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Sample records for zoonotic disease transmitted

  1. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  2. Review of Nonfoodborne Zoonotic and Potentially Zoonotic Poultry Diseases.

    PubMed

    Agunos, Agnes; Pierson, F William; Lungu, Bwalya; Dunn, Patricia A; Tablante, Nathaniel

    2016-09-01

    Emerging and re-emerging diseases are continuously diagnosed in poultry species. A few of these diseases are known to cross the species barrier, thus posing a public health risk and an economic burden. We identified and synthesized global evidence for poultry nonfoodborne zoonoses to better understand these diseases in people who were exposed to different poultry-related characteristics (e.g., occupational or nonoccupational, operational types, poultry species, outbreak conditions, health status of flocks). This review builds on current knowledge on poultry zoonoses/potentially zoonotic agents transmitted via the nonfoodborne route. It also identifies research gaps and potential intervention points within the poultry industry to reduce zoonotic transmission by using various knowledge synthesis tools such as systematic review (SR) and qualitative (descriptive) and quantitative synthesis methods (i.e., meta-analysis). Overall, 1663 abstracts were screened and 156 relevant articles were selected for further review. Full articles (in English) were retrieved and critically appraised using routine SR methods. In total, eight known zoonotic diseases were reviewed: avian influenza (AI) virus (n = 85 articles), Newcastle disease virus (n = 8), West Nile virus (WNV, n = 2), avian Chlamydia (n = 24), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (n = 3), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, n = 15), Ornithonyssus sylvarium (n = 4), and Microsporum gallinae (n = 3). In addition, articles on other viral poultry pathogens (n = 5) and poultry respiratory allergens derived from mites and fungi (n = 7) were reviewed. The level of investigations (e.g., exposure history, risk factor, clinical disease in epidemiologically linked poultry, molecular studies) to establish zoonotic linkages varied across disease agents and across studies. Based on the multiple outcome measures captured in this review, AI virus seems to be the poultry zoonotic pathogen that may have considerable and

  3. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the raccoon (Procyon lotor)-their role and impact of maintaining and transmitting zoonotic diseases in Austria, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Tanja; Hodžić, Adnan; Glawischnig, Walter; Duscher, Georg G

    2017-04-01

    The neozoan species raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) are widespread in Europe and potential vectors of many diseases that can threaten human and domestic animal health. Facing a further spread of these species, it is important to know about (i) pathogens imported and/or (ii) pathogens acquired in the new habitat. Thus, we investigated the parasite fauna of wild raccoon dogs and raccoons from Austria, at the edge of their new distribution range. The eight examined raccoons were nearly free of pathogens including Baylisascaris procyonis, and thus assumed to have a low epidemiological impact, so far. Out of ten raccoon dog specimens, we found one from western Austria to be infected with Echinococcus multilocularis and another three from the eastern wetland regions to harbour adults of Alaria alata. Furthermore, we detected Babesia cf. microti in five of eight raccoon dogs all over Austria but none of our samples were tested positive for Trichinella spp. Nevertheless, the raccoon dog seems to be a relevant host, at least for the zoonotic pathogens E. multilocularis and A. alata, and we suggest to further monitor the raccoon dogs parasite fauna.

  4. Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD): Rare Disease of Zoonotic Origin.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, M

    2016-09-01

    Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a rare tick borne zoonotic disease that causes acute febrile hemorrhagic illness in humans and monkeys especially in southern part of India. The disease is caused by highly pathogenic KFD virus (KFDV) which belongs to member of the genus Flavivirus and family Flaviviridae. The disease is transmitted to monkeys and humans by infective tick Haemaphysalisspinigera. Seasonal outbreaks are expected to occur during the months of January to June. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the epidemiology, mode of transmission of KFD virus, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of the disease..

  5. Interdisciplinary approaches to zoonotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Robin; Schley, David; Lai, Ka-Man; Ceddia, Graziano M.; Barnett, Julie; Cook, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Zoonotic infections are on the increase worldwide, but most research into the biological, environmental and life science aspects of these infections has been conducted in separation. In this review we bring together contemporary research in these areas to suggest a new, symbiotic framework which recognises the interaction of biological, economic, psychological, and natural and built environmental drivers in zoonotic infection and transmission. In doing so, we propose that some contemporary debates in zoonotic research could be resolved using an expanded framework which explicitly takes into account the combination of motivated and habitual human behaviour, environmental and biological constraints, and their interactions. PMID:24470951

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  7. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Barbara A.; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E.; Drake, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States. PMID:26038558

  8. Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in Kenya, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Bitek, Austine; Osoro, Eric; Pieracci, Emily G.; Muema, Josephat; Mwatondo, Athman; Kungu, Mathew; Nanyingi, Mark; Gharpure, Radhika; Njenga, Kariuki; Thumbi, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic diseases have varying public health burden and socio-economic impact across time and geographical settings making their prioritization for prevention and control important at the national level. We conducted systematic prioritization of zoonotic diseases and developed a ranked list of these diseases that would guide allocation of resources to enhance their surveillance, prevention, and control. Methods A group of 36 medical, veterinary, and wildlife experts in zoonoses from government, research institutions and universities in Kenya prioritized 36 diseases using a semi-quantitative One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with slight adaptations. The tool comprises five steps: listing of zoonotic diseases to be prioritized, development of ranking criteria, weighting criteria by pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchical process, scoring each zoonotic disease based on the criteria, and aggregation of scores. Results In order of importance, the participants identified severity of illness in humans, epidemic/pandemic potential in humans, socio-economic burden, prevalence/incidence and availability of interventions (weighted scores assigned to each criteria were 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.17 and 0.17 respectively), as the criteria to define the relative importance of the diseases. The top five priority diseases in descending order of ranking were anthrax, trypanosomiasis, rabies, brucellosis and Rift Valley fever. Conclusion Although less prominently mentioned, neglected zoonotic diseases ranked highly compared to those with epidemic potential suggesting these endemic diseases cause substantial public health burden. The list of priority zoonotic disease is crucial for the targeted allocation of resources and informing disease prevention and control programs for zoonoses in Kenya. PMID:27557120

  9. Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  10. Avoiding sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Stone, K M

    1990-12-01

    As the spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has broadened to include many infections that are not readily cured, prevention of STDs has become more important than ever. Primary prevention methods include abstinence, careful selection of sexual partners, condoms, vaginal spermicides, and a vaccine for hepatitis B. Condoms will protect against STDs only if they are used consistently and correctly; vaginal spermicides may also reduce risk of certain STDs. Health care providers should routinely counsel women on methods to reduce risk of STDs.

  11. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kieren, Dianne; Cumming, Ceinwen E.; Cumming, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The discouraging results of early efforts to educate the public about sexually transmitted diseases indicated that the goals of STD preventive action must be longer term and must change attitudes and behaviour as well as educate. They must also avoid an ostrich mentality about the sexual involvement of young people. This article examines more recent approaches to teaching about sexuality in general and STD prevention in particular. PMID:21221351

  12. Zoonotic Diseases--Fostering Awareness in Critical Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Metre, David C.; Morley, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are shared between humans and other vertebrate animals. Extension professionals often serve as consultants and educators to individuals at high risk of zoonotic diseases, such as participants in 4-H livestock projects. Effective education about zoonotic diseases begins with an awareness of the…

  13. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion.

    PubMed

    Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystosis) and trypanosomiasis are the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion which caused by single-celled protozoan parasites; Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum , Sarcocystis spp and Trypanosoma evansi, respectively. Toxoplasmosis is generally considered the most important disease that causing abortion of both pregnant women and different female animals throughout the world, about third of human being population had antibodies against T. gondii . The infection can pass via placenta, causing encephalitis, chorio-retinitis, mental retardation and loss of vision in congenitally-infected children and stillbirth or mummification of the aborted fetuses of livestock. Neosporosis is recognized as a major cause of serious abortion in varieties of wild and domestic animals around the world particularly cattle, the disease cause serious economic losses among dairy and beef cattle due to decrease in milk and meat production. While unlike toxoplasmosis, neosporosis is not recognized as a human pathogen and evidence to date shows that neosporosis is only detected by serology in the human population. Sarcosporidiosis also can cause abortion in animals particularly cattle, buffaloes and sheep with acute infection through high dose of infection with sarcocysts. On the other hand, humans have been reported as final and intermediate host for sarcosporidiosis but not represent a serious health problem. Trypanosomiasis by T. evansi cause dangerous infection among domestic animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Several cases of abortion had been recorded in cattle and buffaloes infected with T. evansi while, a single case of human infection was reported in India. Trichomoniasis and babesiosis abortion occurs with non-zoonotic Trichomonas and Babesia species while the zoonotic species had not been incriminated in induction of abortion in both animals and man. The current review article concluded that there is still

  15. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.

    PubMed

    Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States.

  16. Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States. PMID:23297259

  17. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures - ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD ...

  18. Sarcoptic mange: a zoonotic ectoparasitic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic.

  19. Sarcoptic Mange: A Zoonotic Ectoparasitic Skin Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic. PMID:23450734

  20. Sexually transmitted diseases in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harahap, M

    1980-10-01

    Epidemiological factors and changing ecological conditions have greatly facilitated the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and led to their rising incidence in Indonesia. Gonorrhoea is at present very prevalent, and drug resistance among circulating strains of gonococci is a contributing factor. Despite medical advances in both diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, these are becoming commoner; unlike other communicable diseases they have so far defied efforts to control them.

  1. Zoonotic diseases: health aspects of Canadian geese.

    PubMed

    Dieter, R A; Dieter, R S; Dieter, R A; Gulliver, G

    2001-11-01

    Review zoonotic diseases associated with Canadian geese. Review article: A review of the multiple physical, microbiologic and safety concerns, and methods used in controlling this potential problem. Over the last decade the Canadian goose population (protected by international treaties and protection acts) has increased rapidly such that in many cities they have become a pest rather than an admired wild bird. Their increasing numbers have caused a number of potential healthcare concerns including: physical, bacterial, parasitic, allergic and viral potential problems. The Canadian goose fecal droppings of one per minute have caused falls and the flying geese have caused air traffic accidents. Bacterial concerns, including botulism, salmonella and E. coli have all been reviewed and presented concerns. The viral Newcastle disease may be detected with hemagglutination studies and the Giardia psittaci parasites have been repeatedly found in their droppings. The Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes have been present on stool study. Definite links to human infectious diseases have been difficult to prove. Revision of the current laws and new control programs must be developed.

  2. Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, Peter; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Burke, Donald S.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of new zoonotic agents requires knowledge of pathogen biodiversity in wildlife, human-wildlife interactions, anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations, and changes in society and human behavior. We discuss an interdisciplinary approach combining virology, wildlife biology, disease ecology, and anthropology that enables better understanding of how deforestation and associated hunting leads to the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens. PMID:16485465

  3. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  4. Plant-based oral vaccines against zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Naila; Daniell, Henry

    2016-11-01

    The shared diseases between animals and humans are known as zoonotic diseases and spread infectious diseases among humans. Zoonotic diseases are not only a major burden to livestock industry but also threaten humans accounting for >60% cases of human illness. About 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans have been reported to originate from zoonotic pathogens. Because antibiotics are frequently used to protect livestock from bacterial diseases, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is now a major concern. Live attenuated and killed vaccines are the only option to control these infectious diseases and this approach has been used since 1890. However, major problems with this approach include high cost and injectable vaccines is impractical for >20 billion poultry animals or fish in aquaculture. Plants offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against animal diseases because of their low cost, and they are free of attenuated pathogens and cold chain requirement. Therefore, several plant-based vaccines against human and animals diseases have been developed recently that undergo clinical and regulatory approval. Plant-based vaccines serve as ideal booster vaccines that could eliminate multiple boosters of attenuated bacteria or viruses, but requirement of injectable priming with adjuvant is a current limitation. So, new approaches like oral vaccines are needed to overcome this challenge. In this review, we discuss the progress made in plant-based vaccines against zoonotic or other animal diseases and future challenges in advancing this field. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, Do Thuy; Siembieda, Jennifer; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Hung, Pham; Ky, Van Dang; Bandyopahyay, Santanu; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2015-12-30

    Prioritization of zoonotic diseases is critical as it facilitates optimization of resources, greater understanding of zoonotic diseases and implementation of policies promoting multisectoral collaboration. This study aimed to establish strategic priorities for zoonotic diseases in Vietnam taking a key stakeholder approach. Two weeks prior to a workshop on zoonotic diseases a questionnaire was developed and posted to key professionals involved in different areas of zoonotic disease management in Vietnam. Respondents were asked to assess the relative priority of 12 zoonotic diseases using a number of evidence-based criteria, and to provide suggestions to strengthen multisectoral collaboration. A response rate of 69% (51/74) was obtained, and 75% (38/51) respondents worked in non-international Vietnamese organizations. Respondents identified the top five diseases for prioritization in Vietnam as: avian influenza, rabies, Streptococcus suis infection, pandemic influenza and foodborne bacterial diseases. The three criteria most used to rank diseases were severity of disease, outbreak potential and public attention. Avian influenza was ranked as the number one priority zoonotic disease in Vietnam by 57% of the respondents, followed by rabies (18%). Respondents identified coordination mechanisms, information sharing and capacity building as the most important areas for strengthening to enhance multisectoral collaboration. This study is the first systematic and broad-based attempt to prioritize zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam using key stakeholders, and a comparative and transparent method. There is limited literature for policy makers and planners on this topic and the results of this study can be used to guide decision-making.

  6. Zoonotic diseases associated with reptiles and amphibians: an update.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Reptiles and amphibians are popular as pets. There are increased concerns among public health officials because of the zoonotic potential associated with these animals. Encounters with reptiles and amphibians are also on the rise in the laboratory setting and with wild animals; in both of these practices, there is also an increased likelihood for exposure to zoonotic pathogens. It is important that veterinarians remain current with the literature as it relates to emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases attributed to reptiles and amphibians so that they can protect themselves, their staff, and their clients from potential problems.

  7. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to

  8. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    TSEVAT, Danielle G.; WIESENFELD, Harold C.; Parks, Caitlin; PEIPERT, Jeffrey F.

    2016-01-01

    Female infertility, including tubal factor infertility, is a major public health concern worldwide. Most cases of tubal factor infertility are attributable to untreated sexually transmitted diseases that ascend along the reproductive tract and are capable of causing tubal inflammation, damage, and scarring. Evidence has consistently demonstrated the effects of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as pathogenic bacteria involved in reproductive tract morbidities including tubal factor infertility and pelvic inflammatory disease. There is limited evidence in the medical literature that other sexually transmitted organisms, including Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, and other microorganisms within the vaginal microbiome may be important factors involved in the pathology of infertility. Further investigation into the vaginal microbiome and other potential pathogens is necessary in order to identify preventable causes of tubal factor infertility. Improved clinical screening and prevention of ascending infection may provide a solution to the persistent burden of infertility. PMID:28007229

  9. Disease ecology and the global emergence of zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bruce A; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-09-01

    The incidence and frequency of epidemic transmission of zoonotic diseases, both known and newly recognized, has increased dramatically in the past 30 years. It is thought that this dramatic disease emergence is primarily the result of the social, demographic, and environmental transformation that has occurred globally since World War II. However, the causal linkages have not been elucidated. Investigating emerging zoonotic pathogens as an ecological phenomenon can provide significant insights as to why some of these pathogens have jumped species and caused major epidemics in humans. A review of concepts and theory from biological ecology and of causal factors in disease emergence previously described suggests a general model of global zoonotic disease emergence. The model links demographic and societal factors to land use and land cover change whose associated ecological factors help explain disease emergence. The scale and magnitude of these changes are more significant than those associated with climate change, the effects of which are largely not yet understood. Unfortunately, the complex character and non-linear behavior of the human-natural systems in which host-pathogen systems are embedded makes specific incidences of disease emergence or epidemics inherently difficult to predict. Employing a complex systems analytical approach, however, may show how a few key ecological variables and system properties, including the adaptive capacity of institutions, explains the emergence of infectious diseases and how an integrated, multi-level approach to zoonotic disease control can reduce risk.

  10. Women and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, C; Chrisler, J C

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of historical developments in women's health care. It describes the current campaign against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and assesses the campaign's success in light of its history and the reality of women's lives. The authors suggest that women are forced into a double-bind in which they are expected to take responsibility for the prevention of STDs although they may not have the ability to do so. Modifications are suggested which take into account gender-role socialization and social group norms.

  11. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    PubMed Central

    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p<0.000), followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40%) (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003), domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33%) (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025) and military dogs (2.5%). Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%), T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p<0.000), gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p<0.014), housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75), p<0.000) with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067) and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to 7

  12. Leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thayaparan, S; Robertson, I D; Fairuz, A; Suut, L; Abdullah, M T

    2013-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Malaysia and recently has received increasing attention mainly due to several recent incidents that have resulted in human mortality which have alarmed health professionals in Malaysia. The increasing incidence of leptospirosis in forested regions is associated with the bacteria infecting small wild mammals other than rats. Infection in wildlife could result in the introduction of new serovars to humans and domesticated animals. More research on leptospirosis and the screening of wildlife and humans near wildlife habitats is required to have a better understanding of the involvement of wildlife in the disease.

  13. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  14. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  15. Optimal sampling strategies for detecting zoonotic disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jake M; Langebrake, Jessica B; Cannataro, Vincent L; Garcia, Andres J; Hamman, Elizabeth A; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W

    2014-06-01

    The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests.

  16. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bukachi, Salome; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a ‘One Health’ approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies—trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya—we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of ‘structural violence’ that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an ‘anti-political’ focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584177

  17. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Bukachi, Salome; Leach, Melissa; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian; Wilkinson, Annie

    2017-07-19

    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a 'One Health' approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies-trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya-we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of 'structural violence' that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an 'anti-political' focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teens at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascola, Laurene

    1987-01-01

    Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)

  19. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2014: Syphilis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures – ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data – 1996-2013 STD ...

  20. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  1. Ecological study on antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic bacteria transmitted by flies in cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asmaa N; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Abdel-Azeem, Naglaa M; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Flies were qualitatively and quantitatively monitored on both livestock animals and the surrounding environment to investigate their role as a potential carrier for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance in cattle farms. This was done by the use of visual observations and animal photography; meanwhile, in the surrounding environment, flies were collected using sticky cards and then microscopically identified. Representative fly samples were cultured for bacterial isolation, biochemical identification, and then tested against common 12 antibiotics. The total average of dipterous flies in examined farms was 400.42 ± 6.2. Culicoides biting midges were the most common existing species (70.01 %) followed by house flies, stable flies, and mosquitoes (18.31, 7.74, and 3.91 %, respectively) at X (2) = 9.0, P < 0.05. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (22.6 %), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter (17.3 % each), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) (14.7 %), Klebsiella sp. (8 %), Salmonella spp. (6.7 %), and Shigella spp. and Proteus spp. (6.7 % each). The tested bacterial isolates were resistant to variant antibiotics used. S. aureus exhibited 100 % resistance to colistine. However, E. coli revealed 92.9 and 78.6 % resistance against tetracycline and colistine, respectively. Both Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 100 % resistant to penicillin, and Klebsiella sp. had 100 % resistance to tetracycline. In conclusion, Culicoides biting midges and house flies could be considered as a potential carrier for multi-drug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance. Furthermore, cows' environment has an essential role in propagation and wide spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  2. Early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases with animal morbidity and mortality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Ssebide, Benard J; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Diseases transmitted between animals and people have made up more than 50% of emerging infectious diseases in humans over the last 60 years and have continued to arise in recent months. Yet, public health and animal disease surveillance programs continue to operate independently. Here, we assessed whether recent emerging zoonotic pathogens (n = 143) are known to cause morbidity or mortality in their animal host and if so, whether they were first detected with an animal morbidity/mortality event. We show that although sick or dead animals are often associated with these pathogens (52%), only 9% were first detected from an animal morbidity or mortality event prior to or concurrent with signs of illness in humans. We propose that an animal morbidity and mortality reporting program will improve detection and should be an essential component of early warning systems for zoonotic diseases. With the use of widespread low-cost technology, such a program could engage both the public and professionals and be easily tested and further incorporated as part of surveillance efforts by public health officials.

  3. [Diseases transmitted by ticks locally and abroad].

    PubMed

    Gétaz, L; Loutan, L; Mezger, N

    2012-05-09

    This article provides a brief overview of some diseases transmitted by ticks. These vectors do not transmit only Lyme disease and tickborne-encephalitis, even in Switzerland. Several tick-borne diseases cause nonspecific flu-like symptoms. Nevertheless sometimes severe, some of these diseases can be treated with specific treatments. Repellents, appropriate clothes impregnated with permethrine and prompt removal of the tick are effective preventive measures to limit the risk of infection. There is an effective vaccine which protects against tick-borne encephalitis.

  4. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976–2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04395.001 PMID:25201877

  5. Zoonotic Transmission of Waterborne Disease: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Waters, Edward K; Hamilton, Andrew J; Sidhu, Harvinder S; Sidhu, Leesa A; Dunbar, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne parasites that infect both humans and animals are common causes of diarrhoeal illness, but the relative importance of transmission between humans and animals and vice versa remains poorly understood. Transmission of infection from animals to humans via environmental reservoirs, such as water sources, has attracted attention as a potential source of endemic and epidemic infections, but existing mathematical models of waterborne disease transmission have limitations for studying this phenomenon, as they only consider contamination of environmental reservoirs by humans. This paper develops a mathematical model that represents the transmission of waterborne parasites within and between both animal and human populations. It also improves upon existing models by including animal contamination of water sources explicitly. Linear stability analysis and simulation results, using realistic parameter values to describe Giardia transmission in rural Australia, show that endemic infection of an animal host with zoonotic protozoa can result in endemic infection in human hosts, even in the absence of person-to-person transmission. These results imply that zoonotic transmission via environmental reservoirs is important.

  6. Orally-transmitted Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Filigheddu, Maria Teresa; Górgolas, Miguel; Ramos, José Manuel

    2017-02-09

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is most frequently associated with a vectorial transmission. However, in recent years we have observed a significant increase in the oral transmission of the disease, associated mainly with the consumption of drinks made from fruit or other vegetables contaminated with triatomine faeces or secretions from infected mammals. After a latency period of 3 to 22 days after ingestion, the oral infection is characterized by more severe manifestations than those associated with vectorial transmission: prolonged fever, acute myocarditis with heart failure and, in some cases, meningoencephalitis. Mortality can reach up to 33% of those infected. The aim of this paper is to review this matter and to promote prevention practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular Manifestations of Mosquito-Transmitted Diseases.

    PubMed

    Karesh, James W; Mazzoli, Robert A; Heintz, Shannon K

    2018-03-01

    Of the 3,548 known mosquito species, about 100 transmit human diseases. Mosquitoes are distributed globally throughout tropical and temperate regions where standing water sources are available for egg laying and the maturation of larva. Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg production. This is the main pathway for disease transmission. Mosquitoes carry several pathogenic organisms responsible for significant ocular pathology and vision loss including West Nile, Rift Valley, chikungunya, dengue viruses, various encephalitis viruses, malarial parasites, Francisella tularensis, microfilarial parasites, including Dirofilaria, Wuchereria, and Brugia spp., and human botfly larvae. Health care providers may not be familiar with many of these mosquito-transmitted diseases or their associated ocular findings delaying diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of visual function. This article aims to provide an overview of the ocular manifestations associated with mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  8. Sexually transmitted diseases and the mobility explosion

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The very great increase in the tourist industry during the past 20 years is described. This has occurred at a time when there has been an unprecedented rise in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases. Evidence is presented that there is a relationship between the number of tourists and other travellers and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Case histories from three different categories of tourist are described and the impact of tourism on the spread of disease is stressed. It is suggested that health authorities throughout the world should give further consideration to plans to meet the challenge of the mobility explosion. PMID:1243165

  9. Survey of Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexually transmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital…

  10. Socio-demographic study on extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, K.; Bhattacharya, A.; David, S.; Balaji, S. Hari; Hariharan, R.; Jayakumar, M.; Balaji, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly from eight revenue villages. And each farmer was interviewed with a questionnaire containing both open- and close-ended questions on various aspects of zoonotic diseases, a total of 49 questionnaires were framed to assess the source and transmission of infection to the farmers and to test their knowledge and awareness about zoonotic diseases. The data collected were analyzed by chi-square test using software Graph pad prism, and results were used to assess the relationship between education level and zoonotic disease awareness; risk of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Results: The present survey analysis represents that most of the respondents are belonging to the age group of 41-60 years. About 42.8% of respondents’ household having a graduate. The most of the respondent are small-scale farmers and their monthly income was less than Rs. 10,000. About 61.2% of farmers were keeping their animal shed clean. About 29.6% of the respondents were ignorant about cleaning the dog bitten wound. Only 16.4% of respondents knew that diseases in animals can be transmitted to humans. Only 4.8%, 3.6%, 6.8%, and 22.4% of respondents knew about the zoonotic potential of diseases such as brucellosis, tuberculosis (TB), anthrax, and avian flu, respectively. Only 18% of the respondents were aware about zoonotic diseases from cattle. Regarding the list of zoonotic diseases contracted, 37.7% reported respiratory infection, 31.1% digestive disturbances, 15.5% had dermatological problem, and 15.5% reported indiscrete disease such as fever, body pain, and headache joint pain. From the respondent got the zoonotic disease (n=45), 51.2% of the respondent reported chronic infection and 48.8% of the respondent reported acute

  11. Multisectoral prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda, 2017: A One Health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bulage, Lilian; Kihembo, Christine; Nantima, Noelina; Monje, Fred; Ndumu, Deo; Sentumbwe, Juliet; Mbolanyi, Betty; Aruho, Robert; Kaboyo, Winyi; Mutonga, David; Basler, Colin; Paige, Sarah; Barton Behravesh, Casey

    2018-01-01

    Background Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. Materials and methods The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was used for the prioritization of zoonoses. Workshop participants included voting members and observers representing multiple government and non-governmental sectors. During the workshop, criteria for prioritization were selected, and questions and weights relevant to each criterion were determined. We used a decision tree to provide a ranked list of zoonoses. Participants then established next steps for multisectoral engagement for the prioritized zoonoses. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated how criteria weights impacted disease prioritization. Results Forty-eight zoonoses were considered during the workshop. Criteria selected to prioritize zoonotic diseases were (1) severity of disease in humans in Uganda, (2) availability of effective control strategies, (3) potential to cause an epidemic or pandemic in humans or animals, (4) social and economic impacts, and (5) bioterrorism potential. Seven zoonotic diseases were identified as priorities for Uganda: anthrax, zoonotic influenza viruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, African trypanosomiasis, plague, and rabies. Sensitivity analysis did not indicate significant changes in zoonotic disease prioritization based on criteria weights. Discussion One Health approaches and multisectoral collaborations are crucial to the surveillance, prevention, and control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Uganda used such an approach to identify zoonoses of

  12. Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ≥ 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…

  14. Sexually transmitted and anorectal infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Cone, Molly M; Whitlow, Charles B

    2013-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are common and they can involve the anus and rectum in both men and women. In this article, the main bacterial and viral STDs that affect the anus and rectum are discussed, including their prevalence, presentation, and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part I--nonparasitic zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Armstrong, J

    2002-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease ranging from mild and self-limiting to fatal. The risk of development of a zoonotic disease can be lessened by early recognition of infected animals, proper animal handling, basic biosecurity precautions, and, most importantly, personal hygiene.

  16. [Diseases transmitted through water for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Franco, E; Dentamaro, M

    2003-01-01

    The water for human consumption maintains a biological risk and can transmit diseases. The classical waterborne and the presently frequent diseases caused by protozoi Giardia and Cryptosporidium are considered and Arcobacter butzleri, a new waterborne pathogen, is described. Many measures have been adopted by institutions to ensure the quality of the drinking water. Managers and public health operators is working in order to verify the efficiency of more suitable indicators for its monitoring.

  17. [Bartonella henselae, an ubiquitous agent of proteiform zoonotic disease].

    PubMed

    Edouard, S; Raoult, D

    2010-06-01

    Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease, a human infection usually characterized by persistent regional lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted to humans by cat scratches or bites. Cats are the major reservoir for this bacterium thus B. henselae has a worldwide distribution. The bacterial pathogenicity may bay emphasized by the immune status of the infected host. Angiomatosis or hepatic peliosis are the most frequent clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. B. henselae is also responsible for endocarditis in patients with valvular diseases, and may induce various clinical presentations such as: bacteriemia, retinitis, musculoskeletal disorders, hepatic or splenic diseases, encephalitis, or myocarditis. Several diagnostic tools are available; they may be combined and adapted to every clinical setting. B. henselae is a fastidious bacterium; its diagnosis is mainly made by PCR and blood tests. No treatment is required for the benign form of cat scratch disease. For more severe clinical presentations, the treatment must be adapted to every clinical presentation.

  18. Overview of Zoonotic Diseases in Turkey: The One Health Concept and Future Threats.

    PubMed

    İnci, Abdullah; Doğanay, Mehmet; Özdarendeli, Aykut; Düzlü, Önder; Yıldırım, Alparslan

    2018-03-01

    Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections. The natural location of Turkey allows many emerged or re-emerged infections with zoonotic characteristics by animal movements, such as bird immigrations, and by human movements due to civil wars as seen with regional refugees. Numerous zoonotic diseases, including 37 bacterial, 13 fungal, 29 viral, 28 parasitic (3 trematodes, 7 cestodes, 10 nematodes, and 8 protozoan), and totally 107 infections, have been reported from Turkey to date. Additionally, many ectoparasitic zoonoses within 15 different arthropod groups and one leech infestation have been reported from Turkey to date. The "One Health" initiative is particularly relevant for developing strategies to combat zoonotic diseases. In this article, we review the occurrence of zoonotic diseases in man and animals in Turkey in the light of the "One Health" perspective.

  19. Stochastic dynamics for reinfection by transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Alessandro S.; Pinho, Suani T. R.

    2017-06-01

    The use of stochastic models to study the dynamics of infectious diseases is an important tool to understand the epidemiological process. For several directly transmitted diseases, reinfection is a relevant process, which can be expressed by endogenous reactivation of the pathogen or by exogenous reinfection due to direct contact with an infected individual (with smaller reinfection rate σ β than infection rate β ). In this paper, we examine the stochastic susceptible, infected, recovered, infected (SIRI) model simulating the endogenous reactivation by a spontaneous reaction, while exogenous reinfection by a catalytic reaction. Analyzing the mean-field approximations of a site and pairs of sites, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the particular case of exogenous reinfection, we obtained continuous phase transitions involving endemic, epidemic, and no transmission phases for the simple approach; the approach of pairs is better to describe the phase transition from endemic phase (susceptible, infected, susceptible (SIS)-like model) to epidemic phase (susceptible, infected, and removed or recovered (SIR)-like model) considering the comparison with MC results; the reinfection increases the peaks of outbreaks until the system reaches endemic phase. For the particular case of endogenous reactivation, the approach of pairs leads to a continuous phase transition from endemic phase (SIS-like model) to no transmission phase. Finally, there is no phase transition when both effects are taken into account. We hope the results of this study can be generalized for the susceptible, exposed, infected, and removed or recovered (SEIRIE) model, for which the state exposed (infected but not infectious), describing more realistically transmitted diseases such as tuberculosis. In future work, we also intend to investigate the effect of network topology on phase transitions when the SIRI model describes both transmitted diseases (σ <1 ) and social contagions (σ >1 ).

  20. Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Environmentally Forced Zoonotic Disease Emergence: Sin Nombre Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Scott; Mills, James N.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Parmenter, Robert R.; Richardson, Kyle S.; Harris, Rachel L.; Douglass, Richard J.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Luis, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. We propose a mechanistic understanding of human–reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. Crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. We found that disease cases were greatest in arid states and declined exponentially with increasing precipitation. Within arid environments, relatively rare climatic conditions (e.g., El Niño) are associated with increased rainfall and reservoir abundance, producing more frequent virus transmission and host dispersal. We suggest that deer mice increase their occupancy of peridomestic structures during spring–summer, amplifying intraspecific transmission and human infection risk. Disease incidence in arid states may increase with predicted climatic changes. Mechanistic approaches incorporating reservoir behavior, reservoir–human interactions, and pathogen spillover could enhance our understanding of global hantavirus ecology, with applications to other directly transmitted zoonoses. PMID:26955081

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases in Poland in 2011.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Sławomir; Rudnicka, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Was to assess epidemiological situation of sexually transmitted diseases in Poland in 2011. Analysis of the data on prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhoea, non-gonococcal urethritis, genital herpes and genital warts was gathered from yearly reports MZ-14 from several didtricts. In 2011 there were 841 reported cases of all types of syphilis, which was higher by 24 than in 2010. Within the reported cases, 554 cases were of early syphilis, 274 cases of late syphilis, and 11 cases of congenital syphilis. Syphilis during pregnancy and childbirth was reported in 13 women. The highest incidence of syphilis in 2011, similarly to previous years was in Mazowieckie district (4.7/100,000) and the lowest in Swietokrzyskie district (0.2/100,000), the average in a whole country accounted to 2.2/100,000. In 2011 there were 351 cases of gonorrhoea reported, which was higher by 77 cases than reported in the previous year. The highest incidence was reported in Mazowieckie voivodeship. Non-gonococcal urethritis -NGU was identified in 484 persons; this was less by 294 cases than reported in the previous year. The highest incidence rate was reported in Dolnoślaskie voivodeship 9.6/100,000. There were 428 cases of genital warts reported which was less by 174 cases than reported in 2010. The highest incidence rate was reported in Mazowieckie voivodeship, Warminsko- Mazurskie voivodeship and Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship. As in previous years the most unfavourable epidemiological situation in terms of all registered sexually transmitted diseases was in Mazowieckie voivodeship. In 2011 among sexually transmitted diseases NGU and genital warts were reported in lower numbers then in previous year. In the same time numbers of reported cases of gonorrhoea and syphilis increased. There is a continued decrease in the number of serological tests done for syphilis. Epidemiological indicators of treatment for gonorrhoea and syphilis are very low for number of years. The epidemiological data is

  2. Information to prevent human exposure to disease agents associated with wildlife—U.S. Geological Survey circulars on zoonotic disease

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others have published reports with information about geographic distribution, specific pathogens, disease ecology, and strategies to avoid exposure and infection for a selection of zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be passed from animals to humans, such as rabies and plague. This summary factsheet highlights the reports on plague, bat rabies, and raccoon roundworm with links to all seven zoonotic diseases covered in this series.

  3. Genomic Dissection of an Icelandic Epidemic of Respiratory Disease in Horses and Associated Zoonotic Cases

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Harris, Simon R.; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Gammeljord, Kristina; Steward, Karen F.; Newton, J. Richard; Robinson, Carl; Charbonneau, Amelia R. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iceland is free of the major infectious diseases of horses. However, in 2010 an epidemic of respiratory disease of unknown cause spread through the country’s native horse population of 77,000. Microbiological investigations ruled out known viral agents but identified the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) in diseased animals. We sequenced the genomes of 257 isolates of S. zooepidemicus to differentiate epidemic from endemic strains. We found that although multiple endemic clones of S. zooepidemicus were present, one particular clone, sequence type 209 (ST209), was likely to have been responsible for the epidemic. Concurrent with the epidemic, ST209 was also recovered from a human case of septicemia, highlighting the pathogenic potential of this strain. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the incursion of this strain into one training yard during February 2010 provided a nidus for the infection of multiple horses that then transmitted the strain to farms throughout Iceland. This study represents the first time that whole-genome sequencing has been used to investigate an epidemic on a national scale to identify the likely causative agent and the link to an associated zoonotic infection. Our data highlight the importance of national biosecurity to protect vulnerable populations of animals and also demonstrate the potential impact of S. zooepidemicus transmission to other animals, including humans. PMID:28765219

  4. Zoonotic viral diseases and the frontier of early diagnosis, control and prevention.

    PubMed

    Heeney, J L

    2006-11-01

    Public awareness of the human health risks of zoonotic infections has grown in recent years. Currently, concern of H5N1 flu transmission from migratory bird populations has increased with foci of fatal human cases. This comes on the heels of other major zoonotic viral epidemics in the last decade. These include other acute emerging or re-emerging viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West-Nile virus, Ebola virus, monkeypox, as well as the more inapparent insidious slow viral and prion diseases. Virus infections with zoonotic potential can become serious killers once they are able to establish the necessary adaptations for efficient human-to-human transmission under circumstances sufficient to reach epidemic proportions. The monitoring and early diagnosis of these potential risks are overlapping frontiers of human and veterinary medicine. Here, current viral zoonotics and evolving threats are reviewed.

  5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Workowski, Kimberly A.; Bolan, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30–May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR–12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs. PMID:26042815

  6. Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

    2012-04-01

    Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  8. Individualistic values are related to an increase in the outbreaks of infectious diseases and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Walther, Bruno A

    2018-03-01

    Collectivist versus individualistic values are important attributes of intercultural variation. Collectivist values favour in-group members over out-group members and may have evolved to protect in-group members against pathogen transmission. As predicted by the pathogen stress theory of cultural values, more collectivist countries are associated with a higher historical pathogen burden. However, if lifestyles of collectivist countries indeed function as a social defence which decreases pathogen transmission, then these countries should also have experienced fewer disease outbreaks in recent times. We tested this novel hypothesis by correlating the values of collectivism-individualism for 66 countries against their historical pathogen burden, recent number of infectious disease outbreaks and zoonotic disease outbreaks and emerging infectious disease events, and four potentially confounding variables. We confirmed the previously established negative relationship between individualism and historical pathogen burden with new data. While we did not find a correlation for emerging infectious disease events, we found significant positive correlations between individualism and the number of infectious disease outbreaks and zoonotic disease outbreaks. Therefore, one possible cost for individualistic cultures may be their higher susceptibility to disease outbreaks. We support further studies into the exact protective behaviours and mechanisms of collectivist societies which may inhibit disease outbreaks.

  9. The other epidemics. Sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1993-01-01

    Around 70% of female infertility in developing countries is caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that can be traced back to husbands or partners. STDs and reproductive tract infections cause 750,000 deaths and 75 million illnesses among women each year worldwide, and these deaths may more than double by the year 2000. Death rates are rising fastest in Africa, followed by Asia and Latin America. About 450,000 cases of potentially fatal reproductive tract cancers are diagnosed annually: an estimated 354,000 occur in Third World women, virtually all of whom die. Worldwide, roughly 250 million new infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and the human papillomavirus are sexually transmitted each year. Chlamydia and the human papillomavirus account for 50 million and 30 million new cases per year, respectively. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected 1 million people worldwide between April and December 1991, according to the World Health Organization. A study in the Indian state of Maharashtra revealed that 92% of the 650 rural women examined had an average of 3.6 infections of gynecological type or sexually transmitted type per women. Another study in 2 rural Egyptian villages found that half of 509 nonpregnant women aged 20 to 60 years had infections. Only 2 facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of STDs exist in all of Kenya. In Ibadan, Nigeria, with a population of 2 million, there is only 1 recognized STD clinic. The physical consequences of several STDs have been linked to increased risks of AIDS transmission. Early recognition and treatment of STDs in pregnant women would cut infant mortality. Maternal infections with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or herpes are transferred to infants at birth 25% to 50% of the time. In Africa, infant blindness caused by gonorrhea infection is 50 times more common than in industrial countries. The International Women's Health Coalition's March 1992 meeting of more than 50 Third World scientists, health advocates, and

  10. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Buza, Teresia M; Jack, Sherman W; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L; Lawrence, Mark L; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database (http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu). This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information. Database URL: http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Buza, Teresia M.; Jack, Sherman W.; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L.; Lawrence, Mark L.; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database (http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu). This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information. Database URL: http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu PMID:26581408

  13. Experts' Perceptions on China's Capacity to Manage Emerging and Re-emerging Zoonotic Diseases in an Era of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A; Xiang, J; Liu, Q; Tong, M X; Sun, Y; Liu, X; Chen, K; Cameron, S; Hanson-Easey, S; Han, G-S; Weinstein, P; Williams, C; Bi, P

    2017-11-01

    Zoonotic diseases transmitted by arthropods and rodents are a major public health concern in China. However, interventions in recent decades have helped lower the incidence of several diseases despite the country's large, frequently mobile population and socio-economic challenges. Increasing globalization, rapid urbanization and a warming climate now add to the complexity of disease control and prevention and could challenge China's capacity to respond to threats of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. To investigate this notion, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 30 infectious disease experts in four cities in China. The case study diseases under discussion were malaria, dengue fever and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, all of which may be influenced by changing meteorological conditions. Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. The study participants viewed the current disease prevention and control system favourably and were optimistic about China's capacity to manage climate-sensitive diseases in the future. Several recommendations emerged from the data including the need to improve health literacy in the population regarding the transmission of infectious diseases and raising awareness of the health impacts of climate change amongst policymakers and health professionals. Participants thought that research capacity could be strengthened and human resources issues for front-line staff should be addressed. It was considered important that authorities are well prepared in advance for outbreaks such as dengue fever in populous subtropical areas, and a prompt and coordinated response is required when outbreaks occur. Furthermore, health professionals need to remain skilled in the identification of diseases for which incidence is declining, so that re-emerging or emerging trends can be rapidly identified. Recommendations such as these may be useful in formulating adaptation plans and capacity building for the future control and

  14. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  15. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  16. Level of awareness regarding some zoonotic diseases, among dog owners of ithaca, new york.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Gursimrat Kaur; Singh, Devinder

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, dogs and cats are the two most common household companion animals. Because of this, they can be direct or indirect source of many human infections. Fortunately, most of these zoonotic infections can be clinically prevented by appropriate prophylactic interventions. Present kind of cross-sectional study, for the first time, was conducted in city of Ithaca, New York. People visiting local animal hospitals, dog parks, library and shoppers at Walmart supermarket were personally interviewed and a pre-tested questionnaire was got filled from every individual. The collected data were analyzed for percentage proportions using Microsoft Excel(®) and the results had been presented in graphical as well as tabulated forms. Out of 100 participants responding to the request for participation, gender-wise, 45% of the participants were male while 55% of the participants were females. Demographically, 50% participants lived in rural, 35% in urban while 15% participants lived in suburban areas. Educational background of the participants ranged from High school pass-outs to Graduates. Participants were aware about the zoonotic potential of leptospirosis, giardiasis, rabies, hookworms, coccidiosis, lyme disease, roundworms, toxoplasma, leishmaniasis, salmonellosis and ringworm disease. Knowledge gaps in the sampled population, in terms of lack of awareness about zoonotic diseases vectored by mosquitoes, ticks and fleas; practice of not doing regular deworming and prophylactic control of fleas and ticks on pet dogs; and lack of practice among physicians to discuss zoonotic canine diseases with their clients were revealed by this study.

  17. Level of Awareness Regarding Some Zoonotic Diseases, Among Dog Owners of Ithaca, New York

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gursimrat Kaur; Singh, Devinder

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Worldwide, dogs and cats are the two most common household companion animals. Because of this, they can be direct or indirect source of many human infections. Fortunately, most of these zoonotic infections can be clinically prevented by appropriate prophylactic interventions. Materials and Methods: Present kind of cross-sectional study, for the first time, was conducted in city of Ithaca, New York. People visiting local animal hospitals, dog parks, library and shoppers at Walmart supermarket were personally interviewed and a pre-tested questionnaire was got filled from every individual. The collected data were analyzed for percentage proportions using Microsoft Excel® and the results had been presented in graphical as well as tabulated forms. Results: Out of 100 participants responding to the request for participation, gender-wise, 45% of the participants were male while 55% of the participants were females. Demographically, 50% participants lived in rural, 35% in urban while 15% participants lived in suburban areas. Educational background of the participants ranged from High school pass-outs to Graduates. Conclusions: Participants were aware about the zoonotic potential of leptospirosis, giardiasis, rabies, hookworms, coccidiosis, lyme disease, roundworms, toxoplasma, leishmaniasis, salmonellosis and ringworm disease. Knowledge gaps in the sampled population, in terms of lack of awareness about zoonotic diseases vectored by mosquitoes, ticks and fleas; practice of not doing regular deworming and prophylactic control of fleas and ticks on pet dogs; and lack of practice among physicians to discuss zoonotic canine diseases with their clients were revealed by this study. PMID:25657956

  18. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Despite the enormous relevance of zoonotic infections to world-wide public health, and despite much effort in modeling individual zoonoses, a fundamental understanding of the disease dynamics and the nature of outbreaks emanating from such a complex system is still lacking. We introduce a simple sto...

  19. Zoonotic disease risk perceptions in the British veterinary profession.

    PubMed

    Robin, Charlotte; Bettridge, Judy; McMaster, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    In human and veterinary medicine, reducing the risk of occupationally-acquired infections relies on effective infection prevention and control practices (IPCs). In veterinary medicine, zoonoses present a risk to practitioners, yet little is known about how these risks are understood and how this translates into health protective behaviour. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions within the British veterinary profession and identify motivators and barriers to compliance with IPCs. A cross-sectional study was conducted using veterinary practices registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Here we demonstrate that compliance with IPCs is influenced by more than just knowledge and experience, and understanding of risk is complex and multifactorial. Out of 252 respondents, the majority were not concerned about the risk of zoonoses (57.5%); however, a considerable proportion (34.9%) was. Overall, 44.0% of respondents reported contracting a confirmed or suspected zoonoses, most frequently dermatophytosis (58.6%). In veterinary professionals who had previous experience of managing zoonotic cases, time or financial constraints and a concern for adverse animal reactions were not perceived as barriers to use of personal protective equipment (PPE). For those working in large animal practice, the most significant motivator for using PPE was concerns over liability. When assessing responses to a range of different "infection control attitudes", veterinary nurses tended to have a more positive perspective, compared with veterinary surgeons. Our results demonstrate that IPCs are not always adhered to, and factors influencing motivators and barriers to compliance are not simply based on knowledge and experience. Educating veterinary professionals may help improve compliance to a certain extent, however increased knowledge does not necessarily equate to an increase in risk-mitigating behaviour. This highlights that the construction of risk is complex and

  20. Parasitic diseases of zoonotic importance in humans of northeast India, with special reference to ocular involvement.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipankar; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Deka, Angshuman; Yambem, Dinakumar; Tahiliani, Prerana Sushil; Deka, Panna; Bhattacharyya, Pankaj; Deka, Satyen; Das, Kalyan; Bharali, Gayatri; Deka, Apurba; Paul, Rajashree

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent in India, including the northeastern states. Proper epidemiological data are lacking from this part of the country on zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in the current scenario. Systemic manifestation of such diseases as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. The incidence of acquired toxoplasmal infection is showing an increasing trend in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Among the ocular parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, dirofilariasis, gnathostomiasis, hydatidosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, etc, are the real problems that are seen in this subset of the population. Therefore, proper coordination between various medical specialities, including veterinary science and other governing bodies, is needed for better and more effective strategic planning to control zoonoses.

