Science.gov

Sample records for zoonotic infectious diseases

  1. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to

  2. Individualistic values are related to an increase in the outbreaks of infectious diseases and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Walther, Bruno A

    2018-03-01

    Collectivist versus individualistic values are important attributes of intercultural variation. Collectivist values favour in-group members over out-group members and may have evolved to protect in-group members against pathogen transmission. As predicted by the pathogen stress theory of cultural values, more collectivist countries are associated with a higher historical pathogen burden. However, if lifestyles of collectivist countries indeed function as a social defence which decreases pathogen transmission, then these countries should also have experienced fewer disease outbreaks in recent times. We tested this novel hypothesis by correlating the values of collectivism-individualism for 66 countries against their historical pathogen burden, recent number of infectious disease outbreaks and zoonotic disease outbreaks and emerging infectious disease events, and four potentially confounding variables. We confirmed the previously established negative relationship between individualism and historical pathogen burden with new data. While we did not find a correlation for emerging infectious disease events, we found significant positive correlations between individualism and the number of infectious disease outbreaks and zoonotic disease outbreaks. Therefore, one possible cost for individualistic cultures may be their higher susceptibility to disease outbreaks. We support further studies into the exact protective behaviours and mechanisms of collectivist societies which may inhibit disease outbreaks.

  3. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Buza, Teresia M; Jack, Sherman W; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L; Lawrence, Mark L; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database (http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu). This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information. Database URL: http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Buza, Teresia M.; Jack, Sherman W.; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L.; Lawrence, Mark L.; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database (http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu). This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information. Database URL: http://vetbiobase.igbb.msstate.edu PMID:26581408

  5. Seroprevalence of major bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Vongxay, Khamphouth; Conlan, James V; Khounsy, Syseng; Dorny, Pierre; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2012-10-01

    Bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases pose a significant threat to human health in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In all, 905 cattle and buffalo serum samples collected in northern Lao PDR in 2006 were used to determine seroprevalence of five major bovine zoonotic infectious diseases that included Taenia saginata cysticercosis, bovine tuberculosis, Q-fever, bovine brucellosis, and bovine leptospirosis. Five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to test for the presence of antibodies to the diseases, except Taenia saginata, for which we tested for the presence of Taenia metacestode circulating antigens. The overall highest prevalence was for T. saginata (46.4%), with lower prevalence for Q-fever (4%), leptospirosis (3%), tuberculosis (1%), and brucellosis (0.2%). Although there were no significant differences in the proportion of seroprevalence between sex and age of the animals sampled, there were significant differences between the provincial distributions. Further studies are required to determine the seroprevalence of these infections in other locations in Lao PDR, as well as other animal species including humans, in order to develop effective prevention and control strategies. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of bovine zoonotic infectious agents in the Lao PDR. Positivity was demonstrated for all diseases investigated, with the highest prevalence for T. saginata antigen and Coxiella burnetti antibodies. For T. saginata, there were significant differences in the provincial distribution. Approximately 16% seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetti was noted in Xayabuly Province; however, there are no clear reasons why this was the case, and further studies are required to determine risk factors associated with this observation.

  6. Zoonotic and infectious disease surveillance in Central America: Honduran feral cats positive for toxoplasma, trypanosoma, leishmania, rickettsia, and Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.

  7. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  8. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions

    Hayman, D.T.; Bowen, R.A.; Cryan, P.M.; McCracken, G.F.; O'Shea, T.J.; Peel, A.J.; Gilbert, A.; Webb, C.T.; Wood, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics.

  9. Ecology of Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, D T S; Bowen, R A; Cryan, P M; McCracken, G F; O’Shea, T J; Peel, A J; Gilbert, A; Webb, C T; Wood, J L N

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics. PMID:22958281

  10. Metacommunity and phylogenetic structure determine wildlife and zoonotic infectious disease patterns in time and space.

    PubMed

    Suzán, Gerardo; García-Peña, Gabriel E; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Rico, Oscar; Rubio, André V; Tolsá, María J; Roche, Benjamin; Hosseini, Parviez R; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Murray, Kris A; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Vittecoq, Marion; Bailly, Xavier; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene; Mills, James N; Guégan, Jean-Francois

    2015-02-01

    The potential for disease transmission at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans has become a major concern for public health and conservation biology. Research in this subject is commonly conducted at local scales while the regional context is neglected. We argue that prevalence of infection at local and regional levels is influenced by three mechanisms occurring at the landscape level in a metacommunity context. First, (1) dispersal, colonization, and extinction of pathogens, reservoir or vector hosts, and nonreservoir hosts, may be due to stochastic and niche-based processes, thus determining distribution of all species, and then their potential interactions, across local communities (metacommunity structure). Second, (2) anthropogenic processes may drive environmental filtering of hosts, nonhosts, and pathogens. Finally, (3) phylogenetic diversity relative to reservoir or vector host(s), within and between local communities may facilitate pathogen persistence and circulation. Using a metacommunity approach, public heath scientists may better evaluate the factors that predispose certain times and places for the origin and emergence of infectious diseases. The multidisciplinary approach we describe fits within a comprehensive One Health and Ecohealth framework addressing zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks and their relationship to their hosts, other animals, humans, and the environment.

  11. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F.; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H.; Graham, Jay P.

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27928092

  12. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  13. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks Among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H; Graham, Jay P

    2016-12-07

    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Zoonotic Diseases--Fostering Awareness in Critical Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Metre, David C.; Morley, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are shared between humans and other vertebrate animals. Extension professionals often serve as consultants and educators to individuals at high risk of zoonotic diseases, such as participants in 4-H livestock projects. Effective education about zoonotic diseases begins with an awareness of the…

  15. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  16. [Infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; de Vallière, Serge; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-07

    In 2008, several publications have highlighted the role of climate change and globalization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Studies have shown the extension towards Europe of diseases such as Crimea-Congo fever (Kosovo, Turkey and Bulgaria), leismaniosis (Cyprus) and chikungunya virus infection (Italy). The article also contains comments on Plasmodium knowlesi, a newly identified cause of severe malaria in humans, as well as an update on human transmission of the H5NI avian influenza virus. It also mentions new data on Bell's palsy as well as two vaccines (varicella-zoster and pneumococcus), and provides a list of recent guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases.

  17. Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  18. Plant-based oral vaccines against zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Naila; Daniell, Henry

    2016-11-01

    The shared diseases between animals and humans are known as zoonotic diseases and spread infectious diseases among humans. Zoonotic diseases are not only a major burden to livestock industry but also threaten humans accounting for >60% cases of human illness. About 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans have been reported to originate from zoonotic pathogens. Because antibiotics are frequently used to protect livestock from bacterial diseases, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is now a major concern. Live attenuated and killed vaccines are the only option to control these infectious diseases and this approach has been used since 1890. However, major problems with this approach include high cost and injectable vaccines is impractical for >20 billion poultry animals or fish in aquaculture. Plants offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against animal diseases because of their low cost, and they are free of attenuated pathogens and cold chain requirement. Therefore, several plant-based vaccines against human and animals diseases have been developed recently that undergo clinical and regulatory approval. Plant-based vaccines serve as ideal booster vaccines that could eliminate multiple boosters of attenuated bacteria or viruses, but requirement of injectable priming with adjuvant is a current limitation. So, new approaches like oral vaccines are needed to overcome this challenge. In this review, we discuss the progress made in plant-based vaccines against zoonotic or other animal diseases and future challenges in advancing this field. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Review of Nonfoodborne Zoonotic and Potentially Zoonotic Poultry Diseases.

    PubMed

    Agunos, Agnes; Pierson, F William; Lungu, Bwalya; Dunn, Patricia A; Tablante, Nathaniel

    2016-09-01

    Emerging and re-emerging diseases are continuously diagnosed in poultry species. A few of these diseases are known to cross the species barrier, thus posing a public health risk and an economic burden. We identified and synthesized global evidence for poultry nonfoodborne zoonoses to better understand these diseases in people who were exposed to different poultry-related characteristics (e.g., occupational or nonoccupational, operational types, poultry species, outbreak conditions, health status of flocks). This review builds on current knowledge on poultry zoonoses/potentially zoonotic agents transmitted via the nonfoodborne route. It also identifies research gaps and potential intervention points within the poultry industry to reduce zoonotic transmission by using various knowledge synthesis tools such as systematic review (SR) and qualitative (descriptive) and quantitative synthesis methods (i.e., meta-analysis). Overall, 1663 abstracts were screened and 156 relevant articles were selected for further review. Full articles (in English) were retrieved and critically appraised using routine SR methods. In total, eight known zoonotic diseases were reviewed: avian influenza (AI) virus (n = 85 articles), Newcastle disease virus (n = 8), West Nile virus (WNV, n = 2), avian Chlamydia (n = 24), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (n = 3), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, n = 15), Ornithonyssus sylvarium (n = 4), and Microsporum gallinae (n = 3). In addition, articles on other viral poultry pathogens (n = 5) and poultry respiratory allergens derived from mites and fungi (n = 7) were reviewed. The level of investigations (e.g., exposure history, risk factor, clinical disease in epidemiologically linked poultry, molecular studies) to establish zoonotic linkages varied across disease agents and across studies. Based on the multiple outcome measures captured in this review, AI virus seems to be the poultry zoonotic pathogen that may have considerable and

  20. Interdisciplinary approaches to zoonotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Robin; Schley, David; Lai, Ka-Man; Ceddia, Graziano M.; Barnett, Julie; Cook, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Zoonotic infections are on the increase worldwide, but most research into the biological, environmental and life science aspects of these infections has been conducted in separation. In this review we bring together contemporary research in these areas to suggest a new, symbiotic framework which recognises the interaction of biological, economic, psychological, and natural and built environmental drivers in zoonotic infection and transmission. In doing so, we propose that some contemporary debates in zoonotic research could be resolved using an expanded framework which explicitly takes into account the combination of motivated and habitual human behaviour, environmental and biological constraints, and their interactions. PMID:24470951

  1. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... may carry the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Food contamination Another way disease-causing germs can infect you is through contaminated food and water. This mechanism of transmission allows germs ...

  2. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Barbara A.; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E.; Drake, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States. PMID:26038558

  3. Infectious Diseases,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    was of importance in arresting the disease. On the other hand, tuberculous patients may develop a sarcoidosis -like hypersensitivity to vitamin D; if...action of vitamin D and become hypercalcemic, as in sarcoidosis . Normal quantities of vitamins and other nutrients help to maintain host resistance at

  4. Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in Kenya, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Bitek, Austine; Osoro, Eric; Pieracci, Emily G.; Muema, Josephat; Mwatondo, Athman; Kungu, Mathew; Nanyingi, Mark; Gharpure, Radhika; Njenga, Kariuki; Thumbi, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic diseases have varying public health burden and socio-economic impact across time and geographical settings making their prioritization for prevention and control important at the national level. We conducted systematic prioritization of zoonotic diseases and developed a ranked list of these diseases that would guide allocation of resources to enhance their surveillance, prevention, and control. Methods A group of 36 medical, veterinary, and wildlife experts in zoonoses from government, research institutions and universities in Kenya prioritized 36 diseases using a semi-quantitative One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with slight adaptations. The tool comprises five steps: listing of zoonotic diseases to be prioritized, development of ranking criteria, weighting criteria by pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchical process, scoring each zoonotic disease based on the criteria, and aggregation of scores. Results In order of importance, the participants identified severity of illness in humans, epidemic/pandemic potential in humans, socio-economic burden, prevalence/incidence and availability of interventions (weighted scores assigned to each criteria were 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.17 and 0.17 respectively), as the criteria to define the relative importance of the diseases. The top five priority diseases in descending order of ranking were anthrax, trypanosomiasis, rabies, brucellosis and Rift Valley fever. Conclusion Although less prominently mentioned, neglected zoonotic diseases ranked highly compared to those with epidemic potential suggesting these endemic diseases cause substantial public health burden. The list of priority zoonotic disease is crucial for the targeted allocation of resources and informing disease prevention and control programs for zoonoses in Kenya. PMID:27557120

  5. Zoonotic diseases: health aspects of Canadian geese.

    PubMed

    Dieter, R A; Dieter, R S; Dieter, R A; Gulliver, G

    2001-11-01

    Review zoonotic diseases associated with Canadian geese. Review article: A review of the multiple physical, microbiologic and safety concerns, and methods used in controlling this potential problem. Over the last decade the Canadian goose population (protected by international treaties and protection acts) has increased rapidly such that in many cities they have become a pest rather than an admired wild bird. Their increasing numbers have caused a number of potential healthcare concerns including: physical, bacterial, parasitic, allergic and viral potential problems. The Canadian goose fecal droppings of one per minute have caused falls and the flying geese have caused air traffic accidents. Bacterial concerns, including botulism, salmonella and E. coli have all been reviewed and presented concerns. The viral Newcastle disease may be detected with hemagglutination studies and the Giardia psittaci parasites have been repeatedly found in their droppings. The Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes have been present on stool study. Definite links to human infectious diseases have been difficult to prove. Revision of the current laws and new control programs must be developed.

  6. Disease ecology and the global emergence of zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bruce A; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-09-01

    The incidence and frequency of epidemic transmission of zoonotic diseases, both known and newly recognized, has increased dramatically in the past 30 years. It is thought that this dramatic disease emergence is primarily the result of the social, demographic, and environmental transformation that has occurred globally since World War II. However, the causal linkages have not been elucidated. Investigating emerging zoonotic pathogens as an ecological phenomenon can provide significant insights as to why some of these pathogens have jumped species and caused major epidemics in humans. A review of concepts and theory from biological ecology and of causal factors in disease emergence previously described suggests a general model of global zoonotic disease emergence. The model links demographic and societal factors to land use and land cover change whose associated ecological factors help explain disease emergence. The scale and magnitude of these changes are more significant than those associated with climate change, the effects of which are largely not yet understood. Unfortunately, the complex character and non-linear behavior of the human-natural systems in which host-pathogen systems are embedded makes specific incidences of disease emergence or epidemics inherently difficult to predict. Employing a complex systems analytical approach, however, may show how a few key ecological variables and system properties, including the adaptive capacity of institutions, explains the emergence of infectious diseases and how an integrated, multi-level approach to zoonotic disease control can reduce risk.

  7. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  8. The common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion.

    PubMed

    Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystosis) and trypanosomiasis are the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion which caused by single-celled protozoan parasites; Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum , Sarcocystis spp and Trypanosoma evansi, respectively. Toxoplasmosis is generally considered the most important disease that causing abortion of both pregnant women and different female animals throughout the world, about third of human being population had antibodies against T. gondii . The infection can pass via placenta, causing encephalitis, chorio-retinitis, mental retardation and loss of vision in congenitally-infected children and stillbirth or mummification of the aborted fetuses of livestock. Neosporosis is recognized as a major cause of serious abortion in varieties of wild and domestic animals around the world particularly cattle, the disease cause serious economic losses among dairy and beef cattle due to decrease in milk and meat production. While unlike toxoplasmosis, neosporosis is not recognized as a human pathogen and evidence to date shows that neosporosis is only detected by serology in the human population. Sarcosporidiosis also can cause abortion in animals particularly cattle, buffaloes and sheep with acute infection through high dose of infection with sarcocysts. On the other hand, humans have been reported as final and intermediate host for sarcosporidiosis but not represent a serious health problem. Trypanosomiasis by T. evansi cause dangerous infection among domestic animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Several cases of abortion had been recorded in cattle and buffaloes infected with T. evansi while, a single case of human infection was reported in India. Trichomoniasis and babesiosis abortion occurs with non-zoonotic Trichomonas and Babesia species while the zoonotic species had not been incriminated in induction of abortion in both animals and man. The current review article concluded that there is still

  9. Why infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John G

    2014-09-15

    Infectious diseases is a broad discipline that is almost unique in contemporary medicine with its ability to cure and prevent disease, to identify specific disease causes (microbes), and to deal with diverse, sometimes massive outbreaks. The value of the infectious disease practitioner is now magnified by the crisis of antibiotic resistance, the expanding consequences of international travel, the introduction of completely new pathogen diagnostics, and healthcare reform with emphasis on infection prevention and cost in dollars and lives. Infectious disease careers have great personal rewards to the practitioner based on these observations. It is unfortunate that we have been so effective in our work, but relatively ineffective in convincing the healthcare system of this value. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  11. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  12. [Proteomics in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of "Omics" sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  14. Sarcoptic mange: a zoonotic ectoparasitic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic.

  15. Sarcoptic Mange: A Zoonotic Ectoparasitic Skin Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic. PMID:23450734

  16. Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Fraser, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal change in the incidence of infectious diseases is a common phenomenon in both temperate and tropical climates. However, the mechanisms responsible for seasonal disease incidence, and the epidemiological consequences of seasonality, are poorly understood with rare exception. Standard epidemiological theory and concepts such as the basic reproductive number R0 no longer apply, and the implications for interventions that themselves may be periodic, such as pulse vaccination, have not been formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different routes of transmission. It then describes the consequences of seasonality for R0, disease outbreaks, endemic dynamics and persistence. Finally, a mathematical analysis of routine and pulse vaccination programmes for seasonal infections is presented. The synthesis of seasonal infectious disease epidemiology attempted by this paper highlights the need for further empirical and theoretical work. PMID:16959647

  17. Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... More: Facts about ID Infectious Diseases Society of America 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | ... Us © Copyright IDSA 2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  18. Marine infectious disease ecology

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    To put marine disease impacts in context requires a broad perspective on the roles infectious agents have in the ocean. Parasites infect most marine vertebrate and invertebrate species, and parasites and predators can have comparable biomass density, suggesting they play comparable parts as consumers in marine food webs. Although some parasites might increase with disturbance, most probably decline as food webs unravel. There are several ways to adapt epidemiological theory to the marine environment. In particular, because the ocean represents a three-dimensional moving habitat for hosts and parasites, models should open up the spatial scales at which infective stages and host larvae travel. In addition to open recruitment and dimensionality, marine parasites are subject to fishing, filter feeders, dosedependent infection, environmental forcing, and death-based transmission. Adding such considerations to marine disease models will make it easier to predict which infectious diseases will increase or decrease in a changing ocean.

  19. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  20. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of microorganisms will emerge. Infectious Diseases Society of America 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | ... Us © Copyright IDSA 2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  1. Controlling Infectious Diseases in Nurseries

    T. H. Filer

    1968-01-01

    At least 300 publications have been written about non-infectious and infectious diseases of tree seedlings. I will outline some of the progress that is being made in finding ways to control infectious diseases, those caused by pathogens. I will touch upon pre- and post-emergence damping-off, root rots, leaf spots, and fusiform rust, which are the most serious diseases...

  2. Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, Peter; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Burke, Donald S.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of new zoonotic agents requires knowledge of pathogen biodiversity in wildlife, human-wildlife interactions, anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations, and changes in society and human behavior. We discuss an interdisciplinary approach combining virology, wildlife biology, disease ecology, and anthropology that enables better understanding of how deforestation and associated hunting leads to the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens. PMID:16485465

  3. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  4. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  5. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  6. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, Do Thuy; Siembieda, Jennifer; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Hung, Pham; Ky, Van Dang; Bandyopahyay, Santanu; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2015-12-30

    Prioritization of zoonotic diseases is critical as it facilitates optimization of resources, greater understanding of zoonotic diseases and implementation of policies promoting multisectoral collaboration. This study aimed to establish strategic priorities for zoonotic diseases in Vietnam taking a key stakeholder approach. Two weeks prior to a workshop on zoonotic diseases a questionnaire was developed and posted to key professionals involved in different areas of zoonotic disease management in Vietnam. Respondents were asked to assess the relative priority of 12 zoonotic diseases using a number of evidence-based criteria, and to provide suggestions to strengthen multisectoral collaboration. A response rate of 69% (51/74) was obtained, and 75% (38/51) respondents worked in non-international Vietnamese organizations. Respondents identified the top five diseases for prioritization in Vietnam as: avian influenza, rabies, Streptococcus suis infection, pandemic influenza and foodborne bacterial diseases. The three criteria most used to rank diseases were severity of disease, outbreak potential and public attention. Avian influenza was ranked as the number one priority zoonotic disease in Vietnam by 57% of the respondents, followed by rabies (18%). Respondents identified coordination mechanisms, information sharing and capacity building as the most important areas for strengthening to enhance multisectoral collaboration. This study is the first systematic and broad-based attempt to prioritize zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam using key stakeholders, and a comparative and transparent method. There is limited literature for policy makers and planners on this topic and the results of this study can be used to guide decision-making.

  7. Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD): Rare Disease of Zoonotic Origin.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, M

    2016-09-01

    Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a rare tick borne zoonotic disease that causes acute febrile hemorrhagic illness in humans and monkeys especially in southern part of India. The disease is caused by highly pathogenic KFD virus (KFDV) which belongs to member of the genus Flavivirus and family Flaviviridae. The disease is transmitted to monkeys and humans by infective tick Haemaphysalisspinigera. Seasonal outbreaks are expected to occur during the months of January to June. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the epidemiology, mode of transmission of KFD virus, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of the disease..

  8. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases. PMID:28286767

  9. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Nii-Trebi, Nicholas Israel

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases.

  10. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  11. Zoonotic diseases associated with reptiles and amphibians: an update.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Reptiles and amphibians are popular as pets. There are increased concerns among public health officials because of the zoonotic potential associated with these animals. Encounters with reptiles and amphibians are also on the rise in the laboratory setting and with wild animals; in both of these practices, there is also an increased likelihood for exposure to zoonotic pathogens. It is important that veterinarians remain current with the literature as it relates to emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases attributed to reptiles and amphibians so that they can protect themselves, their staff, and their clients from potential problems.

  12. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  13. Global mapping of infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Battle, Katherine E.; Pigott, David M.; Smith, David L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S.; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Gething, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing. PMID:23382431

  14. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  15. Hodgkin's disease following infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    A case of Hodgkin's disease occurring 4 years after the onset of infectious mononucleosis is described. Persistence of symptoms, physical signs and Paul Bunnell test are noted and the possible association of persistent infectious mononucleosis and development of Hodgkin's disease is discussed. PMID:1273021

  16. Surveillance of infectious diseases in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bruce, M; Zulz, T; Koch, A

    2016-08-01

    This study reviews how social and environmental issues affect health in Arctic populations and describes infectious disease surveillance in Arctic Nations with a special focus on the activities of the International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) project. We reviewed the literature over the past 2 decades looking at Arctic living conditions and their effects on health and Arctic surveillance for infectious diseases. In regards to other regions worldwide, the Arctic climate and environment are extreme. Arctic and sub-Arctic populations live in markedly different social and physical environments compared to those of their more southern dwelling counterparts. A cold northern climate means people spending more time indoors, amplifying the effects of household crowding, smoking and inadequate ventilation on the person-to-person spread of infectious diseases. The spread of zoonotic infections north as the climate warms, emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens, the re-emergence of tuberculosis, the entrance of HIV into Arctic communities, the specter of pandemic influenza or the sudden emergence and introduction of new viral pathogens pose new challenges to residents, governments and public health authorities of all Arctic countries. ICS is a network of hospitals, public health agencies, and reference laboratories throughout the Arctic working together for the purposes of collecting, comparing and sharing of uniform laboratory and epidemiological data on infectious diseases of concern and assisting in the formulation of prevention and control strategies (Fig. 1). In addition, circumpolar infectious disease research workgroups and sentinel surveillance systems for bacterial and viral pathogens exist. The ICS system is a successful example of collaborative surveillance and research in an extreme environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  18. Microparticles and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Delabranche, X; Berger, A; Boisramé-Helms, J; Meziani, F

    2012-08-01

    Membrane shedding with microvesicle (MV) release after membrane budding due to cell stimulation is a highly conserved intercellular interplay. MV can be released by micro-organisms or by host cells in the course of infectious diseases. Host MVs are divided according to cell compartment origin in microparticles (MPs) from plasma membrane and exosomes from intracellular membranes. MPs are cell fragments resulting from plasma membrane reorganization characterized by phosphatidylserine (PhtdSer) content and parental cell antigens on membrane. The role of MPs in physiology and pathophysiology is not yet well elucidated; they are a pool of bioactive molecules able to transmit a pro-inflammatory message to neighboring or target cells. The first acknowledged function of MP was the dissemination of a procoagulant potential via PhtdSer and it is now obvious than MPs bear tissue factor (TF). Such MPs have been implicated in the coagulation disorders observed during sepsis and septic shock. MPs have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac dysfunction in experimental sepsis. Beside a non-specific role, pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis and Ebola Virus can specifically activate blood coagulation after TF-bearing MPs release in the bloodstream with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and Purpura fulminans. The role of MPs in host-pathogen interactions is also fundamental in Chagas disease, where MPs could allow immune evasion by inhibiting C3 convertase. During cerebral malaria, MPs play a complex role facilitating the activation of brain endothelium that contributes to amplify vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes. Phagocytosis of HIV induced MPs expressing PhtdSer by monocytes/macrophages results in cellular infection and non-inflammatory response via up-regulation of TGF-β. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Parhizgari, Najmeh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Despite development of preventive and controlling strategies regarding infectious diseases, they are still considered as one of the most significant leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Changes in humans’ demographics and behaviors, microbial and ecological alterations, agricultural development, international travels and susceptibility to infectious diseases have resulted in increased reports of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and reemerging infectious diseases (RIDs) in various geographical areas. Because of the various types of geographic properties in Iran, substantial climatic variability, as well as unstable political situations and poor public health conditions in some of neighboring countries, EIDs and RIDs are serious public health problems; among them, zoonotic and drug resistant diseases are the most significant. Hence, this review provides an overview of the significant bacterial, viral and fungal EIDs and RIDs in Iran regarding their epidemiological aspects. PMID:29225752

  20. Infectious diseases in competitive sports.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R A; Thacker, S B; Solomon, S L; Osterholm, M T; Hughes, J M

    1994-03-16

    Participation in competitive sports is popular and widely encouraged throughout the United States. Reports of infectious disease outbreaks among competitive athletes and recent publicity regarding infectious disease concerns in sports underscore the need to better characterize the occurrence of these problems. To identify reports of infectious diseases in sports, we performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature (MEDLINE) and newspaper databases in two on-line services (NEXIS and DIALOG PAPERS). Articles selected from the literature review included those describing cases or outbreaks of disease in which exposure to an infectious agent was likely to have occurred during training for competitive sports or during actual competition. Articles from the newspaper review included reports of outbreaks, exposures, or preventive measures that directly or indirectly involved teams or spectators. The literature review identified 38 reports of infectious disease outbreaks or other instances of transmission through person-to-person (24 reports), common-source (nine reports), or airborne (five reports) routes; the newspaper search identified 28 reports. Infectious agents included predominantly viruses but also a variety of fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our findings indicate that strategies to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in sports must recognize risks at three levels: the individual athlete, the team, and spectators or others who may become exposed to infectious diseases as a result of sports-related activities. Team physicians and others who are responsible for the health of athletes should be especially familiar with the features of infectious diseases that occur in sports and measures for the prevention of these problems.

  1. Gene Therapy for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bunnell, Bruce A.; Morgan, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Gene therapy is being investigated as an alternative treatment for a wide range of infectious diseases that are not amenable to standard clinical management. Approaches to gene therapy for infectious diseases can be divided into three broad categories: (i) gene therapies based on nucleic acid moieties, including antisense DNA or RNA, RNA decoys, and catalytic RNA moieties (ribozymes); (ii) protein approaches such as transdominant negative proteins and single-chain antibodies; and (iii) immunotherapeutic approaches involving genetic vaccines or pathogen-specific lymphocytes. It is further possible that combinations of the aforementioned approaches will be used simultaneously to inhibit multiple stages of the life cycle of the infectious agent. PMID:9457428

  2. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.

  3. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  4. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. [Acute hepatitis in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Podymova, S D

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G are the most common causes of acute hepatitis, however, there are many infectious diseases affecting liver and with fever, early diagnostics of which is very important for the clinic of internal diseases. This review presents infections, causing fever and hepatitis, but not necessarily accompanied by jaundice. Leptospirosis, yellow fever have been considered, in which liver damage determines the clinic and the prognosis of the disease. In other cases, such as infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus and herpetic hepatitis, typho-para-typhoid infections, typhoid, pneumonia, some viral diseases, malaria, Legionnaire's disease, hepatitis do not have their independent status and represent one of the important syndromes of a common disease. Modern methods of diagnostics and treatment of these diseases have been described.

  6. Leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thayaparan, S; Robertson, I D; Fairuz, A; Suut, L; Abdullah, M T

    2013-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Malaysia and recently has received increasing attention mainly due to several recent incidents that have resulted in human mortality which have alarmed health professionals in Malaysia. The increasing incidence of leptospirosis in forested regions is associated with the bacteria infecting small wild mammals other than rats. Infection in wildlife could result in the introduction of new serovars to humans and domesticated animals. More research on leptospirosis and the screening of wildlife and humans near wildlife habitats is required to have a better understanding of the involvement of wildlife in the disease.

  7. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2018-04-25

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  8. Beyond bushmeat: Animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Sarah B.; Frost, Simon D.W.; Gibson, Mhairi A.; Holland, James; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M.; Ting, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/ 1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where “bushmeat hunting” is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:24845574

  9. Beyond bushmeat: animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Paige, Sarah B; Frost, Simon D W; Gibson, Mhairi A; Jones, James Holland; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M; Ting, Nelson; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long-term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where "bushmeat hunting" is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission.

  10. A Quantitative Approach to the Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in North America: A Health Professionals’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Victoria; Sargeant, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, zoonoses account for 58% to 61% of all communicable diseases causing illness in humans globally and up to 75% of emerging human pathogens. Although the impact of zoonoses on animal health and public health in North America is significant, there has been no published research involving health professionals on the prioritization of zoonoses in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings We used conjoint analysis (CA), a well-established quantitative method in market research, to identify the relative importance of 21 key characteristics of zoonotic diseases for their prioritization in Canada and the US. Relative importance weights from the CA were used to develop a point-scoring system to derive a recommended list of zoonoses for prioritization in Canada and the US. Study participants with a background in epidemiology, public health, medical sciences, veterinary sciences and infectious disease research were recruited to complete the online survey (707 from Canada and 764 from the US). Hierarchical Bayes models were fitted to the survey data to derive CA-weighted scores for disease criteria. Scores were applied to 62 zoonotic diseases to rank diseases in order of priority. Conclusions/Significance We present the first zoonoses prioritization exercise involving health professionals in North America. Our previous study indicated individuals with no prior knowledge in infectious diseases were capable of producing meaningful results with acceptable model fits (79.4%). This study suggests health professionals with some knowledge in infectious diseases were capable of producing meaningful results with better-fitted models than the general public (83.7% and 84.2%). Despite more similarities in demographics and model fit between the combined public and combined professional groups, there was more uniformity across priority lists between the Canadian public and Canadian professionals and between the US public and US professionals. Our study suggests that

  11. Infectious disease and boxing.

    PubMed

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  12. Starting from the bench--prevention and control of foodborne and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Foodborne diseases are estimated to cause around 50 million disease cases and 3000 deaths a year in the US. Worldwide, food and waterborne diseases are estimated to cause more than 2 million deaths per year. Lab-based research is a key component of efforts to prevent and control foodborne diseases. Over the last two decades, molecular characterization of pathogen isolates has emerged as a key component of foodborne and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Characterization methods have evolved from banding pattern-based subtyping methods to sequenced-based approaches, including full genome sequencing. Molecular subtyping methods not only play a key role for characterizing pathogen transmission and detection of disease outbreaks, but also allow for identification of clonal pathogen groups that show distinct transmission characteristics. Importantly, the data generated from molecular characterization of foodborne pathogens also represent critical inputs for epidemiological and modeling studies. Continued and enhanced collaborations between infectious disease related laboratory sciences and epidemiologists, modelers, and other quantitative scientists will be critical to a One-Health approach that delivers societal benefits, including improved surveillance systems and prevention approaches for zoonotic and foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.

