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Sample records for zoonotic pathogens including

  1. Environmental Factors and Zoonotic Pathogen Ecology in Urban Exploiter Species.

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Himsworth, Chelsea H; Nemeth, Nicole M; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R. rattus] and house mice [Mus musculus]). Pathogen ecology, including prevalence and pathogen characteristics, is influenced by geographical location, habitat, season and weather. The prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in mice and rats varies markedly over short geographical distances, but tends to be highest in ports, disadvantaged (e.g., low income) and residential areas. Future research should use epidemiological approaches, including random sampling and robust statistical analyses, to evaluate a range of biotic and abiotic environmental factors at spatial scales suitable for host home range sizes. Moving beyond descriptive studies to uncover the causal factors contributing to uneven pathogen distribution among wildlife hosts in urban environments may lead to targeted surveillance and intervention strategies. Application of this knowledge to urban maintenance and planning may reduce the potential impacts of urban wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases on people.

  2. Disease ecology and the global emergence of zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bruce A; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-09-01

    The incidence and frequency of epidemic transmission of zoonotic diseases, both known and newly recognized, has increased dramatically in the past 30 years. It is thought that this dramatic disease emergence is primarily the result of the social, demographic, and environmental transformation that has occurred globally since World War II. However, the causal linkages have not been elucidated. Investigating emerging zoonotic pathogens as an ecological phenomenon can provide significant insights as to why some of these pathogens have jumped species and caused major epidemics in humans. A review of concepts and theory from biological ecology and of causal factors in disease emergence previously described suggests a general model of global zoonotic disease emergence. The model links demographic and societal factors to land use and land cover change whose associated ecological factors help explain disease emergence. The scale and magnitude of these changes are more significant than those associated with climate change, the effects of which are largely not yet understood. Unfortunately, the complex character and non-linear behavior of the human-natural systems in which host-pathogen systems are embedded makes specific incidences of disease emergence or epidemics inherently difficult to predict. Employing a complex systems analytical approach, however, may show how a few key ecological variables and system properties, including the adaptive capacity of institutions, explains the emergence of infectious diseases and how an integrated, multi-level approach to zoonotic disease control can reduce risk.

  3. Multiple Infections of Rodents with Zoonotic Pathogens in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S.; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H.; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host–pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans. PMID

  4. Multiple infections of rodents with zoonotic pathogens in Austria.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-07-01

    Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host-pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans.

  5. (Highly pathogenic) avian influenza as a zoonotic agent.

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Donata; Globig, Anja; Beer, Martin

    2010-01-27

    Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence by mutation after transmission and adaptation to susceptible gallinaceous poultry. Those so-called highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) then cause mass die-offs in susceptible birds and lead to tremendous economical losses when poultry is affected. Besides a number of avian influenza virus subtypes that have sporadically infected mammals, the HPAIV H5N1 Asia shows strong zoonotic characteristics and it was transmitted from birds to different mammalian species including humans. Theoretically, pandemic viruses might derive directly from avian influenza viruses or arise after genetic reassortment between viruses of avian and mammalian origin. So far, HPAIV H5N1 already meets two conditions for a pandemic virus: as a new subtype it has been hitherto unseen in the human population and it has infected at least 438 people, and caused severe illness and high lethality in 262 humans to date (August 2009). The acquisition of efficient human-to-human transmission would complete the emergence of a new pandemic virus. Therefore, fighting H5N1 at its source is the prerequisite to reduce pandemic risks posed by this virus. Other influenza viruses regarded as pandemic candidates derive from subtypes H2, H7, and H9 all of which have infected humans in the past. Here, we will give a comprehensive overview on avian influenza viruses in concern to their zoonotic potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-U.S. border along the Rio Grande

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and inc...

  7. [New insight into bacterial zoonotic pathogens posing health hazards to humans].

    PubMed

    Ciszewski, Marcin; Czekaj, Tomasz; Szewczyk, Eligia Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the problem of evolutionary changes of zoonotic pathogens responsible for human diseases. Everyone is exposed to the risk of zoonotic infection, particularly employees having direct contact with animals, i.e. veterinarians, breeders, butchers and workers of animal products' processing industry. The article focuses on pathogens monitored by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), which has been collecting statistical data on zoonoses from all European Union countries for 19 years and publishing collected data in annual epidemiological reports. Currently, the most important 11 pathogens responsible for causing human zoonotic diseases are being monitored, of which seven are bacteria: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetti and Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC)/Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli (STEC). As particularly important are considered foodborne pathogens. The article also includes new emerging zoonotic bacteria, which are not currently monitored by ECDC but might pose a serious epidemiological problem in a foreseeable future: Streptococcus iniae, S. suis, S. dysgalactiae and staphylococci: Staphylococcus intermedius, S. pseudintermedius. Those species have just crossed the animal-human interspecies barrier. The exact mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown, it is connected, however, with genetic variability, capability to survive in changing environment. These abilities derive from DNA rearrangement and horizontal gene transfer between bacterial cells. Substantial increase in the number of scientific publications on this subject, observed over the last few years, illustrates the importance of the problem.

  8. Decontamination of High-risk Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Menrath, Andrea; Tomuzia, Katharina; Braeunig, Juliane; Appel, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Preparedness for the decontamination of affected environments, premises, facilities, and products is one prerequisite for an immediate response to an animal disease outbreak. Various information sources provide recommendations on how to proceed in an outbreak situation to eliminate biological contaminants and to stop the spread of the disease. In order to facilitate the identification of the right decontamination strategy, we present an overview of relevant references for a collection of pathogenic agents. The choice of pathogens is based on a survey of lists containing highly pathogenic agents and/or biological agents considered to be potential vehicles for deliberate contamination of food, feed, or farm animals. European legislation and guidelines from national and international institutions were screened to find decontamination protocols for each of the agents. Identified recommendations were evaluated with regard to their area of application, which could be facilities and equipment, wastes, food, and other animal products. The requirements of a disinfectant for large-scale incidents were gathered, and important characteristics (eg, inactivating spectrum, temperature range, toxicity to environment) of the main recommended disinfectants were summarized to assist in the choice of a suitable and efficient approach in a crisis situation induced by a specific high-risk animal or zoonotic pathogen. The literature search revealed numerous relevant recommendations but also legal gaps for certain diseases, such as Q fever or brucellosis, and legal difficulties for the use of recommended disinfectants. A lack of information about effective disinfectants was identified for some agents. PMID:23971795

  9. Decontamination of high-risk animal and zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Frentzel, Hendrik; Menrath, Andrea; Tomuzia, Katharina; Braeunig, Juliane; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Preparedness for the decontamination of affected environments, premises, facilities, and products is one prerequisite for an immediate response to an animal disease outbreak. Various information sources provide recommendations on how to proceed in an outbreak situation to eliminate biological contaminants and to stop the spread of the disease. In order to facilitate the identification of the right decontamination strategy, we present an overview of relevant references for a collection of pathogenic agents. The choice of pathogens is based on a survey of lists containing highly pathogenic agents and/or biological agents considered to be potential vehicles for deliberate contamination of food, feed, or farm animals. European legislation and guidelines from national and international institutions were screened to find decontamination protocols for each of the agents. Identified recommendations were evaluated with regard to their area of application, which could be facilities and equipment, wastes, food, and other animal products. The requirements of a disinfectant for large-scale incidents were gathered, and important characteristics (eg, inactivating spectrum, temperature range, toxicity to environment) of the main recommended disinfectants were summarized to assist in the choice of a suitable and efficient approach in a crisis situation induced by a specific high-risk animal or zoonotic pathogen. The literature search revealed numerous relevant recommendations but also legal gaps for certain diseases, such as Q fever or brucellosis, and legal difficulties for the use of recommended disinfectants. A lack of information about effective disinfectants was identified for some agents.

  10. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  11. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  12. Role of India's wildlife in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, risk factors and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Gajadhar, A A

    2014-10-01

    Evolving land use practices have led to an increase in interactions at the human/wildlife interface. The presence and poor knowledge of zoonotic pathogens in India's wildlife and the occurrence of enormous human populations interfacing with, and critically linked to, forest ecosystems warrant attention. Factors such as diverse migratory bird populations, climate change, expanding human population and shrinking wildlife habitats play a significant role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens from India's wildlife. The introduction of a novel Kyasanur forest disease virus (family flaviviridae) into human populations in 1957 and subsequent occurrence of seasonal outbreaks illustrate the key role that India's wild animals play in the emergence and reemergence of zoonotic pathogens. Other high priority zoonotic diseases of wildlife origin which could affect both livestock and humans include influenza, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, plague, leptospirosis, anthrax and leishmaniasis. Continuous monitoring of India's extensively diverse and dispersed wildlife is challenging, but their use as indicators should facilitate efficient and rapid disease-outbreak response across the region and occasionally the globe. Defining and prioritizing research on zoonotic pathogens in wildlife are essential, particularly in a multidisciplinary one-world one-health approach which includes human and veterinary medical studies at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. This review indicates that wild animals play an important role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens and provides brief summaries of the zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in India. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Update on Baylisascariasis, a Highly Pathogenic Zoonotic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; Kazacos, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, infects a wide range of vertebrate animals, including humans, in which it causes a particularly severe type of larva migrans. It is an important cause of severe neurologic disease (neural larva migrans [NLM]) but also causes ocular disease (OLM; diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis [DUSN]), visceral larva migrans (VLM), and covert/asymptomatic infections. B. procyonis is common and widespread in raccoons, and there is increasing recognition of human disease, making a clinical consideration of baylisascariasis important. This review provides an update for this disease, especially its clinical relevance and diagnosis, and summarizes the clinical cases of human NLM and VLM known to date. Most diagnosed patients have been young children less than 2 years of age, although the number of older patients diagnosed in recent years has been increasing. The recent development of recombinant antigen-based serodiagnostic assays has aided greatly in the early diagnosis of this infection. Patients recovering with fewer severe sequelae have been reported in recent years, reinforcing the current recommendation that early treatment with albendazole and corticosteroids should be initiated at the earliest suspicion of baylisascariasis. Considering the seriousness of this zoonotic infection, greater public and medical awareness is critical for the prevention and early treatment of human cases. PMID:26960940

  14. Sustainable control of zoonotic pathogens in wildlife: how to be fair to wild animals?

    PubMed

    Artois, M; Blancou, J; Dupeyroux, O; Gilot-Fromont, E

    2011-12-01

    Wildlife may harbour infectious pathogens that are of zoonotic concern. However, culling such reservoir populations to mitigate or control the transmission of these pathogens to humans has proved disappointingly inefficient. Alternatives are still in an experimental stage of development. They include vaccination, medication, contraception and environmental manipulation, including fencing and biosecurity measures. This review examines the general concepts involved in the control of wildlife diseases and presents relevant case studies. Since wildlife disease control inevitably involves interfering with wildlife ecology, this is a complex goal whose attempts at realisation should be supervised by a scientific organisation. Most approaches within natural ecosystems should first be carefully tested in trials that are progressively extended to a larger scale. Finally, all measures that aim to prevent infection in humans (such as personal hygiene or vaccination) or that encourage us to avoid infectious contacts with wildlife should be recommended.

  15. Quantifying climate change impacts on runoff of zoonotic pathogens from land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterk, Ankie; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Stergiadi, Maria; de Nijs, Ton; Schijven, Jack

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown a correlation between rainfall and waterborne disease outbreaks. One of the mechanisms whereby rainfall may cause outbreaks is through an increase in runoff of animal faeces from fields to surface waters. Faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by water recreation or drinking-water consumption. Climate changes affect runoff because of increasing winter precipitation and more extreme precipitation events, as well as changes in evaporation. Furthermore, drier summers are leading to longer periods of high soil moisture deficits, increasing the hydrophobicity of soil and consequently changing infiltration capacities. A conceptual model is designed to describe the impacts of climate changes on the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, which are both directly and indirectly affecting pathogen loads in the environment and subsequent public health risks. One of the major outcomes was the lack of quantitative data and limited qualitative analyses of impacts of climate changes on pathogen runoff. Quantifying the processes by which micro-organisms are transported from fields to waters is important to be able to estimate such impacts to enable targeted implementation of effective intervention measures. A quantitative model using Mathematica software will be developed to estimate concentrations of pathogens originating from overland flow during runoff events. Different input sources will be included by applying different land-use scenarios, including point source faecal pollution from dairy cows and geese and diffuse source pollution by fertilization. Zoonotic pathogens, i.e. Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter, were selected based on transport properties, faecal loads and disease burden. Transport and survival rates of these pathogens are determined including effects of changes in precipitation but also temperature induced

  16. Tracking zoonotic pathogens using blood-sucking flies as 'flying syringes'

    PubMed Central

    Bitome-Essono, Paul-Yannick; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Mokoudoum, Nancy Diamella; Yacka-Mouele, Lauriane; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Boundenga, Larson; Mve-Ondo, Bertrand; Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Mbehang-Nguema, Philippe; Njiokou, Flobert; Makanga, Boris; Wattier, Rémi; Ayala, Diego; Ayala, Francisco J; Renaud, Francois; Rougeron, Virginie; Bretagnolle, Francois; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    About 60% of emerging infectious diseases in humans are of zoonotic origin. Their increasing number requires the development of new methods for early detection and monitoring of infectious agents in wildlife. Here, we investigated whether blood meals from hematophagous flies could be used to identify the infectious agents circulating in wild vertebrates. To this aim, 1230 blood-engorged flies were caught in the forests of Gabon. Identified blood meals (30%) were from 20 vertebrate species including mammals, birds and reptiles. Among them, 9% were infected by different extant malaria parasites among which some belonged to known parasite species, others to new parasite species or to parasite lineages for which only the vector was known. This study demonstrates that using hematophagous flies as ‘flying syringes’ constitutes an interesting approach to investigate blood-borne pathogen diversity in wild vertebrates and could be used as an early detection tool of zoonotic pathogens. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22069.001 PMID:28347401

  17. Zoonotic pathogens from feral swine that pose a significant threat to public health.

    PubMed

    Brown, V R; Bowen, R A; Bosco-Lauth, A M

    2018-06-01

    The natural fecundity of suids, great ability to adapt to new habitats and desire for local hunting opportunities leading to translocation of feral pigs to regions where they are not yet established have all been instrumental in the home range expansion of feral swine. Feral swine populations in the United States continue to expand, wreaking havoc on agricultural lands, further compromising threatened and endangered species, and posing a microbiological threat to humans, domestic livestock and companion animals. This manuscript thoroughly reviews zoonotic diseases of concern including brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, leptospirosis, enteric pathogens, both Salmonella spp. and shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and hepatitis E. These pathogens are not a comprehensive list of microbes that are capable of infecting both humans and feral swine, but rather have been selected as they are known to infect US feral swine, direct transmission between wild suids and humans has previously been documented, or they have been shown to be readily transmitted during processing or consumption of feral swine pork. Humans that interact directly or indirectly with feral swine are at much higher risk for the development of a number of zoonotic pathogens. Numerous case reports document transmission events from feral swine and wild boar to humans, and the resulting diseases may be mild and self-limiting, chronic or fatal. Individuals that interact with feral swine should take preventative measures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and all meat should be thoroughly cooked. Additionally, public health campaigns to increase knowledge of the risks associated with feral swine are imperative. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Capacity building efforts and perceptions for wildlife surveillance to detect zoonotic pathogens: comparing stakeholder perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schwind, Jessica S; Goldstein, Tracey; Thomas, Kate; Mazet, Jonna A K; Smith, Woutrina A

    2014-07-04

    The capacity to conduct zoonotic pathogen surveillance in wildlife is critical for the recognition and identification of emerging health threats. The PREDICT project, a component of United States Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats program, has introduced capacity building efforts to increase zoonotic pathogen surveillance in wildlife in global 'hot spot' regions where zoonotic disease emergence is likely to occur. Understanding priorities, challenges, and opportunities from the perspectives of the stakeholders is a key component of any successful capacity building program. A survey was administered to wildlife officials and to PREDICT-implementing in-country project scientists in 16 participating countries in order to identify similarities and differences in perspectives between the groups regarding capacity needs for zoonotic pathogen surveillance in wildlife. Both stakeholder groups identified some human-animal interfaces (i.e. areas of high contact between wildlife and humans with the potential risk for disease transmission), such as hunting and markets, as important for ongoing targeting of wildlife surveillance. Similarly, findings regarding challenges across stakeholder groups showed some agreement in that a lack of sustainable funding across regions was the greatest challenge for conducting wildlife surveillance for zoonotic pathogens (wildlife officials: 96% and project scientists: 81%). However, the opportunity for improving zoonotic pathogen surveillance capacity identified most frequently by wildlife officials as important was increasing communication or coordination among agencies, sectors, or regions (100% of wildlife officials), whereas the most frequent opportunities identified as important by project scientists were increasing human capacity, increasing laboratory capacity, and the growing interest or awareness regarding wildlife disease or surveillance programs (all identified by 69% of project scientists). A One

  19. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, Khethiwe; Khumalo, Zth; Nakao, Ryo; Grab, Dennis J; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Thekisoe, Omm

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected.

  20. Effect of lysozyme or antibiotics on fecal zoonotic pathogens in nursery pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lysozyme and antibiotics on zoonotic pathogen shedding in feces from nursery pigs housed without and with an indirect disease challenge. Two replicates of 600 pigs each were weaned and randomly assigned to one of 24 pens in either a nursery...

  1. Effect of lysozyme or antibiotics on fecal zoonotic pathogens in nursery pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lysozyme is a 1,4-ß-N-acetylmuramidase that has antimicrobial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lysozyme and antibiotics on zoonotic pathogen shedding in feces in nursery pigs housed without and with an indirect disease challenge. Two replicates of 600 pigs eac...

  2. Zoonotic pathogens isolated from wild animals and environmental samples at two California wildlife hospitals.

    PubMed

    Siembieda, Jennifer L; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Ziccardi, Michael H; Anderson, Nancy; Chouicha, Nadira; Sandrock, Christian E; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-03-15

    To determine types and estimate prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens shed by wild animals admitted to either of 2 wildlife hospitals and to characterize distribution of these pathogens and of aerobic bacteria in a hospital environment. Cross-sectional study. Fecal samples from 338 animals in 2 wildlife hospitals and environmental samples from 1 wildlife hospital. Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. Environmental samples were collected from air and surfaces. Samples were tested for zoonotic pathogens via culture techniques and biochemical analyses. Prevalence of pathogen shedding was compared among species groups, ages, sexes, and seasons. Bacterial counts were determined for environmental samples. Campylobacter spp, Vibrio spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp (alone or in combination) were detected in 105 of 338 (31%) fecal samples. Campylobacter spp were isolated only from birds. Juvenile passerines were more likely to shed Campylobacter spp than were adults; prevalence increased among juvenile passerines during summer. Non-O1 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from birds; during an oil-spill response, 9 of 10 seabirds screened were shedding this pathogen, which was also detected in environmental samples. Salmonella spp and Giardia spp were isolated from birds and mammals; Cryptosporidium spp were isolated from mammals only. Floors of animal rooms had higher bacterial counts than did floors with only human traffic. Potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens were identified in samples from several species admitted to wildlife hospitals, indicating potential for transmission if prevention is not practiced.

  3. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin; Young, Neil D.; Nejsum, Peter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Boag, Peter R.; Tan, Patrick; Li, Qiye; Min, Jiumeng; Yang, Yulan; Wang, Xiuhua; Fang, Xiaodong; Hall, Ross S.; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W.; Jex, Aaron R.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, to date, there has been no global investigation of the molecular biology of this parasite. Here we use next-generation sequencing to produce a draft genome and transcriptome of T. canis to support future biological and biotechnological investigations. This genome is 317 Mb in size, has a repeat content of 13.5% and encodes at least 18,596 protein-coding genes. We study transcription in a larval, as well as adult female and male stages, characterize the parasite’s gene-silencing machinery, explore molecules involved in development or host–parasite interactions and predict intervention targets. The draft genome of T. canis should provide a useful resource for future molecular studies of this and other, related parasites. PMID:25649139

  4. Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

  5. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus

  6. Zoonotic intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in Italian shelter and kennel dogs.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela; Simonato, Giulia; Cassini, Rudi; Merola, Carmine; Diakou, Anastasia; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the presence of zoonotic parasites and vector-borne pathogens in dogs housed in kennels and shelters from four sites of Italy. A total of 150 adoptable dogs was examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular methods. Overall 129 dogs (86%) were positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-eight (32%) were positive for one infection, while 81 (54%) for more than one pathogen. The most common zoonotic helminths recorded were hookworms, roundworms and Capillaria aerophila, followed by mosquito-borne Dirofilaria spp. and Dipylidium caninum. One hundred and thirteen (77.9%), 6 (4.1%) and 2 (1.4%) dogs were positive for Rickettsia spp., Leishmania infantum and Anaplasma spp., respectively. The results show that dogs living in rescue facilities from the studied areas may be infected by many zoonotic internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, and that control measures should be implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 2.

    PubMed

    Segura, Mariela; Zheng, Han; de Greeff, Astrid; Gao, George F; Grenier, Daniel; Jiang, Yongqiang; Lu, Chengping; Maskell, Duncan; Oishi, Kazunori; Okura, Masatoshi; Osawa, Ro; Schultsz, Constance; Schwerk, Christian; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Smith, Hilde; Srimanote, Potjanee; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Tang, Jiaqi; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Wells, Jerry M; Wertheim, Heiman; Zhu, Baoli; Xu, Jianguo; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013. This second and final chapter of the report on the First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis follows on from Part 1, published in the April 2014, volume 9, issue 4 of Future Microbiology. S. suis is a swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent afflicting people in close contact with infected pigs or pork meat. Although sporadic cases of human infections had been reported worldwide, deadly S. suis outbreaks emerged in Asia. The severity of the disease underscores the lack of knowledge on the virulence and zoonotic evolution of this human-infecting agent. The pathogenesis of the infection, interactions with host cells and new avenues for treatments were among the topics discussed during the First International Workshop on S. suis (China 2013).