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Maria Rita Teixeira; Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n=2145). More than one quarter of the sample (25.8%) reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. [Parasitic zoonotic disease agents in human and animal drinking water].

    PubMed

    Karanis, P

    2000-08-01

    Human- and veterinary important parasites of the subkingdom of protozoans and helminths infect humans and animals by ingestion of parasites in contaminated water. The parasites are excreted from the body of infected humans, livestock, zoo animals, companion animals or wild animals in the feces. Recreational waters, agricultural practices and wild animals serve as vehicles of transmission of the parasites in the water supplies. The following topics are addressed: a) the life cycles of parasitic diseases-causing agents with proven or potential transmission via water b) the development and the current research status of the analytical techniques for the detection of parasitic diseases-causing agents from water c) the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water supplies and in treated water d) the possible water sources and transmission ways of the parasites into the water supplies e) the behaviour and the possibilities for the removal or elimination of the parasites by water treatment.

  3. ZOONOTIC PARASITES, OUR ENVIROMENT AND CHANGE

    Environmental changes arising from nature and human activity are affecting patterns for the occurrence and significance of many infectious diseases, including zoonotic parasites, which are those naturally transmitted between domestic animals or wildlife and people. As these changes continue, and pe...

  4. [Pet ownership and health status of pets from immunocompromised children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases].

    PubMed

    Abarca V, Katia; López Del P, Javier; Peña D, Anamaría; López G, J Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To characterize pet ownership and pet health status in families of immunocompromised (IS) children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases. Families of IS children from two hospitals in Santiago, Chile, were interviewed and their pets were evaluated by veterinary examination, coproparasitologic and skin dermatophytes test. In specific cases, other laboratory tests were performed in IS children or their relatives. 47 out of 70 contacted families had pets, 42 participated in the study. Several risk factors for IS children were observed, as having a turtle as a pet and to clean cat or turtle faeces. Lack of adequate veterinary control, immunizations and deparasitation of pets were observed. Some animals showed zoonotic diseases or agents, as Brucella canis, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis, Toxocara canis and scabies. 44% of dogs had ticks and 37% had fleas, both potential vectors of infections. Our results suggest that policies to provide safer pet contact in IS children are needed.

  5. Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis: emerging zoonotic diseases in the South.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Today most emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), arise in the natural environment as zoonoses and are often imported into the United States (US). The most common helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) in the US, neuroangiostrongyliasis and baylisascariasis, share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases. Neuroangiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is now endemic in the US following the importation of infected rats on container ships and African land snails, the parasite's intermediate hosts, as biological controls and exotic pets. Baylisascariasis, a raccoon zoonosis, caused by the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, has extended its US distribution range from suburban neighborhoods in the northern US to the Southeast and West Coast since the 1980s. Both A. cantonensis and B. procyonis are now enzootic in Louisiana and have caused EoM in humans. This review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2008, in order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EoM in the US, and specifically in Louisiana; and to alert Louisiana clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EoM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel in the Americas or Caribbean. Most parasitic diseases causing EoM are no longer confined to tropical countries; they are now endemic in the US and in Louisiana and more cases may be anticipated.

  6. Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Jaspal Singh; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Gupta, Aparna; Singh, Jaswinder; Chahal, Udeybir Singh

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab. 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire, which contained both open and close ended questions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc. Knowledge scorecard was developed, and each correct answer was awarded one mark, and each incorrect answer was given zero mark. Respondents were categorized into low (mean - ½ standard deviation [SD]), moderate (mean ± ½ SD), and high knowledge (Mean + ½ SD) category based on the mean and SD. The information about independent variables viz., age, education, and herd size were collected with the help of structured schedule and scales. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and results were prepared to assess awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Majority of the respondents had age up to 40 years (70%), had their qualification from primary to higher secondary level (77.6%), and had their herd size up to 10 animals (79.6%). About 51.2% and 54.0% respondents had the history of abortion and retained placenta, respectively, at their farms. The respondents not only disposed off the infected placenta (35.6%), aborted fetus (39.6%), or feces (56.4%) from a diarrheic animal but also gave intrauterine medication (23.2%) bare-handedly. About 3.6-69.6% respondents consumed uncooked or unpasteurized animal products. About 84.8%, 46.0%, 32.8%, 4.61%, and 92.4% of livestock farmers were aware of zoonotic nature of rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, and bird flu, respectively. The 55.6%, 67.2%, 52.0%, 64.0%, and 51.2% respondents were aware of the transmission of zoonotic diseases to human being through contaminated milk, meat, air, feed, or through contact with infected animals, respectively. The transmission of rabies through dog bite (98.4%), need of post

  7. Beyond bushmeat: Animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Sarah B.; Frost, Simon D.W.; Gibson, Mhairi A.; Holland, James; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M.; Ting, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/ 1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where “bushmeat hunting” is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:24845574

  8. Beyond bushmeat: animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Paige, Sarah B; Frost, Simon D W; Gibson, Mhairi A; Jones, James Holland; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M; Ting, Nelson; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long-term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where "bushmeat hunting" is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission.

  9. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-U.S. border along the Rio Grande

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and inc...

  10. Updates to the zoonotic niche map of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Millear, Anoushka I; Earl, Lucas; Morozoff, Chloe; Han, Barbara A; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Golding, Nick; Hay, Simon I

    2016-01-01

    As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa is now contained, attention is turning from control to future outbreak prediction and prevention. Building on a previously published zoonotic niche map (Pigott et al., 2014), this study incorporates new human and animal occurrence data and expands upon the way in which potential bat EVD reservoir species are incorporated. This update demonstrates the potential for incorporating and updating data used to generate the predicted suitability map. A new data portal for sharing such maps is discussed. This output represents the most up-to-date estimate of the extent of EVD zoonotic risk in Africa. These maps can assist in strengthening surveillance and response capacity to contain viral haemorrhagic fevers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16412.001 PMID:27414263

  11. Zoonotic and infectious disease surveillance in Central America: Honduran feral cats positive for toxoplasma, trypanosoma, leishmania, rickettsia, and Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.

  12. Starting from the bench--prevention and control of foodborne and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Foodborne diseases are estimated to cause around 50 million disease cases and 3000 deaths a year in the US. Worldwide, food and waterborne diseases are estimated to cause more than 2 million deaths per year. Lab-based research is a key component of efforts to prevent and control foodborne diseases. Over the last two decades, molecular characterization of pathogen isolates has emerged as a key component of foodborne and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Characterization methods have evolved from banding pattern-based subtyping methods to sequenced-based approaches, including full genome sequencing. Molecular subtyping methods not only play a key role for characterizing pathogen transmission and detection of disease outbreaks, but also allow for identification of clonal pathogen groups that show distinct transmission characteristics. Importantly, the data generated from molecular characterization of foodborne pathogens also represent critical inputs for epidemiological and modeling studies. Continued and enhanced collaborations between infectious disease related laboratory sciences and epidemiologists, modelers, and other quantitative scientists will be critical to a One-Health approach that delivers societal benefits, including improved surveillance systems and prevention approaches for zoonotic and foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Waterborne zoonotic helminthiases.

    PubMed

    Nithiuthai, Suwannee; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2004-12-09

    This review deals with waterborne zoonotic helminths, many of which are opportunistic parasites spreading directly from animals to man or man to animals through water that is either ingested or that contains forms capable of skin penetration. Disease severity ranges from being rapidly fatal to low-grade chronic infections that may be asymptomatic for many years. The most significant zoonotic waterborne helminthic diseases are either snail-mediated, copepod-mediated or transmitted by faecal-contaminated water. Snail-mediated helminthiases described here are caused by digenetic trematodes that undergo complex life cycles involving various species of aquatic snails. These diseases include schistosomiasis, cercarial dermatitis, fascioliasis and fasciolopsiasis. The primary copepod-mediated helminthiases are sparganosis, gnathostomiasis and dracunculiasis, and the major faecal-contaminated water helminthiases are cysticercosis, hydatid disease and larva migrans. Generally, only parasites whose infective stages can be transmitted directly by water are discussed in this article. Although many do not require a water environment in which to complete their life cycle, their infective stages can certainly be distributed and acquired directly through water. Transmission via the external environment is necessary for many helminth parasites, with water and faecal contamination being important considerations. Human behaviour, particularly poor hygiene, is a major factor in the re-emergence, and spread of parasitic infections. Also important in assessing the risk of infection by water transmission are human habits and population density, the prevalence of infection in them and in alternate animal hosts, methods of treating sewage and drinking water, and climate. Disease prevention methods, including disease surveillance, education and improved drinking water treatment are described.

  14. Estimating Burdens of Neglected Tropical Zoonotic Diseases on Islands with Introduced Mammals.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Luz A; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Newton, Kelly M; Spatz, Dena R; Holmes, Nick D; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-03-01

    AbstractMany neglected tropical zoonotic pathogens are maintained by introduced mammals, and on islands the most common introduced species are rodents, cats, and dogs. Management of introduced mammals, including control or eradication of feral populations, which is frequently done for ecological restoration, could also reduce or eliminate the pathogens these animals carry. Understanding the burden of these zoonotic diseases is crucial for quantifying the potential public health benefits of introduced mammal management. However, epidemiological data are only available from a small subset of islands where these introduced mammals co-occur with people. We examined socioeconomic and climatic variables as predictors for disease burdens of angiostrongyliasis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and rabies from 57 islands or island countries. We found strong correlates of disease burden for leptospirosis, Toxoplasma gondii infection, angiostrongyliasis, and toxocariasis with more than 50% of the variance explained, and an average of 57% (range = 32-95%) predictive accuracy on out-of-sample data. We used these relationships to provide estimates of leptospirosis incidence and T. gondii seroprevalence infection on islands where nonnative rodents and cats are present. These predicted estimates of disease burden could be used in an initial assessment of whether the costs of managing introduced mammal reservoirs might be less than the costs of perpetual treatment of these diseases on islands.

  15. Seroprevalence of major bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Vongxay, Khamphouth; Conlan, James V; Khounsy, Syseng; Dorny, Pierre; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2012-10-01

    Bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases pose a significant threat to human health in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In all, 905 cattle and buffalo serum samples collected in northern Lao PDR in 2006 were used to determine seroprevalence of five major bovine zoonotic infectious diseases that included Taenia saginata cysticercosis, bovine tuberculosis, Q-fever, bovine brucellosis, and bovine leptospirosis. Five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to test for the presence of antibodies to the diseases, except Taenia saginata, for which we tested for the presence of Taenia metacestode circulating antigens. The overall highest prevalence was for T. saginata (46.4%), with lower prevalence for Q-fever (4%), leptospirosis (3%), tuberculosis (1%), and brucellosis (0.2%). Although there were no significant differences in the proportion of seroprevalence between sex and age of the animals sampled, there were significant differences between the provincial distributions. Further studies are required to determine the seroprevalence of these infections in other locations in Lao PDR, as well as other animal species including humans, in order to develop effective prevention and control strategies. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of bovine zoonotic infectious agents in the Lao PDR. Positivity was demonstrated for all diseases investigated, with the highest prevalence for T. saginata antigen and Coxiella burnetti antibodies. For T. saginata, there were significant differences in the provincial distribution. Approximately 16% seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetti was noted in Xayabuly Province; however, there are no clear reasons why this was the case, and further studies are required to determine risk factors associated with this observation.

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    A. O., Sogbetun; K. O., Alausa; A. O., Osoba

    1977-01-01

    Although previous workers have emphasised that venereal disease is rife in many developing countries there are no reliable statistics on the relative incidence of such infections. This dearth of information about these infections in Africa is directly related to economic factors, and the lack of modern diagnostic facilities and medical manpower. The pattern of these diseases was studied over a 30-month period at a hospital clinic serving an African population of about 2 million people. Standard diagnostic methods were used. The age distribution of patients conformed with that in other parts of the world except that more pre-pubertal patients were seen. The male to female ratio was 3:1. Non-specific genital infections were the most common (25·9%) followed closely by post-pubertal gonorrhoea (19·5%). Pre-pubertal gonorrhoea was commoner than reported elsewhere (4·0%) and this may be because the children have been in contact with infected clothing of their parents or members of their family. Most strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were sensitive to penicillin by the disc method, but a few were markedly resistant to this and other agents. It is to be expected that the problem of gonococcal drug resistance will increase unless effective legislation is introduced to discourage self-medication with antimicrobial preparations. Venereophobia was common (6·6%) and sociocultural factors may play a dominant role in the incidence of the basically psychiatric condition. Syphilis constituted 2·5% of diagnoses and this can be regarded as an ominous sign in an area where yaws was endemic two decades ago and is now virtually non-existent. Altogether 9·5% of cases had multiple diagnoses making them dangerous sources of multiple infections. Up to 70% of the patients were infected after a promiscuous sexual activity. Such a high level of promiscuity would undoubtedly lead to an even greater dissemination of these infections. It is essential to provide facilities for diagnosis and

  17. [Soil contamination by eggs of soil-transmitted helminths with zoonotic potential in the town of Fernandópolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2007 and 2008].

    PubMed

    Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Pinto Neto, José Martins; Lima-Catelani, Alba Regina de Abreu; Ferreira, Antônio Walter

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of dogs and cats in urban areas, associated with an ever-increasing wandering population of these animals, has an important epidemiological role in the soil contamination of public spaces and the spread of infections of several types of parasites. This study aimed to determine the frequency of soil-transmitted helminths with zoonotic potential in public squares and municipal primary schools in Fernandópolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil, conducted between 2007 and 2008. All the squares (32) and schools (13) in the town were evaluated. Soil samples were tested using the Rugai method modified by Willis, Caldwell and Caldwell. A total of 225 soil samples were evaluated and 30.2% (68) were positive for helminths. In samples from public squares, 40% (64) contamination was observed; however, contamination in schools was only 6.1% (6). The parasites eggs identified were Toxocara spp. 79.3% (47), Trichuris spp. 13.8% (8) and Ancylostomatidae 6.9% (4). Variables related to the site, such as the number of dogs (OR 21.18, 10.81 - 41.51), fecal samples (OR 6.87, 3.51 - 13.47) and the use of fences (OR 0.1, 0.05 - 0.20), had an impact on soil contamination. In the contaminated samples, parasites with zoonotic potential were identified, including the etiologic agents of diseases like cutaneous and visceral larva migrans, a fact that poses a risk to health of the population that frequent such environments.

  18. Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer G; Jung, Sherry; Holman, Robert C; Marano, Nina N; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2008-06-15

    OBJECTIVE-To assess the knowledge and use of infection control practices (ICPs) among US veterinarians. DESIGN-Anonymous mail-out population survey. PROCEDURES-In 2005 a questionnaire was mailed to US small animal, large animal, and equine veterinarians who were randomly selected from the AVMA membership to assess precaution awareness (PA) and veterinarians' perceptions of zoonotic disease risks. Respondents were assigned a PA score (0 to 4) on the basis of their responses (higher scores representing higher stringency of ICPs); within a practice type, respondents' scores were categorized as being within the upper 25% or lower 75% of scores (high and low PA ranking, respectively). Characteristics associated with low PA rankings were assessed. RESULTS-Generally, respondents did not engage in protective behaviors or use personal protective equipment considered appropriate to protect against zoonotic disease transmission. Small animal and equine veterinarians employed in practices that had no written infection control policy were significantly more likely to have low PA ranking. Male gender was associated with low PA ranking among small animal and large animal veterinarians; equine practitioners not working in a teaching or referral hospital were more likely to have low PA ranking than equine practitioners working in such institutions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results indicated that most US veterinarians are not aware of appropriate personal protective equipment use and do not engage in practices that may help reduce zoonotic disease transmission. Gender differences may influence personal choices for ICPs. Provision of information and training on ICPs and establishment of written infection control policies could be effective means of improving ICPs in veterinary practices.

  19. Protocol for developing a Database of Zoonotic disease Research in India (DoZooRI).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Kakkar, Manish

    2017-12-10

    Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses. A large-scale systematic mapping of the published peer-reviewed research conducted in India will be undertaken. All published research will be included in the database, without any prejudice for quality screening, to broaden the scope of included studies. Structured search strategies will be developed for priority zoonotic diseases (leptospirosis, rabies, anthrax, brucellosis, cysticercosis, salmonellosis, bovine tuberculosis, Japanese encephalitis and rickettsial infections), and multiple databases will be searched for studies conducted in India. The database will be managed and hosted on a cloud-based platform called Rayyan. Individual studies will be tagged based on key preidentified parameters (disease, study design, study type, location, randomisation status and interventions, host involvement and others, as applicable). The database will incorporate already published studies, obviating the need for additional ethical clearances. The database will be made available online, and in collaboration with multisectoral teams, domains of enquiries will be identified and subsequent research questions will be raised. The database will be queried for these and resulting evidence will be analysed and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  20. Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women in Lusaka.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, A V; Chatterjee, T K; Mulenga, R C

    1980-01-01

    The prevalance of sexually transmitted diseases has been known to be high in many African countries and preliminary investigations in Lusaka revealed a similar trend in Zambia. This paper presents an analysis of diagnoses made in 170 symptomatic pregnant women referred to the sexually transmitted diseases clinic and the screening results of 163 pregnant women in a routine antenatal examination. A high prevalance of gonococcal infection as well as syphilis was discovered in pregnant women. The implications of these findings on the possible complications and outcome of pregnancy are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

  1. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions

    Hayman, D.T.; Bowen, R.A.; Cryan, P.M.; McCracken, G.F.; O'Shea, T.J.; Peel, A.J.; Gilbert, A.; Webb, C.T.; Wood, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics.

  2. Views from many worlds: unsettling categories in interdisciplinary research on endemic zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research on zoonotic disease has tended to focus on ‘risk’ of disease transmission as a conceptual common denominator. With reference to endemic zoonoses at the livestock–human interface, we argue for considering a broader sweep of disciplinary insights from anthropology and other social sciences in interdisciplinary dialogue, in particular cross-cultural perspectives on human–animal engagement. We consider diverse worldviews where human–animal encounters are perceived of in terms of the kinds of social relations they generate, and the notion of culture is extended to the ‘natural’ world. This has implications for how animals are valued, treated and prioritized. Thinking differently with and about animals and about species' boundaries could enable ways of addressing zoonotic diseases which have closer integration with people's own cultural norms. If we can bring this kind of knowledge into One Health debates, we find ourselves with a multiplicity of worldviews, where bounded categories such as human:animal and nature:culture cannot be assumed. This might in turn influence our scientific ways of seeing our own disciplinary cultures, and generate novel ways of understanding zoonoses and constructing solutions. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584178

  3. Ecology of Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, D T S; Bowen, R A; Cryan, P M; McCracken, G F; O’Shea, T J; Peel, A J; Gilbert, A; Webb, C T; Wood, J L N

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics. PMID:22958281

  4. An Invasive Vector of Zoonotic Disease Sustained by Anthropogenic Resources: The Raccoon Dog in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010–2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1%) and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%). Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with ‘carrion’ and ‘anthropogenic plants’ making up the bulk of both species’ diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, ‘anthropogenic plants’ and ‘carrion’ provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa), this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange. PMID:24852942

  5. An invasive vector of zoonotic disease sustained by anthropogenic resources: the raccoon dog in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010-2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1%) and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%). Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with 'carrion' and 'anthropogenic plants' making up the bulk of both species' diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, 'anthropogenic plants' and 'carrion' provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa), this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange.

  6. A Quantitative Approach to the Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in North America: A Health Professionals’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Victoria; Sargeant, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, zoonoses account for 58% to 61% of all communicable diseases causing illness in humans globally and up to 75% of emerging human pathogens. Although the impact of zoonoses on animal health and public health in North America is significant, there has been no published research involving health professionals on the prioritization of zoonoses in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings We used conjoint analysis (CA), a well-established quantitative method in market research, to identify the relative importance of 21 key characteristics of zoonotic diseases for their prioritization in Canada and the US. Relative importance weights from the CA were used to develop a point-scoring system to derive a recommended list of zoonoses for prioritization in Canada and the US. Study participants with a background in epidemiology, public health, medical sciences, veterinary sciences and infectious disease research were recruited to complete the online survey (707 from Canada and 764 from the US). Hierarchical Bayes models were fitted to the survey data to derive CA-weighted scores for disease criteria. Scores were applied to 62 zoonotic diseases to rank diseases in order of priority. Conclusions/Significance We present the first zoonoses prioritization exercise involving health professionals in North America. Our previous study indicated individuals with no prior knowledge in infectious diseases were capable of producing meaningful results with acceptable model fits (79.4%). This study suggests health professionals with some knowledge in infectious diseases were capable of producing meaningful results with better-fitted models than the general public (83.7% and 84.2%). Despite more similarities in demographics and model fit between the combined public and combined professional groups, there was more uniformity across priority lists between the Canadian public and Canadian professionals and between the US public and US professionals. Our study suggests that

  7. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  8. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…

  9. Problems in specimen collection for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Larsen, B

    1985-03-01

    Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are continuously undergoing improvement. It remains the responsibility of the clinician to become familiar with the tests available for the diagnosis of STDs. Those tests depend on obtaining clinical specimens from the proper site and on transporting them to the laboratory under satisfactory conditions.

  10. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  11. Sexually Transmitted Disease Services at US Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumans, Emilia H.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Motamed, Cathy; Kohl, Katrin; Schillinger, Julia A.; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors' objectives in this study were to describe the proportion of schools providing and the percentage of students with access to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) education, treatment, and prevention services at 2-year and 4-year US colleges and universities. The authors mailed self-administered questionnaires to a stratified…

  12. The social and political lives of zoonotic disease models: narratives, science and policy.

    PubMed

    Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling risk aversion to support decision-making for controlling zoonotic livestock diseases.

    PubMed

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bergevoet, R H M; Ge, L

    2013-12-01

    Zoonotic infectious livestock diseases are becoming a significant burden for both animal and human health and are rapidly gaining the attention of decision-makers who manage public health programmes. If control decisions have only monetary components, governments are generally regarded as being risk-neutral and the intervention strategy with the highest expected benefit (lowest expected net costs) should be preferred. However, preferences will differ and alternative intervention plans will prevail if (human) life and death outcomes are involved. A rational decision framework must therefore consider risk aversion in the decision-maker and controversial values related to public health. In the present study, risk aversion and its impact on both the utility for the monetary component and the utility for the non-monetary component is shown to be an important element when dealing with emerging zoonotic infectious livestock diseases and should not be ignored in the understanding and support of decision-making. The decision framework was applied to several control strategies for the reduction of human cases of brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) originating from sheep in Turkey.

  14. A case of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E caused by blood from a donor infected with hepatitis E virus via zoonotic food-borne route.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Keiji; Kang, Jong-Hon; Sakata, Hidekatsu; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Shindo, Motohiro; Kato, Masaru; Sato, Shinichiro; Kato, Toshiaki; Nishimori, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Kunihiko; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi; Maekubo, Hiroshi; Mishiro, Shunji; Ikeda, Hisami

    2008-07-01

    Five cases of transfusion transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been reported so far. The infection routes of the causative donors remain unclear, however. Also, the progress of virus markers in the entire course of HEV infection has not been well documented. Nucleic acid testing was performed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction targeting the open reading frame 2 region of HEV. Full-length nucleotide sequences of HEV RNA were detected by direct sequencing. Lookback study of a HEV-positive donor revealed that the platelets (PLTs) donated from him 2 weeks previously contained HEV RNA and were transfused to a patient. Thirteen relatives including the donor were ascertained to enjoy grilled pork meats together in a barbecue restaurant 23 days before the donation. Thereafter, his father died of fulminant hepatitis E and the other 6 members showed serum markers of HEV infection. In the recipient, HEV was detected in serum on Day 22 and reached the peak of 7.2 log copies per mL on Day 44 followed by the steep increase of alanine aminotransferase. Immunoglobulin G anti-HEV emerged on Day 67; subsequently, hepatitis was resolved. HEV RNA sequences from the donor and recipient were an identical, Japan-indigenous strain of genotype 4. HEV RNA was detectable up to Day 97 in serum, Day 85 in feces, and Day 71 in saliva. A transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E case by blood from a donor infected via the zoonotic food-borne route and the progress of HEV markers in the entire course are demonstrated. Further studies are needed to clarify the epidemiology and the transfusion-related risks for HEV even in industrialized countries.

  15. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations.

    PubMed

    Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella . Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis , the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen.

  16. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella. Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis, the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen. PMID:28386446

  17. Research Options for Controlling Zoonotic Disease in India, 2010–2015

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Background Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Methods and Findings Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to ‘social, political and economic’ factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to ‘health policy and systems’ scored highest while those related to ‘research for development of new interventions’ scored the lowest. Conclusions We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors

  18. Research options for controlling zoonotic disease in India, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-02-25

    Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to 'social, political and economic' factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to 'health policy and systems' scored highest while those related to 'research for development of new interventions' scored the lowest. We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors. The identified research options capture the need for

  19. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic

  20. Spreading of sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual populations

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Latora, Vito; Moreno, Yamir; Profumo, Elio

    2008-01-01

    The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, etc.) across populations is a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both the data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensive contributions to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free graphs, representing heterosexual contact networks, is considered. We analytically derive the expression for the epidemic threshold and its dependence with the system size in finite populations. We show that the epidemic outbreak in bipartite populations, with number of sexual partners distributed as in empirical observations from national sex surveys, takes place for larger spreading rates than for the case in which the bipartite nature of the network is not taken into account. Numerical simulations confirm the validity of the theoretical results. Our findings indicate that the restriction to crossed infections between the two classes of individuals (males and females) has to be taken into account in the design of efficient immunization strategies for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18212127

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases in the history of Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, M

    1994-01-01

    First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures. PMID:8206475

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases in the history of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lyons, M

    1994-04-01

    First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures.

  3. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Malone, John B

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

  4. Zoonotic risks from small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ganter, M

    2015-12-14

    Zoonoses are infections that spread naturally between species (sometimes by a vector) from animals to other animal species or to humans or from humans to animals. Most of the zoonoses diagnosed in sheep and goats are transmitted by close contact of man with these animals and are, more often, occupational diseases that principally affect breeders, veterinarians and/or slaughterhouse workers. Some other diseases have an airborne transmission and affect the population in the vicinity of sheep/goat farms. Due to the fact that small ruminants are almost the only remaining animals which are migrating in industrialised countries, there is a severe risk for transmitting the diseases. Some other zoonotic diseases are foodborne diseases, which are mainly transmitted from animals to humans and to other animal species by contaminated food and water. Within the last decade central Europe was threatened by some new infections, e.g., bluetongue disease and schmallenberg disease, which although not of zoonotic interest, are caused by pathogens transmitted by vectors. Causal agents of both diseases have found highly effective indigenous vectors. In the future, climate change may possibly modify conditions for the vectors and influence their distribution and competence. By this, other vector-borne zoonotic infections may propagate into former disease free countries. Changes in human behaviour in consummation and processing of food, in animal housing and management may also influence future risks for zoonosis. Monitoring, prevention and control measures are proposed to limit further epidemics and to enable the containment of outbreaks. Measures depend mainly on the damage evoked or anticipated by the disease, the local situation, and the epidemiology of the zoonoses, the presence of the infective agent in wild and other animals, as well as the resistance of the causal microorganisms in the environment and the possibility to breed sheep and goats which are resistant to specific

  5. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Asymptomatic Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Sarier, Mehmet; Sepin Ozen, Nevgun; Guler, Hicran; Duman, Ibrahim; Yüksel, Yücel; Tekin, Sabri; Yavuz, Asuman Havva; Yucetin, Levent; Erdogan Yilmaz, Mine

    2018-04-04

    Sexually transmitted diseases, which may be asymptomatic, have the potential to cause serious health problems in renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in sexually active asymptomatic renal transplant patients by using real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays. This prospective controlled study was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 in our hospital. Our study group included 80 consecutive, sexually active asymptomatic patients (40 men and 40 women) who had undergone renal transplant in our hospital and who presented to our outpatient clinic for routine follow-up. We also included a control group of 80 consecutive, sexually active nontransplant patients (40 men and 40 women). All patient samples were tested for Gardnerella vaginalis and obligate anaerobes (Prevotella bivia, Porphyromonas species), Candida species, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma species, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, and Cytomegalovirus by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The prevalences of infection with Gardnerella vaginalis and obligate anaerobes (P = .043), Ureaplasma species (P = .02), and Cytomegalovirus (P = .016) were found to be significantly higher in the study group versus the control group. However, there was no difference between the 2 groups regarding the prevalence of Mycoplasma infection (P = .70). Sexually transmitted diseases may occur more frequently in sexually active asymptomatic renal transplant recipients than in nontransplanted individuals. Real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis may be a suitable method for determining these pathogens.

  6. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F.; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H.; Graham, Jay P.

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27928092

  7. Governance and One Health: Exploring the Impact of Federalism and Bureaucracy on Zoonotic Disease Detection and Reporting.

    PubMed

    Allen, Heather A

    2015-05-13

    The merits of One Health have been thoroughly described in the literature, but how One Health operates in the United States federal system of government is rarely discussed or analyzed. Through a comparative case-study approach, this research explores how federalism, bureaucratic behavior, and institutional design in the United States may influence zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting, a key One Health activity. Using theoretical and empirical literature, as well as a survey/interview instrument for individuals directly involved in a past zoonotic disease outbreak, the impacts of governance are discussed. As predicted in the theoretical literature, empirical findings suggest that federalism, institutional design, and bureaucracy may play a role in facilitating or impeding zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting. Regulatory differences across states as well as compartmentalization of information within agencies may impede disease detection. However, the impact may not always be negative: bureaucracies can also be adaptive; federalism allows states important opportunities for innovation. While acknowledging there are many other factors that also matter in zoonotic disease detection and reporting, this research is one of the first attempts to raise awareness in the literature and stimulate discussion on the intersection of governance and One Health.

  8. Governance and One Health: Exploring the Impact of Federalism and Bureaucracy on Zoonotic Disease Detection and Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The merits of One Health have been thoroughly described in the literature, but how One Health operates in the United States federal system of government is rarely discussed or analyzed. Through a comparative case-study approach, this research explores how federalism, bureaucratic behavior, and institutional design in the United States may influence zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting, a key One Health activity. Using theoretical and empirical literature, as well as a survey/interview instrument for individuals directly involved in a past zoonotic disease outbreak, the impacts of governance are discussed. As predicted in the theoretical literature, empirical findings suggest that federalism, institutional design, and bureaucracy may play a role in facilitating or impeding zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting. Regulatory differences across states as well as compartmentalization of information within agencies may impede disease detection. However, the impact may not always be negative: bureaucracies can also be adaptive; federalism allows states important opportunities for innovation. While acknowledging there are many other factors that also matter in zoonotic disease detection and reporting, this research is one of the first attempts to raise awareness in the literature and stimulate discussion on the intersection of governance and One Health. PMID:29061932

  9. Vaccination strategies for SIR vector-transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Pacheco, Gustavo; Esteva, Lourdes; Vargas, Cristobal

    2014-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the major public health problems in the world with the fastest spreading rate. Control measures have been focused on vector control, with poor results in most cases. Vaccines should help to reduce the diseases incidence, but vaccination strategies should also be defined. In this work, we propose a vector-transmitted SIR disease model with age-structured population subject to a vaccination program. We find an expression for the age-dependent basic reproductive number R(0), and we show that the disease-free equilibrium is locally stable for R(0) ≤ 1, and a unique endemic equilibrium exists for R(0) > 1. We apply the theoretical results to public data to evaluate vaccination strategies, immunization levels, and optimal age of vaccination for dengue disease.

  10. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among prostitutes in Malaysia.

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, S; Ngeow, Y F

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases was determined among 370 prostitutes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Chlamydial cervicitis (26.5%) was detected more frequently than gonorrhoea (14.25%) and was associated more often with pelvic inflammatory disease. Concurrent infections and asymptomatic infections were common. Seropositivity to hepatitis B and syphilis were 66.3% and 13.6% respectively. Women under 20 years of age had significantly higher rates of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and hepatitis B virus than older women. PMID:2245980

  11. Facts about teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, and birth control.

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    This patient update presents information about teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. In the US, one million teenagers become pregnant each year, and 85% of these pregnancies are unplanned. Pregnancy can occur the first time a person has sexual intercourse, and, without the use of contraception, 90% of sexually active teenagers will become pregnant within a year. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be transmitted during first intercourse, and about 25% of sexually active teenagers (three million) get an STD each year. The best protection against STDs and AIDS is abstinence, followed by use of a latex male condom or a female condom. It is known that many teenagers are afraid to use contraceptives because they fail to realize that contraception is safer than pregnancy and delivery. Common fears about oral contraceptives (that the body need a "rest" from their use and that they cause cancer, weight gain, future problems with pregnancy, and birth defects) arise from misinformation. In fact, this type of contraception has many beneficial effects. Similarly, fears about the condom (it is not effective, it may break, it will interfere with pleasure), contraceptive implants (they will hurt, they are not safe, they can break in the arm), and injectables (they are not effective, they cause heavy menstrual bleeding, and they cause cancer) are also ill-founded. This patient information sheet provides accurate information in each case.

  12. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Day, S; Ward, H

    1997-06-01

    To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time to another, together with the risk of sexually transmitted disease. A broad social definition of prostitution rather than a narrow reference to levels of sexual activity is important for effective disease control, as an understanding of the relation between social disadvantage and sexual activity enables the provision of occupational services that sex workers actually want and use. Social prejudice and legal sanctions cause some sex workers and their partners to avoid even the most appropriate and accessible specialist services. Therefore targeted programmes can only complement, and not replace, general measures to control STDs, which are developed for other social groups or the local population as a whole. Sex workers and sex work differ from one place to another and so a single model for STD control is inappropriate. None the less, occupational health risks suggest a general need for specialist services. Where these do not compound the disadvantages that sex workers already suffer, medical services are likely to offer significant benefits in prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. As the stigma of prostitution leads many people to remain invisible to services, a general health infrastructure and anti-discriminatory measures will be equally important to effective disease control.

  13. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    PubMed

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  14. Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Randolph, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging vector-borne diseases represent an important issue for global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, and many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and local emergence are frequently considered distinct processes, many emerging endemic pathogens are in fact invading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We highlight key differences in the dynamics and disease burden that result from increased pathogen transmission following habitat change compared with the introduction of pathogens to new regions. Truly in situ emergence is commonly driven by changes in human factors as much as by enhanced enzootic cycles whereas pathogen invasion results from anthropogenic trade and travel and suitable conditions for a pathogen, including hosts, vectors, and climate. Once established, ecological factors related to vector characteristics shape the evolutionary selective pressure on pathogens that may result in increased use of humans as transmission hosts. We describe challenges inherent in the control of vector-borne zoonotic diseases and some emerging non-traditional strategies that may be more effective in the long term. PMID:23200503

  15. Use of a modified Delphi panel to identify and weight criteria for prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stebler, N; Schuepbach-Regula, G; Braam, P; Falzon, L C

    2015-09-01

    Zoonotic diseases have a significant impact on public health globally. To prevent or reduce future zoonotic outbreaks, there is a constant need to invest in research and surveillance programs while updating risk management strategies. However, given the limited resources available, disease prioritization based on the need for their control and surveillance is important. This study was performed to identify and weight disease criteria for the prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland using a semi-quantitative research method based on expert opinion. Twenty-eight criteria relevant for disease control and surveillance, classified under five domains, were selected following a thorough literature review, and these were evaluated and weighted by seven experts from the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office using a modified Delphi panel. The median scores assigned to each criterion were then used to rank 16 notifiable and/or emerging zoonoses in Switzerland. The experts weighted the majority of the criteria similarly, and the top three criteria were Severity of disease in humans, incidence and prevalence of the disease in humans and treatment in humans. Based on these weightings, the three highest ranked diseases were Avian Influenza, Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis, and Bovine Tuberculosis. Overall, this study provided a preliminary list of criteria relevant for disease prioritization in Switzerland. These were further evaluated in a companion study which involved a quantitative prioritization method and multiple stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  17. Metacommunity and phylogenetic structure determine wildlife and zoonotic infectious disease patterns in time and space.

    PubMed

    Suzán, Gerardo; García-Peña, Gabriel E; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Rico, Oscar; Rubio, André V; Tolsá, María J; Roche, Benjamin; Hosseini, Parviez R; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Murray, Kris A; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Vittecoq, Marion; Bailly, Xavier; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene; Mills, James N; Guégan, Jean-Francois

    2015-02-01

    The potential for disease transmission at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans has become a major concern for public health and conservation biology. Research in this subject is commonly conducted at local scales while the regional context is neglected. We argue that prevalence of infection at local and regional levels is influenced by three mechanisms occurring at the landscape level in a metacommunity context. First, (1) dispersal, colonization, and extinction of pathogens, reservoir or vector hosts, and nonreservoir hosts, may be due to stochastic and niche-based processes, thus determining distribution of all species, and then their potential interactions, across local communities (metacommunity structure). Second, (2) anthropogenic processes may drive environmental filtering of hosts, nonhosts, and pathogens. Finally, (3) phylogenetic diversity relative to reservoir or vector host(s), within and between local communities may facilitate pathogen persistence and circulation. Using a metacommunity approach, public heath scientists may better evaluate the factors that predispose certain times and places for the origin and emergence of infectious diseases. The multidisciplinary approach we describe fits within a comprehensive One Health and Ecohealth framework addressing zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks and their relationship to their hosts, other animals, humans, and the environment.

  18. Measuring the transmission dynamics of a sexually transmitted disease

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Jonathan J.; Webberley, K. Mary; Boots, Michael; Knell, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occur throughout the animal kingdom and are generally thought to affect host population dynamics and evolution very differently from other directly transmitted infectious diseases. In particular, STDs are not thought to have threshold densities for persistence or to be able to regulate host population density independently; they may also have the potential to cause host extinction. However, these expectations follow from a theory that assumes that the rate of STD spread depends on the proportion (rather than the density) of individuals infected in a population. We show here that this key assumption (“frequency dependence”), which has not previously been tested in an animal STD system, is invalid in a simple and general experimental model. Transmission of an STD in the two-spot ladybird depended more on the density of infected individuals in the study population than on their frequency. We argue that, in this system, and in many other animal STDs in which population density affects sexual contact rate, population dynamics may exhibit some characteristics that are normally reserved for diseases with density-dependent transmission. PMID:16204382

  19. Recognition of hypochondriasis in a clinic for sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, D P

    1985-01-01

    A descriptive study of 100 consecutive patients referred for psychiatric assessment from a clinic for sexually transmitted disease (STD) is reported. Thirty six patients presented with physical symptoms for which no organic cause could be found. Various physical and psychological features of the overall presentation of this "somatic" group were identified. These are discussed in terms of diagnostic categories, aetiological mechanisms, and theories of illness behaviour. The importance of directly observable aspects of the patients' consultation behaviour is stressed over and above deep psychological constructs. The diagnosis of hypochondriasis is seen as essentially a medical one, which entails the doctor making a set of judgements that require a broad clinical perspective. PMID:3838530

  20. Sexually transmitted disease control in China (1949-1994).

    PubMed

    Shao, C; Xu, W; Ye, G

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes the historical experiences in venereal disease control in China during the 1950s. Venereal diseases had been all but eliminated in the whole country till 1964. However, along with the implementation of open-door policy and economic reform in the 1980s, the social environment was changed to a great extent in this country. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were re-introduced in the Chinese mainland and new foci of infection established themselves in some cities. During the recent 8 years the national STD case-reporting and sentinel surveillance systems have been set up. The results of surveillance show that the annual incidence of STD has been on the increase. The existing factors associated with the increasing incidence of STD mainly are; population movement, increasing affluence in a part of population, the availability of multiple sexual partners (including the prostitution) and asymptomatic STD increased. Finally, the strategies for STD control are discussed in detail.

  1. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David

    2004-01-01

    Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area. PMID:18159512

  2. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R.; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David

    2005-01-01

    Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area. PMID:15759832

  3. Limits to Forecasting Precision for Outbreaks of Directly Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Drake, John M

    2006-01-01

    Background Early warning systems for outbreaks of infectious diseases are an important application of the ecological theory of epidemics. A key variable predicted by early warning systems is the final outbreak size. However, for directly transmitted diseases, the stochastic contact process by which outbreaks develop entails fundamental limits to the precision with which the final size can be predicted. Methods and Findings I studied how the expected final outbreak size and the coefficient of variation in the final size of outbreaks scale with control effectiveness and the rate of infectious contacts in the simple stochastic epidemic. As examples, I parameterized this model with data on observed ranges for the basic reproductive ratio (R 0) of nine directly transmitted diseases. I also present results from a new model, the simple stochastic epidemic with delayed-onset intervention, in which an initially supercritical outbreak (R 0 > 1) is brought under control after a delay. Conclusion The coefficient of variation of final outbreak size in the subcritical case (R 0 < 1) will be greater than one for any outbreak in which the removal rate is less than approximately 2.41 times the rate of infectious contacts, implying that for many transmissible diseases precise forecasts of the final outbreak size will be unattainable. In the delayed-onset model, the coefficient of variation (CV) was generally large (CV > 1) and increased with the delay between the start of the epidemic and intervention, and with the average outbreak size. These results suggest that early warning systems for infectious diseases should not focus exclusively on predicting outbreak size but should consider other characteristics of outbreaks such as the timing of disease emergence. PMID:16435887

  4. The role of native birds and other wildlife on the emergence of zoonotic diseases

    Friend, Milton; McLean, Robert G.; Burroughs, T.; Knobler, S.; Lederberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wildlife can be an important source of transmission of infectious disease to humans. One potential transmission route involves hunting and fishing, both common activities in the United States and worldwide. For example, during 1996, approximately 11 million Americans, about 40 percent of the total population 16 years of age and older, took part in some recreational activity relating to wildlife and fish. Another potential route of infection focuses on urban and suburban environments. These locations are of special concern because of their increasing role as wildlife habitat, the greater interface between humans and wildlife that takes place within those environments, the paucity of knowledge about disease in those wildlife populations, and the general lack of orderly management for wildlife within those environments. In the wild, several trends are contributing to the growing importance of zoonotic diseases. First, the spectrum of infectious diseases affecting wildlife today is greater than at any time during the previous century. Second, the occurrence of infectious diseases has changed, from sporadic, self-limiting outbreaks that generally resulted in minor losses to frequently occurring events that generally result in major losses of wildlife. Third, disease emergence has occurred on a worldwide scale in a broad spectrum of wildlife species and habitats. Given the scope of the problem, current disease surveillance efforts are inadequate. Few state wildlife agencies allocate personnel and resources to address wildlife disease, despite their statutory responsibility for managing nonmigratory wildlife. Some state agencies provide minimal support for regional programs based at universities. At the federal level, the primary surveillance effort is conducted by the National Wildlife Health Center, operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Outside of government, some veterinary schools, agriculture diagnostic laboratories, and other programs provide additional

  5. Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: water and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Austin, Zoë; Alcock, Ruth E; Christley, Robert M; Haygarth, Philip M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Latham, Sophia M; Mort, Maggie; Oliver, David M; Pickup, Roger; Wastling, Jonathan M; Wynne, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Decision making for zoonotic disease management should be based on many forms of appropriate data and sources of evidence. However, the criteria and timing for policy response and the resulting management decisions are often altered when a disease outbreak occurs and captures full media attention. In the case of waterborne disease, such as the robust protozoa, Cryptosporidium spp, exposure can cause significant human health risks and preventing exposure by maintaining high standards of biological and chemical water quality remains a priority for water companies in the UK. Little has been documented on how knowledge and information is translated between the many stakeholders involved in the management of Cryptosporidium, which is surprising given the different drivers that have shaped management decisions. Such information, coupled with the uncertainties that surround these data is essential for improving future management strategies that minimise disease outbreaks. Here, we examine the interplay between scientific information, the media, and emergent government and company policies to examine these issues using qualitative and quantitative data relating to Cryptosporidium management decisions by a water company in the North West of England. Our results show that political and media influences are powerful drivers of management decisions if fuelled by high profile outbreaks. Furthermore, the strength of the scientific evidence is often constrained by uncertainties in the data, and in the way knowledge is translated between policy levels during established risk management procedures. In particular, under or over-estimating risk during risk assessment procedures together with uncertainty regarding risk factors within the wider environment, was found to restrict the knowledge-base for decision-making in Cryptosporidium management. Our findings highlight some key current and future challenges facing the management of such diseases that are widely applicable to other

  6. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Day, S; Ward, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time to another, together with the risk of sexually transmitted disease. A broad social definition of prostitution rather than a narrow reference to levels of sexual activity is important for effective disease control, as an understanding of the relation between social disadvantage and sexual activity enables the provision of occupational services that sex workers actually want and use. Social prejudice and legal sanctions cause some sex workers and their partners to avoid even the most appropriate and accessible specialist services. Therefore targeted programmes can only complement, and not replace, general measures to control STDs, which are developed for other social groups or the local population as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Sex workers and sex work differ from one place to another and so a single model for STD control is inappropriate. None the less, occupational health risks suggest a general need for specialist services. Where these do not compound the disadvantages that sex workers already suffer, medical services are likely to offer significant benefits in prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. As the stigma of prostitution leads many people to remain invisible to services, a general health infrastructure and anti-discriminatory measures will be equally important to effective disease control. PMID:9306894

  7. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    PubMed

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Diseases Transmitted by Man's Best Friend: The Dog.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jerry; Lorber, Bennett

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between dogs and humans is ancient and mutually beneficial. Dogs have served people well as companions, workmates, guides, and protectors. However, on occasion, dogs may injure humans through biting or may transmit pathogens resulting in a large number of problems ranging from a trivial rash to life-threatening bacteremia. Given that there are more than 80 million pet dogs in the United States, it is worth knowing the potential problems that can result from canine exposure. Annually, almost 5 million people in the United States suffer a dog bite. Dog bite wounds become infected up to 15% of the time. In those who have had a splenectomy, a dog bite may transmit the bacterium Capnocytophaga canimorsus, leading to life-threatening bacteremia. Other illnesses that humans can acquire from dog contact include ringworm, diarrheal disease (salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and intestinal parasites), leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever, visceral larva migrans, and echinococcosis. Evidence exists that the family dog may serve as a reservoir for uropathogenic Escherichia coli that can lead to urinary tract infections among human household contacts. In this article we discuss dog-related infectious diseases as well as measures to minimize dog-associated illness (e.g., do not disturb sleeping dogs; HIV-infected persons who wish to acquire a puppy should have the dog's stool checked for Cryptosporidium).

