Mahittikorn, Aongart

    2017-01-15

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic intestinal pathogen infecting humans and a variety of animals. Its mode of transmission and zoonotic potential are not completely understood. E. bieneusi has been frequently identified in pigs. The objective of our study was to investigate E. bieneusi in pigs and humans in Western and Central Thailand to determine its presence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential. A total of 277 human and 210 pig faecal samples were collected and analysed. E. bieneusi was found in 5.4% and 28.1% of human and pig samples, respectively, by nested PCR. Genotyping based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA demonstrated three known genotypes (D, H, PigEb10) and eight novel genotypes (TMH1-8) in humans, and five known genotypes (D, EbpA, EbpC, H, O) and 11 novel genotypes (TMP1-11) in pigs. All known genotypes identified in humans and pigs had zoonotic potential. Further studies are needed to evaluate zoonotic risk of novel genotypes, as pigs may play an important role in the transmission of E. bieneusi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between physical fitness, cardiovascular risk factors, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jan; Myers, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Objective Exercise is a cornerstone of therapy for Parkinson's disease. This study addressed the association between physical fitness and the onset of Parkinson's disease and association with cardiovascular risk factors. Patients and methods Male veterans ( N = 7347, 59.0 ± 11.2 years) from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study cohort were evaluated. Physical fitness was measured objectively by maximal exercise testing. Onset of Parkinson's disease was abstracted from the Veterans Affairs computerized patient records system. Results After a mean follow-up of 12.5 ± 6.3 years, a total of 94 (1.3%) developed Parkinson's disease. Incidence was 86 cases per 100,000 person-years. The strongest multivariate factors associated with incidence of Parkinson's disease were higher age (hazard ratio: 1.067, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.043-1.093, p < .001), current smoking (hazard ratio: 0.511, 95% CI: 0.274-0.953, p = .035) and physical fitness (high vs. low: hazard ratio: 0.239, 95% CI: 0.079-0.725, p = .011). Compared with patients with no or only one of these risk factors, patients with two risk factors had a 3.7-fold ( p < .001) increased risk for incidence of Parkinson's disease; those with all three risk factors had a 7.8-fold ( p < .001) higher risk. Conclusions High physical fitness, current smoking and younger age were associated with a lower incidence of Parkinson's disease. These findings parallel those of several epidemiological studies focusing on physical activity and the onset of Parkinson's disease. Together, these observations provide strong support for recommending physical activity to diminish risk of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Risk based management of invading plant disease

    Effective control of new and emerging plant disease remains a key challenge. Attempts to eradicate pathogens often involve removal of all plants within a fixed distance of detected infected hosts, targeting asymptomatic infection. Here we develop and test potentially more efficient, epidemiologicall...

  11. Dynamics of a Global Zoonotic Research Network Over 33 Years (1980-2012).

    PubMed

    Hossain, Liaquat; Karimi, Faezeh; Wigand, Rolf T

    2015-10-01

    The increasing rate of outbreaks in humans of zoonotic diseases requires detailed examination of the education, research, and practice of animal health and its connection to human health. This study investigated the collaboration network of different fields engaged in conducting zoonotic research from a transdisciplinary perspective. Examination of the dynamics of this network for a 33-year period from 1980 to 2012 is presented through the development of a large scientometric database from Scopus. In our analyses we compared several properties of these networks, including density, clustering coefficient, giant component, and centrality measures over time. We also elicited patterns in different fields of study collaborating with various other fields for zoonotic research. We discovered that the strongest collaborations across disciplines are formed among the fields of medicine; biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology; immunology and microbiology; veterinary; agricultural and biological sciences; and social sciences. Furthermore, the affiliation network is growing overall in terms of collaborative research among different fields of study such that more than two-thirds of all possible collaboration links among disciplines have already been formed. Our findings indicate that zoonotic research scientists in different fields (human or animal health, social science, earth and environmental sciences, engineering) have been actively collaborating with each other over the past 11 years.