    PubMed

    Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States.

  14. Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States. PMID:23297259

  15. Modelling risk aversion to support decision-making for controlling zoonotic livestock diseases.

    PubMed

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bergevoet, R H M; Ge, L

    2013-12-01

    Zoonotic infectious livestock diseases are becoming a significant burden for both animal and human health and are rapidly gaining the attention of decision-makers who manage public health programmes. If control decisions have only monetary components, governments are generally regarded as being risk-neutral and the intervention strategy with the highest expected benefit (lowest expected net costs) should be preferred. However, preferences will differ and alternative intervention plans will prevail if (human) life and death outcomes are involved. A rational decision framework must therefore consider risk aversion in the decision-maker and controversial values related to public health. In the present study, risk aversion and its impact on both the utility for the monetary component and the utility for the non-monetary component is shown to be an important element when dealing with emerging zoonotic infectious livestock diseases and should not be ignored in the understanding and support of decision-making. The decision framework was applied to several control strategies for the reduction of human cases of brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) originating from sheep in Turkey.

  16. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Richard H

    2017-05-01

    It has been recognized for centuries that pregnant women have unique susceptibilities to many infectious diseases that predispose them to untoward outcomes compared with the general adult population. It is thought a combination of adaptive alterations in immunity to allow for the fetal allograft combined with changes in anatomy and physiology accompanying pregnancy underlie these susceptibilities. Emerging infectious diseases are defined as those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threaten to increase in the near future. The past decade alone has witnessed many such outbreaks, each with its own unique implications for pregnant women and their unborn fetuses as well as lessons for the health care community regarding response and mitigation. Examples of such outbreaks include, but are not limited to, severe acute respiratory syndrome, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, Ebola virus, and, most recently, the Zika virus. Although each emerging pathogen has unique features requiring specific considerations, there are many underlying principles that are shared in the recognition, communication, and mitigation of such infectious outbreaks. Some of these key principles include disease-specific delineation of transmission dynamics, understanding of pathogen-specific effects on both mothers and fetuses, and advance planning and contemporaneous management that prioritize communication among public health experts, clinicians, and patients. The productive and effective working collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has been a key partnership in the successful communication and management of such outbreaks for women's health care providers and patients alike. Going forward, the knowledge gained over the past decade will undoubtedly continue to inform future responses and will serve to optimize the education and care given

  17. Optimal sampling strategies for detecting zoonotic disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jake M; Langebrake, Jessica B; Cannataro, Vincent L; Garcia, Andres J; Hamman, Elizabeth A; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W

    2014-06-01

    The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests.

  18. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bukachi, Salome; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a ‘One Health’ approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies—trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya—we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of ‘structural violence’ that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an ‘anti-political’ focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584177

  19. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Bukachi, Salome; Leach, Melissa; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian; Wilkinson, Annie

    2017-07-19

    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a 'One Health' approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies-trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya-we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of 'structural violence' that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an 'anti-political' focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... mode Turn off more accessible mode Skip Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn ... through the teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases ...

  1. Early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases with animal morbidity and mortality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Ssebide, Benard J; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Diseases transmitted between animals and people have made up more than 50% of emerging infectious diseases in humans over the last 60 years and have continued to arise in recent months. Yet, public health and animal disease surveillance programs continue to operate independently. Here, we assessed whether recent emerging zoonotic pathogens (n = 143) are known to cause morbidity or mortality in their animal host and if so, whether they were first detected with an animal morbidity/mortality event. We show that although sick or dead animals are often associated with these pathogens (52%), only 9% were first detected from an animal morbidity or mortality event prior to or concurrent with signs of illness in humans. We propose that an animal morbidity and mortality reporting program will improve detection and should be an essential component of early warning systems for zoonotic diseases. With the use of widespread low-cost technology, such a program could engage both the public and professionals and be easily tested and further incorporated as part of surveillance efforts by public health officials.

  2. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  3. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, Ma

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  4. Update in Infectious Diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Candel, F J; Peñuelas, M; Lejárraga, C; Emilov, T; Rico, C; Díaz, I; Lázaro, C; Viñuela-Prieto, J M; Matesanz, M

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in complex models of continuous infection is a current issue. The update 2017 course addresses about microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects useful for a current approach to infectious disease. During the last year, nosocomial pneumonia approach guides, recommendations for management of yeast and filamentous fungal infections, review papers on the empirical approach to peritonitis and extensive guidelines on stewardship have been published. HIV infection is being treated before and more intensively. The implementation of molecular biology, spectrometry and inmunology to traditional techniques of staining and culture achieve a better and faster microbiological diagnosis. Finally, the infection is increasingly integrated, assessing non-antibiotic aspects in the treatment.

  5. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976–2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04395.001 PMID:25201877

  6. Zoonotic Transmission of Waterborne Disease: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Waters, Edward K; Hamilton, Andrew J; Sidhu, Harvinder S; Sidhu, Leesa A; Dunbar, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne parasites that infect both humans and animals are common causes of diarrhoeal illness, but the relative importance of transmission between humans and animals and vice versa remains poorly understood. Transmission of infection from animals to humans via environmental reservoirs, such as water sources, has attracted attention as a potential source of endemic and epidemic infections, but existing mathematical models of waterborne disease transmission have limitations for studying this phenomenon, as they only consider contamination of environmental reservoirs by humans. This paper develops a mathematical model that represents the transmission of waterborne parasites within and between both animal and human populations. It also improves upon existing models by including animal contamination of water sources explicitly. Linear stability analysis and simulation results, using realistic parameter values to describe Giardia transmission in rural Australia, show that endemic infection of an animal host with zoonotic protozoa can result in endemic infection in human hosts, even in the absence of person-to-person transmission. These results imply that zoonotic transmission via environmental reservoirs is important.

  7. Protocol for developing a Database of Zoonotic disease Research in India (DoZooRI).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Kakkar, Manish

    2017-12-10

    Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses. A large-scale systematic mapping of the published peer-reviewed research conducted in India will be undertaken. All published research will be included in the database, without any prejudice for quality screening, to broaden the scope of included studies. Structured search strategies will be developed for priority zoonotic diseases (leptospirosis, rabies, anthrax, brucellosis, cysticercosis, salmonellosis, bovine tuberculosis, Japanese encephalitis and rickettsial infections), and multiple databases will be searched for studies conducted in India. The database will be managed and hosted on a cloud-based platform called Rayyan. Individual studies will be tagged based on key preidentified parameters (disease, study design, study type, location, randomisation status and interventions, host involvement and others, as applicable). The database will incorporate already published studies, obviating the need for additional ethical clearances. The database will be made available online, and in collaboration with multisectoral teams, domains of enquiries will be identified and subsequent research questions will be raised. The database will be queried for these and resulting evidence will be analysed and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  8. The return of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Garrett, L

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US.

  9. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Miguel L.; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M.; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky’s disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  10. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  11. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-05-08

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.

  12. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS)

    PubMed Central

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Tue, Ngo T.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V.; Hoa, Ngo T.; An, Nguyen N.; Hien, Vo B.; Lao, Pham V.; Tu, Nguyen C.; Chuyen, Nguyen K.; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Tan, Dinh V.; Duong, Hoang Van V.; Toan, Tran K.; Chi, Nguyen T.Y.; Campbell, James; Rabaa, Maia A.; Nadjm, Behzad; Woolhouse, Mark; Wertheim, Heiman; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based ‘high-risk sentinel cohort’ (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health workers (8.5%). Nasal/pharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from HRSC members at recruitment and after notifying illness. Exposure to exotic animals (including wild pigs, porcupine, monkey, civet, bamboo rat and bat) was highest for the Dak Lak cohort (53.7%), followed by Ha Noi (13.7%) and Dong Thap (4.0%). A total of 26.8% of individuals reported consumption of raw blood over the previous year; 33.6% slaughterers reported no use of protective equipment at work. Over 686 person-years of observation, 213 episodes of suspect infectious disease were notified, equivalent of 0.35 reports per person-year. Responsive samples were collected from animals in the farm cohort. There was noticeable time and space clustering of disease episodes suggesting that the VIZIONS set up is also suitable for the formal epidemiological investigation of disease outbreaks. PMID:26659094

  13. [Infectious diseases - a specialty of internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Fätkenheuer, G; Jung, N; Kern, W V; Fölsch, U R; Salzberger, B

    2018-04-01

    Infectious diseases have recently gained wide public interest. Emerging infections and rising rates of antibiotic resistance are determining this trend. Both challenges will need to be addressed in international and local collaborations between different specialties in medicine and basic science. Infectious diseases as a clinical specialty in this scenario is directly responsible for the care of patients with infectious diseases. Its involvement in the care of patients with complicated infections has proved to be highly effective. Antibiotic stewardship programmes are effective measures in slowing the development of antibiotic resistance and have been widely implemented. But antibiotic stewardship specialists should not be confused with or taken as an alternative to infectious disease experts. Infectious diseases requires appropriate and specific training. It mainly uses the instrumentarium of internal medicine. With the current challenges in modern medicine, infectious diseases in Germany should thus be upgraded from a subspecialty to a clinical specialty, ideally within Internal Medicine.

  14. Multisectoral prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda, 2017: A One Health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bulage, Lilian; Kihembo, Christine; Nantima, Noelina; Monje, Fred; Ndumu, Deo; Sentumbwe, Juliet; Mbolanyi, Betty; Aruho, Robert; Kaboyo, Winyi; Mutonga, David; Basler, Colin; Paige, Sarah; Barton Behravesh, Casey

    2018-01-01

    Background Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. Materials and methods The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was used for the prioritization of zoonoses. Workshop participants included voting members and observers representing multiple government and non-governmental sectors. During the workshop, criteria for prioritization were selected, and questions and weights relevant to each criterion were determined. We used a decision tree to provide a ranked list of zoonoses. Participants then established next steps for multisectoral engagement for the prioritized zoonoses. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated how criteria weights impacted disease prioritization. Results Forty-eight zoonoses were considered during the workshop. Criteria selected to prioritize zoonotic diseases were (1) severity of disease in humans in Uganda, (2) availability of effective control strategies, (3) potential to cause an epidemic or pandemic in humans or animals, (4) social and economic impacts, and (5) bioterrorism potential. Seven zoonotic diseases were identified as priorities for Uganda: anthrax, zoonotic influenza viruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, African trypanosomiasis, plague, and rabies. Sensitivity analysis did not indicate significant changes in zoonotic disease prioritization based on criteria weights. Discussion One Health approaches and multisectoral collaborations are crucial to the surveillance, prevention, and control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Uganda used such an approach to identify zoonoses of

  15. Infectious syphilis mimicking neoplastic disease.

    PubMed

    Drusin, L M; Singer, C; Valenti, A J; Armstrong, D

    1977-02-01

    Five patients who were initially evaluated for malignant neoplasm actually had infectious syphillis (one primary, two secondaries, two secondaries with persistence of primary). Two patients were considered for radical surgery and one for extensive radiation and/or chemotherapy. In four patients an elevated routine admission VDRL was the first indication of the correct diagnosis. Dark-field examination is the most important laboratory test in the diagnosis of primary syphillis; VDRL and FTA-ABS are most important in confirming secondary syphillis. Penicillin remains the drug of choice for therapy. At a time when the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, it is extremely important to develop adequate educational programs for medical students and physicians.

  16. Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part I--nonparasitic zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Armstrong, J

    2002-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease ranging from mild and self-limiting to fatal. The risk of development of a zoonotic disease can be lessened by early recognition of infected animals, proper animal handling, basic biosecurity precautions, and, most importantly, personal hygiene.

  17. Military Infectious Diseases Update on Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Research Program (MIDRP) Insect Vector ControlDiagnostics Prevention Treatment Infectious diseases adversely impact military operations. Vaccines...appropriate treatment and aids commanders in the field. Most militarily relevant infectious diseases are transmitted by biting insects and other...based Insect Repellent (1946) Vaccines Protectants Antiparasitic Drugs Research Effort Advanced Development Fielded Products Malaria Rapid

  18. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

  19. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and…

  20. Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations

    SciT

    Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

  1. Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis: emerging zoonotic diseases in the South.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Today most emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), arise in the natural environment as zoonoses and are often imported into the United States (US). The most common helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) in the US, neuroangiostrongyliasis and baylisascariasis, share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases. Neuroangiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is now endemic in the US following the importation of infected rats on container ships and African land snails, the parasite's intermediate hosts, as biological controls and exotic pets. Baylisascariasis, a raccoon zoonosis, caused by the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, has extended its US distribution range from suburban neighborhoods in the northern US to the Southeast and West Coast since the 1980s. Both A. cantonensis and B. procyonis are now enzootic in Louisiana and have caused EoM in humans. This review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2008, in order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EoM in the US, and specifically in Louisiana; and to alert Louisiana clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EoM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel in the Americas or Caribbean. Most parasitic diseases causing EoM are no longer confined to tropical countries; they are now endemic in the US and in Louisiana and more cases may be anticipated.

  2. Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao

    2018-04-06

    The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.

  3. How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Neiderud, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    The world is becoming more urban every day, and the process has been ongoing since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The United Nations now estimates that 3.9 billion people live in urban centres. The rapid influx of residents is however not universal and the developed countries are already urban, but the big rise in urban population in the next 30 years is expected to be in Asia and Africa. Urbanization leads to many challenges for global health and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. New megacities can be incubators for new epidemics, and zoonotic diseases can spread in a more rapid manner and become worldwide threats. Adequate city planning and surveillance can be powerful tools to improve the global health and decrease the burden of communicable diseases. PMID:26112265

  4. The role of native birds and other wildlife on the emergence of zoonotic diseases

    Friend, Milton; McLean, Robert G.; Burroughs, T.; Knobler, S.; Lederberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wildlife can be an important source of transmission of infectious disease to humans. One potential transmission route involves hunting and fishing, both common activities in the United States and worldwide. For example, during 1996, approximately 11 million Americans, about 40 percent of the total population 16 years of age and older, took part in some recreational activity relating to wildlife and fish. Another potential route of infection focuses on urban and suburban environments. These locations are of special concern because of their increasing role as wildlife habitat, the greater interface between humans and wildlife that takes place within those environments, the paucity of knowledge about disease in those wildlife populations, and the general lack of orderly management for wildlife within those environments. In the wild, several trends are contributing to the growing importance of zoonotic diseases. First, the spectrum of infectious diseases affecting wildlife today is greater than at any time during the previous century. Second, the occurrence of infectious diseases has changed, from sporadic, self-limiting outbreaks that generally resulted in minor losses to frequently occurring events that generally result in major losses of wildlife. Third, disease emergence has occurred on a worldwide scale in a broad spectrum of wildlife species and habitats. Given the scope of the problem, current disease surveillance efforts are inadequate. Few state wildlife agencies allocate personnel and resources to address wildlife disease, despite their statutory responsibility for managing nonmigratory wildlife. Some state agencies provide minimal support for regional programs based at universities. At the federal level, the primary surveillance effort is conducted by the National Wildlife Health Center, operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Outside of government, some veterinary schools, agriculture diagnostic laboratories, and other programs provide additional

  5. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza], compliance with routine... infectious agents, radiation and chemicals. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that for 2008, the...

  6. Production of infectious dromedary camel hepatitis E virus by a reverse genetic system: Potential for zoonotic infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Zhou, Xianfeng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenicity, epidemiology and replication mechanism of dromedary camel hepatitis E virus (DcHEV), a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV), has been unclear. Here we used a reverse genetic system to produce DcHEV and examined the possibility of zoonotic infection. Capped genomic RNA derived from a synthetic DcHEV cDNA was transfected into human hepatocarcinoma cells PLC/PRF/5. The DcHEV capsid protein and RNA were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or RT-qPCR. A neutralization test for DcHEV was carried out by using antisera against HEV-like particles. DcHEV was used to inoculate two cynomolgus monkeys to examine the potential for cross-species infection. The transfection of PLC/PRF/5 cells with capped DcHEV RNA resulted in the production of infectious DcHEV. The genome sequence analysis demonstrated that both nucleotide and amino acid changes accumulated during the passages in PLC/PRF/5 cells. The cynomolgus monkeys showed serological signs of infection when DcHEV was intravenously inoculated. DcHEV was neutralized by not only anti-DcHEV-LPs antibody, but also anti-genotype 1 (G1), G3 and G4 HEV-LPs antibodies. Moreover, the monkeys immunized with DcHEV escaped the G3 HEV challenge, indicating that the serotype of DcHEV is similar to those of other human HEVs. Infectious DcHEV was produced using a reverse genetic system and propagated in PLC/PRF/5 cells. The antigenicity and immunogenicity of DcHEV are similar to those of G1, G3 and G4 HEV. DcHEV was experimentally transmitted to primates, demonstrating the possibility of a zoonotic infection by DcHEV. Dromedary camel hepatitis E virus (DcHEV) was produced by a reverse genetic system and grows well in PLC/PRF/5 cells. Cynomolgus monkeys experimentally infected with DcHEV indicated serological signs of infection, suggesting that DcHEV has the potential to cause zoonotic HEV infection. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Overview of Zoonotic Diseases in Turkey: The One Health Concept and Future Threats.

    PubMed

    İnci, Abdullah; Doğanay, Mehmet; Özdarendeli, Aykut; Düzlü, Önder; Yıldırım, Alparslan

    2018-03-01

    Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections. The natural location of Turkey allows many emerged or re-emerged infections with zoonotic characteristics by animal movements, such as bird immigrations, and by human movements due to civil wars as seen with regional refugees. Numerous zoonotic diseases, including 37 bacterial, 13 fungal, 29 viral, 28 parasitic (3 trematodes, 7 cestodes, 10 nematodes, and 8 protozoan), and totally 107 infections, have been reported from Turkey to date. Additionally, many ectoparasitic zoonoses within 15 different arthropod groups and one leech infestation have been reported from Turkey to date. The "One Health" initiative is particularly relevant for developing strategies to combat zoonotic diseases. In this article, we review the occurrence of zoonotic diseases in man and animals in Turkey in the light of the "One Health" perspective.

  8. Infectious disease risks in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jay A

    2018-03-07

    Hurdles exist to clinical xenotransplantation including potential infectious transmission from nonhuman species to xenograft recipients. In anticipation of clinical trials of xenotransplantation, the associated infectious risks have been investigated. Swine and immunocompromised humans share some potential pathogens. Swine herpesviruses including porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV) are largely species-specific and do not, generally, infect human cells. Human cellular receptors exist for porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), which infects certain human-derived cell lines in vitro. PERV-inactivated pigs have been produced recently. Human infection due to PERV has not been described. A screening paradigm can be applied to exclude potential human pathogens from "designated pathogen free" breeding colonies. Various microbiological assays have been developed for screening and diagnosis including antibody-based tests and qualitative and quantitative molecular assays for viruses. Additional assays may be required to diagnose pig-specific organisms in human xenograft recipients. Significant progress has been made in the evaluation of the potential infectious risks of clinical xenotransplantation. Infectious risk would be amplified by intensive immunosuppression. The available data suggest that risks of xenotransplant-associated recipient infection are manageable and that clinical trials can be performed safely. Possible infectious risks of xenotransplantation to the community at large are undefined but merit consideration. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  10. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress. These signs of stress are normal, and may ...

  11. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  12. Genomic Dissection of an Icelandic Epidemic of Respiratory Disease in Horses and Associated Zoonotic Cases

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Harris, Simon R.; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Gammeljord, Kristina; Steward, Karen F.; Newton, J. Richard; Robinson, Carl; Charbonneau, Amelia R. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iceland is free of the major infectious diseases of horses. However, in 2010 an epidemic of respiratory disease of unknown cause spread through the country’s native horse population of 77,000. Microbiological investigations ruled out known viral agents but identified the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) in diseased animals. We sequenced the genomes of 257 isolates of S. zooepidemicus to differentiate epidemic from endemic strains. We found that although multiple endemic clones of S. zooepidemicus were present, one particular clone, sequence type 209 (ST209), was likely to have been responsible for the epidemic. Concurrent with the epidemic, ST209 was also recovered from a human case of septicemia, highlighting the pathogenic potential of this strain. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the incursion of this strain into one training yard during February 2010 provided a nidus for the infection of multiple horses that then transmitted the strain to farms throughout Iceland. This study represents the first time that whole-genome sequencing has been used to investigate an epidemic on a national scale to identify the likely causative agent and the link to an associated zoonotic infection. Our data highlight the importance of national biosecurity to protect vulnerable populations of animals and also demonstrate the potential impact of S. zooepidemicus transmission to other animals, including humans. PMID:28765219

  13. Cocirculation of infectious diseases on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joel C.

    2013-06-01

    We consider multiple diseases spreading in a static configuration model network. We make standard assumptions that infection transmits from neighbor to neighbor at a disease-specific rate and infected individuals recover at a disease-specific rate. Infection by one disease confers immediate and permanent immunity to infection by any disease. Under these assumptions, we find a simple, low-dimensional ordinary differential equations model which captures the global dynamics of the infection. The dynamics depend strongly on initial conditions. Although we motivate this Rapid Communication with infectious disease, the model may be adapted to the spread of other infectious agents such as competing political beliefs, or adoption of new technologies if these are influenced by contacts. As an example, we demonstrate how to model an infectious disease which can be prevented by a behavior change.

  14. Information to prevent human exposure to disease agents associated with wildlife—U.S. Geological Survey circulars on zoonotic disease

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others have published reports with information about geographic distribution, specific pathogens, disease ecology, and strategies to avoid exposure and infection for a selection of zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be passed from animals to humans, such as rabies and plague. This summary factsheet highlights the reports on plague, bat rabies, and raccoon roundworm with links to all seven zoonotic diseases covered in this series.

  15. Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Mayer, J D

    2000-04-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis of the major characteristics of emerging diseases, in an interdisciplinary context. Political ecology is one framework for analysis that is promising in developing a modified ecology of disease.

  16. [Stochastic model of infectious diseases transmission].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramírez, Juan; Hernández-Rodríguez, Gabriela Eréndira

    2009-01-01

    Propose a mathematic model that shows how population structure affects the size of infectious disease epidemics. This study was conducted during 2004 at the University of Colima. It used generalized small-world network topology to represent contacts that occurred within and between families. To that end, two programs in MATLAB were conducted to calculate the efficiency of the network. The development of a program in the C programming language was also required, that represents the stochastic susceptible-infectious-removed model, and simultaneous results were obtained for the number of infected people. An increased number of families connected by meeting sites impacted the size of the infectious diseases by roughly 400%. Population structure influences the rapid spread of infectious diseases, reaching epidemic effects.

  17. Experts' Perceptions on China's Capacity to Manage Emerging and Re-emerging Zoonotic Diseases in an Era of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A; Xiang, J; Liu, Q; Tong, M X; Sun, Y; Liu, X; Chen, K; Cameron, S; Hanson-Easey, S; Han, G-S; Weinstein, P; Williams, C; Bi, P

    2017-11-01

    Zoonotic diseases transmitted by arthropods and rodents are a major public health concern in China. However, interventions in recent decades have helped lower the incidence of several diseases despite the country's large, frequently mobile population and socio-economic challenges. Increasing globalization, rapid urbanization and a warming climate now add to the complexity of disease control and prevention and could challenge China's capacity to respond to threats of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. To investigate this notion, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 30 infectious disease experts in four cities in China. The case study diseases under discussion were malaria, dengue fever and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, all of which may be influenced by changing meteorological conditions. Data were analysed using standard qualitative techniques. The study participants viewed the current disease prevention and control system favourably and were optimistic about China's capacity to manage climate-sensitive diseases in the future. Several recommendations emerged from the data including the need to improve health literacy in the population regarding the transmission of infectious diseases and raising awareness of the health impacts of climate change amongst policymakers and health professionals. Participants thought that research capacity could be strengthened and human resources issues for front-line staff should be addressed. It was considered important that authorities are well prepared in advance for outbreaks such as dengue fever in populous subtropical areas, and a prompt and coordinated response is required when outbreaks occur. Furthermore, health professionals need to remain skilled in the identification of diseases for which incidence is declining, so that re-emerging or emerging trends can be rapidly identified. Recommendations such as these may be useful in formulating adaptation plans and capacity building for the future control and

  18. Systems thinking in combating infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming

    2017-09-11

    The transmission of infectious diseases is a dynamic process determined by multiple factors originating from disease pathogens and/or parasites, vector species, and human populations. These factors interact with each other and demonstrate the intrinsic mechanisms of the disease transmission temporally, spatially, and socially. In this article, we provide a comprehensive perspective, named as systems thinking, for investigating disease dynamics and associated impact factors, by means of emphasizing the entirety of a system's components and the complexity of their interrelated behaviors. We further develop the general steps for performing systems approach to tackling infectious diseases in the real-world settings, so as to expand our abilities to understand, predict, and mitigate infectious diseases.

  19. Zoonotic viral diseases and the frontier of early diagnosis, control and prevention.

    PubMed

    Heeney, J L

    2006-11-01

    Public awareness of the human health risks of zoonotic infections has grown in recent years. Currently, concern of H5N1 flu transmission from migratory bird populations has increased with foci of fatal human cases. This comes on the heels of other major zoonotic viral epidemics in the last decade. These include other acute emerging or re-emerging viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West-Nile virus, Ebola virus, monkeypox, as well as the more inapparent insidious slow viral and prion diseases. Virus infections with zoonotic potential can become serious killers once they are able to establish the necessary adaptations for efficient human-to-human transmission under circumstances sufficient to reach epidemic proportions. The monitoring and early diagnosis of these potential risks are overlapping frontiers of human and veterinary medicine. Here, current viral zoonotics and evolving threats are reviewed.

  20. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level.

  1. Use of probiotics in pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Cardinale, Fabio; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Dodi, Icilio; Mastrorilli, Violetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We summarize current evidence and recommendations for the use of probiotics in childhood infectious diseases. Probiotics may be of benefit in treating acute infectious diarrhea and reducing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Potential benefits of probiotic on prevention of traveler's diarrhea,Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, side effects of triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication, necrotizing enterocolitis, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections and recurrent urinary tract infections remain unclear. More studies are needed to investigate optimal strain, dosage, bioavailability of drops and tablets, duration of treatment and safety. Probiotics and recombinant probiotic strain represent a promising source of molecules for the development of novel anti-infectious therapy.

  2. Infectious diseases and travelers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Different areas of the world have different diseases and different prevalence rates of diseases. Travelers going to foreign countries may encounter diseases to which they have no natural immunity and should take any possible precautions.

  3. Framework for Infectious Disease Analysis: A comprehensive and integrative multi-modeling approach to disease prediction and management.

    PubMed

    Erraguntla, Madhav; Zapletal, Josef; Lawley, Mark

    2017-12-01

    The impact of infectious disease on human populations is a function of many factors including environmental conditions, vector dynamics, transmission mechanics, social and cultural behaviors, and public policy. A comprehensive framework for disease management must fully connect the complete disease lifecycle, including emergence from reservoir populations, zoonotic vector transmission, and impact on human societies. The Framework for Infectious Disease Analysis is a software environment and conceptual architecture for data integration, situational awareness, visualization, prediction, and intervention assessment. Framework for Infectious Disease Analysis automatically collects biosurveillance data using natural language processing, integrates structured and unstructured data from multiple sources, applies advanced machine learning, and uses multi-modeling for analyzing disease dynamics and testing interventions in complex, heterogeneous populations. In the illustrative case studies, natural language processing from social media, news feeds, and websites was used for information extraction, biosurveillance, and situation awareness. Classification machine learning algorithms (support vector machines, random forests, and boosting) were used for disease predictions.

  4. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.

  5. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David

    2004-01-01

    Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area. PMID:18159512

  6. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R.; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David

    2005-01-01

    Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area. PMID:15759832

  7. A comprehensive infectious disease management system.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Alex; Farley, John D

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electronic management system is now an essential tool for the successful management and monitoring of those affected by communicable infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, hepatitis C - HEP C) during the course of the treatment. The current methods which depend heavily on manual collecting, compiling and disseminating treatment information are labor-intensive and time consuming. Clinics specialized in the treatment of infectious diseases use a mix of electronic systems that fail to interact with each other, result in data duplication, and do not support treatment of the patient as a whole. The purpose of the Infectious Disease Management System is to reduce the administrative overhead associated with data collection and analysis while providing correlation abilities and decision support in accordance with defined treatment guidelines. This Infectious Disease Management System was developed to: Ensure cost effectiveness by means of low software licensing costs, Introduce a centralized mechanism of collecting and monitoring all infectious disease management data, Automate electronic retrieval of laboratory findings, Introduce a decision support mechanism as per treatment guidelines, Seamlessly integrate of application modules, Provide comprehensive reporting capabilities, Maintain a high level of user friendliness.

  8. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... announced below concerns Identification, Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious... in response to ``Identification, Surveillance, and Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease...

  9. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  10. Infectious diseases and securitization: WHO's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiyong; Karackattu, Joe Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The threat posed by infectious diseases has been increasingly framed as a security issue. The UN Security Council's Resolution 1308, which designated HIV/AIDS as a threat to international security, evidenced the securitization process. Using securitization theory as a theoretical tool, this article explores the securitization of infectious diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO). While WHO has tended to securitize infectious diseases since 2000, it has encountered a dilemma in the process because of the inherent asymmetry of interest between developed and developing countries. The act of securitization in WHO currently remains mostly a rhetorical device, since WHO's norms emblematic of securitization have not been backed by operational measures for verification or enforcement due to these asymmetric interests.

  11. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  12. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Kumate, J

    1997-01-01

    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  13. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  14. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, S.H.; Levy, J.K.; Kirk, S.K.; Crawford, P.C.; Leutenegger, C.M.; Shuster, J.J.; Liu, J.; Chandrashekar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’ (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, Odds ratio=2.5, P<0.001), but not with hemotropic mycoplasmas or Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  15. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    PubMed

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P <0.001), but not with hemotropic mycoplasmas or Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Chiea C.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Chapman, Stephen J.; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H.; Walley, Andrew J.; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C.; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C.; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K.H.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P.; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J. Anthony; Williams, Thomas N.; Berkley, James A.; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Fine, Paul E.M.; Goh, Denise L.M.; Hill, Adrian V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The interleukin-2 (IL2)-mediated immune response is critical for host defence against infectious pathogens. CISH, a suppressor of cytokine signalling, controls IL2 signalling. Methods We tested for association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis and severe malaria) in 8402 persons from the Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam using a case-control design. We have previously tested twenty other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. Results We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five SNPs (CISH −639, −292, −163, +1320 and +3415) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multi-SNP score, we found substantial support for an effect of CISH genetic variants on susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (overall P=3.8 × 10−11) with CISH −292 being “responsible” for the majority of the association signal (P=4.58×10−7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adult volunteers carrying the CISH −292 variant showed a muted response to IL2 stimulation — in the form of 25-40% less CISH — when compared with “control” cells lacking the −292 variant. Conclusions Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signalling may play a major role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of having one of these infectious diseases was found to be increased by at least 18 percent in individuals carrying the variant CISH alleles. PMID:20484391

  17. Data-model fusion to better understand emerging pathogens and improve infectious disease forecasting.

    PubMed

    LaDeau, Shannon L; Glass, Gregory E; Hobbs, N Thompson; Latimer, Andrew; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2011-07-01

    Ecologists worldwide are challenged to contribute solutions to urgent and pressing environmental problems by forecasting how populations, communities, and ecosystems will respond to global change. Rising to this challenge requires organizing ecological information derived from diverse sources and formally assimilating data with models of ecological processes. The study of infectious disease has depended on strategies for integrating patterns of observed disease incidence with mechanistic process models since John Snow first mapped cholera cases around a London water pump in 1854. Still, zoonotic and vector-borne diseases increasingly affect human populations, and methods used to successfully characterize directly transmitted diseases are often insufficient. We use four case studies to demonstrate that advances in disease forecasting require better understanding of zoonotic host and vector populations, as well of the dynamics that facilitate pathogen amplification and disease spillover into humans. In each case study, this goal is complicated by limited data, spatiotemporal variability in pathogen transmission and impact, and often, insufficient biological understanding. We present a conceptual framework for data-model fusion in infectious disease research that addresses these fundamental challenges using a hierarchical state-space structure to (1) integrate multiple data sources and spatial scales to inform latent parameters, (2) partition uncertainty in process and observation models, and (3) explicitly build upon existing ecological and epidemiological understanding. Given the constraints inherent in the study of infectious disease and the urgent need for progress, fusion of data and expertise via this type of conceptual framework should prove an indispensable tool.