  9. Narrative Review: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Homeless Youth-What Do We Know About Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevalence and Risk?

    PubMed

    Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P

    2017-08-01

    Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000-2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review.

  10. Narrative Review: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Homeless Youth—What Do We Know About Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevalence and Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. Methods We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000–2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Results Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review. PMID:28703725

  11. A Quantitative and Novel Approach to the Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in North America: A Public Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Victoria; Sargeant, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Zoonoses account for over half of all communicable diseases causing illness in humans. As there are limited resources available for the control and prevention of zoonotic diseases, a framework for their prioritization is necessary to ensure resources are directed into those of highest importance. Although zoonotic outbreaks are a significant burden of disease in North America, the systematic prioritization of zoonoses in this region has not been previously evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings This study describes the novel use of a well-established quantitative method, conjoint analysis (CA), to identify the relative importance of 21 key characteristics of zoonotic diseases that can be used for their prioritization in Canada and the US. Relative importance weights from the CA were used to develop a point-scoring system to derive a recommended list of zoonoses for prioritization in Canada and the US. Over 1,500 participants from the general public were recruited to complete the online survey (761 from Canada and 778 from the US). Hierarchical Bayes models were fitted to the survey data to derive CA-weighted scores. Scores were applied to 62 zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada and the US to rank diseases in order of priority. Conclusions/Significance This was the first study to describe a systematic and quantitative approach to the prioritization of zoonoses in North America involving public participants. We found individuals with no prior knowledge or experience in prioritizing zoonoses were capable of producing meaningful results using CA as a novel quantitative approach to prioritization. More similarities than differences were observed between countries suggesting general agreement in disease prioritization between Canadians and Americans. We demonstrate CA as a potential tool for the prioritization of zoonoses; other prioritization exercises may also consider this approach. PMID:23133639

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases in modern China: a historical survey.

    PubMed Central

    Dikötter, F

    1993-01-01

    This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attitudes have also structured medical responses to venereal disease. From the reform movements between the two World Wars to the more recent communist health campaigns, medical theory has often been confused with moral prescription. PMID:8244349

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: a synthesis of particularities.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mariana Carvalho; Bornhausen Demarch, Eduardo; Azulay, David Rubem; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Nery, José Augusto da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a significant prevalence in both the general population and pregnant women. Accordingly, we consider the physiological changes of the maternal organism that can alter the clinical course of these diseases. In addition, obstetric and neonatal complications may occur, resulting in increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We explore features of the natural course and treatment during pregnancy of the major STDs: soft chancre, donovanosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, viral hepatitis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, and vulvovaginitis. We believe that health professionals should pay careful attention to STDs, particularly in relation to early diagnosis and precautions on the use of drugs during pregnancy. Prevention and partner treatment to achieve effective results are also extremely relevant.

  14. Agroterrorism: Minimizing the Consequences of Intentionally Introduced Foreign Animal Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    responsibility and dedicate fewer resources to mitigate the threat. Unless they are zoonotic , animal and plant diseases do not 2 Ibid., 157. 3...of the United States and current FAD policies are inadequate. 4 Zoonotic diseases or...pathogens that can be transmitted from animals to people. Specifically, a zoonotic disease normally exists in animals can infect humans. 5 John Brogan

  15. Strategies for collaboration in the interdisciplinary field of emerging zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Anholt, R M; Stephen, C; Copes, R

    2012-06-01

    The integration of the veterinary, medical and environmental sciences necessary to predict, prevent or respond to emerging zoonotic diseases requires effective collaboration and exchange of knowledge across these disciplines. There has been no research into how to connect and integrate these professions in the pursuit of a common task. We conducted a literature search looking at the experiences and wisdom resulting from collaborations built in health partnerships, health research knowledge transfer and exchange, business knowledge management and systems design engineering to identify key attributes of successful interdisciplinary (ID) collaboration. This was followed by a workshop with 16 experts experienced in ID collaboration including physicians, veterinarians and biologists from private practice, academia and government agencies. The workshop participants shared their perspectives on the facilitators and barriers to ID collaboration. Our results found that the elements that can support or impede ID collaboration can be categorized as follows: the characteristics of the people, the degree to which the task is a shared goal, the policies, practices and resources of the workplace, how information technology is used and the evaluation of the results. Above all, personal relationships built on trust and respect are needed to best assemble the disciplinary strength of the professions. The challenge of meeting collaborators outside the boundaries of one's discipline or jurisdiction may be met by an independent third party, an ID knowledge broker. The broker would know where the knowledge could be found, would facilitate introductions and would help to build effective ID teams. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Smith, James; Taylor, Emma Michelle; Kingsley, Pete

    2015-03-01

    This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World-One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) international, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved district health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks Among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H; Graham, Jay P

    2016-12-07

    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, Ma

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases in women--something can be done!

    PubMed

    Felman, Y M

    1981-03-01

    Women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are largely asymptomatic, and even in the presence of symptoms are frequently misdiagnosed. The "stigma of VD" perpetuates this problem, such that both patient and physician are too embarrassed to suggest appropriate STD diagnostic tests. Imperatives for the reduction of STDs include increasing federal appropriations for STD control, improving STD training for health professionals, openly advertising condoms, and equipping clinical facilities likely to see women harboring STDs with the means to diagnose and treat. The development of serologic tests and vaccines against gonorrhea, chlamydia and herpes is an additional objective that would benefit women. A multifaceted approach combining the efforts of women's groups, family physicians, gynecologists, nurse practitioners and public health educators will be required to effectively handle the problem of STDs in women.

  20. A social model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2004-10-01

    We have introduced recently a model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a key factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population. The social behavior is taking into account by means of two parameters: the fraction of singles ρs and the promiscuity p. The promiscuity parameter defines the per individual daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In this contribution we show that the interaction between this two parameters give rise to a non-trivial epidemic threshold condition, when going from the homogeneous case ( ρs=1) to heterogeneous cases ( ρs<1). These results can have profound implication in the interpretation of real epidemic data.

  1. Default patterns of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, J D; Bevan, J; Wall, B

    1978-01-01

    The influence of gender, propaganda, and treatment methods was studied in relation to default behaviour of patients with sexually transmitted diseases. The overall default rate of men and women was similar, but a larger proportion of men defaulted after the initial visit, while the biggest fall-out in women was after the second attendance at the clinic. The institution of a propaganda campaign was followed by a reduction in defaulting. The statistical significance of this is open to question, however: moreover the observed improvement in default rate was not maintained once the propaganda had been relaxed. Men treated for non-gonococcal urethritis by a regimen which included one injection a week for three weeks showed a highly significantly lower default rate compared with those who received tablets alone. PMID:580413

  2. Promiscuity and the evolution of sexual transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2003-09-01

    We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.

  3. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  4. Sexually-transmitted diseases, AIDS and traditional healers in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Green, E C; Jurg, A; Dgedge, A

    1993-08-01

    Qualitative research was conducted with traditional healers in Manica Province, Mozambique to develop an empirical, culturally-appropriate strategy for communication between government and traditional healers related to the prevention of STDs including AIDS. Most Manica healers regard AIDS as a new disease for which they lack medicines. However, when questioned on other sexually transmitted diseases, as defined by healers themselves, relatively complex disease taxonomies based on fine distinctions between symptoms emerged. Manica healers recognize two broad categories of STDs: siki and nyoka-related. The former seems to correspond with the more serious common STDs of Western biomedicine--syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and chancroid--and is believed to be caused by a common invisible, microscopic agent, khoma. Nyoka-related illnesses are understood in terms of traditional ideas of pollution, and denote less serious, self-limiting genito-urinary conditions. Healers express great faith in the efficacy of traditional medicines. Based on the ethnomedical research findings, a culturally-sensitive and -specific AIDS/STD health education strategy for Manica indigenous healers was developed and began operating in a week-long workshop held in Chimoio, Mozambique in November 1991.

  5. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people

    PubMed Central

    Davaasuren, Anu; Baasandagva, Uyanga; Gray, Gregory C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection. Methods Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle. Results The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a) animal contact, b) food preparation and diet, and c) household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat. Conclusion Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal

  6. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Amber N; Davaasuren, Anu; Baasandagva, Uyanga; Gray, Gregory C

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection. Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle. The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a) animal contact, b) food preparation and diet, and c) household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat. Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal-to-human pathogens must incorporate a One Health

  7. Bat Hunting and Bat-Human Interactions in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bat Conservation.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, J J; Hegde, S; Sazzad, H M S; Khan, S U; Hossain, M J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P

    2017-08-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. [Vector transmitted diseases and climate changes in Europe].

    PubMed

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The increase in temperatures recorded since the mid-nineteenth century is unprecedented in the history of mankind. The consequences of climate changes are numerous and can affect human health through direct (extreme events, natural disasters) or indirect (alteration of the ecosystem) mechanisms. Climate changes have repercussions on ecosystems, agriculture, social conditions, migration, conflicts and the transmission mode of infectious diseases. Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomines, sand flies and flies. Epidemiological cornerstones of vector-borne diseases are: the ecology and behaviour of the host, the ecology and behaviour of the vector, and the population's degree of immunity. Mosquito vectors related to human diseases mainly belong to the genus Culex, Aedes and Mansonia. Climate changes in Europe have increased the spread of new vectors, such as Aedes albopictus, and in some situations have made it possible to sustain the autochthonous transmission of some diseases (outbreak of Chukungunya virus in northern Italy in 2007, cases of dengue in the South of France and in Croatia). Despite the eradication of malaria from Europe, anopheline carriers are still present, and they may allow the transmission of the disease if the climatic conditions favour the development of the vectors and their contacts with plasmodium carriers. The tick Ixodes ricinus is a vector whose expansion has been documented both in latitude and in altitude in relation to the temperature increase; at the same time the related main viral and bacterial infections have increased. In northern Italy and Germany, the appearance of Leishmaniasis has been associated to climatic conditions that favour the development of the vector Phlebotomus papatasi and the maturation of the parasite within the vector, although the increase of cases of visceral leishmaniasis is also related to host immune factors, particularly

  9. Sexually transmitted diseases in transient British forces in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Adams, E J; Strike, P W; Green, A D; Masterton, R G

    1994-04-01

    To compare the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in British troops in the tropics with that in a standard population. Retrospective analysis of STD clinic records over one calendar year. A British Military Hospital in the Tropics serving 1441 resident personnel. All patients attending a STD clinic. 815 cases of STD were recorded during the study period, giving incidence rate of 56,558 per 100,000 population per year. When compared with a matched population from England and Wales, the age standardised relative risk for STD amongst tropical troops was 25.0 (95% confidence interval 24.9 to 25.1). Thirty nine percent of cases reported prostitute contact as a source of their disease. Of patients questioned about condom usage, 70% reported that they did not normally use a condom. British troops spending short periods of time in a tropical environment are significantly more likely to acquire a STD than men in the same age groups in England and Wales. The proportions of cases who reported that they did not use condoms and the number who cited prostitute contact as a source of infection indicate that even greater sexual education of troops on deployment overseas may be required.

  10. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  11. [Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV-1 infection in Italian adolescents].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, M; Suligoi, B

    2000-12-01

    To assess the distribution of specific sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including HIV-1 infection, among Italian adolescents with an acute STD and to evaluate these individuals behavioural characteristics. The database of Italy's STD Surveillance System was used as the source of data. Data on all STD cases reported among individuals under 20 years of age were analysed. From September 1990 to December 1997, 57,046 cases of STDs were reported to the surveillance system; 1,757 (3.1%) of these were reported among adolescents, of whom 896 (51.0%) were males. The most commonly reported diseases among males were genital warts (30.7%) and non-gonococcal urethritis (18.5%); among females, the most commonly reported diseases were non-gonococcal vaginitis (39.1%) and genital warts (30.0%). Of the 555 males tested for HIV-1 antibodies, 28 (5.0%) were seropositive; of the 510 females tested, 17 (3.3%) were seropositive. The highest HIV-1 seroprevalence rates were found among intravenous drug users (IDU) (33.3% among male IDUs and 23.8% among female IDUs) and among homosexual males (17.6%). In Italy, the impact of STDs among adolescents is not negligible, though the distribution of STDs among this population group differs from the distribution among adults. Moreover, the prevalence of HIV-1 among adolescents with STDs is similar to that among adults with STDs. This study's data suggest the need to further develop STD/HIV prevention programmes that specifically target youths.

  12. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  13. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases diagnosed among travelers returning from the tropics.

    PubMed

    Ansart, Séverine; Hochedez, Patrick; Perez, Lucia; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Data are lacking on the spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) diagnosed in returning travelers. All consecutive travelers consulting our tropical unit between November 1, 2002 and October 31, 2003 were included if they presented within 1 month after their return from the tropics, with mucocutaneous signs suggesting STDs. Forty-nine patients (12 women and 37 men; median age 36.4 y, 35 heterosexuals) were included. Four patients had traveled with their usual sexual partner and 45 patients had casual sex while abroad (31 with locals and 14 with other tourists). The main diagnoses were gonococcal urethritis (n = 18), herpes simplex virus 2 infection (n = 12), urethritis of undetermined origin (n = 9), Chlamydia trachomatis infection (n = 4), primary syphilis (n = 4), and primary human immunodeficiency virus infection (n = 2). These results illustrate the broad spectrum of STDs contracted by travelers to the tropics. They suggest the need to also inform travelers of the risks of STD and to promote the use of condoms in case of casual sex while abroad.

  15. [Awareness and education regarding sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate students].

    PubMed

    Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments.

  16. Campylobacteriosis, Salmonellosis, Yersiniosis, and Listeriosis as Zoonotic Foodborne Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chlebicz, Agnieszka; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans, posing a great threat to the health and life of people all over the world. According to WHO estimations, 600 million cases of diseases caused by contaminated food were noted in 2010, including almost 350 million caused by pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter, Salmonella, as well as Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes may dwell in livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine) but are also found in wild animals, pets, fish, and rodents. Animals, often being asymptomatic carriers of pathogens, excrete them with faeces, thus delivering them to the environment. Therefore, pathogens may invade new individuals, as well as reside on vegetables and fruits. Pathogenic bacteria also penetrate food production areas and may remain there in the form of a biofilm covering the surfaces of machines and equipment. A common occurrence of microbes in food products, as well as their improper or careless processing, leads to common poisonings. Symptoms of foodborne infections may be mild, sometimes flu-like, but they also may be accompanied by severe complications, some even fatal. The aim of the paper is to summarize and provide information on campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis and the aetiological factors of those diseases, along with the general characteristics of pathogens, virulence factors, and reservoirs. PMID:29701663

  17. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  18. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  19. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Paparini, Andrea; Jian, Fuchun; Robertson, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal-oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  20. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Johan L; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J

    2012-12-05

    With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring the utilisation of meat from hunted or harvested game. The expanding interface or increased interaction between livestock and wildlife increases the risk of disease incidence and the emergence of new diseases or the re-emergence of previously diagnosed diseases. The risk is not only related to domestic and wild animal health, but also to the occupational hazards that it poses to animal handlers and the consumers of game meat. This review endeavours to highlight the role that game plays in the spreading of zoonotic diseases to other animals and humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in the past, their relevance and risk have been summarised and should function as a quick reference guide for wildlife veterinarians, ecologists, farmers, hunters, slaughter staff, processors and public health professionals.

  1. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  2. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets.

    PubMed

    Greatorex, Zoe F; Olson, Sarah H; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity.

  3. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets

    PubMed Central

    Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E.; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B.; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O’Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity. PMID:27008628

  4. Observations of sexually transmitted disease consultations in India.

    PubMed

    Mertens, T E; Smith, G D; Kantharaj, K; Mugrditchian, D; Radhakrishnan, K M

    1998-03-01

    To assess the quality of sexually transmitted disease (STD) case management provided in public and private health facilities in selected areas of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India, in order to make recommendations for improving the quality of care and promote the syndromic approach to STD treatment. Structured observations of consultations for STDs in health care facilities. Scoring of the observations according to standards for history taking, examination, treatment and provision of basic health promotion advice allows evaluation of STD case management. With STD treatment adequacy scored against Indian national guidelines (which recommend aetiologic treatment), history taking, examination and treatment were satisfactory in 76 out of 108 (70%) of observed consultations. However, if STD treatment adequacy is scored with respect to the syndrome approach towards selected STD (male urethritis and non herpetic genital ulcer for both sexes), only 8 out of 81 (10%) of the patients were satisfactory managed. During 32 out of 108 (30%) of the consultations, advice on the use of condoms in order to prevent STD or HIV/AIDS was given. Instructions regarding how to use condoms were offered to seven (6%) patients and condoms were only provided to one patient (1%). Patients were urged to refer their partner(s) for treatment during 29 (27%) of consultations. A criterion of adequate use of the STD consultation for health promotion, requiring both promotion of condoms and encouragement to refer partner(s) for treatment, was met during 13 (12%) of consultations. Monitoring and improving the standards of care at facilities at which STDs are treated have become key roles of STD/HIV/AIDS programmes. The present report suggests that in Madras the activities of medical practitioners who treat STD patients are far from ideal at present. Improvements would involve simplifying existing treatment guidelines by promoting the syndromic approach to STD management, continuing education programmes for

  5. Partner notification of sexually transmitted diseases: practices and preferences.

    PubMed

    Gursahaney, Priya R; Jeong, Kwonho; Dixon, Bruce W; Wiesenfeld, Harold C

    2011-09-01

    Timely notification and treatment of sex partners exposed to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is essential to reduce reinfection and transmission. Our objectives were to determine factors associated with patient-initiated notification of sex partners and preferences regarding standard partner referral versus expedited partner therapy (EPT). Participants diagnosed with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or nongonococcal urethritis within the previous year were administered a baseline survey asking about demographics, sexual history, and partner treatment preferences (standard partner referral vs. EPT). They identified up to 4 sex partners within the past 2 months, and answered questions on relationship characteristics, quality, and notification self-efficacy. At follow-up, participants with a current STD were asked whether they notified their partners. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between predictor variables and partner notification. Of the 201 subjects enrolled, 157 had a current STD diagnosis, and 289 sex partners were identified. The rate of successful partner notification was 77.3% (157/203 sex partners). Partner notification was increased if the subject had a long-term relationship with a sex partner (odds ratio: 3.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), considered the partner to be a main partner (odds ratio: 2.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), or had increased notification self-efficacy. Overall, participants did not prefer EPT over standard referral; however, females, those with higher education levels, and those with a prior STD preferred EPT. Patient-initiated partner referral is more successful in patients with increased self-efficacy who have stronger interpersonal relationships with their sex partners.

  6. Zoonotic disease risk perceptions and infection control practices of Australian veterinarians: call for change in work culture.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Karen; Taylor, Melanie; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Hooker, Claire; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of zoonotic disease risk among Australian veterinarians, the infection control practices they use to protect themselves from zoonotic diseases, and the factors influencing their use of these protective practices. A questionnaire was designed and piloted prior to its administration to veterinarians at the annual Australian Veterinary Association Conference in May 2011. The questionnaire comprised 21 closed, semi-closed and open questions. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression analyses to determine significant factors for veterinarians' use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A total of 344 veterinarians completed the questionnaire of which 63.7% were women, 63.2% worked in small/companion animal practice, and 79.9% worked in private veterinary practice. Of the respondents, 44.9% reported contracting a zoonosis during their careers with 19.7% reporting a suspected case and 25.2% reporting a confirmed incidence. Around 40-60% of veterinarians perceived exposure to zoonosis likely or very likely in a variety of situations. With reference to current national industry guidelines, the reported use of PPE was less than "adequate" for most scenarios except for performing postmortems, surgery or dental procedures. No PPE was used by 60-70% of veterinarians for treating respiratory and neurological cases and by 40-50% when treating gastrointestinal and dermatological cases. Workplace conditions need improvement as 34.8% of workplaces did not have isolation units for infected animals, 21.1% did not have separate eating areas for staff, and 57.1% did not have complete PPE kits for use. Veterinarians were more likely to use PPE if they had undertaken postgraduate education, perceived that zoonosis exposure from animals and procedures was likely, consciously considered PPE use for every case they dealt with and believed that liability issues and risks encouraged use of PPE. In contrast

  7. Seroepidemiological Survey of Zoonotic Diseases in Small Mammals with PCR Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Chiggers, Gwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Wook; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Sun Hee; Cho, Sun Ju; Ha, Yi Deun; Jung, So Hyang; Park, Hye Jung; Song, Hyun Jae; Lee, Jung Yoon; Kim, Dong Min; Pyus, Jah; Ha, Dong Ryong; Kim, Eun Sun; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Serosurveillance for zoonotic diseases in small mammals and detection of chiggers, the vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi, were conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in Gwangju Metropolitan Area. Apodemus agrarius was the most commonly collected small mammals (158; 91.8%), followed by Myodes regulus (8; 4.6%), and Crocidura lasiura (6; 3.5%). The highest seroprevalence of small mammals for O. tsutsugamushi (41; 26.3%) was followed by hantaviruses (24; 15.4%), Rickettsia spp. (22; 14.1%), and Leptospira (2; 1.3%). A total of 3,194 chiggers were collected from small mammals, and 1,236 of 3,194 chiggers were identified with 7 species of 3 genera: Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most commonly collected species (585; 47.3%), followed by L. orientale (422; 34.1%), Euchoengastia koreaensis (99; 8.0%), L. palpale (58; 4.7%), L. pallidum (36; 2.9%), Neotrombicula gardellai (28; 2.3%), and L. zetum (8; 0.6%). L. scutellare was the predominant species. Three of 1,236 chigger mites were positive for O. tsutsugamushi by PCR. As a result of phylogenetic analysis, the O. tsutsugamushi strain of chigger mites had sequence homology of 90.1-98.2% with Boryong. This study provides baseline data on the distribution of zoonotic diseases and potential vectors for the development of prevention strategies of vector borne diseases in Gwangju metropolitan area. PMID:27417085

  8. A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, James L. N.; Leach, Melissa; Waldman, Linda; MacGregor, Hayley; Fooks, Anthony R.; Jones, Kate E.; Restif, Olivier; Dechmann, Dina; Hayman, David T. S.; Baker, Kate S.; Peel, Alison J.; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Fahr, Jakob; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breiman, Robert F.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial societal challenge. In the context of disease emergence from wildlife, wildlife and habitat should be conserved, which in turn will preserve vital ecosystem structure and function, which has broader implications for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, while simultaneously minimizing the spillover of pathogens from wild animals into human beings. In this review, we propose a novel framework for the holistic and interdisciplinary investigation of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers, using the spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. This study has been developed to gain a detailed interdisciplinary understanding, and it combines cutting-edge perspectives from both natural and social sciences, linked to policy impacts on public health, land use and conservation. PMID:22966143

  9. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  10. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in rural South African women.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Coetzee, D J; Fehler, H G; Bellingan, A; Dangor, Y; Radebe, F; Ballard, R C

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken in a rural area of South Africa, to develop a non-laboratory tool to screen for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among family planning clients. A cross sectional study was performed of 249 consecutive women attending a family planning service between November and December 1994. A questionnaire was administered, and a clinical examination and laboratory tests conducted. Sociodemographic, clinical, and other non-laboratory variables that were significantly associated with laboratory evidence of infection were combined to produce non-hierarchical scoring systems for three "syndromes": gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervical infection, trichomoniasis, and cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis combined. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the scoring systems as a screening tool were assessed against the gold standard of laboratory tests. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections among the study participants was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis 12%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 18%, and bacterial vaginosis 29%. Although vaginal discharge and other symptoms were frequently reported, symptoms bore no relation to the presence of infection. The following independent associations with gonococcal/chlamydial cervical infection were found: age less than 25 years and cervical mucopus and/or friability. Abnormal discharge on examination, visible inflammatory changes of the cervix (increased redness), no recent travel, and unemployment were associated with trichomoniasis. The combination of trichomonas and/or cervical infection ("STD syndrome") was associated with cervical mucopus/friability, unemployment, lack of financial support, and increased redness of the cervix. Of the three scoring systems developed on the basis of these associations, that of the "STD syndrome" achieved the best performance characteristics as a screening tool, with a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 74%, and

  11. Treatment of sexually transmitted bacterial diseases in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Donders, G G

    2000-03-01

    Testing for and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women deserves special attention. Treatment possibilities are limited because of potential risks for the developing fetus, and because effects can differ in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women, re-infection may be missed because of the intrinsic delicacy of contact-tracing during pregnancy and because pregnant women are more reluctant to take the prescribed medication in its full dose, if at all. However, the devastating effects of some of these genital infections far outweigh any potential adverse effects of treatment. Although active syphilis has become a rarity in most Western countries, it is still prevalent in South America, Africa and South-East Asia. Benzathine benzylpenicillin (2.4 million units once or, safer, twice 7 days apart) is the treatment of choice, although patients with syphilis of longer standing require 3 weekly injections as well as extensive investigation into whether there has been any damage due to tertiary syphilis. Despite declining rates of gonorrhea, the relative rate of penicillinase-producing strains is increasing, especially in South-East Asia. The recommended treatment is intramuscular ceftriaxone (125 or 250 mg) or oral cefixime 400 mg. Despite good safety records after accidental use, fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy. An alternative to a fluoroquinolone in pregnant women with combined gonorrhea and chlamydial infection is oral azithromycin 1 or 2 g. Azithromycin as a single 1 g dose is also preferable to a 7 day course of erythromycin 500 mg 4 times a day for patients with chlamydial infection. Eradication of Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with chancroid can also be achieved with these regimens or intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg. Trichomonas vaginalis, which is often seen as a co-infection, has been linked to an increased risk of preterm birth. Patients infected with this parasite should therefore received metronidazole 500 mg

  12. [Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses].

    PubMed

    Ibarrola Vidaurre, M; Benito, J; Azcona, B; Zubeldía, N

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.

  13. Global partnerships are critical to advance the control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases: The case of the Global Alliance for Rabies Control.

    PubMed

    Nel, Louis H; Taylor, Louise H; Balaram, Deepashree; Doyle, Kim A S

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for innovation to improve control of all Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs). The Global Alliance for Rabies Control was formed to prevent human deaths from rabies and relieve the burden of rabies in other animal populations, especially dogs. It aims to identify reasons for the neglect of rabies in developing countries and to develop strategies to improve rabies control. Through initiatives such as World Rabies Day and the Partners for Rabies Prevention, progress has been made towards increased awareness of the burden of rabies transmitted by dogs at scales from local to international. An evidence base of the feasibility of canine rabies elimination has been built up and now easier access to information and tools enables countries to design and implement rabies elimination strategies in a logical way, utilizing the structures of regional networks for rabies control. The body of evidence has built consensus amongst international stakeholders in rabies control and is now being used to encourage international policy change, attract investment and increase delivery of effective rabies control programmes in canine rabies endemic countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Zoonotic diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella genus: new reservoirs ? New vectors?].

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2005-03-01

    Domestic animals and wildlife represent a large reservoir for bartonellae, at least eight species or subspecies of which have been reported to cause zoonotic infections. In addition, numerous orphan clinical syndromes are now being attributed to Bartonella henselae infection. Many mammalian species, including cats, dogs, rodents and ruminants are the main bartonellae reservoirs. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae. It appears that domestic dogs, at least in non tropical regions, are more likely to be accidental hosts than reservoirs, and constitute excellent sentinels for human infections. Bartonellae are vector-borne bacteria. The mode of B. henselae transmission by cat fleas is now better understood, but new potential vectors have recently been identified, including ticks and biting flies. This articles summarizes current knowledge of the etiology, new clinical features and epidemiological characteristics of these emerging zoonoses.

  15. The Use of Contraceptives and Sexually Transmitted Disease Among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Andrew A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the types of contraceptives used by a population of university students; the relationship of type of contraceptive used to sociodemographic characteristics and patterns of sexual activity, and the relationship of contraceptive use to sexually transmitted disease. (M M)

  16. One Health Integration: A Proposed Framework for a Study on Veterinarians and Zoonotic Disease Management in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Valeix, Sophie Françoise

    2018-01-01

    In parallel with the recent world-wide promotion of One Health (OH) as a policy concept, a growing body of social science studies has raised questions about how successful OH policies and programs have been in managing some global health issues, such as zoonotic diseases. This paper briefly reviews this literature to clarify its critical perspective. Much of the literature on OH also is focused on health management at an international level and has paid less attention to implementation programs and policies for OH at the national and local levels, especially in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). Programs to implement OH often are linked to the concept of "integration", a notion that lacks a universal definition, but is nonetheless a central tenet and goal in many OH programs. At the local and national levels, strong differences in perspectives about OH among different professions can be major barriers to integration of those professions into OH implementation. Policies based on integration among professions in sectors like animal, human and environmental health can threaten professions' identities and thus may meet with resistance. Taking into account these criticisms of OH research and implementation, this paper proposes a research framework to probe the dominant social dimensions and power dynamics among professional participants that affect OH implementation programs at the local and national levels in a low-income country. The proposed research focus is the veterinary profession and one aspect of OH in which veterinarians are necessary actors: zoonotic disease management. Results from research framed in this way can have immediate application to the programs under study and can inform more expansive research on the social determinants of successful implementation of OH programs and policies.

  17. Informal value chain actors' knowledge and perceptions about zoonotic diseases and biosecurity in Kenya and the importance for food safety and public health.

    PubMed

    Nyokabi, Simon; Birner, Regina; Bett, Bernard; Isuyi, Linda; Grace, Delia; Güttler, Denise; Lindahl, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    Zoonotic diseases, transmitted from animals to humans, are a public health challenge in developing countries. Livestock value chain actors have an important role to play as the first line of defence in safeguarding public health. However, although the livelihood and economic impacts of zoonoses are widely known, adoption of biosecurity measures aimed at preventing zoonoses is low, particularly among actors in informal livestock value chains in low and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to investigate knowledge of zoonoses and adoption of biosecurity measures by livestock and milk value chain actors in Bura, Tana River County, in Kenya, where cattle, camels, sheep and goats are the main livestock kept. The study utilised a mixed methods approach, with a questionnaire survey administered to 154 value chain actors. Additional information was elicited through key informant interviews and participatory methods with relevant stakeholders outside the value chain. Our results found low levels of knowledge of zoonoses and low levels of adherence to food safety standards, with only 37% of milk traders knowing about brucellosis, in spite of a sero-prevalence of 9% in the small ruminants tested in this study, and no slaughterhouse worker knew about Q fever. Actors had little formal education (between 0 and 10%) and lacked training in food safety and biosecurity measures. Adoption of biosecurity measures by value chain actors was very low or non-existent, with only 11% of butchers wearing gloves. There was a gendered dimension, evidenced by markedly different participation in value chains and lower adoption rates and knowledge levels among female actors. Finally, cultural and religious practices were shown to play an important role in exposure and transmission of diseases, influencing perceptions and attitudes to risks and adoption of biosecurity measures.

  18. West Nile virus lineage 2 as a cause of zoonotic neurological disease in humans and horses in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, Marietjie; Swanepoel, Robert

    2010-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in South Africa, but since a few cases of neurological disease have been reported from this region, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be of low virulence. Several cases of nonfatal encephalitis in humans as well as fatal cases in a foal, dog, and ostrich chicks have, however, been associated with lineage 2 WNV in South Africa. The pathogenesis of lineage 2 WNV strains was investigated using mouse neuroinvasive experiments, gene expression experiments, and genome sequence comparisons which indicated that lineage 2 strains that are highly pathogenic exist. To determine whether cases of WNV were being missed in South Africa, horses with fever and neurological disease were investigated. Several cases of WNV were identified, all associated with severe neurological disease, 85% of which had to be euthanized or died. All cases positive by RT-PCR were shown to belong to lineage 2 WNV by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Two cases of occupational infection were investigated, including a case of zoonotic transmission to a veterinarian who performed an autopsy on one of the horses as well as a laboratory infection after a needle stick injury with a neuroinvasive lineage 2 strain. Both resulted in neurological disease. Cytokine expression was investigated in the second case to assess the immunopathogenesis of WNV. Collectively, these studies suggest that lineage 2 WNV may be significantly under estimated as a cause of neurological disease in South Africa.

  19. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level.

  20. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  1. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J; Gerlach, Robert; Berner, James

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  2. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J.; Gerlach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations. PMID:23399790

  3. Calculation of genomic predicted transmitting abilities for bovine respiratory disease complex in Holsteins

    Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex is a disease that is very costly to the dairy industry. Genomic selection may be an effective tool to improve host resistance to the pathogens that cause this disease. Use of genomic predicted transmitting abilities (GPTA) for selection has had a dramatic effect on...

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    PubMed

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling.

  5. Vaginal DNA vaccination against infectious diseases transmitted through the vagina.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-06-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of vaccines against genital virus infections that are transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, including the HIV and HPV. In general, the surface of female genital mucosa, including vaginal mucosa, is the most common site of initiation of these infections. Thus, it is becoming clear that successful vaccines must induce both cellular and humoral immune responses in both the local genital tract and systemically. We believe that a strong vaginal immune response could be obtained by inducing strong gene expression of antigen-coding DNA in the local targeted tissue. In order to improve transfection efficiency in the vagina, it is important that methods allowing breakthrough of the various barriers, such as the epithelial layer, cellular and nuclear membrane, are developed. Therefore, systems providing less invasive and more effective delivery into the subepithelial layer are required. In this review, we will introduce our studies into efficient vaginal DNA vaccination methods, focusing on the effects of the menstrual cycle, utilization of the combination of functional peptides, and use of a needle-free injector.

  6. Paramyosin of canine Onchocerca lupi: usefulness for the diagnosis of a neglected zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bronwyn; Cortes, Helder; Annoscia, Giada; Giannelli, Alessio; Parisi, Antonio; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-09-07

    Of increasing importance to the medical and veterinary communities is the zoonotic filarioid nematode Onchocerca lupi. Onchocercosis, thus far found in wolves, dogs, cats and humans, is diagnosed via skin snips to detect microfilariae and surgical removal of adults from the eye of the host. These methods are time-consuming, laborious and invasive, highlighting the need for new tools for the diagnosis of O. lupi in susceptible hosts. Symptoms related to the presence of the adults in the eye can range from none apparent to severe, including blindness. No reliable chemotherapeutic protocols are available, as yet, to eliminate the infection. Paramyosin, an invertebrate-specific protein, has been well-studied as an allergen, diagnostic marker and vaccine candidate. The aim of this study, therefore, was to isolate and characterise paramyosin from O. lupi to assess its suitability for the development of a serological diagnostic assay. The adult and microfilarial stages of O. lupi were isolated from the eyes and skin of a 3-year-old male dog. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into single stranded cDNA. Reverse-transcription PCR was used to isolate a full-length paramyosin cDNA from adult worms and to investigate the temporal expression patterns of this gene. All amplicons were sequenced using dideoxy chain termination sequencing. Bioinformatics was used to predict the amino acid sequence of the gene, to compare the DNA and protein sequences with those available in public databases and to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of all molecules. Antibody binding sites were predicted using bioinformatics and mapped along with published antigenic epitopes against the O. lupi paramyosin protein. The native protein, and three smaller recombinantly expressed peptides, were subjected to western blot using serum from dogs both positive and negative for O. lupi. Paramyosin of O. lupi was herein molecularly characterized, encoded by a transcript of 2,643 bp and

  7. Diseases Transmitted by Man's Worst Friend: the Rat.

    PubMed

    Fox, James G

    2015-12-01

    Historically, the rat has been considered a scourge to mankind, for example, rats infected with the plague bacillus that caused the Black Death, which accounted for millions of deaths in Europe during the Middle Ages. At least three pandemics (in the 5th and 6th, 8th through 14th, and 19th through 21st centuries) of plague ravaged civilizations, and the disease undoubtedly plagued humankind prior to recorded history. Also, numerous other diseases are spread to humans by rats; thus, a quote from Hans Zinsser's text Rats, Lice, and History, "Man and rat will always be pitted against each other as implacable enemies," conveys the general revulsion that society holds for the wild rat.

  8. Prevention of vector transmitted diseases with clove oil insect repellent.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Rochel

    2012-08-01

    Vector repellent is one element in the prevention of vector-borne diseases. Families that neglect protecting their children against vectors risk their children contracting illnesses such as West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, Lyme disease, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, babesiosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Southern tick-associated rash illness, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, tularemia, and other insect and arthropod related diseases (CDC, 2011). Identification of families at risk includes screening of the underlying basis for reluctance to apply insect repellent. Nurses and physicians can participate in a positive role by assisting families to determine the proper prophylaxis by recommending insect repellent choices that are economical, safe, and easy to use. A holistic alternative might include the suggestion of clove oil in cases where families might have trepidations regarding the use of DEET on children. This article will explore the safety and effectiveness of clove oil and its use as an insect repellent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases in Argentina, 1995 through 1997.

    PubMed

    Schmuñis, G A; Zicker, F; Segura, E L; del Pozo, A E

    2000-09-01

    Assessment of the safety of the blood supply, the quality of screening procedures, and the risk of transfusion transmission of infectious diseases in any country can be estimated by reviewing the records of blood donations and screening procedures and the prevalence of serologic markers of infectious diseases. Information on blood donors, particularly the number of screened donors, and on the prevalence of serologic markers of infectious diseases was available from Argentina for 1995 through 1997. This information permitted the estimation of the risks and costs of preventing transfusion transmission of infectious diseases within the country during this period. Screening coverage was higher in the private sector. The proportion of donors screened for HIV increased from 84.52 percent in 1995 to 97.97 percent in 1997; in the same period, serologic screening for HbsAg increased from 83.71 percent to 98.48 percent; that for HCV from 69. 92 percent to 97.83 percent; and that for syphilis from 87.94 percent to 98.71 percent. One hundred percent of donors were screened for Trypanosoma cruzi throughout the period. The overall prevalence of HIV per year varied from 2.42 to 3.36 per 1,000 donors; that of HBV, from 5.80 to 9.76 per 1,000; of HCV, from 7.39 to 16.61 per 1,000; and of syphilis, from 5.25 to 7.65 per 1,000. The overall prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi ranged from 36.53 to 49.20 per 1,000 donors. The overall index of the spread of infectious viral disease through blood transfusion decreased from 47. 74 per 10,000 donations in 1995 to 4.75 per 10,000 in 1997. The ratio of acquired infections to donations improved from 1:209 to 1:2, 102 during the same period. The risk of T. cruzi infection from 1995 through 1997 was, in theory, nil, given the 100-percent screening. The greatest threat to the quality of the blood supply throughout the period studied was HCV. The status of the blood supply in Argentina improved steadily from 1995 to 1997, as shown by the increase

  10. Bat–man disease transmission: zoonotic pathogens from wildlife reservoirs to human populations

    PubMed Central

    Allocati, N; Petrucci, A G; Di Giovanni, P; Masulli, M; Di Ilio, C; De Laurenzi, V

    2016-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts and sources of infection of several microorganisms, many of which cause severe human diseases. Because of contact between bats and other animals, including humans, the possibility exists for additional interspecies transmissions and resulting disease outbreaks. The purpose of this article is to supply an overview on the main pathogens isolated from bats that have the potential to cause disease in humans. PMID:27551536

  11. Assessing Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Services in State and Local Health Departments.

    PubMed

    Cuffe, Kendra M; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L

    2018-06-01

    State and local health department sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs provide several partner services to reduce disease transmission. Budget cuts and temporary staff reassignments for public health emergencies may affect the provision of partner services. Determining the impact of staffing reductions on STD rates and public health response should be further assessed.

  12. Does Funding for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Matter? Evidence from Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Harrison, Paul; Scotton, Carol R.; Varghese, Beena

    2005-01-01

    Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has allocated several billion dollars for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. Using state-level data from 1981 to 1998, the authors found that greater amounts of prevention funding in a given year are…

  13. A sexually transmitted disease: History of AIDS through philately.

    PubMed

    Vatanoğlu, Emine Elif; Ataman, Ahmet Doğan

    2011-01-01

    AIDS has become the new plague; a disease that is not only physically and psychologically debilitating, but culturally and socially devastating as well. Like the plague, AIDS has caused fear, prejudice and even panic in society. Although there are remarkable improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, AIDS continues its grim passage around the globe. After a slight downturn in the early 1990's, it then returned with a vengeance. By the end of the 20(th) century, AIDS was reliably estimated to have caused over 20 million deaths throughout the world. At the same time, 40 million people were estimated to be HIV positive. This paper provides an overview of the history of AIDS, including the discovery and its progress in the world through philately. Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items. Philately involves more than just stamp collecting, it contains the study of the design and educational impact of a philatelic material. We have presented AIDS stamps produced world-wide to emphasize the history of AIDS.

  14. Ectoparasites and other epifaunistic arthropods of sympatric cotton mice and golden mice: comparisons and implications for vector-borne zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Durden, Lance A; Polur, Ram N; Nims, Todd; Banks, Craig W; Oliver, James H

    2004-12-01

    Ectoparasite and epifaunistic arthropod biodiversity and infestation parameters were compared between 2 sympatric small rodent species, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus (Le Conte)) and golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli (Harlan)), in southern Georgia from 1992 to 2003. Because the cotton mouse is known to be a reservoir of more vector-borne zoonotic pathogens than the golden mouse, we hypothesized that it would be parasitized by more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of these pathogens. Cotton mice (n = 202) were parasitized by 19 species of arthropods, whereas golden mice (n = 46) were parasitized by 12 species. Eleven species of arthropods were recovered from both host species, whereas 7 were recorded only from cotton mice, and 1 species only from golden mice. Infestation prevalences (percent of mice parasitized) were significantly higher for 1 species of arthropod (the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) infesting cotton mice and for 4 species (the flea Peromyscopsylla scotti Fox and the mites Glycyphagus hypudaei Koch, Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese), and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese)) infesting golden mice. Mean intensities (mean per infested mouse) were significantly higher for 2 species (the flea Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) and the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis Say) infesting cotton mice and for 2 species (G. hypudaei and A. fahrenholzi) infesting golden mice. Ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens were significantly more common on cotton mice than on golden mice. These ectoparasites included the rhopalopsyllid flea Polygenis gwyni (Fox), a vector of the agent of murine typhus; I. scapularis, the principal vector of the agents of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis; and O. bacoti, a laboratory vector of several zoonotic pathogens. However, 2 species of ixodid ticks that can transmit zoonotic pathogens were recovered from both host species. These were the American

  15. Cost-effective control strategies for animal and zoonotic diseases in pastoralist populations.

    PubMed

    Zinsstag, J; Abakar, M F; Ibrahim, M; Tschopp, R; Crump, L; Bonfoh, B; Schelling, E

    2016-11-01

    Animal diseases and zoonoses abound among pastoralist livestock, which is composed of cattle, sheep, goats, yak, camels, llamas, reindeer, horses and donkeys. There is endemic and, periodically, epidemic transmission of highly contagious viral and bacterial diseases in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Pastoralist livestock is often multiparasitised with endo- and ectoparasites, as well as being affected by vectorborne viral and protozoal diseases. Pastoral livestock can be a reservoir of such diseases and can also, conversely, be at risk from exposure to wildlife reservoirs. Public and private animal health services currently underperform in almost all pastoral areas due to structural reforms and lack of income, as indicated in assessments of national Veterinary Services by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Control of infectious disease in industrialised countries has been achieved through large-scale public funding of control measures and compensation for culled stock. Such means are not available in pastoralist areas of most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While the cost-effectiveness and profitability of the control of animal diseases and zoonoses is less of a consideration for industrialised countries, in the experience of the authors, understanding the economic implications of a control programme is a prerequisite for successful attempts to improve animal health in LMICs. The incremental costs of animal disease control can potentially be shared using crosssector assessments, integrated control, and regional coordination efforts to mitigate transboundary disease risks. In this paper, the authors discuss cost-effective animal disease and zoonoses control in LMICs. It illustrates frameworks and examples of integrated control and cross-sector economics, showing conditions under which these diseases could be controlled in a cost-effective way.

  16. Predictors of Self-reported Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Yoder, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate factors associated with self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among 569 homeless and runaway adolescents in four Midwestern states. Youth were interviewed by outreach workers directly on the streets, in shelters, and in drop-in centers. Results indicated that family abuse was positively related to substance use, affiliation with friends who sold sex, and time on own. Early family abuse indirectly increased the likelihood of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases through time on own, substance use, friends selling sex, and risky sexual behaviors. Finally, substance use and affiliation with friends who sold sex was positively associated with risky sexual behaviors, which in turn was related to self-reported sexually transmitted diseases. No significant gender interactions were found for this model. PMID:25125705

  17. Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a horse: zoonotic concerns and limitations of antemortem testing

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...

  18. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response. PMID:26954882

  19. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-06-10

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.