  12. Disease invasion risk in a growing population.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Sanling; van den Driessche, P; Willeboordse, Frederick H; Shuai, Zhisheng; Ma, Junling

    2016-09-01

    The spread of an infectious disease may depend on the population size. For simplicity, classic epidemic models assume homogeneous mixing, usually standard incidence or mass action. For standard incidence, the contact rate between any pair of individuals is inversely proportional to the population size, and so the basic reproduction number (and thus the initial exponential growth rate of the disease) is independent of the population size. For mass action, this contact rate remains constant, predicting that the basic reproduction number increases linearly with the population size, meaning that disease invasion is easiest when the population is largest. In this paper, we show that neither of these may be true on a slowly evolving contact network: the basic reproduction number of a short epidemic can reach its maximum while the population is still growing. The basic reproduction number is proportional to the spectral radius of a contact matrix, which is shown numerically to be well approximated by the average excess degree of the contact network. We base our analysis on modeling the dynamics of the average excess degree of a random contact network with constant population input, proportional deaths, and preferential attachment for contacts brought in by incoming individuals (i.e., individuals with more contacts attract more incoming contacts). In addition, we show that our result also holds for uniform attachment of incoming contacts (i.e., every individual has the same chance of attracting incoming contacts), and much more general population dynamics. Our results show that a disease spreading in a growing population may evade control if disease control planning is based on the basic reproduction number at maximum population size.

  13. Infectious disease risk and international tourism demand.

    PubMed

    Rosselló, Jaume; Santana-Gallego, Maria; Awan, Waqas

    2017-05-01

     For some countries, favourable climatic conditions for tourism are often associated with favourable conditions for infectious diseases, with the ensuing development constraints on the tourist sectors of impoverished countries where tourism's economic contribution has a high potential. This paper evaluates the economic implications of eradication of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola on the affected destination countries focusing on the tourist expenditures.  A gravity model for international tourism flows is used to provide an estimation of the impact of each travel-related disease on international tourist arrivals. Next the potential eradication of these diseases in the affected countries is simulated and the impact on tourism expenditures is estimated.  The results show that, in the case of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola, the eradication of these diseases in the affected countries would result in an increase of around 10 million of tourist worldwide and a rise in the tourism expenditure of 12 billion dollars.  By analysing the economic benefits of the eradication of Dengue, Ebola, Malaria, and Yellow Fever for the tourist sector-a strategic economic sector for many of the countries where these TRD are present-this paper explores a new aspect of the quantification of health policies which should be taken into consideration in future international health assessment programmes. It is important to note that the analysis is only made of the direct impact of the diseases' eradication and consequently the potential multiplicative effects of a growth in the GDP, in terms of tourism attractiveness, are not evaluated. Consequently, the economic results can be considered to be skeleton ones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Vascular Disease, ESRD, and Death: Interpreting Competing Risk Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Coresh, Josef; Segev, Dorry L.; Kucirka, Lauren M.; Tighiouart, Hocine; Sarnak, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Vascular disease, a common condition in CKD, is a risk factor for mortality and ESRD. Optimal patient care requires accurate estimation and ordering of these competing risks. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This is a prospective cohort study of screened (n=885) and randomized participants (n=837) in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (original study enrollment, 1989–1992), evaluating the association of vascular disease with ESRD and pre-ESRD mortality using standard survival analysis and competing risk regression. Results The method of analysis resulted in markedly different estimates. Cumulative incidence by standard analysis (censoring at the competing event) implied that, with vascular disease, the 15-year incidence was 66% and 51% for ESRD and pre-ESRD death, respectively. A more accurate representation of absolute risk was estimated with competing risk regression: 15-year incidence was 54% and 29% for ESRD and pre-ESRD death, respectively. For the association of vascular disease with pre-ESRD death, estimates of relative risk by the two methods were similar (standard survival analysis adjusted hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–2.20; competing risk regression adjusted subhazard ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–2.14). In contrast, the hazard and subhazard ratios differed substantially for other associations, such as GFR and pre-ESRD mortality. Conclusions When competing events exist, absolute risk is better estimated using competing risk regression, but etiologic associations by this method must be carefully interpreted. The presence of vascular disease in CKD decreases the likelihood of survival to ESRD, independent of age and other risk factors. PMID:22859747

  15. Vascular disease, ESRD, and death: interpreting competing risk analyses.

    PubMed

    Grams, Morgan E; Coresh, Josef; Segev, Dorry L; Kucirka, Lauren M; Tighiouart, Hocine; Sarnak, Mark J