  8. A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, James L. N.; Leach, Melissa; Waldman, Linda; MacGregor, Hayley; Fooks, Anthony R.; Jones, Kate E.; Restif, Olivier; Dechmann, Dina; Hayman, David T. S.; Baker, Kate S.; Peel, Alison J.; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Fahr, Jakob; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breiman, Robert F.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial societal challenge. In the context of disease emergence from wildlife, wildlife and habitat should be conserved, which in turn will preserve vital ecosystem structure and function, which has broader implications for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, while simultaneously minimizing the spillover of pathogens from wild animals into human beings. In this review, we propose a novel framework for the holistic and interdisciplinary investigation of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers, using the spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. This study has been developed to gain a detailed interdisciplinary understanding, and it combines cutting-edge perspectives from both natural and social sciences, linked to policy impacts on public health, land use and conservation. PMID:22966143

  9. Human and Avian Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections, Zoonotic Risks, and Antibiotic Resistance Trends

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) constitutes ongoing health concerns for women, newborns, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals due to increased numbers of urinary tract infections (UTIs), newborn meningitis, abdominal sepsis, and septicemia. E. coli remains the leading cause of UTIs, with recent investigations reporting the emergence of E. coli as the predominant cause of nosocomial and neonatal sepsis infections. This shift from the traditional Gram-positive bacterial causes of nosocomial and neonatal sepsis infections could be attributed to the use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis against Gram-positive bacteria and the appearance of antibiotic (ATB) resistance in E. coli. While ExPEC strains cause significant healthcare concerns, these bacteria also infect chickens and cause the poultry industry economic losses due to costs of containment, mortality, and disposal of carcasses. To circumvent ExPEC-related costs, ATBs are commonly used in the poultry industry to prevent/treat microbial infections and promote growth and performance. In an unfortunate linkage, chicken products are suspected to be a source of foodborne ExPEC infections and ATB resistance in humans. Therefore, the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) among avian E. coli has created major economic and health concerns, affecting both human healthcare and poultry industries. Increased numbers of immunocompromised individuals, including the elderly, coupled with MDR among ExPEC strains, will continue to challenge the treatment of ExPEC infections and likely lead to increased treatment costs. With ongoing complications due to emerging ATB resistance, novel treatment strategies are necessary to control ExPEC infections. Recognizing and treating the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC would greatly enhance food safety and positively impact human health. PMID:23962019

  10. Serosurvey for Zoonotic Viral and Bacterial Pathogens Among Slaughtered Livestock in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Katherine C.; Wasfy, Momtaz; Samaha, Hamed; Abdel-Rahman, Bassem; Safwat, Sameh; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa; Mohareb, Emad; Dueger, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic diseases are an important cause of human morbidity and mortality. Animal populations at locations with high risk of transmission of zoonotic pathogens offer an opportunity to study viral and bacterial pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Methods Blood samples were collected from domestic and imported livestock slaughtered at the Muneeb abattoir in central Egypt in 2009. Samples were collected from cattle (n = 161), buffalo (n = 153), sheep (n = 174), and camels (n = 10). Samples were tested for antibodies against Leptospira spp. by a microscopy agglutination test, Coxiella burnetii by enzyme immunoassay, Brucella spp. by standard tube agglutination, and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV), Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), and sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Antibodies against Leptospira spp. were identified in 64 (40%) cattle, 45 (29%) buffalo, 71 (41%) sheep, and five (50%) camels; antibodies against C. burnetii in six (4%) buffalo, 14 (8%) sheep, and seven (70%) camels; and antibodies against Brucella spp. in 12 (8%) cattle, one (1%) buffalo, seven (4%) sheep, and one (10%) camel. Antibodies against RVFV were detected in two (1%) cattle and five (3%) buffalo, and antibodies against CCHFV in one (1%) cow. No antibodies against SFSV or SFNV were detected in any species. Discussion Results indicate that livestock have been exposed to a number of pathogens, although care must be taken with interpretation. It is not possible to determine whether antibodies against Leptospira spp. and RVFV in cattle and buffalo are due to prior vaccination or natural exposure. Similarly, antibodies identified in animals less than 6 months of age may be maternal antibodies transferred through colostrum rather than evidence of prior exposure. Results provide baseline evidence to indicate that surveillance within animal populations may be a useful tool to

  11. Co-Infection Dynamics of a Major Food-Borne Zoonotic Pathogen in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Skånseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pål; Zimonja, Monika; Johnsen, Gro; Bjerrum, Lotte; Pedersen, Karl; Wallin, Nina; Rudi, Knut

    2007-01-01

    A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level. We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature (treated with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host and not the background flora that is important in determining the Campylobacter colonisation pattern. Our results showed that mainly two of the seven C. jejuni strains dominated the Campylobacter flora in the chickens, with a shift of the dominating strain during the infection period. We propose a model in which multiple C. jejuni strains can colonise a single host, with the dominant strains being replaced as a consequence of strain-specific immune responses. This model represents a new understanding of C. jejuni epidemiology, with future implications for the development of novel intervention strategies. PMID:18020703

  12. Detection of Zoonotic Pathogens and Characterization of Novel Viruses Carried by Commensal Rattus norvegicus in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Meera; Firth, Matthew A.; Williams, Simon H.; Frye, Matthew J.; Simmonds, Peter; Conte, Juliette M.; Ng, James; Garcia, Joel; Bhuva, Nishit P.; Lee, Bohyun; Che, Xiaoyu; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are globally distributed and concentrate in urban environments, where they live and feed in closer proximity to human populations than most other mammals. Despite the potential role of rats as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases, the microbial diversity present in urban rat populations remains unexplored. In this study, we used targeted molecular assays to detect known bacterial, viral, and protozoan human pathogens and unbiased high-throughput sequencing to identify novel viruses related to agents of human disease in commensal Norway rats in New York City. We found that these rats are infected with bacterial pathogens known to cause acute or mild gastroenteritis in people, including atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, and Salmonella enterica, as well as infectious agents that have been associated with undifferentiated febrile illnesses, including Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis, Leptospira interrogans, and Seoul hantavirus. We also identified a wide range of known and novel viruses from groups that contain important human pathogens, including sapoviruses, cardioviruses, kobuviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, and hepaciviruses. The two novel hepaciviruses discovered in this study replicate in the liver of Norway rats and may have utility in establishing a small animal model of human hepatitis C virus infection. The results of this study demonstrate the diversity of microbes carried by commensal rodent species and highlight the need for improved pathogen surveillance and disease monitoring in urban environments. PMID:25316698

  13. Use of Bioclimatic Factors to Determine Potential Niche of Vaccinia Virus, an Emerging and Zoonotic Pathogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiner, C. A.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Emerging and understudied pathogens often lack information that most commonly used analytical tools require, such as negative controls or baseline data making public health control of emerging pathogens challenging. In lieu of opportunities to collect more data from larger outbreaks or formal epidemiological studies, new analytical strategies, merging case data with publically available datasets, can be used to understand transmission patterns and drivers of disease emergence. Zoonotic infections with Vaccinia virus (VACV) were first reported in Brazil in 1999, VACV is an emerging zoonotic Orthopoxvirus, which primarily infects dairy cattle and farmers in close contact with infected cows. Prospective studies of emerging pathogens could provide critical data that would inform public health planning and response to outbreaks. By using the location of 87-recorded outbreaks and publicly available bioclimatic data we demonstrate one such approach. Using an Ecological Niche Model (ENM), we identify the environmental conditions under which VACV outbreaks have occurred, and determine additional locations in two affected South American countries that may be susceptible to transmission. Further, we show how suitability for the virus responds to different levels of various environmental factors and highlight the most important climatic factors in determining its transmission. The final ENM predicted all areas where Brazilian outbreaks occurred, two out of five Colombian outbreaks and identified new regions within Brazil that are suitable for transmission based on bioclimatic factors. Further, the most important factors in determining transmission suitability are precipitation of the wettest quarter, annual precipitation, mean temperature of the coldest quarter and mean diurnal range. The analyses here provide a means by which to study patterns of an emerging infectious disease, and regions that are potentially at risk for it, in spite of the paucity of critical data. Policy

  14. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) and sympatric zoo species in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Terriza, David; Guerra, Rafael; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Cabezón, Oscar; Almería, Sonia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic zoonotic agents (flaviviruses, avian influenza viruses (AIVs), Salmonella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii) in feral pigeons and sympatric zoo animals from Córdoba (Southern Spain) between 2013 and 2014. Antibodies against flaviviruses were detected in 7.8% out of 142 (CI95%: 3.7-11.8) pigeons, and 8.2% of 49 (CI95%: 0.9-15.4) of zoo animals tested. Antibodies with specificity against West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) were confirmed both in pigeons and in zoo birds. Even though seropositivity to AIVs was not detected in any of the analyzed pigeons, 17.9% of 28 (CI95%: 3.7-32.0) zoo birds tested showed positive results. Salmonella spp. was not isolated in any of 152 fecal samples collected from pigeons, while 6.8% of 44 zoo animals were positive. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 9.2% of 142 (CI95%: 4.8-13.6) feral pigeons and 26.9% of 108 (CI95%: 19.6-34.1) zoo animals. This is the first study on flaviviruses and T. gondii in feral pigeons and captive zoo species in Spain. Antibodies against WNV and USUV detected in non-migratory pigeons and captive zoo animals indicate local circulation of these emerging pathogens in the study area. T. gondii was widespread in species analyzed. This finding could be of importance for Public Health and Conservation of endangered species present in zoo parks. Pigeons and zoo animals may be included as sentinel species for monitoring zoonotic pathogens in urban areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibodies to Various Zoonotic Pathogens Detected in Feral Swine (Sus scrofa) at Abattoirs in Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kerri; Bauer, Nathan E; Rodgers, Sandra; Bazan, Luis R; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The zoonotic risk posed to employees by slaughtering feral swine (Sus scrofa) at two abattoirs in Texas was assessed by testing feral swine serum samples for exposure to influenza A virus, Leptospira, Trichinella spiralis, and Toxoplasma gondii. Blood was collected from a total of 376 feral swine between the two facilities during six separate collection periods in 2015. Antibodies to one or more serovars of Leptospira were identified in 48.9% of feral swine tested, with Bratislava and Pomona as the most commonly detected serovars, and antibodies to influenza A virus were detected in 14.1% of feral swine. Antibodies to T. gondii and T. spiralis were identified in 9.0 and 3.5%, respectively, of feral swine tested. Our results suggest that abattoir employees should be aware of the potential for exposure to various zoonotic pathogens when slaughtering feral swine, wear appropriate personal protective equipment, and participate in medical monitoring programs to ensure detection and prompt treatment. In addition, consumers of feral swine should cook the meat to the appropriate temperature and wash hands and kitchen surfaces thoroughly after preparing meat.

  16. DETECTION OF ZOONOTIC PATHOGENS IN WILD BIRDS IN THE CROSS-BORDER REGION AUSTRIA - CZECH REPUBLIC.

    PubMed

    Konicek, Cornelia; Vodrážka, Pavel; Barták, Pavel; Knotek, Zdenek; Hess, Claudia; Račka, Karol; Hess, Michael; Troxler, Salome

    2016-10-01

    To assess the importance of wild birds as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens in Austria and the Czech Republic, we sampled 1,325 wild birds representing 13 orders, 32 families, and 81 species. The majority belonged to orders Columbiformes (43%), Passeriformes (25%), and to birds of prey: Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes (15%). We collected cloacal swabs from 1,191 birds for bacterial culture and 1,214 triple swabs (conjunctiva, choana, cloaca) for DNA and RNA isolation. The cloacal swabs were processed by classical bacteriologic methods for isolation of Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Nucleic acids isolated from triple swabs were investigated by PCR for West Nile virus, avian influenza viruses, and Chlamydia spp. We also tested tissue samples from 110 fresh carcasses for Mycobacterium spp. by PCR and we cultured fresh droppings from 114 birds for Cryptococcus spp. The most-frequently detected zoonotic bacteria were thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (12.5%) and Chlamydia spp. (10.3%). From 79.2% of the sampled birds we isolated E. coli , while 8.7% and 0.2% of E. coli isolates possessed the virulence genes for intimin (eaeA) and Shiga toxins (stx 1 and stx 2 ), respectively. Salmonella spp. were rarely found in the sampled birds (2.2%), similar to findings of MRSA (0.3%). None of the samples were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans , Mycobacterium spp., avian influenza viruses, or West Nile virus.

  17. Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens isolated from environmental sites in companion animal veterinary hospitals in southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Colleen P.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Boerlin, Patrick; Weese, J. Scott; Prescott, John F.; Janecko, Nicol; Hassard, Lori; McEwen, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Hospital-based infection control in veterinary medicine is emerging and the role of the environment in hospital-acquired infections (HAI) in veterinary hospitals is largely unknown. This study was initiated to determine the recovery of Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens from the environments of 101 community veterinary hospitals. The proportion of hospitals with positive environmental swabs were: E. coli — 92%, Clostridium difficile — 58%, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) — 9%, CMY-2 producing E. coli — 9%, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius — 7%, and Salmonella — 2%. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., canine parvovirus, and feline calicivirus were not isolated. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates was low. Important potential veterinary and human pathogens were recovered including Canadian epidemic strains MRSA-2 and MRSA-5, and C. difficile ribotype 027. There is an environmental reservoir of pathogens in veterinary hospitals; therefore, additional studies are required to characterize risk factors associated with HAI in companion animals, including the role of the environment. PMID:21119862

  18. Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens isolated from environmental sites in companion animal veterinary hospitals in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Colleen P; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Boerlin, Patrick; Weese, J Scott; Prescott, John F; Janecko, Nicol; Hassard, Lori; McEwen, Scott A

    2010-09-01

    Hospital-based infection control in veterinary medicine is emerging and the role of the environment in hospital-acquired infections (HAI) in veterinary hospitals is largely unknown. This study was initiated to determine the recovery of Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens from the environments of 101 community veterinary hospitals. The proportion of hospitals with positive environmental swabs were: E. coli--92%, Clostridium difficile--58%, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)--9%, CMY-2 producing E. coli--9%, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius--7%, and Salmonella--2%. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., canine parvovirus, and feline calicivirus were not isolated. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates was low. Important potential veterinary and human pathogens were recovered including Canadian epidemic strains MRSA-2 and MRSA-5, and C. difficile ribotype 027. There is an environmental reservoir of pathogens in veterinary hospitals; therefore, additional studies are required to characterize risk factors associated with HAI in companion animals, including the role of the environment.

  19. Evolution of a zoonotic pathogen: investigating prophage diversity in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157 by long-read sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (EHEC) is a zoonotic pathogen known to be potentially lethal in humans. Its main animal reservoir is ruminants, specifically cattle, and yearly outbreaks occur worldwide with the most prevalent serotype being EHEC O157:H7. Most virulence factors of EHEC O157, incl...

  20. Evolution of a zoonotic pathogen: investigating prophage diversity in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 by long-read sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli 0157 is a zoonotic pathogen for which colonisation of cattle and virulence in humans is associated with the expression of multiple horizontally acquired genes, the majority present in active or cryptic prophages. Our understanding of the evolution and phylogeny of E. coli ...

  1. Molecular evidence for zoonotic transmission of an emergent, highly pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni clone in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Fitzgerald, Collette; Stroika, Steven; Zhao, Shaohua; Sippy, Rachel J; Kwan, Patrick; Plummer, Paul J; Han, Jing; Yaeger, Michael J; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those of 123 (9.03%) human C. jejuni isolates (total, 1,361) in the CDC database, among which 56 were associated with sporadic infections and 67 were associated with outbreaks that occurred in multiple states from 2003 to 2010. Most of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, while the sources for most of the sporadic cases were unknown. All clone SA isolates examined, including PFGE-matched human isolates, belong to sequence type 8 (ST-8) by MLST and serotype HS:1,8, further indicating the clonality of the related isolates from different host species. Additionally, C. jejuni clone SA was identified in raw milk, cattle feces, the feces and bile of healthy sheep, and abortion cases of cattle and goats, indicating the broad distribution of this pathogenic clone in ruminants. These results provide strong molecular and epidemiological evidence for zoonotic transmission of this emergent clone from ruminants to humans and indicate that C. jejuni clone SA is an important threat to public health.

  2. Molecular Evidence for Zoonotic Transmission of an Emergent, Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni Clone in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Orhan; Fitzgerald, Collette; Stroika, Steven; Zhao, Shaohua; Sippy, Rachel J.; Kwan, Patrick; Plummer, Paul J.; Han, Jing; Yaeger, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those of 123 (9.03%) human C. jejuni isolates (total, 1,361) in the CDC database, among which 56 were associated with sporadic infections and 67 were associated with outbreaks that occurred in multiple states from 2003 to 2010. Most of the outbreaks were attributed to raw milk, while the sources for most of the sporadic cases were unknown. All clone SA isolates examined, including PFGE-matched human isolates, belong to sequence type 8 (ST-8) by MLST and serotype HS:1,8, further indicating the clonality of the related isolates from different host species. Additionally, C. jejuni clone SA was identified in raw milk, cattle feces, the feces and bile of healthy sheep, and abortion cases of cattle and goats, indicating the broad distribution of this pathogenic clone in ruminants. These results provide strong molecular and epidemiological evidence for zoonotic transmission of this emergent clone from ruminants to humans and indicate that C. jejuni clone SA is an important threat to public health. PMID:22189122

  3. Zoonotic pathogens in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil: Bartonella and Coxiella infections.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Tatiana; Ferreira, Michelle Santos; Guterres, Alexandro; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Gonçalves, Jonathan; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2017-04-01

    Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1.5% (2/131) of rodents. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 4.6% (6/131) of the wild animals, 17.6% of the rodents harbored Bartonella spp. No cases of Rickettsia were identified. Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella vinsonii were the species found on the wild mammals. This report is the first to note C. burnetii, B. doshiae and B. vinsonii natural infections in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil. Our work highlights the potential risk of transmission to humans, since most of the infected specimens belong to generalist species that live near human dwellings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Brucella canis Is an Intracellular Pathogen That Induces a Lower Proinflammatory Response than Smooth Zoonotic Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Altamirano-Silva, Pamela; González-Espinoza, Gabriela; Medina, María-Concepción; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Bouza-Mora, Laura; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Wong, Melissa; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Rojas, Norman; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of dogs and a zoonotic risk. B. canis harbors most of the virulence determinants defined for the genus, but its pathogenic strategy remains unclear since it has not been demonstrated that this natural rough bacterium is an intracellular pathogen. Studies of B. canis outbreaks in kennel facilities indicated that infected dogs displaying clinical signs did not present hematological alterations. A virulent B. canis strain isolated from those outbreaks readily replicated in different organs of mice for a protracted period. However, the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12 in serum were close to background levels. Furthermore, B. canis induced lower levels of gamma interferon, less inflammation of the spleen, and a reduced number of granulomas in the liver in mice than did B. abortus. When the interaction of B. canis with cells was studied ex vivo, two patterns were observed, a predominant scattered cell-associated pattern of nonviable bacteria and an infrequent intracellular replicative pattern of viable bacteria in a perinuclear location. The second pattern, responsible for the increase in intracellular multiplication, was dependent on the type IV secretion system VirB and was seen only if the inoculum used for cell infections was in early exponential phase. Intracellular replicative B. canis followed an intracellular trafficking route undistinguishable from that of B. abortus. Although B. canis induces a lower proinflammatory response and has a stealthier replication cycle, it still displays the pathogenic properties of the genus and the ability to persist in infected organs based on the ability to multiply intracellularly. PMID:26438796

  5. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  6. Transmission of foodborne zoonotic pathogens to riparian areas by grazing sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Sara J.; Gray, Jeffrey T.; Menzies, Paula I.; Hook, Sarah E.; Millman, Suzanne T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if sheep grazing near riparian areas on pasture in Ontario are an important risk factor for the contamination of water with specific foodborne pathogens. Ten Ontario sheep farms were visited weekly for 12 wk during the summer of 2005. Samples of feces, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, and Yersinia enterocolitica, by bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The data was analyzed as repeated measures over time using mixed models. No samples were positive for Salmonella, and no samples were confirmed positive for E. coli O157:H7 after PCR. Levels of Campylobacter were highest in the soil, but did not differ between soil where sheep grazed or camped and roadside soil that had never been grazed (P = 0.85). Levels of Yersinia were highest in water samples and were higher in soil where sheep had access (P = 0.01). The prevalence of positive Campylobacter and Yersinia samples were not associated with locations where sheep spent more time (Campylobacter P = 0.46, Yersinia P = 0.99). There was no effect of stocking density on the prevalence of Campylobacter (P = 0.30), but as the stocking density increased the levels of Yersinia increased (P = 0.04). It was concluded that although sheep transmit Yersinia to their environment, pastured sheep flocks are not major risk factors for the transmission of zoonotic pathogens into water. PMID:19436581

  7. Zebrafish as a useful model for zoonotic Vibrio parahaemolyticus pathogenicity in fish and human.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Dong, Xuehong; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Yonghua; Zu, Yao; Li, Weiming

    2016-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important aquatic zoonotic pathogen worldwide that causes vibriosis in many marine fish, and sepsis, gastroenteritis and wound infection in humans. However, the pathogenesis of different sources of V. parahaemolyticus is not fully understood. Here, we examined the pathogenicity and histopathology of fish (V. parahaemolyticus 1.2164) and human (V. parahaemolyticus 17) strains in a zebrafish (Danio rerio). We found that different infection routes resulted in different mortality in zebrafish. Moreover, death due to V. parahaemolyticus 1.2164 infection occurred quicker than that caused by V. parahaemolyticus 17 infection. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of liver, kidney and intestine sections showed histological lesions in all three organs after infection with either strain. V. parahaemolyticus 1.2164 caused more severe damage than V. parahaemolyticus 17. In particular, V. parahaemolyticus 1.2164 treatment induced more serious hydropic degeneration and venous sinus necrosis in the liver than V. parahaemolyticus 17 treatment. The expression levels of three proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1β (il1β), interferon phi 1 (ifnϕ1) and tumor necrosis factor α (tnfα), as determined by quantitative real-time PCR, were upregulated in all examined tissues of infected fish. Notably, the peak levels of tnfα were significantly higher than those of il1β and ifnϕ1, suggesting, together with pathological results, that tnfα and il1β play an important role in acute sepsis. High amounts of tnfα may be related to acute liver necrosis, while ifnϕ1 may respond to V. parahaemolyticus and play an antibacterial role for chronically infected adult zebrafish. Taken together, our results suggest that the zebrafish model of V. parahaemolyticus infection is useful for studying strain differences in V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia conorii: Two zoonotic pathogens in peridomestic rodents and their ectoparasites in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Harrus, Shimon

    2018-01-01

    Rodents are hosts of numerous pathogenic agents of public health importance globally. Their ability to harbor these pathogens without showing overt clinical signs of disease has epidemiologic consequences. In some rural settings in Nigeria, humans and rodents do not only share feeds and abode, but the latter may end up on the table of the former as a source of protein, thereby increasing the risks of disease transmission. Molecular assays were used to detect and characterize two agents of zoonotic importance, Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. in 194 peridomestic rodents captured in a peri-urban setting in Nigeria, and 32 pools of ectoparasites removed from them, to determine their possible role in the epidemiology of these diseases in this country. Targeting and characterizing the insertion sequence IS1111, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 4 out of 194 (2.1%) rodents comprising 3 out of 121 (2.5%) Rattus norvegicus and 1 out of 48 (2.1%) Rattus rattus screened in this study. Rickettsia spp. DNA was detected in two Rhipicephalus sanginueus sensu lato pools (i.e. RT1 and RT4) using the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and further characterized by amplification and sequence analysis of six genes to determine their identity. The RT1 sample consistently gave 98-100% identity to Rickettsia conorii str. Malish 7 for the various genes and loci studied. However, the identity of RT4 could not be definitively determined due to variable identities to different Rickettsia spp. according to the gene or loci under consideration. Further isolation study to determine if the RT4 characterized is a new variant or a mixture of sequences of different rickettsiae within the pool will be worthwhile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Surveillance for zoonotic and selected pathogens in harbor seals Phoca vitulina from central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greig, Denise J.; Ip, Hon S.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Field, Cara L.; Fleetwood, Michelle; Harvey, James T.; Jang, Spencer; Packham, Andrea; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2014-01-01

    The infection status of harbor seals Phoca vitulina in central California, USA, was evaluated through broad surveillance for pathogens in stranded and wild-caught animals from 2001 to 2008, with most samples collected in 2007 and 2008. Stranded animals from Mendocino County to San Luis Obispo County were sampled at a rehabilitation facility: The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC, n = 175); wild-caught animals were sampled at 2 locations: San Francisco Bay (SF, n = 78) and Tomales Bay (TB, n = 97), that differed in degree of urbanization. Low prevalences of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were detected in the feces of stranded and wild-caught seals. Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were more prevalent in the feces of stranded (58% [78 out of 135] and 76% [102 out of 135]) than wild-caught (42% [45 out of 106] and 66% [68 out of 106]) seals, whereas Vibrio spp. were 16 times more likely to be cultured from the feces of seals from SF than TB or TMMC (p < 0.005). Brucella DNA was detected in 3.4% of dead stranded harbor seals (2 out of 58). Type A influenza was isolated from feces of 1 out of 96 wild-caught seals. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and type A influenza was only detected in the wild-caught harbor seals (post-weaning age classes), whereas antibody titers to Leptospira spp. were detected in stranded and wild-caught seals. No stranded (n = 109) or wild-caught (n = 217) harbor seals had antibodies to phocine distemper virus, although a single low titer to canine distemper virus was detected. These results highlight the role of harbor seals as sentinel species for zoonotic and terrestrial pathogens in the marine environment.