  20. A Hidden Markov Model for Analysis of Frontline Veterinary Data for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Gunawardana, Walimunige S. N.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Nathoo, Farouk; Stephen, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance systems tracking health patterns in animals have potential for early warning of infectious disease in humans, yet there are many challenges that remain before this can be realized. Specifically, there remains the challenge of detecting early warning signals for diseases that are not known or are not part of routine surveillance for named diseases. This paper reports on the development of a hidden Markov model for analysis of frontline veterinary sentinel surveillance data from Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians collected data on syndromes and diagnoses using mobile phones. A model for submission patterns accounts for both sentinel-related and disease-related variability. Models for commonly reported cattle diagnoses were estimated separately. Region-specific weekly average prevalence was estimated for each diagnoses and partitioned into normal and abnormal periods. Visualization of state probabilities was used to indicate areas and times of unusual disease prevalence. The analysis suggests that hidden Markov modelling is a useful approach for surveillance datasets from novel populations and/or having little historical baselines. PMID:21949763

  1. Complex Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Disease in a Culturally Diverse Region: Phylogeography of Rabies Virus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Daniel L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Marston, Denise A.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Goharrriz, Hooman; Wise, Emma; Breed, Andrew C.; Saturday, Greg; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Zilahi, Erika; Al-Kobaisi, Muhannad F.; Nowotny, Norbert; Mueller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination. PMID:25811659

  2. Cultural Practices Shaping Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Thailand Native Chicken Farmers.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Tatong, D; Chumkaeo, A; Binot, A; Fournié, G; Pilot, E; Phimpraphi, W; Kasemsuwan, S; Paul, M C; Duboz, R; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of current passive zoonotic disease surveillance systems is limited by the under-reporting of disease outbreaks in the domestic animal population. Evaluating the acceptability of passive surveillance and its economic, social and cultural determinants appears a critical step for improving it. A participatory rural appraisal was implemented in a rural subdistrict of Thailand. Focus group interviews were used to identify sanitary risks perceived by native chicken farmers and describe the structure of their value chain. Qualitative individual interviews with a large diversity of actors enabled to identify perceived costs and benefits associated with the reporting of HPAI suspicions to sanitary authorities. Besides, flows of information on HPAI suspected cases were assessed using network analysis, based on data collected through individual questionnaires. Results show that the presence of cockfighting activities in the area negatively affected the willingness of all chicken farmers and other actors to report suspected HPAI cases. The high financial and affective value of fighting cocks contradicted the HPAI control policy based on mass culling. However, the importance of product quality in the native chicken meat value chain and the free veterinary services and products delivered by veterinary officers had a positive impact on suspected case reporting. Besides, cockfighting practitioners had a significantly higher centrality than other actors in the information network and they facilitated the spatial diffusion of information. Social ties built in cockfighting activities and the shared purpose of protecting valuable cocks were at the basis of the diffusion of information and the informal collective management of diseases. Building bridges with this informal network would greatly improve the effectiveness of passive surveillance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Using administrative medical claims data to supplement state disease registry systems for reporting zoonotic infections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen G; Coulter, Steven; Conner, William

    2013-01-01

    To determine what, if any, opportunity exists in using administrative medical claims data for supplemental reporting to the state infectious disease registry system. Cases of five tick-borne (Lyme disease (LD), babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), tularemia) and two mosquito-borne diseases (West Nile virus, La Crosse viral encephalitis) reported to the Tennessee Department of Health during 2000-2009 were selected for study. Similarly, medically diagnosed cases from a Tennessee-based managed care organization (MCO) claims data warehouse were extracted for the same time period. MCO and Tennessee Department of Health incidence rates were compared using a complete randomized block design within a general linear mixed model to measure potential supplemental reporting opportunity. MCO LD incidence was 7.7 times higher (p<0.001) than that reported to the state, possibly indicating significant under-reporting (∼196 unreported cases per year). MCO data also suggest about 33 cases of RMSF go unreported each year in Tennessee (p<0.001). Three cases of babesiosis were discovered using claims data, a significant finding as this disease was only recently confirmed in Tennessee. Data sharing between MCOs and health departments for vaccine information already exists (eg, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Rapid Cycle Analysis project). There may be a significant opportunity in Tennessee to supplement the current passive infectious disease reporting system with administrative claims data, particularly for LD and RMSF. There are limitations with administrative claims data, but health plans may help bridge data gaps and support the federal administration's vision of combining public and private data into one source.

  4. A one health framework for estimating the economic costs of zoonotic diseases on society.

    PubMed

    Narrod, Clare; Zinsstag, Jakob; Tiongco, Marites

    2012-06-01

    This article presents an integrated epidemiological and economic framework for assessing zoonoses using a "one health" concept. The framework allows for an understanding of the cross-sector economic impact of zoonoses using modified risk analysis and detailing a range of analytical tools. The goal of the framework is to link the analysis outputs of animal and human disease transmission models, economic impact models and evaluation of risk management options to gain improved understanding of factors affecting the adoption of risk management strategies so that investment planning includes the most promising interventions (or sets of interventions) in an integrated fashion. A more complete understanding of the costs of the disease and the costs and benefits of control measures would promote broader implementation of the most efficient and effective control measures, contributing to improved animal and human health, better livelihood outcomes for the poor and macroeconomic growth.

  5. Vector-transmitted disease vaccines: targeting salivary proteins in transmission (SPIT).

    PubMed

    McDowell, Mary Ann

    2015-08-01

    More than half the population of the world is at risk for morbidity and mortality from vector-transmitted diseases, and emerging vector-transmitted infections are threatening new populations. Rising insecticide resistance and lack of efficacious vaccines highlight the need for novel control measures. One such approach is targeting the vector-host interface by incorporating vector salivary proteins in anti-pathogen vaccines. Debate remains about whether vector saliva exposure exacerbates or protects against more severe clinical manifestations, induces immunity through natural exposure or extends to all vector species and associated pathogens. Nevertheless, exploiting this unique biology holds promise as a viable strategy for the development of vaccines against vector-transmitted diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Statewide Management Information System for the Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fichtner, Ronald R.; Blount, Joseph H.; Spencer, Jack N.

    1983-01-01

    The persistent endemicity in the U.S. of infectious syphilis and gonorrhea, together with increasing diagnoses of gonococcal-related pelvic inflammatory disease in women and genital herpes infections, have intensified pressures on state and local VD control programs to measure, analyze, and interpret the distribution and transmission of these and other sexually transmitted diseases. In response, the Division of Venereal Disease Control (DVDC) of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is participating in the development of three state-wide, prototype sexually transmitted disease (STD) management information systems. A systems analysis of a typical state-wide STD control program indicated that timely, comprehensive, informational support to public health managers and policy makers should be combined with rapid, direct support of program activities using an on-line, integrated data base, computer system with telecommunications capability. This methodology uses a data base management system, query facility for ad hoc inquiries, custom design philosophies, but utilizes distinct hardware and software implementations.

  7. Q fever is an old and neglected zoonotic disease in Kenya: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Njeru, J; Henning, K; Pletz, M W; Heller, R; Neubauer, H

    2016-04-05

    Q fever is a neglected zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The knowledge of the epidemiology of Q fever in Kenya is limited with no attention to control and prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to understand the situation of Q fever in human and animal populations in Kenya in the past 60 years, and help identify future research priorities for the country. Databases were searched for national and international scientific studies or reports on Q fever. We included studies and reports published between 1950 and 2015 if they reported on Q fever prevalence, incidence, and infection control programs in Kenya. Data were extracted with respect to studies on prevalence of Coxiella infections, study design, study region, the study populations involved, and sorted according to the year of the study. We identified 15 studies and reports which qualified for data extraction. Human seroprevalence studies revealed evidence of C. burnetii infections ranging from 3 to 35.8% in all regions in which surveys were made and two Q fever outbreak episodes. Coxiella burnetii infections found in cattle 7.4-51.1%, sheep 6.7-20%, camels 20-46%, and goats 20-46% revealed variation based on ecoregions and the year of study. Farming and lack of protective clothing were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. However, high quality data is lacking on Q fever awareness, underlying cultural-economic factors influencing C. burnetii infection, and how the pathogen cycles may be embedded in livestock production and management systems in the economically and ecologically different Kenyan regions. We found no studies on national disease incidence estimates or disease surveillance and control efforts. Coxiella burnetii infections are common in human and in a wide range of animal populations but are still unrecognized and underestimated thus presenting a significant human and animal health threat in Kenya. The factors influencing pathogen transmission

  8. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BRUCELLA SUIS IN PIGS AS ZOONOTIC DISEASE IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF EAST JAVA, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    S, Emy Koestanti; Misaco, Wiwik; Chusniati, Sri; Maslachah, Lilik

    2018-01-01

    Brucellosis in pigs at East Java Indonesia has not only cause great economic losses due to a decrease in productivity of livestock but also are zoonotic. Infection on free brucelosis pigs were initially begun with the infected pigs both male and female, or the use of superior male pigs together. The elimination of the disease either on a group or population is considered as the most effective way to prevent the spread of the disease in pigs. Prevention efforts mainly addressed to vaccination, sanitary maintenace and government policy. The purpose of this study was to isolated and identified Brucella suis as the causative agent. The survey area were the pig farm owned by breeder farmers in the area of East Java Indonesia, at Kediri, Malang, Blitar and Probolinggo district. Blood samples obtained were tested with RBT. Pigs are suspected of being infected with Brucella if the RBT was positive that characterized with agglutination in the test results. If RBT was positive, bacteriological examination will be performed, with samples of visceral foetus organ, ie liver, spleen, placenta and amniotic fluid. Isolation and identification of Brucella suis were used Brucella Broth and Brucella Agar, and if the bacteri growthwill be continued with biochemical test ie H2S, urease, citrate, catalase and oxidase test. The positive results of Brucella suis showed positive urease, catalase andoxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. RBT and bacteriolgical examination showed that 1 sample was positive Brucella suis , and 19 negative. The positive results showed positive urease, catalase and oxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. Based on RBT test and bacteriological examination, there was 1 positive sample of brucellla suis, that is sample coming from Kediri district.

  9. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BRUCELLA SUIS IN PIGS AS ZOONOTIC DISEASE IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

    PubMed Central

    S, Emy Koestanti; Misaco, Wiwik; Chusniati, Sri; Maslachah, Lilik

    2018-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis in pigs at East Java Indonesia has not only cause great economic losses due to a decrease in productivity of livestock but also are zoonotic. Infection on free brucelosis pigs were initially begun with the infected pigs both male and female, or the use of superior male pigs together. The elimination of the disease either on a group or population is considered as the most effective way to prevent the spread of the disease in pigs. Prevention efforts mainly addressed to vaccination, sanitary maintenace and government policy. The purpose of this study was to isolated and identified Brucella suis as the causative agent. Material and Methods: The survey area were the pig farm owned by breeder farmers in the area of East Java Indonesia, at Kediri, Malang, Blitar and Probolinggo district. Blood samples obtained were tested with RBT. Pigs are suspected of being infected with Brucella if the RBT was positive that characterized with agglutination in the test results. If RBT was positive, bacteriological examination will be performed, with samples of visceral foetus organ, ie liver, spleen, placenta and amniotic fluid. Isolation and identification of Brucella suis were used Brucella Broth and Brucella Agar, and if the bacteri growthwill be continued with biochemical test ie H2S, urease, citrate, catalase and oxidase test. The positive results of Brucella suis showed positive urease, catalase andoxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. Results: RBT and bacteriolgical examination showed that 1 sample was positive Brucella suis, and 19 negative. The positive results showed positive urease, catalase and oxidase, but negative for citrate and H2S. Conclusion: Based on RBT test and bacteriological examination, there was 1 positive sample of brucellla suis, that is sample coming from Kediri district. PMID:29619446

  10. Engaging research with policy and action: what are the challenges of responding to zoonotic disease in Africa?

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Scoones, Jake Cornwall; Grace, Delia; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Jones, Kate E; de Balogh, Katinka; Waltner-Toews, David; Bett, Bernard; Welburn, Susan C; Mumford, Elizabeth; Dzingirai, Vupenyu

    2017-07-19

    Zoonotic diseases will maintain a high level of public policy attention in the coming decades. From the spectre of a global pandemic to anxieties over agricultural change, urbanization, social inequality and threats to natural ecosystems, effectively preparing and responding to endemic and emerging diseases will require technological, institutional and social innovation. Much current discussion emphasizes the need for a 'One Health' approach: bridging disciplines and sectors to tackle these complex dynamics. However, as attention has increased, so too has an appreciation of the practical challenges in linking multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral research with policy, action and impact. In this commentary paper, we reflect on these issues with particular reference to the African sub-continent. We structure the themes of our analysis on the existing literature, expert opinion and 11 interviews with leading One Health scholars and practitioners, conducted at an international symposium in 2016. We highlight a variety of challenges in research and knowledge production, in the difficult terrain of implementation and outreach, and in the politicized nature of decision-making and priority setting. We then turn our attention to a number of strategies that might help reconfigure current pathways and accepted norms of practice. These include: (i) challenging scientific expertise; (ii) strengthening national multi-sectoral coordination; (iii) building on what works; and (iv) re-framing policy narratives. We argue that bridging the research-policy-action interface in Africa, and better connecting zoonoses, ecosystems and well-being in the twenty-first century, will ultimately require greater attention to the democratization of science and public policy.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Engaging research with policy and action: what are the challenges of responding to zoonotic disease in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Scoones, Jake Cornwall; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; de Balogh, Katinka; Bett, Bernard; Welburn, Susan C.; Mumford, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases will maintain a high level of public policy attention in the coming decades. From the spectre of a global pandemic to anxieties over agricultural change, urbanization, social inequality and threats to natural ecosystems, effectively preparing and responding to endemic and emerging diseases will require technological, institutional and social innovation. Much current discussion emphasizes the need for a ‘One Health’ approach: bridging disciplines and sectors to tackle these complex dynamics. However, as attention has increased, so too has an appreciation of the practical challenges in linking multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral research with policy, action and impact. In this commentary paper, we reflect on these issues with particular reference to the African sub-continent. We structure the themes of our analysis on the existing literature, expert opinion and 11 interviews with leading One Health scholars and practitioners, conducted at an international symposium in 2016. We highlight a variety of challenges in research and knowledge production, in the difficult terrain of implementation and outreach, and in the politicized nature of decision-making and priority setting. We then turn our attention to a number of strategies that might help reconfigure current pathways and accepted norms of practice. These include: (i) challenging scientific expertise; (ii) strengthening national multi-sectoral coordination; (iii) building on what works; and (iv) re-framing policy narratives. We argue that bridging the research-policy-action interface in Africa, and better connecting zoonoses, ecosystems and well-being in the twenty-first century, will ultimately require greater attention to the democratization of science and public policy. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584180

  12. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  13. A Study of the Awareness of Selected College Students Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Gregory H.; Klein, Daniel

    Changes in sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates among adolescents and young adults may depend on changes in sexual activity, accessibility of referral and treatment services, and education. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of college students toward various aspects of STD's, a 45-item Likert inventory focusing on symptoms, prevalence,…

  14. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, covering the following topics (1) Health Education; and…

  15. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  16. Teaching About Sexually Transmitted Diseases; A Curriculum Guide and Resources For Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This curriculum guide provides school districts that already have VD education programs with up-to-date information about research and epidemiology relating to sexually transmitted diseases. For districts wishing to implement a program for the first time, it offers both a structured framework and the resources and materials needed for a complete…

  17. An Intervention to Promote the Female Condom to Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…

  18. School Health Education To Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. WHO AIDS Series 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide provides a framework within which education authorities can work with teachers, parents, and community leaders to help young people learn the facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). It emphasizes the importance of education about human behavior and sexuality that is appropriate to…

  19. EveryBody[TM]: Preventing HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeberlein, Deborah

    EveryBody is a curriculum that emphasizes prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among early adolescents. It fosters active learning and facilitates communication about HIV/STD prevention and promotes safer behaviors. EveryBody incorporates current research on adolescent development so it…

  20. Likelihood of Condom Use When Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Suspected: Results from a Clinic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Charnigo, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the event-level associations between perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition/transmission and condom use during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) among STD clinic attendees. Method: A convenience sample (N = 622) completed daily electronic assessments. Two questions were proxies of perceived risk:…

  1. Recruitment Strategies and Motivations for Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state…

  2. Zoonotic aspects of vector-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Failloux, A-B; Moutailler, S

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are principally zoonotic diseases transmitted to humans by animals. Pathogens such as bacteria, parasites and viruses are primarily maintained within an enzootic cycle between populations of non-human primates or other mammals and largely non-anthropophilic vectors. This 'wild' cycle sometimes spills over in the form of occasional infections of humans and domestic animals. Lifestyle changes, incursions by humans into natural habitats and changes in agropastoral practices create opportunities that make the borders between wildlife and humans more permeable. Some vector-borne diseases have dispensed with the need for amplification in wild or domestic animals and they can now be directly transmitted to humans. This applies to some viruses (dengue and chikungunya) that have caused major epidemics. Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have reduced their transmission cycle to the minimum, with humans acting as reservoir, amplifier and disseminator. The design of control strategies for vector-borne diseases should be guided by research into emergence mechanisms in order to understand how a wild cycle can produce a pathogen that goes on to cause devastating urban epidemics.

  3. The effect of abortion legalization on sexual behavior: evidence from sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Klick, Jonathan; Stratmann, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Unwanted pregnancy represents a major cost of sexual activity. When abortion was legalized in a number of states in 1969 and 1970 (and nationally in 1973), this cost was reduced. We predict that abortion legalization generated incentives leading to an increase in sexual activity, accompanied by an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using Centers for Disease Control data on the incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis by state, we test the hypothesis that abortion legalization led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. We find that gonorrhea and syphilis incidences are significantly and positively correlated with abortion legalization. Further, we find a divergence in STD rates among early legalizing states and late legalizing states starting in 1970 and a subsequent convergence after the Roe v. Wade decision, indicating that the relation between STDs and abortion is casual. Abortion legalization accounts for about one-fourth of the average disease incidence.

  4. Zoonotic disease transmission associated with feral cats in a metropolitan area: A geospatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Taetzsch, S J; Bertke, A S; Gruszynski, K R

    2018-06-01

    Feral cats raise public health concerns due to their large population numbers and ability to harbour pathogens that cause disease in people, pets, and wildlife. Information regarding the potential for feral cats to intersect with areas frequented by humans is lacking. This study examined the potential for feral cats and human territories to overlap in the Richmond metropolitan area of Central Virginia. Feral cats (n = 275) were trapped for monthly trap-neuter-release (TNR) clinics from July to November 2016. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to map feral cat trapping locations, elementary and preschools, public parks, and community gardens, and to evaluate the potential for cat interaction with these areas, presuming a maximum habitat radius of 0.44 miles. We found that 8.0% of feral cats in the Richmond metropolitan area had potential to range onto public elementary or preschool property, and 81.5% of feral cats trapped in Richmond City had potential to roam into one or more places of interest, including elementary and preschool grounds, public parks, and community gardens. This provides public health, veterinary, and human health professionals with important information that can be used to focus resources in an effort to reduce zoonosis associated with feral cat populations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. [Sexuality Risk Factors among People with Suspect of Sexually Transmitted Disease].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morente, María Ángeles; Cano-Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Ocón, María Teresa; Castro-López, Esperanza; Jiménez-Bautista, Francisco; Hueso-Montoro, César

    2017-01-25

    Describing determinants factors in Sexually Transmitted Diseases is necessary to evaluate and design effective measures for prevention and treatment. The aim of this research was to determine the sexual risk factors of people who are treated at Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre and to analyze differences based on gender. Cross-sectional study on 496 clinical reports, period of time 2010 to 2014, of people who come to the Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Orientation Centre of Granada, for suspected of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sociodemographic, clinical and sexual patterns data were collected. Calculation of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test to compare proportions were performed. 56% men and 44% women. The mean age was 29,01 years (SD=9,07). Most of the sample were single (85,9%). 54,2% had a higher education level. The most prevalent infections were the Human Papilloma-virus (18,8%), followed Molluscum contagiosum (5,6%) and Candidiasis (3,8%). Significant differences were found by sex with sexual behavior, there are more gay men (n=89) and bisexual (n=22) than women (n=4, n=7, respectively) (p smaller than 0,001); differences between sex and sexual life were also found, finding higher prevalence of men with 10-20 couples (n=23) and more than 20 couples (n=20) than women (n=10, n=4, respectively). The user profile is a young, single, with higher education. The most prevalent infection is the Human Papillomavirus. Men are a vulnerable population for contracting sexually transmitted diseases because of their sexual practices.

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: Another Zoonotic Betacoronavirus Causing SARS-Like Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The source of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic was traced to wildlife market civets and ultimately to bats. Subsequent hunting for novel coronaviruses (CoVs) led to the discovery of two additional human and over 40 animal CoVs, including the prototype lineage C betacoronaviruses, Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 and Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5; these are phylogenetically closely related to the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV, which has affected more than 1,000 patients with over 35% fatality since its emergence in 2012. All primary cases of MERS are epidemiologically linked to the Middle East. Some of these patients had contacted camels which shed virus and/or had positive serology. Most secondary cases are related to health care-associated clusters. The disease is especially severe in elderly men with comorbidities. Clinical severity may be related to MERS-CoV's ability to infect a broad range of cells with DPP4 expression, evade the host innate immune response, and induce cytokine dysregulation. Reverse transcription-PCR on respiratory and/or extrapulmonary specimens rapidly establishes diagnosis. Supportive treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and dialysis is often required in patients with organ failure. Antivirals with potent in vitro activities include neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, antiviral peptides, interferons, mycophenolic acid, and lopinavir. They should be evaluated in suitable animal models before clinical trials. Developing an effective camel MERS-CoV vaccine and implementing appropriate infection control measures may control the continuing epidemic. PMID:25810418

  7. Observation of practices at petting zoos and the potential impact on zoonotic disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott; McCarthy, Lisa; Mossop, Michael; Martin, Hayley; Lefebvre, Sandi

    2007-07-01

    Although petting zoos are common at public events and allow the public to interact with animals, there has been minimal evaluation of practices at petting zoos. Unannounced observation was performed at 36 petting zoos in Ontario, Canada. Observers recorded information, including physical layout, animal species, animal health, types of animal contact permitted, animal sources, hand hygiene facilities, signage, sale of food for human consumption, and hand hygiene compliance. The majority of petting zoos (24 [67%] of 36 petting zoos) were part of temporary events, particularly agricultural fairs (21 [58%] of 36 petting zoos). A variety of animal species were present, including some animals that are considered to be at particularly high risk for disease transmission (neonatal calves and baby chicks). The following items that would come into contact with the mouths of infants and children were carried into the petting zoos: baby bottles (at 17 petting zoos; 50%), pacifiers (at 24 petting zoos; 71%), spill-proofs cups (at 19 petting zoos; 56%), and infant toys (at 22 petting zoos; 65%). Hand hygiene facilities were provided at 34 (94%) of 36 events, and hand hygiene compliance ranged from 0% through 77% (mean compliance [+/-SD], 30.9%+/-22.1%; median compliance, 26.5%). Predictors for increased hand hygiene compliance included the location of a hand hygiene station on an exit route, the presence of hand hygiene reminder signs, and the availability of running water. Numerous deficiencies were encountered. Better education of petting zoo operators and the general public is needed. Provision of hand hygiene stations with running water that are placed near exits is one effective way to encourage compliance.

  8. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances.

  9. Molecular, biochemical, and morphometric characterization of Fasciola species potentially causing zoonotic disease in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Rahimy, Hoda H; Mahgoub, Abeer M A; El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M; Mousa, Wahid M A; Antably, Abeer S A E

    2012-09-01

    Fascioliasis is an important disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The distributions of both species overlap in many areas of Asia and Africa including Egypt. Fifty adult Fasciola worms were collected from livers of cattle and sheep slaughtered in abattoirs, Cairo, Egypt. They were subjected to morphological and metric assessment of external features of fresh adults, morphological and metric assessment of internal anatomy of stained mounted worms, determination of electrophorezed bands of crude adult homogenates using SDS-PAGE, and molecular characterization of species-specific DNA segments using RFLP-PCR. It was found that the correlation between conventional morphology and its morphotype was statistically significant (P value = 0.00). Using SDS-PAGE, 13 bands were detected among both genotypes of Fasciola (35.7, 33.6, 32.4, 29.3, 27.5, 26, 24.4, 23, 21.45, 19, 16.75, 12.5, and 9.1 kDa).The most prevalent bands were that with a molecular weight of 29.3, 26, and 19 kDa. Bands detected were common for both species, but protein bands could not distinguish between F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The result of PCR for the amplification of the selected 28S rDNA fragment with the designed primer set yielded 618 bp long PCR products for F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Different band patterns generated after digestion of the 618 bp segment by the enzyme AvaII obtained with F. hepatica showed segments of the length 529, 62, 27 bp, while with F. gigantica 322, 269, 27 bp bands were obtained. Genotyping revealed no equivocal results. The conventional morphological parameters for species determination of Fasciola spp. endemic in Egypt were evaluated versus protein bands characterization and genotyping. It was concluded that conventional morphological and metric assessments were not useful for differentiation between F. gigantica and F. hepatica due to extensive overlap in the relative ranges. Similar conclusion was reached concerning protein band

  10. Insights about minority HIV-1 strains in transmitted drug resistance mutation dynamics and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Leda, Ana Rachel; Hunter, James; Oliveira, Ursula Castro; Azevedo, Inacio Junqueira; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia Araripe; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2018-04-19

    The presence of minority transmitted drug resistance mutations was assessed using ultra-deep sequencing and correlated with disease progression among recently HIV-1-infected individuals from Brazil. Samples at baseline during recent infection and 1 year after the establishment of the infection were analysed. Viral RNA and proviral DNA from 25 individuals were subjected to ultra-deep sequencing of the reverse transcriptase and protease regions of HIV-1. Viral strains carrying transmitted drug resistance mutations were detected in 9 out of the 25 patients, for all major antiretroviral classes, ranging from one to five mutations per patient. Ultra-deep sequencing detected strains with frequencies as low as 1.6% and only strains with frequencies >20% were detected by population plasma sequencing (three patients). Transmitted drug resistance strains with frequencies <14.8% did not persist upon established infection. The presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations was negatively correlated with the viral load and with CD4+ T cell count decay. Transmitted drug resistance mutations representing small percentages of the viral population do not persist during infection because they are negatively selected in the first year after HIV-1 seroconversion.

  11. An Attributional Analysis of Stigma Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Its Relationship with Communication Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jina H.; Jang, Suahn

    2012-01-01

    People typically attribute more responsibility to those individuals who are infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) than other diseases. This study tested how different routes (i.e., sexually transmitted or foodborne) of transmission have an impact on individuals’ general perception on stigma/shame and the attributions of responsibility, when controlling for symptoms/conditions of the hypothetical virus infection. Two hundreds and ninety eight college students were recruited for the study. As predicted, people who were attributed with control over contracting the virus (i.e., sexually transmitted route) were likely to be assigned a greater level of personal responsibility and were more likely to receive blame from others than people who were attributed relatively less control over contracting the virus (i.e., foodborne). The relationship between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy was also assessed. The results supported our prediction that there was a significant association between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy, in that the perceived controllability of the situation, perceived responsibility for the situation, and blame were all significantly correlated with communication efficacy in a negative direction. Practical applications by evaluating the effectiveness of the actual Merck’s Gardasil advertisement were discussed that the Gardasil advertisement appears to reduce the perceived shame and stigma associated with the sexually transmitted nature of the virus by not revealing the true nature of the virus upfront. PMID:22980337

  12. Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: a model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E S; Zhou, Y; Sall, M; Faramawi, M El; Shah, N; Christopher, A; Lewis, N

    2007-01-01

    Background Current research efforts have mainly concentrated on evaluating the role of substances present in animal food in the aetiology of chronic diseases in humans, with relatively little attention given to evaluating the role of transmissible agents that are also present. Meat workers are exposed to a variety of transmissible agents present in food animals and their products. This study investigates mortality from non-malignant diseases in workers with these exposures. Methods A cohort mortality study was conducted between 1949 and 1989, of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to transmissible agents. Mortality in meat workers was compared with that in a control group of 6081 workers in the same union, and also with the US general population. Risk was estimated by proportional mortality and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative SMR. Results A clear excess of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, acute and subacute endocarditis, functional diseases of the heart, and decreased risk of mortality from pre-cerebral, cerebral artery stenosis were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the US general population. Conclusions The authors hypothesise that zoonotic transmissible agents present in food animals and their products may be responsible for the occurrence of some cases of circulatory, neurological and other diseases in meat workers, and possibly in the general population exposed to these agents. PMID:17604337

  13. Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: a model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E S; Zhou, Y; Sall, M; Faramawi, M El; Shah, N; Christopher, A; Lewis, N

    2007-12-01

    Current research efforts have mainly concentrated on evaluating the role of substances present in animal food in the aetiology of chronic diseases in humans, with relatively little attention given to evaluating the role of transmissible agents that are also present. Meat workers are exposed to a variety of transmissible agents present in food animals and their products. This study investigates mortality from non-malignant diseases in workers with these exposures. A cohort mortality study was conducted between 1949 and 1989, of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to transmissible agents. Mortality in meat workers was compared with that in a control group of 6081 workers in the same union, and also with the US general population. Risk was estimated by proportional mortality and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative SMR. A clear excess of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, acute and subacute endocarditis, functional diseases of the heart, and decreased risk of mortality from pre-cerebral, cerebral artery stenosis were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the US general population. The authors hypothesise that zoonotic transmissible agents present in food animals and their products may be responsible for the occurrence of some cases of circulatory, neurological and other diseases in meat workers, and possibly in the general population exposed to these agents.

  14. [Sexually transmitted diseases: the impact of stigma and taboo on current medical care].

    PubMed

    Badura-Lotter, G

    2014-04-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are probably the most tabooed diseases we know. The many taboos and the related stigmata shape patients' lives and significantly influence health care policies, medical research, and current problems in medical ethics. To better understand these complex influences, the still powerful taboos and related metaphors associated with illness and disease are analyzed within their cultural and historical background and concerning the actual impact on patient care and research. It becomes obvious that research and health care policies cannot be satisfyingly successful in helping people affected by STDs as long as these "nonscientific" factors are not taken into account.

  15. Seropositivity to Chlamydia trachomatis in prostitutes: relationship to other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

    PubMed

    Caterino-de-Araujo, A; de-los-Santos Fortuna, E

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and its relationship with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was investigated by serological determinations in a group of 45 women working as prostitutes in Santos, State of São Paulo. Seropositivity to HIV-1 was demonstrated in 4 (9%) of the cases and to HIV-2 in one case. Syphilis and hepatitis B were detected in 29% and 43% of the 45 women, respectively. Specific antibodies to C. trachomatis were found in all subjects. The high seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis and C. trachomatis in this population was related to predisposing factors such as number of sexual contacts, sexual practices, drug use and episodes of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  16. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: Linking systems biology with vaccine development

    SciT

    Adams, Leslie G.; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D.

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhancedmore » approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic *sipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host

  17. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: linking systems biology with vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Adams, L Garry; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D; Rossetti, Carlos A; Lewin, Harris A; Lipton, Mary S; Turse, Joshua E; Wylie, Dennis C; Bai, Yu; Drake, Kenneth L

    2011-09-22

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhanced approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host-pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic ΔsipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host's biosignatures

  18. The spreading dynamics of sexually transmitted diseases with birth and death on heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Cao, Jinde; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we formulate a deterministic model by including the vacant sites, which represent inactive individuals or potential contacts, to investigate the spreading dynamics of sexually transmitted diseases in heterogeneous networks. We first analytically derive the basic reproduction number R 0, which completely determines global dynamics of the system in the long run. Specifically, if R 0  <  1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, i.e. disease disappears from the network irrespective of initial infected numbers and distributions, whereas if R 0  >  1, the system is uniformly persistent around a unique endemic equilibrium, i.e. disease persists in the network. Furthermore, by using a suitable Lyapunov function the global stability of endemic equilibrium for low/high-risk infected individuals only is proved. Finally, the effects of three immunization schemes are studied and compared, and extensive numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of network topology and population turnover on disease spread. Our results suggest that population turnover could have great impact on the sexually transmitted disease system in heterogeneous networks, including the basic reproduction number and infection prevalence.

  19. Multiplex method for initial complex testing of antibodies to blood transmitted diseases agents.

    PubMed

    Poltavchenko, Alexander G; Nechitaylo, Oleg V; Filatov, Pavel V; Ersh, Anna V; Gureyev, Vadim N

    2016-10-01

    Initial screening of donors and population at high risk of infection with blood transmitted diseases involves a number of analyses using monospesific diagnostic systems, and therefore is expensive labor- and time-consuming process. The goal of this work is to construct a multiplex test enabling to carry out rapid initial complex testing at a low price. The paper describes a kit making it possible to detect simultaneously antibodies to six agents of the most significant blood transmitted diseases: HIV virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, cytomegalovirus, T. pallidum and T. gondii in blood products. The kit comprises multiplex dot-immunoassay based on plane protein arrays (immune chips) using colloidal gold conjugates and silver development. It provides an opportunity to carry out complex analysis within 70min at room temperature, and there is no need of well-qualified personnel. We compared laboratory findings of the kit with monospecific kits for ELISA produced by two Russian commercial companies. Dot-assay results correlate well with data obtained using commercial kits for ELISA. Furthermore, multiplex analysis is quicker and cheaper in comparison with ELISA and can be carried out in non-laboratory conditions. The kit for multiplex dot-immunoassay of antibodies to blood transmitted agents can significantly simplify initial complex testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in patients presenting at Ayub teaching hospital, Abbottabad.

    PubMed

    Razvi, Syed Kamran Amir; Najeeb, Shahzad; Nazar, Hassan Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are present in all societies across the globe. Different cultures and societies show a different spectrum of these diseases. The last study conducted in Hazara division was back in 1995. We have conducted this study to see the recent trends and patterns of sexually transmitted diseases in the region. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad and included patients over a five year period from January 2010 till December 2014. Case sheets of 512 presenting with sexually transmitted diseases whose diagnosis was confirmed by related lab investigation were analysed retrospectively. Patients of all ages and both sexes were included. Out of these 512 patients only 47 were females and 465 were males. The age varied from 15-66 years. Gonorrhoea was the commonest disease with 231 cases. Genital warts were diagnosed in 60 cases. Non- gonococcal urethritis was seen in 57 patients. Genital Molluscum contagiosum was seen in 45 patients. Syphillis was diagnosed in 41 patients. Thirty-one cases of herpes genitalis, 25 cases of Chancroid, 13 cases of Lymphogranuloma venereum, were also seen. Five patients were found positive for HIV. Overwhelming majority of the patients were between the age of 19-35 years. 61% of the patients were married. The source of infection in male patients was mainly prostitutes (70%) but also included homosexual boys (21 %), married women (7.5%) and eunuchs (1.5%). The main source of infection in females was from husbands. The number of STD patients presenting in the region has increased significantly. The main factor is obviously the rise in population but also signifies the change in cultural and moral values.

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases among adults who had been abused and neglected as children: a 30-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy S

    2009-04-01

    We examined associations between childhood abuse and neglect and the risk in adulthood for sexually transmitted diseases. In a prospective cohort design, we matched children aged 0 to 11 years with documented cases of abuse or neglect during 1967 to 1971 with a control group of children who had not been maltreated (754 participants in all) and followed them into adulthood. Information about lifetime history of sexually transmitted diseases was collected as part of a medical status examination when participants were approximately 41 years old. Childhood sexual abuse increased risk for any sexually transmitted disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 3.77; P = .05) and more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.33, 8.22; P = .01). Physical abuse increased risk for more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.39, 9.38; P = .009). Our results provided the first prospective evidence that child physical and sexual abuse increases risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Early screening and interventions are needed to identify and prevent sexually transmitted diseases among child abuse victims.

  2. Risk factors for prevalent and incident Trichomonas vaginalis among women attending three sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Helms, Donna J; Mosure, Debra J; Metcalf, Carol A; Douglas, John M; Malotte, C Kevin; Paul, Sindy M; Peterman, Thomas A

    2008-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection in the United States and may be associated with adverse birth outcomes and may also increase susceptibility to or transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the epidemiology of T. vaginalis in Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics and characterize the risk factors associated with prevalent and incident T. vaginalis within the same population. We analyzed data from visits occurring during February 1999-December 2001 from 3 sexually transmitted disease clinics in Newark, NJ; Long Beach, CA; and Denver, CO. Data were analyzed from 1462 women aged 15 to 39 years who were tested by culture at their initial visit for T. vaginalis, and for 1269 women with at least 1 follow-up visit. Risk factors for prevalent infections at baseline and incident infections among treated or previously uninfected women were assessed. At baseline, 13.0% of the women had a prevalent infection; risk factors included the following: older age (> or =20 years), black race, having less than 12 years of education, and having a concurrent chlamydial infection. At follow-up, 4.6% of women had an incident infection; risk factors included the following: older age (35-39 years), black race, having a concurrent chlamydial infection, having had multiple sexual partners in the 3 months before incident infection, and having had T. vaginalis at the visit before their incident infection. T. vaginalis incidence is high in women. Risk factors for prevalent and incident infection are similar. T. vaginalis was associated with older age in women, unlike other sexually transmitted infections.

  3. Collection and Utilization of Animal Carcasses Associated with zoonotic Disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Doty, Jeffrey B; Moses, Cynthia; Ibata, Saturnin; Reynolds, Mary; Carroll, Darin

    2015-07-01

    The collection and consumption of animal carcasses is a common activity in forested areas of the Congo River basin and creates sustainability, conservation, and health concerns. Residents of the Tshuapa District reported collecting the remains of 5,878 animals from >30 species when surveyed about their wildlife consumption habits. Carcasses were discovered in varying degrees of decomposition and were often consumed at home or sold in local markets. The most commonly collected animals were Cricetomys gambianus (Northern giant pouched rat), Cercopithecus ascanius (red-tailed monkey), and Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel). Many of the species recorded may be hosts of zoonotic pathogens, creating concern for spillover events.

  4. Household Animal and Human Medicine Use and Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Risk Factors for Emerging Zoonotic Disease and Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Roess, A A; Winch, P J; Akhter, A; Afroz, D; Ali, N A; Shah, R; Begum, N; Seraji, H R; El Arifeen, S; Darmstadt, G L; Baqui, A H

    2015-11-01

    Animal antimicrobial use and husbandry practices increase risk of emerging zoonotic disease and antibiotic resistance. We surveyed 700 households to elicit information on human and animal medicine use and husbandry practices. Households that owned livestock (n = 265/459, 57.7%) reported using animal treatments 630 times during the previous 6 months; 57.6% obtained medicines, including antibiotics, from drug sellers. Government animal healthcare providers were rarely visited (9.7%), and respondents more often sought animal health care from pharmacies and village doctors (70.6% and 11.9%, respectively), citing the latter two as less costly and more successful based on past performance. Animal husbandry practices that could promote the transmission of microbes from animals to humans included the following: the proximity of chickens to humans (50.1% of households reported that the chickens slept in the bedroom); the shared use of natural bodies of water for human and animal bathing (78.3%); the use of livestock waste as fertilizer (60.9%); and gender roles that dictate that females are the primary caretakers of poultry and children (62.8%). In the absence of an effective animal healthcare system, villagers must depend on informal healthcare providers for treatment of their animals. Suboptimal use of antimicrobials coupled with unhygienic animal husbandry practices is an important risk factor for emerging zoonotic disease and resistant pathogens. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. [Knowledge of university students in Szeged, Hungary about reliable contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Devosa, Iván; Kozinszky, Zoltán; Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Fáyné Dombi, Alice; Barabás, Katalin

    2016-04-03

    Promiscuity and lack of use of reliable contraceptive methods increase the probability of sexually transmitted diseases and the risk of unwanted pregnancies, which are quite common among university students. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of university students about reliable contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases, and to assess the effectiveness of the sexual health education in secondary schools, with specific focus on the education held by peers. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out in a randomized sample of students at the University of Szeged (n = 472, 298 women and 174 men, average age 21 years) between 2009 and 2011. 62.1% of the respondents declared that reproductive health education lessons in high schools held by peers were reliable and authentic source of information, 12.3% considered as a less reliable source, and 25.6% defined the school health education as irrelevant source. Among those, who considered the health education held by peers as a reliable source, there were significantly more females (69.3% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.001), significantly fewer lived in cities (83.6% vs. 94.8%, p = 0.025), and significantly more responders knew that Candida infection can be transmitted through sexual intercourse (79.5% versus 63.9%, p = 0.02) as compared to those who did not consider health education held by peers as a reliable source. The majority of respondents obtained knowledge about sexual issues from the mass media. Young people who considered health educating programs reliable were significantly better informed about Candida disease.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus infection among patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Quinn, T C; Glasser, D; Cannon, R O; Matuszak, D L; Dunning, R W; Kline, R L; Campbell, C H; Israel, E; Fauci, A S; Hook, E W

    1988-01-28

    To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients attending inner-city clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Baltimore, we screened 4028 patients anonymously, of whom 209 (5.2 percent) were seropositive for HIV. HIV-seropositivity rates were higher among men (6.3 percent) than women (3.0 percent) (P less than 0.001) and among blacks (5.0 percent) than whites (1.2 percent) (P less than 0.02). Among men, but not women, HIV seroprevalence increased markedly and steadily up to the age of 40. In men, HIV seropositivity was independently associated with increased age, black race, a history of homosexual contact, and the use of parenteral drugs. In women, a history of parenteral drug use or of being a sexual partner of a bisexual man or parenteral drug user were independently predictive of HIV seropositivity. In men, HIV seropositivity was also associated with a history of syphilis or a reactive serologic test for syphilis, and in women, with a history of genital warts. Since these associations were independent of the type and number of reported sexual partners, they raise the possibility that sexually transmitted diseases that disrupt epithelial surfaces may be important in the transmissibility of HIV. In addition, on a self-administered questionnaire, one third of HIV-infected men and one half of infected women did not acknowledge previous high-risk behavior for HIV exposure. These data suggest that patients at clinics for sexually transmitted diseases represent a group at high risk for HIV infection, and that screening, counseling, and intensive education should be offered to all patients attending such clinics.

  7. Prevalence of transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease among multitransfused patients in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Paula, Erich V; Goncales, Neiva SL; Xueref, Serge; Addas-Carvalho, Marcelo; Gilli, Simone CO; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Goncales, Fernando L

    2008-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion has always been an important route for Chagas Disease (CD) transmission. The high prevalence of CD in Latin America and its lifelong asymptomatic clinical picture pose a threat for the safety of the blood supply. The outcome of measures designed to improve transfusion safety can be assessed by evaluating the prevalence of CD among multitransfused patients Methods In order to assess the impact of CD control measures on the safety of the blood supply, an observational cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of CD in 351 highly transfused patients, in which vectorial transmission was excluded. This study compared patients that received transfusion products before (n = 230) and after (n = 121) 1997, when measures to control transfusion-transmitted CD were fully implemented in Brazil. Results The study group consisted of 351 patients exposed to high numbers of blood products during their lifetime (median number of units transfused = 51, range 10–2086). A higher prevalence of transfusion-transmitted CD (1.30%) was observed among multitransfused patients that received their first transfusion before 1997, compared with no cases of transfusion-transmitted CD among multitransfused patients transfused after that year. The magnitude of the exposure to blood products was similar among both groups (mean number of units transfused per year of exposure = 25.00 ± 26.46 and 23.99 ± 30.58 respectively; P = 0.75, Mann-Whitney test). Conclusion Multiple initiatives aimed to control vector and parental transmission of CD can significantly decrease transfusion-transmitted CD in Brazil. Our data suggest that mandatory donor screening for CD represents the most important measure to interrupt transmission of CD by blood transfusions. PMID:18199334

  8. Prevalence of transfusion-transmitted Chagas Disease among multitransfused patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Erich V; Goncales, Neiva S L; Xueref, Serge; Addas-Carvalho, Marcelo; Gilli, Simone C O; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Goncales, Fernando L

    2008-01-16

    Blood transfusion has always been an important route for Chagas Disease (CD) transmission. The high prevalence of CD in Latin America and its lifelong asymptomatic clinical picture pose a threat for the safety of the blood supply. The outcome of measures designed to improve transfusion safety can be assessed by evaluating the prevalence of CD among multitransfused patients In order to assess the impact of CD control measures on the safety of the blood supply, an observational cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of CD in 351 highly transfused patients, in which vectorial transmission was excluded. This study compared patients that received transfusion products before (n = 230) and after (n = 121) 1997, when measures to control transfusion-transmitted CD were fully implemented in Brazil. The study group consisted of 351 patients exposed to high numbers of blood products during their lifetime (median number of units transfused = 51, range 10-2086). A higher prevalence of transfusion-transmitted CD (1.30%) was observed among multitransfused patients that received their first transfusion before 1997, compared with no cases of transfusion-transmitted CD among multitransfused patients transfused after that year. The magnitude of the exposure to blood products was similar among both groups (mean number of units transfused per year of exposure = 25.00 +/- 26.46 and 23.99 +/- 30.58 respectively; P = 0.75, Mann-Whitney test). Multiple initiatives aimed to control vector and parental transmission of CD can significantly decrease transfusion-transmitted CD in Brazil. Our data suggest that mandatory donor screening for CD represents the most important measure to interrupt transmission of CD by blood transfusions.

  9. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-04-13

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  10. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    PubMed

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  11. [Market of medical services provided to patients with sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Martynenko, A V

    2001-01-01

    Data are presented from an investigation designed to study market of medical services delivered to patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). A model of the purchaser's behaviour of consumers of medical services is developed, decisive factors affecting the choice of a medical institution when applying for a profile medical advice are determined. Submitted in the paper is also an algorythm of analysis of expediency of segmentation of market of medical services delivered to STD patients. The most optimal principles of market segmentation include the following--economic (solvency), territorial (place of residence), social (belonging to one or another stratum of society).