  18. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Meets the Future.

    PubMed

    Gilsdorf, Janet R; Spearman, Paul; Englund, Janet A; Tan, Tina Q; Bryant, Kristina A

    2018-05-19

    Pediatric infectious diseases physicians are dedicated to the diagnosis, prevention, and management of infections in children. As such, we play large, and important, roles in the clinical care of children from birth to late adolescence and in infection prevention, antimicrobial stewardship, research pertaining to infections, public health, international and global health, and advocacy for children's health. Furthermore, we are critical to the education of future physicians (in general), pediatricians, and infectious diseases doctors. In addition to diagnosing and treating bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections known through the ages, we have been at the forefront of meeting today's new infectious threats to children's health, which include the following: antibiotic-resistant organisms; hospital-acquired infections; global outbreaks such as Ebola, Zika, human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and new strains of influenza; infections in immunocompromised children; vaccine-preventable infections; the inefficient use of medical resources; and the high cost of medical care.

  19. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  20. [Emerging infectious diseases: complex, unpredictable processes].

    PubMed

    Guégan, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    In the light of a double approach, at first empirical, later theoretical and comparative, illustrated by the example of the Buruli ulcer and its mycobacterial agent Mycobacterium ulcerans on which I focused my research activity these last ten years by studying determinants and factors of emerging infectious or parasitic diseases, the complexity of events explaining emerging diseases will be presented. The cascade of events occurring at various levels of spatiotemporal scales and organization of life, which lead to the numerous observed emergences, nowadays requires better taking into account the interactions between host(s), pathogen(s) and the environment by including the behavior of both individuals and the population. In numerous research studies on emerging infectious diseases, microbial hazard is described rather than infectious disease risk, the latter resulting from the confrontation between an association of threatening phenomena, or hazards, and a susceptible population. Beyond, the theme of emerging infectious diseases and its links with global environmental and societal changes leads to reconsider some well-established knowledge in infectiology and parasitology. © Société de Biologie, 2017.

  1. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

  2. Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues. PMID:8903206

  3. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets.

    PubMed

    Greatorex, Zoe F; Olson, Sarah H; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity.

  4. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets

    PubMed Central

    Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E.; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B.; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O’Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity. PMID:27008628

  5. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good. PMID:21339848

  6. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  7. Personalized Medicine and Infectious Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Slade O; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

    2017-11-01

    A recent study identified pathogen factors associated with an increased mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, using predictive modelling and a combination of genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical data. This study conceptually validates the benefit of personalized medicine and highlights the potential use of whole genome sequencing in infectious disease management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Infectious disease protection for healthcare security officers.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Michael S; Arias, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare Security should be considered an active component in an infectious disease event, the authors maintain, and security officers must be included in an Employee Health screening and N95 fit testing initiative to safely welcome the incoming infected patients. In this article, they spell out the different levels of precautions officers should become familiar with in order to protect themselves.

  9. Rapid Analysis of Pharmacology for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Andrew L; Bickerton, G. Richard; Carruthers, Ian M; Boyer, Stephen K; Rubin, Harvey; Overington, John P

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic, epidemic and endemic infectious diseases are united by a common problem: how do we rapidly and cost-effectively identify potential pharmacological interventions to treat infections? Given the large number of emerging and neglected infectious diseases and the fact that they disproportionately afflict the poorest members of the global society, new ways of thinking are required to develop high productivity discovery systems that can be applied to a large number of pathogens. The growing availability of parasite genome data provides the basis for developing methods to prioritize, a priori potential drug targets and analyze the pharmacological landscape of an infectious disease. Thus the overall objective of infectious disease informatics is to enable the rapid generation of plausible, novel medical hypotheses of test-able pharmacological experiments, by uncovering undiscovered relationships in the wealth of biomedical literature and databases that were collected for other purposes. In particular our goal is to identify potential drug targets present in a pathogen genome and prioritize which pharmacological experiments are most likely to discover drug-like lead compounds rapidly against a pathogen (i.e. which specific compounds and drug targets should be screened, in which assays and where they can be sourced). An integral part of the challenge is the development and integration of methods to predict druggability, essentiality, synthetic lethality and polypharmocology in pathogen genomes, while simultaneously integrating the inevitable issues of chemical tractability and the potential for acquired drug resistance from the start. PMID:21401504

  10. Occurrence of infectious diseases in dialysed patients.

    PubMed

    Borzecki, Andrzej; Pikuła, Anna; Stadnik, Adam; Janowska-Nowosad, Justyna; Dyczko, Dorota; Borzecka, Halina

    2004-01-01

    Chronic kidneys' failure as well as hemodialysis operations lead to disorders of many organs' and system's functions. We can observe a decrease in the immunulogical system's efficiency, which consequently causes the decrease in a human body's defence abilities. The dialysed patients are subject to a frequent contact with medical equipment and they require numerous examinations. All these factors, including the dialysis itself, increase the risk of occurrence of various types of infections, both bacterial and viral ones. The aim of the work was to try to define the kind and frequency of infectious diseases occurring among the dialysed patients. In order to conduct the research, the questionnaire among 50 patients in the centre of dialysis of the hospital in Chełm was made. Among the examined group, the most frequently occurring infectious diseases were infections of the ureter, bronchitis, flu and ear infection. Among 30% of the examined, inflammatory and thrombotic changes within a dialysis drainage tube occurred. 22% of the examined are the carriers of HBV. Among 36%, however, the antibodies of HCV were detected. 1. The hemodialysed patients make up a group that is at increased risk of infectious diseases. 2. The infection of B and C type is the exceptional problem among the hemodialysed patients. 3. The frequency of infectious diseases occurrence increases along with age and length of dialysotherapy. 4. Education of the patients about how to prevent infections brings measurable effects in the form of the decreasing number of morbidity cases.

  11. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  13. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.

  14. Protein crystallography and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, C. L.; Merritt, E. A.; Van den Akker, F.; Kim, H.; Feil, I.; Delboni, L. F.; Mande, S. C.; Sarfaty, S.; Petra, P. H.; Hol, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The current rapid growth in the number of known 3-dimensional protein structures is producing a database of structures that is increasingly useful as a starting point for the development of new medically relevant molecules such as drugs, therapeutic proteins, and vaccines. This development is beautifully illustrated in the recent book, Protein structure: New approaches to disease and therapy (Perutz, 1992). There is a great and growing promise for the design of molecules for the treatment or prevention of a wide variety of diseases, an endeavor made possible by the insights derived from the structure and function of crucial proteins from pathogenic organisms and from man. We present here 2 illustrations of structure-based drug design. The first is the prospect of developing antitrypanosomal drugs based on crystallographic, ligand-binding, and molecular modeling studies of glycolytic glycosomal enzymes from Trypanosomatidae. These unicellular organisms are responsible for several tropical diseases, including African and American trypanosomiases, as well as various forms of leishmaniasis. Because the target enzymes are also present in the human host, this project is a pioneering study in selective design. The second illustrative case is the prospect of designing anti-cholera drugs based on detailed analysis of the structure of cholera toxin and the closely related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. Such potential drugs can be targeted either at inhibiting the toxin's receptor binding site or at blocking the toxin's intracellular catalytic activity. Study of the Vibrio cholerae and E. coli toxins serves at the same time as an example of a general approach to structure-based vaccine design. These toxins exhibit a remarkable ability to stimulate the mucosal immune system, and early results have suggested that this property can be maintained by engineered fusion proteins based on the native toxin structure. The challenge is thus to incorporate selected epitopes

  15. Myasthenia gravis and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Gilhus, Nils Erik; Romi, Fredrik; Hong, Yu; Skeie, Geir Olve

    2018-01-25

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease with muscular weakness as the only symptom, and often with immunosuppressive treatment. All these aspects could have relevance for the risk of infections as well as their prophylactic and curative treatment. This is a review article, where Web of Science has been searched for relevant key words and key word combinations. Full papers were selected first by title and then by abstract. MG can be triggered and worsened by infections. No virus or other pathogen has been proven to have a specific link to MG. Treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and thymectomy implies a slightly increased risk for infections. Infections should be actively treated, but a few antibiotics are avoided due to potential interference with neuromuscular transmission. Hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary during infections because of MG deterioration and risk of insufficient respiration. Vaccinations are generally recommended in MG, but live microorganisms should be avoided if possible in immunosuppressed patients.

  16. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  17. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  18. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  19. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel A.; Hughes, David

    2014-01-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health. PMID:25477728

  20. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  1. Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Alan J.; Evengard, Birgitta; Semenza, Jan C.; Ogden, Nicholas; Børresen, Malene L.; Berner, Jim; Brubaker, Michael; Sjöstedt, Anders; Evander, Magnus; Hondula, David M.; Menne, Bettina; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Gounder, Prabhu; Larose, Tricia; Revich, Boris; Hueffer, Karsten; Albihn, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. PMID:25317383

  2. Level of awareness regarding some zoonotic diseases, among dog owners of ithaca, new york.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Gursimrat Kaur; Singh, Devinder

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, dogs and cats are the two most common household companion animals. Because of this, they can be direct or indirect source of many human infections. Fortunately, most of these zoonotic infections can be clinically prevented by appropriate prophylactic interventions. Present kind of cross-sectional study, for the first time, was conducted in city of Ithaca, New York. People visiting local animal hospitals, dog parks, library and shoppers at Walmart supermarket were personally interviewed and a pre-tested questionnaire was got filled from every individual. The collected data were analyzed for percentage proportions using Microsoft Excel(®) and the results had been presented in graphical as well as tabulated forms. Out of 100 participants responding to the request for participation, gender-wise, 45% of the participants were male while 55% of the participants were females. Demographically, 50% participants lived in rural, 35% in urban while 15% participants lived in suburban areas. Educational background of the participants ranged from High school pass-outs to Graduates. Participants were aware about the zoonotic potential of leptospirosis, giardiasis, rabies, hookworms, coccidiosis, lyme disease, roundworms, toxoplasma, leishmaniasis, salmonellosis and ringworm disease. Knowledge gaps in the sampled population, in terms of lack of awareness about zoonotic diseases vectored by mosquitoes, ticks and fleas; practice of not doing regular deworming and prophylactic control of fleas and ticks on pet dogs; and lack of practice among physicians to discuss zoonotic canine diseases with their clients were revealed by this study.

  3. Level of Awareness Regarding Some Zoonotic Diseases, Among Dog Owners of Ithaca, New York

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gursimrat Kaur; Singh, Devinder

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Worldwide, dogs and cats are the two most common household companion animals. Because of this, they can be direct or indirect source of many human infections. Fortunately, most of these zoonotic infections can be clinically prevented by appropriate prophylactic interventions. Materials and Methods: Present kind of cross-sectional study, for the first time, was conducted in city of Ithaca, New York. People visiting local animal hospitals, dog parks, library and shoppers at Walmart supermarket were personally interviewed and a pre-tested questionnaire was got filled from every individual. The collected data were analyzed for percentage proportions using Microsoft Excel® and the results had been presented in graphical as well as tabulated forms. Results: Out of 100 participants responding to the request for participation, gender-wise, 45% of the participants were male while 55% of the participants were females. Demographically, 50% participants lived in rural, 35% in urban while 15% participants lived in suburban areas. Educational background of the participants ranged from High school pass-outs to Graduates. Conclusions: Participants were aware about the zoonotic potential of leptospirosis, giardiasis, rabies, hookworms, coccidiosis, lyme disease, roundworms, toxoplasma, leishmaniasis, salmonellosis and ringworm disease. Knowledge gaps in the sampled population, in terms of lack of awareness about zoonotic diseases vectored by mosquitoes, ticks and fleas; practice of not doing regular deworming and prophylactic control of fleas and ticks on pet dogs; and lack of practice among physicians to discuss zoonotic canine diseases with their clients were revealed by this study. PMID:25657956

  4. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Despite the enormous relevance of zoonotic infections to world-wide public health, and despite much effort in modeling individual zoonoses, a fundamental understanding of the disease dynamics and the nature of outbreaks emanating from such a complex system is still lacking. We introduce a simple sto...

  5. Zoonotic disease risk perceptions in the British veterinary profession.

    PubMed

    Robin, Charlotte; Bettridge, Judy; McMaster, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    In human and veterinary medicine, reducing the risk of occupationally-acquired infections relies on effective infection prevention and control practices (IPCs). In veterinary medicine, zoonoses present a risk to practitioners, yet little is known about how these risks are understood and how this translates into health protective behaviour. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions within the British veterinary profession and identify motivators and barriers to compliance with IPCs. A cross-sectional study was conducted using veterinary practices registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Here we demonstrate that compliance with IPCs is influenced by more than just knowledge and experience, and understanding of risk is complex and multifactorial. Out of 252 respondents, the majority were not concerned about the risk of zoonoses (57.5%); however, a considerable proportion (34.9%) was. Overall, 44.0% of respondents reported contracting a confirmed or suspected zoonoses, most frequently dermatophytosis (58.6%). In veterinary professionals who had previous experience of managing zoonotic cases, time or financial constraints and a concern for adverse animal reactions were not perceived as barriers to use of personal protective equipment (PPE). For those working in large animal practice, the most significant motivator for using PPE was concerns over liability. When assessing responses to a range of different "infection control attitudes", veterinary nurses tended to have a more positive perspective, compared with veterinary surgeons. Our results demonstrate that IPCs are not always adhered to, and factors influencing motivators and barriers to compliance are not simply based on knowledge and experience. Educating veterinary professionals may help improve compliance to a certain extent, however increased knowledge does not necessarily equate to an increase in risk-mitigating behaviour. This highlights that the construction of risk is complex and

  6. Spatiotemporal Frameworks for Infectious Disease Diffusion and Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Peter

    2016-12-20

    Emerging infectious diseases, and the resurgence of previously controlled infectious disease (e.g., malaria, tuberculosis), are a major focus for public health concern, as well as providing challenges for establishing aetiology and transmission. [...].

  7. Tropical environments, human activities, and the transmission of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sattenspiel, L

    2000-01-01

    Throughout recent history, the tropical regions of the world have been affected more severely by infectious diseases than the temperate world. Much of the success of infectious diseases in that region is due to both biological and environmental factors that encourage high levels of biodiversity in hosts, vectors, and pathogens, and social factors that compromise efforts to control diseases. Several of these factors are described. Discussion then shifts to specific types of host-pathogen relationships. The most important of these in the tropics is the relationship between humans, a pathogen, and a vector that carries the pathogen from one human to another. Mosquitoes are the vector responsible for the transmission of many vector-borne human diseases. Characteristics of mosquito-human interactions are described, including cultural behaviors humans have developed that both increase the chances of transmission and help to limit that transmission. The transmission of water-borne diseases, fecal-oral transmission, zoonotic diseases, respiratory illnesses, and sexually transmitted diseases are also discussed. Attention is paid to how diseases with these modes of transmission differ in characteristics and importance in tropical human populations compared to those in temperate regions. Following this general discussion, three case studies are presented in some detail. The diseases chosen for the case studies include cholera, lymphatic filariasis, and dracunculiasis (guinea worm). These three case studies taken together provide examples of the diversity of human host-pathogen interactions as well as ways that human activities have both promoted their spread and helped to control them. The transmission of all three diseases is related to the nature and quality of water sources. The transmission of cholera, a water-borne disease, is related to sanitation practices, physical characteristics of the environment such as temperature and humidity, and modern shipping practices

  8. Selected emerging infectious diseases of squamata.

    PubMed

    Latney, La'toya V; Wellehan, James

    2013-05-01

    It is important that reptile clinicians have an appreciation for the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnostic options, and prognostic parameters for novel and emerging infectious diseases in squamates. This article provides an update on emerging squamate diseases reported in the primary literature within the past decade. Updates on adenovirus, iridovirus, rhabdovirus, arenavirus, and paramyxovirus epidemiology, divergence, and host fidelity are presented. A new emerging bacterial disease of Uromastyx species, Devriesea agamarum, is reviewed. Chrysosporium ophiodiicola-associated mortality in North American snakes is discussed. Cryptosporidium and pentastomid infections in squamates are highlighted among emerging parasitic infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Acute infectious diseases in occupied Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Sugita, Satoru; Moriyama, Takako; Marui, Eiji

    2007-06-01

    Japan's health statistics system, considered among the best in the world today, continually complies and organizes information about various infectious diseases. However, systematic surveillance was not conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare between World War II and the postwar period, creating a gap in health data. In contrast, the GHQ/SCAP/PHW. which was closely involved in health and medical reform during the Occupation, thoroughly investigated the health conditions of the Japanese people during this period. This article describes the trends in acute infectious diseases in Occupied Japan by using statistical records listed in the appendices of the "Weekly Bulletin", an official document of the GHQ/SCAP that is currently kept in the National Diet Library Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room.

  10. Discovering network behind infectious disease outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2010-11-01

    Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity are of great interest recently in studying the spread of an infectious disease. The presented method solves an inverse problem to discover the effectively decisive topology of a heterogeneous network and reveal the transmission parameters which govern the stochastic spreads over the network from a dataset on an infectious disease outbreak in the early growth phase. Populations in a combination of epidemiological compartment models and a meta-population network model are described by stochastic differential equations. Probability density functions are derived from the equations and used for the maximal likelihood estimation of the topology and parameters. The method is tested with computationally synthesized datasets and the WHO dataset on the SARS outbreak.

  11. Parasitic diseases of zoonotic importance in humans of northeast India, with special reference to ocular involvement.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipankar; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Deka, Angshuman; Yambem, Dinakumar; Tahiliani, Prerana Sushil; Deka, Panna; Bhattacharyya, Pankaj; Deka, Satyen; Das, Kalyan; Bharali, Gayatri; Deka, Apurba; Paul, Rajashree

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent in India, including the northeastern states. Proper epidemiological data are lacking from this part of the country on zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in the current scenario. Systemic manifestation of such diseases as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. The incidence of acquired toxoplasmal infection is showing an increasing trend in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Among the ocular parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, dirofilariasis, gnathostomiasis, hydatidosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, etc, are the real problems that are seen in this subset of the population. Therefore, proper coordination between various medical specialities, including veterinary science and other governing bodies, is needed for better and more effective strategic planning to control zoonoses.

  12. Research Program In Tropical Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-15

    Central America at the base of the Yucatan Peninsula, surrounded on the west and north by Guatemala and Mexico and on the east by the Caribbean Sea...inferred that in Belize, 2 tropical infectious diseases are common. Yellow fever has been known to occur in the Yucatan ,1 dengue and malaria are...Centro Americano) representatives in Belize City. Two ERC technologists and two CML technicians attended an INCAP (Instituto de Nutricion de Centro

  13. Research Program in Tropical Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-14

    of the Yucatan Peninsula, surrounded on the west and north by Guatemala and Mexico and on the east by the Caribbean Sea. The jungle covered Maya...infectious diseases are common. Yellow fever has been known to occur in the Yucatan 1 , dengue and malaria are endemic in Belize 2, and cutaneous leishmaniasis...cietifico truncado en 1912, et de la fiebre amarilla de la serva en Yucatan . 1986, Gac. Med. Mex. 122:263-272. 2. Freeman, K. American cutaneous

  14. History and Practice: Antibodies in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hey, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Antibodies and passive antibody therapy in the treatment of infectious diseases is the story of a treatment concept which dates back more than 120 years, to the 1890s, when the use of serum from immunized animals provided the first effective treatment options against infections with Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. However, after the discovery of penicillin by Fleming in 1928, and the subsequent introduction of the much cheaper and safer antibiotics in the 1930s, serum therapy was largely abandoned. However, the broad and general use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has resulted in the development of multi-resistant strains of bacteria with limited to no response to existing treatments and the need for alternative treatment options. The combined specificity and flexibility of antibody-based treatments makes them very valuable tools for designing specific antibody treatments to infectious agents. These attributes have already caused a revolution in new antibody-based treatments in oncology and inflammatory diseases, with many approved products. However, only one monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, for the prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus, is approved for infectious diseases. The high cost of monoclonal antibody therapies, the need for parallel development of diagnostics, and the relatively small markets are major barriers for their development in the presence of cheap antibiotics. It is time to take a new and revised look into the future to find appropriate niches in infectious diseases where new antibody-based treatments or combinations with existing antibiotics, could prove their value and serve as stepping stones for broader acceptance of the potential for and value of these treatments.

  15. Electronic tools for infectious diseases and microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, Steven D

    2007-01-01

    Electronic tools for infectious diseases and medical microbiology have the ability to change the way the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are approached. Medical information today has the ability to be dynamic, keeping up with the latest research or clinical issues, instead of being static and years behind, as many textbooks are. The ability to rapidly disseminate information around the world opens up the possibility of communicating with people thousands of miles away to quickly and efficiently learn about emerging infections. Electronic tools have expanded beyond the desktop computer and the Internet, and now include personal digital assistants and other portable devices such as cellular phones. These pocket-sized devices have the ability to provide access to clinical information at the point of care. New electronic tools include e-mail listservs, electronic drug databases and search engines that allow focused clinical questions. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of how electronic tools can impact infectious diseases and microbiology, while providing links and resources to allow users to maximize their efficiency in accessing this information. Links to the mentioned Web sites and programs are provided along with other useful electronic tools. PMID:18978984

  16. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J; Gerlach, Robert; Berner, James

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  17. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J.; Gerlach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations. PMID:23399790

  18. The Infectious Disease Manpower Crisis: Finding the Cure.

    PubMed

    Berk, Steven L

    2017-02-01

    The challenges of infectious diseases, including new pathogens, dangerous outbreaks, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and the perils of international travel have never been more publically appreciated. These challenges require a well-trained workforce of infectious disease specialists. Just when the need appears to be greatest, however, the interest in infectious diseases among today's young physicians is at its lowest point.

  19. The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

  20. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  1. Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

    2012-04-01

    Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  2. ZOONOTIC PARASITES, OUR ENVIROMENT AND CHANGE

    Environmental changes arising from nature and human activity are affecting patterns for the occurrence and significance of many infectious diseases, including zoonotic parasites, which are those naturally transmitted between domestic animals or wildlife and people. As these changes continue, and pe...

  3. Identifying Future Disease Hot Spots: Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melinda; Gelfeld, Bill; Okunogbe, Adeyemi; Paul, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Recent high-profile outbreaks, such as Ebola and Zika, have illustrated the transnational nature of infectious diseases. Countries that are most vulnerable to such outbreaks might be higher priorities for technical support. RAND created the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index to help U.S. government and international agencies identify these countries and thereby inform programming to preemptively help mitigate the spread and effects of potential transnational outbreaks. The authors employed a rigorous methodology to identify the countries most vulnerable to disease outbreaks. They conducted a comprehensive review of relevant literature to identify factors influencing infectious disease vulnerability. Using widely available data, the authors created an index for identifying potentially vulnerable countries and then ranked countries by overall vulnerability score. Policymakers should focus on the 25 most-vulnerable countries with an eye toward a potential "disease belt" in the Sahel region of Africa. The infectious disease vulnerability scores for several countries were better than what would have been predicted on the basis of economic status alone. This suggests that low-income countries can overcome economic challenges and become more resilient to public health challenges, such as infectious disease outbreaks.

  4. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    SciT

    Shope, R.

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in Northmore » America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.« less

  5. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Shope, R

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. PMID:1820262

  6. Capacity building in pediatric transplant infectious diseases: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Evans, Helen M; Green, Michael; McCulloch, Mignon; Michaels, Marian G; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Verma, Anita; Allen, Upton

    2014-12-01

    Transplant infectious diseases is a rapidly emerging subspecialty within pediatric infectious diseases reflecting the increasing volumes and complexity of this patient population. Incorporating transplant infectious diseases into the transplant process would provide an opportunity to improve clinical outcome and advocacy as well as expand research. The relationship between transplant physicians and infectious diseases (ID) specialists is one of partnership, collaboration, and mutual continuing professional education. The ID CARE Committee of the International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) views the development and integration of transplant infectious diseases into pediatric transplant care as an international priority. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Recommended Curriculum for Training in Pediatric Transplant Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Allen, Upton; Englund, Janet; Herold, Betsy; Hoffman, Jill; Green, Michael; Gantt, Soren; Kumar, Deepali; Michaels, Marian G

    2015-03-01

    A working group representing the American Society of Transplantation, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and International Pediatric Transplant Association has developed a collaborative effort to identify and develop core knowledge in pediatric transplant infectious diseases. Guidance for patient care environments for training and core competencies is included to help facilitate training directed at improving the experience for pediatric infectious diseases trainees and practitioners in the area of pediatric transplant infectious diseases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Bartonella henselae, an ubiquitous agent of proteiform zoonotic disease].

    PubMed

    Edouard, S; Raoult, D

    2010-06-01

    Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease, a human infection usually characterized by persistent regional lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted to humans by cat scratches or bites. Cats are the major reservoir for this bacterium thus B. henselae has a worldwide distribution. The bacterial pathogenicity may bay emphasized by the immune status of the infected host. Angiomatosis or hepatic peliosis are the most frequent clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. B. henselae is also responsible for endocarditis in patients with valvular diseases, and may induce various clinical presentations such as: bacteriemia, retinitis, musculoskeletal disorders, hepatic or splenic diseases, encephalitis, or myocarditis. Several diagnostic tools are available; they may be combined and adapted to every clinical setting. B. henselae is a fastidious bacterium; its diagnosis is mainly made by PCR and blood tests. No treatment is required for the benign form of cat scratch disease. For more severe clinical presentations, the treatment must be adapted to every clinical presentation.

  9. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  10. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

  11. Using White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Infectious Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Cox, Rebecca J; Waters, W Ray; Thacker, Tyler C; Whipple, Diana L

    2017-01-01

    Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions. Using wildlife in infectious disease research presents many challenges but also provides opportunities to answer questions impossible to address by using traditional models. Cervid species, especially white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus canadensis), and red deer (Cervus elaphus), are hosts or sentinels for several important pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. The long history of infectious disease research using white-tailed deer, conducted at ever-increasing levels of sophisticated biosecurity, demonstrates that this type of research can be conducted safely and that valuable insights can be gained. The greatest challenges to using wildlife in infectious disease research include animal source, facility design, nutrition, animal handling, and enrichment and other practices that both facilitate animal care and enhance animal wellbeing. The study of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer at the USDA's National Animal Disease Center serves to illustrate one approach to address these challenges. PMID:28724483

  12. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social–ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social–ecological interactions. The social–ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289265

  13. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Ronan F; Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Bloomfield, Laura S P; Jones, James H

    2017-05-05

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social-ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social-ecological interactions. The social-ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Klasing, K C

    1998-08-01

    Dietary characteristics can modulate a bird's susceptibility to infectious challenges and subtle influences due to the level of nutrients or the types of ingredients may at times be of critical importance. This review considers seven mechanisms for nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious disease in poultry. 1) Nutrition may impact the development of the immune system, both in ovo and in the first weeks posthatch. Micronutrient deficiencies that affect developmental events, such as the seeding of lymphoid organs and clonal expansion of lymphocyte clones, can negatively impact the immune system later in life. 2) A substrate role of nutrients is necessary for the immune response so that responding cells can divide and synthesize effector molecules. The quantitative need for nutrients for supporting a normal immune system, as well as the proliferation of leukocytes and the production of antibodies during an infectious challenge, is very small relative to uses for growth or egg production. It is likely that the systemic acute phase response that accompanies most infectious challenges is a more significant consumer of nutrients than the immune system itself. 3) The low concentration of some nutrients (e.g., iron) in body fluids makes them the limiting substrates for the proliferation of invading pathogens and the supply of these nutrients is further limited during the immune response. 4) Some nutrients (e.g., fatty acids and vitamins A, D, and E) have direct regulatory actions on leukocytes by binding to intracellular receptors or by modifying the release of second messengers. 5) The diet may also have indirect regulatory effects that are mediated by the classical endocrine system. 6) Physical and chemical aspects of the diet can modify the populations of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract, the capacity of pathogens to attach to enterocytes, and the integrity of the intestinal epithelium.

  15. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance.

  16. Infectious Disease Practice Gaps in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Shelby; Quest, Tyler L; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2016-07-01

    The article highlights different educational and practice gaps in infectious diseases as they pertain to dermatology. These gaps include the use of antibiotics in relation to atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris, treatment of skin and soft tissue infection, and diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis. In addition, practice gaps related to use of imiquimod for molluscum contagiosum, risk of infections related to immunosuppressive medications and rates of vaccination, and the use of bedside diagnostics for diagnosing common infections were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomics Tracing the Footsteps of Infectious Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Todd M.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2017-01-01

    Every year, a major cause of human disease and death worldwide is infection with the various pathogens—viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa—that are intrinsic to our ecosystem. In efforts to control the prevalence of infectious disease and develop improved therapies, the scientific community has focused on building a molecular picture of pathogen infection and spread. These studies have been aimed at defining the cellular mechanisms that allow pathogen entry into hosts cells, their replication and transmission, as well as the core mechanisms of host defense against pathogens. The past two decades have demonstrated the valuable implementation of proteomic methods in all these areas of infectious disease research. Here, we provide a perspective on the contributions of mass spectrometry and other proteomics approaches to understanding the molecular details of pathogen infection. Specifically, we highlight methods used for defining the composition of viral and bacterial pathogens and the dynamic interaction with their hosts in space and time. We discuss the promise of MS-based proteomics in supporting the development of diagnostics and therapies, and the growing need for multiomics strategies for gaining a systems view of pathogen infection. PMID:28163258

  18. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations in International Adoption.

    PubMed

    Obringer, Emily; Walsh, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed. Evaluation of the child's immunization record is also important, as nearly all international adoptees will require catch-up vaccines. The provider may also be asked to review medical records prior to adoption, provide travel advice, and ensure that parents and other close contacts are up-to-date on immunizations prior to the arrival of the newest family member. The pediatrician serves a unique role in facilitating the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in international adoptees. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e56-e60.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Measuring Spatial Dependence for Infectious Disease Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, M. Kate; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Global spatial clustering is the tendency of points, here cases of infectious disease, to occur closer together than expected by chance. The extent of global clustering can provide a window into the spatial scale of disease transmission, thereby providing insights into the mechanism of spread, and informing optimal surveillance and control. Here the authors present an interpretable measure of spatial clustering, τ, which can be understood as a measure of relative risk. When biological or temporal information can be used to identify sets of potentially linked and likely unlinked cases, this measure can be estimated without knowledge of the underlying population distribution. The greater our ability to distinguish closely related (i.e., separated by few generations of transmission) from more distantly related cases, the more closely τ will track the true scale of transmission. The authors illustrate this approach using examples from the analyses of HIV, dengue and measles, and provide an R package implementing the methods described. The statistic presented, and measures of global clustering in general, can be powerful tools for analysis of spatially resolved data on infectious diseases. PMID:27196422

  20. Proteomics Tracing the Footsteps of Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Greco, Todd M; Cristea, Ileana M

    2017-04-01

    Every year, a major cause of human disease and death worldwide is infection with the various pathogens-viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa-that are intrinsic to our ecosystem. In efforts to control the prevalence of infectious disease and develop improved therapies, the scientific community has focused on building a molecular picture of pathogen infection and spread. These studies have been aimed at defining the cellular mechanisms that allow pathogen entry into hosts cells, their replication and transmission, as well as the core mechanisms of host defense against pathogens. The past two decades have demonstrated the valuable implementation of proteomic methods in all these areas of infectious disease research. Here, we provide a perspective on the contributions of mass spectrometry and other proteomics approaches to understanding the molecular details of pathogen infection. Specifically, we highlight methods used for defining the composition of viral and bacterial pathogens and the dynamic interaction with their hosts in space and time. We discuss the promise of MS-based proteomics in supporting the development of diagnostics and therapies, and the growing need for multiomics strategies for gaining a systems view of pathogen infection. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. [Parasitic zoonotic disease agents in human and animal drinking water].