  10. Taking forward a 'One Health' approach for turning the tide against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and other zoonotic pathogens with epidemic potential.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman; Kock, Richard; Muturi, Matthew; Ntoumi, Francine; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Eusebio, Macete; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Ansumana, Rashid; Khan, Mishal; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Cotten, Matthew; Azhar, Esam I; Maeurer, Markus; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Petersen, Eskild

    2016-06-01

    The appearance of novel pathogens of humans with epidemic potential and high mortality rates have threatened global health security for centuries. Over the past few decades new zoonotic infectious diseases of humans caused by pathogens arising from animal reservoirs have included West Nile virus, Yellow fever virus, Ebola virus, Nipah virus, Lassa Fever virus, Hanta virus, Dengue fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, and Zika virus. The recent Ebola Virus Disease epidemic in West Africa and the ongoing Zika Virus outbreak in South America highlight the urgent need for local, regional and international public health systems to be be more coordinated and better prepared. The One Health concept focuses on the relationship and interconnectedness between Humans, Animals and the Environment, and recognizes that the health and wellbeing of humans is intimately connected to the health of animals and their environment (and vice versa). Critical to the establishment of a One Health platform is the creation of a multidisciplinary team with a range of expertise including public health officers, physicians, veterinarians, animal husbandry specialists, agriculturalists, ecologists, vector biologists, viral phylogeneticists, and researchers to co-operate, collaborate to learn more about zoonotic spread between animals, humans and the environment and to monitor, respond to and prevent major outbreaks. We discuss the unique opportunities for Middle Eastern and African stakeholders to take leadership in building equitable and effective partnerships with all stakeholders involved in human and health systems to take forward a 'One Health' approach to control such zoonotic pathogens with epidemic potential. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid Evolution of Virulence and Drug Resistance in the Emerging Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Matthew T. G.; Hauser, Heidi; Sanders, Mandy; Ngo, Thi Hoa; Cherevach, Inna; Cronin, Ann; Goodhead, Ian; Mungall, Karen; Quail, Michael A.; Price, Claire; Rabbinowitsch, Ester; Sharp, Sarah; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Chieu, Tran Bich; Thi Hoang Mai, Nguyen; Diep, To Song; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Kehoe, Michael; Leigh, James A.; Ward, Philip N.; Dowson, Christopher G.; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Chanter, Neil; Iversen, Pernille; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Slater, Josh D.; Smith, Hilde E.; Spratt, Brian G.; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun; Bentley, Stephen; Barrell, Barclay G.; Schultsz, Constance; Maskell, Duncan J.; Parkhill, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that infects pigs and can occasionally cause serious infections in humans. S. suis infections occur sporadically in human Europe and North America, but a recent major outbreak has been described in China with high levels of mortality. The mechanisms of S. suis pathogenesis in humans and pigs are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The sequencing of whole genomes of S. suis isolates provides opportunities to investigate the genetic basis of infection. Here we describe whole genome sequences of three S. suis strains from the same lineage: one from European pigs, and two from human cases from China and Vietnam. Comparative genomic analysis was used to investigate the variability of these strains. S. suis is phylogenetically distinct from other Streptococcus species for which genome sequences are currently available. Accordingly, ∼40% of the ∼2 Mb genome is unique in comparison to other Streptococcus species. Finer genomic comparisons within the species showed a high level of sequence conservation; virtually all of the genome is common to the S. suis strains. The only exceptions are three ∼90 kb regions, present in the two isolates from humans, composed of integrative conjugative elements and transposons. Carried in these regions are coding sequences associated with drug resistance. In addition, small-scale sequence variation has generated pseudogenes in putative virulence and colonization factors. Conclusions/Significance The genomic inventories of genetically related S. suis strains, isolated from distinct hosts and diseases, exhibit high levels of conservation. However, the genomes provide evidence that horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the evolution of drug resistance. PMID:19603075

  12. Bat–man disease transmission: zoonotic pathogens from wildlife reservoirs to human populations

    PubMed Central

    Allocati, N; Petrucci, A G; Di Giovanni, P; Masulli, M; Di Ilio, C; De Laurenzi, V

    2016-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts and sources of infection of several microorganisms, many of which cause severe human diseases. Because of contact between bats and other animals, including humans, the possibility exists for additional interspecies transmissions and resulting disease outbreaks. The purpose of this article is to supply an overview on the main pathogens isolated from bats that have the potential to cause disease in humans. PMID:27551536

  13. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  14. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Barbara A.; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E.; Drake, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States. PMID:26038558

  15. A Review of the Current Status of Relevant Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Swine (Sus scrofa) Populations: Changes Modulating the Risk of Transmission to Humans.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, F

    2017-02-01

    Many wild swine populations in different parts of the World have experienced an unprecedented demographic explosion that may result in increased exposure of humans to wild swine zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between humans and wild swine leading to pathogen transmission could come from different ways, being hunters and game professionals the most exposed to acquiring infections from wild swine. However, increasing human settlements in semi-natural areas, outdoor activities, socio-economic changes and food habits may increase the rate of exposure to wild swine zoonotic pathogens and to potentially emerging pathogens from wild swine. Frequent and increasing contact rate between humans and wild swine points to an increasing chance of zoonotic pathogens arising from wild swine to be transmitted to humans. Whether this frequent contact could lead to new zoonotic pathogens emerging from wild swine to cause human epidemics or emerging disease outbreaks is difficult to predict, and assessment should be based on thorough epidemiologic surveillance. Additionally, several gaps in knowledge on wild swine global population dynamics trends and wild swine-zoonotic pathogen interactions should be addressed to correctly assess the potential role of wild swine in the emergence of diseases in humans. In this work, viruses such as hepatitis E virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Influenza virus and Nipah virus, and bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. and Leptospira spp. have been identified as the most prone to be transmitted from wild swine to humans on the basis of geographic spread in wild swine populations worldwide, pathogen circulation rates in wild swine populations, wild swine population trends in endemic areas, susceptibility of humans to infection, transmissibility from wild swine to humans and existing evidence of wild swine-human transmission events. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Tetracycline Selective Pressure and Homologous Recombination Shape the Evolution of Chlamydia suis: A Recently Identified Zoonotic Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2016-09-02

    Species closely related to the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) have recently been found to cause zoonotic infections, posing a public health threat especially in the case of tetracycline resistant Chlamydia suis (Cs) strains. These strains acquired a tet(C)-containing cassette via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Genomes of 11 Cs strains from various tissues were sequenced to reconstruct evolutionary pathway(s) for tet(C) HGT. Cs had the highest recombination rate of Chlamydia species studied to date. Admixture occurred among Cs strains and with Chlamydia muridarum but not with Ct Although in vitro tet(C) cassette exchange with Ct has been documented, in vivo evidence may require examining human samples from Ct and Cs co-infected sites. Molecular-clock dating indicated that ancestral clades of resistant Cs strains predated the 1947 discovery of tetracycline, which was subsequently used in animal feed. The cassette likely spread throughout Cs strains by homologous recombination after acquisition from an external source, and our analysis suggests Betaproteobacteria as the origin. Selective pressure from tetracycline may be responsible for recent bottlenecks in Cs populations. Since tetracycline is an important antibiotic for treating Ct, zoonotic infections at mutual sites of infection indicate the possibility for cassette transfer and major public health repercussions. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Food-borne pathogens of animal origin-diagnosis, prevention, control and their zoonotic significance: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, K; Rajagunalan, S; Chakraborty, S; Verma, A K; Kumar, A; Tiwari, R; Kapoor, S

    2013-10-15

    The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance

  18. Glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne viruses and agricultural zoonotic pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group or genus, for example viruses or Cryptosporidium, requiring multiple methods if the sampling program is targeting more than on...

  19. A meta-analysis suggesting that the relationship between biodiversity and risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission is idiosyncratic.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Padgett, Kerry A; Jones, James Holland

    2013-05-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are significant burdens on global public health. Because they are transmitted to humans from non-human animals, the transmission dynamics of zoonoses are necessarily influenced by the ecology of their animal hosts and vectors. The 'dilution effect' proposes that increased species diversity reduces disease risk, suggesting that conservation and public health initiatives can work synergistically to improve human health and wildlife biodiversity. However, the meta-analysis that we present here indicates a weak and highly heterogeneous relationship between host biodiversity and disease. Our results suggest that disease risk is more likely a local phenomenon that relies on the specific composition of reservoir hosts and vectors, and their ecology, rather than patterns of species biodiversity. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Fecal Indicators and Zoonotic Pathogens in Household Drinking Water Taps Fed from Rainwater Tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hodgers, L.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Toze, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal

  1. Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal

  2. Common occurrence of zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium meleagridis in broiler chickens and turkeys in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Djamel; Khelef, Djamel; Goucem, Rachid; Adjou, Karim T; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-09-23

    Only a small number of birds have been identified by molecular techniques as having Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the third most important species for human cryptosporidiosis. In this study, using PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, we examined the ileum of 90 dead chickens from 23 farms and 57 dead turkeys from 16 farms in Algeria for Cryptosporidium spp. C. meleagridis-positive specimens were subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Cryptosporidium infection rates were 34% and 44% in chickens and turkeys, respectively, with all positive turkeys (25) and most positive chickens (26/31) having C. meleagridis. All C. meleagridis specimens belonged to a new subtype family. The frequent occurrence of C. meleagridis in chickens and turkeys illustrates the potential for zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Algeria. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Screening food-borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with livestock practices in the Sumapaz region, Cundinamarca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Nelson E; Abril, Diego A; Valencia, Paola; Khandige, Surabhi; Soto, Carlos Yesid; Moreno-Melo, Vilma

    2017-04-01

    Hazardous practices regarding antibiotics misuse, unsanitary milking procedures, and the commercial sales of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products are currently being practiced by livestock farmers in the Sumapaz region (Colombia). The purpose of this study was to screen for food-borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with local livestock practices. We evaluated 1098 cows from 46 livestock farms in the Sumapaz region that were selected by random. Of the total population of cattle, 962 animals (88%) were tested for bovine TB using a caudal-fold tuberculin test and 546 (50%) for brucellosis by a competitive ELISA. In the population tested, 23 cows were positive for Brucella sp. representing a 4.2% seroprevalence and no cases of bovine tuberculosis were found. In addition, food-borne contamination with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed together with antibiotic susceptibility for ten different antibiotics in milk samples from 16 livestock farms. We found that 12 of the farms (75%) were contaminated with these food-borne pathogens. Noteworthy, all of the isolated pathogenic strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics, primarily to oxytetracycline and erythromycin. Our findings suggest that livestock products could be a source of exposure to Brucella and multidrug-resistant E. coli and S. aureus strains as a result of unhygienic livestock practices in the Sumapaz region. Training in good farming practices is the key to improving safety in food production.

  4. Streptococcus suis: a new emerging or an old neglected zoonotic pathogen?

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Marcelo; Xu, Jianguo; Calzas, Cynthia; Segura, Mariela

    2010-03-01

    Infections caused by Streptococcus suis are considered a global and an economical problem in the swine industry. Moreover, S. suis is an agent of zoonosis that afflicts people in close contact with infected pigs or pork-derived products. Although sporadic cases of S. suis infections in humans (mainly meningitis) have been reported during the last 40 years, a large outbreak due to this pathogen emerged in the summer of 2005 in China. The severity of the infection in humans during the outbreak, such as a shorter incubation time, more rapid disease progression and higher rate of mortality, attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community and the general press. In fact, the number of publications on S. suis (including the number of reported human cases) has significantly increased during recent years. In this article we critically review the present knowledge on S. suis infection in humans, we discuss the hypotheses that may explain the 2005 outbreak and the repercussion of such an episode on the scientific community.

  5. Risk for interspecies transmission of zoonotic pathogens during poultry processing and pork production in Peru: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Carnero, A M; Kitayama, K; Diaz, D A; Garvich, M; Angulo, N; Cama, V A; Gilman, R H; Bayer, A M

    2018-03-30

    Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as "mixing vessels" for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains. Thus, understanding practices that lead to interspecies interactions is crucial. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate poultry processing practices in formal and informal markets and the use of leftovers by swine farmers in three Peruvian cities: Lima (capital), Tumbes (coastal) and Tarapoto (jungle). We conducted 80 direct observations at formal and informal markets and interviewed 15 swine farmers. Processors slaughter and pluck chickens and vendors and/or processors eviscerate chickens. Food safety and hygiene practices were suboptimal or absent, although some heterogeneity was observed between cities and chicken vendors versus processors. Both vendors (76%) and processors (100%) sold the chicken viscera leftovers to swine farmers, representing the main source of chicken viscera for swine farms (53%). Swine farmers fed the chicken viscera to their swine. Chicken viscera cooking times varied widely and were insufficient in some cases. Non-abattoired poultry leads to the sale of poultry leftovers to small-scale swine farms, resulting in indirect but frequent interspecies contacts that can lead to interspecies transmission of bacterial pathogens or the reassortment of influenza A viruses. These interactions are exacerbated by suboptimal safety and hygiene conditions. People involved in these activities constitute an at-risk population who could play a central role in preventing the transmission of pathogens between species. Educational

  6. Glass Wool Filters for Concentrating Waterborne Viruses and Agricultural Zoonotic Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Hana T.; Gonnering, Jordan C.; Berg, Ryan K.; Spencer, Susan K.; Jokela, William E.; Pearce, John M.; Borchardt, Jackson S.; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium1, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses2. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus. PMID:22415031

  7. Glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne viruses and agricultural zoonotic pathogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millen, Hana T.; Gonnering, Jordan C.; Berg, Ryan K.; Spencer, Susan K.; Jokela, William E.; Pearce, John M.; Borchardt, Jackson S.; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium1, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses2. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus.

  8. Ticks are more suitable than red foxes for monitoring zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Da Rold, Graziana; Ravagnan, Silvia; Soppelsa, Fabio; Porcellato, Elena; Soppelsa, Mauro; Obber, Federica; Citterio, Carlo Vittorio; Carlin, Sara; Danesi, Patrizia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia

    2018-03-20

    Northeastern Italy is a hotspot for several tick-borne pathogens, transmitted to animals and humans mainly by Ixodes ricinus. Here we compare the results of molecular monitoring of ticks and zoonotic TBPs over a six-year period, with the monitoring of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in an endemic area. In the period 2011-2016, 2,578 ticks were collected in 38 sites of 20 municipalities of Belluno Province. Individual adults (264), pooled larvae (n = 330) and nymphs (n = 1984) were screened for tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" by specific SYBR green real-time PCR assays and sequencing. The spleens of 97 foxes, culled in the period 2015-2017 during sport hunting or population control programs, were also screened. Overall, nine different pathogens were found in I. ricinus nymph and adult ticks: Rickettsia helvetica (3.69%); R. monacensis (0.49%); four species of the B. burgdorferi (s.l.) complex [B. afzelii (1.51%); B. burgdorferi (s.s.) (1.25%); B. garinii (0.18%); and B. valaisiana (0.18%)]; A. phagocytophilum (3.29%); "Candidatus N. mikurensis" (1.73%); and Babesia venatorum (0.04%). Larvae were collected and screened in the first year only and two pools (0.6%) were positive for R. helvetica. Tick-borne encephalitis virus was not found in ticks although human cases do occur in the area. The rate of infection in ticks varied widely according to tick developmental stage, site and year of collection. As expected, adults were the most infected, with 27.6% harboring at least one pathogen compared to 7.3% of nymphs. Pathogens with a minimum infection rate above 1% were recorded every year. None of the pathogens found in ticks were detectable in the foxes, 52 (54%) of which were instead positive for Babesia cf. microti (also referred to as Babesia microti-like, "Theileria annae", "Babesia annae" and "Babesia vulpes"). The results show that foxes

  9. Lack of direct effects of agrochemicals on zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Senkbeil, Jacob K; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-11-01

    Agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. No significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on FIB were indirect.

  10. Lack of Direct Effects of Agrochemicals on Zoonotic Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Zachery R.; Senkbeil, Jacob K.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    Agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. No significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on FIB were indirect. PMID:22961900

  11. Infections and Coinfections of Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks by Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens in Western Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Lommano, Elena; Bertaiola, Luce; Dupasquier, Christèle

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite. PMID:22522688

  12. An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

    2014-08-01

    A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Transmission of Bacterial Zoonotic Pathogens between Pets and Humans: The Role of Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Narrod, Clare; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-01-01

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with dry pet food and treats raised the level of concern for these products as vehicle of pathogen exposure for both pets and their owners. The need to characterize the microbiological and risk profiles of this class of products is currently not supported by sufficient specific data. This systematic review summarizes existing data on the main variables needed to support an ingredients-to-consumer quantitative risk model to (1) describe the microbial ecology of bacterial pathogens in the dry pet food production chain, (2) estimate pet exposure to pathogens through dry food consumption, and (3) assess human exposure and illness incidence due to contact with pet food and pets in the household. Risk models populated with the data here summarized will provide a tool to quantitatively address the emerging public health concerns associated with pet food and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Results of such models can provide a basis for improvements in production processes, risk communication to consumers, and regulatory action.

  14. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Zoonotic and Veterinary Pathogens in Ticks from Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Feng; Song, Mingxin; Liu, Huanhuan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuchao; Wang, Zedong; Ma, Hongyu; Li, Zhongyu; Zeng, Zheng; Qian, Jun; Liu, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are considered as emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals in China. In this study, Ixodes persulcatus (n = 1699), Haemaphysalis concinna (n = 412), Haemaphysalis longicornis (n = 390), Dermacentor nuttalli (n = 253), and Dermacentor silvarum (n = 204) ticks were collected by flagging from northeastern China, and detected for infection with Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia, and Hepatozoon spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays and sequencing analysis. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in all tick species, i.e., I. persulcatus (9.4%), H. longicornis (1.9%), H. concinna (6.5%), D. nuttalli (1.7%), and D. silvarum (2.3%); Anaplasma bovis was detected in H. longicornis (0.3%) and H. concinna (0.2%); Ehrlichia muris was detected in I. persulcatus (2.5%) and H. concinna (0.2%); Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was only detected in I. persulcatus (0.4%). The Ehrlichia variant (GenBank access number KU921424), closely related to Ehrlichia ewingii, was found in H. longicornis (0.8%) and H. concinna (0.2%). I. persulcatus was infected with Babesia venatorum (1.2%), Babesia microti (0.6%), and Babesia divergens (0.6%). Additionally, four Babesia sequence variants (GenBank access numbers 862303–862306) were detected in I. persulcatus, H. longicornis, and H. concinna, which belonged to the clusters formed by the parasites of dogs, sheep, and cattle (B. gibsoni, B. motasi, and B. crassa). Two Hepatozoon spp. (GenBank access numbers KX016028 and KX016029) associated with hepatozoonosis in Japanese martens were found in the collected ticks (0.1–3.1%). These findings showed the genetic variability of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia, and Hepatozoon spp. circulating in ticks in northeastern China, highlighting the necessity for further research of these tick-associated pathogens and their role in human and animal diseases. PMID:27965644

  15. Contamination with bacterial zoonotic pathogen genes in U.S. streams influenced by varying types of animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sheridan K; Duris, Joseph W; Kolpin, Dana W; Focazio, Michael J; Meyer, Michael T; Johnson, Heather E; Oster, Ryan J; Foreman, William T

    2016-09-01

    Animal waste, stream water, and streambed sediment from 19 small (<32km(2)) watersheds in 12U.S. states having either no major animal agriculture (control, n=4), or predominantly beef (n=4), dairy (n=3), swine (n=5), or poultry (n=3) were tested for: 1) cholesterol, coprostanol, estrone, and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, and 2) shiga-toxin producing and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and pathogenic and vancomycin-resistant enterococci by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on enrichments, and/or direct quantitative PCR. Pathogen genes were most frequently detected in dairy wastes, followed by beef, swine and poultry wastes in that order; there was only one detection of an animal-source-specific pathogen gene (stx1) in any water or sediment sample in any control watershed. Post-rainfall pathogen gene numbers in stream water were significantly correlated with FIB, cholesterol and coprostanol concentrations, and were most highly correlated in dairy watershed samples collected from 3 different states. Although collected across multiple states and ecoregions, animal-waste gene profiles were distinctive via discriminant analysis. Stream water gene profiles could also be discriminated by the watershed animal type. Although pathogen genes were not abundant in stream water or streambed samples, PCR on enrichments indicated that many genes were from viable organisms, including several (shiga-toxin producing or enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, vancomycin-resistant enterococci) that could potentially affect either human or animal health. Pathogen gene numbers and types in stream water samples were influenced most by animal type, by local factors such as whether animals had stream access, and by the amount of local rainfall, and not by studied watershed soil or physical characteristics. Our results indicated that stream water in small agricultural U.S. watersheds was susceptible to pathogen gene inputs under typical agricultural

  16. Investigation for zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in Duhok region of Northern Iraq by molecular methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Kamiran Abdulrahman; Arabacı, Muhammed; Önalan, Şükrü

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in Duhok region of the Northern Iraq. Carp is the main fish species cultured in the Duhok region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 20 carp farms in the Duhok Region of the Northern Iraq. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney tissue samples and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Than head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled. The total bacterial DNA extraction from the pooled each 20 head kidney tissue samples and pooled each 20 intestinal tissue samples. Primers for pathogens were originally designed from 16S Ribosomal gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples by absent / present analysis in the RT-PCR. After RT-PCR, Capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for the confirmation of the size of amplicon which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, one sample was positive in respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, from intestine and one carp farm was positive in respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from intestine and two carp farms were positive in respect to Streptococcus iniae. Totally 17 of 20 carp farms were negative in respect to the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion the zoonotic bacteria were very low (15 %) in carp farms from the Duhok Region in the Northern Iraq. Only in one Carp farms, both Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens were positive. Also Streptococcus inia were positive in two carp farms.

  17. Investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region by molecular methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Azad Saber; Önalan, Şükrü; Arabacı, Muhammed

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Carp is the main fish species cultured in Erbil region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 25 carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Then head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled separately from each carp farm. Total bacterial DNA had been extracted from the 25 pooled head kidney and 25 intestinal tissue samples. The pathogen Primers were originally designed from 16S RNA gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples with absent/present analysis by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for confirmation of amplicon size which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, thirteen carp farms were positive in the respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, eight carp farms were positive from head kidney and six carp farms were positive from the intestine, only one carp farm was positive from both head kidney and the intestine tissue samples. In the respect to Streptococcus iniae, four carp farms were positive from head kidney and two carp farms were positive from the intestine. Only one carp farm was positive in the respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from the intestine. Totally, 9 of 25 carp farms were cleared (negative) the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion, the zoonotic bacteria were high (64 %) in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region.