    2012-10-01

    Vascular disease, a common condition in CKD, is a risk factor for mortality and ESRD. Optimal patient care requires accurate estimation and ordering of these competing risks. This is a prospective cohort study of screened (n=885) and randomized participants (n=837) in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (original study enrollment, 1989-1992), evaluating the association of vascular disease with ESRD and pre-ESRD mortality using standard survival analysis and competing risk regression. The method of analysis resulted in markedly different estimates. Cumulative incidence by standard analysis (censoring at the competing event) implied that, with vascular disease, the 15-year incidence was 66% and 51% for ESRD and pre-ESRD death, respectively. A more accurate representation of absolute risk was estimated with competing risk regression: 15-year incidence was 54% and 29% for ESRD and pre-ESRD death, respectively. For the association of vascular disease with pre-ESRD death, estimates of relative risk by the two methods were similar (standard survival analysis adjusted hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.20; competing risk regression adjusted subhazard ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.14). In contrast, the hazard and subhazard ratios differed substantially for other associations, such as GFR and pre-ESRD mortality. When competing events exist, absolute risk is better estimated using competing risk regression, but etiologic associations by this method must be carefully interpreted. The presence of vascular disease in CKD decreases the likelihood of survival to ESRD, independent of age and other risk factors.

  16. Themes in the literature related to cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shannon Munro; Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle

    2009-01-01

    This article aimed to identify themes in the literature related to patient-healthcare provider beliefs, barriers to adherence, and interventions pertaining to cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Twenty quantitative and qualitative primary research studies including 2 meta-analyses published between 1995 and 2008 were analyzed for themes and practice implications to synthesize existing research on cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Databases searched included EBSCO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, HealthSource, and PsychLit using the search terms patient- provider adherence, adherence and shared decision making, adherence and decision support, patient- provider goal setting, and cardiovascular disease risk reduction. The emergent themes found in this literature review included (1) complex medication regimens; (2) risk perception, quality of life, and competing priorities; (3) motivation for change; (4) provider clinical inertia; and (5) goal setting, feedback, and reminders. Studies reporting the highest rates of adherence to cardiovascular disease risk reduction recommendations incorporated patient-provider goal setting and decision support, self-management techniques, and personalized printed communication. Goal setting in cardiovascular disease risk reduction is a relatively unexplored area and is an important component of shared decision making and adherence to cardiovascular disease health recommendations. The following review will address the 5 themes identified in more detail and provide a basis for improved clinical practice.

  17. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    PubMed

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  18. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Seema; Lopez, Monica E; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Mazziotti, Mark V; Brandt, Mary L; Fishman, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Our center previously reported its experience with pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies from 1980 to 1996. We aimed to determine the current clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies and compare these findings with our historical series. Retrospective, cross-sectional study of children, 0 to 18 years of age, who underwent a cholecystectomy from January 2005 to October 2008. We evaluated 404 patients: 73% girls; 39% Hispanic and 35% white. The mean age was 13.10 ± 0.91 years. The primary indications for surgery in patients 3 years or older were symptomatic cholelithiasis (53%), obstructive disease (28%), and biliary dyskinesia (16%). The median BMI percentile was 89%; 39% were classified as obese. Of the patients with nonhemolytic gallstone disease, 35% were obese and 18% were severely obese; BMI percentile was 99% or higher. Gallstone disease was associated with hemolytic disease in 23% (73/324) of patients and with obesity in 39% (126/324). Logistic regression demonstrated older age (P = .019) and Hispanic ethnicity (P < .0001) as independent risk factors for nonhemolytic gallstone disease. Compared with our historical series, children undergoing cholecystectomy are more likely to be Hispanic (P = .003) and severely obese (P < .0279). Obesity and Hispanic ethnicity are strongly correlated with symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease. In comparison with our historical series, hemolytic disease is no longer the predominant risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease in children.

  19. Update on Baylisascariasis, a Highly Pathogenic Zoonotic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; Kazacos, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, infects a wide range of vertebrate animals, including humans, in which it causes a particularly severe type of larva migrans. It is an important cause of severe neurologic disease (neural larva migrans [NLM]) but also causes ocular disease (OLM; diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis [DUSN]), visceral larva migrans (VLM), and covert/asymptomatic infections. B. procyonis is common and widespread in raccoons, and there is increasing recognition of human disease, making a clinical consideration of baylisascariasis important. This review provides an update for this disease, especially its clinical relevance and diagnosis, and summarizes the clinical cases of human NLM and VLM known to date. Most diagnosed patients have been young children less than 2 years of age, although the number of older patients diagnosed in recent years has been increasing. The recent development of recombinant antigen-based serodiagnostic assays has aided greatly in the early diagnosis of this infection. Patients recovering with fewer severe sequelae have been reported in recent years, reinforcing the current recommendation that early treatment with albendazole and corticosteroids should be initiated at the earliest suspicion of baylisascariasis. Considering the seriousness of this zoonotic infection, greater public and medical awareness is critical for the prevention and early treatment of human cases. PMID:26960940