    PubMed

    Karanis, P

    2000-08-01

    Human- and veterinary important parasites of the subkingdom of protozoans and helminths infect humans and animals by ingestion of parasites in contaminated water. The parasites are excreted from the body of infected humans, livestock, zoo animals, companion animals or wild animals in the feces. Recreational waters, agricultural practices and wild animals serve as vehicles of transmission of the parasites in the water supplies. The following topics are addressed: a) the life cycles of parasitic diseases-causing agents with proven or potential transmission via water b) the development and the current research status of the analytical techniques for the detection of parasitic diseases-causing agents from water c) the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water supplies and in treated water d) the possible water sources and transmission ways of the parasites into the water supplies e) the behaviour and the possibilities for the removal or elimination of the parasites by water treatment.

  2. [Pet ownership and health status of pets from immunocompromised children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases].

    PubMed

    Abarca V, Katia; López Del P, Javier; Peña D, Anamaría; López G, J Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To characterize pet ownership and pet health status in families of immunocompromised (IS) children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases. Families of IS children from two hospitals in Santiago, Chile, were interviewed and their pets were evaluated by veterinary examination, coproparasitologic and skin dermatophytes test. In specific cases, other laboratory tests were performed in IS children or their relatives. 47 out of 70 contacted families had pets, 42 participated in the study. Several risk factors for IS children were observed, as having a turtle as a pet and to clean cat or turtle faeces. Lack of adequate veterinary control, immunizations and deparasitation of pets were observed. Some animals showed zoonotic diseases or agents, as Brucella canis, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis, Toxocara canis and scabies. 44% of dogs had ticks and 37% had fleas, both potential vectors of infections. Our results suggest that policies to provide safer pet contact in IS children are needed.

  3. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Fenton, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  4. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Spinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell

  5. Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Jaspal Singh; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Gupta, Aparna; Singh, Jaswinder; Chahal, Udeybir Singh

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab. 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire, which contained both open and close ended questions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc. Knowledge scorecard was developed, and each correct answer was awarded one mark, and each incorrect answer was given zero mark. Respondents were categorized into low (mean - ½ standard deviation [SD]), moderate (mean ± ½ SD), and high knowledge (Mean + ½ SD) category based on the mean and SD. The information about independent variables viz., age, education, and herd size were collected with the help of structured schedule and scales. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and results were prepared to assess awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Majority of the respondents had age up to 40 years (70%), had their qualification from primary to higher secondary level (77.6%), and had their herd size up to 10 animals (79.6%). About 51.2% and 54.0% respondents had the history of abortion and retained placenta, respectively, at their farms. The respondents not only disposed off the infected placenta (35.6%), aborted fetus (39.6%), or feces (56.4%) from a diarrheic animal but also gave intrauterine medication (23.2%) bare-handedly. About 3.6-69.6% respondents consumed uncooked or unpasteurized animal products. About 84.8%, 46.0%, 32.8%, 4.61%, and 92.4% of livestock farmers were aware of zoonotic nature of rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, and bird flu, respectively. The 55.6%, 67.2%, 52.0%, 64.0%, and 51.2% respondents were aware of the transmission of zoonotic diseases to human being through contaminated milk, meat, air, feed, or through contact with infected animals, respectively. The transmission of rabies through dog bite (98.4%), need of post

  6. Infectious disease in cervids of North America: data, models, and management challenges.

    PubMed

    Conner, Mary Margaret; Ebinger, Michael Ryan; Blanchong, Julie Anne; Cross, Paul Chafee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a steady increase in the study and management of wildlife diseases. This trend has been driven by the perception of an increase in emerging zoonotic diseases and the recognition that wildlife can be a critical factor for controlling infectious diseases in domestic animals. Cervids are of recent concern because, as a group, they present a number of unique challenges. Their close ecological and phylogenetic relationship to livestock species places them at risk for receiving infections from, and reinfecting livestock. In addition, cervids are an important resource; revenue from hunting and viewing contribute substantially to agency budgets and local economies. A comprehensive coverage of infectious diseases in cervids is well beyond the scope of this chapter. In North America alone there are a number of infectious diseases that can potentially impact cervid populations, but for most of these, management is not feasible or the diseases are only a potential or future concern. We focus this chapter on three diseases that are of major management concern and the center of most disease research for cervids in North America: bovine tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease, and brucellosis. We discuss the available data and recent advances in modeling and management of these diseases.

  7. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  8. Emerging infectious diseases: A proactive approach

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Black, Steven; Rappuoli, Rino

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are now emerging or reemerging almost every year. This trend will continue because a number of factors, including the increased global population, aging, travel, urbanization, and climate change, favor the emergence, evolution, and spread of new pathogens. The approach used so far for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) does not work from the technical point of view, and it is not sustainable. However, the advent of platform technologies offers vaccine manufacturers an opportunity to develop new vaccines faster and to reduce the investment to build manufacturing facilities, in addition to allowing for the possible streamlining of regulatory processes. The new technologies also make possible the rapid development of human monoclonal antibodies that could become a potent immediate response to an emergency. So far, several proposals to approach EIDs have been made independently by scientists, the private sector, national governments, and international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). While each of them has merit, there is a need for a global governance that is capable of taking a strong leadership role and making it attractive to all partners to come to the same table and to coordinate the global approach. PMID:28396438

  9. Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al Harby, Khalid D; Alyemni, Mohamed; Dhafar, Khalid; Gautret, Philippe; Barbeschi, Maurizio; McCloskey, Brian; Heymann, David; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2014-06-14

    Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic growth, urbanization, globalization, and the risks of emerging infectious diseases in China: A review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Collins, James P; Minteer, Ben A; Daszak, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Three interrelated world trends may be exacerbating emerging zoonotic risks: income growth, urbanization, and globalization. Income growth is associated with rising animal protein consumption in developing countries, which increases the conversion of wild lands to livestock production, and hence the probability of zoonotic emergence. Urbanization implies the greater concentration and connectedness of people, which increases the speed at which new infections are spread. Globalization-the closer integration of the world economy-has facilitated pathogen spread among countries through the growth of trade and travel. High-risk areas for the emergence and spread of infectious disease are where these three trends intersect with predisposing socioecological conditions including the presence of wild disease reservoirs, agricultural practices that increase contact between wildlife and livestock, and cultural practices that increase contact between humans, wildlife, and livestock. Such an intersection occurs in China, which has been a "cradle" of zoonoses from the Black Death to avian influenza and SARS. Disease management in China is thus critical to the mitigation of global zoonotic risks.

  11. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-U.S. border along the Rio Grande

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and inc...

  12. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues.

  13. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-10-04

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A World Wide Web selected bibliography for pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Jenson, H B; Baltimore, R S

    1999-02-01

    A pediatric infectious diseases bibliography of selected medical reference citations has been developed and placed on the World Wide Web (WWW) at http://www.pedid.uthscsa.edu. A regularly updated bibliography of >2,500 selected literature citations representing general reviews and key articles has been organized under a standard outline for individual infectious diseases and related topics that cover the breadth of pediatric infectious diseases. Citations are categorized by infectious disease or clinical syndrome, and access can be achieved by the disease or by syndrome or the name of the pathogen. Abstracts, and in some cases the complete text of articles, may be viewed by use of hypertext links. The bibliography provides medical students, residents, fellows, and clinicians with a constantly available resource of current literature citations in pediatric infectious diseases. The WWW is an emerging educational and clinical resource for the practice of clinical infectious diseases.

  15. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  16. Updates to the zoonotic niche map of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Millear, Anoushka I; Earl, Lucas; Morozoff, Chloe; Han, Barbara A; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Golding, Nick; Hay, Simon I

    2016-01-01

    As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa is now contained, attention is turning from control to future outbreak prediction and prevention. Building on a previously published zoonotic niche map (Pigott et al., 2014), this study incorporates new human and animal occurrence data and expands upon the way in which potential bat EVD reservoir species are incorporated. This update demonstrates the potential for incorporating and updating data used to generate the predicted suitability map. A new data portal for sharing such maps is discussed. This output represents the most up-to-date estimate of the extent of EVD zoonotic risk in Africa. These maps can assist in strengthening surveillance and response capacity to contain viral haemorrhagic fevers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16412.001 PMID:27414263

  17. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by

  18. Pharmacological treatments and infectious diseases in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Dipasquale, Valeria; Romano, Claudio

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising, as is the employment of immunosuppressive and biological drugs. Most patients with IBD receive immunosuppressive therapies during the course of the disease. These molecules are a double-edged sword; while they can help control disease activity, they also increase the risk of infections. Therefore, it is important that pediatricians involved in primary care, pediatric gastroenterologists, and infectious disease physicians have a thorough knowledge of the infections that can affect patients with IBD. Areas covered: A broad review of the major infectious diseases that have been reported in children and adolescents with IBD was performed, and information regarding surveillance, diagnosis and management were updated. The possible correlations with IBD pharmacological tools are discussed. Expert commentary: Opportunistic infections are possible in pediatric IBD, and immunosuppressive and immunomodulator therapy seems to play a causative role. Heightened awareness and vigilant surveillance leading to prompt diagnosis and treatment are important for optimal management.

  19. Cannibalism and Infectious Disease: Friends or Foes?

    PubMed

    Van Allen, Benjamin G; Dillemuth, Forrest P; Flick, Andrew J; Faldyn, Matthew J; Clark, David R; Rudolf, Volker H W; Elderd, Bret D

    2017-09-01

    Cannibalism occurs in a majority of both carnivorous and noncarnivorous animal taxa from invertebrates to mammals. Similarly, infectious parasites are ubiquitous in nature. Thus, interactions between cannibalism and disease occur regularly. While some adaptive benefits of cannibalism are clear, the prevailing view is that the risk of parasite transmission due to cannibalism would increase disease spread and, thus, limit the evolutionary extent of cannibalism throughout the animal kingdom. In contrast, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the other half of the interaction between cannibalism and disease, that is, how cannibalism affects parasites. Here we examine the interaction between cannibalism and parasites and show how advances across independent lines of research suggest that cannibalism can also reduce the prevalence of parasites and, thus, infection risk for cannibals. Cannibalism does this by both directly killing parasites in infected victims and by reducing the number of susceptible hosts, often enhanced by the stage-structured nature of cannibalism and infection. While the well-established view that disease should limit cannibalism has held sway, we present theory and examples from a synthesis of the literature showing how cannibalism may also limit disease and highlight key areas where conceptual and empirical work is needed to resolve this debate.

  20. [Epidemiology of imported infectious diseases in China, 2013-2016].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Wang, X; Ren, R Q; Zhou, L; Tu, W W; Ni, D X; Li, Q; Feng, Z J; Zhang, Y P

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To describe the epidemic of imported infectious diseases in China between 2013 and 2016, including the kinds of infectious diseases, affected provinces, source countries and the epidemiological characteristics, and provide scientific information for the prevention and control of imported infectious diseases. Methods: Data of cases of imported infectious diseases in China from 2013 to 2016 were collected from national information reporting system of infectious diseases, Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 18.0 were used to conduct data cleaning and analysis. Results: From 2013 to 2016, a total of 16 206 imported cases of infectious diseases were reported in China. Of all the cases, 83.12% (13 471 cases) were malaria cases, followed by dengue fever (2 628 cases, 16.22%). The majority of the imported cases were males (14 522 cases, 89.61%). Most cases were aged 20-50 years. Except Zika virus disease and yellow fever, which were mainly reported before and after spring festival, other imported infectious diseases mainly occurred in summer and autumn. The epidemic in affected provinces varied with the types of infectious diseases, and Yunnan reported the largest case number of imported infectious diseases, followed by Jiangsu, Guangxi and Guangdong. The imported cases were mainly from Asian countries, such as Burma, and African countries, such as Angola, Equatorial Guinea and Ghana, which also varied with the types of infectious diseases. Conclusions: We should pay more attention to imported infectious diseases and strengthen the prevention and control measures in our country. In order to reduce the incidence of imported infectious diseases, the health education should be enforced for persons who plan to travel abroad and the active surveillance should be strengthened for returned travelers.

  1. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciT

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity andmore » the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.« less

  2. Temporally varying relative risks for infectious diseases: implications for infectious disease control

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Edward; Pitzer, Virginia E.; O'Hagan, Justin J.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Risks for disease in some population groups relative to others (relative risks) are usually considered to be consistent over time, though they are often modified by other, non-temporal factors. For infectious diseases, in which overall incidence often varies substantially over time, the patterns of temporal changes in relative risks can inform our understanding of basic epidemiologic questions. For example, recent work suggests that temporal changes in relative risks of infection over the course of an epidemic cycle can both be used to identify population groups that drive infectious disease outbreaks, and help elucidate differences in the effect of vaccination against infection (that is relevant to transmission control) compared with its effect against disease episodes (that reflects individual protection). Patterns of change in the in age groups affected over the course of seasonal outbreaks can provide clues to the types of pathogens that could be responsible for diseases for which an infectious cause is suspected. Changing apparent efficacy of vaccines during trials may provide clues to the vaccine's mode of action and/or indicate risk heterogeneity in the trial population. Declining importance of unusual behavioral risk factors may be a signal of increased local transmission of an infection. We review these developments and the related public health implications. PMID:27748685

  3. Temporally Varying Relative Risks for Infectious Diseases: Implications for Infectious Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Edward; Pitzer, Virginia E; O'Hagan, Justin J; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Risks for disease in some population groups relative to others (relative risks) are usually considered to be consistent over time, although they are often modified by other, nontemporal factors. For infectious diseases, in which overall incidence often varies substantially over time, the patterns of temporal changes in relative risks can inform our understanding of basic epidemiologic questions. For example, recent studies suggest that temporal changes in relative risks of infection over the course of an epidemic cycle can both be used to identify population groups that drive infectious disease outbreaks, and help elucidate differences in the effect of vaccination against infection (that is relevant to transmission control) compared with its effect against disease episodes (that reflects individual protection). Patterns of change in the age groups affected over the course of seasonal outbreaks can provide clues to the types of pathogens that could be responsible for diseases for which an infectious cause is suspected. Changing apparent efficacy of vaccines during trials may provide clues to the vaccine's mode of action and/or indicate risk heterogeneity in the trial population. Declining importance of unusual behavioral risk factors may be a signal of increased local transmission of an infection. We review these developments and the related public health implications.

  4. Behavioural phenotypes predict disease susceptibility and infectiousness

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Alessandra; Kirschman, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural phenotypes may provide a means for identifying individuals that disproportionally contribute to disease spread and epizootic outbreaks. For example, bolder phenotypes may experience greater exposure and susceptibility to pathogenic infection because of distinct interactions with conspecifics and their environment. We tested the value of behavioural phenotypes in larval amphibians for predicting ranavirus transmission in experimental trials. We found that behavioural phenotypes characterized by latency-to-food and swimming profiles were predictive of disease susceptibility and infectiousness defined as the capacity of an infected host to transmit an infection by contacts. While viral shedding rates were positively associated with transmission, we also found an inverse relationship between contacts and infections. Together these results suggest intrinsic traits that influence behaviour and the quantity of pathogens shed during conspecific interactions may be an important contributor to ranavirus transmission. These results suggest that behavioural phenotypes provide a means to identify individuals more likely to spread disease and thus give insights into disease outbreaks that threaten wildlife and humans. PMID:27555652

  5. Behavioural phenotypes predict disease susceptibility and infectiousness.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Alessandra; Kirschman, Lucas; Warne, Robin W

    2016-08-01

    Behavioural phenotypes may provide a means for identifying individuals that disproportionally contribute to disease spread and epizootic outbreaks. For example, bolder phenotypes may experience greater exposure and susceptibility to pathogenic infection because of distinct interactions with conspecifics and their environment. We tested the value of behavioural phenotypes in larval amphibians for predicting ranavirus transmission in experimental trials. We found that behavioural phenotypes characterized by latency-to-food and swimming profiles were predictive of disease susceptibility and infectiousness defined as the capacity of an infected host to transmit an infection by contacts. While viral shedding rates were positively associated with transmission, we also found an inverse relationship between contacts and infections. Together these results suggest intrinsic traits that influence behaviour and the quantity of pathogens shed during conspecific interactions may be an important contributor to ranavirus transmission. These results suggest that behavioural phenotypes provide a means to identify individuals more likely to spread disease and thus give insights into disease outbreaks that threaten wildlife and humans. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. One Health, emerging infectious diseases and wildlife: two decades of progress?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Andrew A; Daszak, Peter; Wood, James L N

    2017-07-19

    Infectious diseases affect people, domestic animals and wildlife alike, with many pathogens being able to infect multiple species. Fifty years ago, following the wide-scale manufacture and use of antibiotics and vaccines, it seemed that the battle against infections was being won for the human population. Since then, however, and in addition to increasing antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, there has been an increase in the emergence of, mostly viral, zoonotic diseases from wildlife, sometimes causing fatal outbreaks of epidemic proportions. Concurrently, infectious disease has been identified as an increasing threat to wildlife conservation. A synthesis published in 2000 showed common anthropogenic drivers of disease threats to biodiversity and human health, including encroachment and destruction of wildlife habitat and the human-assisted spread of pathogens. Almost two decades later, the situation has not changed and, despite improved knowledge of the underlying causes, little has been done at the policy level to address these threats. For the sake of public health and wellbeing, human-kind needs to work better to conserve nature and preserve the ecosystem services, including disease regulation, that biodiversity provides while also understanding and mitigating activities which lead to disease emergence. We consider that holistic, One Health approaches to the management and mitigation of the risks of emerging infectious diseases have the greatest chance of success.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciT

    Bailey, Charles L.

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimedmore » at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.« less

  8. A Primer on Infectious Disease Bacterial Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Petkau, Aaron; Knox, Natalie; Graham, Morag; Van Domselaar, Gary

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of large-scale genomics projects is increasing due to the availability of affordable high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. The use of HTS for bacterial infectious disease research is attractive because one whole-genome sequencing (WGS) run can replace multiple assays for bacterial typing, molecular epidemiology investigations, and more in-depth pathogenomic studies. The computational resources and bioinformatics expertise required to accommodate and analyze the large amounts of data pose new challenges for researchers embarking on genomics projects for the first time. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of a bacterial genomics projects from beginning to end, with a particular focus on the planning and computational requirements for HTS data, and provide a general understanding of the analytical concepts to develop a workflow that will meet the objectives and goals of HTS projects. PMID:28590251

  9. The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

  10. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting 1. Date: June 1, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, NIAID Peer Review Meeting 3. Date: June 2, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 1:30 p.m...

  11. Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases

    The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

  12. The "Choosing Wisely" initiative in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Clara; Berner, Reinhard; Bogner, Johannes R; Cornely, Oliver A; de With, Katja; Herold, Susanne; Kern, Winfried V; Lemmen, Sebastian; Pletz, Mathias W; Ruf, Bernhard; Salzberger, Bernd; Stellbrink, Hans Jürgen; Suttorp, Norbert; Ullmann, Andrew J; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Jung, Norma

    2017-06-01

    "Choosing Wisely" is a growing international campaign aiming at practice changes to improve patient health and safety by both, conduct of essential and avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic procedures. The goal is to create an easily recognizable and distributable list ("Choosing Wisely items") that addresses common over- and underuse in the management of infectious diseases. The German Society of Infectious Diseases (DGI) participates in the campaign "Klug Entscheiden" by the German Society of Internal Medicine. Committee members of the (DGI) listed potential 'Choosing Wisely items'. Topics were subjected to systematic evidence review and top ten items were selected for appropriateness. Five positive and negative recommendations were approved via individual member vote. The final recommendations are: (1) Imperatively start antimicrobial treatment and remove the focus in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection. (2) Critically ill patients with signs of infection need early appropriate antibiotic therapy. (3) Annual influenza vaccination should be given to individuals with age >60 years, patients with specific co-morbidities and to contact persons who may spread influenza to others. (4) All children should receive measles vaccine. (5) Prefer oral formulations of highly bioavailable antimicrobials whenever possible. (6) Avoid prescribing antibiotics for uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections. (7) Do not treat asymptomatic bacteriuria with antibiotics. (8) Do not treat Candida detected in respiratory or gastrointestinal tract specimens. (9) Do not prolong prophylactic administration of antibiotics in patients after they have left the operating room. (10) Do not treat an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) or procalcitonin with antibiotics for patients without signs of infection. Physicians will reduce potential harm to patients and increase the value of health care when implementing these recommendations.

  13. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Oaten, Megan J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another—the focus of this theme issue—has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick—stigmatization—and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process—moralization—can be co-opted to promote human health. PMID:22042913

  14. Estimating Burdens of Neglected Tropical Zoonotic Diseases on Islands with Introduced Mammals.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Luz A; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Newton, Kelly M; Spatz, Dena R; Holmes, Nick D; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-03-01

    AbstractMany neglected tropical zoonotic pathogens are maintained by introduced mammals, and on islands the most common introduced species are rodents, cats, and dogs. Management of introduced mammals, including control or eradication of feral populations, which is frequently done for ecological restoration, could also reduce or eliminate the pathogens these animals carry. Understanding the burden of these zoonotic diseases is crucial for quantifying the potential public health benefits of introduced mammal management. However, epidemiological data are only available from a small subset of islands where these introduced mammals co-occur with people. We examined socioeconomic and climatic variables as predictors for disease burdens of angiostrongyliasis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and rabies from 57 islands or island countries. We found strong correlates of disease burden for leptospirosis, Toxoplasma gondii infection, angiostrongyliasis, and toxocariasis with more than 50% of the variance explained, and an average of 57% (range = 32-95%) predictive accuracy on out-of-sample data. We used these relationships to provide estimates of leptospirosis incidence and T. gondii seroprevalence infection on islands where nonnative rodents and cats are present. These predicted estimates of disease burden could be used in an initial assessment of whether the costs of managing introduced mammal reservoirs might be less than the costs of perpetual treatment of these diseases on islands.

  15. Infectious disease risk and international tourism demand.

    PubMed

    Rosselló, Jaume; Santana-Gallego, Maria; Awan, Waqas

    2017-05-01

     For some countries, favourable climatic conditions for tourism are often associated with favourable conditions for infectious diseases, with the ensuing development constraints on the tourist sectors of impoverished countries where tourism's economic contribution has a high potential. This paper evaluates the economic implications of eradication of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola on the affected destination countries focusing on the tourist expenditures.  A gravity model for international tourism flows is used to provide an estimation of the impact of each travel-related disease on international tourist arrivals. Next the potential eradication of these diseases in the affected countries is simulated and the impact on tourism expenditures is estimated.  The results show that, in the case of Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever and Ebola, the eradication of these diseases in the affected countries would result in an increase of around 10 million of tourist worldwide and a rise in the tourism expenditure of 12 billion dollars.  By analysing the economic benefits of the eradication of Dengue, Ebola, Malaria, and Yellow Fever for the tourist sector-a strategic economic sector for many of the countries where these TRD are present-this paper explores a new aspect of the quantification of health policies which should be taken into consideration in future international health assessment programmes. It is important to note that the analysis is only made of the direct impact of the diseases' eradication and consequently the potential multiplicative effects of a growth in the GDP, in terms of tourism attractiveness, are not evaluated. Consequently, the economic results can be considered to be skeleton ones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Divorce and risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Davidsen, Rie B; Hviid, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Although, divorce is considered to have a negative impact on morbidity, very little is known concerning exposure to divorce and risk of infectious diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between divorce and subsequent hospital contacts with infectious diseases. We performed a nation-wide cohort study, including all Danish men and women (n≈5.6 million) alive on the 1 January 1982 or later, and followed them for infectious disease diagnosed in hospital settings from 1982 to 2010. The association between divorce and risk of infectious diseases was evaluated through rate ratios (RRs) comparing incidence rates of infectious diseases between divorced and married pesons. Compared with married persons, divorced persons were overall at a 1.48 fold (RR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.47-1.50)) increased risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases (RR adjusted for sex, age, period, income and education). The risk of infectious diseases was slightly more pronounced for divorced women (RR=1.54 (1.52-1.56)) than divorced men ((RR=1.42 (1.41-1.44)). The increased risk remained almost unchanged even more than 15 years after the divorce. Young age at divorce, short duration of marriage and number of divorces further increased the risk of infectious diseases, whereas number of children at time of divorce had no impact on risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases following the divorce. Divorce appears to have a moderate but long lasting impact on the risk of infectious diseases the underlying mechanism is unknown but shared risk factors predicting divorce and infectious diseases could contribute to our findings. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer G; Jung, Sherry; Holman, Robert C; Marano, Nina N; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2008-06-15

    OBJECTIVE-To assess the knowledge and use of infection control practices (ICPs) among US veterinarians. DESIGN-Anonymous mail-out population survey. PROCEDURES-In 2005 a questionnaire was mailed to US small animal, large animal, and equine veterinarians who were randomly selected from the AVMA membership to assess precaution awareness (PA) and veterinarians' perceptions of zoonotic disease risks. Respondents were assigned a PA score (0 to 4) on the basis of their responses (higher scores representing higher stringency of ICPs); within a practice type, respondents' scores were categorized as being within the upper 25% or lower 75% of scores (high and low PA ranking, respectively). Characteristics associated with low PA rankings were assessed. RESULTS-Generally, respondents did not engage in protective behaviors or use personal protective equipment considered appropriate to protect against zoonotic disease transmission. Small animal and equine veterinarians employed in practices that had no written infection control policy were significantly more likely to have low PA ranking. Male gender was associated with low PA ranking among small animal and large animal veterinarians; equine practitioners not working in a teaching or referral hospital were more likely to have low PA ranking than equine practitioners working in such institutions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results indicated that most US veterinarians are not aware of appropriate personal protective equipment use and do not engage in practices that may help reduce zoonotic disease transmission. Gender differences may influence personal choices for ICPs. Provision of information and training on ICPs and establishment of written infection control policies could be effective means of improving ICPs in veterinary practices.

  18. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  19. A complete categorization of multiscale models of infectious disease systems.

    PubMed

    Garira, Winston

    2017-12-01

    Modelling of infectious disease systems has entered a new era in which disease modellers are increasingly turning to multiscale modelling to extend traditional modelling frameworks into new application areas and to achieve higher levels of detail and accuracy in characterizing infectious disease systems. In this paper we present a categorization framework for categorizing multiscale models of infectious disease systems. The categorization framework consists of five integration frameworks and five criteria. We use the categorization framework to give a complete categorization of host-level immuno-epidemiological models (HL-IEMs). This categorization framework is also shown to be applicable in categorizing other types of multiscale models of infectious diseases beyond HL-IEMs through modifying the initial categorization framework presented in this study. Categorization of multiscale models of infectious disease systems in this way is useful in bringing some order to the discussion on the structure of these multiscale models.

  20. Household structure and infectious disease transmission.

    PubMed

    House, T; Keeling, M J

    2009-05-01

    One of the central tenets of modern infectious disease epidemiology is that an understanding of heterogeneities, both in host demography and transmission, allows control to be efficiently optimized. Due to the strong interactions present, households are one of the most important heterogeneities to consider, both in terms of predicting epidemic severity and as a target for intervention. We consider these effects in the context of pandemic influenza in Great Britain, and find that there is significant local (ward-level) variation in the basic reproductive ratio, with some regions predicted to suffer 50% faster growth rate of infection than the mean. Childhood vaccination was shown to be highly effective at controlling an epidemic, generally outperforming random vaccination and substantially reducing the variation between regions; only nine out of over 10 000 wards did not obey this rule and these can be identified as demographically atypical regions. Since these benefits of childhood vaccination are a product of correlations between household size and number of dependent children in the household, our results are qualitatively robust for a variety of disease scenarios.

  1. Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ≥ 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households

  2. [Imported infectious diseases in tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Rius Gordillo, N; Martín Nalda, A; Otero Romero, S; Soler-Palacín, P; Sulleiro Igual, E; Espiau Guarner, M; Fernández-Polo, A; Figueras Nadal, C

    2014-08-01

    An Imported Diseases Clinic was created in the hospital in 2009. The aim of this study was to asses its contribution in terms of capacity, quality of care and teaching offered. A retrospective study was conducted from 2009 to 2011, analyzing: A) development of knowledge by means of protocols and publications created, and subject taught; B) capacity and quality of care offered by the analysis of patients seen, the adequacy of the protocols and accessibility. The patients were classified into 3 groups. Group 1: immigrant patient screening, group 2: patient consultation after tropical or sub-tropical travel, group 3: screening of vertical transmission of imported disease. Six protocols have been developed and disseminated on the unit website, as well as 5 scientific publications. A total of 316 patients were evaluated: 191 included in group 1 (29 Adopted and 162 Immigrants), 57 in group 2 (94.7% Visiting Friends and Relatives and 81.5% without a pre-travel consultation). They consulted due to, gastrointestinal symptoms (52.6%) and fever (43.8%), with 68 included in group 3 at risk of imported disease by vertical transmission (62 Trypanosoma cruzi, 1 Human T Lymphotropic Virus and 5 Plasmodium spp.). The overall adherence to the protocols was about 77.1%. Infectious Diseases Units must adapt to the reality of the population and be flexible in its structure. Periodic assessment of the quality of care offered is essential, as well as an evaluation on the need for additional studies. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. [Naturally occurring reassortants of infectious bursal disease virus - A review].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Li; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-05-04

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important representative of Birnaviridae, which causes infectious bursal disease (IBD), one important immuno-suppressive and fatal disease threatening the poultry husbandry. The naturally occurring reassortants of IBDV induced new risks to disease prevention and control. Here, we reviewed the main types of the genome segments reassortants and intragenic recombination, the inherent mechanism and the biological significances were analyzed, which would give us new insights into the virus genetic evolution research and the disease control strategy.

  4. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  5. Best practice assessment of disease modelling for infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Dembek, Z F; Chekol, T; Wu, A

    2018-05-08

    During emerging disease outbreaks, public health, emergency management officials and decision-makers increasingly rely on epidemiological models to forecast outbreak progression and determine the best response to health crisis needs. Outbreak response strategies derived from such modelling may include pharmaceutical distribution, immunisation campaigns, social distancing, prophylactic pharmaceuticals, medical care, bed surge, security and other requirements. Infectious disease modelling estimates are unavoidably subject to multiple interpretations, and full understanding of a model's limitations may be lost when provided from the disease modeller to public health practitioner to government policymaker. We review epidemiological models created for diseases which are of greatest concern for public health protection. Such diseases, whether transmitted from person-to-person (Ebola, influenza, smallpox), via direct exposure (anthrax), or food and waterborne exposure (cholera, typhoid) may cause severe illness and death in a large population. We examine disease-specific models to determine best practices characterising infectious disease outbreaks and facilitating emergency response and implementation of public health policy and disease control measures.