  18. Contamination with bacterial zoonotic pathogen genes in U.S. streams influenced by varying types of animal agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.; Meyer, Michael T.; Johnson, Heather E.; Oster, Ryan J.; Foreman, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Animal waste, stream water, and streambed sediment from 19 small (< 32 km2) watersheds in 12 U.S. states having either no major animal agriculture (control, n = 4), or predominantly beef (n = 4), dairy (n = 3), swine (n = 5), or poultry (n = 3) were tested for: 1) cholesterol, coprostanol, estrone, and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, and 2) shiga-toxin producing and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and pathogenic and vancomycin-resistant enterococci by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on enrichments, and/or direct quantitative PCR. Pathogen genes were most frequently detected in dairy wastes, followed by beef, swine and poultry wastes in that order; there was only one detection of an animal-source-specific pathogen gene (stx1) in any water or sediment sample in any control watershed. Post-rainfall pathogen gene numbers in stream water were significantly correlated with FIB, cholesterol and coprostanol concentrations, and were most highly correlated in dairy watershed samples collected from 3 different states. Although collected across multiple states and ecoregions, animal-waste gene profiles were distinctive via discriminant analysis. Stream water gene profiles could also be discriminated by the watershed animal type. Although pathogen genes were not abundant in stream water or streambed samples, PCR on enrichments indicated that many genes were from viable organisms, including several (shiga-toxin producing or enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, vancomycin-resistant enterococci) that could potentially affect either human or animal health. Pathogen gene numbers and types in stream water samples were influenced most by animal type, by local factors such as whether animals had stream access, and by the amount of local rainfall, and not by studied watershed soil or physical characteristics. Our results indicated that stream water in small agricultural U.S. watersheds was susceptible to pathogen gene inputs under

  19. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

  20. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  1. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Cryptosporidium Species/Genotypes and Relationships with Other Zoonotic Pathogens in Surface Water from Mixed-Use Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Graham; Ruecker, Norma J.; Neumann, Norman F.; Gannon, Victor P. J.; Jokinen, Cassandra; Sunohara, Mark; Topp, Edward; Pintar, Katarina D. M.; Edge, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 690 raw surface water samples were collected during a 6-year period from multiple watersheds in the South Nation River basin, Ontario, Canada. Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples were enumerated, sequenced, and genotyped by detailed phylogenetic analysis. The resulting species and genotypes were assigned to broad, known host and human infection risk classes. Wildlife/unknown, livestock, avian, and human host classes occurred in 21, 13, 3, and <1% of sampled surface waters, respectively. Cryptosporidium andersoni was the most commonly detected livestock species, while muskrat I and II genotypes were the most dominant wildlife genotypes. The presence of Giardia spp., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated in all water samples. The greatest significant odds ratios (odds of pathogen presence when host class is present/odds of pathogen presence when host class is absent) for Giardia spp., Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. in water were associated, respectively, with livestock (odds ratio of 3.1), avian (4.3), and livestock (9.3) host classes. Classification and regression tree analyses (CART) were used to group generalized host and human infection risk classes on the basis of a broad range of environmental and land use variables while tracking cooccurrence of zoonotic pathogens in these groupings. The occurrence of livestock-associated Cryptosporidium was most strongly related to agricultural water pollution in the fall (conditions also associated with elevated odds ratios of other zoonotic pathogens occurring in water in relation to all sampling conditions), whereas wildlife/unknown sources of Cryptosporidium were geospatially associated with smaller watercourses where urban/rural development was relatively lower. Conditions that support wildlife may not necessarily increase overall human infection risks associated with Cryptosporidium since most Cryptosporidium genotypes classed as wildlife in this study (e

  2. Streptococcus suis, an important pig pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent—an update on the worldwide distribution based on serotyping and sequence typing

    PubMed Central

    Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Auger, Jean-Philippe; Xu, Jianguo; Segura, Mariela; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen causing economic problems in the pig industry. Moreover, it is a zoonotic agent causing severe infections to people in close contact with infected pigs or pork-derived products. Although considered sporadic in the past, human S. suis infections have been reported during the last 45 years, with two large outbreaks recorded in China. In fact, the number of reported human cases has significantly increased in recent years. In this review, we present the worldwide distribution of serotypes and sequence types (STs), as determined by multilocus sequence typing, for pigs (between 2002 and 2013) and humans (between 1968 and 2013). The methods employed for S. suis identification and typing, the current epidemiological knowledge regarding serotypes and STs and the zoonotic potential of S. suis are discussed. Increased awareness of S. suis in both human and veterinary diagnostic laboratories and further establishment of typing methods will contribute to our knowledge of this pathogen, especially in regions where complete and/or recent data is lacking. More research is required to understand differences in virulence that occur among S. suis strains and if these differences can be associated with specific serotypes or STs. PMID:26038745

  3. Integrated cluster- and case-based surveillance for detecting stage III zoonotic pathogens: an example of Nipah virus surveillance in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Naser, A M; Hossain, M J; Sazzad, H M S; Homaira, N; Gurley, E S; Podder, G; Afroj, S; Banu, S; Rollin, P E; Daszak, P; Ahmed, B-N; Rahman, M; Luby, S P

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the utility of cluster- and case-based surveillance established in government hospitals in Bangladesh to detect Nipah virus, a stage III zoonotic pathogen. Physicians listed meningo-encephalitis cases in the 10 surveillance hospitals and identified a cluster when ⩾2 cases who lived within 30 min walking distance of one another developed symptoms within 3 weeks of each other. Physicians collected blood samples from the clustered cases. As part of case-based surveillance, blood was collected from all listed meningo-encephalitis cases in three hospitals during the Nipah season (January-March). An investigation team visited clustered cases' communities to collect epidemiological information and blood from the living cases. We tested serum using Nipah-specific IgM ELISA. Up to September 2011, in 5887 listed cases, we identified 62 clusters comprising 176 encephalitis cases. We collected blood from 127 of these cases. In 10 clusters, we identified a total of 62 Nipah cases: 18 laboratory-confirmed and 34 probable. We identified person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in four clusters. From case-based surveillance, we identified 23 (4%) Nipah cases. Faced with thousands of encephalitis cases, integrated cluster surveillance allows targeted deployment of investigative resources to detect outbreaks by stage III zoonotic pathogens in resource-limited settings.

  4. Natural Reassortants of Potentially Zoonotic Avian Influenza Viruses H5N1 and H9N2 from Egypt Display Distinct Pathogenic Phenotypes in Experimentally Infected Chickens and Ferrets.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Ulrich, Reiner; Kasbohm, Elisa; Eng, Christine L P; Hoffmann, Donata; Grund, Christian; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C

    2017-12-01

    . Here, the principal compatibility of the two subtypes is shown by forcing the reassortment between copassaged H5N1 und H9N2 viruses in embryonated chicken eggs. The resulting reassortant viruses displayed a wide range of pathogenicity including attenuated phenotypes in chickens, but did not show enhanced zoonotic propensities in the ferret model. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Natural Reassortants of Potentially Zoonotic Avian Influenza Viruses H5N1 and H9N2 from Egypt Display Distinct Pathogenic Phenotypes in Experimentally Infected Chickens and Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Mahmoud M.; Ulrich, Reiner; Kasbohm, Elisa; Eng, Christine L. P.; Hoffmann, Donata; Grund, Christian; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    reported. Here, the principal compatibility of the two subtypes is shown by forcing the reassortment between copassaged H5N1 und H9N2 viruses in embryonated chicken eggs. The resulting reassortant viruses displayed a wide range of pathogenicity including attenuated phenotypes in chickens, but did not show enhanced zoonotic propensities in the ferret model. PMID:28931674

  6. A Survey of Zoonotic Pathogens Carried by Non-Indigenous Rodents at the Interface of the Wet Tropics of North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chakma, S; Picard, J; Duffy, R; Constantinoiu, C; Gummow, B

    2017-02-01

    In 1964, Brucella was isolated from rodents trapped in Wooroonooran National Park (WNP), in Northern Queensland, Australia. Genotyping of bacterial isolates in 2008 determined that they were a novel Brucella species. This study attempted to reisolate this species of Brucella from rodents living in the boundary area adjacent to WNP and to establish which endo- and ecto-parasites and bacterial agents were being carried by non-indigenous rodents at this interface. Seventy non-indigenous rodents were trapped [Mus musculus (52), Rattus rattus (17) and Rattus norvegicus (1)], euthanized and sampled on four properties adjacent to the WNP in July 2012. Organ pools were screened by culture for Salmonella, Leptospira and Brucella species, real-time PCR for Coxiella burnetii and conventional PCR for Leptospira. Collected ecto- and endo-parasites were identified using morphological criteria. The percentage of rodents carrying pathogens were Leptospira (40%), Salmonella choleraesuis ssp. arizonae (14.29%), ectoparasites (21.42%) and endoparasites (87%). Brucella and C. burnetii were not identified, and it was concluded that their prevalences were below 12%. Two rodent-specific helminthic species, namely Syphacia obvelata (2.86%) and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (85.71%), were identified. The most prevalent ectoparasites belonged to Laelaps spp. (41.17%) followed by Polyplax spp. (23.53%), Hoplopleura spp. (17.65%), Ixodes holocyclus (17.64%) and Stephanocircus harrisoni (5.88%), respectively. These ectoparasites, except S. harrisoni, are known to transmit zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. from rat to rat and could be transmitted to humans by other arthropods that bite humans. The high prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira species is of significant public health concern. This is the first known study of zoonotic agents carried by non-indigenous rodents living in the Australian wet-tropical forest interface. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Review of Nonfoodborne Zoonotic and Potentially Zoonotic Poultry Diseases.

    PubMed

    Agunos, Agnes; Pierson, F William; Lungu, Bwalya; Dunn, Patricia A; Tablante, Nathaniel

    2016-09-01

    significant public health consequences; however, epidemiologic reports have only documented severe human cases clustered in Asia and not in North America. In contrast, avian Chlamydia and MRSA reports clustered mainly in Europe and less so in North America and other regions. Knowledge gaps in other zoonoses or other agents were identified, including potential direct (i.e., nonmosquito-borne) transmission of WNV from flocks to poultry workers, the public health and clinical significance of poultry-derived (livestock-associated) MRSA, the zoonotic significance of other viruses, and the role of poultry allergens in the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases of poultry workers. Across all pathogens reviewed, the use of personal protective equipment was commonly cited as the most important preventive measure to reduce the zoonotic spread of these diseases and the use of biosecurity measures to reduce horizontal transmission in flock populations. The studies also emphasized the need for flock monitoring and an integrated approach to prevention (i.e., veterinary-public health coordination with regard to diagnosis, and knowledge translation and education in the general population) to reduce zoonotic transmission.

  8. Evaluation of Bovine Feces-Associated Microbial Source Tracking Markers and Their Correlations with Fecal Indicators and Zoonotic Pathogens in a Brisbane, Australia, Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Sritharan, T.; Palmer, A.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Toze, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the host specificity and host sensitivity of two bovine feces-associated bacterial (BacCow-UCD and cowM3) and one viral [bovine adenovirus (B-AVs)] microbial source tracking (MST) markers by screening 130 fecal and wastewater samples from 10 target and nontarget host groups in southeast Queensland, Australia. In addition, 36 water samples were collected from a reservoir and tested for the occurrence of all three bovine feces-associated markers along with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, and Salmonella spp. The overall host specificity values of the BacCow-UCD, cowM3, and B-AVs markers to differentiate between bovine and other nontarget host groups were 0.66, 0.88, and 1.00, respectively (maximum value of 1.00). The overall host sensitivity values of these markers, however, in composite bovine wastewater and individual bovine fecal DNA samples were 0.93, 0.90, and 0.60, respectively (maximum value of 1.00). Among the 36 water samples tested, 56%, 22%, and 6% samples were PCR positive for the BacCow-UCD, cowM3, and B-AVs markers, respectively. Among the 36 samples tested, 50% and 14% samples were PCR positive for the Campylobacter 16S rRNA and E. coli O157 rfbE genes, respectively. Based on the results, we recommend that multiple bovine feces-associated markers be used if possible for bovine fecal pollution tracking. Nonetheless, the presence of the multiple bovine feces-associated markers along with the presence of potential zoonotic pathogens indicates bovine fecal pollution in the reservoir water samples. Further research is required to understand the decay rates of these markers in relation to FIB and zoonotic pathogens. PMID:23417003

  9. Emerging highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses in France during winter 2015/16: phylogenetic analyses and markers for zoonotic potential

    PubMed Central

    Briand, François-Xavier; Schmitz, Audrey; Ogor, Katell; Le Prioux, Aurélie; Guillou-Cloarec, Cécile; Guillemoto, Carole; Allée, Chantal; Le Bras, Marie-Odile; Hirchaud, Edouard; Quenault, Hélène; Touzain, Fabrice; Cherbonnel-Pansart, Martine; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Courtillon, Céline; Gares, Hélène; Daniel, Patrick; Fediaevsky, Alexandre; Massin, Pascale; Blanchard, Yannick; Eterradossi, Nicolas; van der Werf, Sylvie; Jestin, Véronique; Niqueux, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Several new highly pathogenic (HP) H5 avian influenza virus (AIV) have been detected in poultry farms from south-western France since November 2015, among which an HP H5N1. The zoonotic potential and origin of these AIVs immediately became matters of concern. One virus of each subtype H5N1 (150169a), H5N2 (150233) and H5N9 (150236) was characterised. All proved highly pathogenic for poultry as demonstrated molecularly by the presence of a polybasic cleavage site in their HA protein – with a sequence (HQRRKR/GLF) previously unknown among avian H5 HPAI viruses – or experimentally by the in vivo demonstration of an intravenous pathogenicity index of 2.9 for the H5N1 HP isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on the full genomes obtained by NGS confirmed that the eight viral segments of the three isolates were all part of avian Eurasian phylogenetic lineage but differed from the Gs/Gd/1/96-like lineage. The study of the genetic characteristics at specific amino acid positions relevant for modulating the adaptation to and the virulence for mammals showed that presently, these viruses possess most molecular features characteristic of AIV and lack some major characteristics required for efficient respiratory transmission to or between humans. The three isolates are therefore predicted to have no significant pandemic potential. PMID:28277218

  10. Emerging highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses in France during winter 2015/16: phylogenetic analyses and markers for zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Briand, François-Xavier; Schmitz, Audrey; Ogor, Katell; Le Prioux, Aurélie; Guillou-Cloarec, Cécile; Guillemoto, Carole; Allée, Chantal; Le Bras, Marie-Odile; Hirchaud, Edouard; Quenault, Hélène; Touzain, Fabrice; Cherbonnel-Pansart, Martine; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Courtillon, Céline; Gares, Hélène; Daniel, Patrick; Fediaevsky, Alexandre; Massin, Pascale; Blanchard, Yannick; Eterradossi, Nicolas; van der Werf, Sylvie; Jestin, Véronique; Niqueux, Eric

    2017-03-02

    Several new highly pathogenic (HP) H5 avian influenza virus (AIV) have been detected in poultry farms from south-western France since November 2015, among which an HP H5N1. The zoonotic potential and origin of these AIVs immediately became matters of concern. One virus of each subtype H5N1 (150169a), H5N2 (150233) and H5N9 (150236) was characterised. All proved highly pathogenic for poultry as demonstrated molecularly by the presence of a polybasic cleavage site in their HA protein - with a sequence (HQRRKR/GLF) previously unknown among avian H5 HPAI viruses - or experimentally by the in vivo demonstration of an intravenous pathogenicity index of 2.9 for the H5N1 HP isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on the full genomes obtained by NGS confirmed that the eight viral segments of the three isolates were all part of avian Eurasian phylogenetic lineage but differed from the Gs/Gd/1/96-like lineage. The study of the genetic characteristics at specific amino acid positions relevant for modulating the adaptation to and the virulence for mammals showed that presently, these viruses possess most molecular features characteristic of AIV and lack some major characteristics required for efficient respiratory transmission to or between humans. The three isolates are therefore predicted to have no significant pandemic potential. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  11. Testing of human specimens for the presence of highly pathogenic zoonotic avian influenza virus A(H5N1) in Poland in 2006-2008 - justified or unnecessary steps?

    PubMed

    Romanowska, Magdalena; Nowak, Iwona; Brydak, Lidia; Wojtyla, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Since 1997, human infections with highly pathogenic zoonotic avian influenza viruses have shown that the risk of influenza pandemic is significant. In Europe, infections caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N7) virus were confirmed in the human population in 2003 in the Netherlands. Moreover, outbreaks of A(H5N1) infections were observed in wild and farm birds in different European regions, including Poland in 2006-2008. This study presents 16 patients in Poland from whom clinical specimens were collected and tested for A(H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza. This article shows the results of laboratory tests and discusses the legitimacy of the collection and testing of the specimens. All patients were negative for A(H5N1) infection. Nevertheless, only two patients met clinical and epidemiological criteria from the avian influenza case definition. The conclusion is that there is still a strong necessity for increasing the awareness of medical and laboratory staff, as well as the awareness of some occupational groups about human infections with avian influenza viruses, including the importance of seasonal influenza vaccination. It should also be emphasized that in the case of patients suspected of being infected with avian influenza, the information about clinical symptoms is insufficient and must be accompanied by a wide epidemiological investigation.

  12. Use of Extract of Citrus sinensis as an antimicrobial agent for foodborne zoonotic pathogens and spoilage bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foodborne pathogens remain global health problems despite concerted efforts to control the transmission of these microorganisms through food. The resurgence of drug resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing and testing new sources of antimicrobial agents to control foodborne illness. Thi...

  13. Cultural Practices Shaping Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Thailand Native Chicken Farmers.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Tatong, D; Chumkaeo, A; Binot, A; Fournié, G; Pilot, E; Phimpraphi, W; Kasemsuwan, S; Paul, M C; Duboz, R; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of current passive zoonotic disease surveillance systems is limited by the under-reporting of disease outbreaks in the domestic animal population. Evaluating the acceptability of passive surveillance and its economic, social and cultural determinants appears a critical step for improving it. A participatory rural appraisal was implemented in a rural subdistrict of Thailand. Focus group interviews were used to identify sanitary risks perceived by native chicken farmers and describe the structure of their value chain. Qualitative individual interviews with a large diversity of actors enabled to identify perceived costs and benefits associated with the reporting of HPAI suspicions to sanitary authorities. Besides, flows of information on HPAI suspected cases were assessed using network analysis, based on data collected through individual questionnaires. Results show that the presence of cockfighting activities in the area negatively affected the willingness of all chicken farmers and other actors to report suspected HPAI cases. The high financial and affective value of fighting cocks contradicted the HPAI control policy based on mass culling. However, the importance of product quality in the native chicken meat value chain and the free veterinary services and products delivered by veterinary officers had a positive impact on suspected case reporting. Besides, cockfighting practitioners had a significantly higher centrality than other actors in the information network and they facilitated the spatial diffusion of information. Social ties built in cockfighting activities and the shared purpose of protecting valuable cocks were at the basis of the diffusion of information and the informal collective management of diseases. Building bridges with this informal network would greatly improve the effectiveness of passive surveillance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Prevalence and impact of water-borne zoonotic pathogens in water, cattle and humans in selected villages in Dodoma Rural and Bagamoyo districts, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusiluka, L. J. M.; Karimuribo, E. D.; Mdegela, R. H.; Luoga, E. J.; Munishi, P. K. T.; Mlozi, M. R. S.; Kambarage, D. M.

    A study on the prevalence of water-borne zoonotic pathogens in water, cattle and humans was conducted in six villages in Dodoma Rural (5) and Bagamoyo (1) districts, Tanzania. Water sources were screened for faecal coliform organisms, thermophilic Campylobacter, Salmonella, Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Faecal samples from cattle and humans were also analysed for the above specific pathogens. Results indicate that 70.8% ( n = 48) of the water sources screened were contaminated with faecal coliform organisms. Water sources in two villages, one each in Dodoma Rural and Bagamoyo districts were also contaminated with Giardia lamblia. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in cattle in the two study areas was 2.3% ( n = 942) and at least one animal in each village was infected with C. jejuni. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 0.5% ( n = 942) of the cattle examined in three villages in Dodoma district. Salmonella spp. was demonstrated in only 1.4% ( n = 144) of the cattle in Chalinze village in Dodoma Rural district while G. lamblia was only detected in 1.5% ( n = 202) of the animals examined in Chamakweza village in Bagamoyo district. Nine (1.9%) of the people screened at three heath centres in the study areas were infected with C. jejuni while 3.7% ( n = 484) of the people had C. parvum oocysts. G. lamblia was detected in 2.5% of the 202 people screened at the Chalinze health centre in Bagamoyo district. Analysis of the secondary data revealed that clinical complaints related to enteric diseases were prevalent in humans in the two areas throughout the year and the prevalence varied from about 1% to 25% in both <5 years and ⩾5 years patients. In conclusion, this study has highlighted the possible public health risks, which may be associated with keeping of animals and sharing of water sources between humans and animals.

  15. Plant-based oral vaccines against zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Naila; Daniell, Henry

    2016-11-01

    The shared diseases between animals and humans are known as zoonotic diseases and spread infectious diseases among humans. Zoonotic diseases are not only a major burden to livestock industry but also threaten humans accounting for >60% cases of human illness. About 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans have been reported to originate from zoonotic pathogens. Because antibiotics are frequently used to protect livestock from bacterial diseases, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is now a major concern. Live attenuated and killed vaccines are the only option to control these infectious diseases and this approach has been used since 1890. However, major problems with this approach include high cost and injectable vaccines is impractical for >20 billion poultry animals or fish in aquaculture. Plants offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against animal diseases because of their low cost, and they are free of attenuated pathogens and cold chain requirement. Therefore, several plant-based vaccines against human and animals diseases have been developed recently that undergo clinical and regulatory approval. Plant-based vaccines serve as ideal booster vaccines that could eliminate multiple boosters of attenuated bacteria or viruses, but requirement of injectable priming with adjuvant is a current limitation. So, new approaches like oral vaccines are needed to overcome this challenge. In this review, we discuss the progress made in plant-based vaccines against zoonotic or other animal diseases and future challenges in advancing this field. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults.

    PubMed

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-09-13

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by human pathogens, and the incidence has a strong regional distribution. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is mainly associated with animal contact, consumption of animal products, and an immunocompromised state of the patient. In a high proportion of zoonotic bacterial meningitis cases, CSF analysis showed only a mildly elevated leukocyte count. The recommended antibiotic therapy differs per pathogen, and the overall mortality is low. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon but is associated with specific complications. The suspicion should be raised in patients with bacterial meningitis who have recreational or professional contact with animals and in patients living in regions endemic for specific zoonotic pathogens. An immunocompromised state is associated with a worse prognosis. Identification of risk factors and underlying disease is necessary to improve treatment. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, Peter; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Burke, Donald S.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of new zoonotic agents requires knowledge of pathogen biodiversity in wildlife, human-wildlife interactions, anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations, and changes in society and human behavior. We discuss an interdisciplinary approach combining virology, wildlife biology, disease ecology, and anthropology that enables better understanding of how deforestation and associated hunting leads to the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens. PMID:16485465

  19. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Eman M; Raizada, Manish N

    2018-01-01

    The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays) against important soil-borne pathogens ( Rhizoctonia solani , Fusarium graminearum , Phytophthora capsici , Pythium aphanideratum ). The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays) for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea , the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169) exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73) of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus . All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169) of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl) and 62% (104/169) secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro , respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated

  20. Bacterial Seed Endophytes of Domesticated Cucurbits Antagonize Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens Including Powdery Mildew

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Eman M.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2018-01-01

    The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits. We hypothesized that these endophytes can antagonize major fungal and oomycete pathogens. Here we tested the endophytes for in vitro antagonism (dual culture assays) against important soil-borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium aphanidermatum). The endophytes were also assayed in planta (leaf disk and detached leaf bioassays) for antagonism against a foliar pathogen of global importance, Podosphaera fuliginea, the causative agent of cucurbit powdery mildew. The endophytes were further tested in vitro for secretion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) known to induce plant defense. Extracellular ribonuclease activity was also tested, as a subset of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins of plant hosts implicated in suppression of fungal pathogens, displays ribonuclease activity. An unexpected majority of the endophytes (70%, 118/169) exhibited antagonism to the five phytopathogens, of which 68% (50/73) of in vitro antagonists belong to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. All Lactococcus and Pantoea endophytes exhibited anti-oomycete activity. However, amongst the most effective inoculants against Podosphaera fuliginea were Pediococcus and Pantoea endophytes. Interestingly, 67% (113/169) of endophytes emitted host defense inducing VOCs (acetoin/diacetyl) and 62% (104/169) secreted extracellular ribonucleases in vitro, respectively. These results show that seeds of cultivated cucurbits

  1. One Health in Practice: A Pilot Project for Integrated Care of Zoonotic Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Their Pets in Chile.