  20. Zoonotic Malaria – Global Overview and Research and Policy Needs

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The four main Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale, are transmitted between humans by mosquito vectors belonging to the genus Anopheles. It has recently become evident that Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that typically infects forest macaque monkeys, can be transmitted by anophelines to cause malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi infections are frequently misdiagnosed microscopically as P. malariae. Direct human to human transmission of P. knowlesi by anophelines has not yet been established to occur in nature. Knowlesi malaria must therefore be presently considered a zoonotic disease. Polymerase chain reaction is now the definitive method for differentiating P. knowlesi from P. malariae and other human malaria parasites. The origin of P. falciparum and P. vivax in African apes are examples of ancient zoonoses that may be continuing at the present time with at least P. vivax, and possibly P. malariae and P. ovale. Other non-human primate malaria species, e.g., Plasmodium cynomolgi in Southeast Asia and Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium in South America, can be transmitted to humans by mosquito vectors further emphasizing the potential for continuing zoonoses. The potential for zoonosis is influenced by human habitation and behavior as well as the adaptive capabilities of parasites and vectors. There is insufficient knowledge of the bionomics of Anopheles vector populations relevant to the cross-species transfer of malaria parasites and the real extent of malaria zoonoses. Appropriate strategies, based on more research, need to be developed for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of zoonotic malaria. PMID:25184118

  1. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  2. Contagious Diseases in Competitive Sport: What Are the Risks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses fungal, bacterial, and viral infections that may strike athletes during competition, highlighting possible risks of hepatitis, herpes, and HIV. Athletes generally are more at risk off the playing field than while competing. Requiring immunizations against measles and hepatitis B prior to college admission would eliminate two diseases.…

  3. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  4. Agroterrorism: Minimizing the Consequences of Intentionally Introduced Foreign Animal Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    responsibility and dedicate fewer resources to mitigate the threat. Unless they are zoonotic , animal and plant diseases do not 2 Ibid., 157. 3...of the United States and current FAD policies are inadequate. 4 Zoonotic diseases or...pathogens that can be transmitted from animals to people. Specifically, a zoonotic disease normally exists in animals can infect humans. 5 John Brogan

  5. Window panes of eternity. Health, disease, and inherited risk.

    PubMed Central

    Scriver, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Personal health reflects harmony between individual and experience; it is optimal homeostasis. Disease is an outcome of incongruity leading to dishomeostasis. Relative to earlier times, disease in modern society has higher "heritability" (in the broad meaning of the term). Inherited risks are facts compatible with anticipation and prevention of disease. This viewpoint has major implications for medical practice, deployment of health services, themes of research, and education of health care personnel and citizens. PMID:6763817

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Subclinical Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye An

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid disease is defined biochemically by an abnormal thyrotropin (TSH) level and normal serum-free thyroxine level. The prevalence of this condition varies according to the reference range for TSH and geographic or demographic factors. Recently, several studies, including our community-based cohort studies, have reported on the incidence of subclinical thyroid disease in Korea. Using these studies, we reviewed the prevalence and risk factors of subclinical thyroid disease, focusing on subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:24741450

  7. Assessing risks and preventing disease from environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dunnette, D A

    1989-01-01

    In the last 25 years there has been considerable concern expressed about the extent to which chemical agents in the ambient and work environments are contributing to the causation of disease. This concern is a logical extension of our increased knowledge of the real and potential effects of environmental chemicals and the methodological difficulties in applying new knowledge that could help prevent environmentally induced disease. Chemical risk assessment offers an approach to estimating risks and involves consideration of relevant information including identification of chemical hazards, evaluation of the dose-response relationship, estimation of exposure and finally, risk characterization. Particularly significant uncertainties which are inherent in use of this and other risk models include animal-human and low dose-high dose extrapolation and estimation of exposure. Community public health risks from exposure to environmental chemicals appear to be small relative to other public health risks based on information related to cancer trends, dietary intake of synthetic chemicals, assessment data on substances such as DDT and "dioxin," public health effects of hazardous waste sites and contextual considerations. Because of inherent uncertainty in the chemical risk assessment process, however, we need to apply what methods are available in our efforts to prevent disease induced by environmental chemicals. There are a number of societal strategies which can contribute to overall reduction of risk from environmental chemicals. These include acquisition of information on environmental risk including toxicity, intensity and extensity of exposure, biological monitoring, disease surveillance, improvement in epidemiological methods, control of environmental chemical exposures, and dissemination of hazardous chemical information. Responsible environmental risk communication and information transfer appear to be among the most important of the available strategies for