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Plorde, D S

    1981-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD.

  13. [Prevalence of HBV and HCV infection markers in patients with sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Selibórska, Z; Dajek, Z; Stapiński, A

    1998-01-01

    Sera of 125 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydiosis, HPV and HIV infections) were investigated for presence of 3 markers of HBV infection; they were found in 41 (33%) patients. Anti-HBc was present in sera of 35 (28%) patients, in 3 of them antigen HBs was found and in 28 anti-HBs was found as well. Antigen HBs alone was present in sera of 6 other patients but they were not reactive in test for anti-HBc. Moreover in this group of 125 patients anti-HCV were discovered in 4 (3%); in 3 of them occurrence of markers of HBV infection was found.

  14. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts.

  15. A Vicarious Experience of the Actions of Contraceptive Devices in Birth Control and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2002-01-01

    Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)

  16. Landscape characteristics influence helminth infestations in a peri-domestic rodent--implications for possible zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Froeschke, Götz; Matthee, Sonja

    2014-08-26

    Anthropogenic habitat change often results in altered landscapes that can provide new environments where hosts, parasites and pathogens can interact. The latter can have implications for human and animal health when in close proximity to developed areas. We recorded the helminth species richness and level of infestation in the peri-domestic rodent, Rhabdomys pumilio, in three different human linked landscapes. The aim was, to investigate the potential of R. pumilio to act as a reservoir host for zoonotic helminths and to compare the effect of anthropogenic habitat change on its parasite infestation patterns. Rodents (n = 518) were trapped in natural areas (nature reserves) and in three human linked landscapes (crop, livestock and urban fragments). Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were recovered and helminths identified from each animal. Generalized linear models were applied to investigate the effect of different landscape types on helminth infestation. Rhabdomys pumilio was the most abundant rodent species within each landscape type. Eight helminths species were recovered and overall helminth prevalence was 86.68%. Mean helminth species richness, prevalence and abundance were significantly higher in crop fragments compared to natural landscapes and overall lower for nematodes in livestock and urban areas. Cestode prevalence showed a tendency to be elevated at anthropogenic linked landscape types. Host parameters and parasite infestations were strongly influenced by landscape characteristics. Resource-rich landscapes (crop fragments) provide favorable conditions for helminth infestations, while landscapes that are more closely associated with humans (livestock and urban landscapes) pose a larger risk by zoonotic species.

  17. [Biological factors influencing infectious diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes].

    PubMed

    Boštíková, Vanda; Pasdiorová, Markéta; Marek, Jan; Prášil, Petr; Salavec, Miloslav; Sleha, Radek; Střtítecká, Hana; Blažek, Pavel; Hanovcová, Irena; Šošovičková, Renáta; Špliňo, Milan; Smetana, Jan; Chlíbek, Roman; Hytych, Václav; Kuča, Kamil; Boštík, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Studies focused on arbovirus diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes have become increasingly significant in recent years, due to the fact that these vectors have successfully migrated to Europe and become established in the region. Mosquitoes, represented by more than 3 200 species, occur naturally worldwide, except in Antarctica. They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals and by this route, they are capable of transmitting dangerous diseases. Some species can travel a distance of 10 km per night and can fly continuously for up to 4 hours at a speed of 1-2 km/h. Most species are active at night, in the evening or morning. It usually takes a mosquito female about 50 seconds to penetrate the skin of mammals and the subsequent blood meal usually takes about 2.5 minutes. Mosquitoes live for several weeks or months, depending on the environmental conditions. The VectorNet project is a European network of information exchange and sharing of data relating to the geographical distribution of arthropod vectors and transmission of infectious agents between human populations and animals. It aims at the development of strategic plans and vaccination policies which are the main tasks of this time, as well as the development and application of new disinfectants to control vector populations.

  18. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation 1

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. Method: a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. Results: on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. Conclusion: the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. PMID:27556880

  19. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    PubMed

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.

  20. Adolescents in the age of AIDS: myths, misconceptions, and misunderstandings regarding sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Cohall, A.; Kassotis, J.; Parks, R.; Vaughan, R.; Bannister, H.; Northridge, M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to evaluate the extent of knowledge possessed by young people residing in an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) and AIDS epicenter about STDs, including AIDS; and to determine whether knowledge levels varied by age, gender, race/ ethnicity, and/or previous health instruction. A total of 867 adolescents (472 females and 395 males) attending a large public high school in New York City completed a self-administered survey. Levels of knowledge about AIDS transmission and prevention were high (mean percentage correct = 91.8%). Nonetheless, adolescent respondents locked awareness about the prevalence of common STDs, had limited understanding of the ways in which these diseases can be transmitted and prevented, and were unaware of potentially serious sequelae resulting from exposure to infectious agents (e.g., infertility from chlamydial infections). Young people who had taken a health education course in which STDs were discussed did slightly better on the knowledge survey than did their peers. While the prevention of HIV infection is, and should be, a national priority, more concerted efforts are needed to better educate young people about other STDs in the overall context of sexual health. PMID:12653384

  1. A history of sexually transmitted diseases in Thailand: policy and politics.

    PubMed

    Bamber, S D; Hewison, K J; Underwood, P J

    1993-04-01

    This paper provides a brief history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Thailand. The presentation is divided into three main sections: the period up to the 1930s; the period from the 1930s until the end of the early 1980s; and the period from the early 1980s until the present, the so-called 'AIDS Era'. The discussion in each of these sections focuses, as far as sources permit, on the epidemiological picture, as well as describing public and official responses to these diseases. In the final part of the paper consideration is given to these findings in relation to the present situation in Thailand regarding the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  2. Expedited Partner Therapy for Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Assessing the Legal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, James G.; Pulver, Amy; Hogben, Matthew; Bhattacharya, Dhrubajyoti; Brown, Erin Fuse

    2008-01-01

    An emerging alternative to traditional partner management for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is expedited partner therapy (EPT), which involves the delivery of medications or prescriptions to STD patients for their partners without the clinical assessment of the partners. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently recommended EPT nationally in limited circumstances; however, its implementation may raise legal concerns. We analyzed laws relevant to the distribution of medications to persons with whom clinicians have not personally treated or established a relationship. We determined that three fourths of states or territories either expressly permit EPT or do not expressly prohibit the practice. We recommend (1) expressly endorsing EPT through laws, (2) creating exceptions to existing prescription requirements, (3) increasing professional board or association support for EPT, and (4) supporting third-party payments for partners’ medications. PMID:18172137

  3. Miniaturized thermocycler based on thermoelectric heating for diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease by DNA amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Jo, Ga Eun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Back, Seung Min; Choi, Hyuk

    2017-05-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) is among the most common infectious diseases; therefore, it is necessary to develop sensitive early diagnostic techniques. As the gold standard, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been most widely employed for STD diagnosis; however, PCR requires large and expensive instruments. In this study, miniaturized thermal cycler using Peltier modules was developed for the PCR analysis. In comparison with the conventional PCR instrument, the Peltier-based micro-PCR (P-mPCR) device developed in this study enables one to amplify and successfully distinguish between DNA of different sizes. Furthermore, by using the clinical vaginal sample collected with the vaginal swab and tampon, different kinds of STD bacteria could be detected with high accuracy (˜94.19%) and high sensitivity (˜95.6%). Therefore, the P-mPCR device will be applicable in STD diagnosis as well as the detection of other bacteria/viruses using DNA amplification in regions including those with limited resources.

  4. Traditional Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention and Control Strategies: Tailoring for African American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Berkel, Cady; Brooks, Lesley C.; Groseclose, Samuel L.; Johnson, David B.; Valentine, Jo A.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans carry the largest disease burden for bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. These infections can have a devastating impact on sexual and reproductive health if they are not diagnosed and treated. Traditionally, public health efforts to prevent and control bacterial STDs have been through surveillance, clinical services, partner management, and behavioral intervention strategies. However, the persistence of disparities in STDs indicates that these strategies are not achieving sufficient impact in African American communities. It may be that factors such as limited access, acceptability, appropriateness, and affordability of services reduce the efficacy of these strategies for African American communities. In this article we describe the STD prevention strategies and highlight the challenges and implications of these strategies in addressing disparities in African American communities. PMID:18955915

  5. Understanding the Effects of Forced Sex on Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition and Sexually Transmitted Disease Care: Findings From the National Survey of Family Growth (2011-2013).

    PubMed

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Beltran, Oscar; Abad, Neetu

    2017-10-01

    Although there is evidence for heightened sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition among women who experienced sexual violence, little is known about their patterns of STD testing, STD diagnosis, and STD treatment. Data was drawn from cycle eight of the National Survey of Family Growth (2011-2013). Logistic regression analyses used SUDAAN to examine the link between forced sex and risky sexual behavior as well as forced sex and STD testing, diagnoses, treatment, and connection to care. Women who experienced forced sex were more likely to have risky sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-2.24), risky partners (AOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11-3.23), and report substance abuse (AOR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.28-2.53) than women who never experienced forced sex. Women who reported forced sex were more likely to be tested for an STD (AOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.34-2.09), and be diagnosed with herpes (AOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.13-3.32), genital warts (AOR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.90-3.41), and chlamydia (AOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.03-3.25) than those who have never had forced sex. Results indicated a direct relationship between particular STD diagnoses and treatment in the past 12 months (AOR, 6.81; 95% CI, 4.50-10.31). Further analyses indicate that forced sex moderated the link between STD diagnoses and STD treatment (AOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19-0.98). Results indicate that women who reported experiencing forced sex were more likely to be diagnosed with chlamydia, herpes, and genital warts than women who never had forced sex. There may be a need to pay particular attention to women who experienced forced sex and a history of STDs to ensure that they are retained in care.

  6. Risk Factors for Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: Implications for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    LIU, HONGJIE; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; LIU, HUI; LIANG, GUOJUN; CHEN, XINGUANG; YANG, HONGMEI; HONG, YAN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify risk factors associated with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing in 2002. Migrants with STDs consisted of 432 migrants who sought STD care in two public STD clinics. Migrants without STDs included 892 migrants recruited from 10 occupational clusters. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Compared to migrants without STDs, migrants with STDs were more likely to report having engaged in commercial sex (selling or buying sex) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71–4.25), multiple sex partners in the previous month (OR = 6.50, 95% CI: 3.73–11.32) and higher perceived HIV-related stigma (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.30–2.75). Being a migrant with an STD was also associated with female gender (OR = 4.10, 95% CI: 2.89–5.82), higher education (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.40–6.06), and higher monthly salary (OR = 1.68. 95% CI: 1.23–2.29). Migrants with STDs visited their hometowns more frequently and had more stable jobs than migrants without STDs. Approximately 10% of the migrants with STDs and 7.7% of the migrants without STDs always used condoms. This study suggests that among migrants, acquisition of an STD is associated with higher participation in risk behaviors as would be expected, but also with higher perceived stigma, education, stable jobs, salary, and with female gender. Appropriate behavioral intervention programs are advocated to reduce the risk and stigma among the special population. PMID:15665635

  7. Insurance and billing concerns among patients seeking free and confidential sexually transmitted disease care: New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics 2012.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kate; Goodwin, Chris; Pathela, Preeti; Blank, Susan

    2014-07-01

    Historically, New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics have operated completely free of charge but will soon begin billing patients for services. To inform billing strategies, we surveyed NYC DOHMH STD clinic patients in fall 2012 to examine response to the prospect of billing insurance and charging sliding-scale fees for services. A total of 5017 individuals were surveyed from all patients accessing clinic services between September and December 2012 at 8 NYC DOHMH STD clinics. The anonymous survey was provided at registration to all patients, in English or Spanish. The data were analyzed to determine patient insurance status and other characteristics related to billing for STD services. More than half of respondents (51.0%) were uninsured, and 42.3% were unemployed. For 20.2% of respondents, billing would pose a considerable barrier to care. Nearly half of those insured (48.4%) said that they would not be willing to share insurance information with the STD clinics. Respondents who said they would not access STD clinic services if charged represent approximately 13,600 individuals each year who, if not promptly diagnosed and treated elsewhere, could be a continuing source of STIs including HIV. Confidentiality concerns and income are potential obstacles to billing insurance or charging a direct fee for STD services. New York City DOHMH plans to take the concerns raised in the survey findings into account when designing our billing system and carefully evaluate its impact to ensure that the need for accessible, confidential STD services continues to be met.

  8. Mammal decline, linked to invasive Burmese python, shifts host use of vector mosquito towards reservoir hosts of a zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Isaiah J; Blosser, Erik M; Acevedo, Carolina; Thompson, Anna Carels; Reeves, Lawrence E; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2017-10-01

    Invasive apex predators have profound impacts on natural communities, yet the consequences of these impacts on the transmission of zoonotic pathogens are unexplored. Collapse of large- and medium-sized mammal populations in the Florida Everglades has been linked to the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl. We used historic and current data to investigate potential impacts of these community effects on contact between the reservoir hosts (certain rodents) and vectors of Everglades virus, a zoonotic mosquito-borne pathogen that circulates in southern Florida. The percentage of blood meals taken from the primary reservoir host, the hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord, increased dramatically (422.2%) from 1979 (14.7%) to 2016 (76.8%), while blood meals from deer, raccoons and opossums decreased by 98.2%, reflecting precipitous declines in relative abundance of these larger mammals, attributed to python predation. Overall species diversity of hosts detected in Culex cedecei blood meals from the Everglades declined by 40.2% over the same period ( H (1979) = 1.68, H (2016) = 1.01). Predictions based upon the dilution effect theory suggest that increased relative feedings upon reservoir hosts translate into increased abundance of infectious vectors, and a corresponding upsurge of Everglades virus occurrence and risk of human exposure, although this was not tested in the current study. This work constitutes the first indication that an invasive predator can increase contact between vectors and reservoirs of a human pathogen and highlights unrecognized indirect impacts of invasive predators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Farm Fairs and Petting Zoos: A Review of Animal Contact as a Source of Zoonotic Enteric Disease.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Cheyenne C; Stanford, Kim; Narvaez-Bravo, Claudia; Callaway, Todd; McAllister, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Many public venues such as farms, fairs, and petting zoos encourage animal contact for both educational and entertainment purposes. However, healthy farm animals, including cattle, small ruminants, and poultry, can be reservoirs for enteric zoonotic pathogens, with human infections resulting in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and, in some cases, severe complications that can lead to death. As animals shed these organisms in their feces, contamination of themselves and their surroundings is unavoidable. The majority of North Americans reside in urban and suburban settings, and the general public often possess limited knowledge of agricultural practices and minimal contact with farm animals. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding of zoonotic pathogens, particularly how these pathogens are spread and the human behaviors that may increase the risk of infection. Human risk behaviors include hand-to-mouth contact immediately after physical contact with animals and their environments, a practice that facilitates the ingestion of pathogens. It is often young children who become ill due to their under-developed immune systems and poorer hygienic practices compared with adults, such as more frequent hand-to-mouth behaviors, and infrequent or improper hand washing. These illnesses are often preventable, simply through adequate hygiene and hand washing. Our objective was to use a structured approach to review the main causal organisms responsible for human illnesses acquired in petting zoo and open farm environments, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, nontyphoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium. Notable outbreaks involving direct contact with farm animals and farm, fair, or petting zoo environments are discussed and recommendations for how public venues can increase safety and hand hygiene compliance among visitors are proposed. The most effective protective measures against enteric illnesses include education of the public, increasing overall awareness

  10. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults.

    PubMed

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-09-13

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by human pathogens, and the incidence has a strong regional distribution. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is mainly associated with animal contact, consumption of animal products, and an immunocompromised state of the patient. In a high proportion of zoonotic bacterial meningitis cases, CSF analysis showed only a mildly elevated leukocyte count. The recommended antibiotic therapy differs per pathogen, and the overall mortality is low. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon but is associated with specific complications. The suspicion should be raised in patients with bacterial meningitis who have recreational or professional contact with animals and in patients living in regions endemic for specific zoonotic pathogens. An immunocompromised state is associated with a worse prognosis. Identification of risk factors and underlying disease is necessary to improve treatment. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Possible Correlation of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases with Rh type and ABO Blood Group System

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Surabhi; Tyagi, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Background: Screening of blood is mandatory for transfusion transmitted diseases and is routinely done in the blood banks. As blood is the major source transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus & many other diseases the hazards can be minimised by effective donor selection and screening. Aim: To find out the correlation between the transfusion transmitted diseases and blood groups and the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & syphilis among the apparently healthy human blood donors. Study, Setting & Design: This retrospective study was conducted at the blood bank of a tertiary health care teaching centre for a period of four years. Material and Methods: All voluntary and replacement donors reporting to the blood bank were screened for HIV-1 & 2, HBsAg, HCV and Syphilis. Anti–HIV -1 & 2, HBsAg & anti - HCV was tested using the appropriate Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using micro–elisa kit supplied by J.Mitra & Co.Ltd. The seropositive samples were again tested on ELISA kits of RFCL &/or BIORAD for further confirmation & ruling out any false positive or false negative results. The rapid plasma reagain (RPR) test was used for estimation of syphilis infection. Statistical Analysis: The data entry was carried out using Microsoft office excel worksheet and was analysed by percentage and comparison. Results: Total of 6000 donors were screened which included voluntary and replacement donors. Seroprevalence of HIV (0.1833 %), HCV (1.28%), HBsAg (1.5833 %) and syphilis (0.4333 %) was detected. In the study done it was also noted - that the NEGATIVE blood groups were more prone to TTIs. Blood group A negative was more prone to TTIs with HIV, HBsAg and VDRL while blood group B negative was more affected by HCV. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of these infections shows that routine screening is a must for blood and blood product safe transfusion. Do negative blood groups predispose to TTIs? A finding which makes us think…. PMID

  12. Possible Correlation of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases with Rh type and ABO Blood Group System.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Surabhi; Tyagi, Alok

    2013-09-01

    Screening of blood is mandatory for transfusion transmitted diseases and is routinely done in the blood banks. As blood is the major source transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus & many other diseases the hazards can be minimised by effective donor selection and screening. To find out the correlation between the transfusion transmitted diseases and blood groups and the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & syphilis among the apparently healthy human blood donors. Study, Setting & Design: This retrospective study was conducted at the blood bank of a tertiary health care teaching centre for a period of four years. All voluntary and replacement donors reporting to the blood bank were screened for HIV-1 & 2, HBsAg, HCV and Syphilis. Anti-HIV -1 & 2, HBsAg & anti - HCV was tested using the appropriate Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using micro-elisa kit supplied by J.Mitra & Co.Ltd. The seropositive samples were again tested on ELISA kits of RFCL &/or BIORAD for further confirmation & ruling out any false positive or false negative results. The rapid plasma reagain (RPR) test was used for estimation of syphilis infection. The data entry was carried out using Microsoft office excel worksheet and was analysed by percentage and comparison. Total of 6000 donors were screened which included voluntary and replacement donors. Seroprevalence of HIV (0.1833 %), HCV (1.28%), HBsAg (1.5833 %) and syphilis (0.4333 %) was detected. In the study done it was also noted - that the NEGATIVE blood groups were more prone to TTIs. Blood group A negative was more prone to TTIs with HIV, HBsAg and VDRL while blood group B negative was more affected by HCV. Seroprevalence of these infections shows that routine screening is a must for blood and blood product safe transfusion. Do negative blood groups predispose to TTIs? A finding which makes us think….

  13. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE) may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis), food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis) and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis). Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs) or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber) causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears PMID:21429191

  14. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Samson; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; De Clercq, Eva M.; Amenu, Kebede; Revie, Crawford W.; Kraemer, Moritz U G

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to map the global risk of the major arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus by identifying areas where the diseases are reported, either through active transmission or travel-related outbreaks, as well as areas where the diseases are not currently reported but are nonetheless suitable for the vector. Methods Data relating to five arboviral diseases (Zika, dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Rift Valley fever (RVF)) were extracted from some of the largest contemporary databases and paired with data on the known distribution of their vectors, A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The disease occurrence data for the selected diseases were compiled from literature dating as far back as 1952 to as recent as 2017. The resulting datasets were aggregated at the country level, except in the case of the USA, where state-level data were used. Spatial analysis was used to process the data and to develop risk maps. Results Out of the 250 countries/territories considered, 215 (86%) are potentially suitable for the survival and establishment of A. aegypti and/or A. albopictus. A. albopictus has suitability foci in 197 countries/territories, while there are 188 that are suitable for A. aegypti. There is considerable variation in the suitability range among countries/territories, but many of the tropical regions of the world provide high suitability over extensive areas. Globally, 146 (58.4%) countries/territories reported at least one arboviral disease, while 123 (49.2%) reported more than one of the above diseases. The overall numbers of countries/territories reporting autochthonous vector-borne occurrences of Zika, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and RVF, were 85, 111, 106, 43, and 39, respectively. Conclusions With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public

  15. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; De Clercq, Eva M; Amenu, Kebede; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Revie, Crawford W

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to map the global risk of the major arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus by identifying areas where the diseases are reported, either through active transmission or travel-related outbreaks, as well as areas where the diseases are not currently reported but are nonetheless suitable for the vector. Data relating to five arboviral diseases (Zika, dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Rift Valley fever (RVF)) were extracted from some of the largest contemporary databases and paired with data on the known distribution of their vectors, A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The disease occurrence data for the selected diseases were compiled from literature dating as far back as 1952 to as recent as 2017. The resulting datasets were aggregated at the country level, except in the case of the USA, where state-level data were used. Spatial analysis was used to process the data and to develop risk maps. Out of the 250 countries/territories considered, 215 (86%) are potentially suitable for the survival and establishment of A. aegypti and/or A. albopictus. A. albopictus has suitability foci in 197 countries/territories, while there are 188 that are suitable for A. aegypti. There is considerable variation in the suitability range among countries/territories, but many of the tropical regions of the world provide high suitability over extensive areas. Globally, 146 (58.4%) countries/territories reported at least one arboviral disease, while 123 (49.2%) reported more than one of the above diseases. The overall numbers of countries/territories reporting autochthonous vector-borne occurrences of Zika, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and RVF, were 85, 111, 106, 43, and 39, respectively. With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public health threat. The increasing proportion of

  16. Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water - United States, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Gargano, J W; Adam, E A; Collier, S A; Fullerton, K E; Feinman, S J; Beach, M J

    2017-06-01

    Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. coli), free-living ameba, Giardia, Hepatitis A virus, Legionella (Legionnaires' disease), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio). We documented annual numbers of deaths in the United States associated with these infections using a combination of death certificate data, nationally representative hospital discharge data, and disease-specific surveillance systems (2003-2009). We documented 6,939 annual total deaths associated with the 13 infections; of these, 493 (7%) were caused by seven pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. A total of 6,301 deaths (91%) were associated with infections from Pseudomonas, NTM, and Legionella, environmental pathogens that grow in water system biofilms. Biofilm-associated pathogens can cause illness following inhalation of aerosols or contact with contaminated water. These findings suggest that most mortality from these 13 selected infections in the United States does not result from classical fecal-oral transmission but rather from other transmission routes.

  17. Progress toward achieving the national 1990 objectives for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    1987-04-03

    A summary evaluation of the status of 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD) goals is presented by the U.S. Public Health Service. 1st, gonorrhea cases, after a rapid rise in the early 1970s, have been steadily declining on the whole. Female cases, however, have been increasing, and resistant strains have spread dramatically. Thus it seems the goal of 280 cases per 100,000 by 1990 will not be met. 2nd, the pelvic inflammatory disease rate is declining toward the goal, even though Chlamydia infections remain a problem. 3rd, the incidence of syphilis, especially in males, is approaching the target of 7/100,000. Congenital syphilis is rising, due both to emphasis on reporting and to a real increase. 4th, the goal of effective diagnosis and treatment of STD by 95% of clinicians is being approached with postgraduate courses and medical school curricula, but this end is probably too ambitious. 5th, all junior and senior high school students should be receiving accurate education about STD. No information on these efforts is available. After these goals were in place, the STD burden has increased phenomenally because of the appearance of AIDS, the maturation of the baby boom generation, and the realization that over 50 different diseases, 13 million cases and 7000 deaths occur annually, excluding AIDS. The cost of treating pelvic inflammatory disease alone is estimated at $2.6 billion annually. Primary prevention is the only feasible priority.

  18. Sexually transmitted diseases in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Wright, Johnnie; Albright, Todd S; Gehrich, Alan P; Dunlow, Susan G; Lettieri, Christine F; Buller, Jerome L

    2006-10-01

    To identify the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in a female active duty population deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom was the objective of this study. Retrospective chart review was completed on all soldiers seeking outpatient gynecologic care at Camp Doha, Kuwait, from September 2003 through March 2004. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed on data from all patients identified as having an STD. Forty-four soldiers (2.5% of all encounters) were diagnosed with STDs during the study period. Genital herpes, Condyloma acuminata, and chlamydia were the most commonly identified infections accounting for 30, 25, and 21% of the diagnoses, respectively. Transmission of STDs in the deployed environment continues to be problematic. Viral infections were more commonly encountered than were bacterial infections. Patient education and prevention should be emphasized. Consideration should be given to STD screening upon redeployment.

  19. Recruitment Strategies and Motivations for Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley

    2009-01-01

    Objective The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state between September 2004 and March 2006. Methods Six strategies were used to recruit students for participation in the study. Upon enrollment, participants were asked where they heard about the study. Students were also asked about their motivations for participation. Results Findings show that a significant recruitment strategy involves targeting places where students seek health care. Other effective strategies include those where information is directly provided to individuals. Most students were motivated to participate because of a possible past exposure to herpes simplex virus 2. Conclusions Targeting places where students seek health care and educating students about STDs are important strategies for recruiting students for STD testing. PMID:18980896

  20. Society, sex, and STIs: human behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases and their agents.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, Susa Beckman; Nahmias, Daniella

    2011-08-01

    The last few decades have provided new perspectives on the increasingly complex interrelationships between the evolutionary epidemiology of STDs and their agents, human sexuality, and economic, social, cultural, and technological developments. Rapidly emerging HIV/AIDS, globalization, migration, and information technology are some factors that stress the importance of focusing on how old and new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are spread, both in and between networks and populations. This review of determinants of STI transmission emphasizes their impact on disease prevalence and transmission, as well as their potential for affecting the agents themselves--directly or indirectly. Interventions aiming to control the spread of STIs and HIV on the different levels of society need to be adapted to the specific environment and need to integrate social structures, such as economic and gender inequality and mobility, as well as the great variability and complexity of sexual behavior. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Detecting, Preventing, and Treating Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adolescent Arrestees: An Unmet Public Health Need

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Rollie, Matthew; Childs, Kristina; Salvatore, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Studies of detained and incarcerated adolescent offenders in the United States indicate that these juveniles have an elevated risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, many more arrestees enter the “front end” of the juvenile justice system than are detained or incarcerated, and research into the STD risk profiles and service needs of this larger group is lacking. An expansion of STD testing (including of asymptomatic youths), prevention, and treatment is needed, as is improved knowledge about gender- and race-specific services. A pilot program in Florida has shown that juvenile justice and public health systems can collaborate to implement STD testing among new arrestees. With integrated linkages to treatment and prevention after release, this model could greatly reduce the STD burden in this underserved, high-risk population. PMID:19372535

  2. Can prion diseases be transmitted between individuals via blood transfusion: evidence from sheep experiments.

    PubMed

    Hunter, N; Houston, F

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that it is possible to transmit bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE) to a sheep by transfusion with whole blood taken from another sheep during the pre-clinical phase of an experimental BSE infection when the donor animal appears healthy. BSE and new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans are caused by the same infectious agent and the sheep-BSE experimental model has similar pathogenesis, with involvement of the lymphoreticular system, to that of human vCJD. Although we have had only one case of positive transmission of BSE out of a total of 21 transfusions, our studies remain incomplete and further cases could occur. Our studies, however, reinforce the possibility that whole blood donated by pre-clinical vCJD-infected humans may represent a risk of spreading vCJD infection among the human population of the U.K.

  3. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. First, do no harm: the US sexually transmitted disease experiments in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Michael A; García, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically-and, arguably, illegally-engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people.

  5. First, Do No Harm: The US Sexually Transmitted Disease Experiments in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    García, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically—and, arguably, illegally—engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people. PMID:24134370

  6. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among female drug abusers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Isa, A R; Moe, H; Sivakumaran, S

    1993-06-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among female drug abusers was determined by screening 130 new inmates of a rehabilitation centre. The majority of the subjects (77.7%) were self-confessed sex workers. A high prevalence of syphilis (50.8%), hepatitis B (52.2%), moniliasis (23.8%) and trichomoniasis (19.2%) were noted. Gonorrhoea vaginitis was seen in 8.5%, which was low compared to previous studies. Six subjects were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with 5 of them admitting to needle sharing and working as prostitutes. More than half of them harboured 2 or more STD. A rich reservoir of STD was seen among the drug abusers. With more evidence now available concerning the ease of HIV transmission associated with ulcerative STD, a stage could be set for greater heterosexual HIV transmission. As part of the rehabilitation process, female drug abusers need a thorough screening for STD followed by aggressive treatment regimens.

  7. Individual and community risk factors and sexually transmitted diseases among arrested youths: a two level analysis.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2009-08-01

    High rates of infection for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been noted among youths involved in the juvenile justice system. Although both individual and community-level factors have been found to be associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk, their relative importance has not been tested in this population. A two-level logistic regression analysis was completed to assess the influence of individual-level and community-level predictors on STD test results among arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility. Results from weighted two level logistic regression analyses (n = 1,368) indicated individual-level factors of gender (being female), age, race (being African American), and criminal history predicted the youths' positive STD status. For the community-level predictors, concentrated disadvantage significantly and positively predicted the youths' STD status. Implications of these findings for future research and public health policy are discussed.

  8. Detecting, preventing, and treating sexually transmitted diseases among adolescent arrestees: an unmet public health need.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Dembo, Richard; Rollie, Matthew; Childs, Kristina; Salvatore, Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Studies of detained and incarcerated adolescent offenders in the United States indicate that these juveniles have an elevated risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, many more arrestees enter the "front end" of the juvenile justice system than are detained or incarcerated, and research into the STD risk profiles and service needs of this larger group is lacking. An expansion of STD testing (including of asymptomatic youths), prevention, and treatment is needed, as is improved knowledge about gender- and race-specific services. A pilot program in Florida has shown that juvenile justice and public health systems can collaborate to implement STD testing among new arrestees. With integrated linkages to treatment and prevention after release, this model could greatly reduce the STD burden in this underserved, high-risk population.

  9. Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in Estonia: consistency with the evidence-based medicine principles.

    PubMed

    Uusküla, Anneli; McNutt, Louise Anne; Dehovitz, Jack

    2004-10-01

    Estonia is among those Eastern European countries that have witnessed an explosive intravenous drug use-driven HIV epidemic. Early sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis and appropriate treatment is essential to prevent an STD-driven HIV epidemic. The objectives of this study were to define the schedule of antibiotic treatment doctors in Estonia used to treat STDs, and to determine if the treatments used correspond to evidence-based medicine treatment principles. Using an administrative database of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund on pharmaceuticals reimbursement, we obtained information on: drug (ATC 1998) prescribed with an STD diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, syphilis, gonorrhea, genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis infections, and genital herpes), prescribing physician specialty, and patient demographics (date of birth, gender). To evaluate the correspondence of STD treatment to evidence-based medicine principles, the therapeutic regimens used were compared with recommendations from the European Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Guidelines. In 2001 and 2002, physicians ordered 17,077 prescriptions for systemic antibacterial medications to treat STDs in 12,823 different individuals: 2942 men (mean age, 31.8 years) and 9880 women (mean age, 29.5 years). The majority of STD treatments were prescribed by gynecologists (60%) or dermatovenerologists (29%); general practitioners treated 8% of STDs. In 11% of treatment episodes, the drug prescribed was inconsistent with guideline recommendations; additionally, in 9% of episodes, the recommended drug was chosen but the prescribed dose was too low. At least 20% of treatment episodes could therefore be considered inappropriate. Educational efforts are needed to increase physician awareness of evidence-based approaches for STD management and treatment to assure effective STD care.

  10. Estimating the probability of an extinction or major outbreak for an environmentally transmitted infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lahodny, G E; Gautam, R; Ivanek, R

    2015-01-01

    Indirect transmission through the environment, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens within the environment, and environmental decontamination are suspected to play important roles in the spread and control of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases. To account for these factors, the classic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible epidemic model is modified to include a compartment representing the amount of free-living pathogen within the environment. The model accounts for host demography, direct and indirect transmission, replication of free-living pathogens in the environment, and removal of free-living pathogens by natural death or environmental decontamination. Based on the assumptions of the deterministic model, a continuous-time Markov chain model is developed. An estimate for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak is obtained by approximating the Markov chain with a multitype branching process. Numerical simulations illustrate important differences between the deterministic and stochastic counterparts, relevant for outbreak prevention, that depend on indirect transmission, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens, and environmental decontamination. The probability of a major outbreak is computed for salmonellosis in a herd of dairy cattle as well as cholera in a human population. An explicit expression for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak in terms of the model parameters is obtained for systems with no direct transmission or replication of free-living pathogens.

  11. Building a foundation for 'One Health': an education strategy for enhancing and sustaining national and regional capacity in endemic and emerging zoonotic disease management.

    PubMed

    Vink, W D; McKenzie, Joanna S; Cogger, Naomi; Borman, Barry; Muellner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The rapid global spread of diseases such as SARS, H5N1, and H1N1 influenza has emphasized the pressing need for trans-disciplinary collaboration and cross-border action, and has also exposed a serious deficit of capacity and coordination in dealing effectively with emerging disease threats. The need for capacity development is particularly acute in the developing world, which is the least well-equipped to respond adequately. Such capacity development can be achieved through education and the implementation of applied 'One Health' activities. This chapter describes the establishment of a 'One Health' capacity development program in South Asia, consisting of two phases. The first phase provides Masters level training for public health doctors and veterinarians, with a focus on epidemiology, and disease control. The second phase reinforces the postgraduate training by establishing a sustainable framework for the implementation of collaborative 'One Health' activities such as the development of multidisciplinary professional networks, implementation of applied zoonotic disease investigation projects, and support for continuing professional development. The objectives are to provide individual skills required to strengthen capacity; to develop an appreciation of the cross-cutting issues which affect human and animal health, set within an institutional context; and to facilitate the development of regional professional networks which will be instrumental in implementing 'One Health' activities.

  12. Web 2.0 Tools in the Prevention of Curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Background The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. Objective The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Methods A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017. The equation search was realized by means of the using of descriptors together with the consultation of the fields of title register and summary with free terms. Bibliographies of the selected papers were searched for additional articles. Results A total of 627 references were retrieved, of which 6 papers were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STDs studied were chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The Web 2.0 tools used were Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The 6 papers used Web 2.0 in the promotion of STD detection. Conclusions Web 2.0 tools have demonstrated a positive effect on the promotion of prevention strategies for STDs and can help attract and link youth to campaigns related to sexual health. These tools can be combined with other interventions. In any case, Web 2.0 and especially Facebook have all the potential to become essential instruments for public health. PMID:29567633

  13. Zoonotic Malaria – Global Overview and Research and Policy Needs

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The four main Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale, are transmitted between humans by mosquito vectors belonging to the genus Anopheles. It has recently become evident that Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that typically infects forest macaque monkeys, can be transmitted by anophelines to cause malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi infections are frequently misdiagnosed microscopically as P. malariae. Direct human to human transmission of P. knowlesi by anophelines has not yet been established to occur in nature. Knowlesi malaria must therefore be presently considered a zoonotic disease. Polymerase chain reaction is now the definitive method for differentiating P. knowlesi from P. malariae and other human malaria parasites. The origin of P. falciparum and P. vivax in African apes are examples of ancient zoonoses that may be continuing at the present time with at least P. vivax, and possibly P. malariae and P. ovale. Other non-human primate malaria species, e.g., Plasmodium cynomolgi in Southeast Asia and Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium in South America, can be transmitted to humans by mosquito vectors further emphasizing the potential for continuing zoonoses. The potential for zoonosis is influenced by human habitation and behavior as well as the adaptive capabilities of parasites and vectors. There is insufficient knowledge of the bionomics of Anopheles vector populations relevant to the cross-species transfer of malaria parasites and the real extent of malaria zoonoses. Appropriate strategies, based on more research, need to be developed for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of zoonotic malaria. PMID:25184118

  14. Risk perception and level of knowledge of diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Menchaca-Armenta, Imelda; Ocampo-Torres, Moisés; Hernández-Gómez, Arnulfo; Zamora-Cerritos, Karen

    2018-03-08

    Diseases caused by viruses such as dengue, chikungunya and zika are mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti. We performed a cross-sectional study of healthcare personnel and the general population using questionnaires to identify the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices, and risk perception for dengue, chikungunya and zika. A total of 248 questionnaires were applied, 63.3% to healthcare personnel and 36.7% to the general population. Of the healthcare personnel, 53% were men, and in the general population 74% were women. Nahuatl and Spanish were spoken by both, healthcare personnel (28%) and the general population (23%). The level of knowledge, attitudes and practices and risk perception of the population and personnel showed significant differences (p<0.05). Among healthcare personnel, nurses and vector operating staff had the lowest level of knowledge. On the other hand, the questions with the lowest scores were 1) symptoms of Zika in both groups, 2) circulating dengue serotypes in healthcare personnel and 3) symptoms of chikungunya in the general population. The results of this work allow us to identify information gaps in which knowledge, attitudes and practices, and risk perception need to be increased.

  15. Changing Beliefs and Behaviors Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Vulnerable Women: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Boroumandfar, Zahra; Kianpour, Masoud; Zargham, Ali; Abdoli, Samereh; Tayeri, Katayoun; Salehi, Mehrdad; Momeni, Godratollah; Khorvash, Farzin

    2017-01-01

    The first step in health education is awareness of the people and their acceptance to change their behavior. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of empowerment program towards the concept of self-care and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women at risk of STDs. The present study was conducted as a qualitative approach (step of action and observation of an action) by using conventional content analysis method. An empowerment program regarding STDs (Action) was performed among 32 (with convenient sample) drug user women with addicted husbands referring to the counseling center for vulnerable women (drop in enter) in Isfahan in 2015. The knowledge of quiddity, transmission, and prevention of STDs, as well as some items of life skills such as self-awareness, interpersonal communication, and assertive behavior were taught in an educational program. Teaching methods were lectures, group, and individual training and role play. The impact of the program on modified belief and behavior change regarding STDs was evaluated with structured interviews. Analysis of the obtained results yielded three categories. The categories were awareness of STD, believing in being at risk, and decision and change. Promoting self-care and prevention through education programs based on action research can make a significant reduction in the incidence of problems and cause a behavior change in women with the disease or those at risk for STDs.

  16. Providing Mailing Cost Reimbursements: The Effect on Reporting Timeliness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Vasiliu, Oana E; Stover, Jeffrey A; Mays, Marissa J E; Bissette, Jennifer M; Dolan, Carrie B; Sirbu, Corina M

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effect of providing mailing cost reimbursements to local health departments on the timeliness of the reporting of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Virginia. The Division of Disease Prevention, Virginia Department of Health, provided mailing cost reimbursements to 31 Virginia health districts from October 2002 to December 2004. The difference (in days) between the diagnosis date (or date the STD paperwork was initiated) and the date the case/STD report was entered into the STD surveillance database was used in a negative binomial regression model against time (as divided into three periods-before, during, and after reimbursement) to estimate the effect of providing mailing cost reimbursements on reporting timeliness. We observed significant decreases in the number of days between diagnosis and reporting of a case, which were sustained after the reimbursement period ended, in 25 of the 31 health districts included in the analysis. We observed a significant initial decrease (during the reimbursement period) followed by a significant increase in the after-reimbursement phase in one health district. Two health districts had a significant initial decrease, while one health district had a significant decrease in reporting timeliness in the period after reimbursement. Two health districts showed no significant changes in the number of days to report to the central office. Providing reimbursements for mailing costs was statistically associated with improved STD reporting timeliness in almost all of Virginia's health districts. Sustained improvement after the reimbursement period ended is likely indicative of improved local health department reporting habits.

  17. Use of sexually transmitted disease risk assessment algorithms for selection of intrauterine device candidates.

    PubMed

    Morrison, C S; Sekadde-Kigondu, C; Miller, W C; Weiner, D H; Sinei, S K

    1999-02-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are an important contraindication for intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Nevertheless, laboratory testing for STD is not possible in many settings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of risk assessment algorithms to predict STD and subsequent IUD-related complications among IUD candidates. Among 615 IUD users in Kenya, the following algorithms were evaluated: 1) an STD algorithm based on US Agency for International Development (USAID) Technical Working Group guidelines: 2) a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) algorithm for management of chlamydia; and 3) a data-derived algorithm modeled from study data. Algorithms were evaluated for prediction of chlamydial and gonococcal infection at 1 month and complications (pelvic inflammatory disease [PID], IUD removals, and IUD expulsions) over 4 months. Women with STD were more likely to develop complications than women without STD (19% vs 6%; risk ratio = 2.9; 95% CI 1.3-6.5). For STD prediction, the USAID algorithm was 75% sensitive and 48% specific, with a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 1.4. The CDC algorithm was 44% sensitive and 72% specific, LR+ = 1.6. The data-derived algorithm was 91% sensitive and 56% specific, with LR+ = 2.0 and LR- = 0.2. Category-specific LR for this algorithm identified women with very low (< 1%) and very high (29%) infection probabilities. The data-derived algorithm was also the best predictor of IUD-related complications. These results suggest that use of STD algorithms may improve selection of IUD users. Women at high risk for STD could be counseled to avoid IUD, whereas women at moderate risk should be monitored closely and counseled to use condoms.

  18. [Survey of sexually transmitted diseases in the region of Rio Cuarto].

    PubMed

    Barberis, I L; Pájaro, M C; Godino, S; Pascual, L; Rodríguez, I; Agüero, M; Ordóñez, C

    1998-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are acquired mainly through sexual intercourse, being one of the most frequent groups of infectious diseases worldwide and consequently an important public health problem. The aim of this paper was to determine the current state of STD and to compare different diagnostic methods in the population studied. A total of 1060 samples from vaginal flows, endocervical material and urethral discharge were studied during 3 years. Of the total samples, 583 were positive, 493 in women and 90 in men. Microorganisms found in women were: Gardnerella vaginalis (39.3%), Candida albicans (21.1%), Trichomonas vaginalis (17.3%), Candida trachomatis (11.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3.2%): Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urelyticum (6.5%) and Treponema pallidum (1.4%), the associations found were, Gardnerella vaginalis with Trichomonas vaginalis 5.5%; Gardnerella vaginalis with Candida albicans 4.9%; Trichomonas vaginalis with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2.2%) and Gardnerella vaginalis with Chlamydia trachomatis (1.9%). In men, gonococcal urethritis (UG) represented 37.7% non UG 55.6% and Treponema pallidum 6.7%. These results indicate a decrease in sifilis and in UG when compared to previous studies showing that gonococcal cervicitis had also decreased. We found an important increase in the prevalence of urethritis and non gonococcal cervicitis in agreement with world statistics which consider these diseases as the most common venereal ones. It is necessary to increase the search for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women due to vertical transmission. It should be noted that, in spite of certain fluctuations, the incidence of the STD in our area is still unacceptably high.

  19. Video-based sexually transmitted disease patient education: its impact on condom acquisition.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, L N; Doval, A S; Duran, R; O'Donnell, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the impact of video-based educational interventions on condom acquisition among men and women seeking services at a large sexually transmitted disease clinic in the South Bronx, New York. METHODS. During 1992, 3348 African American and Hispanic patients were enrolled in a clinical trial of video-based interventions designed to promote safer sex behaviors, including increased condom use. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: control, video, or video plus interactive group discussion. Subjects were given a coupon to redeem for free condoms at a pharmacy several blocks from the clinic. Rates of condom acquisition were assessed by level of intervention. RESULTS. In comparison with a control group, subjects who viewed videos were significantly more likely to redeem coupons for condoms (21.2% redemption rate vs 27.6%). However, participation in interactive sessions after video viewing augmented the positive effects of video viewing alone (27.6% redemption rate vs 36.9%). Gender and ethnicity were significantly associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. The condom acquisition are almost doubled with the use of culturally appropriate, video-based interventions. Designed to present minimal disruption to clinical services, these interventions can be implemented in clinics servicing at-risk men and women. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7762716

  20. The decentralisation of the sexually transmitted diseases service and its integration into primary health care.

    PubMed

    Latif, A S; Mbengeranwa, O L; Marowa, E; Paraiwa, E; Gutu, S

    1986-10-01

    As part of National Health Policy, the City Health Department in Harare, Zimbabwe decentralized sexually transmitted diseases (STD) services and integrated it into primary health care. A central referral STD clinic was created to concentrate expertise. Simplified treatment protocols were distributed to primary care clinics, and nurses in these clinics received an intensive 2-week training course at the central clinic. This was part of a larger plan to provide comprehensive health care in easily accessible settings. The Harare City Health Department has 14 primary care clinics and 9 polyclinics staffed mainly by nursing personnel. The training course taught curative treatment of STDs and prevention by patient education and locating sexual contacts. Participants were expected to be able to utilize physical and laboratory diagnostic techniques accurately to identify common STDs, and to order appropriate treatment. The program emphasized "bedside" teaching with continuous exposure to clinical problems and discussion of those problems. The textbook used included management guidelines in the form of flow charts adapted from World Health Organization guidelines. Over 16 weeks, 49 trainees attended the course. Trainees were mainly female, while patients are mainly male. Trainees performed well, gaining self confidence and ability to manage STDs. The main problems encountered were overwork of staff in clinics when 1 lest for the program, and reluctance of male patients to be examined by female trainees.