    PubMed

    Peña, A; Abarca, K; Weitzel, T; Gallegos, J; Cerda, J; García, P; López, J

    2016-08-01

    Although pets provide physiological and psychological benefits to their owners, they are a potential source of zoonotic infections, especially for vulnerable individuals such as immunocompromised patients. During 1 year, we therefore performed a pilot project, which included 32 immunocompromised Chilean children and their family pets (35 dogs and 9 cats) with the aim of detecting, treating and preventing zoonotic infections. Children were examined by Infectious Diseases paediatricians and demographical and clinical information related to zoonotic infections were recorded. Pets were examined and sampled by veterinarians, who also administered missing routine vaccines and anti-parasitics. During family visits, all members were informed and educated about zoonoses and a satisfaction survey was performed. Visits also included vector control and indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids. Children were re-examined and re-tested according to the findings of their pets, and all detected zoonotic infections were treated both in children and pets. Physical examination revealed abnormalities in 18 dogs (51.4%) and three cats (33.3%). Twenty-eight (63.6%) of the pets were diagnosed with a zoonotic pathogen, and seven (15.9%) with a facultative pathogen. Most zoonotic agents were isolated from the pet's external ear and intestine. Bacteria with the highest pathogenic potential were Campylobacter jejuni and Brucella canis. In two children and their respective pets, the same zoonotic diseases were diagnosed (toxocariasis and giardiasis). Arthropods serving as potential vectors of zoonotic infections were found in 49% of dogs and 44% of cats. The pilot project was positively evaluated by the participating families. Our pilot project confirmed that pets are reservoir for various zoonotic agents in Chile and that the implementation of an integrated multidisciplinary programme was a valuable tool to prevent, diagnose and treat such zoonotic infections in vulnerable patients such as

  2. Evaluation of essential oils in beef cattle manure slurries and applications of select compounds to beef feedlot surfaces to control zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wells, J E; Berry, E D; Guerini, M N; Varel, V H

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate natural terpene compounds for antimicrobial activities and determine whether these compounds could be used to control microbial activities and pathogens in production animal facilities. Thymol, geraniol, glydox, linalool, pine oil, plinol and terpineol were tested in laboratory studies for ability to control the production of odorous volatile fatty acid compounds and reduce pathogen levels in manure slurry preparations. Thymol is a terpene phenolic compound and was most effective for reducing fermentation products and pathogen levels (P < 0.05), followed by the extracts linalool, pine oil and terpineol, which are terpene alcohols. Select compounds thymol, linalool and pine oil were further evaluated in two separate studies by applying the agents to feedlot surfaces in cattle pens. Feedlot surface material (FSM; manure and soil) was collected and analysed for fermentation products, levels of coliforms and total Escherichia coli, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria and L. monocytogenes. The reduction in fermentation products but not pathogens was dependent on the moisture present in the FSM. Treatment with 2000 ppm thymol reduced the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 but not Listeria. In a separate study, treatment with 4000 ppm pine oil reduced E. coli O157:H7, Listeria and Campylobacter (P < 0.05). Linalool was tested at two levels (2000 and 4000 ppm) and did not affect pathogen levels at either concentration. Natural compounds bearing terpenes can control pathogenic bacteria in treated manures and when applied to the feedlot surface in production cattle systems. Pine oil is a cheaper alternative to thymol and may be a useful treatment for controlling pathogens. The control of bacterial pathogens in animal productions systems is an important step in preharvest food safety. Waste products, such as pine oil extract, from the pulp wood industry may have application for treating feedlot pens and manures to reduce the

  3. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people

    PubMed Central

    Davaasuren, Anu; Baasandagva, Uyanga; Gray, Gregory C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection. Methods Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle. Results The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a) animal contact, b) food preparation and diet, and c) household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat. Conclusion Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal

  4. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Amber N; Davaasuren, Anu; Baasandagva, Uyanga; Gray, Gregory C

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection. Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle. The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a) animal contact, b) food preparation and diet, and c) household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat. Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal-to-human pathogens must incorporate a One Health

  5. Waterborne zoonotic helminthiases.

    PubMed

    Nithiuthai, Suwannee; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2004-12-09

    This review deals with waterborne zoonotic helminths, many of which are opportunistic parasites spreading directly from animals to man or man to animals through water that is either ingested or that contains forms capable of skin penetration. Disease severity ranges from being rapidly fatal to low-grade chronic infections that may be asymptomatic for many years. The most significant zoonotic waterborne helminthic diseases are either snail-mediated, copepod-mediated or transmitted by faecal-contaminated water. Snail-mediated helminthiases described here are caused by digenetic trematodes that undergo complex life cycles involving various species of aquatic snails. These diseases include schistosomiasis, cercarial dermatitis, fascioliasis and fasciolopsiasis. The primary copepod-mediated helminthiases are sparganosis, gnathostomiasis and dracunculiasis, and the major faecal-contaminated water helminthiases are cysticercosis, hydatid disease and larva migrans. Generally, only parasites whose infective stages can be transmitted directly by water are discussed in this article. Although many do not require a water environment in which to complete their life cycle, their infective stages can certainly be distributed and acquired directly through water. Transmission via the external environment is necessary for many helminth parasites, with water and faecal contamination being important considerations. Human behaviour, particularly poor hygiene, is a major factor in the re-emergence, and spread of parasitic infections. Also important in assessing the risk of infection by water transmission are human habits and population density, the prevalence of infection in them and in alternate animal hosts, methods of treating sewage and drinking water, and climate. Disease prevention methods, including disease surveillance, education and improved drinking water treatment are described.

  6. Fate of naturally occurring Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other zoonotic pathogens during minimally managed bovine feedlot manure composting processes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in livestock manures before application to cropland is critical for reducing the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. Our objective was to determine the fate of naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens during minimally managed on-farm bo...

  7. Evaluation of essential oils in beef cattle manure slurries and applications of select compounds to beef feedlot surfaces to control zoonotic pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: To evaluate natural terpene compounds for antimicrobial activities and determine if these compounds could be used to control microbial activities and pathogens in production animal facilities. Methods and Results: Thymol, geraniol, glydox, linalool, pine oil, plinol, and terpineol were teste...

  8. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krusor, Colin; Smith, Woutrina A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Silver, Mary; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an environmentally persistent pathogen that can cause fatal disease in humans, terrestrial warm-blooded animals and aquatic mammals. Although an association between T. gondii exposure and prey specialization on marine snails was identified in threatened California sea otters, the ability of kelp-dwelling snails to transmit terrestrially derived pathogens has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to measure concentration and retention of T. gondii by marine snails in laboratory aquaria, and to test for natural T. gondii contamination in field-collected snails. Following exposure to T. gondii-containing seawater, oocysts were detected by microscopy in snail faeces and tissues for 10 and 3 days respectively. Nested polymerase chain reaction was also applied as a method for confirming putative T. gondii oocysts detected in snail faeces and tissues by microscopy. Toxoplasma gondiiwas not detected in field-collected snails. Results suggest that turban snails are competent transport hosts for T. gondii. By concentrating oocysts in faecal pellets, snails may facilitate entry of T. gondii into the nearshore marine food web. This novel mechanism also represents a general pathway by which marine transmission of terrestrially derived microorganisms can be mediated via pathogen concentration and retention by benthic invertebrates.

  9. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Other Zoonotic Pathogens during Simulated Composting, Manure Packing, and Liquid Storage of Dairy Manure

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Sukhbir K.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The effects of commonly used manure treatments on the persistence of these pathogens have rarely been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55°C, manure packing at 25°C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 106 CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55°C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were detectable up to 28 days. M

  10. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kristine M.; Anthony, Simon J.; Switzer, William M.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Seimon, Tracie; Jia, Hongwei; Sanchez, Maria D.; Huynh, Thanh Thao; Galland, G. Gale; Shapiro, Sheryl E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; McAloose, Denise; Stuchin, Margot; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lipkin, W. Ian; Karesh, William B.; Daszak, Peter; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.

  11. Zoonotic Viruses Associated with Illegally Imported Wildlife Products

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Seimon, Tracie; Jia, Hongwei; Sanchez, Maria D.; Huynh, Thanh Thao; Galland, G. Gale; Shapiro, Sheryl E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; McAloose, Denise; Stuchin, Margot; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lipkin, W. Ian; Karesh, William B.; Daszak, Peter; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence. PMID:22253731

  12. Fate of naturally occurring Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other zoonotic pathogens during minimally managed bovine feedlot manure composting processes.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Millner, Patricia D; Wells, James E; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Guerini, Michael N

    2013-08-01

    Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in livestock manures before application to cropland is critical for reducing the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. Our objective was to determine the fate of naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens during minimally managed on-farm bovine manure composting processes. Feedlot pen samples were screened to identify E. coli O157:H7-positive manure. Using this manure, four piles of each of three different composting formats were constructed in each of two replicate trials. Composting formats were (i) turned piles of manure plus hay and straw, (ii) static stockpiles of manure, and (iii) static piles of covered manure plus hay and straw. Temperatures in the tops, toes, and centers of the conical piles (ca. 6.0 m(3) each) were monitored. Compost piles that were turned every 2 weeks achieved higher temperatures for longer periods in the tops and centers than did piles that were left static. E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from top samples of turned piles of manure plus hay and straw at day 28 and beyond, but top samples from static piles were positive for the pathogen up to day 42 (static manure stockpiles) and day 56 (static covered piles of manure plus hay and straw). Salmonella, Campylobacter spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in top or toe samples at the end of the composting period, but E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria spp. were recovered from toe samples at day 84. Our findings indicate that some minimally managed composting processes can reduce E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens in bovine manure but may be affected by season and/or initial levels of indigenous thermophilic bacteria. Our results also highlight the importance of adequate C:N formulation of initial mixtures for the production of high temperatures and rapid composting, and the need for periodic turning of the piles to increase the likelihood that all parts of the mass are subjected to high temperatures.

  13. Detection of bacterial pathogens including potential new species in human head lice from Mali

    PubMed Central

    Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Fenollar, Florence; Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Sissoko, Mahamadou S.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Raoult, Didier

    2017-01-01

    In poor African countries, where no medical and biological facilities are available, the identification of potential emerging pathogens of concern at an early stage is challenging. Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have a short life, feed only on human blood and do not transmit pathogens to their progeny. They are, therefore, a perfect tool for the xenodiagnosis of current or recent human infection. This study assessed the occurrence of bacterial pathogens from head lice collected in two rural villages from Mali, where a high frequency of head lice infestation had previously been reported, using molecular methods. Results show that all 600 head lice, collected from 117 individuals, belonged to clade E, specific to West Africa. Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever, was identified in three of the 600 (0.5%) head lice studied. Our study also shows, for the first time, the presence of the DNA of two pathogenic bacteria, namely Coxiella burnetii (5.1%) and Rickettsia aeschlimannii (0.6%), detected in human head lice, as well as the DNA of potential new species from the Anaplasma and Ehrlichia genera of unknown pathogenicity. The finding of several Malian head lice infected with B. quintana, C. burnetii, R. aeschlimannii, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia is alarming and highlights the need for active survey programs to define the public health consequences of the detection of these emerging bacterial pathogens in human head lice. PMID:28931077

  14. Detection of bacterial pathogens including potential new species in human head lice from Mali.

    PubMed

    Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Fenollar, Florence; Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Sissoko, Mahamadou S; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    In poor African countries, where no medical and biological facilities are available, the identification of potential emerging pathogens of concern at an early stage is challenging. Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have a short life, feed only on human blood and do not transmit pathogens to their progeny. They are, therefore, a perfect tool for the xenodiagnosis of current or recent human infection. This study assessed the occurrence of bacterial pathogens from head lice collected in two rural villages from Mali, where a high frequency of head lice infestation had previously been reported, using molecular methods. Results show that all 600 head lice, collected from 117 individuals, belonged to clade E, specific to West Africa. Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever, was identified in three of the 600 (0.5%) head lice studied. Our study also shows, for the first time, the presence of the DNA of two pathogenic bacteria, namely Coxiella burnetii (5.1%) and Rickettsia aeschlimannii (0.6%), detected in human head lice, as well as the DNA of potential new species from the Anaplasma and Ehrlichia genera of unknown pathogenicity. The finding of several Malian head lice infected with B. quintana, C. burnetii, R. aeschlimannii, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia is alarming and highlights the need for active survey programs to define the public health consequences of the detection of these emerging bacterial pathogens in human head lice.

  15. Hepatitis E Virus: Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yugo, Danielle M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1–4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEVs only affect humans, while Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic and autochthonous infections in both humans and several other animal species worldwide. HEV has an ever-expanding host range and has been identified in numerous animal species. Swine serve as a reservoir species for HEV transmission to humans; however, it is likely that other animal species may also act as reservoirs. HEV poses an important public health concern with cases of the disease definitively linked to handling of infected pigs, consumption of raw and undercooked animal meats, and animal manure contamination of drinking or irrigation water. Infectious HEV has been identified in numerous sources of concern including animal feces, sewage water, inadequately-treated water, contaminated shellfish and produce, as well as animal meats. Many aspects of HEV pathogenesis, replication, and immunological responses remain unknown, as HEV is an extremely understudied but important human pathogen. This article reviews the current understanding of HEV transmission routes with emphasis on food and environmental sources and the prevalence of HEV in animal species with zoonotic potential in humans. PMID:24071919

  16. Fungal Communities Including Plant Pathogens in Near Surface Air Are Similar across Northwestern Europe.

    PubMed

    Nicolaisen, Mogens; West, Jonathan S; Sapkota, Rumakanta; Canning, Gail G M; Schoen, Cor; Justesen, Annemarie F

    2017-01-01

    Information on the diversity of fungal spores in air is limited, and also the content of airborne spores of fungal plant pathogens is understudied. In the present study, a total of 152 air samples were taken from rooftops at urban settings in Slagelse, DK, Wageningen NL, and Rothamsted, UK together with 41 samples from above oilseed rape fields in Rothamsted. Samples were taken during 10-day periods in spring and autumn, each sample representing 1 day of sampling. The fungal content of samples was analyzed by metabarcoding of the fungal internal transcribed sequence 1 (ITS1) and by qPCR for specific fungi. The metabarcoding results demonstrated that season had significant effects on airborne fungal communities. In contrast, location did not have strong effects on the communities, even though locations were separated by up to 900 km. Also, a number of plant pathogens had strikingly similar patterns of abundance at the three locations. Rooftop samples were more diverse than samples taken above fields, probably reflecting greater mixing of air from a range of microenvironments for the rooftop sites. Pathogens that were known to be present in the crop were also found in air samples taken above the field. This paper is one of the first detailed studies of fungal composition in air with the focus on plant pathogens and shows that it is possible to detect a range of pathogens in rooftop air samplers using metabarcoding.

  17. Hantavirus infection: a global zoonotic challenge.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Zheng, Xuyang; Wang, Limei; Du, Hong; Wang, Pingzhong; Bai, Xuefan

    2017-02-01

    Hantaviruses are comprised of tri-segmented negative sense single-stranded RNA, and are members of the Bunyaviridae family. Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are important zoonotic pathogens that can have severe adverse effects in humans. They are naturally maintained in specific reservoir hosts without inducing symptomatic infection. In humans, however, hantaviruses often cause two acute febrile diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). In this paper, we review the epidemiology and epizootiology of hantavirus infections worldwide.

  18. Zoonotic Hookworm FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... when exposed skin comes in contact with contaminated soil or sand. The larvae in the contaminated soil or sand will burrow into the skin and ... measures to avoid skin contact with sand or soil will prevent infection with zoonotic hookworms. Travelers to ...

  19. Zoonotic diseases associated with reptiles and amphibians: an update.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Reptiles and amphibians are popular as pets. There are increased concerns among public health officials because of the zoonotic potential associated with these animals. Encounters with reptiles and amphibians are also on the rise in the laboratory setting and with wild animals; in both of these practices, there is also an increased likelihood for exposure to zoonotic pathogens. It is important that veterinarians remain current with the literature as it relates to emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases attributed to reptiles and amphibians so that they can protect themselves, their staff, and their clients from potential problems.

  20. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to

  1. Zoonotic risks from small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ganter, M

    2015-12-14

    Zoonoses are infections that spread naturally between species (sometimes by a vector) from animals to other animal species or to humans or from humans to animals. Most of the zoonoses diagnosed in sheep and goats are transmitted by close contact of man with these animals and are, more often, occupational diseases that principally affect breeders, veterinarians and/or slaughterhouse workers. Some other diseases have an airborne transmission and affect the population in the vicinity of sheep/goat farms. Due to the fact that small ruminants are almost the only remaining animals which are migrating in industrialised countries, there is a severe risk for transmitting the diseases. Some other zoonotic diseases are foodborne diseases, which are mainly transmitted from animals to humans and to other animal species by contaminated food and water. Within the last decade central Europe was threatened by some new infections, e.g., bluetongue disease and schmallenberg disease, which although not of zoonotic interest, are caused by pathogens transmitted by vectors. Causal agents of both diseases have found highly effective indigenous vectors. In the future, climate change may possibly modify conditions for the vectors and influence their distribution and competence. By this, other vector-borne zoonotic infections may propagate into former disease free countries. Changes in human behaviour in consummation and processing of food, in animal housing and management may also influence future risks for zoonosis. Monitoring, prevention and control measures are proposed to limit further epidemics and to enable the containment of outbreaks. Measures depend mainly on the damage evoked or anticipated by the disease, the local situation, and the epidemiology of the zoonoses, the presence of the infective agent in wild and other animals, as well as the resistance of the causal microorganisms in the environment and the possibility to breed sheep and goats which are resistant to specific

  2. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: current knowledge and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayman, D.T.; Bowen, R.A.; Cryan, P.M.; McCracken, G.F.; O'Shea, T.J.; Peel, A.J.; Gilbert, A.; Webb, C.T.; Wood, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics.

  3. Ecology of Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, D T S; Bowen, R A; Cryan, P M; McCracken, G F; O’Shea, T J; Peel, A J; Gilbert, A; Webb, C T; Wood, J L N

    2013-01-01

    Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics. PMID:22958281

  4. Starting from the bench--prevention and control of foodborne and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Foodborne diseases are estimated to cause around 50 million disease cases and 3000 deaths a year in the US. Worldwide, food and waterborne diseases are estimated to cause more than 2 million deaths per year. Lab-based research is a key component of efforts to prevent and control foodborne diseases. Over the last two decades, molecular characterization of pathogen isolates has emerged as a key component of foodborne and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Characterization methods have evolved from banding pattern-based subtyping methods to sequenced-based approaches, including full genome sequencing. Molecular subtyping methods not only play a key role for characterizing pathogen transmission and detection of disease outbreaks, but also allow for identification of clonal pathogen groups that show distinct transmission characteristics. Importantly, the data generated from molecular characterization of foodborne pathogens also represent critical inputs for epidemiological and modeling studies. Continued and enhanced collaborations between infectious disease related laboratory sciences and epidemiologists, modelers, and other quantitative scientists will be critical to a One-Health approach that delivers societal benefits, including improved surveillance systems and prevention approaches for zoonotic and foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of a respiratory face mask for capturing air pollutants and pathogens including human influenza and rhinoviruses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S Steve; Lukula, Salimatu; Chiossone, Cory; Nims, Raymond W; Suchmann, Donna B; Ijaz, M Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Prevention of infection with airborne pathogens and exposure to airborne particulates and aerosols (environmental pollutants and allergens) can be facilitated through use of disposable face masks. The effectiveness of such masks for excluding pathogens and pollutants is dependent on the intrinsic ability of the masks to resist penetration by airborne contaminants. This study evaluated the relative contributions of a mask, valve, and Micro Ventilator on aerosol filtration efficiency of a new N95 respiratory face mask. The test mask was challenged, using standardized methods, with influenza A and rhinovirus type 14, bacteriophage ΦΧ174, Staphylococcus aureus ( S . aureus ), and model pollutants. The statistical significance of results obtained for different challenge microbial agents and for different mask configurations (masks with operational or nonoperational ventilation fans and masks with sealed Smart Valves) was assessed. The results demonstrate >99.7% efficiency of each test mask configuration for exclusion of influenza A virus, rhinovirus 14, and S . aureus and >99.3% efficiency for paraffin oil and sodium chloride (surrogates for PM 2.5 ). Statistically significant differences in effectiveness of the different mask configurations were not identified. The efficiencies of the masks for excluding smaller-size (i.e., rhinovirus and bacteriophage ΦΧ174) vs. larger-size microbial agents (influenza virus, S . aureus ) were not significantly different. The masks, with or without features intended for enhancing comfort, provide protection against both small- and large-size pathogens. Importantly, the mask appears to be highly efficient for filtration of pathogens, including influenza and rhinoviruses, as well as the fine particulates (PM 2.5 ) present in aerosols that represent a greater challenge for many types of dental and surgical masks. This renders this individual-use N95 respiratory mask an improvement over the former types of masks for protection against

  6. Assessment of a respiratory face mask for capturing air pollutants and pathogens including human influenza and rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, S. Steve; Lukula, Salimatu; Chiossone, Cory; Nims, Raymond W.; Suchmann, Donna B.

    2018-01-01

    Background Prevention of infection with airborne pathogens and exposure to airborne particulates and aerosols (environmental pollutants and allergens) can be facilitated through use of disposable face masks. The effectiveness of such masks for excluding pathogens and pollutants is dependent on the intrinsic ability of the masks to resist penetration by airborne contaminants. This study evaluated the relative contributions of a mask, valve, and Micro Ventilator on aerosol filtration efficiency of a new N95 respiratory face mask. Methods The test mask was challenged, using standardized methods, with influenza A and rhinovirus type 14, bacteriophage ΦΧ174, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and model pollutants. The statistical significance of results obtained for different challenge microbial agents and for different mask configurations (masks with operational or nonoperational ventilation fans and masks with sealed Smart Valves) was assessed. Results The results demonstrate >99.7% efficiency of each test mask configuration for exclusion of influenza A virus, rhinovirus 14, and S. aureus and >99.3% efficiency for paraffin oil and sodium chloride (surrogates for PM2.5). Statistically significant differences in effectiveness of the different mask configurations were not identified. The efficiencies of the masks for excluding smaller-size (i.e., rhinovirus and bacteriophage ΦΧ174) vs. larger-size microbial agents (influenza virus, S. aureus) were not significantly different. Conclusions The masks, with or without features intended for enhancing comfort, provide protection against both small- and large-size pathogens. Importantly, the mask appears to be highly efficient for filtration of pathogens, including influenza and rhinoviruses, as well as the fine particulates (PM2.5) present in aerosols that represent a greater challenge for many types of dental and surgical masks. This renders this individual-use N95 respiratory mask an improvement over the former types of

  7. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.

    PubMed

    Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States.

  8. Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States. PMID:23297259

  9. Seroprevalence of seven zoonotic infections in Nunavik, Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Messier, V; Lévesque, B; Proulx, J-F; Rochette, L; Serhir, B; Couillard, M; Ward, B J; Libman, M D; Dewailly, E; Déry, S

    2012-03-01

    In Nunavik, common practices and food habits such as consumption of raw meat and untreated water place the Inuit at risk for contracting zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic infections among the permanent residents of Nunavik. The study was conducted in the fall 2004 as part of the Nunavik Health Survey. Blood samples from adults aged 18-74 years (n = 917) were collected and analysed for the presence of antibodies against Trichinella spp., Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp. and Francisella tularensis. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, traditional activities, drinking water supply and nutrition was gathered using english/inuktitut bilingual questionnaires. The chi-squared test was used to evaluate associations between seropositivity and other measured variables. Statistically significant variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression model to control for confounding factors. Estimated seroprevalences were 8.3% for E. granulosus, 3.9% for T. canis, 5.9% for Leptospira spp. and 18.9% for F. tularensis. Seroprevalence was ≤ 1% for Trichinella spiralis, Brucella spp. and C. burnetii. For most infections, seropositivity tended to increase with age. In multivariate analyses, seroprevalence was positively (i.e. directly) associated with age and residence in the Ungava coast area for F. tularensis; age and residence in the Hudson coast area for T. canis; female gender, lower level of schooling and frequent cleaning of water reservoirs for E. granulosus. No risk factor for Leptospira spp. infection was identified. No associations were detected with regards to food habits or environmental exposures. A small but significant portion of the Nunavik population has serologic evidence of exposure to at least one of the pathogenic microorganisms investigated. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms for transmission

  10. ZOONOTIC PARASITES, OUR ENVIROMENT AND CHANGE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental changes arising from nature and human activity are affecting patterns for the occurrence and significance of many infectious diseases, including zoonotic parasites, which are those naturally transmitted between domestic animals or wildlife and people. As these changes continue, and pe...