  8. Occupational Risks and Exposures Among Wildlife Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Garland-Lewis, Gemina; Whittier, Christopher; Murray, Suzan; Trufan, Sally; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2017-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, with wildlife a frequent source of zoonotic disease events. Although individuals with extensive wildlife contact may be at the greatest risk of contracting novel infectious agents, the occupational risk of those working closely with wildlife has not been well studied. This study assessed the occupational exposures among wildlife health professionals working in multiple countries worldwide. An occupational risk survey of past and present exposures was developed and administered online in a confidential manner to wildlife workers recruited through an ongoing international wildlife pathogen surveillance project. Surveys were completed by 71 participants in 14 countries. Significant lifetime exposures reported included bites from bats and rodents and touching dead animals. Completion of training in occupational safety was reported by 75% of respondents. While gloves were used for most tasks, use of N95 respirators and other personal protective equipment varied by task. Eighty percent of workers reported rabies vaccination. Some respondents indicated interest in enhanced occupational health services targeting their unique needs. Wildlife workers represent an occupational population at risk of zoonotic infection and injury. Enhanced occupational health services targeting wildlife workers could reduce the risk and sequelae of zoonotic exposure and infection.

  9. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  10. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  11. Risk of tick-borne diseases in various categories of employment among forestry workers in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Cisak, Ewa; Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Among the zoonotic agents causing occupational diseases, those transmitted by ticks are very important, in particular the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi which are the common cause of occupational Lyme borreliosis in forestry and agricultural workers. The objective of this study was an evaluation of the exposure of forestry workers employed at individual workplaces to infection with tick-borne pathogens (especially Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes), based on epidemiological investigation and serologic tests. Epidemiological studies covered 111 forestry employees from eastern Poland employed in 4 randomly-selected forest inspectorates which replied to questions in the area of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diseases transmitted by ticks. Eighty-two forestry workers employed in one forest inspectorate were examined for the presence of specific anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. The correlation between individual items of the questionnaire was assessed by Spearman's test. Results of serological tests were assessed by Mann-Whitney test. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the workers performing manual jobs in the forest are at the greatest risk of tick bite and contraction of tick-borne disease. They are aware of the risk, but use the improper method of removal of ticks with the fingers. Comparisons of the relationship between job category and the results of serologic study, expressed in BBU/ml, revealed that the serologic response was significantly greater in manual workers than in administrative workers (p=0.019). All other comparisons did not produce significant results. Therefore, providing a simple tweezer-like device to forest inspectorates seems to be an effective mean of protection against Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases.

  12. Ischemic heart disease in women: a focus on risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Wei, Janet; Wenger, Nanette K

    2015-02-01

    Heart disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women in the United States and worldwide. This review highlights known and emerging risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, as well as lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are all modifiable. Health care providers should be aware of emerging cardiac risk factors in women such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, systemic autoimmune disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and radiation-induced heart disease; psychosocial factors such as mental stress, depression, anxiety, low socioeconomic status, and work and marital stress play an important role in IHD in women. Appropriate recognition and management of an array of risk factors is imperative given the growing burden of IHD and need to deliver cost-effective, quality care for women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ryan J; Prizment, Anna E; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as 2 separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (eg, obesity, diabetes mellitus), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. Although chronic inflammation is an indispensable feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, with millions of cancer survivors now at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Cancer as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Giza, Dana Elena; Iliescu, Gloria; Hassan, Saamir; Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Iliescu, Cezar

    2017-06-01

    Improvements in early diagnosis and cancer treatments have contributed to high survival rates for many cancer patients. However, these patients often die of cardiovascular disease rather than recurrence of their cancer. Heart disease manifesting after cancer may be due to several mechanisms: shared cardiovascular risks between cancer and cardiovascular disease, inflammatory states associated with malignancies, and/or cardiotoxic effects of cancer therapy. Cancer treatment increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases directly by damaging critical structures of the heart or indirectly by promoting accelerated atherosclerosis. Estimating cardiovascular risk by using advanced imaging and monitoring of the cardiac biomarkers can be used for early detection and treatment of subclinical cardiac injury. Better knowledge of these early and late cardiac effects in cancer patients will enable adoption of both primary and secondary prevention measures of long-term treatment complications in cancer survivors.