  6. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  7. The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  8. Views from many worlds: unsettling categories in interdisciplinary research on endemic zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research on zoonotic disease has tended to focus on ‘risk’ of disease transmission as a conceptual common denominator. With reference to endemic zoonoses at the livestock–human interface, we argue for considering a broader sweep of disciplinary insights from anthropology and other social sciences in interdisciplinary dialogue, in particular cross-cultural perspectives on human–animal engagement. We consider diverse worldviews where human–animal encounters are perceived of in terms of the kinds of social relations they generate, and the notion of culture is extended to the ‘natural’ world. This has implications for how animals are valued, treated and prioritized. Thinking differently with and about animals and about species' boundaries could enable ways of addressing zoonotic diseases which have closer integration with people's own cultural norms. If we can bring this kind of knowledge into One Health debates, we find ourselves with a multiplicity of worldviews, where bounded categories such as human:animal and nature:culture cannot be assumed. This might in turn influence our scientific ways of seeing our own disciplinary cultures, and generate novel ways of understanding zoonoses and constructing solutions. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584178

  9. An Invasive Vector of Zoonotic Disease Sustained by Anthropogenic Resources: The Raccoon Dog in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010–2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1%) and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%). Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with ‘carrion’ and ‘anthropogenic plants’ making up the bulk of both species’ diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, ‘anthropogenic plants’ and ‘carrion’ provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa), this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange. PMID:24852942

  10. An invasive vector of zoonotic disease sustained by anthropogenic resources: the raccoon dog in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010-2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1%) and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%). Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with 'carrion' and 'anthropogenic plants' making up the bulk of both species' diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, 'anthropogenic plants' and 'carrion' provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa), this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange.

  11. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration – will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts – including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities. PMID:26151221

  12. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.

  13. The Infectious Diseases Society of America emerging infections network: bridging the gap between clinical infectious diseases and public health.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.

  14. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network: Bridging the Gap Between Clinical Infectious Diseases and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Satish K.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN. PMID:24403542

  15. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    PubMed

    Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Scheffer, Mario César; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3-58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7yrs; 95% CI 7.9-9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6yrs: 95% CI 11.8-15.5). Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in

  16. A Framework to Reduce Infectious Disease Risk from Urban Poultry in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Molly R.; Goldshear, Jesse L.; Price, Lance B.; Graham, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Backyard poultry ownership is increasingly common in U.S. cities and is regulated at the local level. Human contact with live poultry is a well-known risk for infection with zoonotic pathogens, notably Salmonella, yet the ability of local jurisdictions to reduce the risk of infectious disease transmission from poultry to humans is unstudied. We reviewed urban poultry ordinances in the United States and reported Salmonella outbreaks from backyard poultry to identify regulatory gaps in preventing zoonotic pathogen transmission. Based on this analysis, we propose regulatory guidelines for U.S. cities to reduce infectious disease risk from backyard poultry ownership. Methods We assessed local ordinances in the 150 most populous U.S. jurisdictions for content related to noncommercial poultry ownership using online resources and communications with government officials. We also performed a literature review using publicly available data sources to identify human infectious disease outbreaks caused by contact with backyard poultry. Results Of the cities reviewed, 93% (n=139) permit poultry in some capacity. Most urban poultry ordinances share common characteristics focused on reducing nuisance to neighbors. Ordinances do not address many pathways of transmission relevant to poultry-to-human transmission of pathogens, such as manure management. Conclusions To reduce the risk of pathogen exposure from backyard poultry, urban ordinances should incorporate the following seven components: limited flock size, composting of manure in sealed containers, prohibition of slaughter, required veterinary care to sick birds, appropriate disposal of dead birds, annual permits linked to consumer education, and a registry of poultry owners. PMID:26346104

  17. Host-directed therapies for infectious diseases: current status, recent progress, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Rao, Martin; Wallis, Robert S; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Rustomjee, Roxana; Mwaba, Peter; Vilaplana, Cris; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam; Hoelscher, Michael; Maeurer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Despite extensive global efforts in the fight against killer infectious diseases, they still cause one in four deaths worldwide and are important causes of long-term functional disability arising from tissue damage. The continuing epidemics of tuberculosis, HIV, malaria, and influenza, and the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens represent major clinical management challenges worldwide. Newer approaches to improving treatment outcomes are needed to reduce the high morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. Recent insights into pathogen-host interactions, pathogenesis, inflammatory pathways, and the host's innate and acquired immune responses are leading to identification and development of a wide range of host-directed therapies with different mechanisms of action. Host-directed therapeutic strategies are now becoming viable adjuncts to standard antimicrobial treatment. Host-directed therapies include commonly used drugs for non-communicable diseases with good safety profiles, immunomodulatory agents, biologics (eg monoclonal antibodies), nutritional products, and cellular therapy using the patient's own immune or bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. We discuss clinically relevant examples of progress in identifying host-directed therapies as adjunct treatment options for bacterial, viral, and parasitic infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome editing technologies to fight infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Marta; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2017-11-01

    Genome editing by programmable nucleases represents a promising tool that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to fight infectious diseases. These nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and homing endonucleases, are molecular scissors that can be targeted at predetermined loci in order to modify the genome sequence of an organism. Areas covered: By perturbing genomic DNA at predetermined loci, programmable nucleases can be used as antiviral and antimicrobial treatment. This approach includes targeting of essential viral genes or viral sequences able, once mutated, to inhibit viral replication; repurposing of CRISPR-Cas9 system for lethal self-targeting of bacteria; targeting antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in bacteria, fungi, and parasites; engineering arthropod vectors to prevent vector-borne infections. Expert commentary: While progress has been done in demonstrating the feasibility of using genome editing as antimicrobial strategy, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the risk of off-target mutations, the raising of escape mutants, and the inefficiency of delivery methods, before translating results from preclinical studies into clinical applications.

  19. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

  20. Infectious bursal disease in New Brunswick.

    PubMed

    Ide, P R; Stevenson, R G

    1973-10-01

    A flock of four week old chickens experienced a disease of sudden onset in which the only symptoms were those of depression shortly before death, and in which the predominant histological lesion was necrosis of lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius.A virus, designated strain Sk-1, was isolated from pooled bursal tissue of affected birds and was serologically identified as a strain of the infectious bursal agent. This virus was chloroform resistant, did not hemagglutinate guinea pig or chicken erythrocytes and did not produce a cytopathic effect in chick embryo tissue cultures. Equivocal results were obtained in filtration studies but the agent was less than 100nm in diameter. Four week old chicks inoculated with strain Sk-1 developed microscopic lesions in the bursa of Fabricius which were similar to those seen in the original field specimens. Inoculated chick embryos exhibited characteristic macroscopic lesions and necrosis of vascular tissue was a common histological change.A limited serological survey of local poultry flocks indicated that infection by this agent had occurred in four of the ten flocks examined.

  1. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  2. The social and political lives of zoonotic disease models: narratives, science and policy.

    PubMed

    Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  4. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  5. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-14

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change.

  6. Infectious Disease Transmission during Organ and Tissue Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Fishman, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease transmission through organ and tissue transplantation has been associated with severe complications in recipients. Determination of donor-derived infectious risk associated with organ and tissue transplantation is challenging and limited by availability and performance characteristics of current donor epidemiologic screening (e.g., questionnaire) and laboratory testing tools. Common methods and standards for evaluating potential donors of organs and tissues are needed to facilitate effective data collection for assessing the risk for infectious disease transmission. Research programs can use advanced microbiological technologies to define infectious risks posed by pathogens that are known to be transplant transmissible and provide insights into transmission potential of emerging infectious diseases for which transmission characteristics are unknown. Key research needs are explored. Stakeholder collaboration for surveillance and research infrastructure is required to enhance transplant safety. PMID:22840823

  7. Radiological Diagnoses in the Context of Emigration: Infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Stojkovic, Marija; Müller, Jan; Junghanss, Thomas; Weber, Tim Frederik

    2018-02-01

     Globalization and emigration impact on the spectrum of diseases challenging health care systems. Medical practitioners have to particularly prepare for infectious diseases.  The database of a health care center specialized on tropical medicine was screened for patients with history of migration and one of the following diagnoses: Cystic echinococcosis, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, visceral leishmaniosis, and neurocysticercosis. Representative casuistics were prepared from select case histories. Radiological pertinent knowledge was compiled based on literature search.  A small selection of frequently imported infectious diseases covers a considerable fraction of health care problems associated with migration. For cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, and neurocysticercosis imaging is the most relevant diagnostic procedure defining also disease stages. Tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniosis are important differentials for malignant diseases.  Imaging plays a meaningful role in diagnosis, treatment stratification, and follow-up of imported infectious diseases. Radiological skills concerning these diseases are important for providing health care for patients in context of migration.   · Imaging plays a meaningful role in multidisciplinary care for imported infectious diseases.. · A small selection covers a considerable fraction of infectious diseases expected in context of migration.. · Stojkovic M, Müller J, Junghanss T et al. Radiological Diagnoses in the Context of Emigration: Infectious diseases. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; 190: 121 - 133. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations.

    PubMed

    Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella . Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis , the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen.

  9. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella. Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis, the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen. PMID:28386446

  10. Research Options for Controlling Zoonotic Disease in India, 2010–2015

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Background Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Methods and Findings Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to ‘social, political and economic’ factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to ‘health policy and systems’ scored highest while those related to ‘research for development of new interventions’ scored the lowest. Conclusions We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors

  11. Research options for controlling zoonotic disease in India, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-02-25

    Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to 'social, political and economic' factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to 'health policy and systems' scored highest while those related to 'research for development of new interventions' scored the lowest. We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors. The identified research options capture the need for

  12. 78 FR 41939 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications. Date... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project...

  13. 77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date: June 7, 2012..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  14. 75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: October 14..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 9, 2010...

  15. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology..., 301-402-9523, [email protected] . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS...

  16. 75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: February 16..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 21, 2010...

  17. 76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: October 4..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 30, 2011...

  18. Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Syedbasha, Mohammedyaseen; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    and dendritic cell polarization, and subsequent priming, activation, and proliferation of pathogen-specific T- and B-cells may also be important elements associated with infectious disease outcomes. This review summarizes the emerging details of the IFN-λ immunobiology in the context of the host immune response and viral and bacterial infections.

  19. Nanocarriers in therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikoba, Ufuoma; Peng, Haisheng; Li, Haichun; Miller, Cathy; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing science that has applications in various areas of medicine. The composition of nanocarriers for drug delivery is critical to guarantee high therapeutic performance when targeting specific host sites. Applications of nanotechnology are prevalent in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent advancements in the application of nanotechnology to the therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases. The major focus is on the design and fabrication of various nanomaterials, characteristics and physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers, and the use of these nanoscale drug delivery systems in treating infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, melanoma, and representative inflammatory diseases. Clinical trials and future perspective of the use of nanocarriers are also discussed in detail. We hope that such a review will be valuable to researchers who are exploring nanoscale drug delivery systems for the treatment of specific infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  20. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: Testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recent ideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found that non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  1. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found t h at non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk.

  2. Rheumatic heart disease: infectious disease origin, chronic care approach.

    PubMed

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Ralph, Anna P; Wyber, Rosemary; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2017-11-29

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a chronic cardiac condition with an infectious aetiology, causing high disease burden in low-income settings. Affected individuals are young and associated morbidity is high. However, RHD is relatively neglected due to the populations involved and its lower incidence relative to other heart diseases. In this narrative review, we describe how RHD care can be informed by and integrated with models of care developed for priority non-communicable diseases (coronary heart disease), and high-burden communicable diseases (tuberculosis). Examining the four-level prevention model (primordial through tertiary prevention) suggests primordial and primary prevention of RHD can leverage off existing tuberculosis control efforts, given shared risk factors. Successes in coronary heart disease control provide inspiration for similarly bold initiatives for RHD. Further, we illustrate how the Chronic Care Model (CCM), developed for use in non-communicable diseases, offers a relevant framework to approach RHD care. Systems strengthening through greater integration of services can improve RHD programs. Strengthening of systems through integration/linkages with other well-performing and resourced services in conjunction with policies to adopt the CCM framework for the secondary and tertiary prevention of RHD in settings with limited resources, has the potential to significantly reduce the burden of RHD globally. More research is required to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy and service design.

  3. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  4. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats.

  5. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats. PMID:26068569

  6. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Lee, Hyojung; Yuan, Baoyin; Endo, Akira; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Chowell, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of disease in North Korea, including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks, have not been openly and widely analyzed. This study was performed to estimate the risks of infectious diseases among refugees from North Korea. A literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted to statistically estimate the risks of infectious diseases among North Korean subjects. A total of six groups of data from five publications covering the years 2004 to 2014 were identified. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis appeared to be the two most common infectious diseases, especially among adult refugees. When comparing the risks of infectious diseases between North Korean and Syrian refugees, it is critical to remember that Plasmodium vivax malaria has been endemic in North Korea, while cutaneous leishmaniasis has frequently been seen among Syrian migrants. Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-05-07

    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RR s ) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( ps < 0.05) than to decrease the risk, more likely to decrease the risk of measles, mumps, varicella and vivax malaria ( ps < 0.05) than to increase the risk. In conclusion, TCs have mixed effects on the risk of infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  8. 77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  9. 78 FR 10623 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013...

  10. 78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  11. 75 FR 30040 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Acquired Immunodeficiency..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 24, 2010...

  12. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  13. 75 FR 8975 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Acquired Immunodeficiency...; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page...

  14. 78 FR 40755 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: July 1, 2013. David...

  15. 76 FR 65204 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 14, 2011...

  16. 75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  17. 75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; B cell Immunology Partnership..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  18. 75 FR 6043 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Nonhuman Primate Cellular Immunology Core for HIV Vaccine..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  19. 77 FR 46099 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page 46100

  20. 75 FR 77650 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trails. Date..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  1. 76 FR 17928 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; DAIDS Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants. Date... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  2. 77 FR 13133 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel Integrated Preclinical/Clinical Program for HIV Topical..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  3. 77 FR 29678 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Integrated Preclinical/Clinical Program for HIV Topical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 11, 2012...

  4. 77 FR 70791 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning (R34) Grants and Implementation..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 20, 2012...

  5. 78 FR 40756 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  6. 78 FR 46357 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation Cooperative Agreement (U01....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  7. 77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation. Date: February..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  8. 75 FR 15712 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials. Date..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  9. 78 FR 22274 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  10. 77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation Cooperative Agreement (U01....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  11. 76 FR 32980 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trial Implementation Grants. Date: June... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  12. 75 FR 21005 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Inner City Asthma Consortium: Statistical and Clinical..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 15, 2010...

  13. 77 FR 74676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  14. Impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation on infectious disease hospitalization risk in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fisman, David N; Tuite, Ashleigh R; Brown, Kevin A

    2016-12-20

    Although the global climate is changing at an unprecedented rate, links between weather and infectious disease have received little attention in high income countries. The "El Niño Southern Oscillation" (ENSO) occurs irregularly and is associated with changing temperature and precipitation patterns. We studied the impact of ENSO on infectious diseases in four census regions in the United States. We evaluated infectious diseases requiring hospitalization using the US National Hospital Discharge Survey (1970-2010) and five disease groupings that may undergo epidemiological shifts with changing climate: (i) vector-borne diseases, (ii) pneumonia and influenza, (iii) enteric disease, (iv) zoonotic bacterial disease, and (v) fungal disease. ENSO exposure was based on the Multivariate ENSO Index. Distributed lag models, with adjustment for seasonal oscillation and long-term trends, were used to evaluate the impact of ENSO on disease incidence over lags of up to 12 mo. ENSO was associated more with vector-borne disease [relative risk (RR) 2.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-8.48] and less with enteric disease (0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.87) in the Western region; the increase in vector-borne disease was attributable to increased risk of rickettsioses and tick-borne infectious diseases. By contrast, ENSO was associated with more enteric disease in non-Western regions (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.15). The periodic nature of ENSO may make it a useful natural experiment for evaluation of the impact of climatic shifts on infectious disease risk. The impact of ENSO suggests that warmer temperatures and extreme variation in precipitation events influence risks of vector-borne and enteric disease in the United States.

  15. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerabilities to Infectious Diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.; Estevez, Virginia; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence, outbreak frequency, and distribution of many infectious diseases are generally expected to change as a consequence of climate change, yet there is limited regional information available to guide decision making. Objective: We surveyed government officials designated as Competent Bodies for Scientific Advice concerning infectious diseases to examine the degree to which they are concerned about potential effects of climate change on infectious diseases, as well as their perceptions of institutional capacities in their respective countries. Methods: In 2007 and 2009/2010, national infectious disease experts from 30 European Economic Area countries were surveyed about recent and projected infectious disease patterns in relation to climate change in their countries and the national capacity to cope with them. Results: A large majority of respondents agreed that climate change would affect vector-borne (86% of country representatives), food-borne (70%), water-borne (68%), and rodent-borne (68%) diseases in their countries. In addition, most indicated that institutional improvements are needed for ongoing surveillance programs (83%), collaboration with the veterinary sector (69%), management of animal disease outbreaks (66%), national monitoring and control of climate-sensitive infectious diseases (64%), health services during an infectious disease outbreak (61%), and diagnostic support during an epidemic (54%). Conclusions: Expert responses were generally consistent with the peer-reviewed literature regarding the relationship between climate change and vector- and water-borne diseases, but were less so for food-borne diseases. Shortcomings in institutional capacity to manage climate change vulnerability, identified in this assessment, should be addressed in impact, vulnerability, and adaptation assessments. PMID:22113877

  16. Governance and One Health: Exploring the Impact of Federalism and Bureaucracy on Zoonotic Disease Detection and Reporting.

    PubMed

    Allen, Heather A

    2015-05-13

    The merits of One Health have been thoroughly described in the literature, but how One Health operates in the United States federal system of government is rarely discussed or analyzed. Through a comparative case-study approach, this research explores how federalism, bureaucratic behavior, and institutional design in the United States may influence zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting, a key One Health activity. Using theoretical and empirical literature, as well as a survey/interview instrument for individuals directly involved in a past zoonotic disease outbreak, the impacts of governance are discussed. As predicted in the theoretical literature, empirical findings suggest that federalism, institutional design, and bureaucracy may play a role in facilitating or impeding zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting. Regulatory differences across states as well as compartmentalization of information within agencies may impede disease detection. However, the impact may not always be negative: bureaucracies can also be adaptive; federalism allows states important opportunities for innovation. While acknowledging there are many other factors that also matter in zoonotic disease detection and reporting, this research is one of the first attempts to raise awareness in the literature and stimulate discussion on the intersection of governance and One Health.

  17. Governance and One Health: Exploring the Impact of Federalism and Bureaucracy on Zoonotic Disease Detection and Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The merits of One Health have been thoroughly described in the literature, but how One Health operates in the United States federal system of government is rarely discussed or analyzed. Through a comparative case-study approach, this research explores how federalism, bureaucratic behavior, and institutional design in the United States may influence zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting, a key One Health activity. Using theoretical and empirical literature, as well as a survey/interview instrument for individuals directly involved in a past zoonotic disease outbreak, the impacts of governance are discussed. As predicted in the theoretical literature, empirical findings suggest that federalism, institutional design, and bureaucracy may play a role in facilitating or impeding zoonotic disease outbreak detection and reporting. Regulatory differences across states as well as compartmentalization of information within agencies may impede disease detection. However, the impact may not always be negative: bureaucracies can also be adaptive; federalism allows states important opportunities for innovation. While acknowledging there are many other factors that also matter in zoonotic disease detection and reporting, this research is one of the first attempts to raise awareness in the literature and stimulate discussion on the intersection of governance and One Health. PMID:29061932

  18. Assessment of economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises.

    PubMed

    Sands, Peter; El Turabi, Anas; Saynisch, Philip A; Dzau, Victor J

    2016-11-12

    Infectious disease crises have substantial economic impact. Yet mainstream macroeconomic forecasting rarely takes account of the risk of potential pandemics. This oversight contributes to persistent underestimation of infectious disease risk and consequent underinvestment in preparedness and response to infectious disease crises. One reason why economists fail to include economic vulnerability to infectious disease threats in their assessments is the absence of readily available and digestible input data to inform such analysis. In this Viewpoint we suggest an approach by which the global health community can help to generate such inputs, and a framework to use these inputs to assess the economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises of individual countries and regions. We argue that incorporation of these risks in influential macroeconomic analyses such as the reports from the International Monetary Fund's Article IV consultations, rating agencies and risk consultancies would simultaneously improve the quality of economic risk forecasting and reinforce individual government and donor incentives to mitigate infectious disease risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Naïve Human Antibody Libraries for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chan, Soo Khim; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Lai, Jing Yi; Lim, Theam Soon

    2017-01-01

    Many countries are facing an uphill battle in combating the spread of infectious diseases. The constant evolution of microorganisms magnifies the problem as it facilitates the re-emergence of old infectious diseases as well as promote the introduction of new and more deadly variants. Evidently, infectious diseases have contributed to an alarming rate of mortality worldwide making it a growing concern. Historically, antibodies have been used successfully to prevent and treat infectious diseases since the nineteenth century using antisera collected from immunized animals. The inherent ability of antibodies to trigger effector mechanisms aids the immune system to fight off pathogens that invades the host. Immune libraries have always been an important source of antibodies for infectious diseases due to the skewed repertoire generated post infection. Even so, the role and ability of naïve antibody libraries should not be underestimated. The naïve repertoire has its own unique advantages in generating antibodies against target antigens. This chapter will highlight the concept, advantages and application of human naïve libraries as a source to isolate antibodies against infectious disease target antigens.

  20. Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio

  1. Nanobioimaging and sensing of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Tallury, Padmavathy; Malhotra, Astha; Byrne, Logan M; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2010-03-18

    New methods to identify trace amount of infectious pathogens rapidly, accurately and with high sensitivity are in constant demand to prevent epidemics and loss of lives. Early detection of these pathogens to prevent, treat and contain the spread of infections is crucial. Therefore, there is a need and urgency for sensitive, specific, accurate, easy-to-use diagnostic tests. Versatile biofunctionalized engineered nanomaterials are proving to be promising in meeting these needs in diagnosing the pathogens in food, blood and clinical samples. The unique optical and magnetic properties of the nanoscale materials have been put to use for the diagnostics. In this review, we focus on the developments of the fluorescent nanoparticles, metallic nanostructures and superparamagnetic nanoparticles for bioimaging and detection of infectious microorganisms. The various nanodiagnostic assays developed to image, detect and capture infectious virus and bacteria in solutions, food or biological samples in vitro and in vivo are presented and their relevance to developing countries is discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    PubMed

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  3. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    PubMed

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  4. Social Determinants of Infectious Diseases in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ide, Seydou; Ghosh, Sharmistha

    2014-01-01

    South Asian countries have developed infectious disease control programs such as routine immunization, vaccination, and the provision of essential drugs which are operating nationwide in cooperation with many local and foreign NGOs. Most South Asian countries have a relatively low prevalence of HIV/AIDS until now, but issues like poverty, food insecurity, illiteracy, poor sanitation, and social stigma around AIDS are widespread and are creating formidable challenges to prevention of further spread of this epidemic. Besides that, resurgence of tuberculosis along with the emergence of the drug resistant (MDR-TB and XDRTB) strains and the coepidemic of TB and HIV are posing ever-growing threats to the underdeveloped healthcare infrastructure. The countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition where the disease burden is gradually shifting to noncommunicable diseases, but the infectious diseases still account for almost half of the total disease burden. Despite this huge burden of infectious diseases in South Asia, which is second only to Africa, there is yet any study on the social determinants of infectious diseases in a local context. This paper examines various issues surrounding the social determinants of infectious diseases in South Asian countries with a special reference to HIV and tuberculosis. And, by doing so, it attempts to provide a framework for formulating more efficient prevention and intervention strategies for the future. PMID:27350969

  5. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease. PMID:28418738

  6. The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2009-01-01

    The projected global increase in the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases with climate change suggests a pending societal crisis. The subject is increasingly attracting the attention of health professionals and climate-change scientists, particularly with respect to malaria and other vector-transmitted human diseases. The result has been the emergence of a crisis discipline, reminiscent of the early phases of conservation biology. Latitudinal, altitudinal, seasonal, and interannual associations between climate and disease along with historical and experimental evidence suggest that climate, along with many other factors, can affect infectious diseases in a nonlinear fashion. However, although the globe is significantly warmer than it was a century ago, there is little evidence that climate change has already favored infectious diseases. While initial projections suggested dramatic future increases in the geographic range of infectious diseases, recent models predict range shifts in disease distributions, with little net increase in area. Many factors can affect infectious disease, and some may overshadow the effects of climate.

  7. Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Randolph, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging vector-borne diseases represent an important issue for global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, and many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and local emergence are frequently considered distinct processes, many emerging endemic pathogens are in fact invading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We highlight key differences in the dynamics and disease burden that result from increased pathogen transmission following habitat change compared with the introduction of pathogens to new regions. Truly in situ emergence is commonly driven by changes in human factors as much as by enhanced enzootic cycles whereas pathogen invasion results from anthropogenic trade and travel and suitable conditions for a pathogen, including hosts, vectors, and climate. Once established, ecological factors related to vector characteristics shape the evolutionary selective pressure on pathogens that may result in increased use of humans as transmission hosts. We describe challenges inherent in the control of vector-borne zoonotic diseases and some emerging non-traditional strategies that may be more effective in the long term. PMID:23200503

  8. Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Environmentally Forced Zoonotic Disease Emergence: Sin Nombre Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Scott; Mills, James N.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Parmenter, Robert R.; Richardson, Kyle S.; Harris, Rachel L.; Douglass, Richard J.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Luis, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. We propose a mechanistic understanding of human–reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. Crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. We found that disease cases were greatest in arid states and declined exponentially with increasing precipitation. Within arid environments, relatively rare climatic conditions (e.g., El Niño) are associated with increased rainfall and reservoir abundance, producing more frequent virus transmission and host dispersal. We suggest that deer mice increase their occupancy of peridomestic structures during spring–summer, amplifying intraspecific transmission and human infection risk. Disease incidence in arid states may increase with predicted climatic changes. Mechanistic approaches incorporating reservoir behavior, reservoir–human interactions, and pathogen spillover could enhance our understanding of global hantavirus ecology, with applications to other directly transmitted zoonoses. PMID:26955081

  9. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  10. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  11. Modeling infectious diseases dissemination through online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Balicer, Ran D

    2007-03-01

    As mathematical modeling of infectious diseases becomes increasingly important for developing public health policies, a novel platform for such studies might be considered. Millions of people worldwide play interactive online role-playing games, forming complex and rich networks among their virtual characters. An unexpected outbreak of an infective communicable disease (unplanned by the game creators) recently occurred in this virtual world. This outbreak holds surprising similarities to real-world epidemics. It is possible that these virtual environments could serve as a platform for studying the dissemination of infectious diseases, and as a testing ground for novel interventions to control emerging communicable diseases.

  12. Population bottlenecks during the infectious cycle of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Rego, Ryan O M; Bestor, Aaron; Stefka, Jan; Rosa, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a zoonotic pathogen whose maintenance in nature depends upon an infectious cycle that alternates between a tick vector and mammalian hosts. Lyme disease in humans results from transmission of B. burgdorferi by the bite of an infected tick. The population dynamics of B. burgdorferi throughout its natural infectious cycle are not well understood. We addressed this topic by assessing the colonization, dissemination and persistence of B. burgdorferi within and between the disparate mammalian and tick environments. To follow bacterial populations during infection, we generated seven isogenic but distinguishable B. burgdorferi clones, each with a unique sequence tag. These tags resulted in no phenotypic changes relative to wild type organisms, yet permitted highly sensitive and specific detection of individual clones by PCR. We followed the composition of the spirochete population throughout an experimental infectious cycle that was initiated with a mixed inoculum of all clones. We observed heterogeneity in the spirochete population disseminating within mice at very early time points, but all clones displayed the ability to colonize most mouse tissues by 3 weeks of infection. The complexity of clones subsequently declined as murine infection persisted. Larval ticks typically acquired a reduced and variable number of clones relative to what was present in infected mice at the time of tick feeding, and maintained the same spirochete population through the molt to nymphs. However, only a random subset of infectious spirochetes was transmitted to naïve mice when these ticks next fed. Our results clearly demonstrate that the spirochete population experiences stochastic bottlenecks during both acquisition and transmission by the tick vector, as well as during persistent infection of its murine host. The experimental system that we have developed can be used to further explore the forces that shape the population of this vector-borne bacterial pathogen

  13. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jonathan M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  14. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  15. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  16. Use of a modified Delphi panel to identify and weight criteria for prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stebler, N; Schuepbach-Regula, G; Braam, P; Falzon, L C

    2015-09-01

    Zoonotic diseases have a significant impact on public health globally. To prevent or reduce future zoonotic outbreaks, there is a constant need to invest in research and surveillance programs while updating risk management strategies. However, given the limited resources available, disease prioritization based on the need for their control and surveillance is important. This study was performed to identify and weight disease criteria for the prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Switzerland using a semi-quantitative research method based on expert opinion. Twenty-eight criteria relevant for disease control and surveillance, classified under five domains, were selected following a thorough literature review, and these were evaluated and weighted by seven experts from the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office using a modified Delphi panel. The median scores assigned to each criterion were then used to rank 16 notifiable and/or emerging zoonoses in Switzerland. The experts weighted the majority of the criteria similarly, and the top three criteria were Severity of disease in humans, incidence and prevalence of the disease in humans and treatment in humans. Based on these weightings, the three highest ranked diseases were Avian Influenza, Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis, and Bovine Tuberculosis. Overall, this study provided a preliminary list of criteria relevant for disease prioritization in Switzerland. These were further evaluated in a companion study which involved a quantitative prioritization method and multiple stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  18. Examining the relationship between infectious diseases and flooding in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa; Murray, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many infectious diseases are sensitive to climatic changes; specifically, flooding. This systematic literature review aimed to strengthen the quality and completeness of evidence on infectious diseases following flooding, relevant to Europe. Methods A systematic literature review from 2004–2012 was performed. Focused searches of the following databases were conducted: Medline, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Evidence Aid. Personal communications with key informants were also reviewed. Results Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Evidence suggested that water-borne, rodent-borne, and vector-borne diseases have been associated with flooding in Europe, although at a lower incidence than developing countries. Conclusion Disease surveillance and early warning systems, coupled with effective prevention and response capabilities, can reduce current and future vulnerability to infectious diseases following flooding. PMID:28228994

  19. Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.

    SciT

    Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.

    1997-07-01

    When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learnedmore » to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.« less

  20. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, G. R.; Parra, J. P.; Kamil, M.; Chakib, S. O.; Cope, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases. PMID:8907768

  1. [Asymptomatic subcapsular splenic hematoma in infectious mononucleosis (Pfeiffer disease)].

    PubMed

    Stahlknecht, T; Majewski, A

    1986-09-01

    Splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis (Pfeiffer disease, or glandular fever) is a rare but life-threatening complication. The exact mechanism of rupture of the spleen is unknown to date. A case of a spontaneous, asymptomatic, subcapsular haematoma of the spleen of an eighteen-year old female with infectious mononucleosis is presented with special reference to the echographic findings. A complete remission without any complication was obtained. The contribution of the sonographic examination and follow-up in the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis is emphasised.

  2. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: Linking systems biology with vaccine development

    SciT

    Adams, Leslie G.; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D.

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhancedmore » approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic *sipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host

  3. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: linking systems biology with vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Adams, L Garry; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D; Rossetti, Carlos A; Lewin, Harris A; Lipton, Mary S; Turse, Joshua E; Wylie, Dennis C; Bai, Yu; Drake, Kenneth L

    2011-09-22

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhanced approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host-pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic ΔsipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host's biosignatures

  4. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-09-07

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future.

  5. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  6. Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points Assessment as a Tool to Respond to Emerging Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kelly L.; Hunter, Paul R.; Few, Roger; Bell, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam’s domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam’s domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23967294

  7. [Infectious diseases that people should be informed: a Delphi survey of clinicians engaged in practice of infectious diseases in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Tomoko; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Marui, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    To identify specific infectious diseases about which the Japanese public should be informed. A Delphi survey was conducted, recruiting 26 physicians who are engaged in clinical practice of infectious diseases and working at designated medical institutions of infectious diseases in Japan. Following HIV/AIDS (first ranked), tuberculosis (second) and influenza (third), 24 diseases in total were identified based on "knowledge, awareness and behavior of inhabitants" or "social and clinico-epidemiological circumstances". Scores for the top three ranked diseases were more than two-folds of those for following diseases. Among the top 10 ranked diseases, 9 were in common with the previous survey result among public health physicians and veterinarians working for governmental agencies. Our findings of scores for specific diseases most likely reflect an importance of performing preventions and early diagnoses of severe diseases and promoting prophylaxis for travelers' diseases which tend to be factors for prioritizing infectious diseases among clinicians. The top-scored diseases among clinicians were consistent with those among public health officers, indicating the critical need to inform the public about these diseases. Nevertheless, both clinicians and public health experts have already attempted to promote preventions and/or treatment for these diseases in the previous time, and thus, the previous experience must be critically reviewed and reconsidered for improvements. In future, the similar surveys to ours should target specific subjects of experts and investigate more specific types of infectious diseases. Following such an expert survey, concrete action plans to inform the public about prioritized diseases are also called for.