  11. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  12. A Quantitative Prioritisation of Human and Domestic Animal Pathogens in Europe

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, K. Marie; Setzkorn, Christian; Hepworth, Philip J.; Morand, Serge; Morse, Andrew P.; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. Previous work has shown the H-(Hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. We present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic animal pathogens) using an objective, evidence-based, repeatable approach; the H-index. This study established the highest H-index European pathogens. Commonalities amongst pathogens not included in previous surveillance or risk analyses were examined. Differences between host types (humans/animals/zoonotic) in pathogen H-indices were explored as a One Health impact indicator. Finally, the acceptability of the H-index proxy for animal pathogen impact was examined by comparison with other measures. 57 pathogens appeared solely in the top 100 highest H-indices (1) human or (2) animal pathogens list, and 43 occurred in both. Of human pathogens, 66 were zoonotic and 67 were emerging, compared to 67 and 57 for animals. There were statistically significant differences between H-indices for host types (humans, animal, zoonotic), and there was limited evidence that H-indices are a reasonable proxy for animal pathogen impact. This work addresses measures outlined by the European Commission to strengthen climate change resilience and biosecurity for infectious diseases. The results include a quantitative evaluation of infectious pathogen impact, and suggest greater impacts of human-only compared to zoonotic pathogens or scientific under-representation of zoonoses. The outputs separate high and low impact pathogens, and should be combined with other risk assessment methods relying on expert opinion or qualitative data for priority setting, or could be used to prioritise diseases for which formal risk assessments are not possible because of data gaps. PMID:25136810

  13. The common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion.

    PubMed

    Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystosis) and trypanosomiasis are the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion which caused by single-celled protozoan parasites; Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum , Sarcocystis spp and Trypanosoma evansi, respectively. Toxoplasmosis is generally considered the most important disease that causing abortion of both pregnant women and different female animals throughout the world, about third of human being population had antibodies against T. gondii . The infection can pass via placenta, causing encephalitis, chorio-retinitis, mental retardation and loss of vision in congenitally-infected children and stillbirth or mummification of the aborted fetuses of livestock. Neosporosis is recognized as a major cause of serious abortion in varieties of wild and domestic animals around the world particularly cattle, the disease cause serious economic losses among dairy and beef cattle due to decrease in milk and meat production. While unlike toxoplasmosis, neosporosis is not recognized as a human pathogen and evidence to date shows that neosporosis is only detected by serology in the human population. Sarcosporidiosis also can cause abortion in animals particularly cattle, buffaloes and sheep with acute infection through high dose of infection with sarcocysts. On the other hand, humans have been reported as final and intermediate host for sarcosporidiosis but not represent a serious health problem. Trypanosomiasis by T. evansi cause dangerous infection among domestic animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Several cases of abortion had been recorded in cattle and buffaloes infected with T. evansi while, a single case of human infection was reported in India. Trichomoniasis and babesiosis abortion occurs with non-zoonotic Trichomonas and Babesia species while the zoonotic species had not been incriminated in induction of abortion in both animals and man. The current review article concluded that there is still

  14. Surveillance and diagnosis of zoonotic foodborne parasites.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza; Purmonen, Sami; Sukura, Antti; Parkkila, Seppo

    2018-01-01

    Foodborne parasites are a source of human parasitic infection. Zoonotic infections of humans arise from a variety of domestic and wild animals, including sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses, pigs, boars, bears, felines, canids, amphibians, reptiles, poultry, and aquatic animals such as fishes and shrimp. Therefore, the implementation of efficient, accessible, and controllable inspection policies for livestock, fisheries, slaughterhouses, and meat processing and packaging companies is highly recommended. In addition, more attention should be paid to the education of auditors from the quality control (QC) and assurance sectors, livestock breeders, the fishery sector, and meat inspection veterinarians in developing countries with high incidence of zoonotic parasitic infections. Furthermore, both the diagnosis of zoonotic parasitic infections by inexpensive, accessible, and reliable identification methods and the organization of effective control systems with sufficient supervision of product quality are other areas to which more attention should be paid. In this review, we present some examples of successful inspection policies and recent updates on present conventional, serologic, and molecular diagnostic methods for zoonotic foodborne parasites from both human infection and animal-derived foods.

  15. Molecular Survey of Bacterial Zoonotic Agents in Bats from the Country of Georgia (Caucasus).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Urushadze, Lela; Osikowicz, Lynn; McKee, Clifton; Kuzmin, Ivan; Kandaurov, Andrei; Babuadze, Giorgi; Natradze, Ioseb; Imnadze, Paata; Kosoy, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bats are important reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens. However, no surveys of bacterial pathogens in bats have been performed in the Caucasus region. To understand the occurrence and distribution of bacterial infections in these mammals, 218 bats belonging to eight species collected from four regions of Georgia were examined for Bartonella, Brucella, Leptospira, and Yersinia using molecular approaches. Bartonella DNA was detected in 77 (35%) bats from all eight species and was distributed in all four regions. The prevalence ranged 6-50% per bat species. The Bartonella DNA represented 25 unique genetic variants that clustered into 21 lineages. Brucella DNA was detected in two Miniopterus schreibersii bats and in two Myotis blythii bats, all of which were from Imereti (west-central region). Leptospira DNA was detected in 25 (13%) bats that included four M. schreibersii bats and 21 M. blythii bats collected from two regions. The Leptospira sequences represented five genetic variants with one of them being closely related to the zoonotic pathogen L. interrogans (98.6% genetic identity). No Yersinia DNA was detected in the bats. Mixed infections were observed in several cases. One M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella, Brucella, and Leptospira; one M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella and Brucella; 15 M. blythii bats and three M. schreibersii bats were co-infected with Bartonella and Leptospira. Our results suggest that bats in Georgia are exposed to multiple bacterial infections. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenicity of these agents to bats and their zoonotic potential.

  16. Molecular Survey of Bacterial Zoonotic Agents in Bats from the Country of Georgia (Caucasus)

    PubMed Central

    Osikowicz, Lynn; McKee, Clifton; Kuzmin, Ivan; Kandaurov, Andrei; Babuadze, Giorgi; Natradze, Ioseb; Imnadze, Paata; Kosoy, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bats are important reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens. However, no surveys of bacterial pathogens in bats have been performed in the Caucasus region. To understand the occurrence and distribution of bacterial infections in these mammals, 218 bats belonging to eight species collected from four regions of Georgia were examined for Bartonella, Brucella, Leptospira, and Yersinia using molecular approaches. Bartonella DNA was detected in 77 (35%) bats from all eight species and was distributed in all four regions. The prevalence ranged 6–50% per bat species. The Bartonella DNA represented 25 unique genetic variants that clustered into 21 lineages. Brucella DNA was detected in two Miniopterus schreibersii bats and in two Myotis blythii bats, all of which were from Imereti (west-central region). Leptospira DNA was detected in 25 (13%) bats that included four M. schreibersii bats and 21 M. blythii bats collected from two regions. The Leptospira sequences represented five genetic variants with one of them being closely related to the zoonotic pathogen L. interrogans (98.6% genetic identity). No Yersinia DNA was detected in the bats. Mixed infections were observed in several cases. One M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella, Brucella, and Leptospira; one M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella and Brucella; 15 M. blythii bats and three M. schreibersii bats were co-infected with Bartonella and Leptospira. Our results suggest that bats in Georgia are exposed to multiple bacterial infections. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenicity of these agents to bats and their zoonotic potential. PMID:28129398

  17. Zoonotic Infections Among Employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ingrid B.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Gupton, Paige N.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

  18. Zoonotic infections among employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Adjemian, Jennifer; Weber, Ingrid B; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J; Stoddard, Robyn A; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P; Jones, Jeffery L; Gupton, Paige N; Quinn, Conrad P; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-11-01

    U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents.

  19. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Paparini, Andrea; Jian, Fuchun; Robertson, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal-oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  20. Interdisciplinary approaches to zoonotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Robin; Schley, David; Lai, Ka-Man; Ceddia, Graziano M.; Barnett, Julie; Cook, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Zoonotic infections are on the increase worldwide, but most research into the biological, environmental and life science aspects of these infections has been conducted in separation. In this review we bring together contemporary research in these areas to suggest a new, symbiotic framework which recognises the interaction of biological, economic, psychological, and natural and built environmental drivers in zoonotic infection and transmission. In doing so, we propose that some contemporary debates in zoonotic research could be resolved using an expanded framework which explicitly takes into account the combination of motivated and habitual human behaviour, environmental and biological constraints, and their interactions. PMID:24470951

  1. Zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products and eggs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Natalie M; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha

    2015-02-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Zoonotic Potential of Escherichia coli Isolates from Retail Chicken Meat Products and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Natalie M.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. PMID:25480753

  3. Pathogens of skin and skin-structure infections in the UK and their susceptibility to antibiotics, including ceftaroline.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M; Mushtaq, Shazad; Warner, Marina; James, Dorothy; Kearns, Angela; Woodford, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs) are frequent settings for antibiotic use. We surveyed their UK aetiology and pathogen susceptibility, including susceptibility to ceftaroline. Consecutive SSSI isolates were collected at 35 UK hospitals, to a maximum of 60/site, together with 15 'supplementary' MRSA/site. Isolates were re-identified and BSAC susceptibility testing was performed, with parallel CLSI agar testing for ceftaroline. Isolates (n = 1908) were collected from 1756 hospitalized patients, predominantly with surgical and traumatic infections, abscesses and infected ulcers and largely from general medicine and general surgery patients. They included 1271 Staphylococcus aureus (201 MRSA), 162 β-haemolytic streptococci, 269 Enterobacteriaceae, 138 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 37 enterococci. Most (944/1756) patients had monomicrobial MSSA infections. Rates of resistance to quinolones, gentamicin and cephalosporins were <20% in Enterobacteriaceae and <10% in P. aeruginosa. MRSA rates varied greatly among hospitals and were 2.5-fold higher in general medicine than in general surgery patients. At breakpoint, ceftaroline inhibited: (i) all MSSA and 97.6% of MRSA, with MICs of 2 mg/L for the few resistant MRSA; (ii) all β-haemolytic streptococci; and (iii) 83% of Enterobacteriaceae. High-level ceftaroline resistance in Enterobacteriaceae involved ESBLs or AmpC enzymes. Ceftaroline MICs by CLSI methodology generally equalled those by BSAC or were 2-fold higher, but this differential was 4-16-fold for P. aeruginosa. Irrespective of patient group, SSSIs were dominated by S. aureus. Most pathogens were susceptible, but 15.8% of S. aureus were MRSA, with locally higher prevalence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  5. Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Randolph, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging vector-borne diseases represent an important issue for global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, and many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and local emergence are frequently considered distinct processes, many emerging endemic pathogens are in fact invading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We highlight key differences in the dynamics and disease burden that result from increased pathogen transmission following habitat change compared with the introduction of pathogens to new regions. Truly in situ emergence is commonly driven by changes in human factors as much as by enhanced enzootic cycles whereas pathogen invasion results from anthropogenic trade and travel and suitable conditions for a pathogen, including hosts, vectors, and climate. Once established, ecological factors related to vector characteristics shape the evolutionary selective pressure on pathogens that may result in increased use of humans as transmission hosts. We describe challenges inherent in the control of vector-borne zoonotic diseases and some emerging non-traditional strategies that may be more effective in the long term. PMID:23200503

  6. Ectoparasites and other epifaunistic arthropods of sympatric cotton mice and golden mice: comparisons and implications for vector-borne zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Durden, Lance A; Polur, Ram N; Nims, Todd; Banks, Craig W; Oliver, James H

    2004-12-01

    Ectoparasite and epifaunistic arthropod biodiversity and infestation parameters were compared between 2 sympatric small rodent species, the cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus (Le Conte)) and golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli (Harlan)), in southern Georgia from 1992 to 2003. Because the cotton mouse is known to be a reservoir of more vector-borne zoonotic pathogens than the golden mouse, we hypothesized that it would be parasitized by more ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of these pathogens. Cotton mice (n = 202) were parasitized by 19 species of arthropods, whereas golden mice (n = 46) were parasitized by 12 species. Eleven species of arthropods were recovered from both host species, whereas 7 were recorded only from cotton mice, and 1 species only from golden mice. Infestation prevalences (percent of mice parasitized) were significantly higher for 1 species of arthropod (the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) infesting cotton mice and for 4 species (the flea Peromyscopsylla scotti Fox and the mites Glycyphagus hypudaei Koch, Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese), and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese)) infesting golden mice. Mean intensities (mean per infested mouse) were significantly higher for 2 species (the flea Orchopeas leucopus (Baker) and the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis Say) infesting cotton mice and for 2 species (G. hypudaei and A. fahrenholzi) infesting golden mice. Ectoparasites that are known to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens were significantly more common on cotton mice than on golden mice. These ectoparasites included the rhopalopsyllid flea Polygenis gwyni (Fox), a vector of the agent of murine typhus; I. scapularis, the principal vector of the agents of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis; and O. bacoti, a laboratory vector of several zoonotic pathogens. However, 2 species of ixodid ticks that can transmit zoonotic pathogens were recovered from both host species. These were the American

  7. Vaccine Development against Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Open Questions and Remaining Challenges.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yuchen; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Zhang, Yan-Jin; Zhou, En-Min

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E outbreaks worldwide. Since the discovery of HEV as a zoonotic agent, this virus has been isolated from a variety of hosts with an ever-expanding host range. Recently, a subunit HEV vaccine developed for the prevention of human disease was approved in China, but is not yet available to the rest of the world. Meanwhile, notable progress and knowledge has been made and revealed in recent years to better understand HEV biology and infection, including discoveries of quasi-enveloped HEV virions and of a new function of the HEV-ORF3 product. However, the impact of these new findings on the development of a protective vaccine against zoonotic HEV infection requires further discussion. In this review, hallmark characteristics of HEV zoonosis, the history of HEV vaccine development, and recent discoveries in HEV virology are described. Moreover, special attention is focused on quasi-enveloped HEV virions and the potential role of the HEV-ORF3 product as antibody-neutralization target on the surface of quasi-enveloped HEV virions to provide new insights for the future development of improved vaccines against zoonotic HEV infection.

  8. Vaccine Development against Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Open Questions and Remaining Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Yuchen; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Zhang, Yan-Jin; Zhou, En-Min

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E outbreaks worldwide. Since the discovery of HEV as a zoonotic agent, this virus has been isolated from a variety of hosts with an ever-expanding host range. Recently, a subunit HEV vaccine developed for the prevention of human disease was approved in China, but is not yet available to the rest of the world. Meanwhile, notable progress and knowledge has been made and revealed in recent years to better understand HEV biology and infection, including discoveries of quasi-enveloped HEV virions and of a new function of the HEV-ORF3 product. However, the impact of these new findings on the development of a protective vaccine against zoonotic HEV infection requires further discussion. In this review, hallmark characteristics of HEV zoonosis, the history of HEV vaccine development, and recent discoveries in HEV virology are described. Moreover, special attention is focused on quasi-enveloped HEV virions and the potential role of the HEV-ORF3 product as antibody-neutralization target on the surface of quasi-enveloped HEV virions to provide new insights for the future development of improved vaccines against zoonotic HEV infection. PMID:29520257

  9. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic cavies in Cameroon (Central Africa).

    PubMed

    Meutchieye, Felix; Kouam, Marc K; Miegoué, Emile; Nguafack, Terence T; Tchoumboué, Joseph; Téguia, Alexis; Théodoropoulos, Georgios

    2017-06-26

    Farm animals are usually suspected to transmit infections to humans. Domestic cavies (Cavia porcellus) are hosts to a variety of pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. Several parasites including the protozoa Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. may be causative agents of gastrointestinal disorders in domestic cavies and humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protozoa as well as any potential zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite in domestic cavies raised under a semi extensive system in the rural areas of Cameroon. Giardia/Cryptosporidium antigens were detected in 12.90% of cavies. Helminthe eggs were found in 1.52% of animals. The prevalence of Paraspidodera uncinata, Heligmosomoides polygyrus (also known as Nematospiroides dubius) and Trichuris sp. was 1% (4/397), 0.3% (1/397), and 0.3% (1/397), respectively. Presence of Giardia/Cryptosporidium was unrelated to the occurrence of diarrhea, as none of the positive samples was from a diarrheic individual. Domestic cavies are hosts of Giardia/Cryptosporidium and appear as potential source of human giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis and infection with H. polygyrus in Cameroon. In keeping with the One Health Initiative, veterinarians and medical doctors should collaborate to address the problem of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infection in cavies and cavy breeders both in Cameroon and other countries with a similar cavy breeding system. Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these cavy parasites and to determine their routes of transmission to humans.

  10. Participation of women and children in hunting activities in Sierra Leone and implications for control of zoonotic infections

    PubMed Central

    Kandeh, Martin; Dawson, Michael; Ansumana, Rashid; Sahr, Foday; Kelly, Ann H.; Brown, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases of zoonotic origin highlights the need to understand social practices at the animal-human interface. This study provides a qualitative account of interactions between humans and wild animals in predominantly Mende villages of southern Sierra Leone. We conducted fieldwork over 4 months including participant and direct observations, semi-structured interviews (n = 47), spontaneously occurring focus group discussions (n = 12), school essays and informal interviews to describe behaviours that may serve as pathways for zoonotic infection. In this region, hunting is the primary form of contact with wild animals. We describe how these interactions are shaped by socio-cultural contexts, including opportunities to access economic resources and by social obligations and constraints. Our research suggests that the potential for exposure to zoonotic pathogens is more widely distributed across different age, gender and social groups than previously appreciated. We highlight the role of children in hunting, an age group that has previously not been discussed in the context of hunting. The breadth of the "at risk" population forces reconsideration of how we conceptualize, trace and monitor pathogen exposure. PMID:28749933

  11. Diallylthiosulfinate (Allicin), a Volatile Antimicrobial from Garlic (Allium sativum), Kills Human Lung Pathogenic Bacteria, Including MDR Strains, as a Vapor.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Jana; Levina, Natalja; van der Linden, Mark; Gruhlke, Martin; Martin, Christian; Slusarenko, Alan J

    2017-10-12

    Garlic ( Allium sativum ) has potent antimicrobial activity due to allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) synthesized by enzyme catalysis in damaged garlic tissues. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor and its volatility makes it potentially useful for combating lung infections. Allicin was synthesized (>98% pure) by oxidation of diallyl disulfide by H₂O₂ using formic acid as a catalyst and the growth inhibitory effect of allicin vapor and allicin in solution to clinical isolates of lung pathogenic bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas , Streptococcus , and Staphylococcus , including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, was demonstrated. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined and compared to clinical antibiotics using standard European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) procedures. The cytotoxicity of allicin to human lung and colon epithelial and murine fibroblast cells was tested in vitro and shown to be ameliorated by glutathione (GSH). Similarly, the sensitivity of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) to allicin was decreased by raising the [GSH] to the approximate blood plasma level of 1 mM. Because allicin inhibited bacterial growth as a vapor, it could be used to combat bacterial lung infections via direct inhalation. Since there are no volatile antibiotics available to treat pulmonary infections, allicin, particularly at sublethal doses in combination with oral antibiotics, could make a valuable addition to currently available treatments.

  12. Occurrence of selected zoonotic food-borne parasites and first molecular identification of Alaria alata in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Villa, Luca; Riehn, Katharina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Minazzi, Stefano; Olivieri, Emanuela; Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2018-05-11

    Wild boar is a source of human infections with zoonotic pathogens, including food-borne parasites. With the aim of a characterization of the human exposure risk, a survey on wild boars intended for human consumption was planned, selecting three pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii, Alaria alata, and Trichinella spp., as markers of meat infection. Diaphragm muscle samples from 100 wild boars hunted in Piedmont region (Northern Italy) in two hunting seasons (2015-2016) were collected. Concerning T. gondii, a combined approach of antibody detection and molecular techniques with genotyping was performed. For the detection of A. alata and Trichinella spp., the larva migration technique and the magnetic stirrer method were employed, respectively; in addition, molecular confirmation of the morphological identification of the recovered specimen was performed. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in meat juice samples (43.3%) and T. gondii DNA (type II) was detected in three animals (7.1%) out of 42 seropositive examined. In none of the sampled wild boars (0%), Trichinella spp. larvae were found, whereas one animal (1%) scored positive to A. alata mesocercariae. The molecular diagnosis proved the morphological identification of the trematode. This is the first finding of A. alata in Italian wild boar population. The present study confirmed the role of wild boars as a source of parasitic zoonotic diseases and thus the risk derived for humans posed by the consumption of game meat. Considering the zoonotic implications, the results underline the importance of monitoring and surveillance of zoonotic parasites in Italian wild boar populations.

  13. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife

  14. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets.

    PubMed

    Greatorex, Zoe F; Olson, Sarah H; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity.

  15. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets

    PubMed Central

    Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E.; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B.; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O’Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity. PMID:27008628

  16. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  17. Pathogenic leptospires modulate protein expression and post-translational modifications in response to mammalian host signals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Reservoir hosts of leptospirosis, including rodents, dogs and cattle, exhibit little to no signs of disease but shed large numbers of organisms in...

  18. Estimating Burdens of Neglected Tropical Zoonotic Diseases on Islands with Introduced Mammals.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Luz A; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Newton, Kelly M; Spatz, Dena R; Holmes, Nick D; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-03-01

    AbstractMany neglected tropical zoonotic pathogens are maintained by introduced mammals, and on islands the most common introduced species are rodents, cats, and dogs. Management of introduced mammals, including control or eradication of feral populations, which is frequently done for ecological restoration, could also reduce or eliminate the pathogens these animals carry. Understanding the burden of these zoonotic diseases is crucial for quantifying the potential public health benefits of introduced mammal management. However, epidemiological data are only available from a small subset of islands where these introduced mammals co-occur with people. We examined socioeconomic and climatic variables as predictors for disease burdens of angiostrongyliasis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and rabies from 57 islands or island countries. We found strong correlates of disease burden for leptospirosis, Toxoplasma gondii infection, angiostrongyliasis, and toxocariasis with more than 50% of the variance explained, and an average of 57% (range = 32-95%) predictive accuracy on out-of-sample data. We used these relationships to provide estimates of leptospirosis incidence and T. gondii seroprevalence infection on islands where nonnative rodents and cats are present. These predicted estimates of disease burden could be used in an initial assessment of whether the costs of managing introduced mammal reservoirs might be less than the costs of perpetual treatment of these diseases on islands.

  19. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  20. Zoonotic aspects of vector-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Failloux, A-B; Moutailler, S

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are principally zoonotic diseases transmitted to humans by animals. Pathogens such as bacteria, parasites and viruses are primarily maintained within an enzootic cycle between populations of non-human primates or other mammals and largely non-anthropophilic vectors. This 'wild' cycle sometimes spills over in the form of occasional infections of humans and domestic animals. Lifestyle changes, incursions by humans into natural habitats and changes in agropastoral practices create opportunities that make the borders between wildlife and humans more permeable. Some vector-borne diseases have dispensed with the need for amplification in wild or domestic animals and they can now be directly transmitted to humans. This applies to some viruses (dengue and chikungunya) that have caused major epidemics. Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have reduced their transmission cycle to the minimum, with humans acting as reservoir, amplifier and disseminator. The design of control strategies for vector-borne diseases should be guided by research into emergence mechanisms in order to understand how a wild cycle can produce a pathogen that goes on to cause devastating urban epidemics.

  1. A Review of Zoonotic Infection Risks Associated with the Wild Meat Trade in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cantlay, Jennifer Caroline; Ingram, Daniel J; Meredith, Anna L

    2017-06-01

    The overhunting of wildlife for food and commercial gain presents a major threat to biodiversity in tropical forests and poses health risks to humans from contact with wild animals. Using a recent survey of wildlife offered at wild meat markets in Malaysia as a basis, we review the literature to determine the potential zoonotic infection risks from hunting, butchering and consuming the species offered. We also determine which taxa potentially host the highest number of pathogens and discuss the significant disease risks from traded wildlife, considering how cultural practices influence zoonotic transmission. We identify 51 zoonotic pathogens (16 viruses, 19 bacteria and 16 parasites) potentially hosted by wildlife and describe the human health risks. The Suidae and the Cervidae families potentially host the highest number of pathogens. We conclude that there are substantial gaps in our knowledge of zoonotic pathogens and recommend performing microbial food safety risk assessments to assess the hazards of wild meat consumption. Overall, there may be considerable zoonotic risks to people involved in the hunting, butchering or consumption of wild meat in Southeast Asia, and these should be considered in public health strategies.

  2. European bats as carriers of viruses with zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Claudia; Kurth, Andreas

    2014-08-13

    Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses). While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.

  3. Intestinal parasites of owned dogs and cats from metropolitan and micropolitan areas: prevalence, zoonotic risks, and pet owner awareness in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.