  15. Endometriosis: a high-risk population for major chronic diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Kvaskoff, Marina; Mu, Fan; Terry, Kathryn L.; Harris, Holly R.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Farland, Leslie; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite an estimated prevalence of 10% in women, the etiology of endometriosis remains poorly understood. Over recent decades, endometriosis has been associated with risk of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, asthma/atopic diseases and cardiovascular diseases. A deeper understanding of these associations is needed as they may provide new leads into the causes or consequences of endometriosis. This review summarizes the available epidemiological findings on the associations between endometriosis and other chronic diseases and discusses hypotheses for underlying mechanisms, potential sources of bias and methodological complexities. METHODS We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed/Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for all studies reporting on the associations between endometriosis and other diseases published in English through to May 2014, using numerous search terms. We additionally examined the reference lists of all identified papers to capture any additional articles that were not identified through computer searches. RESULTS We identified 21 studies on the associations between endometriosis and ovarian cancer, 14 for breast cancer, 8 for endometrial cancer, 4 for cervical cancer, 12 for cutaneous melanoma and 3 for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as 9 on the links between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases, 6 on the links with asthma and atopic diseases, and 4 on the links with cardiovascular diseases. Endometriosis patients were reported to be at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancers, cutaneous melanoma, asthma, and some autoimmune, cardiovascular and atopic diseases, and at decreased risk of cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS Increasing evidence suggests that endometriosis patients are at higher risk of several chronic diseases. Although the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood, the available data to date suggest that endometriosis is not harmless with respects to women's long-term health. If

  16. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Lee, Hyojung; Yuan, Baoyin; Endo, Akira; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Chowell, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of disease in North Korea, including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks, have not been openly and widely analyzed. This study was performed to estimate the risks of infectious diseases among refugees from North Korea. A literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted to statistically estimate the risks of infectious diseases among North Korean subjects. A total of six groups of data from five publications covering the years 2004 to 2014 were identified. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis appeared to be the two most common infectious diseases, especially among adult refugees. When comparing the risks of infectious diseases between North Korean and Syrian refugees, it is critical to remember that Plasmodium vivax malaria has been endemic in North Korea, while cutaneous leishmaniasis has frequently been seen among Syrian migrants. Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. National Insect and Disease Risk Map (NIDRM)--cutting edge software for rapid insect and disease risk model development

    Frank J. Krist

    2010-01-01

    The Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team (FHTET) of the U.S. Forest Service is leading an effort to produce the next version of the National Insect and Disease Risk Map (NIDRM) for targeted release in 2011. The goal of this effort is to update spatial depictions of risk of tree mortality based on: (1) newly derived 240-m geospatial information depicting the...

  18. Zoonotic helminths parasites in the digestive tract of feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Li, Jian; Huang, Tengfei; Guillot, Jacques; Huang, Weiyi

    2015-08-16

    In Guangxi, a province of southern China, an important number of dogs and cats roam freely in rural settings, and the presence of these animals in proximity of people may represent a risk of parasitic zoonoses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and identify gastrointestinal helminths in feral carnivores in Guangxi province. Therefore, post mortem examination was performed in 40 dogs and in 39 cats. The Gastrointestinal helminths were found in all the necropsied dogs and in 37 out of 39 cats. Fifteen species were identified including 7 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 5 nematodes. Most of them may be responsible for zoonotic infections. Major zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths, including liver and intestinal flukes, Toxocara spp., and Ancylostoma spp., are present in feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, and may represent a significant risk for public health.

  19. Spatial clustering of average risks and risk trends in Bayesian disease mapping.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig; Lee, Duncan; Dean, Nema

    2017-01-01

    Spatiotemporal disease mapping focuses on estimating the spatial pattern in disease risk across a set of nonoverlapping areal units over a fixed period of time. The key aim of such researc