  8. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates, during...

  9. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates, during...

  10. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates, during...

  11. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates, during...

  12. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates, during...

  13. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Chastain, Daniel B; King, Travis S; Stover, Kayla R

    2016-01-01

    Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications.

  14. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s) in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect. PMID:28774161

  15. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Park, Mijeong

    2017-01-01

    This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s) in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  16. Stochastic modelling of infectious diseases for heterogeneous populations.

    PubMed

    Ming, Rui-Xing; Liu, Ji-Ming; W Cheung, William K; Wan, Xiang

    2016-12-22

    Infectious diseases such as SARS and H1N1 can significantly impact people's lives and cause severe social and economic damages. Recent outbreaks have stressed the urgency of effective research on the dynamics of infectious disease spread. However, it is difficult to predict when and where outbreaks may emerge and how infectious diseases spread because many factors affect their transmission, and some of them may be unknown. One feasible means to promptly detect an outbreak and track the progress of disease spread is to implement surveillance systems in regional or national health and medical centres. The accumulated surveillance data, including temporal, spatial, clinical, and demographic information can provide valuable information that can be exploited to better understand and model the dynamics of infectious disease spread. The aim of this work is to develop and empirically evaluate a stochastic model that allows the investigation of transmission patterns of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations. We test the proposed model on simulation data and apply it to the surveillance data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. In the simulation experiment, our model achieves high accuracy in parameter estimation (less than 10.0 % mean absolute percentage error). In terms of the forward prediction of case incidence, the mean absolute percentage errors are 17.3 % for the simulation experiment and 20.0 % for the experiment on the real surveillance data. We propose a stochastic model to study the dynamics of infectious disease spread in heterogeneous populations from temporal-spatial surveillance data. The proposed model is evaluated using both simulated data and the real data from the 2009 H1N1 epidemic in Hong Kong and achieves acceptable prediction accuracy. We believe that our model can provide valuable insights for public health authorities to predict the effect of disease spread and analyse its underlying factors and to guide new control efforts.

  17. Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: water and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Austin, Zoë; Alcock, Ruth E; Christley, Robert M; Haygarth, Philip M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Latham, Sophia M; Mort, Maggie; Oliver, David M; Pickup, Roger; Wastling, Jonathan M; Wynne, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Decision making for zoonotic disease management should be based on many forms of appropriate data and sources of evidence. However, the criteria and timing for policy response and the resulting management decisions are often altered when a disease outbreak occurs and captures full media attention. In the case of waterborne disease, such as the robust protozoa, Cryptosporidium spp, exposure can cause significant human health risks and preventing exposure by maintaining high standards of biological and chemical water quality remains a priority for water companies in the UK. Little has been documented on how knowledge and information is translated between the many stakeholders involved in the management of Cryptosporidium, which is surprising given the different drivers that have shaped management decisions. Such information, coupled with the uncertainties that surround these data is essential for improving future management strategies that minimise disease outbreaks. Here, we examine the interplay between scientific information, the media, and emergent government and company policies to examine these issues using qualitative and quantitative data relating to Cryptosporidium management decisions by a water company in the North West of England. Our results show that political and media influences are powerful drivers of management decisions if fuelled by high profile outbreaks. Furthermore, the strength of the scientific evidence is often constrained by uncertainties in the data, and in the way knowledge is translated between policy levels during established risk management procedures. In particular, under or over-estimating risk during risk assessment procedures together with uncertainty regarding risk factors within the wider environment, was found to restrict the knowledge-base for decision-making in Cryptosporidium management. Our findings highlight some key current and future challenges facing the management of such diseases that are widely applicable to other

  18. Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

  19. Forecasting infectious disease emergence subject to seasonal forcing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paige B; O'Dea, Eamon B; Rohani, Pejman; Drake, John M

    2017-09-06

    Despite high vaccination coverage, many childhood infections pose a growing threat to human populations. Accurate disease forecasting would be of tremendous value to public health. Forecasting disease emergence using early warning signals (EWS) is possible in non-seasonal models of infectious diseases. Here, we assessed whether EWS also anticipate disease emergence in seasonal models. We simulated the dynamics of an immunizing infectious pathogen approaching the tipping point to disease endemicity. To explore the effect of seasonality on the reliability of early warning statistics, we varied the amplitude of fluctuations around the average transmission. We proposed and analyzed two new early warning signals based on the wavelet spectrum. We measured the reliability of the early warning signals depending on the strength of their trend preceding the tipping point and then calculated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) statistic. Early warning signals were reliable when disease transmission was subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning signals were as reliable as other conventional early warning signals. We found that removing seasonal trends, prior to analysis, did not improve early warning statistics uniformly. Early warning signals anticipate the onset of critical transitions for infectious diseases which are subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning statistics can also be used to forecast infectious disease.

  20. The Bug Stops Here: Force Protection and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    said in 1972 that “the future of infectious diseases will be very dull.” Successful vaccines against smallpox and polio only furthered belief that...probably higher. Mounting evidence implicates microbes in heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, autism , chronic lung diseases...cross protection against smallpox. Louis Pasteur later adopted the word ‘ vaccination ’ for immunization against any disease. 19 “History of Military

  1. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    PubMed

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications

    Young, Hillary S.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Nunn, Charles L.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat destruction and infectious disease are dual threats to nature and people. The potential to simultaneously advance conservation and human health has attracted considerable scientific and popular interest; in particular, many authors have justified conservation action by pointing out potential public health benefits . One major focus of this debate—that biodiversity conservation often decreases infectious disease transmission via the dilution effect—remains contentious. Studies that test for a dilution effect often find a negative association between a diversity metric and a disease risk metric, but how such associations should inform conservation policy remains unclear for several reasons. For one, diversity and infection risk have many definitions, making it possible to identify measures that conform to expectations. Furthermore, the premise that habitat destruction consistently reduces biodiversity is in question, and disturbance or conservation can affect disease in many ways other than through biodiversity change. To date, few studies have examined the broader set of mechanisms by which anthropogenic disturbance or conservation might increase or decrease infectious disease risk to human populations. Due to interconnections between biodiversity change, economics and human behaviour, moving from ecological theory to policy action requires understanding how social and economic factors affect conservation.This Theme Issue arose from a meeting aimed at synthesizing current theory and data on ‘biodiversity, conservation and infectious disease’ (4–6 May 2015). Ecologists, evolutionary biologists, economists, epidemiologists, veterinary scientists, public health professionals, and conservation biologists from around the world discussed the latest research on the ecological and socio-economic links between conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease, and the open questions and controversies in these areas. By combining ecological understanding

  3. Zoonoses and marginalised infectious diseases of poverty: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing awareness of the importance of controlling neglected tropical diseases as a contribution to poverty alleviation and achieving the Millennium Development Goals, there is a need to up-scale programmes to achieve wider public health benefits. This implementation deficit is attributable to several factors but one often overlooked is the specific difficulty in tackling diseases that involve both people and animals - the zoonoses. A Disease Reference Group on Zoonoses and Marginalised Infectious Diseases (DRG6) was convened by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), a programme executed by the World Health Organization and co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, the World Bank and WHO. The key considerations included: (a) the general lack of reliable quantitative data on their public health burden; (b) the need to evaluate livestock production losses and their additional impacts on health and poverty; (c) the relevance of cross-sectoral issues essential to designing and implementing public health interventions for zoonotic diseases; and (d) identifying priority areas for research and interventions to harness resources most effectively. Beyond disease specific research issues, a set of common macro-priorities and interventions were identified which, if implemented through a more integrated approach by countries, would have a significant impact on human health of the most marginalised populations characteristically dependent on livestock. PMID:21672216

  4. Zoonoses and marginalised infectious diseases of poverty: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David; Hallaj, Zuhair; Keusch, Gerald T; McManus, Donald P; Ngowi, Helena; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ramos-Jimenez, Pilar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Kar, Kamal; Sanchez, Ana; Garba, Amadou; Carabin, Helene; Bassili, Amal; Chaignat, Claire L; Meslin, Francois-Xavier; Abushama, Hind M; Willingham, Arve L; Kioy, Deborah

    2011-06-14

    Despite growing awareness of the importance of controlling neglected tropical diseases as a contribution to poverty alleviation and achieving the Millennium Development Goals, there is a need to up-scale programmes to achieve wider public health benefits. This implementation deficit is attributable to several factors but one often overlooked is the specific difficulty in tackling diseases that involve both people and animals - the zoonoses. A Disease Reference Group on Zoonoses and Marginalised Infectious Diseases (DRG6) was convened by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), a programme executed by the World Health Organization and co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, the World Bank and WHO. The key considerations included: (a) the general lack of reliable quantitative data on their public health burden; (b) the need to evaluate livestock production losses and their additional impacts on health and poverty; (c) the relevance of cross-sectoral issues essential to designing and implementing public health interventions for zoonotic diseases; and (d) identifying priority areas for research and interventions to harness resources most effectively. Beyond disease specific research issues, a set of common macro-priorities and interventions were identified which, if implemented through a more integrated approach by countries, would have a significant impact on human health of the most marginalised populations characteristically dependent on livestock.

  5. A Quantitative and Novel Approach to the Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in North America: A Public Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Victoria; Sargeant, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Zoonoses account for over half of all communicable diseases causing illness in humans. As there are limited resources available for the control and prevention of zoonotic diseases, a framework for their prioritization is necessary to ensure resources are directed into those of highest importance. Although zoonotic outbreaks are a significant burden of disease in North America, the systematic prioritization of zoonoses in this region has not been previously evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings This study describes the novel use of a well-established quantitative method, conjoint analysis (CA), to identify the relative importance of 21 key characteristics of zoonotic diseases that can be used for their prioritization in Canada and the US. Relative importance weights from the CA were used to develop a point-scoring system to derive a recommended list of zoonoses for prioritization in Canada and the US. Over 1,500 participants from the general public were recruited to complete the online survey (761 from Canada and 778 from the US). Hierarchical Bayes models were fitted to the survey data to derive CA-weighted scores. Scores were applied to 62 zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada and the US to rank diseases in order of priority. Conclusions/Significance This was the first study to describe a systematic and quantitative approach to the prioritization of zoonoses in North America involving public participants. We found individuals with no prior knowledge or experience in prioritizing zoonoses were capable of producing meaningful results using CA as a novel quantitative approach to prioritization. More similarities than differences were observed between countries suggesting general agreement in disease prioritization between Canadians and Americans. We demonstrate CA as a potential tool for the prioritization of zoonoses; other prioritization exercises may also consider this approach. PMID:23133639

  6. 78 FR 28858 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ....gov . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology... Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  7. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  8. Urbanisation and infectious diseases in a globalised world.

    PubMed

    Alirol, Emilie; Getaz, Laurent; Stoll, Beat; Chappuis, François; Loutan, Louis

    2011-02-01

    The world is becoming urban. The UN predicts that the world's urban population will almost double from 3·3 billion in 2007 to 6·3 billion in 2050. Most of this increase will be in developing countries. Exponential urban growth is having a profound effect on global health. Because of international travel and migration, cities are becoming important hubs for the transmission of infectious diseases, as shown by recent pandemics. Physicians in urban environments in developing and developed countries need to be aware of the changes in infectious diseases associated with urbanisation. Furthermore, health should be a major consideration in town planning to ensure urbanisation works to reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Socio-demographic study on extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, K.; Bhattacharya, A.; David, S.; Balaji, S. Hari; Hariharan, R.; Jayakumar, M.; Balaji, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly from eight revenue villages. And each farmer was interviewed with a questionnaire containing both open- and close-ended questions on various aspects of zoonotic diseases, a total of 49 questionnaires were framed to assess the source and transmission of infection to the farmers and to test their knowledge and awareness about zoonotic diseases. The data collected were analyzed by chi-square test using software Graph pad prism, and results were used to assess the relationship between education level and zoonotic disease awareness; risk of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Results: The present survey analysis represents that most of the respondents are belonging to the age group of 41-60 years. About 42.8% of respondents’ household having a graduate. The most of the respondent are small-scale farmers and their monthly income was less than Rs. 10,000. About 61.2% of farmers were keeping their animal shed clean. About 29.6% of the respondents were ignorant about cleaning the dog bitten wound. Only 16.4% of respondents knew that diseases in animals can be transmitted to humans. Only 4.8%, 3.6%, 6.8%, and 22.4% of respondents knew about the zoonotic potential of diseases such as brucellosis, tuberculosis (TB), anthrax, and avian flu, respectively. Only 18% of the respondents were aware about zoonotic diseases from cattle. Regarding the list of zoonotic diseases contracted, 37.7% reported respiratory infection, 31.1% digestive disturbances, 15.5% had dermatological problem, and 15.5% reported indiscrete disease such as fever, body pain, and headache joint pain. From the respondent got the zoonotic disease (n=45), 51.2% of the respondent reported chronic infection and 48.8% of the respondent reported acute

  10. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    SciT

    Anderson, W.F.

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging,more » or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.« less

  11. Strategies for collaboration in the interdisciplinary field of emerging zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Anholt, R M; Stephen, C; Copes, R

    2012-06-01

    The integration of the veterinary, medical and environmental sciences necessary to predict, prevent or respond to emerging zoonotic diseases requires effective collaboration and exchange of knowledge across these disciplines. There has been no research into how to connect and integrate these professions in the pursuit of a common task. We conducted a literature search looking at the experiences and wisdom resulting from collaborations built in health partnerships, health research knowledge transfer and exchange, business knowledge management and systems design engineering to identify key attributes of successful interdisciplinary (ID) collaboration. This was followed by a workshop with 16 experts experienced in ID collaboration including physicians, veterinarians and biologists from private practice, academia and government agencies. The workshop participants shared their perspectives on the facilitators and barriers to ID collaboration. Our results found that the elements that can support or impede ID collaboration can be categorized as follows: the characteristics of the people, the degree to which the task is a shared goal, the policies, practices and resources of the workplace, how information technology is used and the evaluation of the results. Above all, personal relationships built on trust and respect are needed to best assemble the disciplinary strength of the professions. The challenge of meeting collaborators outside the boundaries of one's discipline or jurisdiction may be met by an independent third party, an ID knowledge broker. The broker would know where the knowledge could be found, would facilitate introductions and would help to build effective ID teams. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. A technological update of molecular diagnostics for infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Tsueng

    2008-01-01

    Identification of a causative pathogen is essential for the choice of treatment for most infectious diseases. Many FDA approved molecular assays; usually more sensitive and specific compared to traditional tests, have been developed in the last decade. A new trend of high throughput and multiplexing assays are emerging thanks to technological developments for the human genome sequencing project. The applications of microarray and ultra high throughput sequencing technologies for diagnostic microbiology are reviewed. The race for the $1000 genome technology by 2014 will have a profound impact in diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases in the near future. PMID:18782035

  13. Drug-device trials for infectious diseases: CDRH perspective.

    PubMed

    Meier, Kristen L; Gitterman, Steven

    2011-05-01

    Assessing the performance of new diagnostic tests for infectious diseases has traditionally focused on comparing the new assay against a reference standard such as culture. In this paper, we suggest that clinical trial designs with both a diagnostic and therapeutic component may be necessary to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of nonmicrobiologically based assays, with a specific emphasis on the test/marker-stratified design. General design challenges for trials of infectious diseases that simultaneously study both diagnostic and therapeutic components (eg, both devices and drugs) are also discussed.

  14. Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

  15. Prevention of infectious diseases in patients with Good syndrome.

    PubMed

    Multani, Ashrit; Gomez, Carlos A; Montoya, José G

    2018-08-01

    Good syndrome is a profoundly immunocompromising condition with heterogeneous immune deficits characterized by the presence of thymoma, low-to-absent B-lymphocyte counts, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impaired cell-mediated immunity. Opportunistic infectious diseases associated with Good syndrome represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, given their protean clinical manifestations. Although these infectious complications have been reviewed in prior publications, recommendations regarding their prevention have been lacking. Good syndrome usually occurs in adult patients between the ages of 40 and 70 years. Immunologically, it is characterized by low or absent peripheral blood B lymphocytes, hypogammaglobulinemia, and variable defects in cell-mediated immunity including low CD4 T counts, inverted CD4:CD8 T-lymphocyte ratio, and reduced T-lymphocyte mitogen proliferative responses. Patients with Good syndrome are susceptible to a variety of infectious diseases, of which the most common are recurrent bacterial sinopulmonary infections, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and CMV tissue-invasive disease. Preventive guidelines including targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccination strategies can mitigate infectious complications in patients with Good syndrome. Immunological deficits and infectious complications in Good syndrome have been described for over 60 years. Further research is needed to elucidate its exact pathogenesis and define the mechanistic relationship between thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia. However, tailored prophylactic strategies can be recommended for patients with Good syndrome.

  16. One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Smith, James; Taylor, Emma Michelle; Kingsley, Pete

    2015-03-01

    This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World-One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) international, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved district health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Canales, Maritza; Enriquez, Lourdes; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zelaya, Ada Argentina; Espinoza, Vilma Esther; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo

    2013-08-07

    In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS) has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ). In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its potential contribution to the MDGs. Furthermore, increased research

  18. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Canales, Maritza; Enriquez, Lourdes; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zelaya, Ada Argentina; Espinoza, Vilma Esther; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS) has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Objective This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ). In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its potential contribution

  19. Using administrative medical claims data to supplement state disease registry systems for reporting zoonotic infections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen G; Coulter, Steven; Conner, William

    2013-01-01

    To determine what, if any, opportunity exists in using administrative medical claims data for supplemental reporting to the state infectious disease registry system. Cases of five tick-borne (Lyme disease (LD), babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), tularemia) and two mosquito-borne diseases (West Nile virus, La Crosse viral encephalitis) reported to the Tennessee Department of Health during 2000-2009 were selected for study. Similarly, medically diagnosed cases from a Tennessee-based managed care organization (MCO) claims data warehouse were extracted for the same time period. MCO and Tennessee Department of Health incidence rates were compared using a complete randomized block design within a general linear mixed model to measure potential supplemental reporting opportunity. MCO LD incidence was 7.7 times higher (p<0.001) than that reported to the state, possibly indicating significant under-reporting (∼196 unreported cases per year). MCO data also suggest about 33 cases of RMSF go unreported each year in Tennessee (p<0.001). Three cases of babesiosis were discovered using claims data, a significant finding as this disease was only recently confirmed in Tennessee. Data sharing between MCOs and health departments for vaccine information already exists (eg, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Rapid Cycle Analysis project). There may be a significant opportunity in Tennessee to supplement the current passive infectious disease reporting system with administrative claims data, particularly for LD and RMSF. There are limitations with administrative claims data, but health plans may help bridge data gaps and support the federal administration's vision of combining public and private data into one source.

  20. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the ‘quality’ of consumer–resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

  1. Infectious Diseases Society of America Position Statement on Telehealth and Telemedicine as Applied to the Practice of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Javeed; Herchline, Thomas; Kahlon, Summerpal; Moyer, Kay J; Scott, John D; Wood, Brian R; Young, Jeremy

    2017-02-01

    The use of telehealth and telemedicine offers powerful tools for delivering clinical care, conducting medical research, and enhancing access to infectious diseases physicians. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has prepared a position statement to educate members on the use of telehealth and telemedicine technologies. The development of telehealth and telemedicine programs requires the consideration of several issues such as HIPAA, state and local licensure requirements, credentialing and privileging, scope of care, quality, and responsibility and liability. IDSA supports appropriate use of telehealth and telemedicine to provide timely, cost-effective specialty care to resource-limited populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. RNA Interference in Infectious Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into some cells or organisms results in degradation of its homologous mRNA, a process called RNA interference (RNAi). The dsRNAs are processed into short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that subsequently bind to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), causing degradation of target mRNAs. Because of this sequence-specific ability to silence target genes, RNAi has been extensively used to study gene functions and has the potential to control disease pathogens or vectors. With this promise of RNAi to control pathogens and vectors, this paper reviews the current status of RNAi in protozoans, animal parasitic helminths and disease-transmitting vectors, such as insects. Many pathogens and vectors cause severe parasitic diseases in tropical regions and it is difficult to control once the host has been invaded. Intracellularly, RNAi can be highly effective in impeding parasitic development and proliferation within the host. To fully realize its potential as a means to control tropical diseases, appropriate delivery methods for RNAi should be developed, and possible off-target effects should be minimized for specific gene suppression. RNAi can also be utilized to reduce vector competence to interfere with disease transmission, as genes critical for pathogenesis of tropical diseases are knockdowned via RNAi. PMID:18344671

  3. Contagious rhythm: infectious diseases of 20th century musicians.

    PubMed

    Sartin, Jeffrey S

    2010-07-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock 'n' roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures.

  4. Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  5. Postexposure management of healthcare personnel to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bader, Mazen S; Brooks, Annie A; Srigley, Jocelyn A

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of exposure to various pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. Management of HCP exposed to infectious agents can be disruptive to patient care, time-consuming, and costly. Exposure of HCP to an infectious source should be considered an urgent medical concern to ensure timely management and administration of postexposure prophylaxis, if available and indicated. Infection control and occupational health departments should be notified for management of exposed HCP, identification of all contacts of the index case, and application of immediate infection control measures for the index case and exposed HCP, if indicated. This article reviews the main principles of postexposure management of HCP to infectious diseases, in general, and to certain common infections, in particular, categorized by their route of transmission, in addition to primary prevention of these infections.

  6. Gallstone disease. The clinical manifestations of infectious stones.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Stewart, L; Fine, R; Pellegrini, C A; Way, L W

    1989-05-01

    Gallstones from 82 patients were examined under a scanning electron microscope for evidence of bacteria, and the findings were compared with the clinical manifestations of the disease. Bacteria were present in 68% of pigment stones and the pigment portions of 80% of composite stones. These gallstones were referred to as infectious stones. No bacteria were found in cholesterol gallstones. Acute cholangitis was diagnosed in 52% of patients with infectious stones and in 18% of patients with noninfectious stones. Over half of the patients with noninfectious stones presented with mild symptoms. Infectious stones were more often associated with a previous common duct exploration, an urgent operation, infected bile, a common duct procedure, and complications. These data show that gallstone disease is more virulent in patients whose gallstones contain bacteria.

  7. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The spread of zoonoses and other infectious diseases through the international trade of animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarhos M

    2008-01-01

    For trade purposes, ever increasing quantities of food animals and animal products that are transported more rapidly than ever before are contributing to the spread of zoonoses and are creating threats on a permanent basis. Most countries in south-eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East are increasing imports of food animals and meat and products of animal origin. They can become potential sources of zoonotic and other infectious diseases if controls are not performed under the most effective conditions. Developing countries with their organisational weakness are particularly vulnerable to fraudulent international trade practices of animals and animal products. To prevent such risks, the World Trade Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and their member countries support the measures stipulated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement which targets the liberalisation of trade in animals and animal products under specific conditions while protecting public health and national economies. Vigilance must be exercised and appropriate inspection made at points of entry by veterinary and other authorities to ensure the strict implementation of international and national regulations. National legislation, appropriate infrastructures and the respect of international regulations can become barriers to avoid animal trade, contributing to the spread of zoonotic and other infectious diseases.

  9. [Notifiable infectious diseases: knowledge and notification among hospital physicians].

    PubMed

    Rubio-Cirilo, Laura; Martín-Ríos, M Dolores; de Las Casas-Cámara, Gonzalo; Andrés-Prado, M José; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil

    2013-12-01

    Notifiable infectious diseases represent a public health hazard, which is why they are under surveillance and must be reported. We tried to assess hospital physicians' knowledge of hospital physicians on notifiable infectious diseases and their self-reported attitudes to notification. An observational study was conducted using a questionnaire with 11 multiple choice questions, two yes/no questions and one short-answer question. It was distributed to all senior doctors and residents in 19 medical and surgical departments. A total of 248 questionnaires were sent out, with a response rate of 79.84%. More than three-quarters (76.3%) of the respondents were senior doctors. As regards specific knowledge about whether a particular disease is a notifiable disease, 29.5% identified correctly 100% of the named diseases, 3.2% could not identify any of them. All urgent named notifiable infectious diseases were correctly identified by 25.3% of physicians. Statistically significant differences were found in the knowledge of notifiable diseases knowledge in medical and surgical departments, as well as for senior doctors (P=.047) and residents (P=.035). A high percentage of medical services (40%) and surgical (70%) department reported never failing to notify. When asked about the causes of under-reporting, 72% did not know whether notification was mandatory or not, and 88% did not know what diseases must be notified. Although many respondents are aware that diseases notification is part of their daily activity, many of them admit under-reporting. There is insufficient knowledge about what diseases are considered notifiable infectious diseases and how to notify them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Cutaneous infectious diseases: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Admani, Shehla; Jinna, Sphoorthi; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Sloan, Brett

    2015-01-01

    The changes in immune response that occur with age play a significant role in disease presentation and patient management. Evolution of the innate and adaptive immune systems throughout life, influenced partly by hormonal changes associated with puberty, plays a role in the differences between pediatric and adult response to disease. We review a series of manifestations of dermatologic infectious diseases spanning bacterial, viral, and fungal origins that can be seen in both pediatric and adult age groups and highlight similarities and differences in presentation and disease course. Therapeutic options are also discussed for these infectious diseases, with particular attention to variations in management between these population subgroups, given differences in pharmacokinetics and side effect profiles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Conservation, development and the management of infectious disease: avian influenza in China, 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Perrings, Charles

    2017-06-05

    There is growing evidence that wildlife conservation measures have mixed effects on the emergence and spread of zoonotic disease. Wildlife conservation has been found to have both positive (dilution) and negative (contagion) effects. In the case of avian influenza H5N1 in China, the focus has been on negative effects. Lakes and wetlands attracting migrating waterfowl have been argued to be disease hotspots. We consider the implications of waterfowl conservation for H5N1 infections in both poultry and humans between 2004 and 2012. We model both environmental and economic risk factors. Environmental risk factors comprise the conditions that structure interaction between wild and domesticated birds. Economic risk factors comprise the cost of disease, biosecurity measures and disease risk mitigation. We find that H5N1 outbreaks in poultry populations are indeed sensitive to the existence of wild-domesticated bird mixing zones, but not in the way we would expect from the literature. We find that risk is decreasing in protected migratory bird habitat. Since the number of human cases is increasing in the number of poultry outbreaks, as expected, the implication is that the protection of wetlands important for migratory birds offers unexpected human health benefits.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Climate change and infectious diseases in North America: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Greer, Amy; Ng, Victoria; Fisman, David

    2008-03-11

    Global climate change is inevitable--the combustion of fossil fuels has resulted in a buildup of greenhouse gases within the atmosphere, causing unprecedented changes to the earth's climate. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that North America will experience marked changes in weather patterns in coming decades, including warmer temperatures and increased rainfall, summertime droughts and extreme weather events (e.g., tornadoes and hurricanes). Although these events may have direct consequences for health (e.g., injuries and displacement of populations due to thermal stress), they are also likely to cause important changes in the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases, including vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, water-and food-borne diseases and diseases with environmental reservoirs (e.g., endemic fungal diseases). Changes in weather patterns and ecosystems, and health consequences of climate change will probably be most severe in far northern regions (e.g., the Arctic). We provide an overview of the expected nature and direction of such changes, which pose current and future challenges to health care providers and public health agencies.

  13. Climate change and infectious diseases in North America: the road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Amy; Ng, Victoria; Fisman, David

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change is inevitable — the combustion of fossil fuels has resulted in a buildup of greenhouse gases within the atmosphere, causing unprecedented changes to the earth's climate. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that North America will experience marked changes in weather patterns in coming decades, including warmer temperatures and increased rainfall, summertime droughts and extreme weather events (e.g., tornadoes and hurricanes). Although these events may have direct consequences for health (e.g., injuries and displacement of populations due to thermal stress), they are also likely to cause important changes in the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases, including vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, water-and food-borne diseases and diseases with environmental reservoirs (e.g., endemic fungal diseases). Changes in weather patterns and ecosystems, and health consequences of climate change will probably be most severe in far northern regions (e.g., the Arctic). We provide an overview of the expected nature and direction of such changes, which pose current and future challenges to health care providers and public health agencies. PMID:18332386

  14. Anticipating the emergence of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Drake, John M.; Rohani, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    In spite of medical breakthroughs, the emergence of pathogens continues to pose threats to both human and animal populations. We present candidate approaches for anticipating disease emergence prior to large-scale outbreaks. Through use of ideas from the theories of dynamical systems and stochastic processes we develop approaches which are not specific to a particular disease system or model, but instead have general applicability. The indicators of disease emergence detailed in this paper can be classified into two parallel approaches: a set of early-warning signals based around the theory of critical slowing down and a likelihood-based approach. To test the reliability of these two approaches we contrast theoretical predictions with simulated data. We find good support for our methods across a range of different model structures and parameter values. PMID:28679666

  15. A Universal Biosensor for Infectious Disease

    SciT

    Mukundan, Harshini

    With increased travel and globalization, the spread of new diseases has become a threat to global health—and global security. Whether in a rural village or an urban medical clinic, healthcare workers need diagnostics that provide answers then and there, for any disease, in order to effectively treat individual patients or widespread outbreaks. That’s why Harshini Mukundan and her team at Los Alamos National Laboratory are working to develop a universal biosensor. “If we are able to mimic the body’s immune recognition in the laboratory, we could have a universal strategy for the early diagnosis of all infections,” said Mukundan. Ourmore » immune system recognizes pathogens, regardless of their origin, by identifying discrete signatures in the human host. Mukundan's team is working to imitate this ability in the laboratory, which could lead to a simple solution to diagnose all diseases and improve lives across the world.« less

  16. Lurking in the Shadows: Emerging Rodent Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:18506061

  17. Cost-effective control strategies for animal and zoonotic diseases in pastoralist populations.

    PubMed

    Zinsstag, J; Abakar, M F; Ibrahim, M; Tschopp, R; Crump, L; Bonfoh, B; Schelling, E

    2016-11-01

    Animal diseases and zoonoses abound among pastoralist livestock, which is composed of cattle, sheep, goats, yak, camels, llamas, reindeer, horses and donkeys. There is endemic and, periodically, epidemic transmission of highly contagious viral and bacterial diseases in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Pastoralist livestock is often multiparasitised with endo- and ectoparasites, as well as being affected by vectorborne viral and protozoal diseases. Pastoral livestock can be a reservoir of such diseases and can also, conversely, be at risk from exposure to wildlife reservoirs. Public and private animal health services currently underperform in almost all pastoral areas due to structural reforms and lack of income, as indicated in assessments of national Veterinary Services by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Control of infectious disease in industrialised countries has been achieved through large-scale public funding of control measures and compensation for culled stock. Such means are not available in pastoralist areas of most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While the cost-effectiveness and profitability of the control of animal diseases and zoonoses is less of a consideration for industrialised countries, in the experience of the authors, understanding the economic implications of a control programme is a prerequisite for successful attempts to improve animal health in LMICs. The incremental costs of animal disease control can potentially be shared using crosssector assessments, integrated control, and regional coordination efforts to mitigate transboundary disease risks. In this paper, the authors discuss cost-effective animal disease and zoonoses control in LMICs. It illustrates frameworks and examples of integrated control and cross-sector economics, showing conditions under which these diseases could be controlled in a cost-effective way.