  4. Protocol for developing a Database of Zoonotic disease Research in India (DoZooRI).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Kakkar, Manish

    2017-12-10

    Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses. A large-scale systematic mapping of the published peer-reviewed research conducted in India will be undertaken. All published research will be included in the database, without any prejudice for quality screening, to broaden the scope of included studies. Structured search strategies will be developed for priority zoonotic diseases (leptospirosis, rabies, anthrax, brucellosis, cysticercosis, salmonellosis, bovine tuberculosis, Japanese encephalitis and rickettsial infections), and multiple databases will be searched for studies conducted in India. The database will be managed and hosted on a cloud-based platform called Rayyan. Individual studies will be tagged based on key preidentified parameters (disease, study design, study type, location, randomisation status and interventions, host involvement and others, as applicable). The database will incorporate already published studies, obviating the need for additional ethical clearances. The database will be made available online, and in collaboration with multisectoral teams, domains of enquiries will be identified and subsequent research questions will be raised. The database will be queried for these and resulting evidence will be analysed and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  5. Bat Hunting and Bat-Human Interactions in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bat Conservation.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, J J; Hegde, S; Sazzad, H M S; Khan, S U; Hossain, M J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P

    2017-08-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Road Killed Carnivores Illustrate the Status of Zoonotic Helminthes in Caspian Sea Littoral of Iran

    PubMed Central

    VAFAE ESLAHI, Aida; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MOBEDI, Iraj; SHARIFDINI, Meysam; BADRI, Milad; MOWLAVI, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Carnivore carcasses on the roads can be regarded as study materials in parasitology and eco-epidemiology. Stray carnivores such as dogs and cats are known to harbor so many different pathogens like zoonotic helminthes. The current investigation, apparent the status of the helminthic parasites found in road killed carnivores from different parts of Guilan Province north of Iran. Methods: Fifty road killed carnivores including 27 stray dogs (Canis familiaris), 11 golden jackals (Canis aureus) and 12 stray cats (Felis catus) were collected from 21 locations of Guilan Province, during Apr to Nov 2015. Internal organs of the carcasses, including digestive tract, heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, skin, eyes as well as muscles were carefully inspected and sampled for helminthological investigation. Results: About 80% of the 50 carnivores, (stray dogs 77.77%, golden jackals 81.81%, and stray cats 91.66%) were found naturally infected with helminthic parasites. Dipylidum caninum, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonine, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Dirofilaria immitis, Dioctophyma renale, Dipylidum caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Mesocestoides spp., Taenia hydatigena, Taenia hydatigera, Joyuxiella spp., Spirometra spp. are reported herein. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of zoonotic helminthes such as T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, E. granulosus, D. immitis and D. renale in stray carnivores should be considered as a public health hazard, specifically within a vast tourism area like Guilan Province. PMID:28761483

  7. Road Killed Carnivores Illustrate the Status of Zoonotic Helminthes in Caspian Sea Littoral of Iran.

    PubMed

    Vafae Eslahi, Aida; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Mobedi, Iraj; Sharifdini, Meysam; Badri, Milad; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Carnivore carcasses on the roads can be regarded as study materials in parasitology and eco-epidemiology. Stray carnivores such as dogs and cats are known to harbor so many different pathogens like zoonotic helminthes. The current investigation, apparent the status of the helminthic parasites found in road killed carnivores from different parts of Guilan Province north of Iran. Fifty road killed carnivores including 27 stray dogs ( Canis familiaris ), 11 golden jackals ( Canis aureus ) and 12 stray cats ( Felis catus ) were collected from 21 locations of Guilan Province, during Apr to Nov 2015. Internal organs of the carcasses, including digestive tract, heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, skin, eyes as well as muscles were carefully inspected and sampled for helminthological investigation. About 80% of the 50 carnivores, (stray dogs 77.77%, golden jackals 81.81%, and stray cats 91.66%) were found naturally infected with helminthic parasites. Dipylidum caninum , Toxocara cati , Toxocara canis , Toxascaris leonine , Ancylostoma caninum , Ancylostoma tubaeforme , Dirofilaria immitis , Dioctophyma renale , Dipylidum caninum , Echinococcus granulosus , Mesocestoides spp ., Taenia hydatigena, Taenia hydatigera , Joyuxiella spp. , Spirometra spp. are reported herein. The prevalent occurrence of zoonotic helminthes such as T. canis , T. cati , T. leonina , E. granulosus , D. immitis and D. renale in stray carnivores should be considered as a public health hazard, specifically within a vast tourism area like Guilan Province.

  8. Detection of hepatitis E virus and other livestock-related pathogens in Iowa streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Givens, Carrie E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Duris, Joseph W.; Moorman, Thomas B.; Spencer, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Manure application is a source of pathogens to the environment. Through overland runoff and tile drainage, zoonotic pathogens can contaminate surface water and streambed sediment and could affect both wildlife and human health. This study examined the environmental occurrence of gene markers for livestock-related bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens and antibiotic resistance in surface waters within the South Fork Iowa River basin before and after periods of swine manure application on agricultural land. Increased concentrations of indicator bacteria after manure application exceeding Iowa's state bacteria water quality standards suggest that swine manure contributes to diminished water quality and may pose a risk to human health. Additionally, the occurrence of HEV and numerous bacterial pathogen genes for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus in both manure samples and in corresponding surface water following periods of manure application suggests a potential role for swine in the spreading of zoonotic pathogens to the surrounding environment. During this study, several zoonotic pathogens were detected including Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, pathogenic enterococci, and S. aureus; all of which can pose mild to serious health risks to swine, humans, and other wildlife. This research provides the foundational understanding required for future assessment of the risk to environmental health from livestock-related zoonotic pathogen exposures in this region. This information could also be important for maintaining swine herd biosecurity and protecting the health of wildlife near swine facilities.

  9. Isolation and molecular characterization of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes from diverse water resources including household drinking water from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Tania; Hameed, Abdul; Muazzam, Ambreen Gul; Jung, Suk-Yul; Gul, Asma; Matin, Abdul

    2013-08-01

    Acanthamoeba, an opportunistic protozoan pathogen, is ubiquitous in nature, and therefore plays a predatory role and helps control microbial communities in the ecosystem. These Acanthamoeba species are recognized as opportunistic human pathogens that may cause blinding keratitis and rare but fatal granulomatous encephalitis. To date, there is not a single report demonstrating Acanthamoeba isolation and identification from environmental sources in Pakistan, and that is the aim of this study. Acanthamoeba were identified by morphological characteristics of their cysts on non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. Additionally, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. Furthermore, our PCR and sequencing results confirmed seven different pathogenic and nonpathogenic genotypes, including T2-T10, T4, T5, T7, T15, T16, and T17. To the best of our knowledge, we have identified and isolated Acanthamoeba sp., for the first time, from water resources of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. There is an urgent need to address (1) the pathogenic potential of the identified genotypes and (2) explore other environmental sources from the country to examine the water quality and the current status of Acanthamoeba species in Pakistan, which may be a potential threat for public health across the country.

  10. Retrospective and prospective perspectives on zoonotic brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Brucella are pathogenic bacteria exceedingly well adapted to their hosts. The bacterium is transmitted by direct contact within the same host species or accidentally to secondary hosts, such as humans. Human brucellosis is strongly linked to the management of domesticated animals and ingestion of their products. Since the domestication of ungulates and dogs in the Fertile Crescent and Asia in 12000 and 33000 ya, respectively, a steady supply of well adapted emergent Brucella pathogens causing zoonotic disease has been provided. Likewise, anthropogenic modification of wild life may have also impacted host susceptibility and Brucella selection. Domestication and human influence on wild life animals are not neutral phenomena. Consequently, Brucella organisms have followed their hosts’ fate and have been selected under conditions that favor high transmission rate. The “arm race” between Brucella and their preferred hosts has been driven by genetic adaptation of the bacterium confronted with the evolving immune defenses of the host. Management conditions, such as clustering, selection, culling, and vaccination of Brucella preferred hosts have profound influences in the outcome of brucellosis and in the selection of Brucella organisms. Countries that have controlled brucellosis systematically used reliable smooth live vaccines, consistent immunization protocols, adequate diagnostic tests, broad vaccination coverage and sustained removal of the infected animals. To ignore and misuse tools and strategies already available for the control of brucellosis may promote the emergence of new Brucella variants. The unrestricted use of low-efficacy vaccines may promote a “false sense of security” and works towards selection of Brucella with higher virulence and transmission potential. PMID:24860561

  11. Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD): Rare Disease of Zoonotic Origin.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, M

    2016-09-01

    Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a rare tick borne zoonotic disease that causes acute febrile hemorrhagic illness in humans and monkeys especially in southern part of India. The disease is caused by highly pathogenic KFD virus (KFDV) which belongs to member of the genus Flavivirus and family Flaviviridae. The disease is transmitted to monkeys and humans by infective tick Haemaphysalisspinigera. Seasonal outbreaks are expected to occur during the months of January to June. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the epidemiology, mode of transmission of KFD virus, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of the disease..

  12. Multi-locus tree and species tree approaches toward resolving a complex clade of downy mildews (Straminipila, Oomycota), including pathogens of beet and spinach

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Joon; Klosterman, Steven J.; Kummer, Volker; Voglmayr, Hermann; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Thines, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Accurate species determination of plant pathogens is a prerequisite for their control and quarantine, and further for assessing their potential threat to crops. The family Peronosporaceae (Straminipila; Oomycota) consists of obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause downy mildew disease on angiosperms, including a large number of cultivated plants. In the largest downy mildew genus Peronospora, a phylogenetically complex clade includes the economically important downy mildew pathogens of spinach and beet, as well as the type species of the genus Peronospora. To resolve this complex clade at the species level and to infer evolutionary relationships among them, we used multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and species tree estimation. Both approaches discriminated all nine currently accepted species and revealed four previously unrecognized lineages, which are specific to a host genus or species. This is in line with a narrow species concept, i.e. that a downy mildew species is associated with only a particular host plant genus or species. Instead of applying the dubious name Peronospora farinosa, which has been proposed for formal rejection, our results provide strong evidence that Peronospora schachtii is an independent species from lineages on Atriplex and apparently occurs exclusively on Beta vulgaris. The members of the clade investigated, the Peronospora rumicis clade, associate with three different host plant families, Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, and Polygonaceae, suggesting that they may have speciated following at least two recent inter-family host shifts, rather than contemporary cospeciation with the host plants. PMID:25772799

  13. Multi-locus tree and species tree approaches toward resolving a complex clade of downy mildews (Straminipila, Oomycota), including pathogens of beet and spinach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Klosterman, Steven J; Kummer, Volker; Voglmayr, Hermann; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Thines, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Accurate species determination of plant pathogens is a prerequisite for their control and quarantine, and further for assessing their potential threat to crops. The family Peronosporaceae (Straminipila; Oomycota) consists of obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause downy mildew disease on angiosperms, including a large number of cultivated plants. In the largest downy mildew genus Peronospora, a phylogenetically complex clade includes the economically important downy mildew pathogens of spinach and beet, as well as the type species of the genus Peronospora. To resolve this complex clade at the species level and to infer evolutionary relationships among them, we used multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and species tree estimation. Both approaches discriminated all nine currently accepted species and revealed four previously unrecognized lineages, which are specific to a host genus or species. This is in line with a narrow species concept, i.e. that a downy mildew species is associated with only a particular host plant genus or species. Instead of applying the dubious name Peronospora farinosa, which has been proposed for formal rejection, our results provide strong evidence that Peronospora schachtii is an independent species from lineages on Atriplex and apparently occurs exclusively on Beta vulgaris. The members of the clade investigated, the Peronospora rumicis clade, associate with three different host plant families, Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, and Polygonaceae, suggesting that they may have speciated following at least two recent inter-family host shifts, rather than contemporary cospeciation with the host plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Farm Fairs and Petting Zoos: A Review of Animal Contact as a Source of Zoonotic Enteric Disease.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Cheyenne C; Stanford, Kim; Narvaez-Bravo, Claudia; Callaway, Todd; McAllister, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Many public venues such as farms, fairs, and petting zoos encourage animal contact for both educational and entertainment purposes. However, healthy farm animals, including cattle, small ruminants, and poultry, can be reservoirs for enteric zoonotic pathogens, with human infections resulting in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and, in some cases, severe complications that can lead to death. As animals shed these organisms in their feces, contamination of themselves and their surroundings is unavoidable. The majority of North Americans reside in urban and suburban settings, and the general public often possess limited knowledge of agricultural practices and minimal contact with farm animals. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding of zoonotic pathogens, particularly how these pathogens are spread and the human behaviors that may increase the risk of infection. Human risk behaviors include hand-to-mouth contact immediately after physical contact with animals and their environments, a practice that facilitates the ingestion of pathogens. It is often young children who become ill due to their under-developed immune systems and poorer hygienic practices compared with adults, such as more frequent hand-to-mouth behaviors, and infrequent or improper hand washing. These illnesses are often preventable, simply through adequate hygiene and hand washing. Our objective was to use a structured approach to review the main causal organisms responsible for human illnesses acquired in petting zoo and open farm environments, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, nontyphoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium. Notable outbreaks involving direct contact with farm animals and farm, fair, or petting zoo environments are discussed and recommendations for how public venues can increase safety and hand hygiene compliance among visitors are proposed. The most effective protective measures against enteric illnesses include education of the public, increasing overall awareness

  15. Novel Insights into Cell Entry of Emerging Human Pathogenic Arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Chiara; Moreno, Héctor; Kunz, Stefan

    2018-06-22

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by emerging RNA viruses of the Arenavirus family are among the most devastating human diseases. Climate change, global trade, and increasing urbanization promote the emergence and re-emergence of these human pathogenic viruses. Emerging pathogenic arenaviruses are of zoonotic origin and reservoir-to-human transmission is crucial for spillover into human populations. Host cell attachment and entry are the first and most fundamental steps of every virus infection and represent major barriers for zoonotic transmission. During host cell invasion, viruses critically depend on cellular factors, including receptors, co-receptors, and regulatory proteins of endocytosis. An in-depth understanding of the complex interaction of a virus with cellular factors implicated in host cell entry is therefore crucial to predict the risk of zoonotic transmission, define the tissue tropism, and assess disease potential. Over the past years, investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying host cell invasion of human pathogenic arenaviruses uncovered remarkable viral strategies and provided novel insights into viral adaptation and virus-host co-evolution that will be covered in the present review. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Information to prevent human exposure to disease agents associated with wildlife—U.S. Geological Survey circulars on zoonotic disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others have published reports with information about geographic distribution, specific pathogens, disease ecology, and strategies to avoid exposure and infection for a selection of zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be passed from animals to humans, such as rabies and plague. This summary factsheet highlights the reports on plague, bat rabies, and raccoon roundworm with links to all seven zoonotic diseases covered in this series.

  17. Multisectoral prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda, 2017: A One Health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bulage, Lilian; Kihembo, Christine; Nantima, Noelina; Monje, Fred; Ndumu, Deo; Sentumbwe, Juliet; Mbolanyi, Betty; Aruho, Robert; Kaboyo, Winyi; Mutonga, David; Basler, Colin; Paige, Sarah; Barton Behravesh, Casey

    2018-01-01

    Background Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. Materials and methods The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was used for the prioritization of zoonoses. Workshop participants included voting members and observers representing multiple government and non-governmental sectors. During the workshop, criteria for prioritization were selected, and questions and weights relevant to each criterion were determined. We used a decision tree to provide a ranked list of zoonoses. Participants then established next steps for multisectoral engagement for the prioritized zoonoses. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated how criteria weights impacted disease prioritization. Results Forty-eight zoonoses were considered during the workshop. Criteria selected to prioritize zoonotic diseases were (1) severity of disease in humans in Uganda, (2) availability of effective control strategies, (3) potential to cause an epidemic or pandemic in humans or animals, (4) social and economic impacts, and (5) bioterrorism potential. Seven zoonotic diseases were identified as priorities for Uganda: anthrax, zoonotic influenza viruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, African trypanosomiasis, plague, and rabies. Sensitivity analysis did not indicate significant changes in zoonotic disease prioritization based on criteria weights. Discussion One Health approaches and multisectoral collaborations are crucial to the surveillance, prevention, and control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Uganda used such an approach to identify zoonoses of

  18. Bovine origin Staphylococcus aureus: A new zoonotic agent?

    PubMed

    Rao, Relangi Tulasi; Jayakumar, Kannan; Kumar, Pavitra

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to assess the nature of animal origin Staphylococcus aureus strains. The study has zoonotic importance and aimed to compare virulence between two different hosts, i.e., bovine and ovine origin. Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based methods used for the characterization of S. aureus strains and chick embryo model employed for the assessment of virulence capacity of strains. All statistical tests carried on R program, version 3.0.4. After initial screening and molecular characterization of the prevalence of S. aureus found to be 42.62% in bovine origin samples and 28.35% among ovine origin samples. Meanwhile, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus prevalence is found to be meager in both the hosts. Among the samples, only 6.8% isolates tested positive for methicillin resistance. The biofilm formation quantified and the variation compared among the host. A Welch two-sample t -test found to be statistically significant, t=2.3179, df=28.103, and p=0.02795. Chicken embryo model found effective to test the pathogenicity of the strains. The study helped to conclude healthy bovines can act as S. aureus reservoirs. Bovine origin S. aureus strains are more virulent than ovine origin strains. Bovine origin strains have high probability to become zoonotic pathogen. Further, gene knock out studies may be conducted to conclude zoonocity of the bovine origin strains.

  19. Bovine origin Staphylococcus aureus: A new zoonotic agent?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Relangi Tulasi; Jayakumar, Kannan; Kumar, Pavitra

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the nature of animal origin Staphylococcus aureus strains. The study has zoonotic importance and aimed to compare virulence between two different hosts, i.e., bovine and ovine origin. Materials and Methods: Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based methods used for the characterization of S. aureus strains and chick embryo model employed for the assessment of virulence capacity of strains. All statistical tests carried on R program, version 3.0.4. Results: After initial screening and molecular characterization of the prevalence of S. aureus found to be 42.62% in bovine origin samples and 28.35% among ovine origin samples. Meanwhile, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus prevalence is found to be meager in both the hosts. Among the samples, only 6.8% isolates tested positive for methicillin resistance. The biofilm formation quantified and the variation compared among the host. A Welch two-sample t-test found to be statistically significant, t=2.3179, df=28.103, and p=0.02795. Chicken embryo model found effective to test the pathogenicity of the strains. Conclusion: The study helped to conclude healthy bovines can act as S. aureus reservoirs. Bovine origin S. aureus strains are more virulent than ovine origin strains. Bovine origin strains have high probability to become zoonotic pathogen. Further, gene knock out studies may be conducted to conclude zoonocity of the bovine origin strains. PMID:29184376

  20. Multi-locus tree and species tree approaches toward resolving a complex clade of downy mildews (Straminipila, Oomycota), including pathogens of beet and spinach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate species determination of plant pathogens is a prerequisite for their control and quarantine, and further for assessing their potential threat to crops. The family Peronosporaceae (Straminipila; Oomycota) consists of obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause downy mildew disease on angiosperm...

  1. Metastatic Complications from Staphylococcus intermedius, a Zoonotic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Sree, Aruna; Tirrell, Sandra; Torres, Brenda; Rothman, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic infection is an infrequent complication of non-Staphylococcus aureus staphylococcal infection. Here we report a case of bloodstream infection due to Staphylococcus intermedius. To our knowledge, ours is the only known case of metastatic infection with S. intermedius. PMID:22170938

  2. Chapter 2. Assessing the importance of zoonotic waterborne pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryptosporidium, an apicomplexan protozoan, is reported to infect persons in 106 countries and more than 150 species of other mammals worldwide. Estimates of prevalence in humans vary greatly because reporting is not universally required, diagnostic methods vary greatly, and many persons have no acc...

  3. Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part I--nonparasitic zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Armstrong, J

    2002-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease ranging from mild and self-limiting to fatal. The risk of development of a zoonotic disease can be lessened by early recognition of infected animals, proper animal handling, basic biosecurity precautions, and, most importantly, personal hygiene.

  4. Overview of Zoonotic Diseases in Turkey: The One Health Concept and Future Threats.

    PubMed

    İnci, Abdullah; Doğanay, Mehmet; Özdarendeli, Aykut; Düzlü, Önder; Yıldırım, Alparslan

    2018-03-01

    Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections. The natural location of Turkey allows many emerged or re-emerged infections with zoonotic characteristics by animal movements, such as bird immigrations, and by human movements due to civil wars as seen with regional refugees. Numerous zoonotic diseases, including 37 bacterial, 13 fungal, 29 viral, 28 parasitic (3 trematodes, 7 cestodes, 10 nematodes, and 8 protozoan), and totally 107 infections, have been reported from Turkey to date. Additionally, many ectoparasitic zoonoses within 15 different arthropod groups and one leech infestation have been reported from Turkey to date. The "One Health" initiative is particularly relevant for developing strategies to combat zoonotic diseases. In this article, we review the occurrence of zoonotic diseases in man and animals in Turkey in the light of the "One Health" perspective.

  5. Development of a TaqMan Array Card for Acute-Febrile-Illness Outbreak Investigation and Surveillance of Emerging Pathogens, Including Ebola Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Ochieng, Caroline; Wiersma, Steve; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S; Whitmer, Shannon; Nichol, Stuart T; Moore, Christopher C; Kersh, Gilbert J; Kato, Cecilia; Sexton, Christopher; Petersen, Jeannine; Massung, Robert; Hercik, Christine; Crump, John A; Kibiki, Gibson; Maro, Athanasia; Mujaga, Buliga; Gratz, Jean; Jacob, Shevin T; Banura, Patrick; Scheld, W Michael; Juma, Bonventure; Onyango, Clayton O; Montgomery, Joel M; Houpt, Eric; Fields, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results and can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan and Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and Yersinia pestis), and 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 and bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction and amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, and specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, and the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity and a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Detection of tick-borne bacteria and babesia with zoonotic potential in Argas (Carios) vespertilionis (Latreille, 1802) ticks from British bats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jizhou; Fernández de Marco, Maria Del Mar; Goharriz, Hooman; Phipps, L Paul; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Wu, Shaoqiang; Lin, Xiangmei; Fooks, Anthony R; Johnson, Nicholas

    2018-01-30

    Ticks host a wide range of zoonotic pathogens and are a significant source of diseases that affect humans and livestock. However, little is known about the pathogens associated with bat ticks. We have collected ectoparasites from bat carcasses over a seven year period. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) were extracted from 296 ticks removed from bats and the species designation was confirmed in all ticks as Argas (Carios) vespertilionis. A subset of these samples (n = 120) were tested for the presence of zoonotic pathogens by molecular methods. Babesia species, Rickettsia spp., within the spotted fever group (SFG), and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in ticks removed from 26 bats submitted from 14 counties across England. The prevalence of Rickettsia spp. was found to be highest in Pipistrellus pipistrellus from southern England. This study suggests that the tick species that host B. venatorum may include the genus Argas in addition to the genus Ixodes. As A. vespertilionis has been reported to feed on humans, detection of B. venatorum and SFG Rickettsia spp. could present a risk of disease transmission in England. No evidence for the presence of flaviviruses or Issyk-Kul virus (nairovirus) was found in these tick samples.

  7. Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  8. Zoonotic diseases: health aspects of Canadian geese.

    PubMed

    Dieter, R A; Dieter, R S; Dieter, R A; Gulliver, G

    2001-11-01

    Review zoonotic diseases associated with Canadian geese. Review article: A review of the multiple physical, microbiologic and safety concerns, and methods used in controlling this potential problem. Over the last decade the Canadian goose population (protected by international treaties and protection acts) has increased rapidly such that in many cities they have become a pest rather than an admired wild bird. Their increasing numbers have caused a number of potential healthcare concerns including: physical, bacterial, parasitic, allergic and viral potential problems. The Canadian goose fecal droppings of one per minute have caused falls and the flying geese have caused air traffic accidents. Bacterial concerns, including botulism, salmonella and E. coli have all been reviewed and presented concerns. The viral Newcastle disease may be detected with hemagglutination studies and the Giardia psittaci parasites have been repeatedly found in their droppings. The Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes have been present on stool study. Definite links to human infectious diseases have been difficult to prove. Revision of the current laws and new control programs must be developed.

  9. Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in Kenya, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Bitek, Austine; Osoro, Eric; Pieracci, Emily G.; Muema, Josephat; Mwatondo, Athman; Kungu, Mathew; Nanyingi, Mark; Gharpure, Radhika; Njenga, Kariuki; Thumbi, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic diseases have varying public health burden and socio-economic impact across time and geographical settings making their prioritization for prevention and control important at the national level. We conducted systematic prioritization of zoonotic diseases and developed a ranked list of these diseases that would guide allocation of resources to enhance their surveillance, prevention, and control. Methods A group of 36 medical, veterinary, and wildlife experts in zoonoses from government, research institutions and universities in Kenya prioritized 36 diseases using a semi-quantitative One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with slight adaptations. The tool comprises five steps: listing of zoonotic diseases to be prioritized, development of ranking criteria, weighting criteria by pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchical process, scoring each zoonotic disease based on the criteria, and aggregation of scores. Results In order of importance, the participants identified severity of illness in humans, epidemic/pandemic potential in humans, socio-economic burden, prevalence/incidence and availability of interventions (weighted scores assigned to each criteria were 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.17 and 0.17 respectively), as the criteria to define the relative importance of the diseases. The top five priority diseases in descending order of ranking were anthrax, trypanosomiasis, rabies, brucellosis and Rift Valley fever. Conclusion Although less prominently mentioned, neglected zoonotic diseases ranked highly compared to those with epidemic potential suggesting these endemic diseases cause substantial public health burden. The list of priority zoonotic disease is crucial for the targeted allocation of resources and informing disease prevention and control programs for zoonoses in Kenya. PMID:27557120

  10. Pathogenesis and transmission of H7 and H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in mallards including the recent intercontinental H5 viruses (H5N8 and H5N2)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV’s) remain a threat to poultry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses, including HPAIV, are usually non-pathogenic for ducks and other wild aquatic birds, with the exception of Asian lineage H5N1, and recently H5N8, HPAIVs, which can cause moderate to sev...