  1. Continuing Need for Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics After the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Karen W; Parsell, Bradley W; Leichliter, Jami S; Habel, Melissa A; Tao, Guoyu; Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients, their reasons for seeking health services in STD clinics, and their access to health care in other venues. In 2013, we surveyed persons who used publicly funded STD clinics in 21 US cities with the highest STD morbidity. Of the 4364 STD clinic patients we surveyed, 58.5% were younger than 30 years, 72.5% were non-White, and 49.9% were uninsured. They visited the clinic for STD symptoms (18.9%), STD screening (33.8%), and HIV testing (13.6%). Patients chose STD clinics because of walk-in, same-day appointments (49.5%), low cost (23.9%), and expert care (8.3%). Among STD clinic patients, 60.4% had access to another type of venue for sick care, and 58.5% had access to another type of venue for preventive care. Most insured patients (51.6%) were willing to use insurance to pay for care at the STD clinic. Despite access to other health care settings, patients chose STD clinics for sexual health care because of convenient, low-cost, and expert care. Policy Implication. STD clinics play an important role in STD prevention by offering walk-in care to uninsured patients.

  2. Continuing Need for Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics After the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Parsell, Bradley W.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Habel, Melissa A.; Tao, Guoyu; Pearson, William S.; Gift, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the characteristics of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients, their reasons for seeking health services in STD clinics, and their access to health care in other venues. Methods. In 2013, we surveyed persons who used publicly funded STD clinics in 21 US cities with the highest STD morbidity. Results. Of the 4364 STD clinic patients we surveyed, 58.5% were younger than 30 years, 72.5% were non-White, and 49.9% were uninsured. They visited the clinic for STD symptoms (18.9%), STD screening (33.8%), and HIV testing (13.6%). Patients chose STD clinics because of walk-in, same-day appointments (49.5%), low cost (23.9%), and expert care (8.3%). Among STD clinic patients, 60.4% had access to another type of venue for sick care, and 58.5% had access to another type of venue for preventive care. Most insured patients (51.6%) were willing to use insurance to pay for care at the STD clinic. Conclusions. Despite access to other health care settings, patients chose STD clinics for sexual health care because of convenient, low-cost, and expert care. Policy Implication. STD clinics play an important role in STD prevention by offering walk-in care to uninsured patients. PMID:26447908

  3. Competitive Exclusion and Coexistence of Pathogens in a Homosexually-Transmitted Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Caichun; Jiang, Jifa

    2011-01-01

    A sexually-transmitted disease model for two strains of pathogen in a one-sex, heterogeneously-mixing population has been studied completely by Jiang and Chai in (J Math Biol 56:373–390, 2008). In this paper, we give a analysis for a SIS STD with two competing strains, where populations are divided into three differential groups based on their susceptibility to two distinct pathogenic strains. We investigate the existence and stability of the boundary equilibria that characterizes competitive exclusion of the two competing strains; we also investigate the existence and stability of the positive coexistence equilibrium, which characterizes the possibility of coexistence of the two strains. We obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence and global stability about these equilibria under some assumptions. We verify that there is a strong connection between the stability of the boundary equilibria and the existence of the coexistence equilibrium, that is, there exists a unique coexistence equilibrium if and only if the boundary equilibria both exist and have the same stability, the coexistence equilibrium is globally stable or unstable if and only if the two boundary equilibria are both unstable or both stable. PMID:21347222

  4. Gender and racial differences in risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among justice-involved youth

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Childs, Kristina; Belenko, Steven; Schmeidler, James; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Gender and racial differences in infection rates for chlamydia and gonorrhea have been reported within community-based populations, but little is known of such differences within juvenile offending populations. Moreover, while research has demonstrated that certain individual-level and community-level factors affect risky behaviors associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD), less is known about how multi-level factors affect STD infection, particularly among delinquent populations. The present study investigated gender and racial differences in STD infection among a sample of 924 juvenile offenders. Generalized linear model regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of individual-level factors such as age, offense history, and substance use and community-level factors such as concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, and family disruption on STD status. Results revealed significant racial and STD status differences across gender, as well as interaction effects for race and STD status for males only. Gender differences in individual-level and community-level predictors were also found. Implications of these findings for future research and public health policy are discussed. PMID:20700475

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases and enteric infections in the male homosexual population.

    PubMed

    Law, C

    1990-06-01

    There are certain special considerations in the management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in homosexual men, with the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on the presentation, diagnosis, and management of certain STDs just becoming apparent recently. Rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhea are usually asymptomatic and also more difficult to treat. The serological diagnosis of syphillis may be unreliable in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, and HIV-seropositive homosexual men may be at risk of accelerated progression to neurosyphilis, despite treatment with benzathine penicillin. Chlamydia trachomatis is infrequently detected in patients with proctitis so therapy should be directed only at culture-positive cases. Herpes simplex is usually severe and persistent in immunosuppressed patients and may be further complicated by the development of acyclovir-resistance. Concurrent HIV infection may be associated with increased infectivity of homosexual chronic hepatitis B carriers, but milder hepatic injury and reduced efficacy of hepatitis B vaccines and immodulatory or antiviral agents. Although there is some concern regarding the possibility of increased risk of anal cancer in homosexual men, conservative management of human papilloma-virus-associated conditions is advised. The carriage of Entamoeba histolytica in this group is rarely associated with any deleterious effects and treatment should be directed only at symptomatic patients in whom other enteric pathogens have been excluded.

  6. Perceived everyday racism, residential segregation, and HIV testing among patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Ford, Chandra L; Daniel, Mark; Earp, Jo Anne L; Kaufman, Jay S; Golin, Carol E; Miller, William C

    2009-04-01

    More than one quarter of HIV-infected people are undiagnosed and therefore unaware of their HIV-positive status. Blacks are disproportionately infected. Although perceived racism influences their attitudes toward HIV prevention, how racism influences their behaviors is unknown. We sought to determine whether perceiving everyday racism and racial segregation influence Black HIV testing behavior. This was a clinic-based, multilevel study in a North Carolina city. Eligibility was limited to Blacks (N = 373) seeking sexually transmitted disease diagnosis or screening. We collected survey data, block group characteristics, and lab-confirmed HIV testing behavior. We estimated associations using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. More than 90% of the sample perceived racism, which was associated with higher odds of HIV testing (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.52), after control for residential segregation, and other covariates. Neither patient satisfaction nor mechanisms for coping with stress explained the association. Perceiving everyday racism is not inherently detrimental. Perceived racism may improve odds of early detection of HIV infection in this high-risk population. How segregation influences HIV testing behavior warrants further research.

  7. Internet-Based Partner Services in US Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Programs: 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Moody, Victoria; Hogben, Matthew; Kroeger, Karen; Johnson, James

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites have become increasingly popular venues for meeting sex partners. Today, some sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs conduct Internet-based partner services (IPS). The purpose of the study was to explore how the Internet is being used by STD prevention programs to perform partner services. We assessed US STD prevention programs receiving funds through the 2008-2013 Comprehensive STD Prevention Systems cooperative agreement. We (1) reviewed 2009 IPS protocols in 57 funding applications against a benchmark of national guidelines and (2) surveyed persons who conducted IPS in jurisdictions conducting IPS in 2012. Of the 57 project areas receiving Comprehensive STD Prevention Systems funds, 74% provided an IPS protocol. States with IPS protocols had larger populations and more gonorrhea and syphilis cases (t = 2.2-2.6; all Ps < .05), although not higher rates of infection. Most protocols included staffing (92%) and IPS documentation (87%) requirements, but fewer had evaluation plans (29%) or social networking site engagement strategies (16%). Authority to perform a complete range of IPS activities (send e-mail, use social networking sites) was associated with contacting more partners via IPSs (P < .05). This study provides a snapshot of IPS activities in STD programs in the United States. Further research is needed to move from assessment to generating data that can assist training efforts and program action and, finally, to enable efficient IPS programs that are integrated into STD prevention and control efforts.

  8. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Correlates among Female Attendees of Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Pan, Xiaohong; Cai, Gaofeng; Yan, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    This study is to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its risk factors among the female attendees of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Zhejiang Province, China. A self-administered questionnaire survey of a cross-sectional design was administered to attendees at four STD clinics in 2007. Of the 313 female STD clinic attendees, 42.5% reported that they had at least one unintended pregnancy; the induced abortion rate was 39.0%. Over their lifetime, 12.1% responded “use condoms always/often” and 5.4% “always/often used oral contraceptives.” The risk factors for the unintended pregnancy identified by the multivariate analysis were as follows: being married, experience of nonconsensual sex, and a history of STD, having two and over two sexual partners. Unintended pregnancies and induced abortion by female STD clinic attendees have reached an alarming prevalence. Doctors at STD clinics should attach importance not only to the STD problem of the female attendees, but also to the unintended pregnancy and the associated factors. Targeted contraceptive counseling and intervention should be promoted at STD clinics as a strategy to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the reproductive health services in China. PMID:23841063

  9. The Program Cost of a Brief Video Intervention Shown in Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Waiting Rooms.

    PubMed

    Gift, Thomas L; OʼDonnell, Lydia N; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Malotte, Kevin C; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Margolis, Andrew D; Borkowf, Craig B; Kent, Charlotte K; Warner, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Patients in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic waiting rooms represent a potential audience for delivering health messages via video-based interventions. A controlled trial at 3 sites found that patients exposed to one intervention, Safe in the City, had a significantly lower incidence of STDs compared with patients in the control condition. An evaluation of the intervention's cost could help determine whether such interventions are programmatically viable. The cost of producing the Safe in the City intervention was estimated using study records, including logs, calendars, and contract invoices. Production costs were divided by the 1650 digital video kits initially fabricated to get an estimated cost per digital video. Clinic costs for showing the video in waiting rooms included staff time costs for equipment operation and hardware depreciation and were estimated for the 21-month study observation period retrospectively. The intervention cost an estimated $416,966 to develop, equaling $253 per digital video disk produced. Per-site costs to show the video intervention were estimated to be $2699 during the randomized trial. The cost of producing and implementing Safe in the City intervention suggests that similar interventions could potentially be produced and made available to end users at a price that would both cover production costs and be low enough that the end users could afford them.

  10. Local Public Health Systems and the Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Suh, Allen; Bekemeier, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of local public health system organization and local health department resources with county-level sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence rates in large US health jurisdictions. Methods. We linked annual county STD incidence data (2005–2008) to local health department director responses (n = 211) to the 2006 wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Local Public Health Systems, the 2005 national Local Health Department Profile Survey, and the Area Resource File. We used nested mixed effects regression models to assess the relative contribution of local public health system organization, local health department financial and resource factors, and sociodemographic factors known to be associated with STD incidence to county-level (n = 307) STD incidence. Results. Jurisdictions with local governing boards had significantly lower county-level STD incidence. Local public health systems with comprehensive services where local health departments shoulder much of the effort had higher county-level STD rates than did conventional systems. Conclusions. More integration of system partners in local public health system activities, through governance and interorganizational arrangements, may reduce the incidence and burden of STDs. PMID:22813090

  11. Effectiveness of an intervention promoting the female condom to patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Artz, L; Macaluso, M; Brill, I; Kelaghan, J; Austin, H; Fleenor, M; Robey, L; Hook, E W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and reduce unprotected sex among women at high risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: The effect of the intervention on barrier use was evaluated with a pretest-posttest design with 1159 female STD clinic patients. RESULTS: Among participants with follow-up data, 79% used the female condom at least once and often multiple times. More than one third of those who completed the study used female condoms throughout follow-up. Use of barrier protection increased significantly after the intervention, and high use was maintained during a 6-month follow-up. To account for attrition, the use of protection by all subjects was projected under 3 conservative assumptions. The initial visit and termination visit projections suggest that use increased sharply after the intervention and declined during follow-up but remained elevated compared with the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Many clients of public STD clinics will try, and some will continue, to use female condoms when they are promoted positively and when women are trained to use them correctly and to promote them to their partners. A behavioral intervention that promotes both female and male condoms can increase barrier use. PMID:10667185

  12. Sexonomics: a commentary and review of selected sexually transmitted disease studies in the economics literature.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight selected studies in the economics literature that address sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related topics that are typically not examined in the STD literature. Two databases (EconLit and Web of Science) were searched to locate STD-related articles in the economics journals. Relevant articles were also identified in other ways, such as informal discussions with colleagues familiar with the literature. To maintain a focus on unique STD-related topics, studies with topics common in the STD literature (e.g., cost-effectiveness, transmission modeling) were excluded. Selected STD-related studies in the economics literature were grouped into the following 8 topics: impact of abortion laws and policies on sexual health outcomes; same-sex marriage and syphilis rates; alcohol policy and STD rates; welfare laws and STD rates; discounting the future; HIV disclosure laws; the impact of tolerance for gays on HIV incidence; and economic versus epidemiologic models of HIV dynamics. A general theme of STD-related studies in the economics literature is that laws and policies that increased the "cost" of risky sex tended to reduce the demand for risky sex, and therefore reduce the incidence of STDs. Economic research can contribute in novel ways to our understanding of influences on risky sexual behavior at the individual level and STD incidence at the population level. Economists and STD experts could mutually benefit from increased collaboration.

  13. Unintended pregnancy and its correlates among female attendees of sexually transmitted disease clinics in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Pan, Xiaohong; Cai, Gaofeng; Yan, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    This study is to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its risk factors among the female attendees of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Zhejiang Province, China. A self-administered questionnaire survey of a cross-sectional design was administered to attendees at four STD clinics in 2007. Of the 313 female STD clinic attendees, 42.5% reported that they had at least one unintended pregnancy; the induced abortion rate was 39.0%. Over their lifetime, 12.1% responded "use condoms always/often" and 5.4% "always/often used oral contraceptives." The risk factors for the unintended pregnancy identified by the multivariate analysis were as follows: being married, experience of nonconsensual sex, and a history of STD, having two and over two sexual partners. Unintended pregnancies and induced abortion by female STD clinic attendees have reached an alarming prevalence. Doctors at STD clinics should attach importance not only to the STD problem of the female attendees, but also to the unintended pregnancy and the associated factors. Targeted contraceptive counseling and intervention should be promoted at STD clinics as a strategy to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the reproductive health services in China.

  14. High-risk behaviour in young men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    BRAHME, R. G.; SAHAY, S.; MALHOTRA-KOHLI, R.; DIVEKAR, A. D.; GANGAKHEDKAR, R. R.; PARKHE, A. P.; KHARAT, M. P.; RISBUD, A. R.; BOLLINGER, R. C.; MEHENDALE, S. M.; PARANJAPE, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports sexual risk factors associated with HIV infection among men attending two sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Pune, India and compares these behaviours between young and older men. Between April 1998 and May 2000, 1,872 STD patients were screened for HIV infection. Data on demographics, medical history and sexual behaviour were collected at baseline. The overall HIV prevalence was 22.2%. HIV risk was associated with being divorced or widowed, less educated, living away from the family, having multiple sexual partners and initiation of sex at an early age. The risk behaviours in younger men were different to older men. Younger men were more likely to report early age of initiation of sex, having friends, acquaintances or commercial sex workers as their regular partners, having premarital sex and bisexual orientation. Young men were more educated and reported condom use more frequently compared with the older men. Similar high HIV prevalence among younger and older men highlights the need for focused targeted interventions aimed at adolescents and young men and also appropriate interventions for older men to reduce the risk of HIV and STD acquisition. PMID:15832886

  15. Early detection and treatment of sexually transmitted disease in pregnant adolescents of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Matson, S C; Pomeranz, A J; Kamps, K A

    1993-10-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of sexually transmitted disease (STD) in adolescents presenting to a primary pediatric care clinic (PPCC) for the diagnosis of pregnancy and our ability to eradicate identified infections. We followed 168 pregnant adolescents of low socioeconomic status from their original pregnancy diagnosis until their first prenatal clinic visit. We collected screening cervical cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by completing a pelvic examination on 91 patients at our PPCC. At the PPCC visit, 29% were positive for gonorrhea, chlamydia, or both. Screening tests for these infections were collected on all patients at the initial prenatal clinic visit. The risk for presenting to the prenatal clinic with a STD was significantly greater in patients not screened and treated for STD at the PPCC. Average delay from diagnosis to first prenatal clinic visit was 35.7 days. Thus, in this adolescent population, primary care providers are missing an important therapeutic opportunity by failing to identify and treat STD at initial diagnosis of pregnancy.

  16. Race and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Women With and Without Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Ulrike; Angiolieri, Teresa; Gold, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with and without a lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) and to compare their histories to those of a group of women with a current nonpsychotic axis I disorder. Methods Two-hundred fifteen women completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses (SCID-I), Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for Axis II diagnoses (SIDP-IV), and a sexual health interview. African American women were oversampled because little is known about BPD in African American women and because they are at greater risk for STDs than non-African American women. Results Women with a lifetime SUD (especially cannabis use disorder) reported more STD risk factors and STDs than women without a lifetime SUD. BPD dimensional scores and African American race were predictors of STD, even after controlling for age, socioeconomic status (SES), SUDs, and participation in the sex trade. Conclusions Determining predictors of STDs within at-risk subpopulations may help reduce the spread of STDs and prevent HIV infection within these groups by helping providers identify women at the highest risk of infection. PMID:21219244

  17. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  18. Training enlisted men on sexually transmitted diseases and preparation of a training model.

    PubMed

    Yaren, Hakan; Kir, Tayfun; Ucar, Muharrem; Gocgeldi, Ercan; Hasde, Metin

    2004-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are serious public health concerns in many countries. One of the main strategies in prevention of STDs is training people who are at high risk for STDs. We aimed to train enlisted men in the Turkish Armed Forces while they served their compulsory military service because every healthy Turkish man has to complete this service and they are at high risk for STDs, as well. This study contains two main parts: trainer training and training of enlisted men. The target groups are health noncommissioned officer school students for the trainer training and enlisted men serving in a military medical academy for STD training. For both groups, we prepared and applied different training programs considering each group's knowledge needs on the topic. To describe knowledge needs, we administered a pretest on both groups. First, we trained candidate trainers, then they trained the enlisted men. We evaluated both programs comparing pre- and posttest results. In both programs, mean test scores of the groups increased significantly. Success levels of the groups also increased significantly after using a cutoff point for test scores. With respect to relative effectiveness, attributed effectiveness, and effectiveness ration, the trainers training program was more effective than the other. As a result, our approach to training enlisted men as young adults is effective. We should evaluate the limitations of the study and consider our experiences to make the program more effective.

  19. Sexuality education policies and sexually transmitted disease rates in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Hogben, M; Chesson, H; Aral, S O

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test for relationships between state-level sex educational policies and sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates. We analysed US case reports of gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection for 2001-2005 against state policies for abstinence coverage in sexuality education, using the proportion of the population per state who identified as black (aged 15-24 years) as a covariate. We also tested for effects on 15-19 year olds versus 35-39 year olds and tuberculosis rates (the latter to ensure findings applied only to STD). States with no mandates for abstinence had the lowest mean rates of infection among the overall population and among adolescents. States with mandates emphasizing abstinence had the highest rates; states with mandates to cover (but not emphasize) abstinence fell in between. Rates in some states covering abstinence changed faster than in others, as reflected in sharper declines (gonorrhoea) or slower increases (chlamydial infection). These effects were not shown for tuberculosis or 35-39 year olds. Having no abstinence education policy has no apparent effect on STD rates for adolescents. For states with elevated rates, policies mandating coverage may be useful, although policies emphasizing abstinence show no benefit.

  20. Drug Use and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Female and Male Arrested Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the rates and correlates of juvenile offenders’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has been limited to samples of incarcerated youths comprised mostly of males. Data collected on 442 female and 506 male youths processed at a centralized intake facility enabled us to study this important public health problem among a sample of juvenile offenders at the front end of the justice system. Female-male, multi-group latent class analyses identified two subgroups, High Risk and Lower Risk, of youths described by a latent construct of risk based on drug test results, STD test results, and a classification for the seriousness of arrest charge. The results found: (1) a similar classification distinguished High Risk and Lower Risk male and female youths, and (2) important gender group differences in sexual risk related factors (e.g., substance use during sexual encounters). Among the youths in this sample who tested positive for an STD, 66% of the girls and 57% of the boys were released back into the community after arrest. Overall, our findings raise serious public health and social welfare concerns, for both the youths and the community. Prevention and intervention implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:18979194

  1. Selecting at-risk populations for sexually transmitted disease/HIV intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Li, Li; Guan, Jihui; Liang, Guojun; Yap, Lorraine

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes one option to select populations for randomized, controlled trials (RCT). We used a popular opinion leader intervention in Fuzhou, China, to: (1) identify population selection criteria; (2) systematically examine the suitability of potential target populations and settings; (3) briefly evaluate risk and stability in the population; and (4) evaluate regional and organizational support among administrators and government officials. After comparing migrant villagers, truck drivers, factory workers, construction workers, and market employees in five regions of China, market employees in Fuzhou were identified as the optimal target population. Markets were the optimal sites for several reasons: (1) the population demonstrated a sufficient base rate of sexually transmitted diseases; (2) the population was stable over time; (3) a sufficient number of sites of manageable sizes were available; (4) stable networks existed; (5) local gatekeepers/stakeholders supported the intervention; (6) there was organizational capacity in the local health department to mount the intervention; (7) the demographic profile was similar across potential sites; and (8) the sites were sufficiently distanced to minimize contamination. Evaluating intervention efficacy in an RCT requires a time-consuming and rigorous process that systematically and routinely documents selection criteria, evaluates multiple populations, sites, and organizations for their appropriateness.

  2. Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease in Male Patients Attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic: First Assessment in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Noda, Angel A; Blanco, Orestes; Correa, Consuelo; Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Rodríguez, Islay

    2016-08-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and in particular genital ulcer disease (GUD) have a major impact on morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in resource-constrained countries. Surveillance of autochthonous etiologies provides epidemiological information contributing to the prevention and treatment of STIs. We investigated the etiology and factors associated with GUD among male patients attending a STD clinic in Havana, Cuba. Swabs from genital ulcers of 113 male patients, collected from May 2012 to June 2015, were analyzed using PCR for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Chlamydia trachomatis. We also investigated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with the presence of these pathogens in GUD. At least one of the pathogens was detected in 70% of patients. The occurrence of the pathogens was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (51.3%), T. pallidum (29.2%), and C. trachomatis (1.8%). Co-infections occurred as follows: T. pallidum-HSV-2 (10.6%), C. trachomatis-HSV-2 (0.9%) and C. trachomatis-T. pallidum (0.9%). Herpes simplex virus type 1 and H. ducreyi were not detected. Ages 15 to 40 years, HIV-positive serostatus, and no condom use were significant risk factors for the presence of HSV-2 in genital ulcers. Our preliminary results highlight the predominance of HSV-2 and T. pallidum as the leading GUD etiologies in the study population and identified risk factors associated with HSV-2. This information should help to inform guidelines for better management of GUD in Havana, Cuba.

  3. National survey data for zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines grossly underestimates the true burden of disease within endemic zones: implications for future control.

    PubMed

    Olveda, Remigio M; Tallo, Veronica; Olveda, David U; Inobaya, Marianette T; Chau, Thao N; Ross, Allen G

    2016-04-01

    Zoonotic schistosomiasis has a long endemic history in the Philippines. Human mass drug administration has been the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in the country for the past three decades. Recent publications utilizing retrospective national survey data have indicated that the national human prevalence of the disease is <1%, hence the disease is now close to elimination. However, the evidence for such a claim is weak, given that less than a third of the human population is currently being treated annually within endemic zones and only a third of those treated actually swallow the tablets. For those who consume the drug at the single oral dose of 40mg/kg, the estimated cure rate is 52% based on a recent meta-analysis. Thus, approximately 5% of the endemic human population is in reality receiving the appropriate treatment. To compound this public health problem, most of the bovines in the endemic communities are concurrently infected but are not treated under the current national control programme. Given this evidence, it is believed that the human prevalence of schistosomiasis within endemic regions has been grossly underestimated. Inherent flaws in the reporting of national schistosomiasis prevalence data are reported here, and the problems of utilizing national retrospective data in making geographic information system (GIS) risk maps and advising policy makers of the outcomes are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Formative research for the development of an interactive web-based sexually transmitted disease management intervention for young women.

    PubMed

    Royer, Heather R; Fernandez-Lambert, Katherin M; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are common among young women and effective self-management is foundational to improving health outcomes and preventing negative sequelae. Advances in technology create the opportunity for innovative delivery methods of self-management interventions. However, it is essential to conduct formative research with the target population to identify both the needs and the preferences for the content and delivery method of a sexually transmitted disease self-management intervention prior to intervention development. Eight focus groups were conducted with 35 young women between 18 and 24 years of age. We found that young women strongly support the use of a Web-based intervention to provide sexually transmitted disease self-management guidance. Women were interested in receiving comprehensive management information from the perspective of both clinicians and other women who have experienced a sexually transmitted disease. There was a clear interest in incorporating new media into the Web-based intervention to allow for communication with providers as well as to create opportunities for social networking between women. This formative research provides critical information about the content and delivery method of a self-management intervention and gives direction for intervention development that is inclusive of varying types of new media to allow for connectivity among users, their peers, and clinicians.

  5. Social marketing sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: a consumer-centered approach to achieving behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P R; Price, J E

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that international sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention efforts might be enhanced by the application of social marketing principles. It first outlines the conceptual basis of social marketing approaches to health behaviour change generally and then explores key issues and opportunities for using these principles to improve current STD/HIV prevention efforts.

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Adults: Prevalence, Perceived Risk, and Risk-Taking Behaviors. Research Brief. Publication #2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk…

  8. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  9. The Association of Early Substance Use with Lifetime/Past Year Contraction of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Rosen, Brittany L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Fehr, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose is to examine the impact of early substance use on lifetime and past year contraction of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis. A secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 52,529) was conducted to determine if lifetime or past year STD…

  10. Web 2.0 Tools in the Prevention of Curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lorente, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2018-03-22

    The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017. The equation search was realized by means of the using of descriptors together with the consultation of the fields of title register and summary with free terms. Bibliographies of the selected papers were searched for additional articles. A total of 627 references were retrieved, of which 6 papers were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STDs studied were chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The Web 2.0 tools used were Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The 6 papers used Web 2.0 in the promotion of STD detection. Web 2.0 tools have demonstrated a positive effect on the promotion of prevention strategies for STDs and can help attract and link youth to campaigns related to sexual health. These tools can be combined with other interventions. In any case, Web 2.0 and especially Facebook have all the potential to become essential instruments for public health. ©María Sanz-Lorente, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Ramón Castejón-Bolea, Javier Sanz-Valero. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  11. Impact evaluation of a sexually transmitted disease preventive intervention among female sex workers in Hohhot, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuhui; Guo, Shuyi; Bo, Fubao; Zhang, Xingguang; Cao, Wangnan; Wang, Peiyang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention interventions among female sex workers (FSWs) in the city of Hohhot in northern China. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006, 2007, and 2008 among FSWs. A questionnaire was administered to the FSWs, and HIV and syphilis tests were performed for all participants. Intervention activities including condom promotion and provision, increased condom availability and accessibility, and voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) were carried out among FSWs. There were 624 participants in the 2006 survey, 444 in the 2007 survey, and 451 in the 2008 survey. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) indicators for FSWs increased from 13.9% in 2006 to 37.7% in 2008 (p<0.001). The average rate of consistent condom use with commercial clients in the month preceding the interview increased significantly from 39.8% in 2006 to 59.6% in 2008 (p<0.001). Not a single HIV-positive case was found among the FSWs over these 3 years, and the prevalence of syphilis decreased remarkably from 9.5% in 2006 to 1.3% in 2008. Logistic regression analysis showed that sauna or hair salon work venues, receiving services from intervention programs, and accepting HIV tests were factors associated with consistent condom use. The findings suggest that consistent condom use and awareness of HIV/AIDS prevention-related knowledge among FSWs have been improved by the intervention. Further prioritized and combined prevention programs aimed at FSWs are needed in order to prevent the HIV/AIDS epidemic spreading in the general population in China. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Findings associated with recurrence of bacterial vaginosis among adolescents attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Rebecca M.; Erbelding, Emily J.; Jamshidi, Roxanne M.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Ghanem, Khalil G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common infection and has been associated with adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and acquisition and transmission of HIV. There are limited data on recurrent BV in adolescents. A relationship between the frequency of BV recurrence and specific risk factors might shed light on the pathophysiology of BV and lead to targeted interventions. Methods Design: Record-based historical clinic study. Setting: Adolescent visits to two sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics between 1990-2002. Participants: 254 girls who had ≥ 2 episodes of BV and at least 3 clinical visits, matched on clinic attendance frequency to 254 girls with only 1 documented BV episode and 254 girls with no history of BV. Main outcome measure: Risk factor differences between groups. Analysis: Multinomial logistic regression with robust estimator of the standard errors, accounting for repeated measures. Results 5,977 adolescent girls visited the clinics. 1509 (25%) had at least one episode of BV; of those, 303 (19.9%) had 2 or more BV episodes. Girls with a history of 1 BV episode and girls with a history of 2 or more BV episodes were more likely to be infected with Trichomonas vaginalis [OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.17-2.67, OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.34] and be diagnosed with PID [OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22, OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.41-2.98] compared to girls with no BV history, respectively. Girls with a history of BV were also more likely to report active oral sex and lack of contraceptive use. Conclusion Adolescent girls who attend STD clinics have a high prevalence of BV. Although the association between BV and PID is not clearly causal, when one condition is diagnosed, evaluation and counseling for the other may reduce recurrence and sequelae. PMID:17673134

  13. The traditional use of Vachellia nilotica for sexually transmitted diseases is substantiated by the antiviral activity of its bark extract against sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Gibellini, Davide; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Rittà, Massimo; Ghosh, Manik; Lembo, David

    2018-03-01

    Vachellia (Acacia) nilotica and other plants of this genus have been used in traditional medicine of Asian and African countries to treat many disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, but few studies were performed to validate their anti-microbial and anti-viral activity against sexually transmitted infections. The present study was undertaken to explore whether the ethnomedical use of V.nilotica to treat genital lesions is substantiated by its antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). The antiviral activity of V.nilotica was tested in vitro by virus-specific inhibition assays using HSV-2 strains, sensible or resistant to acyclovir, HIV-1IIIb strain and HPV-16 pseudovirion (PsV). The potential mode of action of extract against HSV-2 and HPV-16 was further investigated by virus inactivation and time-of-addition assays on cell cultures. V.nilotica chloroform, methanolic and water bark extracts exerted antiviral activity against HSV-2 and HPV-16 PsV infections; among these, methanolic extract showed the best EC50s with values of 4.71 and 1.80µg/ml against HSV-2 and HPV-16, respectively, and it was also active against an acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strain with an EC50 of 6.71µg/ml. By contrast, no suppression of HIV infection was observed. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that the methanolic extract directly inactivated the infectivity of the HPV-16 particles, whereas a partial virus inactivation and interference with virus attachment (EC50 of 2.74µg/ml) were both found to contribute to the anti-HSV-2 activity. These results support the traditional use of V.nilotica applied externally for the treatment of genital lesions. Further work remains to be done in order to identify the bioactive components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fleas, hosts and habitat: What can we predict about the spread of vector-borne zoonotic diseases?

    Megan M. Friggens

    2010-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases of humans and wildlife are experiencing resurgence across the globe. I examine the dynamics of flea borne diseases through a comparative analysis of flea literature and analyses of field data collected from three sites in New Mexico: The Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, the Sandia Mountains and the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP). My...

  15. Zoonotic Hookworm FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... when exposed skin comes in contact with contaminated soil or sand. The larvae in the contaminated soil or sand will burrow into the skin and ... measures to avoid skin contact with sand or soil will prevent infection with zoonotic hookworms. Travelers to ...

  16. Travel-related mosquito-transmitted disease questionnaire survey among health professionals in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Liang; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Yao, Chien-An; Lee, Long-Teng

    2011-01-01

    Health-care professionals can help travelers by providing accurate pre-travel counseling for mosquito-transmitted diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever. Governments and international organizations will benefit from knowledge survey among health professionals in this field to promote the development of travel health profession. This study investigates physicians' and nurses' knowledge regarding malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed to physicians and nurses in Taiwan interested in travel medicine between April and September of 2008. The self-administered, single-choice questionnaire evaluated knowledge regarding epidemiology, prophylactic medication for malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever, and vaccinations for yellow fever as well as background information of participants. Complete information was collected from 82 physicians and 203 nurses. (Out of 289, effective response rate = 99.9%). The mean percentage of accurate responses was similar for all three diseases: malaria 67.3% (range, 16.8%-90.5%); yellow fever 65.4% (39.6%-79.3%); and dengue fever 74.4% (14.4%-96.5%). The items with the lowest accuracy were (1) behavior of the dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti mosquito (14.4%) and (2) incubation period of malaria (16.8%). There were 60.4% participants who did not know the current revaccination interval for the yellow fever vaccine. The average knowledge scores for all three diseases were statistically significantly higher in the physician group. Analysis of the results revealed significant deficits in travel medicine knowledge among health-care providers. Emphasis on continuing medical education for disease vector behavior, prophylactic drug prescription, and preventative vaccination is important to travel safety. Health professionals in Taiwan should actively participate in the International Society of Travel Medicine to follow the international standard of travel medicine

  17. Current perspectives in transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases: emerging and re-emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Stramer, S L

    2014-07-01

    In August 2009, a group from the AABB (Stramer et al., Transfusion 2009;99:1S-29S, Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and their Potential Threat to Transfusion Safety; http://www.aabb.org/resources/bct/eid/Pages/default.aspx) published a Supplement to Transfusion that reviewed emerging infectious disease (EID) agents that pose a real or theoretical threat to transfusion safety, but for which an existing effective intervention is lacking. The necessary attributes for transfusion transmission were outlined including: presence of the agent in blood during the donor's asymptomatic phase, the agent's survival/persistence in blood during processing/storage, and lastly that the agent must be recognized as responsible for a clinically apparent outcome in at least a proportion of recipients who become infected. Without these attributes, agents are not considered as a transfusion-transmission threat and were excluded. Sixty-eight such agents were identified with enough evidence/likelihood of transfusion transmission (e.g., blood phase) and potential for clinical disease to warrant further consideration. In the Supplement, Fact Sheets (FS) were published providing information on: agent classification; disease agent's importance; clinical syndromes/diseases caused; transmission modes (including vectors/reservoirs); likelihood of transfusion transmission, and if proven to be transfusion-transmitted, information on known cases; the feasibility/predicted success of interventions for donor screening (questioning) and tests available for diagnostics/ adapted for donor screening; and finally, the efficacy, if known, of inactivation methods for plasma-derived products. The Supplement included a separate section on pathogen reduction using published data. Agents were prioritized relative to their scientific/epidemiologic threat and their perceived threat to the community including concerns expressed by the regulators of blood. Agents given the highest priority due to a known

  18. Balance between transmitted HLA preadapted and nonassociated polymorphisms is a major determinant of HIV-1 disease progression.

    PubMed

    Mónaco, Daniela C; Dilernia, Dario A; Fiore-Gartland, Andrew; Yu, Tianwei; Prince, Jessica L; Dennis, Kristine K; Qin, Kai; Schaefer, Malinda; Claiborne, Daniel T; Kilembe, William; Tang, Jianming; Price, Matt A; Farmer, Paul; Gilmour, Jill; Bansal, Anju; Allen, Susan; Goepfert, Paul; Hunter, Eric

    2016-09-19

    HIV-1 adapts to a new host through mutations that facilitate immune escape. Here, we evaluate the impact on viral control and disease progression of transmitted polymorphisms that were either preadapted to or nonassociated with the new host's HLA. In a cohort of 169 Zambian heterosexual transmission pairs, we found that almost one-third of possible HLA-linked target sites in the transmitted virus Gag protein are already adapted, and that this transmitted preadaptation significantly reduced early immune recognition of epitopes. Transmitted preadapted and nonassociated polymorphisms showed opposing effects on set-point VL and the balance between the two was significantly associated with higher set-point VLs in a multivariable model including other risk factors. Transmitted preadaptation was also significantly associated with faster CD4 decline (<350 cells/µl) and this association was stronger after accounting for nonassociated polymorphisms, which were linked with slower CD4 decline. Overall, the relative ratio of the two classes of polymorphisms was found to be the major determinant of CD4 decline in a multivariable model including other risk factors. This study reveals that, even before an immune response is mounted in the new host, the balance of these opposing factors can significantly influence the outcome of HIV-1 infection. © 2016 Mónaco et al.

  19. "Testing-only" visits: an assessment of missed diagnoses in clients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fujie; Stoner, Bradley P; Taylor, Stephanie N; Mena, Leandro; Martin, David H; Powell, Suzanne; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2013-01-01

    At sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, advances in testing technology coupled with increasing demands and diminishing resources have promoted the use of testing-only visits (clinic visits with testing for STDs but no full examination) to meet increasing demands for STD services. The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of STD diagnoses that could become "missed diagnoses" if patients would use testing-only visits and to examine patient characteristics associated with these potential missed diagnoses. We conducted a self-administered survey of STD-related symptoms and sexual risk behaviors in patients seeking routine clinical care at 3 STD clinics. Medical charts were abstracted to estimate the prevalence of viral STDs, trichomoniasis, and other diagnoses from standard clinical services that could become missed diagnoses. Of 2582 patients included, the median age was 24 years and 50% were women. In women, overall, 3.2% were diagnosed as having a viral STD; 9.6%, trichomoniasis; and 41.0%, vulvovaginal candidiasis or symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. The prevalence of these potential missed diagnoses varied by patient characteristics, but in women who reported no symptoms, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was still 6.3%. In men, 19.3% received a diagnosis of urethritis but tested negative for both gonorrhea and chlamydia; this prevalence varied from 15.7% in those who reported no symptoms to 32.6% in those who reported malodor. A high proportion of STD clients received diagnoses from standard care visits that would be missed by testing-only visits. When patients, even those asymptomatic, use testing-only visits, missed diagnoses of STDs or related genital tract conditions can be substantial. The potential disadvantages of testing-only visits should be weighed against the advantages of such visits.

  20. Rise in sexually transmitted diseases during democratization and economic crisis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Purevdawa, E; Moon, T D; Baigalmaa, C; Davaajav, K; Smith, M L; Vermund, S H

    1997-06-01

    In 1990, democratic changes and loss of Soviet economic subsidies led to enormous social upheaval in Mongolia. The objective of this study is to map sexually transmitted disease (STD) trends in Mongolia from 1983-1995 and review human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance data since 1987. Data for syphilis show a decreasing trend from 1983-1993 with a decline in cases from 70 to 18/100,000 population, followed by a rise in cases to 32/100,000 population in 1995. Data suggest a 1.5-3.0 fold higher rate of syphilis for ages 15-24 than for any other group. Data for gonorrhoea show an upward trend in the rate of cases, from 51/100,000 population in 1983 to 142/100,000 in 1995. The majority of cases are aged 15-44. Trichomonas rates also show an upward trend in the number of cases, from 47/100,000 population in 1983 to 155/100,000 cases in 1995. Like gonorrhoea the majority of cases are in the 15-44 year age range. For children aged 0-14, the 1983-1993 rate remained below 4.5/100,000; however, in 1994 and 1995 the rate increased reaching 53 and 48/100,000 respectively. Since 1987, more than 176,000 HIV tests have been done with only one confirmed positive result. Rises in STD rates coincide with deterioration in STD services and reduced active surveillance, suggesting that these data reflect a minimum estimation of the problem. Changes in business and social circumstances may have resulted in increasing HIV and STD risk behaviour.

  1. HIV association with conventional STDS (sexual transmitted diseases) in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otuonye, N M; Olukoya, D K; Odunukwe, N N; Idigbe, E O; Udeaja, M N; Bamidele, M; Onyewuchie, J I; Oparaugu, C T; Ayelari, O S; Oyekunle, B

    2002-01-01

    The study examined a possible association between HIV infection and conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) in a population of 700 patients seen in some hospitals and clinics in Lagos State between November 1997 and December 1999. The patients were drawn mainly from LUTH and Jolad hospitals in Lagos State. In these hospitals, patients who presented with symptoms of STDS were screened clinically and microbiologically for agents of STDS and HIV antibodies. Screening was carried out using conventional methods. A total of 150 (21.5%) were found positive for various STDS while 550 (78.5%) were negative Also, 109 (15.8%) were sero-positive for HIV while 591 (84.4%) were sero-negative. The frequency of STDS diagnosed were, Treponema pallidum, 38(25.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoea 3(2.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis 26(17.3), Hepatitis B virus 60(40.0%) Staphylococcus aureaus, 20 (13.3%) and Candida albicans 3(2.0%). Data showed that Syphillis was the most prevalent STDS diagnosed while Calbicans and N. gonorrhoea are the least. Amongst the 150 (21.5%) patients positive with STDS, 82(54.65%) were found to be positive for HIV antibodies. The remaining 68(45.3%) patients were negative for HIV. The difference in sero-prevalence on the true group of patients rates was significant. The higher rate in the STDS patients strongly suggest some association between HIV infections andSTDS amongst the patients studied p = 0.05. It was also recorded that HIV-1 infection is four times more prevalent than HIV-2 in these patients.

  2. Interventions to Improve Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening in Clinic-Based Settings.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Melanie M; Frasure-Williams, Jessica; Burnett, Phyllis; Park, Ina U

    2016-02-01

    The asymptomatic nature and suboptimal screening rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) call for implementation of successful interventions to improve screening in community-based clinic settings with attention to cost and resources. We used MEDLINE to systematically review comparative analyses of interventions to improve STD (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis) screening or rescreening in clinic-based settings that were published between January 2000 and January 2014. Absolute differences in the percent of the target population screened between comparison groups or relative percent increase in the number of tests or patients tested were used to score the interventions as highly effective (>20% increase) or moderately effective (5%-19% increase) in improving screening. Published cost of the interventions was described where available and, when not available, was estimated. Of the 4566 citations reviewed, 38 articles describing 42 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Of the 42 interventions, 16 (38.1%) were categorized as highly effective and 14 (33.3%) as moderately effective. Effective low-cost interventions (<$1000) included the strategic placement of specimen collection materials or automatic collection of STD specimens as part of a routine visit (7 highly effective and 1 moderately effective) and the use of electronic health records (EHRs; 3 highly effective and 4 moderately effective). Patient reminders for screening or rescreening (via text, telephone, and postcards) were highly effective (3) or moderately effective (2) and low or moderate cost (<$1001-10,000). Interventions with dedicated clinic staff to improve STD screening were highly effective (2) or moderately effective in improving STD screening (1) but high-cost ($10,001-$100,000). Successful interventions include changing clinic flow to routinely collect specimens for testing, using EHR screening reminders, and reminding patients to get screened or rescreened. These strategies can be

  3. Spatial Modelling of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Kenya: A Disease Control Planning Tool

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, Rachel L.; Gething, Peter W.; Smith, Jennifer L.; Mwandawiro, Charles S.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Gitonga, Caroline W.; Hay, Simon I.; Brooker, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Background Implementation of control of parasitic diseases requires accurate, contemporary maps that provide intervention recommendations at policy-relevant spatial scales. To guide control of soil transmitted helminths (STHs), maps are required of the combined prevalence of infection, indicating where this prevalence exceeds an intervention threshold of 20%. Here we present a new approach for mapping the observed prevalence of STHs, using the example of Kenya in 2009. Methods and Findings Observed prevalence data for hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were assembled for 106,370 individuals from 945 cross-sectional surveys undertaken between 1974 and 2009. Ecological and climatic covariates were extracted from high-resolution satellite data and matched to survey locations. Bayesian space-time geostatistical models were developed for each species, and were used to interpolate the probability that infection prevalence exceeded the 20% threshold across the country for both 1989 and 2009. Maps for each species were integrated to estimate combined STH prevalence using the law of total probability and incorporating a correction factor to adjust for associations between species. Population census data were combined with risk models and projected to estimate the population at risk and requiring treatment in 2009. In most areas for 2009, there was high certainty that endemicity was below the 20% threshold, with areas of endemicity ≥20% located around the shores of Lake Victoria and on the coast. Comparison of the predicted distributions for 1989 and 2009 show how observed STH prevalence has gradually decreased over time. The model estimated that a total of 2.8 million school-age children live in districts which warrant mass treatment. Conclusions Bayesian space-time geostatistical models can be used to reliably estimate the combined observed prevalence of STH and suggest that a quarter of Kenya's school-aged children live in areas of high prevalence

  4. Association Between Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Young Adults' Self-reported Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Danner, Fred; Crosby, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-reported behavior has been the cornerstone of sexual health research and clinical practice, yet advances in sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening provide researchers with the opportunity to objectively quantify sexual risk behaviors. However, the extent to which young adults' laboratory-confirmed STD results and self-reported sexual behaviors are consistent has not been assessed in a nationally representative sample. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data are derived from participants who completed wave 3 in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young adults (N = 14 012) completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey and provided a urine specimen to detect the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Trichomonas vaginalis. RESULTS: More than 10% of young adults with a laboratory-confirmed positive STD result reported abstaining from sexual intercourse in the 12 months before assessment and STD testing. After controlling for several sociodemographic factors, self-reported sex (versus those who reported abstinence) in the previous 12 months was significantly associated with testing positive, but the odds of testing positive were only slightly more than twofold (adjusted odds ratio: 2.11 [95% confidence interval: 2.097–2.122]). CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate discrepancy between young adults' positive STD status and self-reported sexual behavior. No significant correlates of discrepant reporting were identified. From a clinical standpoint, the discrepancies between STD positivity and self-reported sexual behavior observed in this nationally representative sample suggest that routine STD screening may be beneficial and necessary to reduce STD morbidity among young adults. PMID:21199852

  5. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high‐risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L; Murray, Pamela J; Chang, Chung‐Chou H; Comer, Diane M; Ness, Roberta B

    2007-01-01

    Objective Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Aim To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high‐risk sample of young women. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, 403 young women (mean age 18.9 years, 70% black) with a recent STD or with STD‐related risk factors were enrolled. Participants were recruited from clinics and high‐prevalence neighbourhoods and then randomly assigned to receive either a home testing kit or an invitation to attend a medical clinic for testing at 6, 12 and 18 months after enrollment. Over 80% of women were followed for 2 years. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 00177437. Results Of 197 women in the intervention group, 140 (71%) returned at least one home test and 25 of 249 (10%) home tests were positive. Women who received home screening tests completed significantly more STD tests overall (1.94 vs 1.41 tests per woman‐year, p<0.001) and more STD tests in the absence of symptoms (1.18 vs 0.75 tests per woman‐year, p<0.001). More women in the intervention group completed at least one test when asymptomatic (162 (82.2%) vs 117 (61.3%), p<0.001). The intervention was most effective among women recruited outside medical clinics. There was no significant difference in the overall rate of STDs detected. Conclusions Home screening significantly increased the utilisation of chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing in this sample of high‐risk young women, and thus represents a feasible strategy to facilitate STD testing in young women. PMID:17301105

  6. The cost of implementing rapid HIV testing in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eggman, Ashley A; Feaster, Daniel J; Leff, Jared A; Golden, Matthew R; Castellon, Pedro C; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Colfax, Grant N; Metsch, Lisa R; Schackman, Bruce R

    2014-09-01

    Rapid HIV testing in high-risk populations can increase the number of persons who learn their HIV status and avoid spending clinic resources to locate persons identified as HIV infected. We determined the cost to sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics of point-of-care rapid HIV testing using data from 7 public clinics that participated in a randomized trial of rapid testing with and without brief patient-centered risk reduction counseling in 2010. Costs included counselor and trainer time, supplies, and clinic overhead. We applied national labor rates and test costs. We calculated median clinic start-up costs and mean cost per patient tested, and projected incremental annual costs of implementing universal rapid HIV testing compared with current testing practices. Criteria for offering rapid HIV testing and methods for delivering nonrapid test results varied among clinics before the trial. Rapid HIV testing cost an average of US $22/patient without brief risk reduction counseling and US $46/patient with counseling in these 7 clinics. Median start-up costs per clinic were US $1100 and US $16,100 without and with counseling, respectively. Estimated incremental annual costs per clinic of implementing universal rapid HIV testing varied by whether or not brief counseling is conducted and by current clinic testing practices, ranging from a savings of US $19,500 to a cost of US $40,700 without counseling and a cost of US $98,000 to US $153,900 with counseling. Universal rapid HIV testing in STD clinics with same-day results can be implemented at relatively low cost to STD clinics, if brief risk reduction counseling is not offered.