  18. A Cellular Automaton Framework for Infectious Disease Spread Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Bernhard; Kugler, Karl; Tejada, Maria M; Baumgartner, Christian; Seger, Michael; Osl, Melanie; Netzer, Michael; Handler, Michael; Dander, Andreas; Wurz, Manfred; Graber, Armin; Tilg, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a cellular automaton framework for processing the spatiotemporal spread of infectious diseases is presented. The developed environment simulates and visualizes how infectious diseases might spread, and hence provides a powerful instrument for health care organizations to generate disease prevention and contingency plans. In this study, the outbreak of an avian flu like virus was modeled in the state of Tyrol, and various scenarios such as quarantine, effect of different medications on viral spread and changes of social behavior were simulated. The proposed framework is implemented using the programming language Java. The set up of the simulation environment requires specification of the disease parameters and the geographical information using a population density colored map, enriched with demographic data. The results of the numerical simulations and the analysis of the computed parameters will be used to get a deeper understanding of how the disease spreading mechanisms work, and how to protect the population from contracting the disease. Strategies for optimization of medical treatment and vaccination regimens will also be investigated using our cellular automaton framework. In this study, six different scenarios were simulated. It showed that geographical barriers may help to slow down the spread of an infectious disease, however, when an aggressive and deadly communicable disease spreads, only quarantine and controlled medical treatment are able to stop the outbreak, if at all. PMID:19415136

  19. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm

    SciT

    Colwell, R.R.

    1996-12-20

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a newmore » way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.« less

  20. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  1. Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

  2. Traveler's guide to avoiding infectious diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... other birth defects. Zika can spread from a mother to her baby in the uterus (in utero) or at the time of birth. A man with Zika can spread the disease to his sex partners. There have been reports of Zika spreading ...

  3. Sexually transmitted and anorectal infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Cone, Molly M; Whitlow, Charles B

    2013-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are common and they can involve the anus and rectum in both men and women. In this article, the main bacterial and viral STDs that affect the anus and rectum are discussed, including their prevalence, presentation, and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infectious Disease and the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, James E.

    The paper examines policy options for schools regarding appropriate services for children with highly communicable, potentially life threatening diseases such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Herpes. Briefly considered are the school's legal responsibility, implied risk and inability, and actual risk and its control. General…

  5. Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality, South Korea, 1983–2015

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Young June; Choe, Seung-Ah

    2018-01-01

    We used national statistics from 1983–2015 to evaluate trends in mortality caused by infectious diseases in South Korea. Age-standardized mortality from infectious disease decreased from 43.5/100,000 population in 1983 to 16.5/100,000 in 1996, and then increased to 44.6/100,000 in 2015. Tuberculosis was the most common cause of death in 1983 and respiratory tract infections in 2015. We observed a significant decline in infant deaths caused by infectious diseases, but mortality in persons age >65 years increased from 135 deaths/100,000 population in 1996 to 307/100,000 in 2015. The relative inequality indices for respiratory tract infections, sepsis, and tuberculosis tended to increase over time. Although substantial progress has been achieved in terms of infant mortality, death rates from infectious disease has not decreased overall. Elderly populations with lower education levels and subgroups susceptible to respiratory infections and sepsis should be the focus of preventive policies. PMID:29350153

  6. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  7. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  8. Infectious diseases subspecialty: declining demand challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Pranatharthi; Havlichek, Daniel; Johnson, Leonard B

    2014-12-01

    Recent match results from the National Resident Matching Program for the subspecialty of infectious diseases show an ongoing decline in the number of fellowship positions filled, and, more important, in the number of applicants, particularly from the pool of international medical graduates. The main reasons for this declining application rate are unclear; in the absence of hard data, we present our viewpoint on this issue. Difficulties in securing visas for permanent residency in the United States, perception of a limited job market, and the explosive growth in the number of hospitalist positions may be important contributing factors. Infectious Diseases Society of America members need to focus on medical students and medical residents in their formative years. We present potential solutions to this problem of declining interest in the field of infectious diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Complete genome assemblies and methylome characterization in infectious diseases

    Understanding the genetic basis of infectious diseases is a critical component to effective treatments. Because of the rapid evolution of bacterial strains and frequent horizontal transfer of DNA between them, resequencing of new isolates against known reference strains often provides an incomplete ...

  10. Simulations for designing and interpreting intervention trials in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Halloran, M Elizabeth; Auranen, Kari; Baird, Sarah; Basta, Nicole E; Bellan, Steven E; Brookmeyer, Ron; Cooper, Ben S; DeGruttola, Victor; Hughes, James P; Lessler, Justin; Lofgren, Eric T; Longini, Ira M; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Özler, Berk; Seage, George R; Smith, Thomas A; Vespignani, Alessandro; Vynnycky, Emilia; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-12-29

    Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have complex interactions at the population level, which are often difficult to adequately assess with standard study designs and analytical methods. Herein, we urge the adoption of a new paradigm for the design and interpretation of intervention trials in infectious diseases, particularly with regard to emerging infectious diseases, one that more accurately reflects the dynamics of the transmission process. In an increasingly complex world, simulations can explicitly represent transmission dynamics, which are critical for proper trial design and interpretation. Certain ethical aspects of a trial can also be quantified using simulations. Further, after a trial has been conducted, simulations can be used to explore the possible explanations for the observed effects. Much is to be gained through a multidisciplinary approach that builds collaborations among experts in infectious disease dynamics, epidemiology, statistical science, economics, simulation methods, and the conduct of clinical trials.

  11. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

  12. Topography as a contextual variable in infectious disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Isaac D

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines whether or not topography is a contextual variable that indirectly influences the transmission of infectious diseases. Age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, economic status, injection drug use, and high-risk sexual behavior are known to influence infectious diseases transmission, but the effects of topography are often overlooked. A sample of 395 drug users were chosen from census tracts based upon a target profile of drug use behavior and demographics for the city of Houston. HIV was chosen as the infectious disease used to test this hypothesis. Residents of 16 census tracts in Houston, Texas participated in this study. The findings revealed that census tracts that were 'isolated' by topographic barriers, such as bayous, parks, railroad tracks, railway yards, major thoroughfares, freeways, and unique street grids had fewer cases of HIV than census tracks that were more accessible to thru-traffic. The research findings suggest that future research studies should consider topography as being contextually related to infectious disease transmission.

  13. Molecular markers for resistance against infectious diseases of economic importance.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, B M; Gupta, J P; Pandey, D P; Parmar, G A; Chaudhari, J D

    2017-01-01

    Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Some of the major infectious diseases which have great economic impact on Indian dairy industries are tuberculosis (TB), Johne's disease (JD), mastitis, tick and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), foot and mouth disease, etc. The development of effective strategies for the assessment and control of infectious diseases requires a better understanding of pathogen biology, host immune response, and diseases pathogenesis as well as the identification of the associated biomarkers. Indigenous cattle ( Bos indicus ) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance in indigenous cattle is not well documented. The association studies of few of the genes associated with various diseases, namely, solute carrier family 11 member 1, Toll-like receptors 1, with TB; Caspase associated recruitment domain 15, SP110 with JD; CACNA2D1, CD14 with mastitis and interferon gamma, BoLA--DRB3.2 alleles with TTBDs, etc., are presented. Breeding for genetic resistance is one of the promising ways to control the infectious diseases. High host resistance is the most important method for controlling such diseases, but till today no breed is total immune. Therefore, work may be undertaken under the hypothesis that the different susceptibility to these diseases are exhibited by indigenous and crossbred cattle is due to breed-specific differences in the dealing of infected cells with other immune cells, which ultimately influence the immune response responded against infections. Achieving maximum resistance to these diseases is the ultimate goal, is technically

  14. Molecular markers for resistance against infectious diseases of economic importance

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, B. M.; Gupta, J. P.; Pandey, D. P.; Parmar, G. A.; Chaudhari, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Some of the major infectious diseases which have great economic impact on Indian dairy industries are tuberculosis (TB), Johne’s disease (JD), mastitis, tick and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), foot and mouth disease, etc. The development of effective strategies for the assessment and control of infectious diseases requires a better understanding of pathogen biology, host immune response, and diseases pathogenesis as well as the identification of the associated biomarkers. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance in indigenous cattle is not well documented. The association studies of few of the genes associated with various diseases, namely, solute carrier family 11 member 1, Toll-like receptors 1, with TB; Caspase associated recruitment domain 15, SP110 with JD; CACNA2D1, CD14 with mastitis and interferon gamma, BoLA­-DRB3.2 alleles with TTBDs, etc., are presented. Breeding for genetic resistance is one of the promising ways to control the infectious diseases. High host resistance is the most important method for controlling such diseases, but till today no breed is total immune. Therefore, work may be undertaken under the hypothesis that the different susceptibility to these diseases are exhibited by indigenous and crossbred cattle is due to breed-specific differences in the dealing of infected cells with other immune cells, which ultimately influence the immune response responded against infections. Achieving maximum resistance to these diseases is the ultimate goal, is technically

  15. A Hidden Markov Model for Analysis of Frontline Veterinary Data for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Colin; Sawford, Kate; Gunawardana, Walimunige S. N.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Nathoo, Farouk; Stephen, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance systems tracking health patterns in animals have potential for early warning of infectious disease in humans, yet there are many challenges that remain before this can be realized. Specifically, there remains the challenge of detecting early warning signals for diseases that are not known or are not part of routine surveillance for named diseases. This paper reports on the development of a hidden Markov model for analysis of frontline veterinary sentinel surveillance data from Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians collected data on syndromes and diagnoses using mobile phones. A model for submission patterns accounts for both sentinel-related and disease-related variability. Models for commonly reported cattle diagnoses were estimated separately. Region-specific weekly average prevalence was estimated for each diagnoses and partitioned into normal and abnormal periods. Visualization of state probabilities was used to indicate areas and times of unusual disease prevalence. The analysis suggests that hidden Markov modelling is a useful approach for surveillance datasets from novel populations and/or having little historical baselines. PMID:21949763

  16. The Microbiome in Infectious Disease and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Kenya; Littman, Dan R.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian alimentary tract harbors hundreds of species of commensal microorganisms (microbiota) that intimately interact with the host and provide it with genetic, metabolic, and immunological attributes. Recent reports have indicated that the microbiota composition and its collective genomes (microbiome) are major factors in predetermining the type and robustness of mucosal immune responses. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of host-microbiota interactions and their effect on the health and disease susceptibility of the host. PMID:22224764

  17. A Universal Biosensor for Infectious Disease

    Mukundan, Harshini

    2018-05-31

    With increased travel and globalization, the spread of new diseases has become a threat to global health—and global security. Whether in a rural village or an urban medical clinic, healthcare workers need diagnostics that provide answers then and there, for any disease, in order to effectively treat individual patients or widespread outbreaks. That’s why Harshini Mukundan and her team at Los Alamos National Laboratory are working to develop a universal biosensor. “If we are able to mimic the body’s immune recognition in the laboratory, we could have a universal strategy for the early diagnosis of all infections,” said Mukundan. Our immune system recognizes pathogens, regardless of their origin, by identifying discrete signatures in the human host. Mukundan's team is working to imitate this ability in the laboratory, which could lead to a simple solution to diagnose all diseases and improve lives across the world.

  18. Rapid non-invasive tests for diagnostics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A rapid test for an infectious disease that can be used at point-of-care at a physician's office, a pharmacy, or in the field is critical for the prompt and appropriate therapeutic intervention. Ultimately by treating infections early on will decrease transmission of the pathogen. In contrast to metabolic diseases or cancer where multiple biomarkers are required, infectious disease targets (e.g. antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) are simple and specific for the pathogen causing the disease. Our laboratory has focused on three major infectious disease; HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These diseases are pandemic in much of the world thus putting natives, tourists and military personnel at risk for becoming infected, and upon returning to the U.S., transmitting these diseases to their contacts. Our devices are designed to detect antigens, antibodies or nucleic acids in blood or saliva samples in less than 30 minutes. An overview describing the current status of each of the three diagnostic platforms is presented. These microfluidic point-of-care devices will be relatively inexpensive, disposable, and user friendly.

  19. Time series regression model for infectious disease and weather.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chisato; Armstrong, Ben; Chalabi, Zaid; Mangtani, Punam; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Time series regression has been developed and long used to evaluate the short-term associations of air pollution and weather with mortality or morbidity of non-infectious diseases. The application of the regression approaches from this tradition to infectious diseases, however, is less well explored and raises some new issues. We discuss and present potential solutions for five issues often arising in such analyses: changes in immune population, strong autocorrelations, a wide range of plausible lag structures and association patterns, seasonality adjustments, and large overdispersion. The potential approaches are illustrated with datasets of cholera cases and rainfall from Bangladesh and influenza and temperature in Tokyo. Though this article focuses on the application of the traditional time series regression to infectious diseases and weather factors, we also briefly introduce alternative approaches, including mathematical modeling, wavelet analysis, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Modifications proposed to standard time series regression practice include using sums of past cases as proxies for the immune population, and using the logarithm of lagged disease counts to control autocorrelation due to true contagion, both of which are motivated from "susceptible-infectious-recovered" (SIR) models. The complexity of lag structures and association patterns can often be informed by biological mechanisms and explored by using distributed lag non-linear models. For overdispersed models, alternative distribution models such as quasi-Poisson and negative binomial should be considered. Time series regression can be used to investigate dependence of infectious diseases on weather, but may need modifying to allow for features specific to this context. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people

    PubMed Central

    Davaasuren, Anu; Baasandagva, Uyanga; Gray, Gregory C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection. Methods Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle. Results The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a) animal contact, b) food preparation and diet, and c) household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat. Conclusion Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal

  1. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Amber N; Davaasuren, Anu; Baasandagva, Uyanga; Gray, Gregory C

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection. Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle. The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a) animal contact, b) food preparation and diet, and c) household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat. Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal-to-human pathogens must incorporate a One Health

  2. Legal considerations in infectious diseases and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Burris, S

    1996-04-01

    Dentists, similar to other professionals subject to legal regulation, often have an overly simple view of the legal system. Communicable diseases present questions on the cutting edge of the law, and, as the previous discussion makes perhaps painfully clear, there is considerable uncertainty on many important legal points. Legal uncertainty is often a reflection of social or scientific uncertainty. Clear answers emerge less from the words of lawyers and judges than from the actions of professionals themselves, who ultimately set the standard of care. In any area of legal uncertainty, the dentist is best advised to adhere to the best scientific information available and to meet the ethical standards of the profession.

  3. Immunotherapy for Infectious Diseases: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Akshay; Ahuja, Jasmine; Crane, John K

    2015-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy for established infections, as opposed to active immunization to prevent disease, remains a tiny niche in the world of antimicrobial therapies. Many of the passive immunotherapies currently available are directed against bacterial toxins, such as botulism, or are intended for agents of bioterrorism such as anthrax, which fortunately has remained rare. The emergence of Ebola virus and multi-drug resistant pathogens, however, may breathe new life into the immunotherapy field as researchers seek non-antibiotic interventions for infectious diseases.

  4. Bat Hunting and Bat-Human Interactions in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bat Conservation.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, J J; Hegde, S; Sazzad, H M S; Khan, S U; Hossain, M J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P

    2017-08-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The infectious disease blood safety risk of Australian hemochromatosis donations.

    PubMed

    Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.

  6. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Bryla, Marek; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bryla, Pawel; Pikala, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Purpose An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999–2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. Methods The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd). Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values. Results Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999–2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05). The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19) (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05) and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04) (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05). The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09) Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05). SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0

  7. Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women1

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Women have an enhanced vulnerability to disease, especially if they are poor. Indeed, the health hazards of being female are widely underestimated. Economic and cultural factors can limit women's access to clinics and health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that less is spent on health care for women and girls worldwide than for men and boys. As a result, women who become mothers and caretakers of children and husbands often do so at the expense of their own health. The numbers tell the story: the latest (2003) World Health Report showed that, globally, the leading causes of death among women are HIV/AIDS, malaria, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and tuberculosis. PMID:15550218

  8. Travel and tropical medicine practice among infectious disease practitioners.

    PubMed

    Streit, Judy A; Marano, Cinzia; Beekmann, Susan E; Polgreen, Philip M; Moore, Thomas A; Brunette, Gary W; Kozarsky, Phyllis E

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease specialists who evaluate international travelers before or after their trips need skills to prevent, recognize, and treat an increasingly broad range of infectious diseases. Wide variation exists in training and percentage effort among providers of this care. In parallel, there may be variations in approach to pre-travel consultation and the types of travel-related illness encountered. Aggregate information from travel-medicine providers may reveal practice patterns and novel trends in infectious illness acquired through travel. The 1,265 members of the Infectious Disease Society of America's Emerging Infections Network were queried by electronic survey about their training in travel medicine, resources used, pre-travel consultations, and evaluation of ill-returning travelers. The survey also captured information on whether any of 10 particular conditions had been diagnosed among ill-returning travelers, and if these diagnoses were perceived to be changing in frequency. A majority of respondents (69%) provided both pre-travel counseling and post-travel evaluations, with significant variation in the numbers of such consultations. A majority of all respondents (61%) reported inadequate training in travel medicine during their fellowship years. However, a majority of recent graduates (55%) reported adequate preparation. Diagnoses of malaria, traveler's diarrhea, and typhoid fever were reported by the most respondents (84, 71, and 53%, respectively). The percent effort dedicated to pre-travel evaluation and care of the ill-returning traveler vary widely among infectious disease specialists, although a majority participate in these activities. On the basis of respondents' self-assessment, recent fellowship training is reported to equip graduates with better skills in these areas than more remote training. Ongoing monitoring of epidemiologic trends of travel-related illness is warranted. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  9. Infectious diseases of fishes in the Salish Sea

    Hershberger, Paul; Rhodes, Linda; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James

    2013-01-01

    As in marine regions throughout other areas of the world, fishes in the Salish Sea serve as hosts for many pathogens, including nematodes, trematodes, protozoans, protists, bacteria, viruses, and crustaceans. Here, we review some of the better-documented infectious diseases that likely contribute to significant losses among free-ranging fishes in the Salish Sea and discuss the environmental and ecological factors that may affect the population-level impacts of disease. Demonstration of these diseases and their impacts to critical and endangered resources provides justification to expand pathogen surveillance efforts and to incorporate disease forecasting and mitigation tools into ecosystem restoration efforts.

  10. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  11. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia.

    PubMed

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2017-04-17

    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  12. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as social media, Internet searches, and cell-phone logs. We introduce nine independent contributions to this special issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity and timeliness of available epidemiological information, with hybrid systems augmenting rather than supplanting traditional surveillance systems, and better prospects for accurate infectious diseases models and forecasts. PMID:28830113

  13. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  14. Insights into infectious disease in the era of Hippocrates.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Georgios; Kiriaze, Ismene J; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-07-01

    Hippocrates is traditionally considered the father of modern medicine, still influencing, 25 centuries after his time, various aspects of medical practice and ethics. His collected works include various references to infectious diseases that range from general observations on the nature of infection, hygiene, epidemiology, and the immune response, to detailed descriptions of syndromes such as tuberculous spondylitis, malaria, and tetanus. We sought to evaluate the extent to which this historical information has influenced the modern relevant literature. Associating disease to the disequilibrium of body fluids may seem an ancient and outdated notion nowadays, but many of the clinical descriptions presented in the Corpus Hippocraticum (Hippocratic Collection) are still the archetypes of the natural history of certain infectious diseases and their collective interplay with the environment, climate, and society. For this reason, modern clinicians and researchers continue to be attracted to these 'lessons' from the past - lessons that remain extremely valuable.

  15. Airline operating realities and the global spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Webster, Cliff H

    2010-07-01

    The advent of long-haul travel in the past 10 years has considerably reduced the time of potential disease spread from one side of the world to the other. The implication for travelers is that they may unwittingly be in the prodromal phase of influenza and become symptomatic a few days after travel. Alternatively they may knowingly travel with an infectious disease by masking symptoms. This article outlines the myths that have abounded about the cabin environment being "unclean" and discusses the low likelihood of in-flight transmission with effective air-conditioning and filtration systems. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the operational challenges of dealing with infectious disease, including the need for accurate passenger information to allow contact tracing, in contrast to futile measures such as thermal scanners. Containment attempts did not stop the rapid global spread of H1N1 influenza.

  16. Operation United Assistance: infectious disease threats to deployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Yun, Heather C; Markelz, Ana Elizabeth; Okulicz, Jason F; Vento, Todd J; Burgess, Timothy H; Cardile, Anthony P; Miller, R Scott

    2015-06-01

    As part of the international response to control the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the Department of Defense has deployed military personnel to train Liberians to manage the disease and build treatment units and a hospital for health care volunteers. These steps have assisted in providing a robust medical system and augment Ebola diagnostic capability within the affected nations. In order to prepare for the deployment of U.S. military personnel, the infectious disease risks of the regions must be determined. This evaluation allows for the establishment of appropriate force health protection posture for personnel while deployed, as well as management plans for illnesses presenting after redeployment. Our objective was to detail the epidemiology and infectious disease risks for military personnel in West Africa, particularly for Liberia, along with lessons learned from prior deployments. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Adams, Deborah A; Thomas, Kimberly R; Jajosky, Ruth Ann; Foster, Loretta; Baroi, Gitangali; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana H; Schley, Alan W; Anderson, Willie J

    2017-08-11

    The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphical form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2015. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2015 reported as of June 30, 2016. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territories, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at https://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/MMWR_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years.

  18. Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Adams, Deborah; Fullerton, Kathleen; Jajosky, Ruth; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana; Schley, Alan; Anderson, Willie; Faulkner, Amanda; Kugeler, Kiersten

    2015-10-23

    The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Condition-United States, 2013 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2013. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2013 reported as of June 30, 2014. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwr_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years.

  19. Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Adams, Deborah A; Thomas, Kimberly R; Jajosky, Ruth Ann; Foster, Loretta; Sharp, Pearl; Onweh, Diana H; Schley, Alan W; Anderson, Willie J

    2016-10-14

    The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions-United States, 2014 (hereafter referred to as the summary) contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2014. Unless otherwise noted, data are final totals for 2014 reported as of June 30, 2015. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This summary is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwr_nd/index.html. This site also includes summary publications from previous years.

  20. Toward Standardizing a Lexicon of Infectious Disease Modeling Terms.

    PubMed

    Milwid, Rachael; Steriu, Andreea; Arino, Julien; Heffernan, Jane; Hyder, Ayaz; Schanzer, Dena; Gardner, Emma; Haworth-Brockman, Margaret; Isfeld-Kiely, Harpa; Langley, Joanne M; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2016-01-01

    Disease modeling is increasingly being used to evaluate the effect of health intervention strategies, particularly for infectious diseases. However, the utility and application of such models are hampered by the inconsistent use of infectious disease modeling terms between and within disciplines. We sought to standardize the lexicon of infectious disease modeling terms and develop a glossary of terms commonly used in describing models' assumptions, parameters, variables, and outcomes. We combined a comprehensive literature review of relevant terms with an online forum discussion in a virtual community of practice, mod4PH (Modeling for Public Health). Using a convergent discussion process and consensus amongst the members of mod4PH, a glossary of terms was developed as an online resource. We anticipate that the glossary will improve inter- and intradisciplinary communication and will result in a greater uptake and understanding of disease modeling outcomes in heath policy decision-making. We highlight the role of the mod4PH community of practice and the methodologies used in this endeavor to link theory, policy, and practice in the public health domain.

  1. Toward Standardizing a Lexicon of Infectious Disease Modeling Terms

    PubMed Central

    Milwid, Rachael; Steriu, Andreea; Arino, Julien; Heffernan, Jane; Hyder, Ayaz; Schanzer, Dena; Gardner, Emma; Haworth-Brockman, Margaret; Isfeld-Kiely, Harpa; Langley, Joanne M.; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Disease modeling is increasingly being used to evaluate the effect of health intervention strategies, particularly for infectious diseases. However, the utility and application of such models are hampered by the inconsistent use of infectious disease modeling terms between and within disciplines. We sought to standardize the lexicon of infectious disease modeling terms and develop a glossary of terms commonly used in describing models’ assumptions, parameters, variables, and outcomes. We combined a comprehensive literature review of relevant terms with an online forum discussion in a virtual community of practice, mod4PH (Modeling for Public Health). Using a convergent discussion process and consensus amongst the members of mod4PH, a glossary of terms was developed as an online resource. We anticipate that the glossary will improve inter- and intradisciplinary communication and will result in a greater uptake and understanding of disease modeling outcomes in heath policy decision-making. We highlight the role of the mod4PH community of practice and the methodologies used in this endeavor to link theory, policy, and practice in the public health domain. PMID:27734014

  2. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  3. Transmission of Infectious Diseases En Route to Habitat Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Julio; Walsh, Peter D.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Raymond, Michel; Caillaud, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of infectious diseases in wildlife populations is influenced by patterns of between-host contacts. Habitat “hotspots” - places attracting a large numbers of individuals or social groups - can significantly alter contact patterns and, hence, disease propagation. Research on the importance of habitat hotspots in wildlife epidemiology has primarily focused on how inter-individual contacts occurring at the hotspot itself increase disease transmission. However, in territorial animals, epidemiologically important contacts may primarily occur as animals cross through territories of conspecifics en route to habitat hotspots. So far, the phenomenon has received little attention. Here, we investigate the importance of these contacts in the case where infectious individuals keep visiting the hotspots and in the case where these individuals are not able to travel to the hotspot any more. Methodology and Principal Findings We developed a simulation epidemiological model to investigate both cases in a scenario when transmission at the hotspot does not occur. We find that (i) hotspots still exacerbate epidemics, (ii) when infectious individuals do not travel to the hotspot, the most vulnerable individuals are those residing at intermediate distances from the hotspot rather than nearby, and (iii) the epidemiological vulnerability of a population is the highest when the number of hotspots is intermediate. Conclusions and Significance By altering animal movements in their vicinity, habitat hotspots can thus strongly increase the spread of infectious diseases, even when disease transmission does not occur at the hotspot itself. Interestingly, when animals only visit the nearest hotspot, creating additional artificial hotspots, rather than reducing their number, may be an efficient disease control measure. PMID:22363606

  4. Transmission of infectious diseases en route to habitat hotspots.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Julio; Walsh, Peter D; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Raymond, Michel; Caillaud, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The spread of infectious diseases in wildlife populations is influenced by patterns of between-host contacts. Habitat "hotspots"--places attracting a large numbers of individuals or social groups--can significantly alter contact patterns and, hence, disease propagation. Research on the importance of habitat hotspots in wildlife epidemiology has primarily focused on how inter-individual contacts occurring at the hotspot itself increase disease transmission. However, in territorial animals, epidemiologically important contacts may primarily occur as animals cross through territories of conspecifics en route to habitat hotspots. So far, the phenomenon has received little attention. Here, we investigate the importance of these contacts in the case where infectious individuals keep visiting the hotspots and in the case where these individuals are not able to travel to the hotspot any more. We developed a simulation epidemiological model to investigate both cases in a scenario when transmission at the hotspot does not occur. We find that (i) hotspots still exacerbate epidemics, (ii) when infectious individuals do not travel to the hotspot, the most vulnerable individuals are those residing at intermediate distances from the hotspot rather than nearby, and (iii) the epidemiological vulnerability of a population is the highest when the number of hotspots is intermediate. By altering animal movements in their vicinity, habitat hotspots can thus strongly increase the spread of infectious diseases, even when disease transmission does not occur at the hotspot itself. Interestingly, when animals only visit the nearest hotspot, creating additional artificial hotspots, rather than reducing their number, may be an efficient disease control measure.

  5. Infectious disease-specific health literacy in Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Dunzhu, Ciren; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Wu, Shuangsheng; Ciren, Pengcuo; Duoji, Dunzhu; Pingcuo, Wangqing; Dun, Bian; Ma, Chunna; Li, Jie; Pang, Xinghuo; Wang, Quanyi

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed to develop an instrument to assess infectious disease-specific health literacy (IDSHL) in the general population of Tibet, China and identify the association between IDSHL and reported infectious disease-related symptoms. A survey using a standardized questionnaire, which included 25 questions on knowledge, behaviors and skills regarding infectious diseases, was conducted in the general population of Tibet, China between September 2011 and November 2011. The 25 questions formed the index system of the instrument assessing IDSHL (total scores: 25 scores). Factors associated with index scores of IDSHL were identified by general linear model. The association between the index score of IDSHL and the occurrence of the five selected infectious disease symptoms (fever, diarrhea, rash, jaundice or conjunctivitis) were investigated using multivariate unconditional logistic regression. Among 5717 eligible participants in the survey, 4631 participants completed all of the 25 questions in the instrument. The instrument was reliable and valid as measured by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and split-half coefficient, and the confirmatory factor analysis. Only 1.0% (48/4631) answered ≥80% of the 25 questions correctly (score ≥ 20). Significant factors associated with lower health literacy score included female gender, older age, Tibetan group, lower education level, underlying diseases and more undeveloped area. For each increasing score of IDSHL, reports of fever, diarrhea or jaundice in the prior year were significantly decreased by 3% (p = 0.015), 4% (p = 0.004) and 16% (p < 0.001), respectively. Accurately measuring IDSHL could help identify those individuals with poor IDSHL, who could be targeted with specific interventions to improve health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Infectious disease-specific health literacy in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Dunzhu, Ciren; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Wu, Shuangsheng; Ciren, Pengcuo; Duoji, Dunzhu; Pingcuo, Wangqing; Dun, Bian; Ma, Chunna; Li, Jie; Pang, Xinghuo; Wang, Quanyi

    2018-01-01

    Summary This study was aimed to develop an instrument to assess infectious disease-specific health literacy (IDSHL) in the general population of Tibet, China and identify the association between IDSHL and reported infectious disease-related symptoms. A survey using a standardized questionnaire, which included 25 questions on knowledge, behaviors and skills regarding infectious diseases, was conducted in the general population of Tibet, China between September 2011 and November 2011. The 25 questions formed the index system of the instrument assessing IDSHL (total scores: 25 scores). Factors associated with index scores of IDSHL were identified by general linear model. The association between the index score of IDSHL and the occurrence of the five selected infectious disease symptoms (fever, diarrhea, rash, jaundice or conjunctivitis) were investigated using multivariate unconditional logistic regression. Among 5717 eligible participants in the survey, 4631 participants completed all of the 25 questions in the instrument. The instrument was reliable and valid as measured by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and split-half coefficient, and the confirmatory factor analysis. Only 1.0% (48/4631) answered ≥80% of the 25 questions correctly (score ≥20). Significant factors associated with lower health literacy score included female gender, older age, Tibetan group, lower education level, underlying diseases and more undeveloped area. For each increasing score of IDSHL, reports of fever, diarrhea or jaundice in the prior year were significantly decreased by 3% (p = 0.015), 4% (p = 0.004) and 16% (p < 0.001), respectively. Accurately measuring IDSHL could help identify those individuals with poor IDSHL, who could be targeted with specific interventions to improve health. PMID:27476868

  7. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as social media, Internet searches, and cell-phone logs. We introduce nine independent contributions to this special issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity and timeliness of available epidemiological information, with hybrid systems augmenting rather than supplanting traditional surveillance systems, and better prospects for accurate infectious diseases models and forecasts. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Rhabdoviruses as vaccine platforms for infectious disease and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Franz; Rajwani, Jahanara; Mahoney, Douglas J

    2018-05-21

    The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms. Currently, the rVSV vector is in preclinical development for vaccination against numerous high-priority infectious diseases, with clinical evaluation underway for HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease. Indeed, the success of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine during the 2014-15 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa highlights the therapeutic potential of rVSV as a vaccine vector for acute, life-threatening viral illnesses. The rVSV and rMaraba platforms are also being tested as 'oncolytic' cancer vaccines in a series of phase 1-2 clinical trials, after being proven effective at eliciting immune-mediated tumour regression in preclinical mouse models. In this review, we discuss the biological and genetic features that make RVs attractive vaccine platforms and the development and ongoing testing of rVSV and rMaraba strains as vaccine vectors for infectious disease and cancer.