  7. Recently arrested adolescents are at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Dembo, Richard; Weiland, Doris; Rollie, Matthew; Salvatore, Christopher; Hanlon, Alexandra; Childs, Kristina

    2008-08-01

    Adolescent offenders may be at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). With previous research and interventions focused on incarcerated adolescents, data are needed on STD prevalence and risk factors among newly arrested youth released to the community, a far larger subgroup. Participants were recruited from all arrested youth processed at the Hillsborough County, Florida Juvenile Assessment Center during the last half of 2006 (506 males, 442 females). Participants voluntarily providing urine samples for drug testing as part of standard protocol were also consented to having their specimens split and tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, using an FDA-approved nucleic acid amplification test. STD prevalence was similar to those previously reported among incarcerated adolescents: 11.5% tested positive for chlamydia, 4.2% for gonorrhea, and 13.2% for either or both infections. Prevalence was significantly higher among females: 19.2% of females had either or both infections compared with 10.5% of males. Prevalence was higher for 17 to 18 year olds (15.2% of males, 25.5% of females), blacks, detained youths, drug users, and those engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Previous STD testing experience was limited. The study indicated that a voluntary STD screening protocol is feasible for arrested youth entering the juvenile justice system, and these offenders are at high risk for STDs. Because most arrested youths are released back to the community, routine testing and treatment of recently arrested youths, and expanded access to risk reduction and prevention programs, can yield substantial public health benefits.

  8. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwambete, Kennedy D; Mtaturu, Zephania

    2006-09-01

    In Tanzania, it is considered a taboo for teachers and parents to talk with children about sexual matters including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in schools and at home because of cultural and religious barriers. Political pressure also keeps sexual education and thus education on STDs out of classrooms. Generally, there is disagreement over STDs education on what to teach, by whom, and to what extent. To assess the knowledge of STDs, and attitude towards sexual behavior and STDs among secondary school students. This was a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. A sample size of 635 students was determined by simple random sampling. Majority of the students (98%) said have heard about STDs; however their knowledge of the symptoms associated with STDs was poor. Similarly 147 (23%) students did not know other means of STDs transmission rather than sexual intercourse. A number of students who were capable of identifying all tracer STDs was comparable between the ordinary (10.5%) and advanced (10.6%) level students (p < 0.001). Thirty-two students (8%) were completely unable to identify even a single tracer STD. About 96% respondents said were capable of preventing themselves from contracting STDs, however 38% of them admitted that they were at risk of contracting STDs. Majority (99%) described more than one source of information on STDs, television and radio were the most commonly mentioned sources, whilst none of them cited parents as source of information (p < 0.001). Regarding vulnerability to STDs, 503 (79%) students said female students were more vulnerable to STDs compared to males. The level of knowledge about STDs (ability to identify tracer STDs, to describe symptoms associated with STDs and their mode of transmission) is poor with regard to the students' levels of education. Female students are more vulnerable to STDs compared to male counterparts. Mass media is still the more effective means of educating the students on STDs.

  9. Effect of a Brief Video Intervention on Incident Infection among Patients Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Lee; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Malotte, C. Kevin; O'Donnell, Lydia; Margolis, Andrew D; Greenwood, Gregory L; Richardson, Doug; Vrungos, Shelley; O'Donnell, Carl R; Borkowf, Craig B

    2008-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention remains a public health priority. Simple, practical interventions to reduce STD incidence that can be easily and inexpensively administered in high-volume clinical settings are needed. We evaluated whether a brief video, which contained STD prevention messages targeted to all patients in the waiting room, reduced acquisition of new infections after that clinic visit. Methods and Findings In a controlled trial among patients attending three publicly funded STD clinics (one in each of three US cities) from December 2003 to August 2005, all patients (n = 38,635) were systematically assigned to either a theory-based 23-min video depicting couples overcoming barriers to safer sexual behaviors, or the standard waiting room environment. Condition assignment alternated every 4 wk and was determined by which condition (intervention or control) was in place in the clinic waiting room during the patient's first visit within the study period. An intent-to-treat analysis was used to compare STD incidence between intervention and control patients. The primary endpoint was time to diagnosis of incident laboratory-confirmed infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, syphilis, and HIV), as identified through review of medical records and county STD surveillance registries. During 14.8 mo (average) of follow-up, 2,042 patients (5.3%) were diagnosed with incident STD (4.9%, intervention condition; 5.7%, control condition). In survival analysis, patients assigned to the intervention condition had significantly fewer STDs compared with the control condition (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.99). Conclusions Showing a brief video in STD clinic waiting rooms reduced new infections nearly 10% overall in three clinics. This simple, low-intensity intervention may be appropriate for adoption by clinics that serve similar patient populations. Trial registration: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov (#NCT

  10. Estimating dissemination of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines from a survey of physicians.

    PubMed

    Hogben, Matthew; Wimberly, Yolanda H; Moore, Sandra

    2007-05-01

    Periodically, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) produce guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the USA. To date, few evaluations of the dissemination of these guidelines exist. A paper and pencil survey was distributed via priority mail to a sample of Atlanta-area physicians, 416 (34%) of whom responded with complete data. Physicians were drawn from private practice, managed-care settings and public settings. In all, 85% of respondents treated STD, with a further 10% referring cases. Of those treating STD, 56% owned a copy of the 2002 CDC Treatment Guidelines, and 26% knew how to access them. The corresponding figures for physicians not treating STD were 25% and 30%. Of the physicians who did have copies, half had accessed the internet for their copies. Acquisition of, or the knowledge of how to acquire, the CDC STD Treatment Guidelines was widespread. The internet may be an effective and cost-saving means of disseminating the guidelines, although the continued need for print distribution should not be discounted.

  11. Zoonotic disease in a peripheral population: persistence and transmission of Leishmania major in a putative sink-source system in the Negev Highlands, Israel.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ruti; Wasserberg, Gideon; Warburg, Alon; Orshan, Laor; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-08-01

    Populations at the edge of their geographic distributions are referred to as peripheral populations. Very little attention has been given to this topic in the context of persistence of infectious disease in natural populations. In this study, we examined this question using zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused by Leishmania major in the Negev Desert of Israel as a model system. Here, we suggest that the regional persistence of Phlebotomus papatasi populations and L. major transmission in the Sede Boqer region could be explained through processes akin to sink-source and/or mainland-island metapopulation dynamics. Given its potentially enzootically superior ecological conditions, we hypothesize that the Zin Valley ecotope constitutes the "mainland" or the "source" patch for the Sede Boqer area where L. major transmission is persistent and resistant to local extinctions (die-outs) whereas the local sand fly populations on the Zin Plateau ("island patch" or "sink patch") are more prone to local extinctions. Between 2007 and 2008, we trapped sand flies and sand rats in the two areas and compared sand fly abundance and L. major infection prevalence in both. In both 2007 and 2008, sand fly abundance was high and continuous in the Zin Wadi but low and discontinuous in the Zin Plateau. Infection prevalence of sand rats was significantly higher in the Wadi (13%) compared with the Zin Plateau (3%). Minimum infection rate in sand flies did not differ significantly between the two areas. Overall, our results are consistent with the premise that the Zin Valley population is relatively robust in terms of L. major transmission, whereas transmission is potentially more tenuous in the plateau. Understanding the biotic and abiotic processes enabling the persistence of L. major and other vector-borne diseases in peripheral disease foci is important for predicting the effect of anthropogenic land use and climate change.

  12. Zoonotic Disease in a Peripheral Population: Persistence and Transmission of Leishmania major in a Putative Sink-Source System in the Negev Highlands, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Ruti; Warburg, Alon; Orshan, Laor; Kotler, Burt P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Populations at the edge of their geographic distributions are referred to as peripheral populations. Very little attention has been given to this topic in the context of persistence of infectious disease in natural populations. In this study, we examined this question using zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused by Leishmania major in the Negev Desert of Israel as a model system. Here, we suggest that the regional persistence of Phlebotomus papatasi populations and L. major transmission in the Sede Boqer region could be explained through processes akin to sink-source and/or mainland-island metapopulation dynamics. Given its potentially enzootically superior ecological conditions, we hypothesize that the Zin Valley ecotope constitutes the “mainland” or the “source” patch for the Sede Boqer area where L. major transmission is persistent and resistant to local extinctions (die-outs) whereas the local sand fly populations on the Zin Plateau (“island patch” or “sink patch”) are more prone to local extinctions. Between 2007 and 2008, we trapped sand flies and sand rats in the two areas and compared sand fly abundance and L. major infection prevalence in both. In both 2007 and 2008, sand fly abundance was high and continuous in the Zin Wadi but low and discontinuous in the Zin Plateau. Infection prevalence of sand rats was significantly higher in the Wadi (13%) compared with the Zin Plateau (3%). Minimum infection rate in sand flies did not differ significantly between the two areas. Overall, our results are consistent with the premise that the Zin Valley population is relatively robust in terms of L. major transmission, whereas transmission is potentially more tenuous in the plateau. Understanding the biotic and abiotic processes enabling the persistence of L. major and other vector-borne diseases in peripheral disease foci is important for predicting the effect of anthropogenic land use and climate change. PMID:25072990

  13. Analytic calculation of finite-population reproductive numbers for direct- and vector-transmitted diseases with homogeneous mixing.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Lindsay; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The basic reproductive number, R0, provides a foundation for evaluating how various factors affect the incidence of infectious diseases. Recently, it has been suggested that, particularly for vector-transmitted diseases, R0 should be modified to account for the effects of finite host population within a single disease transmission generation. Here, we use a transmission factor approach to calculate such "finite-population reproductive numbers," under the assumption of homogeneous mixing, for both vector-borne and directly transmitted diseases. In the case of vector-borne diseases, we estimate finite-population reproductive numbers for both host-to-host and vector-to-vector generations, assuming that the vector population is effectively infinite. We find simple, interpretable formulas for all three of these quantities. In the direct case, we find that finite-population reproductive numbers diverge from R0 before R0 reaches half of the population size. In the vector-transmitted case, we find that the host-to-host number diverges at even lower values of R0, while the vector-to-vector number diverges very little over realistic parameter ranges.

  14. Enteric disease episodes and the risk of acquiring a future sexually transmitted infection: a prediction model in Montreal residents.

    PubMed

    Caron, Melissa; Allard, Robert; Bédard, Lucie; Latreille, Jérôme; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-11-01

    The sexual transmission of enteric diseases poses an important public health challenge. We aimed to build a prediction model capable of identifying individuals with a reported enteric disease who could be at risk of acquiring future sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Passive surveillance data on Montreal residents with at least 1 enteric disease report was used to construct the prediction model. Cases were defined as all subjects with at least 1 STI report following their initial enteric disease episode. A final logistic regression prediction model was chosen using forward stepwise selection. The prediction model with the greatest validity included age, sex, residential location, number of STI episodes experienced prior to the first enteric disease episode, type of enteric disease acquired, and an interaction term between age and male sex. This model had an area under the curve of 0.77 and had acceptable calibration. A coordinated public health response to the sexual transmission of enteric diseases requires that a distinction be made between cases of enteric diseases transmitted through sexual activity from those transmitted through contaminated food or water. A prediction model can aid public health officials in identifying individuals who may have a higher risk of sexually acquiring a reportable disease. Once identified, these individuals could receive specialized intervention to prevent future infection. The information produced from a prediction model capable of identifying higher risk individuals can be used to guide efforts in investigating and controlling reported cases of enteric diseases and STIs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis haplotypes in marine animals: variation and zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Welch, David Mark; Ellis, Julie C; Sogin, Mitchell L; Moore, Michael J

    2008-08-19

    Giardia intestinalis is a microbial eukaryotic parasite that causes diarrheal disease in humans and other vertebrates worldwide. The negative effect on quality of life and economics caused by G. intestinalis may be increased by its potential status as a zoonosis, or a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. The zoonotic potential of G. intestinalis has been implied for over 2 decades, with human-infecting genotypes (belonging to the 2 major subgroups, Assemblages A and B) occurring in wildlife and domesticated animals. There are recent reports of G. intestinalis in shellfish, seals, sea lions and whales, suggesting that marine animals are also potential reservoirs of human disease. However, the prevalence, genetic diversity and effect of G. intestinalis in marine environments and the role that marine animals play in transmission of this parasite to humans are relatively unexplored. Here, we provide the first thorough molecular characterization of G. intestinalis in marine vertebrates. Using a multi-locus sequencing approach, we identify human-infecting G. intestinalis haplotypes of both Assemblages A and B in the fecal material of dolphins, porpoises, seals, herring gulls Larus argentatus, common eiders Somateria mollissima and a thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. Our results indicate that G. intestinalis is prevalent in marine ecosystems, and a wide range of marine hosts capable of harboring zoonotic forms of this parasite exist. The presence of G. intestinalis in marine ecosystems raises concerns about how this disease might be transmitted among different host species.

  16. Fascioliasis: An Ongoing Zoonotic Trematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nyindo, Mramba; Lukambagire, Abdul-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic trematode infections are an area of the neglected tropical diseases that have become of major interest to global and public health due to their associated morbidity. Human fascioliasis is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health. It affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and over 180 million are at risk of infection in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The one health paradigm is an area that seeks to address the problem of zoonotic infections through a comprehensive and sustainable approach. This review attempts to address the major challenges in managing human and animal fascioliasis with valuable insights gained from the one health paradigm to global health and multidisciplinary integration. PMID:26417603

  17. Fascioliasis: An Ongoing Zoonotic Trematode Infection.

    PubMed

    Nyindo, Mramba; Lukambagire, Abdul-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic trematode infections are an area of the neglected tropical diseases that have become of major interest to global and public health due to their associated morbidity. Human fascioliasis is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health. It affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and over 180 million are at risk of infection in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The one health paradigm is an area that seeks to address the problem of zoonotic infections through a comprehensive and sustainable approach. This review attempts to address the major challenges in managing human and animal fascioliasis with valuable insights gained from the one health paradigm to global health and multidisciplinary integration.

  18. A brief review of the estimated economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: inflation-adjusted updates of previously published cost studies.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Tao, Guoyu; Johnson, Ana P; Kent, Charlotte K

    2011-10-01

    We conducted a literature review of studies of the economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. The annual direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus) has been estimated to be $16.9 billion (range: $13.9-$23.0 billion) in 2010 US dollars.

  19. The fossil tabanids (Diptera Tabanidae): when they began to appreciate warm blood and when they began transmit diseases?

    PubMed

    Martins-Neto, Rafael Gioia

    2003-01-01

    A discussion of the known fossil tabanids (Diptera Tabanidae) is presented based on fossil evidence. This includes the origin of the hemathophagy in the Brachycera, more specifically for tabanids. Several tabanid species in the extant fauna are vectors for disease-producing organisms that affect humans and animals. Bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, protozoa, and filarial worms can be transmitted by them, causing such diseases as anthrax, tularemia, anaplasmosis, various forms of trypanosomiasis, Q fever, and filariasis. However, if tabanids are directly responsible for all of these diseases is not consensual and the known fossil evidence is presented here.

  20. HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

    1997-01-01

    Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

  1. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.29–15.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have

  2. Case report: lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis-from rapid screening to molecular confirmation of a masked sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Grilnberger, Evelyn; Huber, Florian; Leibl, Gabriele; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Gartner, Manfred; Huber, Monika; Chott, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Stanek, Gerold

    2013-08-01

    Proctitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L2b can manifest with very mild, nonspecific symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic evaluation is crucial. The case report demonstrates that rapid screening test, detection of specific antibodies in serum, and direct pathogen identification by PCR performed on tissue sample or rectal swab allow successful diagnosis of the still emerging sexually transmitted disease among homosexual patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases of dogs in North-west New South Wales and the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Amanda J; Brown, Graeme; Norris, Jacqueline M; Bosward, Katrina L; Marriot, Debbie J; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Malik, Richard

    2017-08-15

    Vector-borne diseases of dogs in Australian Aboriginal communities are relatively unexplored. These dogs represent a unique group with variable ecto- and endo-parasitic burdens, nutritional stresses and a general lack of veterinary intervention. We investigated haemoprotozoal and bacterial pathogen prevalences in relation to erythrocyte and platelet numbers in dogs from North-West New South Wales (N-W NSW) and the Northern Territory (NT; Central Australia). Real-time PCR (qPCR) amplification of Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, Mycoplasma haemocanis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum and Bartonella spp., serological screening for Coxiella burnetii, and Bartonella spp. and haematological analyses were performed on dogs from the two cohorts (96 dogs in total). Brucella suis serology was determined additionally for the N-W NSW cohort. Anaplasma platys (n = 26 dogs), Babesia vogeli (n = 7), Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum (n = 10 dogs), and Mycoplasma haemocanis (n = 14) were detected in the sample population (n = 96) using qPCR. There were significant associations between (i) A. platys and anaemia (OR 8.7, CI 2.4-31.7; P < 0.001), thrombocytopenia (OR 12.1, CI 3.4-43.2; P < 0.001) and breed (OR 16.1, CI 2.1-121.5; P = 0.007), and (ii) between B. vogeli and anaemia (OR 11.8, CI 2.3-61.6; P = 0.003). Neither protozoal nor bacterial DNA loads, estimated using qPCR, were positively correlated with anaemia or thrombocytopenia. Haemotropic mycoplasmas were not associated with any haematologic abnormality. Four dogs from the NT were seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, while no dogs were seropositive for Brucella suis or to a panel of Bartonella spp. antigens. Despite directed efforts, Bartonella DNA was not detected in blood from any of the cohorts studied. A sample of dogs from the NT recruited specifically for Bartonella α-proteobacteria growth medium enrichment blood culture were also Bartonella PCR negative. Vector-borne pathogens occur in dogs

  4. Fecal-orally transmitted diseases among travelers are decreasing due to better hygienic standards at travel destination.

    PubMed

    Baaten, Gijs G; Sonder, Gerard J B; Van Der Loeff, Maarten F Schim; Coutinho, Roel A; Van Den Hoek, Anneke

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether changes in attack rates of fecal-orally transmitted diseases among travelers are related to changes in pretravel vaccination practices or better hygienic standards at travel destination. National surveillance data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of travel-related hepatitis A, shigellosis, and typhoid fever diagnosed in the Netherlands from 1995 to 2006 were matched with the number of Dutch travelers to developing countries to calculate region-specific annual attack rates. Trends in attack rates of non-vaccine-preventable shigellosis were compared with those of vaccine-preventable hepatitis A and typhoid fever. Trends were also compared with three markers for hygienic standards of the local population at travel destinations, drawn from the United Nations Development Programme database: the human development index, the sanitation index, and the water source index. Attack rates among Dutch travelers to developing regions declined for hepatitis A, shigellosis, and typhoid fever. Region-specific trends in attack rates of shigellosis resembled trends of hepatitis A and typhoid fever. Declining attack rates of the three fecal-orally transmitted diseases correlated with improvements in socioeconomic, sanitary, and water supply conditions of the local population at travel destination. These findings suggest that improved hygienic standards at travel destination strongly contributed to the overall decline in attack rates of fecal-orally transmitted diseases among visiting travelers. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  5. [The effects of a sex education program on knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy among university students].

    PubMed

    Shin, YunHee; Chun, YoungKyung; Cho, SungMi; Cho, YeRyung

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a sex education program, which was based on the Health Belief Model, on knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy among university students. A non-equivalent control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The four session program was delivered to 18 students during 4 weeks; the control group consisted of 23 students. The theme of the first session was "sex, gender, and sexuality: all our concern", "dangerous sex" for the second session, "safe sex" for the third session, and "right sex for you and me" for the fourth session. At follow-up, the knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy were significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. A sex education program with several sessions within the theoretical frame of HBM was effective to improve knowledge related to sexually transmitted diseases and sexual autonomy. The results suggest the potential of a systematic sexual education program to teach healthy sex and to extend the program for other various populations.

  6. Retrospective and prospective perspectives on zoonotic brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Brucella are pathogenic bacteria exceedingly well adapted to their hosts. The bacterium is transmitted by direct contact within the same host species or accidentally to secondary hosts, such as humans. Human brucellosis is strongly linked to the management of domesticated animals and ingestion of their products. Since the domestication of ungulates and dogs in the Fertile Crescent and Asia in 12000 and 33000 ya, respectively, a steady supply of well adapted emergent Brucella pathogens causing zoonotic disease has been provided. Likewise, anthropogenic modification of wild life may have also impacted host susceptibility and Brucella selection. Domestication and human influence on wild life animals are not neutral phenomena. Consequently, Brucella organisms have followed their hosts’ fate and have been selected under conditions that favor high transmission rate. The “arm race” between Brucella and their preferred hosts has been driven by genetic adaptation of the bacterium confronted with the evolving immune defenses of the host. Management conditions, such as clustering, selection, culling, and vaccination of Brucella preferred hosts have profound influences in the outcome of brucellosis and in the selection of Brucella organisms. Countries that have controlled brucellosis systematically used reliable smooth live vaccines, consistent immunization protocols, adequate diagnostic tests, broad vaccination coverage and sustained removal of the infected animals. To ignore and misuse tools and strategies already available for the control of brucellosis may promote the emergence of new Brucella variants. The unrestricted use of low-efficacy vaccines may promote a “false sense of security” and works towards selection of Brucella with higher virulence and transmission potential. PMID:24860561

  7. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Almeida, Paulo César de; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-08-18

    to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. validar texto educativo no contexto das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis para pessoas com deficiência visual para torná-lo acessível a essa população. estudo de validação, em ambiente virtual. Coleta de dados de maio a setembro de 2012, por meio da utilização dos e-mails eletrônicos dos sujeitos, compostos por sete especialistas em conteúdo na temática, através de instrumento próprio. Análise ocorreu com base nas considerações dos especialistas sobre os Objetivos, Estrutura e Apresentação e Relevância. nos blocos de Objetivos e Estrutura e Apresentação, 77 (84,6%) e 48 (85,7%) eram totalmente adequados ou adequados, respectivamente. No bloco de Relevância, os itens 3.2 - Permite transferência e generalização da aprendizagem, e 3.5 - Mostra aspectos necessários para informar a família, revelaram índices de concordância ruins de 0,42 e 0,57, respectivamente. Após a análise, o texto foi

  8. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Helen L.; Mnzava, Kunda W.; Mitchell, Sarah T.; Melubo, Matayo L.; Kibona, Tito J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Crump, John A.; Sharp, Joanne P.; Halliday, Jo E. B.

    2016-01-01

    capacity alongside healthcare provider education and improved clinical guidelines for syndrome-based disease management to provoke diagnostic consideration of locally relevant zoonoses in the absence of laboratory confirmation. PMID:26943334

  9. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers’ Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B.; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  10. Vaccine Development against Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Open Questions and Remaining Challenges.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yuchen; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Zhang, Yan-Jin; Zhou, En-Min

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E outbreaks worldwide. Since the discovery of HEV as a zoonotic agent, this virus has been isolated from a variety of hosts with an ever-expanding host range. Recently, a subunit HEV vaccine developed for the prevention of human disease was approved in China, but is not yet available to the rest of the world. Meanwhile, notable progress and knowledge has been made and revealed in recent years to better understand HEV biology and infection, including discoveries of quasi-enveloped HEV virions and of a new function of the HEV-ORF3 product. However, the impact of these new findings on the development of a protective vaccine against zoonotic HEV infection requires further discussion. In this review, hallmark characteristics of HEV zoonosis, the history of HEV vaccine development, and recent discoveries in HEV virology are described. Moreover, special attention is focused on quasi-enveloped HEV virions and the potential role of the HEV-ORF3 product as antibody-neutralization target on the surface of quasi-enveloped HEV virions to provide new insights for the future development of improved vaccines against zoonotic HEV infection.

  11. Vaccine Development against Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Open Questions and Remaining Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Yuchen; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Zhang, Yan-Jin; Zhou, En-Min

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E outbreaks worldwide. Since the discovery of HEV as a zoonotic agent, this virus has been isolated from a variety of hosts with an ever-expanding host range. Recently, a subunit HEV vaccine developed for the prevention of human disease was approved in China, but is not yet available to the rest of the world. Meanwhile, notable progress and knowledge has been made and revealed in recent years to better understand HEV biology and infection, including discoveries of quasi-enveloped HEV virions and of a new function of the HEV-ORF3 product. However, the impact of these new findings on the development of a protective vaccine against zoonotic HEV infection requires further discussion. In this review, hallmark characteristics of HEV zoonosis, the history of HEV vaccine development, and recent discoveries in HEV virology are described. Moreover, special attention is focused on quasi-enveloped HEV virions and the potential role of the HEV-ORF3 product as antibody-neutralization target on the surface of quasi-enveloped HEV virions to provide new insights for the future development of improved vaccines against zoonotic HEV infection. PMID:29520257

  12. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  13. Investigation for zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in Duhok region of Northern Iraq by molecular methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Kamiran Abdulrahman; Arabacı, Muhammed; Önalan, Şükrü

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in Duhok region of the Northern Iraq. Carp is the main fish species cultured in the Duhok region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 20 carp farms in the Duhok Region of the Northern Iraq. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney tissue samples and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Than head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled. The total bacterial DNA extraction from the pooled each 20 head kidney tissue samples and pooled each 20 intestinal tissue samples. Primers for pathogens were originally designed from 16S Ribosomal gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples by absent / present analysis in the RT-PCR. After RT-PCR, Capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for the confirmation of the size of amplicon which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, one sample was positive in respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, from intestine and one carp farm was positive in respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from intestine and two carp farms were positive in respect to Streptococcus iniae. Totally 17 of 20 carp farms were negative in respect to the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion the zoonotic bacteria were very low (15 %) in carp farms from the Duhok Region in the Northern Iraq. Only in one Carp farms, both Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens were positive. Also Streptococcus inia were positive in two carp farms.

  14. Investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region by molecular methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Azad Saber; Önalan, Şükrü; Arabacı, Muhammed

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Carp is the main fish species cultured in Erbil region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 25 carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Then head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled separately from each carp farm. Total bacterial DNA had been extracted from the 25 pooled head kidney and 25 intestinal tissue samples. The pathogen Primers were originally designed from 16S RNA gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples with absent/present analysis by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for confirmation of amplicon size which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, thirteen carp farms were positive in the respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, eight carp farms were positive from head kidney and six carp farms were positive from the intestine, only one carp farm was positive from both head kidney and the intestine tissue samples. In the respect to Streptococcus iniae, four carp farms were positive from head kidney and two carp farms were positive from the intestine. Only one carp farm was positive in the respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from the intestine. Totally, 9 of 25 carp farms were cleared (negative) the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion, the zoonotic bacteria were high (64 %) in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region.

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a specialized STD healthcare center: epidemiology and demographic profile from January 1999 to December 2009*

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Vieira Junior, Elso Elias; Moysés, Ana Carolina Marteline Cavalcante; de Lima, Fernão Dias; de Morais, Fátima Regina Borges; Vizinho, Natalina Lima

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sexually Transmitted Diseases are still considered a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. OBJECTIVE To examine Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevalence and the sickness impact profile of STDs in a reference health center specializing in the treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. METHOD We collected epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data from the medical records and interviews of 4,128 patients who had attended the center from January 1999 to December 2009. RESULTS Male patients outnumbered (76%) females (24%), Caucasians outnumbered (74.3%) those of mixed race (14.8%), blacks (10.8%) and Asians (0.1%). STD occurrence was higher in the 20-29 age group (46.2%) This population included 34.7% high school graduates, 8.7% college graduates and 0.8% illiterates. As for affective-sexual orientation, 86.5% were heterosexual, 7.8% homosexual and 5.5% bisexual. Regarding patients' sexual practices over the previous 30 days, 67.7% reported sexual intercourse with one person, 8.6% had had sex with two persons and 3.9%, with three or more people. The highest incidence of STD was condyloma acuminata, affecting 29.4% of all the patients, genital candidiasis 14.2%, and genital herpes 10.6%. Of the 44.3% who submitted to serologic testing for HIV detection 5% were positive, with a ratio of 6.8 males to 1 female. CONCLUSIONS STD prevalence remains high in Brazil and it is necessary to invest in early detection, prevention and treatment. PMID:24068122

  16. From new genetics to everyday knowledge: Ideas about how genetic diseases are transmitted in two large Brazilian families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Silvana; Bizzo, Nelio

    2005-07-01

    This study focuses on everyday or lay understandings of inheritance. In the northeastern Brazil, 100 individuals were interviewed in order to describe how they explain the origin of genetic disorders affecting their relatives for several generations. There were involved 60 individuals from a large consanguineous family with many members affected with a neurodegenerative disorder, SPOAN syndrome (spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy), and 40 individuals of another family living with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The results indicate that families here studied have built narratives to explain the origin of genetic diseases, saying that an ancestor infected with syphilis gave rise to disorders and birthmarks transmitted to descendents.

  17. Impacts of abstinence education on teen sexual activity, risk of pregnancy, and risk of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a program group that was eligible to participate in one of the four programs or a control group that was not. The findings show no significant impact on teen sexual activity, no differences in rates of unprotected sex, and some impacts on knowledge of STDs and perceived effectiveness of condoms and birth control pills

  18. Interactions of HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases, and genital tract inflammation facilitating local pathogen transmission and acquisition.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Venkatesh, Kartik K

    2011-03-01

    Despite several decades of clinical trials assessing the impact of etiological treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to decrease HIV acquisition and transmission, almost all of these trials have not proven to be efficacious. Increasing evidence suggests that specific STD treatment alone may not be sufficient to alter the genital tract inflammatory milieu that is created by STDs. This paper examines the associations between STDs and HIV susceptibility and infectiousness, and considers the role of chronic and refractory inflammation to create an environment that potentiates HIV and STD transmission and acquisition by reviewing biological, observational, and clinical trial data. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources.

    PubMed

    Baumgärtner, J; Bieri, M; Buffoni, G; Gilioli, G; Gopalan, H; Greiling, J; Tikubet, G; Van Schayk, I

    2001-01-01

    A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.

  20. Hantavirus infection: a global zoonotic challenge.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Zheng, Xuyang; Wang, Limei; Du, Hong; Wang, Pingzhong; Bai, Xuefan

    2017-02-01

    Hantaviruses are comprised of tri-segmented negative sense single-stranded RNA, and are members of the Bunyaviridae family. Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are important zoonotic pathogens that can have severe adverse effects in humans. They are naturally maintained in specific reservoir hosts without inducing symptomatic infection. In humans, however, hantaviruses often cause two acute febrile diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). In this paper, we review the epidemiology and epizootiology of hantavirus infections worldwide.

  1. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    PubMed

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  2. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water

    PubMed Central

    COLLIER, S. A.; STOCKMAN, L. J.; HICKS, L. A.; GARRISON, L. E.; ZHOU, F. J.; BEACH, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires’ disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission. PMID:22233584

  3. A Review of the Current Status of Relevant Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Swine (Sus scrofa) Populations: Changes Modulating the Risk of Transmission to Humans.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, F

    2017-02-01

    Many wild swine populations in different parts of the World have experienced an unprecedented demographic explosion that may result in increased exposure of humans to wild swine zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between humans and wild swine leading to pathogen transmission could come from different ways, being hunters and game professionals the most exposed to acquiring infections from wild swine. However, increasing human settlements in semi-natural areas, outdoor activities, socio-economic changes and food habits may increase the rate of exposure to wild swine zoonotic pathogens and to potentially emerging pathogens from wild swine. Frequent and increasing contact rate between humans and wild swine points to an increasing chance of zoonotic pathogens arising from wild swine to be transmitted to humans. Whether this frequent contact could lead to new zoonotic pathogens emerging from wild swine to cause human epidemics or emerging disease outbreaks is difficult to predict, and assessment should be based on thorough epidemiologic surveillance. Additionally, several gaps in knowledge on wild swine global population dynamics trends and wild swine-zoonotic pathogen interactions should be addressed to correctly assess the potential role of wild swine in the emergence of diseases in humans. In this work, viruses such as hepatitis E virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Influenza virus and Nipah virus, and bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. and Leptospira spp. have been identified as the most prone to be transmitted from wild swine to humans on the basis of geographic spread in wild swine populations worldwide, pathogen circulation rates in wild swine populations, wild swine population trends in endemic areas, susceptibility of humans to infection, transmissibility from wild swine to humans and existing evidence of wild swine-human transmission events. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Schistosomiasis in Children of Poor Families in Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Liwanag, Harvy Joy; Uy, Jhanna; Bataller, Ramil; Gatchalian, Janis Ruth; De La Calzada, Betty; Uy, Justine Alessandra; Dayrit, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) continue to be a public health problem in the Philippines. We assessed the association of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis with selected health-related and socioeconomic variables in four villages in Leyte, Philippines. Stool specimens from 418 adults and 533 of their children from 209 families were examined through the Kato-Katz technique. STH and schistosomiasis were present in 64.6% and 12.5%, respectively, of study participants. Analysis through the generalized linear mixed model revealed a number of associations between infection in parents and their children. Findings indicate that years of disease prevention and control efforts in these areas have been unable to bring down prevalence in children and their parents. Eliminating NTDs as public health problems will require a systems thinking approach beyond implementation of vertical control programs alone. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Point-of-care testing for sexually transmitted infections: recent advances and implications for disease control.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph D; Bien, Cedric H; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2013-02-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major global public health issue, with more than 448 million incident bacterial infections each year. We review recent advances in STI point-of-care (POC) testing and implications for STI prevention and control. Accurate immunochromatographic assays to detect HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis antibodies have made home or supervised self-testing possible. Several studies have demonstrated feasibility and excellent test characteristics for HIV, HCV and syphilis POC tests. Rapid oral HIV tests are now available for purchase at retail sites across the United States. Combined HIV and syphilis tests using a single finger prick blood sample are under evaluation. Oral POC STI tests with comparable performance to blood-based POC tests are available for self-testing. POC tests can expand screening, improve syndromic management and reduce loss to follow up. POC STI tests have the potential to facilitate prompt treatment and partner services. POC STI tests create opportunities for new social and financial models of community-based testing services. Increasing equity and access to testing will create challenges in linkage to care, quality assurance, partner services and surveillance. These important developments warrant research to understand appropriate contexts for implementation.

  6. Sexually transmitted infection testing of adult film performers: is disease being missed?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hart, Cristina; Chitale, Rohit A; Rigg, Robert; Goldstein, Binh Y; Kerndt, Peter R; Tavrow, Paula

    2012-12-01

    Undiagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be common in the adult film industry because performers frequently engage in unprotected oral and anal intercourse, STIs are often asymptomatic, and the industry relies on urine-based testing. Between mid-May and mid-September 2010, a consecutive sample of adult film industry performers recruited from a clinic in Los Angeles, California, that provides medical care to performers was offered oropharyngeal, rectal, and urogenital testing for Gonorrhea, and rectal and urogenital testing for Chlamydia. During the 4-month study period, 168 participants were enrolled: 112 (67%) were female and 56 (33%) were male. Of the 47 (28%) who tested positive for Gonorrhea and/or Chlamydia, 11 (23%) cases would not have been detected through urogenital testing alone. Gonorrhea was the most common STI (42/168; 25%) and the oropharynx the most common site of infection (37/47; 79%). Thirty-five (95%) oropharyngeal and 21 (91%) rectal infections were asymptomatic. Few participants reported using condoms consistently while performing or with their personal sex partners. Adult film industry performers had a high burden of STIs. Undiagnosed asymptomatic rectal and oropharyngeal STIs were common and are likely reservoirs for transmission to sexual partners inside and outside the workplace. Performers should be tested at all anatomical sites irrespective of symptoms, and condom use should be enforced to protect workers in this industry.

  7. Point-of-care testing for sexually transmitted infections: recent advances and implications for disease control

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D.; Bien, Cedric H.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a major global public health issue, with more than 448 million incident bacterial infections each year. We review recent advances in STI point-of-care (POC) testing and implications for STI prevention and control. Recent findings Accurate immunochromatographic assays to detect HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis antibodies have made home or supervised self-testing possible. Several studies have demonstrated feasibility and excellent test characteristics for HIV, HCV and syphilis POC tests. Rapid oral HIV tests are now available for purchase at retail sites across the United States. Combined HIV and syphilis tests using a single finger prick blood sample are under evaluation. Summary Oral POC STI tests with comparable performance to blood-based POC tests are available for self-testing. POC tests can expand screening, improve syndromic management and reduce loss to follow up. POC STI tests have the potential to facilitate prompt treatment and partner services. POC STI tests create opportunities for new social and financial models of community-based testing services. Increasing equity and access to testing will create challenges in linkage to care, quality assurance, partner services and surveillance. These important developments warrant research to understand appropriate contexts for implementation. PMID:23242343

  8. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.

  9. Sexually transmitted disease partner notification among African-American, adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Anna; Gallo, Maria F; Whiteman, Maura K; Cwiak, Carrie; Goedken, Peggy; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J; Kottke, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among female, African-American adolescents. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. At baseline, most participants (85.1%) preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6%) had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4%) notified their partner about their infection. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.

  10. Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Notification among African-American, Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Buchsbaum, Anna; Gallo, Maria F.; Whiteman, Maura K.; Cwiak, Carrie; Goedken, Peggy; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J.; Kottke, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1%) preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6%) had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4%) notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population. PMID:25609905

  11. [Sexually transmitted infections in male prison inmates: risk of development of new diseases].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Recio, Raquel; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Santabárbara Serrano, Javier

    2016-01-01

    To measure incidence and main risk factors related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Daroca Prison (Zaragoza, Spain). A retrospective cohort study (2005-2013) to measure the incidence of STI and a cross-sectional study to measure risk factors. Of the 203 inmates, 79 developed an STI, 37 had a previous STI, 55.2% lacked knowledge on STI prevention, and 28.9% showed behaviours unfavourable for STI prevention. The incidence rate was 6.5 STIs per 1,000 inmates-year. The most frequent STIs were hepatitis B (39.7%), Ureaplasma urealyticum (19.1%), herpes simplex (16.2%) and HIV (8.8%). The risk (hazard ratio, HR) of acquiring a new STI was significantly higher in inmates with a history of previous STI (HR=2.61; 95%CI: 1.01 to 6.69), and was at the limit of significance for non-preventive behaviour (HR=2.10; 95%CI: 0.98 to 4.53), but not in knowledge related to STIs (HR=1.33; 95%CI: 0.58 to 3.07). The most important risk factors in prison are behaviours related to STIs and previous history of STIs. Other factors are being a repeat offender, injecting drug use, or being in a methadone programme. Health personnel and peer education can facilitate prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Human and Animal Dirofilariasis: the Emergence of a Zoonotic Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchón, Rodrigo; González-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections. PMID:22763636

  13. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    PubMed

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p < 0.001), perceived benefits from condom use (p < 0.001), perceived barriers to condom use (p < 0.001), perceived risk for HIV (p < 0.05), and STI and HIV knowledge (p < 0.05) were significantly correlated with behavior change intention. Significant predictors of behavior change intention were risk reduction self-efficacy (p < 0.001), perceived benefits of condom use (p = 0.016), and perceived risk for HIV (p = 0.033). They explained 36% of behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  14. Epidemiological assessment of neglected diseases in children: lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    PubMed

    Aguiar-Santos, Ana M; Medeiros, Zulma; Bonfim, Cristine; Rocha, Abraham C; Brandão, Eduardo; Miranda, Tereza; Oliveira, Paula; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    To report the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children living in a filariasis endemic area and discuss about the therapeutic regimen adopted in Brazil for the large-scale treatment of filariasis. A cross-sectional study including 508 students aged 5-18 years old, enrolled in public schools within the city of Olinda, Pernambuco. The presence of intestinal parasites was analyzed using the Hoffman, Pons and Janer method on 3 stool samples. The diagnosis of filarial infection was performed using the rapid immunochromatographic technique (ICT) for the antigen, and the polycarbonate membrane filtration for the presence of microfilariae. Descriptive statistics of the data was performed using EpiInfo version 7. The prevalence of filariasis was 13.8% by ICT and 1.2% by microfilaraemia, while intestinal parasites were detected in 64.2% of cases. Concurrent diagnosis of filariasis and intestinal parasites was 9.4%, while 31.5% of students were parasite-free. Among individuals with intestinal parasites, 55% had one parasite and 45% had more than one parasite. Geohelminths occurred in 72.5% of the parasited individuals. In the group with filarial infection the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis was 54.5%. The simultaneous diagnosis of filariasis and intestinal parasites as well as the high frequency of geohelminths justify the need to reevaluate the treatment strategy used in the Brazilian filariasis large-scale treatment program. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. CONCOMITANT SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN PATIENTS WITH DIAGNOSED HIV/AIDS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Harnanti, Densy Violina; Hidayati, Afif Nurul; Miftahussurur, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which weaken the human immune system and thus increasing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and vice versa. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of STIs in HIV/AIDS patients in Unit Perawatan Intermediate Penyakit Infeksi (UPIPI) Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya was conducted from January 1st, 2013 to December 31st, 2014. We examined the number and type of STIs, age distribution, gender, occupation, number of CD4+, and antiretroviral treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. The data were presented in a descriptive analysis. Results: The percentage of STIs patients was 4.2% (148 of 3.350) of all patients with HIV/AIDS in the UPIPI Outpatient Clinic of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital. Most patients were 25-44 years old (70.9%) including 54.7% were males, 8.0% were housewives, and 1.4% were students. The five highest prevalence of STIs were condylomata acuminate (43.9%), non-specific genital ulcers (11.5%), syphilis (10.7%), genital herpes (10.1%), and scabies (8.1%). The sexual predilections consisted of heterosexual (70.9%), homosexual (12.2%), bisexual (2.0%), and no data (14.9%). Patients with the number of CD4+ <200 mm3 was 52.0% and 79.1% of the patients received ARV therapy. Conclusion: STIs and HIV/AIDS were closely related. HIV/AIDS could increase the incidence of STIs and STIs could elevate HIV/AIDS. PMID:29619436

  16. US Public Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinical Services in an Era of Declining Public Health Funding: 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Leichliter, Jami S; Heyer, Kate; Peterman, Thomas A; Habel, Melissa A; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Arnold Pang, Stephanie S; Stenger, Mark R; Weiss, Gretchen; Gift, Thomas L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the infrastructure for US public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinical services. In 2013 to 2014, we surveyed 331 of 1225 local health departments (LHDs) who either reported providing STD testing/treatment in the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey or were the 50 local areas with the highest STD cases or rates. The sample was stratified by jurisdiction population size. We examined the primary referral clinics for STDs, the services offered and the impact of budget cuts (limited to government funding only). Data were analyzed using SAS, and analyses were weighted for nonresponse. Twenty-two percent of LHDs cited a specialty STD clinic as their primary referral for STD services; this increased to 53.5% of LHDs when combination STD-family planning clinics were included. The majority of LHDs (62.8%) referred to clinics providing same-day services. Sexually transmitted disease clinics more frequently offered extragenital testing for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea (74.7%) and gonorrhea culture (68.5%) than other clinics (52.9%, 46.2%, respectively; P < 0.05). The majority of LHDs (61.5%) reported recent budget cuts. Of those with decreased budgets, the most common impacts were fewer clinic hours (42.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.4-61.2), reduced routine screening (40.2%; 95% CI, 21.7-58.8) and reductions in partner services (42.1%; 95% CI, 23.6-60.7). One quarter of those with reduced STD budgets increased fees or copays for clients. Findings demonstrate gaps and reductions in US public STD services including clinical services that play an important role in reducing disease transmission. Furthermore, STD clinics tended to offer more specialized STD services than other public clinics.

  17. Trichomoniasis - are we giving the deserved attention to the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide?

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Camila Braz; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-01-01

    Etiology: Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. Transmission: Trichomoniasis is transmitted by sexual intercourse and transmission via fomites is rare. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The WHO estimates an incidence of 276 million new cases each year and prevalence of 187 million of infected individuals. However, the infection is not notifiable. Pathology/Symptomatology: The T. vaginalis infection results in a variety of clinical manifestations - in most cases the patients are asymptomatic, but some may develop signs typically associated to the disease. Importantly, the main issue concerning trichomoniasis is its relationship with serious health consequences such as cancer, adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility, and HIV acquisition. Molecular mechanisms of infection: To achieve success in parasitism trichomonads develop a complex process against the host cells that includes dependent- and independent-contact mechanisms. This multifactorial pathogenesis includes molecules such as soluble factors, secreted proteinases, adhesins, lipophosphoglycan that culminate in cytoadherence and cytotoxicity against the host cells. Treatment and curability: The treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole is recommended; however, cure failures remain problematic due to noncompliance, reinfection and/or lack of treatment of sexual partners, inaccurate diagnosis, or drug resistance. Therefore, new therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Protection: Strategies for protection including sexual behavior, condom usage, and therapy have not contributed to the decrease on disease prevalence, pointing to the need for innovative approaches. Vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of long-lasting humoral immunity associated to the absence of good animal models. PMID:28357378

  18. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

    PubMed

    Stone, Christopher M; Lindsay, Steve W; Chitnis, Nakul

    2014-12-01

    The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between the two diseases into account. We developed a general model of malaria and LF transmission and derived expressions for the basic reproductive number (R0) for each disease. Transmission of both diseases was most sensitive to vector mortality and biting rate. Simulating different levels of coverage of long lasting-insecticidal nets (LLINs) and larval control confirms the effectiveness of these interventions for the control of both diseases. When LF was maintained near the critical density of mosquitoes, minor levels of vector control (8% coverage of LLINs or treatment of 20% of larval sites) were sufficient to eliminate the disease. Malaria had a far greater R0 and required a 90% population coverage of LLINs in order to eliminate it. When the mosquito density was doubled, 36% and 58% coverage of LLINs and larval control, respectively, were required for LF elimination; and malaria elimination was possible with a combined coverage of 78% of LLINs and larval control. Despite the low level of vector control required to eliminate LF, simulations suggest that prevalence of LF will decrease at a slower rate than malaria, even at high levels of coverage. If representative of field situations, integrated management should take into account not only how malaria control can facilitate filariasis elimination, but strike a balance between the high levels of coverage of (multiple) interventions required for malaria with the long duration predicted to be required for filariasis elimination.

  19. Epidemiology of infectious diseases transmitted by drinking water in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Hartemann, P; Newman, R; Foliguet, J M

    1986-01-01

    Research on the epidemiology of infectious diseases attributable to drinking water, common in the US during the past 20 years at least, is not yet really widespread in France. The role played by water in the transmission of certain infectious agents was important in European countries during past centuries but at present the incidence of waterborne diseases can be considered as very low. The absence of well-established data is due to the difficulty in reporting correctly a few minor outbreaks in a situation of very low endemicity. After a survey of the reported outbreaks, this paper deals with risk assessment of waterborne diseases in developed countries as well as special problems linked with proving transmission via water and with the nature of the infectious agents, and the development of monitoring methods for increasing our knowledge of this epidemiology.

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic infections in sexually transmitted diseases attendees diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, R; Kalaivani, S

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developing and developed countries. STD in women causes both acute morbidity and complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, low-birth weight, and prematurity. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic females attending STD outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital in South India. A retrospective analysis of data collected from clinical records of 3000 female patients of age 18 to 49 over a period of 12 months (July 2014 to June 2015) was carried out at the Institute of Venereology, Madras Medical College. Complete epidemiological, clinical, and investigational data were recorded and analyzed for the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic patients. About 48.37% (228/470) of bacterial vaginosis patients were asymptomatic. Nearly 45.38% (116/235) of vaginal candidiasis patients were asymptomatic and 30.35% (26/87) of trichomoniasis patients were asymptomatic. The above infections were common in the age group 25-35. Holistic screening protocol was incorporated for all female patients attending STD clinic even if asymptomatic and should be treated accordingly to prevent the acquisition of other serious sexually transmitted infections.

  1. Mitigating Diseases Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Permethrin-Impregnated School Uniforms

    PubMed Central

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Byass, Peter; Logan, James; Tozan, Yesim; Louis, Valérie; Gubler, Duane J.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    Background Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children. Methods We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms’ 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing. Furthermore, entomological assessments inside classrooms and in outside areas of schools were conducted. Results We enrolled 1,811 pupils aged 6–17 from 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Paired serum samples were obtained from 1,655 pupils. In the control schools, 24/641 (3.7%) and in the intervention schools 33/1,014 (3.3%) students had evidence of new dengue infections during one school term (5 months). There was no significant difference in proportions of students having incident dengue infections between the intervention and control schools, with adjustment for clustering by school. WHOPES cone tests showed a 100% knock down and mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to impregnated clothing at baseline and up to 4 washes, but this efficacy rapidly declined to below 20% after 20 washes, corresponding to a weekly reduction in knock-down and mosquito mortality by 4.7% and 4.4% respectively. Results of the entomological assessments showed that the mean number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught inside the classrooms of the intervention schools was significantly reduced in the month following the introduction of the impregnated uniforms, compared to those collected in classrooms of the control schools (p = 0.04) Conclusions Entomological assessments showed that the intervention had some impact on

  2. Mitigating Diseases Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes: A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Permethrin-Impregnated School Uniforms.

    PubMed

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Byass, Peter; Logan, James; Tozan, Yesim; Louis, Valérie; Gubler, Duane J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    Viral diseases transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes are on the rise, such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. Novel tools to mitigate Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted diseases are urgently needed. We tested whether commercially insecticide-impregnated school uniforms can reduce dengue incidence in school children. We designed a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Thailand. The primary endpoint was laboratory-confirmed dengue infections. Secondary endpoints were school absenteeism; and impregnated uniforms' 1-hour knock-down and 24 hour mosquito mortality as measured by standardised WHOPES bioassay cone tests at baseline and after repeated washing. Furthermore, entomological assessments inside classrooms and in outside areas of schools were conducted. We enrolled 1,811 pupils aged 6-17 from 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Paired serum samples were obtained from 1,655 pupils. In the control schools, 24/641 (3.7%) and in the intervention schools 33/1,014 (3.3%) students had evidence of new dengue infections during one school term (5 months). There was no significant difference in proportions of students having incident dengue infections between the intervention and control schools, with adjustment for clustering by school. WHOPES cone tests showed a 100% knock down and mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to impregnated clothing at baseline and up to 4 washes, but this efficacy rapidly declined to below 20% after 20 washes, corresponding to a weekly reduction in knock-down and mosquito mortality by 4.7% and 4.4% respectively. Results of the entomological assessments showed that the mean number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught inside the classrooms of the intervention schools was significantly reduced in the month following the introduction of the impregnated uniforms, compared to those collected in classrooms of the control schools (p = 0.04). Entomological assessments showed that the intervention had some impact on the number of Aedes mosquitoes inside

  3. Knowledge and attitude of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents in Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, in South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akokuwebe, M E; Daini, B; Falayi, E O; Oyebade, O

    2016-09-01

    Globally, sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a public health problem. In Nigeria, adolescents form a substantial proportion (22%) of the population and are particularly prone to STDs because of the influence of peer pressure and urge to experiment sexual activity. The study examined the knowledge and attitude of adolescents towards the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The survey study was descriptive cross- sectional and carried out among consenting secondary school students aged 10-24 years completing a self- administered questionnaire on knowledge and attitude in relation to sexually transmitted diseases in Ikeji- Arakeji, Oriade Local government, Osun State, Nigeria. The proportionate sampling technique was used to recruit 341 participants into the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Male-Female distributions were 46.3% and 53.7% respectively. Mean age at first sex (sex initiation) was 16.8 years (approximately 17years) and about 97% of the respondents knew about STDs. The media/ magazine was the major source of information about STDs, accounting for more than half (57%) of the responses on sources of STD information followed closely from that from friends with 31%. Parent's source of information was about 11%. Knowledge of STDs centred mainly on HIV/AIDS with 83% and there was a poor knowledge (78%) of its symptoms. About 40% of all respondents had initiated sex at the time of the study and 46% of the adolescents, as against 54%, thought it was bad to initiate sex before marriage. There was a significant association between perception about initiating sex before marriage and ever having sex using bivariate analysis x(2)=268.4, P<0.001). Also, there was a significant difference between the different groups (sources of information) in influencing sex initiation (F=318.47 and P=0.000). Post-hoc analysis showed that each of the different groups (sources of information) was distinct. Adolescents' knowledge of STDs

  4. Evidence for louse-transmitted diseases in soldiers of Napoleon's Grand Army in Vilnius.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Didier; Dutour, Olivier; Houhamdi, Linda; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Ardagna, Yann; Drancourt, Michel; Signoli, Michel; La, Vu Dang; Macia, Yves; Aboudharam, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    Many soldiers in Napoleon's Grand Army died of infectious diseases during its retreat from Russia. Because soldiers were commonly infested with body lice, it has been speculated that louse-borne infectious diseases, such as epidemic typhus (caused by Rickettsia prowazekii), were common. We investigated this possibility during recent excavations of a mass grave of Napoleon's soldiers in Vilnius, Lithuania. Segments of 5 body lice, identified morphologically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing, were found in earth from the grave that also contained fragments of soldiers' uniforms. DNA of Bartonella quintana (the agent of trench fever) was identified by PCR and sequencing in 3 of the lice. Similarly, PCR and sequencing of dental pulp from the remains of 35 soldiers revealed DNA of B. quintana in 7 soldiers and DNA of R. prowazekii in 3 other soldiers. Our results show that louse-borne infectious diseases affected nearly one-third of Napoleon's soldiers buried in Vilnius and indicate that these diseases might have been a major factor in the French retreat from Russia.

  5. The phloem-sap feeding mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) carries 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' populations without transmitting disease

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Currently the known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria are three species of psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae), Trio...

  6. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, Khethiwe; Khumalo, Zth; Nakao, Ryo; Grab, Dennis J; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Thekisoe, Omm

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected.

  7. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  8. Sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Chua, W L; Wee, S

    1999-11-01

    Most studies in Asia exclude freelance female sex workers because of difficulties in access and the illegality of their work. Data are lacking on their risk behaviors. To compare sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates, condom use, and health screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. This is a cross-sectional survey of 111 free-lance sex workers arrested from November 1996 to March 1997 for illicit prostitution and 333 randomly selected brothel-based sex workers. All were tested for STDs. STDs were significantly more prevalent among freelance than brothel-based sex workers (34.8% vs. 24.0%). Inconsistent condom use was significantly higher among freelance than brothel-based sex workers and was significantly associated with younger age, decreasing number of clients, and perception of non-condom use among peers. Educational programs to promote condom use should target freelance sex workers and their clients.

  9. Protecting Adolescents' Right to Seek Treatment for Sexually Transmitted Diseases without Parental Consent: The Arizona Experience with Senate Bill 1309

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Kimberly D.; Taylor, Melanie M.; Brown, Erin C. Fuse; Winscott, Michelle; Scanlon, Megan; Hodge, James G.; Mickey, Tom; England, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, Senate Bill 1309 included language to repeal an existing Arizona law that enables minors younger than 18 years of age to seek diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) without parental consent. Numerous implications were identified that would have stemmed from parental consent provisions originally proffered in Senate Bill 1309. These implications included diminished access to essential health services among minors, exacerbated existing health disparities, increased health-care spending costs, and thwarted efforts to curb the spread of STDs. Lastly, minors would have been deprived of existing privacy protections concerning their STD-related medical information. This case study describes how collaborative advocacy efforts resulted in the successful amendment of Senate Bill 1309 to avert the negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes among adolescents stemming from the potential repeal of their existing legal right to seek STD treatment without parental consent. PMID:22547855

  10. Protecting adolescents' right to seek treatment for sexually transmitted diseases without parental consent: the Arizona experience with Senate Bill 1309.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Kimberly D; Taylor, Melanie M; Brown, Erin C Fuse; Winscott, Michelle; Scanlon, Megan; Hodge, James G; Mickey, Tom; England, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, Senate Bill 1309 included language to repeal an existing Arizona law that enables minors younger than 18 years of age to seek diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) without parental consent. Numerous implications were identified that would have stemmed from parental consent provisions originally proffered in Senate Bill 1309. These implications included diminished access to essential health services among minors, exacerbated existing health disparities, increased health-care spending costs, and thwarted efforts to curb the spread of STDs. Lastly, minors would have been deprived of existing privacy protections concerning their STD-related medical information. This case study describes how collaborative advocacy efforts resulted in the successful amendment of Senate Bill 1309 to avert the negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes among adolescents stemming from the potential repeal of their existing legal right to seek STD treatment without parental consent.

  11. Risk for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases in Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Schmunis, G A; Zicker, F; Pinheiro, F; Brandling-Bennett, D

    1998-01-01

    We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994, as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs. Of the 12 countries included in the study, nine screened all donors for HIV; three screened all donors for hepatitis B virus (HBV); two screened all donors for Trypanosoma cruzi; none screened all donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV); and six screened some donors for syphilis. Estimates of the risk of acquiring HIV through blood transfusion were much lower than for acquiring HBV, HCV, or T. cruzi because of significantly higher screening and lower prevalence.rates for HIV. An index of infectious disease spread through blood transfusion was calculated for each country. The highest value was obtained for Bolivia (233 infections per 10,000 transfusions); in five other countries, it was 68 to 103 infections per 10,000. The risks were lower in Honduras (nine per 10,000), Ecuador (16 per 10,000), and Paraguay (19 per 10,000). While the real number of potentially infected units or infected persons is probably lower than our estimates because of false positives and already infected recipients, the data reinforce the need for an information system to assess the level of screening for infectious diseases in the blood supply. Since this information was collected, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Venezuela have made HCV screening mandatory; serologic testing for HCV has increased in those countries, as well as in El Salvador and Honduras. T. cruzi screening is now mandatory in Colombia, and the percentage of screened donors increased not only in Colombia, but also in Ecuador, El Salvador, and Paraguay. Laws to regulate blood transfusion practices have been enacted in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. However, donor screening still needs to improve for one or more diseases in most countries.

  12. Risk for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases in Central and South America.

    PubMed Central

    Schmunis, G. A.; Zicker, F.; Pinheiro, F.; Brandling-Bennett, D.

    1998-01-01

    We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994, as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs. Of the 12 countries included in the study, nine screened all donors for HIV; three screened all donors for hepatitis B virus (HBV); two screened all donors for Trypanosoma cruzi; none screened all donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV); and six screened some donors for syphilis. Estimates of the risk of acquiring HIV through blood transfusion were much lower than for acquiring HBV, HCV, or T. cruzi because of significantly higher screening and lower prevalence.rates for HIV. An index of infectious disease spread through blood transfusion was calculated for each country. The highest value was obtained for Bolivia (233 infections per 10,000 transfusions); in five other countries, it was 68 to 103 infections per 10,000. The risks were lower in Honduras (nine per 10,000), Ecuador (16 per 10,000), and Paraguay (19 per 10,000). While the real number of potentially infected units or infected persons is probably lower than our estimates because of false positives and already infected recipients, the data reinforce the need for an information system to assess the level of screening for infectious diseases in the blood supply. Since this information was collected, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Venezuela have made HCV screening mandatory; serologic testing for HCV has increased in those countries, as well as in El Salvador and Honduras. T. cruzi screening is now mandatory in Colombia, and the percentage of screened donors increased not only in Colombia, but also in Ecuador, El Salvador, and Paraguay. Laws to regulate blood transfusion practices have been enacted in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. However, donor screening still needs to improve for one or more diseases in most countries. PMID:9452393

  13. Emerging sexually transmitted viral infections: 1. Review of Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Rachel J; Manavi, Kaveh

    2017-11-01

    This is the first in a series of articles reviewing four viral infections, Ebola virus, Zika virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 and hepatitis C virus, with an emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of their sexual transmission. With current day speed and ease of travel it is important for staff in sexual healthcare services to know and understand these infections when patients present to them and also to be able to advise those travelling to endemic regions. Following the recent resurgence in West Africa, this first article looks at Ebola virus disease (EVD). EVD has a high mortality rate and, of note, has been detected in the semen of those who have cleared the virus from their blood and have clinically recovered from the disease. As the result of emerging data, the WHO now recommends safe sex practices for all male survivors of EVD for 12 months after the onset of the disease or after having had two consecutive negative tests of semen specimens for the virus. This review provides an up-to-date summary of what is currently known about EVD and its implications for sexual health practice.

  14. Vulnerable Women’s Self-Care Needs in Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Baghersad, Zahra; Boroumandfar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) due to their special conditions and poor knowledge about these diseases in the society. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the vulnerable women’s self-care needs in knowledge, attitude and practice concerning STD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional-descriptive study conducted in 2014. The data collection was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire. 120 vulnerable women referring to centers affiliated to health and well-being center in Isfahan participated in this study. They were selected through proportional rationing sampling and filled out a researcher developed questionnaire containing information on personal characteristics, self-care knowledge, attitude, and practice needs toward the STD. The data were analyzed using statistical methods including Spearman & Pearson correlation co-efficient, independent t-test and ANOVA. All analyses were carried out using SPSS, 20. Results: Based on the results, most of the subjects mentioned that their priorities of self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice were “familiarization with the types and contamination ways of sexually transmitted diseases” (57.9%); “diagnosis of STD only makes us anxious” (24.8), and “the method of washing the genital area before and after intercourse” 41.3%), respectively. There was a significant association among marital status, education, history of addiction, and self-care needs in domains of knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.05). Conclusion: Results showed that vulnerable women not only knew their need about STD, but also paid attention to their attitude and practice needs toward STD. Therefore, educational programs should be designed and administrated by the experts, based on vulnerable women’s self-care needs concerning their knowledge, attitude and practice to prevent and control STD in vulnerable individuals. PMID:27382588

  15. The risk of transmitting prion disease by blood or plasma products.

    PubMed

    Knight, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Various experimental studies have shown infectivity in blood in relation to bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Human to human transmission vCJD infection has been reported via transfusion of non-leukocyte-reduced red cells and, probably, via factor VIII concentrates. A number of precautionary measures are in place but uncertainties remain, especially concerning the number of BSE-infected people in the population. Additional measures such as prion filtration need consideration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of network dynamics on the spread of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2012-01-01

    Network epidemiology often assumes that the relationships defining the social network of a population are static. The dynamics of relationships is only taken indirectly into account by assuming that the relevant information to study epidemic spread is encoded in the network obtained, by considering numbers of partners accumulated over periods of time roughly proportional to the infectious period of the disease. On the other hand, models explicitly including social dynamics are often too schematic to provide a reasonable representation of a real population, or so detailed that no general conclusions can be drawn from them. Here, we present a model of social dynamics that is general enough so its parameters can be obtained by fitting data from surveys about sexual behaviour, but that can still be studied analytically, using mean-field techniques. This allows us to obtain some general results about epidemic spreading. We show that using accumulated network data to estimate the static epidemic threshold lead to a significant underestimation of that threshold. We also show that, for a dynamic network, the relative epidemic threshold is an increasing function of the infectious period of the disease, implying that the static value is a lower bound to the real threshold. A practical example is given of how to apply the model to the study of a real population. PMID:22112655

  17. Influence of network dynamics on the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2012-06-07

    Network epidemiology often assumes that the relationships defining the social network of a population are static. The dynamics of relationships is only taken indirectly into account by assuming that the relevant information to study epidemic spread is encoded in the network obtained, by considering numbers of partners accumulated over periods of time roughly proportional to the infectious period of the disease. On the other hand, models explicitly including social dynamics are often too schematic to provide a reasonable representation of a real population, or so detailed that no general conclusions can be drawn from them. Here, we present a model of social dynamics that is general enough so its parameters can be obtained by fitting data from surveys about sexual behaviour, but that can still be studied analytically, using mean-field techniques. This allows us to obtain some general results about epidemic spreading. We show that using accumulated network data to estimate the static epidemic threshold lead to a significant underestimation of that threshold. We also show that, for a dynamic network, the relative epidemic threshold is an increasing function of the infectious period of the disease, implying that the static value is a lower bound to the real threshold. A practical example is given of how to apply the model to the study of a real population.

  18. [Social marketing applied to condom promotion: a proposal for intervention in groups at risk for sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    García España, F; March Cerdá, J C; Gómez Villegas, I

    1994-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are an important worldwide health problem. Their association with AIDS an other insidious viral processes have brought them to the foreground of sanitary authorities and general population concern. Often, health services have to struggle with reinfections, which concentrate in pockets of risk that consume large amount of care and constitute an important link in the transmission of these diseases. General publicity have little impact among high risk groups. Thus, it becomes necessary to be more precise and divide into segments the target population we want to reach. Prevention of reinfection in these communities requires the implementation of healthy behaviours through the promotion of a tangible product (condom). Regarding these considerations, social marketing emerges as the right instrument to be used. Through individual focused interviews with prostitutes, homosexual and young promiscuous heterosexual patients from a STDs Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment Centre, determining factors of the use condoms and related behaviour guidelines have been identified. Also, a social marketing strategy is suggested to prevent these diseases among groups at risk by means of condom promotion.

  19. Water bags as a potential vehicle for transmitting disease in a West African capital, Bissau.

    PubMed

    Bordalo, Adriano A; Machado, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Street vendors of chilled packaged water have an increasing role in meeting the drinking water demand of people on the move in developing nations. Hygienic conditions can be questionable, and water quality screening scarce or non-existent. In order to ascertain the quality of the packaged water sold by street vendors in Bissau, the capital of the Western African country Guinea-Bissau, water bags were screened in 2011 and during the 2012 cholera outbreak for key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Water used to fill the hand-filled hand-tied bags originated from communal tap water and melted ice. All samples (n=36) were microbiologically contaminated, although levels showed a pronounced variability (e.g. 7-493 372 cfu 250 ml(-1) for Escherichia coli). In 2012, the fecal contamination levels increased (p<0.05), and Vibrio cholerae was detected in all water bags obtained from the neighborhood where the outbreak started. Findings showed that all packaged water samples were unfit for human consumption and during the 2012 cholera outbreak represented a potential vehicle for the spread of the disease. The design of measures to decrease the risk associated to the consumption of highly contaminated chilled water is clearly required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in France: a point prevalence study in people screened for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Pereyre, S; Laurier Nadalié, C; Bébéar, C

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common causes of sexually transmitted infections, but limited prevalence data are available in France. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis infections and to assess prevalence by gender, age, sample collection sites and clinical symptoms. A multicentre collection of specimens was intended to obtain a nationwide overview of the epidemiology. Between September 2014 and January 2015, a total of 2652 consecutive urogenital specimens submitted to the microbiology diagnostic departments of 16 French university hospitals for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection were collected. M. genitalium and T. vaginalis prevalence were evaluated using a commercial real-time PCR kit. Clinical data from patients were anonymously collected. T. vaginalis and M. genitalium prevalence were 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.4) and 3.4% (95% confidence interval 2.8-4.2), respectively, and did not differ between gender or age groups, except M. genitalium prevalence between men and women in the 35- to 44-year age group (5.9 vs. 1.5%; p 0.03). M. genitalium prevalence was significantly higher in patients receiving care in sexually transmitted infection clinics, abortion centres, family planning clinics and prisons than in gynaecologic, obstetric and reproduction centres (4.0 vs. 1.7%, p 0.009). Among M. genitalium- and T. vaginalis-positive patients, 70.9 and 61.5% were asymptomatic, respectively. The low T. vaginalis prevalence does not justify systematic screening for this organism in France. Conversely, selective screening for M. genitalium may be warranted in care settings that receive presumably high-risk sexual behaviour patients, regardless of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary H; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Paye, Jusufu; Koroma, Joseph B; Sonnie, Mustapha; Clements, Archie; Zhang, Yaobi

    2012-01-01

    A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml), Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml) and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml) districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination with the local knowledge and programme needs.

  2. Distribution of sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors by work locations among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Melanie L A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-10-01

    Sex work is regulated in the Zona Roja (red light district) in Tijuana, Mexico, where HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence is high among female sex workers (FSWs). We examined the spatial distribution of STDs by work venue among FSWs in Tijuana. FSWs aged 18 years and older who reported unprotected sex with ≥ 1 client in the past 2 months underwent testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. HIV/STDs were mapped by venue (i.e., bar, hotel) and Getis-Ord Gi statistics were used to identify geographic hotspots. High-risk venues were then identified using a standardized STD ratio (high risk defined as a ratio ≥ 1.25). Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of working at a high risk venue. Of 474 FSWs, 176 (36.4%) had at least 1 bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI); 36 (7.6%) were HIV-positive. Within the Zona Roja, 1 venue was identified as a geographic "hotspot," with a higher than expected number of HIV/STD-positive FSW (P < 0.05) as compared to neighboring venues. Using the STD ratio definition, 11 venues were identified as high-risk; FSWs working in these locations had higher education, were more likely to report always using drugs with sex, and having mostly US clients. They were less likely to be registered FSWs or to live at their work venue. A relatively few number of sex work venues accounted for a large proportion of the HIV/STI burden among FSWs in Tijuana. Structural interventions that focus on sex work venues could help increase STI diagnosis, prevention, and treatment among FSWs in Tijuana.

  3. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Mario J; Villacis, Anita G; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Yumiseva, Cesar A; Moncayo, Ana L; Baus, Esteban G

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation. An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus) infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl) and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl) mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl) and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl) also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]). Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli. To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained, and monitored vector control intervention that is coupled with

  4. Comprehensive Survey of Domiciliary Triatomine Species Capable of Transmitting Chagas Disease in Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva, Mario J.; Villacis, Anita G.; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Yumiseva, Cesar A.; Moncayo, Ana L.; Baus, Esteban G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus) infesting domiciles in 68% of the 92 rural communities examined. Nine percent of domiciles were infested, and nymphs were observed in 80% of the infested domiciles. Triatomines were found in all ecological regions below 2,200 masl. We found R. ecuadoriensis (275 to 1948 masl) and T. carrioni (831 to 2242 masl) mostly in bedrooms within the domicile, and they were abundant in chicken coops near the domicile. Established colonies of P. chinai (175 to 2003 masl) and P. rufotuberculatus (404 to 1613 masl) also were found in the domicile. Triatomine infestation was associated with surrogate poverty indicators, such as poor sanitary infrastructure (lack of latrine/toilet [w = 0.95], sewage to environment [w = 1.0]). Vegetation type was a determinant of infestation [w = 1.0] and vector control program insecticide spraying was a protective factor [w = 1.0]. Of the 754 triatomines analyzed, 11% were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and 2% were infected with T. rangeli. Conclusions/Significance To date, only limited vector control efforts have been implemented. Together with recent reports of widespread sylvatic triatomine infestation and frequent post-intervention reinfestation, these results show that an estimated 100,000 people living in rural areas of southern Ecuador are at high risk for T. cruzi infection. Therefore, there is a need for a systematic, sustained

  5. A generic model for a single strain mosquito-transmitted disease with memory on the host and the vector.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Tridip; Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Al-Khaled, Kamel; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2015-05-01

    In the present investigation, three mathematical models on a common single strain mosquito-transmitted diseases are considered. The first one is based on ordinary differential equations, and other two models are based on fractional order differential equations. The proposed models are validated using published monthly dengue incidence data from two provinces of Venezuela during the period 1999-2002. We estimate several parameters of these models like the order of the fractional derivatives (in case of two fractional order systems), the biting rate of mosquito, two probabilities of infection, mosquito recruitment and mortality rates, etc., from the data. The basic reproduction number, R0, for the ODE system is estimated using the data. For two fractional order systems, an upper bound for, R0, is derived and its value is obtained using the published data. The force of infection, and the effective reproduction number, R(t), for the three models are estimated using the data. Sensitivity analysis of the mosquito memory parameter with some important responses is worked out. We use Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to identify the best model among the three proposed models. It is observed that the model with memory in both the host, and the vector population provides a better agreement with epidemic data. Finally, we provide a control strategy for the vector-borne disease, dengue, using the memory of the host, and the vector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving strategies for syphilis control in China: selective testing of sexually transmitted disease patients--too little, too late?

    PubMed

    Yin, Y-P; Wong, S P Y; Liu, M-S; Wei, W-H; Yu, Y-H; Gao, X; Chen, Q; Fu, Z-Z; Cheng, F; Chen, X-S; Cohen, M S

    2008-12-01

    Syphilis testing guidelines in China are usually based on symptomatic criteria, overlooking risk assessment and ultimately opportunities for disease detection and control. We used data from 10,695 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients in Guangxi, China, to assess the efficacy of a potential screening tool inquiring about behavioural and health risk factors in identifying the STD patients who should not be triaged for syphilis testing under current guidelines, but on the contrary receive such testing. Validity testing of the screening tool was performed and receiver-operating characteristic curves were plotted to determine an optimal total risk score cut-off for testing. About 40.9% of patients with positive toluidine red unheated serum test and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test did not show hallmark signs of syphilis. The screening tool was more sensitive in detecting infection in non-triaged male versus female patients (highest sensitivity = 90% vs. 55%) and the cut-off score to warrant testing was lower in non-triaged female patients than in non-triaged male patients (cut-off = 1 vs. 2). Most of the cases were missed among female STD patients. In spite of selective testing based on behavioural and health indicators that improve case detection, cases were still missed. Our study supports universal testing for syphilis in the STD population.

  7. HIV screening in commercially insured patients screened or diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases or blood-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Judy Ying; Ma, Qiufei; Everhard, Francois; Yermilov, Irina; Tian, Haijun; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh

    2011-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control strongly recommends HIV screening for all patients who present to health care settings with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or blood-borne pathogens exposure. The objective of this study is to assess the rates and determinants of HIV screening in a national sample of commercially insured patients screened or diagnosed with an STD or hepatitis B or C. We used Poisson regression model with a robust error variance to assess the determinants of HIV screening using administrative claims data from health plans across 6 states (n = 270,423). The overall HIV screening rate of patients who were diagnosed or screened for STDs or hepatitis was low (32.7%); rates were lowest for patients presenting with epididymitis or granuloma inguinale (<10%). Patients aged 25 to 34 years were more likely to be screened than other age groups. Females were significantly less likely to be screened for HIV (prevalence ratio = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.89, 0.91) than males. Patients living in states where no written HIV informed consent was required were significantly more likely to be screened than those living in states where written HIV informed consent was specifically required. HIV screening rates were low and varied by STD categories. Females and younger and older patients were at increased risk of no HIV screening. Requiring specific written informed consent for HIV screening resulted in less HIV screening. Interventions are urgently needed to increase the HIV screening rate among this at-risk population.

  8. Sexually Transmitted Disease Program Evolution in Response to Changes in the Public Health Environment: A Massachusetts Example.

    PubMed

    Carter, Marion W; Hsu, Katherine K; Loosier, Penny S; Maddox, Brandy L Peterson; Doshi, Sonal R; Kroeger, Karen; Cranston, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    In 2008, the line item supporting sexually transmitted disease (STD) services in the Massachusetts state budget was cut as a result of budget shortfalls. Shortly thereafter, direct provision of STD clinical services supported by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) was suspended. Massachusetts Department of Public Health requested an initial assessment of its internal response and impact in 2010. A follow-up assessment occurred in September 2013. In 2010 and 2013, 39 and 46 staff, respectively, from MDPH and from clinical partner agencies, were interviewed about changes in the role of the MDPH, partnerships, STD services, challenges, and recommendations. Interview notes were summarized, analyzed, and synthesized by coauthors using qualitative analysis techniques and NVivo software. The withdrawal of state funding for STD services, and the subsequent reduction in clinical service hours, erected numerous barriers for Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS) seeking to ensure timely STD treatment for index cases and their partners. After initial instability, MDPH operations stabilized due partly to strong management, new staff, and intensified integration with human immunodeficiency virus services. Existing contracts with human immunodeficiency virus providers were leveraged to support alternative STD testing and care sites. Massachusetts Department of Public Health strengthened its clinical and epidemiologic expertise. The DIS expanded their scope of work and were outposted to select new sites. Challenges remained, however, such as a shortage of DIS staff to meet the needs. Although unique in many ways, MA offers experiences and lessons for how a state STD program can adapt to a changing public health context.

  9. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Mutha, Amit S; Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

    2014-08-01

    One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant's premarital and high risk sexual activities. The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female's responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Participants, especially females, lacked basic information about sexuality and related concepts

  10. Impact of an intervention on HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use among sex workers in Bombay, India.

    PubMed

    Bhave, G; Lindan, C P; Hudes, E S; Desai, S; Wagle, U; Tripathi, S P; Mandel, J S

    1995-07-01

    To develop and test an HIV intervention targeting sex workers and madams in the brothels of Bombay. In a controlled intervention trial, with measurements before and after the intervention, 334 sex workers and 20 madams were recruited from an intervention site, and 207 and 17, respectively, from a similar control site, both in red-light areas of Bombay. All sex workers were tested for antibodies to HIV and syphilis, and for hepatitis B surface antigen. Information on sexual practices, condom use and knowledge of HIV was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. All subjects in the intervention group underwent a 6-month program of educational videos, small group discussions and pictorial educational materials; free condoms were also distributed. The blood tests and the questionnaire were readministered to all subjects at both sites immediately after the intervention. Both groups were followed for approximately 1 year. The baseline level of knowledge about HIV and experience with condoms was extremely low among both sex workers and madams. The baseline prevalence of HIV antibodies was 47% in the intervention group and 41% in the control group (P = 0.17). The incidence densities for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases were significantly different in the two groups (all P < 0.005): 0.05 and 0.16 per person-year of follow-up for HIV, 0.08 and 0.22 per person-year for antibodies to syphilis, and 0.04 and 0.12 per person-year for hepatitis B surface antigen in the intervention and control women, respectively. Following the intervention, women reported increased levels of condom use, and some (41%) said they were willing to refuse clients who wouldn't use them. However, both the sex workers and the madams were concerned about losing business if condom use was insisted upon. Both HIV prevalence and incidence are alarmingly high among female sex workers in Bombay. Successful interventions can be developed for these women, and even a partial increase in condom use

  11. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. Aim: We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant’s premarital and high risk sexual activities. Results: The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female’s responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Conclusion: Participants

  12. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    SciT

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Resultsmore » suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence.« less

  13. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F; Grant, Donald S; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M; Nichols, Gordon; Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Webb, Colleen T; Wood, James L N

    2016-09-01

    A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir.

  14. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F.; Grant, Donald S.; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M.; Nichols, Gordon; Schieffelin, John S.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Webb, Colleen T.; Wood, James L. N.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: ‘spillover’, i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and ‘stuttering transmission’, i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir. PMID:27588425

  15. Methods for Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Programs to Estimate the Health and Medical Cost Impact of Changes in Their Budget.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Ludovic, Jennifer A; Berruti, Andrés A; Gift, Thomas L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe methods that sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs can use to estimate the potential effects of changes in their budgets in terms of disease burden and direct medical costs. We proposed 2 distinct approaches to estimate the potential effect of changes in funding on subsequent STD burden, one based on an analysis of state-level STD prevention funding and gonorrhea case rates and one based on analyses of the effect of Disease Intervention Specialist (DIS) activities on gonorrhea case rates. We also illustrated how programs can estimate the impact of budget changes on intermediate outcomes, such as partner services. Finally, we provided an example of the application of these methods for a hypothetical state STD prevention program. The methods we proposed can provide general approximations of how a change in STD prevention funding might affect the level of STD prevention services provided, STD incidence rates, and the direct medical cost burden of STDs. In applying these methods to a hypothetical state, a reduction in annual funding of US $200,000 was estimated to lead to subsequent increases in STDs of 1.6% to 3.6%. Over 10 years, the reduction in funding totaled US $2.0 million, whereas the cumulative, additional direct medical costs of the increase in STDs totaled US $3.7 to US $8.4 million. The methods we proposed, though subject to important limitations, can allow STD prevention personnel to calculate evidence-based estimates of the effects of changes in their budget.

  16. Mobile phone applications for the care and prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Muessig, Kathryn E; Pike, Emily C; Legrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2013-01-04

    Mobile phone applications (apps) provide a new platform for delivering tailored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and care. To identify and evaluate currently available mobile phone apps related to the prevention and care of HIV and other STDs. We searched the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for HIV/STD-related apps, excluding apps that exclusively targeted industry, providers, and researchers. Each eligible app was downloaded, tested, and assessed for user ratings and functionality as well as 6 broad content areas of HIV prevention and care: HIV/STD disease knowledge, risk reduction/safer sex, condom promotion, HIV/STD testing information, resources for HIV-positive persons, and focus on key populations. Search queries up to May 2012 identified 1937 apps. Of these, 55 unique apps met the inclusion criteria (12 for Android, 29 for iPhone, and 14 for both platforms). Among these apps, 71% provided disease information about HIV/STDs, 36% provided HIV/STD testing information or resources, 29% included information about condom use or assistance locating condoms, and 24% promoted safer sex. Only 6 apps (11%) covered all 4 of these prevention areas. Eight apps (15%) provided tools or resources specifically for HIV/STD positive persons. Ten apps included information for a range of sexual orientations, 9 apps appeared to be designed for racially/ethnically diverse audiences, and 15 apps featured interactive components. Apps were infrequently downloaded (median 100-500 downloads) and not highly rated (average customer rating 3.7 out of 5 stars). Most available HIV/STD apps have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews. Public health practitioners should work with app developers to incorporate elements of evidence-based interventions for risk reduction and improve app inclusiveness and interactivity.

  17. Mobile Phone Applications for the Care and Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Emily C; LeGrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone applications (apps) provide a new platform for delivering tailored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and care. Objective To identify and evaluate currently available mobile phone apps related to the prevention and care of HIV and other STDs. Methods We searched the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for HIV/STD-related apps, excluding apps that exclusively targeted industry, providers, and researchers. Each eligible app was downloaded, tested, and assessed for user ratings and functionality as well as 6 broad content areas of HIV prevention and care: HIV/STD disease knowledge, risk reduction/safer sex, condom promotion, HIV/STD testing information, resources for HIV-positive persons, and focus on key populations. Results Search queries up to May 2012 identified 1937 apps. Of these, 55 unique apps met the inclusion criteria (12 for Android, 29 for iPhone, and 14 for both platforms). Among these apps, 71% provided disease information about HIV/STDs, 36% provided HIV/STD testing information or resources, 29% included information about condom use or assistance locating condoms, and 24% promoted safer sex. Only 6 apps (11%) covered all 4 of these prevention areas. Eight apps (15%) provided tools or resources specifically for HIV/STD positive persons. Ten apps included information for a range of sexual orientations, 9 apps appeared to be designed for racially/ethnically diverse audiences, and 15 apps featured interactive components. Apps were infrequently downloaded (median 100-500 downloads) and not highly rated (average customer rating 3.7 out of 5 stars). Conclusions Most available HIV/STD apps have failed to attract user attention and positive reviews. Public health practitioners should work with app developers to incorporate elements of evidence-based interventions for risk reduction and improve app inclusiveness and interactivity. PMID:23291245

  18. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  19. Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts: A Review of the Evidence for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Park, Ina U; Introcaso, Camille; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-12-15

    To provide updates for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines on human papillomavirus (HPV) and anogenital warts (AGWs), a review of the literature was conducted in key topic areas: (1) epidemiology and burden of disease; (2) transmission and natural history; (3) diagnosis and management of AGWs; (4) occupational exposure of healthcare workers; (5) anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM); and (6) HPV vaccine recommendations. Most sexually active persons will have detectable HPV at least once in their lifetime; 14 million persons are infected annually, and 79 million persons have prevalent infection. HPV is transmitted frequently between partners; more frequent transmission has been reported from females to males than from males to females. A new formulation of imiquimod (3.75% cream) is recommended for AGW treatment. Appropriate infection control, including performing laser or electrocautery in ventilated rooms using standard precautions, is recommended to prevent possible transmission to healthcare workers who treat anogenital warts, oral warts, and anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias (eg, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). Data are insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS or HIV-negative MSM. An annual digital anorectal examination may be useful for early detection of anal cancer in these populations. HPV vaccine is recommended routinely for 11- or 12-year-olds, as well as for young men through age 21 years and young women through age 26 years who have not previously been vaccinated. HPV vaccine is also recommended for MSM, people living with HIV/AIDS, and immunocompromised persons through age 26 years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award Foreign Grants Management Getting Your Initial International Award Actions You Can Take as the Project Leader on a Foreign Grant Subawards for Foreign ...

  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Contacts for Funding Information Peer Review Small Business Programs About the Programs NICHD Priorities Funding Opportunities ... Opportunities Grants Process, Policies & Strategies Peer Review Small Business Programs Training & Career Development For Applicants Sample Applications ...

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    fever , abdominal pain, tenderness on pelvic examination e. pharyngitis, proctitis--same as males--may lead to dissemination (11-15) Diagnosis (16) 1...weeks after chancre b. may show fever , malaise, headache, sore throat c. generalized lymphadenopathy, patchy hair loss d. rash--reddish,pink or coppery...nodes lead to sinus tract formation d. fever , chills, generalized rash--erythema nodosum or multiforme e. late complications include strictures or

  3. A network-patch methodology for adapting agent-based models for directly transmitted disease to mosquito-borne disease.

    PubMed

    Manore, Carrie A; Hickmann, Kyle S; Hyman, James M; Foppa, Ivo M; Davis, Justin K; Wesson, Dawn M; Mores, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases cause significant public health burden and are widely re-emerging or emerging. Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the spread of mosquito-borne disease in diverse populations and geographies are ongoing modelling challenges. We propose a hybrid network-patch model for the spread of mosquito-borne pathogens that accounts for individual movement through mosquito habitats, extending the capabilities of existing agent-based models (ABMs) to include vector-borne diseases. The ABM are coupled with differential equations representing 'clouds' of mosquitoes in patches accounting for mosquito ecology. We adapted an ABM for humans using this method and investigated the importance of heterogeneity in pathogen spread, motivating the utility of models of individual behaviour. We observed that the final epidemic size is greater in patch models with a high risk patch frequently visited than in a homogeneous model. Our hybrid model quantifies the importance of the heterogeneity in the spread of mosquito-borne pathogens, guiding mitigation strategies.

  4. The protective value of school enrolment against sexually transmitted disease: a study of high‐risk African American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Salazar, Laura F; Rose, Eve; Sales, Jessica M

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify whether school enrolment is protective against laboratory‐confirmed diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and against a spectrum of sexual risk factors. Methods A cross‐sectional study of 715 African‐American adolescent females (15–21 years old) was conducted. Data collection included an audio‐computer‐assisted self‐interview lasting about 60 min and a self‐collected vaginal swab for nucleic acid amplification testing of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results In total, 65% were enrolled in school. After adjusting for age and whether adolescents resided with a family member, those not enrolled were twice as likely to test positive for one of the three STDs compared with those enrolled (adjusted OR2; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.91). Similarly, school enrolment was protective against risk factors contributing to STD acquisition. The measures of sexual risk behaviour of 8 of 10, retained significance after adjusting for the covariates, and 2 of the 3 psychosocial mediators retained significance. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence suggesting that keeping high‐risk African‐American adolescent females in school (including forms of school that occur after high‐school graduation) may be important from a public health standpoint. PMID:17569721

  5. [Educational intervention for preventing unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted diseases among teenagers in the city of Toledo, Spain].

    PubMed

    Callejas Pérez, Sonsoles; Fernández Martínez, Beatriz; Méndez Muñoz, Paloma; León Martín, M Teresa; Fábrega Alarcón, Carmen; Villarín Castro, Alejandro; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Oscar; de Quirós Lorenzana, Rodrigo Bernaldo; Fortuny Tasias, Ana; López de Castro, Francisco; Fernández Rodríguez, Olga

    2005-01-01

    No-one doubts the need of effectively providing teenagers with information about birth control and sexually-transmitted diseases. This study is aimed at evaluating the results of an educational intervention related to these matters. Before-and-after study of an educational intervention (based on lectures and handing out documentation) without a control group. A questionnaire was passed out before and after the intervention to assess changes in knowledge and attitudes of the 4th-year Compulsory Secondary Education students at five schools in Toledo. The questionnaire was answered by 238 of the 268 students. The average age was 15.59. A total of 54.66% were females. In all, 24.03% had had some sexual relation. The birth control method used most often was the condom (98.24%). The girls more refuse more unprotected relations (76.5% vs. 48.6%; p<0.001) and share the same classroom with a student having AIDS (80.47% vs. 60.38%; p<0.001). Six months following the start of the intervention, a total of 197 students answered the second questionnaire. Proper condom use rose from 62.13% to 73.46%. Following the intervention, an improvement has been noted in the degree of knowledge related to birth control methods and AIDS transmission and a more positive attitude regarding HIV.

  6. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (njovhera) in Guruve District, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kambizi, L; Afolayan, A J

    2001-09-01

    The use of medicinal plants in Guruve District, Zimbabwe, contributes significantly to primary health care of the people of the area. This paper presents findings of a survey of plants used for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the district. Ethnobotanical information obtained from traditional herbalists and other knowledgeable rural dwellers, has revealed 15 plant species belonging to 10 families as medicinal plants used for the treatment of these infections in the area. Six of these are the commonest and most frequently prescribed by the healers. Roots are the most frequently used parts of the plants constituting 53% of preparations while oral administration of extracts is the main method of prescription. Based on the information gathered from the traditional healers, Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile, Cassia abbreviata Oliv. Dichrostachys cinerea Wight and Arn, Solanum incanum L., Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Zanha africana (Radlk) Excell. are the most frequently used plants for the treatment of STDs. The methanol extracts of Cassia abbreviata, Zanha africana and Acacia nilotica showed significant inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while acetone extracts of these plants inhibited most of the species. Generally the water extracts show less activity than acetone and methanol extracts.