  9. CKD and Infectious Diseases in Asia Pacific: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vivekanand; Prasad, Narayan

    2016-07-01

    The exact number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asia Pacific is uncertain. In numeric terms, the region is home to the largest population of patients with untreated chronic kidney failure. The climatic, geographic, social, cultural, economic, and environmental diversity within this region is higher than in any other part of the world. Large parts of the region face a climate-related burden of infectious diseases. Infections contribute to the development and progression of CKD and complicate the course of patients with pre-existing CKD (especially those on dialysis therapy or who are immunosuppressed), increase the cost of CKD care, and contribute to mortality and morbidity. Kidney involvement is a feature of several infectious diseases prevalent in Asia Pacific. Examples include malaria, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C virus, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and Hantaan virus infections. The contribution of infection-associated acute kidney injury to the overall burden of CKD has not been evaluated systematically. Research is needed to quantify the impact of infections on kidney health by undertaking prospective studies. Nephrologists need to work with infectious disease research groups and government infection surveillance and control programs. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges of Designing and Implementing High Consequence Infectious Disease Response.

    PubMed

    King, Joan M; Tiwari, Chetan; Mikler, Armin R; O'Neill, Martin

    2018-03-19

    Ebola is a high consequence infectious disease-a disease with the potential to cause outbreaks, epidemics, or pandemics with deadly possibilities, highly infectious, pathogenic, and virulent. Ebola's first reported cases in the United States in September 2014 led to the development of preparedness capabilities for the mitigation of possible rapid outbreaks, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) providing guidelines to assist public health officials in infectious disease response planning. These guidelines include broad goals for state and local agencies and detailed information concerning the types of resources needed at health care facilities. However, the spatial configuration of populations and existing health care facilities is neglected. An incomplete understanding of the demand landscape may result in an inefficient and inequitable allocation of resources to populations. Hence, this paper examines challenges in implementing CDC's guidance for Ebola preparedness and mitigation in the context of geospatial allocation of health resources and discusses possible strategies for addressing such challenges. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 4).

  11. Circulating microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Carolina N.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Browne, John A.; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.; Shaughnessy, Ronan G.

    2017-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities. This has been emphasized by the recent discovery of remarkably stable miRNAs in mammalian biofluids, which may originate from intracellular processes elsewhere in the body. The potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of disease has mainly been demonstrated for various types of cancer. More recently, however, attention has focused on the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of infectious disease; for example, human tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sepsis caused by multiple infectious agents, and viral hepatitis. Here, we review these developments and discuss prospects and challenges for translating circulating miRNA into novel diagnostics for infectious disease. PMID:28261201

  12. Screening for infectious diseases at international airports: the Frankfurt model.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Walter; Goetsch, Udo; Diel, Roland; Doerr, Hans W; Gottschalk, René

    2009-07-01

    Historically, ships brought infectious diseases to the continents of the world, but in this modern era, infectious diseases and pandemics are primarily spread through aviation as a mode of travel. This is a significant issue in the realm of infection control because of the increased potential for the rapid worldwide transmission and spread of disease. Although the transmission of infectious diseases to airline passengers inside an aircraft is a rare occurrence, it is essential to implement entry and exit screening procedures at airports within the context of the International Health Regulations (IHR) in order to slow down the spread of infection, especially during the early phases of a pandemic event. Currently, there are no standardized procedures for health screening at airports, thus allowing individual regional authorities to determine what they deem to be appropriate screening measures for implementation. In this paper, we will discuss a new pragmatic approach for entry and exit screening procedures at international airports, propose a new classification system for contacts within the aircraft, and discuss changing the fixed enforcement of standardized community mitigation measures to the implementation of measures that correspond to specific characteristics of individual pathogenic agents. The proposed catalog of screening measures is aimed at attaining the goals of the IHR, which states that the measures should be reasonable while avoiding inconvenience or harm to passengers and should not be any more disruptive to the smooth handling of passenger traffic than is necessary.

  13. Biomarker detection of global infectious diseases based on magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, Soledad; Martí, Mercè; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel

    2015-09-25

    Infectious diseases affect the daily lives of millions of people all around the world, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in the developing world. Although most of these major infectious diseases are treatable, the early identification of individuals requiring treatment remains a major issue. The incidence of these diseases would be reduced if rapid diagnostic tests were widely available at the community and primary care level in low-resource settings. Strong research efforts are thus being focused on replacing standard clinical diagnostic methods, such as the invasive detection techniques (biopsy or endoscopy) or expensive diagnostic and monitoring methods, by affordable and sensitive tests based on novel biomarkers. The development of new methods that are needed includes solid-phase separation techniques. In this context, the integration of magnetic particles within bioassays and biosensing devices is very promising since they greatly improve the performance of a biological reaction. The diagnosis of clinical samples with magnetic particles can be easily achieved without pre-enrichment, purification or pretreatment steps often required for standard methods, simplifying the analytical procedures. The biomarkers can be specifically isolated and preconcentrated from complex biological matrixes by magnetic actuation, increasing specificity and the sensitivity of the assay. This review addresses these promising features of the magnetic particles for the detection of biomarkers in emerging technologies related with infectious diseases affecting global health, such as malaria, influenza, dengue, tuberculosis or HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins

  15. 78 FR 27409 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Centers of Excellence [[Page 27410

  16. 75 FR 6043 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel RFA-AI-09-040 Protection of Human Health by Immunology and..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research...

  17. 77 FR 6810 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  18. 78 FR 23771 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; ``Clinical Trails Units for NIAID Network'' (Meeting 1). Date..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 16, 2013. David...

  19. 77 FR 59937 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning Grants (R34) and Implementation... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  20. 76 FR 72959 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Implementation and Planning (U01, R34). Date..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National...

  1. 78 FR 25753 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Leadership Group for a HIV Vaccines Clinical Network. Date: May... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  2. Exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal British Columbia: Possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Ellis, John A.; Goji, Noriko; Gouix, Maëlle; Smits, Judit E.

    2011-01-01

    Ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. On British Columbia’s largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (Canis lupus) or other wildlife. However, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. To gain baseline data on infectious agents in this area, including those with zoonotic potential, we collected blood and stool samples from 107 dogs in 5 remote communities in May and September 2007. Serology revealed that the dogs had been exposed to canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine respiratory coronavirus, and Leptospira interrogans. No dogs showed evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, or Cryptococcus gattii. Of 75 stool samples, 31 contained at least 1 parasitic infection, including Taeniid tapeworms, the nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, and the protozoans Isospora sp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Sarcocystis sp. This work provides a sound baseline for future monitoring of infectious agents that could affect dogs, sympatric wild canids, other wildlife, and humans. PMID:21461190

  3. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  4. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-20

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be 'orphan' but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

  5. Tracking the Remodeling of SNOMED CT's Bacterial Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Christopher; Case, James T; Perl, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    SNOMED CT's content undergoes many changes from one release to the next. Over the last year SNOMED CT's Bacterial infectious disease subhierarchy has undergone significant editing to bring consistent modeling to its concepts. In this paper we analyze the stated and inferred structural modifications that affected the Bacterial infectious disease subhierarchy between the Jan 2015 and Jan 2016 SNOMED CT releases using a two-phased approach. First, we introduce a methodology for creating a human readable list of changes. Next, we utilize partial-area taxonomies, which are compact summaries of SNOMED CT's content and structure, to identify the "big picture" changes that occurred in the subhierarchy. We illustrate how partial-area taxonomies can be used to help identify groups of concepts that were affected by these editing operations and the nature of these changes. Modeling issues identified using our two-phase methodology are discussed.

  6. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  7. Infectious Disease and Imperfections of Self-Image.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua M; Tybur, Joshua M; Mortensen, Chad R

    2018-02-01

    Infectious disease is an ever-present threat in daily life. Recent literature indicates that people manage this threat with a suite of antipathogenic psychological and behavioral defense mechanisms, which motivate the avoidance of people and objects bearing cues to pathogen risk. Here, we demonstrate that self-image is also impacted by these mechanisms. In seven studies, pathogen cues led individuals chronically averse to germs to express greater concern about their own physical appearance. Correspondingly, these people exhibited behavioral intentions and decisions intended to conceal or improve their appearance, such as purchasing facial products, taking pharmaceuticals, and undergoing cosmetic surgery. This work opens a new area of investigation for infectious-disease psychology research and highlights the central role played by physical appearance in pathogen-related cognition.

  8. [Recent developments in the field of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Freedman, L R

    1978-12-02

    A résumé is presented of recent developments in the field of infectious diseases of particular interest of practising physicians. Examples are given to illustrate recent discoveries concerning the frequent misuse of antibiotics, the problem of infections developing in hospitalized patients, the biology of microbial infection, the etiology of well-known illnesses, new infectious diseases, and the development of vaccines. It is evident that the rate at which new and important information is evident that the rate at which new and important information is being reported demands particular effort in medical school teaching to ensure that students learn how to acquire and evaluate new information as well as how to discard ideas which are no longer valid.

  9. Molecular Methods and Platforms for Infectious Diseases Testing

    PubMed Central

    Emmadi, Rajyasree; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jerry B.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Shyamala, Venkatakrishna; Zimmer, Barbara L.; Williams, Laurina; Bryant, Bonita; Schutzbank, Ted; Schoonmaker, Michele M.; Amos Wilson, Jean A.; Hall, Leslie; Pancholi, Preeti; Bernard, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The superior sensitivity and specificity associated with the use of molecular assays has greatly improved the field of infectious disease diagnostics by providing clinicians with results that are both accurate and rapidly obtained. Herein, we review molecularly based infectious disease diagnostic tests that are Food and Drug Administration approved or cleared and commercially available in the United States as of December 31, 2010. We describe specific assays and their performance, as stated in the Food and Drug Administration's Summary of Safety and Effectiveness Data or the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Device Evaluation and Safety's decision summaries, product inserts, or peer-reviewed literature. We summarize indications for testing, limitations, and challenges related to implementation in a clinical laboratory setting for a wide variety of common pathogens. The information presented in this review will be particularly useful for laboratories that plan to implement or expand their molecular offerings in the near term. PMID:21871973

  10. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Johan L; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J

    2012-12-05

    With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring the utilisation of meat from hunted or harvested game. The expanding interface or increased interaction between livestock and wildlife increases the risk of disease incidence and the emergence of new diseases or the re-emergence of previously diagnosed diseases. The risk is not only related to domestic and wild animal health, but also to the occupational hazards that it poses to animal handlers and the consumers of game meat. This review endeavours to highlight the role that game plays in the spreading of zoonotic diseases to other animals and humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in the past, their relevance and risk have been summarised and should function as a quick reference guide for wildlife veterinarians, ecologists, farmers, hunters, slaughter staff, processors and public health professionals.

  11. Field Ionization Mass Spectrometric Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    microorganisms following extraction. We also planned to examine artificial growth media.for changes in chemical composition following short periods of...patients suffering from infectious diseases, particularly, infec- tious hepatitis and mononucleosis . LI. 4 ’V iiN II. Carry out the same type of...analytical chemi- stry determines quantitatively one constituent at a time. When applied I to clinical diagnosis of metabolic disorders, from hormone

  12. Profile of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Workforce in 2015.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sylvia H; Vijayan, Vini; Hahn, Andrea; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Kirkwood, Suzanne; Phillips, Terri Christene; Harrison, Christopher J

    2017-12-22

    Almost 20 years have elapsed since the last workforce survey of pediatric infectious disease (PID) subspecialists was conducted in 1997-1998. The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Infectious Diseases in collaboration with the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society sought to assess the status of the current PID workforce. A Web-based survey conducted in 2015 collected data on demographics, practice patterns, and job satisfaction among the PID workforce, and identified factors related to job placement among recent fellowship graduates. Of 946 respondents (48% response rate), 50% were female. The average age was 51 years (range, 29-88 years); 63% were employed by an academic center/hospital, and 85% provided direct patient care; and 18% were not current PID practitioners. Of the 138 (21%) respondents who had completed a PID fellowship within the previous 5 years, 83% applied for <5 PID positions; 43% reported that their first position was created specifically for them; 47% had 1 job offer, and 41% had 2 or 3 job offers; 82% were employed within 6 months; and 74% remained at the institution of their first job. Respondents who were practicing PID full-time or part-time (n = 778) indicated desiring more focused training in immunodeficiencies (31%), transplant-related care (31%), and travel/tropical medicine (28%). Overall, 70% of the respondents would "definitely" or "probably" choose PID again. Most respondents were satisfied with their career choice in PID. Most of the recent fellowship graduates were employed within 6 months after training. We identified potential areas in which the PID community can focus efforts to maintain the pipeline and improve satisfaction among its physicians. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Telemicrobiology for Mission Support in the Field of Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    bacterial meningitis so that important additional verification was lacking. Microscopic diagnoses in the expert laboratory also rarely yield a...With bacterial infections, depending on the country of deployment, also unusual resistance behavior of the pathogens will occur because numerous...missions of the US Forces in the recent years, well-documented with respect to epidemiology , the weekly incidence of infectious diseases was always

  14. Infectious disease management in primary care: perceptions of GPs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is important to keep the level of antibiotic prescribing low to contain the development of resistant bacteria. This study was conducted to reveal new knowledge about how GPs think in relation to the prescribing of antibiotics - knowledge that could be used in efforts toward rational treatment of infectious diseases in primary care. The aim was to explore and describe the variations in GPs' perceptions of infectious disease management, with special reference to antibiotic prescribing. Methods Twenty GPs working at primary care centres in a county in south-west Sweden were purposively selected based on the strategy of including GPs with different kinds of experience. The GPs were interviewed and perceptions among GPs were analysed by a phenomenographic approach. Results Five qualitatively different perceptions of infectious disease management were identified. They were: (A) the GP must help the patient to achieve health and well-being; (B) the management must meet the GP's perceived personal, professional and organisational demands; (C) restrictive antibiotic prescribing is time-consuming; (D) restrictive antibiotic prescribing can protect the effectiveness of antibiotics; and (E) patients benefit personally from restrictive antibiotic prescribing. Conclusions Restrictive antibiotic prescribing was considered important in two perceptions, was not an issue as such in two others, and was considered in one perception although the actual prescribing was greatly influenced by the interaction between patient and GP. Accordingly, to encourage restrictive antibiotic prescribing several aspects must be addressed. Furthermore, different GPs need various kinds of support. Infectious disease management in primary care is complex and time-consuming, which must be acknowledged in healthcare organisation and planning. PMID:21223592

  15. Applications of Network Visualisation in Infectious Disease Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    White, D.R. P-Systems: a structural model for kinship studies. Connections. 24, 22–33. 2001. [13] White, D.R., Batagelj , V., and Mrvar , A. Analyzing...Infectious Disease Management 12 - 6 RTO-MP-IST-063 [14] De Nooy, W., Mrvar , A., and Batagelj , V. Exploratory social network analysis with Pajek...Workspace for the World-Wide Web, Proceedings of the ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp, 111. 1996 . [7] Plaisant, C. Facilitating Data

  16. DISCONTOOLS: a database to identify research gaps on vaccines, pharmaceuticals and diagnostics for the control of infectious diseases of animals.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Declan; Scudamore, Jim; Charlier, Johannes; Delavergne, Morgane

    2017-01-03

    The public and private sector in the EU spend around €800 million per year on animal health and welfare related research. An objective process to identify critical gaps in knowledge and available control tools should aid the prioritisation of research in order to speed up the development of new or improved diagnostics, vaccines and pharmaceuticals and reduce the burden of animal diseases. Here, we describe the construction of a database based on expert consultation for 52 infectious diseases of animals. For each disease, an expert group produced a disease and product analysis document that formed the basis for gap analysis and prioritisation. The prioritisation model was based on a closed scoring system, employing identical weights for six evaluation criteria (disease knowledge; impact on animal health and welfare; impact on public health; impact on wider society; impact on trade; control tools). The diseases were classified into three groups: epizootic diseases, food-producing animal complexes or zoonotic diseases. The highly ranked diseases in the prioritisation model comprised mostly zoonotic and epizootic diseases with important gaps identified in vaccine development and pharmaceuticals, respectively. The most important outcome is the identification of key research needs by disease. The rankings and research needs by disease are provided on a public website ( www.discontools.eu ) which is currently being updated based on new expert consultations. As such, it can become a reference point for funders of research including the European Commission, member states, foundations, trusts along with private industry to prioritise research. This will deliver benefits in terms of animal health and welfare but also public health, societal benefits and a safe and secure food supply.

  17. The social benefits of private infectious disease-risk mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Levin, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Does society benefit from private measures to mitigate infectious disease risks? Since mitigation reduces both peak prevalence and the number of people who fall ill, the answer might appear to be yes. But mitigation also prolongs epidemics and therefore the time susceptible people engage in activities to avoid infection. These avoidance activities come at a cost—in lost production or consumption, for example. Whether private mitigation yields net social benefits depends on the social weight given to the costs of illness and illness avoidance, now and into the future. We show that, for a large class of infectious diseases, private risk mitigation is socially beneficial. However, in cases where society discounts the future at either very low or very high rates relative to private individuals, or where it places a low weight on the private cost of illness, the social cost of illness under proportionate mixing (doing nothing) may be lower than the social cost of illness under preferential mixing (avoiding infectious individuals). That is, under some circumstances, society would prefer shorter, more intense epidemics without avoidance costs over longer, less intense epidemics with avoidance costs. A sobering (although not surprising) implication of this is that poorer societies should be expected to promote less private disease-risk mitigation than richer societies. PMID:26858777

  18. The social benefits of private infectious disease-risk mitigation.

    PubMed

    Morin, Benjamin R; Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Levin, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Does society benefit from private measures to mitigate infectious disease risks? Since mitigation reduces both peak prevalence and the number of people who fall ill, the answer might appear to be yes. But mitigation also prolongs epidemics and therefore the time susceptible people engage in activities to avoid infection. These avoidance activities come at a cost-in lost production or consumption, for example. Whether private mitigation yields net social benefits depends on the social weight given to the costs of illness and illness avoidance, now and into the future. We show that, for a large class of infectious diseases, private risk mitigation is socially beneficial. However, in cases where society discounts the future at either very low or very high rates relative to private individuals, or where it places a low weight on the private cost of illness, the social cost of illness under proportionate mixing (doing nothing) may be lower than the social cost of illness under preferential mixing (avoiding infectious individuals). That is, under some circumstances, society would prefer shorter, more intense epidemics without avoidance costs over longer, less intense epidemics with avoidance costs. A sobering (although not surprising) implication of this is that poorer societies should be expected to promote less private disease-risk mitigation than richer societies.

  19. [Infectious mononucleosis--a "childhood disease" of great medical concern].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2013-10-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is usually a benign self-limiting disease, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the Herpes virus family. EBV virions have a double-stranded, linear DNA genome surrounded by a protein capsid. EBV is transmitted primarily through saliva, but transmission via blood and droplets also occurs. Infectious mononucleosis is the most frequent clinical manifestation of EBV infection and occurs during primary infection with the virus. With some exceptions, only children older than 10 years, adolescents and young adults are suffering from the disease. Primary EBV infection in children up to 10 years is usually asymptomatic or shows unspecific courses. After an incubation period of up to seven weeks, a sore throat, mild fever and swollen lymph nodes in the neck area are the first signs of symptomatic infection. Further course of the disease often leads to hepatitis and swelling of the spleen. The symptoms usually subside after a few weeks, but protracted courses and clinical active infection also occur. The Epstein-Barr virus is distributed worldwide. At least 90% of all adults are seropositive to EBV. The treatment of infectious mononucleosis is mainly symptomatic, a generally effective specific therapy does not exist. A vaccine is currently not available.

  20. Design and Evaluation of a Bacterial Clinical Infectious Diseases Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Claire L.; Pouch, Stephanie; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Boland, Mary Regina; Platt, Heather L.; Goldfain, Albert; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    With antimicrobial resistance increasing worldwide, there is a great need to use automated antimicrobial decision support systems (ADSSs) to lower antimicrobial resistance rates by promoting appropriate antimicrobial use. However, they are infrequently used mostly because of their poor interoperability with different health information technologies. Ontologies can augment portable ADSSs by providing an explicit knowledge representation for biomedical entities and their relationships, helping to standardize and integrate heterogeneous data resources. We developed a bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) using Protégé-OWL. BCIDO defines a controlled terminology for clinical infectious diseases along with domain knowledge commonly used in hospital settings for clinical infectious disease treatment decision-making. BCIDO has 599 classes and 2355 object properties. Terms were imported from or mapped to Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Unified Medical Language System, RxNorm and National Center for Bitechnology Information Organismal Classification where possible. Domain expert evaluation using the “laddering” technique, ontology visualization, and clinical notes and scenarios, confirmed the correctness and potential usefulness of BCIDO. PMID:24551353

  1. Using Nuclear Medicine Imaging Wisely in Diagnosing Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Censullo, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, there has been an increasing emphasis on efficient and accurate diagnostic testing, exemplified by the American Board of Internal Medicine’s “Choosing Wisely” campaign. Nuclear imaging studies can provide early and accurate diagnoses of many infectious disease syndromes, particularly in complex cases where the differential remains broad. This review paper offers clinicians a rational, evidence-based guide to approaching nuclear medicine tests, using an example case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia in a patient with multiple potential sources. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) with computed tomography (CT) and sulfur colloid imaging with tagged white blood cell (WBC) scanning offer the most promise in facilitating rapid and accurate diagnoses of endovascular graft infections, vertebral osteomyelitis (V-OM), diabetic foot infections, and prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). However, radiologists at different institutions may have varying degrees of expertise with these modalities. Regardless, infectious disease consultants would benefit from knowing what nuclear medicine tests to order when considering patients with complex infectious disease syndromes. PMID:28480283

  2. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, therapeutic targets for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Myung Hee

    2018-06-08

    Despite remarkable advances in medical science, infection-associated diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. There is a great deal of interest and concern at the rate at which new pathogens are emerging and causing significant human health problems. Expanding our understanding of how cells regulate signaling networks to defend against invaders and retain cell homeostasis will reveal promising strategies against infection. It has taken scientists decades to appreciate that eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) play a role as global cell signaling mediators to regulate cell homeostasis, beyond their intrinsic function as protein synthesis enzymes. Recent discoveries revealed that ubiquitously expressed standby cytoplasmic ARSs sense and respond to danger signals and regulate immunity against infections, indicating their potential as therapeutic targets for infectious diseases. In this review, we discuss ARS-mediated anti-infectious signaling and the emerging role of ARSs in antimicrobial immunity. In contrast to their ability to defend against infection, host ARSs are inevitably co-opted by viruses for survival and propagation. We therefore provide a brief overview of the communication between viruses and the ARS system. Finally, we discuss encouraging new approaches to develop ARSs as therapeutics for infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Contact infection of infectious disease onboard a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2016-12-08

    Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact infection of infectious disease on a cruise ship. Using gastroenteritis caused by the norovirus as an example, we analyzed the characteristics of infectious disease propagation based on simulation results under different conditions. We found hand washing are the most important factors affecting virus propagation and passenger infection. It also decides either the total number of virus microorganisms or the virus distribution in different functional areas. The transfer rate between different surfaces is a key factor influencing the concentricity of the virus. A high transfer rate leads to high concentricity. In addition, the risk of getting infected is effectively reduced when the disinfection frequency is above a certain threshold. The efficiency of disinfection of functional areas is determined by total virus number and total contact times of surfaces.

  4. Microbial Endocrinology in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Lyte, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Microbial endocrinology represents the intersection of two seemingly disparate fields, microbiology and neurobiology, and is based on the shared presence of neurochemicals that are exactly the same in host as well as in the microorganism. The ability of microorganisms to not only respond to, but also produce, many of the same neurochemicals that are produced by the host, such as during periods of stress, has led to the introduction of this evolutionary-based mechanism which has a role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. The consideration of microbial endocrinology-based mechanisms has demonstrated, for example, that the prevalent use of catecholamine-based synthetic drugs in the clinical setting contributes to the formation of biofilms in indwelling medical devices. Production of neurochemicals by microorganisms most often employs the same biosynthetic pathways as those utilized by the host, indicating that acquisition of host neurochemical-based signaling system in the host may have been acquired due to lateral gene transfer from microorganisms. That both host and microorganism produce and respond to the very same neurochemicals means that there is bidirectionality contained with the theoretical underpinnings of microbial endocrinology. This can be seen in the role of microbial endocrinology in the microbiota-gut-brain axis and its relevance to infectious disease. Such shared pathways argue for a role of microorganism-neurochemical interactions in infectious disease.

  5. Contact infection of infectious disease onboard a cruise ship

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact infection of infectious disease on a cruise ship. Using gastroenteritis caused by the norovirus as an example, we analyzed the characteristics of infectious disease propagation based on simulation results under different conditions. We found hand washing are the most important factors affecting virus propagation and passenger infection. It also decides either the total number of virus microorganisms or the virus distribution in different functional areas. The transfer rate between different surfaces is a key factor influencing the concentricity of the virus. A high transfer rate leads to high concentricity. In addition, the risk of getting infected is effectively reduced when the disinfection frequency is above a certain threshold. The efficiency of disinfection of functional areas is determined by total virus number and total contact times of surfaces. PMID:27929141

  6. A qualitative study of infectious diseases fellowships in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kentaro; Doi, Asako

    2016-02-21

    The purpose of this research is to elucidate the actual status of Infectious Diseases (ID) Fellowship programs in Japan to improve them further. We conducted qualitative interviews with infectious diseases fellows and his/her faculty consultants from 10 institutions providing ID Fellowships in Japan. We qualitatively analysed the data to delineate the actual status of each program and the fellowship program policies overall, and to identify measures for further improvement. The interviews revealed that there are largely two kinds of ID fellowships; ID programs entirely devoting full time to infectious diseases, and programs that are subordinate concepts of other subspecialties, where only a portion of hours were devoted to ID. Some institutions did not even have an ID department. Time spent by the faculty consultants on fellows also varied among programs. The desire for improvement also varied among interviewees; some being happy with the current system while others demanded radical reform. Even though there are many ID fellowship programs in Japan, the content, quality, and concepts apparently vary among programs. The perceptions by interviewees on the educational system differed, depending on the standpoints they have on ID physicians. There probably needs to be a coherency in the provision of ID fellowship programs so that fellows acquire competency in the subspecialty with sufficient expertise to act as independent ID specialists. Further studies are necessary for the improvement of ID subspecialty training in Japan.

  7. Contact infection of infectious disease onboard a cruise ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact infection of infectious disease on a cruise ship. Using gastroenteritis caused by the norovirus as an example, we analyzed the characteristics of infectious disease propagation based on simulation results under different conditions. We found hand washing are the most important factors affecting virus propagation and passenger infection. It also decides either the total number of virus microorganisms or the virus distribution in different functional areas. The transfer rate between different surfaces is a key factor influencing the concentricity of the virus. A high transfer rate leads to high concentricity. In addition, the risk of getting infected is effectively reduced when the disinfection frequency is above a certain threshold. The efficiency of disinfection of functional areas is determined by total virus number and total contact times of surfaces.

  8. Significant publications on infectious diseases pharmacotherapy in 2014.

    PubMed

    Phe, Kady; Cadle, Richard M; Guervil, David J; Guzman, Oscar E; Lockwood, Ashley M; Perez, Katherine K; Vuong, Nancy N; Aitken, Samuel L

    2015-08-15

    The most important articles on infectious diseases (ID) pharmacotherapy published in the peer-reviewed literature in 2014, as nominated and selected by panels of pharmacists and others with ID expertise, are summarized. Members of the Houston Infectious Diseases Network were asked to nominate articles published in 2014 from prominent peer-reviewed journals that were felt to have a major impact in the field of ID pharmacotherapy. A list of 19 nominated articles on general ID-related topics and 9 articles specifically related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was compiled. In a national online survey, members of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) were asked to select from the list 10 general ID articles believed to have made a significant contribution to the field of ID pharmacotherapy and 1 article contributing to HIV/AIDS pharmacotherapy. Of the 291 SIDP members surveyed, 134 (46%) and 56 (19%) participated in the selection of general ID-related articles and HIV/AIDS-related articles, respectively. The 11 highest-ranked papers (10 general ID-related articles, 1 HIV/AIDS-related article) are summarized here. With the vast number of articles published each year, it is difficult to remain up-to-date on current, significant ID pharmacotherapy publications. This review of significant publications in 2014 may be helpful by lessening this burden. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of global climate on infectious disease: the cholera model.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Erin K; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2002-10-01

    Recently, the role of the environment and climate in disease dynamics has become a subject of increasing interest to microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, and ecologists. Much of the interest has been stimulated by the growing problems of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases worldwide, the potential of bioterrorism, and the debate concerning climate change. Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, lends itself to analyses of the role of climate in infectious disease, coupled to population dynamics of pathogenic microorganisms, for several reasons. First, the disease has a historical context linking it to specific seasons and biogeographical zones. In addition, the population dynamics of V. cholerae in the environment are strongly controlled by environmental factors, such as water temperature, salinity, and the presence of copepods, which are, in turn, controlled by larger-scale climate variability. In this review, the association between plankton and V. cholerae that has been documented over the last 20 years is discussed in support of the hypothesis that cholera shares properties of a vector-borne disease. In addition, a model for environmental transmission of cholera to humans in the context of climate variability is presented. The cholera model provides a template for future research on climate-sensitive diseases, allowing definition of critical parameters and offering a means of developing more sophisticated methods for prediction of disease outbreaks.

  10. Enhancement on infectious diseases nursing plan information system.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Lin; Hao, Te-Hui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Based on researches, the most time-consuming nursing activities, in teaching hospital, are: room patrols, the blood pressure survey, the body temperature pulse breath survey, the nursing record maintenance. The nursing record is one way to communicate data. It can allow the medical service team to understand what measures the nursing staff once did for sickness, as well as responses from sickness. Nevertheless, it is the key component to utilize the record with a clinical nursing plan, so as to provide a proficient health management. Since the maintenance of nursing plan is costly and time-consuming, therefore, it is essential to establish the nursing plan information system, which can effectively promote the nursing quality. This research main body comes from one infectious disease division nursing plan information system, which was developed in 1992, and its data base covers entire courtyard compatibility and various faculties characteristic nursing plan. The nursing staff often complained that this system is not user-friendly, its contents are not comprehensive, and sometimes it does not let staff choose the right diagnosis. Therefore this research is based on history analysis and the questionnaire survey procedure first, the infectious disease nursing plan use number of times, the frequency and the project content, then by the literature scientific theory and result of the improvement group discussion together. The original 38 infectious disease division nursing plan will be expanded to 45 nursing plans. Moreover, the common 38 infectious disease code (ICD-9), and its corresponding diagnosis items, shall automatically appear in the disease diagnose code field, so it would be better off for the nursing staff to set up the nursing plan efficiently. Infectious disease division nursing plan information system utilization ratio is promoted 9.6-folds, according to research outcome. Each task consumes 3.68 minutes beforehand-including computer program operation, the

  11. 78 FR 27409 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  12. 78 FR 34110 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 31, 2013. David Clary, Program...

  13. 78 FR 314 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, ``NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Applications (P01).'' Date... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health...

  14. Children's Participation in a Virtual Epidemic in the Science Classroom: Making Connections to Natural Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neulight, Nina; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Kao, Linda; Foley, Brian; Galas, Cathleen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated students' understanding of a virtual infectious disease in relation to their understanding of natural infectious diseases. Two sixth-grade classrooms of students between the ages of 10 and 12 (46 students) took part in a participatory simulation of a virtual infectious disease, which was integrated into their science…

  15. 78 FR 12769 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 19, 2013...

  16. 78 FR 108 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel NIAID Science Education Awards (R25). Date: January 22, 2013. Time... Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel NIAID Investigator...

  17. 78 FR 38998 - National Institute of Allerg