  11. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE) may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis), food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis) and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis). Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs) or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber) causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears PMID:21429191

  13. Zoonotic Chlamydiaceae Species Associated with Trachoma, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, James; Ruettger, Anke; Kandel, Ram Prasad; Sachse, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness. Commercial assays do not discriminate among all Chlamydiaceae species that might be involved in trachoma. We investigated whether a commercial Micro-ArrayTube could discriminate Chlamydiaceae species in DNA extracted directly from conjunctival samples from 101 trachoma patients in Nepal. To evaluate organism viability, we extracted RNA, reverse transcribed it, and subjected it to quantitative real-time PCR. We found that 71 (70.3%) villagers were infected. ArrayTube sensitivity was 91.7% and specificity was 100% compared with that of real-time PCR. Concordance between genotypes detected by microarray and ompA genotyping was 100%. Species distribution included 54 (76%) single infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. suis, or C. pecorum, and 17 (24%) mixed infections that includied C. pneumoniae. Ocular infections were caused by 5 Chlamydiaceae species. Additional studies of trachoma pathogenesis involving Chlamydiaceae species other than C. trachomatis and their zoonotic origins are needed. PMID:24274654

  14. Carrier status of leptospirosis among cattle in Sri Lanka: a zoonotic threat to public health.

    PubMed

    Gamage, C D; Koizumi, N; Perera, A K C; Muto, M; Nwafor-Okoli, C; Ranasinghe, S; Kularatne, S A M; Rajapakse, R P V J; Kanda, K; Lee, R B; Obayashi, Y; Ohnishi, M; Tamashiro, H

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance and one of the notifiable diseases in Sri Lanka. Recent studies on human leptospirosis have suggested that the cattle could be one of the important reservoirs for human infection in the country. However, there is a dearth of local information on bovine leptospirosis, including its implications for human transmission. Thus, this study attempted to determine the carrier status of pathogenic Leptospira spp in cattle in Sri Lanka. A total of 164 cattle kidney samples were collected from the meat inspection hall in Colombo city during routine inspection procedures conducted by the municipal veterinary surgeons. The DNA was extracted and subjected to nested PCR for the detection of leptospiral flaB gene. Amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenic distances were calculated. Of 164 samples, 20 (12.2%) were positive for flaB-PCR. Sequenced amplicons revealed that Leptospira species were deduced to L. borgpetersenii (10/20, 50%), L. kirschneri (7/20, 35%) and L. interrogans (3/20, 15%). The results indicate that a high proportion of the sampled cattle harbour a variety of pathogenic Leptospira spp, which can serve as important reservoirs for human disease. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Genomic Dissection of an Icelandic Epidemic of Respiratory Disease in Horses and Associated Zoonotic Cases

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Harris, Simon R.; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Gammeljord, Kristina; Steward, Karen F.; Newton, J. Richard; Robinson, Carl; Charbonneau, Amelia R. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iceland is free of the major infectious diseases of horses. However, in 2010 an epidemic of respiratory disease of unknown cause spread through the country’s native horse population of 77,000. Microbiological investigations ruled out known viral agents but identified the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) in diseased animals. We sequenced the genomes of 257 isolates of S. zooepidemicus to differentiate epidemic from endemic strains. We found that although multiple endemic clones of S. zooepidemicus were present, one particular clone, sequence type 209 (ST209), was likely to have been responsible for the epidemic. Concurrent with the epidemic, ST209 was also recovered from a human case of septicemia, highlighting the pathogenic potential of this strain. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the incursion of this strain into one training yard during February 2010 provided a nidus for the infection of multiple horses that then transmitted the strain to farms throughout Iceland. This study represents the first time that whole-genome sequencing has been used to investigate an epidemic on a national scale to identify the likely causative agent and the link to an associated zoonotic infection. Our data highlight the importance of national biosecurity to protect vulnerable populations of animals and also demonstrate the potential impact of S. zooepidemicus transmission to other animals, including humans. PMID:28765219

  16. Zoonotic viral diseases and the frontier of early diagnosis, control and prevention.

    PubMed

    Heeney, J L

    2006-11-01

    Public awareness of the human health risks of zoonotic infections has grown in recent years. Currently, concern of H5N1 flu transmission from migratory bird populations has increased with foci of fatal human cases. This comes on the heels of other major zoonotic viral epidemics in the last decade. These include other acute emerging or re-emerging viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West-Nile virus, Ebola virus, monkeypox, as well as the more inapparent insidious slow viral and prion diseases. Virus infections with zoonotic potential can become serious killers once they are able to establish the necessary adaptations for efficient human-to-human transmission under circumstances sufficient to reach epidemic proportions. The monitoring and early diagnosis of these potential risks are overlapping frontiers of human and veterinary medicine. Here, current viral zoonotics and evolving threats are reviewed.

  17. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Kohansal, Mohammad Hasan; Mirshafiee, Siavash; Siyadatpanah, Abolghasem; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Gholami, Shirzad

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Parasitic infections, especially of the zoonotic-parasitic type, are the most important health, economic, and social problems in developing countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the available data on gastrointestinal parasites of carnivores in Iran and their ability to infect humans. Materials and Methods: Studies reporting intestinal parasites of carnivores were systematically collected from nine electronic English and Persian databases and Proceedings of Iranian parasitology and veterinary congresses published between 1997 and 2015. A total of 26 studies issued from 1997 to 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Results: The pooled proportion of intestinal parasites of carnivores was estimated as 80.4% (95% confidence interval=70.2-88.8%). The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, and jackals were 57.89%, 90.62%, 89.17%, and 97.32%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum (20.45%), Toxocara spp. (18.81%), Taenia hydatigena (15.28%), Mesocestoides lineatus (11.83%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), and Toxascaris leonina (8.69%) were the most frequently observed parasites. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores particularly Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections such as cystic hydatid, alveolar cysts, and visceral or ocular larva migrants in Iranian people. Therefore, it is essential for public health centers to develop more effective control strategies to decrease infections rates in carnivores’ populations. PMID:29479158

  18. Fascioliasis: An Ongoing Zoonotic Trematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nyindo, Mramba; Lukambagire, Abdul-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic trematode infections are an area of the neglected tropical diseases that have become of major interest to global and public health due to their associated morbidity. Human fascioliasis is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health. It affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and over 180 million are at risk of infection in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The one health paradigm is an area that seeks to address the problem of zoonotic infections through a comprehensive and sustainable approach. This review attempts to address the major challenges in managing human and animal fascioliasis with valuable insights gained from the one health paradigm to global health and multidisciplinary integration. PMID:26417603

  19. Fascioliasis: An Ongoing Zoonotic Trematode Infection.

    PubMed

    Nyindo, Mramba; Lukambagire, Abdul-Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic trematode infections are an area of the neglected tropical diseases that have become of major interest to global and public health due to their associated morbidity. Human fascioliasis is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health. It affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and over 180 million are at risk of infection in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The one health paradigm is an area that seeks to address the problem of zoonotic infections through a comprehensive and sustainable approach. This review attempts to address the major challenges in managing human and animal fascioliasis with valuable insights gained from the one health paradigm to global health and multidisciplinary integration.

  20. 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid: activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens including Vibrio cholerae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Krishnendu; Haldar, Debasish

    2017-10-01

    We report a new synthetic aromatic ε-amino acid containing a triazole moiety with antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and pathogenic bacteria including Vibrio cholerae. Structure-property relationship studies revealed that all the functional groups are essential to enhance the antimicrobial activity. The 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid was synthesized by click chemistry. From X-ray crystallography, the amino acid adopts a kink-like structure where the phenyl and triazole rings are perpendicular to each other and the amine and acid groups maintain an angle of 60°. The agar diffusion test shows that the amino acid has significant antibacterial activity. The liquid culture test exhibits that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio cholerae is 59.5 µg ml-1. FE-SEM experiments were performed to study the morphological changes of bacterial shape after treatment with compound 1. The antimicrobial activity of the amino acid was further studied by DNA binding and degradation study, protein binding, dye-binding assay and morphological analysis. Moreover, the amino acid does not have any harmful effect on eukaryotes.

  1. Individualistic values are related to an increase in the outbreaks of infectious diseases and zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Walther, Bruno A

    2018-03-01

    Collectivist versus individualistic values are important attributes of intercultural variation. Collectivist values favour in-group members over out-group members and may have evolved to protect in-group members against pathogen transmission. As predicted by the pathogen stress theory of cultural values, more collectivist countries are associated with a higher historical pathogen burden. However, if lifestyles of collectivist countries indeed function as a social defence which decreases pathogen transmission, then these countries should also have experienced fewer disease outbreaks in recent times. We tested this novel hypothesis by correlating the values of collectivism-individualism for 66 countries against their historical pathogen burden, recent number of infectious disease outbreaks and zoonotic disease outbreaks and emerging infectious disease events, and four potentially confounding variables. We confirmed the previously established negative relationship between individualism and historical pathogen burden with new data. While we did not find a correlation for emerging infectious disease events, we found significant positive correlations between individualism and the number of infectious disease outbreaks and zoonotic disease outbreaks. Therefore, one possible cost for individualistic cultures may be their higher susceptibility to disease outbreaks. We support further studies into the exact protective behaviours and mechanisms of collectivist societies which may inhibit disease outbreaks.

  2. Molecular detection of Rickettsia conorii and other zoonotic spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Edouard, Sophie; Parola, Philippe; Pfister, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in Romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. However, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in Romania. In urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks infesting dogs in a greater urban area in South-eastern Romania. Adult ixodid ticks (n=205), including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=120), Dermacentor reticulatus (n=76) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9) were collected from naturally infested dogs and were screened for SFG rickettsiae using conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, ticks were screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. Four zoonotic SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia raoultii (16%) and Rickettsia slovaca (3%) in D. reticulatus, Rickettsia monacensis (11%) in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia conorii (0.8%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. Moreover, pathogens of veterinary importance, such as B. canis (21%) in D. reticulatus and E. canis (7.5%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. were identified. The findings expand the knowledge on distribution of SFG rickettsiae as well as canine pathogens in Romania. Additionally, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of R. conorii in ticks from Romania. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Zoonotic Diseases--Fostering Awareness in Critical Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Metre, David C.; Morley, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are shared between humans and other vertebrate animals. Extension professionals often serve as consultants and educators to individuals at high risk of zoonotic diseases, such as participants in 4-H livestock projects. Effective education about zoonotic diseases begins with an awareness of the…

  4. Investigation of zoonotic infections among Auckland Zoo staff: 1991-2010.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, M B; Morris, A J; Sinclair, D A; Pritchard, C P

    2012-12-01

    Investigation was undertaken to assess the occurrence of zoonotic infection among staff at Auckland Zoological Park, New Zealand, in 1991, 2002 and 2010. Serial cross-sectional health surveys in 1991, 2002 and 2010 comprising a health questionnaire, and serological, immunological and microbiological analysis for a range of potential zoonotic infections were performed. Laboratory results for zoo animals were also reviewed for 2004-2010 to assess the occurrence of potential zoonotic infections. Veterinary clinic, animal handler, grounds, maintenance and administrative staff participated in the surveys, with 49, 42 and 46 participants in the 1991, 2002 and 2010 surveys, respectively (29% of total zoo staff in 2010). A small number of staff reported work-related infections, including erysipelas (1), giardiasis (1) and campylobacteriosis (1). The seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus and Toxoplasma gondii closely reflected those in the Auckland community. No carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected, and most of those with anti-HBV antibodies had been vaccinated. Few staff had serological evidence of past leptospiral infection. Three veterinary clinic staff had raised Chlamydophila psittaci antibodies, all < 1 : 160 indicating past exposure. Two staff (in 1991) had asymptomatic carriage of Giardia lamblia and one person (in 2010) had a dermatophyte infection. After 1991, positive tests indicating exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis were < 10%, comparable to the general New Zealand population. Zoo animals had infections with potential zoonotic agents, including G. lamblia, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and T. gondii, although the occurrence was low. Zoonotic agents pose an occupational risk to zoo workers. While there was evidence of some zoonotic transmission at Auckland Zoo, this was uncommon and risks appear to be adequately managed under current policies and procedures. Nevertheless, ongoing assessment of risk factors is needed as

  5. Zoonotic potential of Enterocytozoon genotypes in humans and pigs in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prasertbun, Rapeepun; Mori, Hirotake; Pintong, Ai-Rada; Sanyanusin, Suparut; Popruk, Supaluk; Komalamisra, Chalit; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Buddhirongawatr, Ruangrat; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Mahittikorn, Aongart

    2017-01-15

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic intestinal pathogen infecting humans and a variety of animals. Its mode of transmission and zoonotic potential are not completely understood. E. bieneusi has been frequently identified in pigs. The objective of our study was to investigate E. bieneusi in pigs and humans in Western and Central Thailand to determine its presence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential. A total of 277 human and 210 pig faecal samples were collected and analysed. E. bieneusi was found in 5.4% and 28.1% of human and pig samples, respectively, by nested PCR. Genotyping based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA demonstrated three known genotypes (D, H, PigEb10) and eight novel genotypes (TMH1-8) in humans, and five known genotypes (D, EbpA, EbpC, H, O) and 11 novel genotypes (TMP1-11) in pigs. All known genotypes identified in humans and pigs had zoonotic potential. Further studies are needed to evaluate zoonotic risk of novel genotypes, as pigs may play an important role in the transmission of E. bieneusi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inferences on the phylogeography of the fungal pathogen Heterobasidion annosum, including evidence of interspecific horizontal genetic transfer and of human-mediated, long-range dispersal

    Treesearch

    R.E. Linzer; W.J. Otrosina; P. Gonthier; J. Bruhn; G. Laflamme; G. Bussieres; M. Garbelotto

    2008-01-01

    Fungi in the basidiomycete species complex Heterobasidion annosum are significant root-rot pathogens of conifers throughout the northern hemisphere. We utilize a multilocus phylogenetic approach to examine hypotheses regarding the evolution and divergence of two Heterobasidion taxa associated with pines: the Eurasian H. ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY: CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTOR ATTRACTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE (INCLUDING DOMESTIC SEWAGE) UNDER 40 CFR PART 503

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge applied to land or placed on a surface disposal site, and it provides guidance concerning those requirements. The document is intended for: (1) Owners and operators of treatment works treati...

  8. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations.

    PubMed

    Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella . Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis , the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen.

  9. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella. Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis, the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen. PMID:28386446

  10. [Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].

    PubMed

    Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

    1997-05-01

    Bactericidal effects of various kinds of AWASEZU (processed vinegar, 2.5% acidity) on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria were examined. the order of bactericidal activities was NIHAIZU (3.5% NaCl was added) > SANBA-IZU (3.5% NaCl and 10% sucrose were added) > plain vinegar (spirit vinegar) > AMAZU (10% sucrose was added). This indicates that their activities were enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride and suppressed by the addition of sugar. On the other hand, when soy sauce was used instead of sodium chloride, the order of bactericidal activities was plain vinegar > AMAZU > NIHAIZU > SANBAIZU. This is mainly because their activities were suppressed by the increase in the pH value. The effect of sodium chloride (0.01-15%) and temperature (10-50 degrees C) on bactericidal activities against E. coli O157:H7 in spirit vinegar (0.5-2.5% acidity) was further examined. When vinegar was used in combination with sodium chloride, predominant synergism on the bactericidal activity was observed. Their activities were markedly enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride in proportion to the concentration. In addition to this, at higher temperatures spirit vinegar killed bacteria much more rapidly. It should be noted that the bactericidal activity of spirit vinegar was extremely enhanced by the combined use of the addition of sodium chloride and the rise of temperature. For example, in 2.5% acidity vinegar, the time required for 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers at 20 degrees C was shortened to 1/140-fold by the addition of 5% sodium chloride, shortened to 1/51-fold by the rise of the reaction temperature at 40 degrees C, and shortened to 1/830-fold; 0.89 minutes by both the addition of 5% sodium chloride and the rise of temperature at 40 degrees C. In order to propose the methods to prevent food poisoning by bacterial infection, bactericidal activities of vinegar solution containing sodium chloride on cooking tools and

  11. Different types of stainless steel used in equipment in meat plants do not affect the initial microbial transfer, including pathogens, from pork skin.

    PubMed

    Larivière-Gauthier, Guillaume; Quessy, Sylvain; Fournaise, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    This study describes and measures the impact of different compositions and finishes of stainless steel used in equipment in the meat industry on the transfer of natural flora and selected pathogens from artificially contaminated pork skin. It is known that the adhesion to surfaces of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, 2 pathogens frequently found in contaminated pork meat, depends on the nature and roughness of the surface. Our results show no statistically significant differences in microbial transfer regardless of the types of stainless steel considered, with the highest measured transfer difference being 0.18 log colony-forming units (CFUs)/800 cm(2). Moreover, no differences in total microbial community were observed after transfer on the 5 types of stainless steel using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). It was concluded that the different characteristics of the stainless steel tested did not affect the initial bacterial transfer in this study.

  12. Zoonotic Parasites of Sheltered and Stray Dogs in the Era of the Global Economic and Political Crisis.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mihalca, Andrei D; Traub, Rebecca J; Lappin, Michael; Baneth, Gad

    2017-10-01

    Sheltered and stray dogs, exposed to zoonotic parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods, may represent a major threat to public health. Resources for addressing health problems in these animals are not on the priority list of veterinary and public health authorities. Thus, dogs continue to represent an important reservoir for zoonotic parasites. In this article, we review the importance of sheltered and stray dogs as reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in different parts of the world, especially in the context of the current global political and economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emerging Zoonotic Influenza A Virus Detection in Myanmar: Surveillance Practices and Findings.

    PubMed

    Tun Win, Ye; Gardner, Emma; Hadrill, David; Su Mon, Cho Cho; Kyin, Maung Maung; Maw, Min Thein; Claes, Filip; von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Wongsathapornchai, Kachen; Mon, Hla Hla; Myint, Win Win; Thein, Wai Zin; Mon, Pont Pont

    We describe 2-season, risk-based, virological surveillance for zoonotic avian influenza in Myanmar and report the first detection of influenza A subtypes H5N6 and H9N2 in Myanmar. The study focused mainly on the live bird markets in border townships, where illegal poultry importation from China usually takes place. The objective was to enhance early warning for low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) incursion. The study followed the guidelines of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for influenza A(H7N9) surveillance in uninfected countries. The sampling strategy was risk-based at all sampling levels. Sample collection and laboratory analysis were carried out with the government of the Union of the Republic of Myanmar. Laboratory testing was according to a previously published FAO laboratory protocol and algorithm designed to detect a range of influenza A subtypes. Challenges to implementation are outlined. The study provided evidence that the H7N9 subtype had not entered Myanmar but detected other subtypes, including H5N6 and H9N2. Although there were logistical difficulties associated with nation-related issues, the results highlight the importance and feasibility of this risk-based active surveillance, which should be urgently established in other countries, especially those located at the east-southeast influenza epicenter.

  14. Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Environmentally Forced Zoonotic Disease Emergence: Sin Nombre Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Scott; Mills, James N.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Parmenter, Robert R.; Richardson, Kyle S.; Harris, Rachel L.; Douglass, Richard J.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Luis, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. We propose a mechanistic understanding of human–reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. Crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. We found that disease cases were greatest in arid states and declined exponentially with increasing precipitation. Within arid environments, relatively rare climatic conditions (e.g., El Niño) are associated with increased rainfall and reservoir abundance, producing more frequent virus transmission and host dispersal. We suggest that deer mice increase their occupancy of peridomestic structures during spring–summer, amplifying intraspecific transmission and human infection risk. Disease incidence in arid states may increase with predicted climatic changes. Mechanistic approaches incorporating reservoir behavior, reservoir–human interactions, and pathogen spillover could enhance our understanding of global hantavirus ecology, with applications to other directly transmitted zoonoses. PMID:26955081

  15. Characterization and zoonotic potential of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eui-Hwa; Ko, Sungjin; Chae, Joon-Seok; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of canine uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and the interaction between canine UPEC and human bladder epithelial cells. Ten E. coli isolates collected from dogs with cystitis were analyzed for antimicrobial resistance patterns, the presence of virulence factors, and biofilm formation. The ability of these isolates to induce cytotoxicity, invade human bladder epithelial cells, and stimulate an immune response was also determined. We observed a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among canine UPEC isolates. All virulence genes tested (including adhesins, iron acquisition, and protectin), except toxin genes, were detected among the canine UPEC isolates. We found that all isolates showed varying degrees of biofilm formation (mean, 0.26; range, 0.07 to 0.82), using a microtiter plate assay to evaluate biofilm formation by the isolates. Cytotoxicity to human bladder epithelial cells by the canine UPEC isolates increased in a time-dependent manner, with a 56.9% and 36.1% reduction in cell viability compared with the control at 6 and 9 h of incubation, respectively. We found that most canine UPEC isolates were able to invade human bladder epithelial cells. The interaction between these isolates and human bladder epithelial cells strongly induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8. We demonstrated that canine UPEC isolates can interact with human bladder epithelial cells, although the detailed mechanisms remain unknown. The results suggest that canine UPEC isolates, rather than dogspecific pathogens, have zoonotic potential.

  16. Interventions to reduce zoonotic and pandemic risks from avian influenza in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Malik; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Wu, Joseph T.; Feng, Luzhao; Guan, Yi; Yu, Hongjie; Leung, Gabriel M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Novel influenza viruses continue to emerge posing zoonotic and potentially pandemic threats, avian influenza A/H7N9 being the most recent example. While closure of live poultry markets in mainland China was effective at aborting A/H7N9 outbreaks temporarily, they are difficult to sustain, given the current poultry production and marketing systems in China. We summarise interventions taken in mainland China to date. We provide evidence for other more sustainable but effective interventions in the live poultry market (LPM) systems that reduce risk of zoonotic influenza including “rest days” in LPM and banning live poultry in markets overnight. On the longer term, separation of live ducks and geese from terrestrial poultry in LPM systems can reduce the risk of emergence of zoonotic, epizootic (and potentially pandemic) viruses at source. Given evidence that A/H7N9 is now endemic in over half of the provinces in mainland China, and will continue to cause recurrent zoonotic disease in the winter months, such interventions should receive high priority in China as well as other Asian countries which are at risk of introduction of A/H7N9 through cross-border poultry movements. Such generic measures are likely to reduce current as well as future threats from zoonotic influenza. PMID:26654122

  17. Extraintestinal Pathogenic and Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli, Including Sequence Type 131 (ST131), from Retail Chicken Breasts in the United States in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Stephen B.; Johnston, Brian; Thuras, Paul; Clock, Sarah; Crupain, Michael; Rangan, Urvashi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chicken meat products are hypothesized to be vehicles for transmitting antimicrobial-resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) to consumers. To reassess this hypothesis in the current era of heightened concerns about antimicrobial use in food animals, we analyzed 175 chicken-source E. coli isolates from a 2013 Consumer Reports national survey. Isolates were screened by PCR for ExPEC-defining virulence genes. The 25 ExPEC isolates (12% of 175) and a 2:1 randomly selected set of 50 non-ExPEC isolates were assessed for their phylogenetic/clonal backgrounds and virulence genotypes for comparison with their resistance profiles and the claims on the retail packaging label (“organic,” “no antibiotics,” and “natural”). Compared with the findings for non-ExPEC isolates, the group of ExPEC isolates had a higher prevalence of phylogroup B2 isolates (44% versus 4%; P < 0.001) and a lower prevalence of phylogroup A isolates (4% versus 30%; P = 0.001), a higher prevalence of multiple individual virulence genes, higher virulence scores (median, 11 [range, 4 to 16] versus 8 [range, 1 to 14]; P = 0.001), and higher resistance scores (median, 4 [range, 0 to 8] versus 3 [range, 0 to 10]; P < 0.001). All five isolates of sequence type 131 (ST131) were ExPEC (P = 0.003), were as extensively resistant as the other isolates tested, and had higher virulence scores than the other isolates tested (median, 12 [range, 11 to 13] versus 8 [range, 1 to 16]; P = 0.005). Organic labeling predicted lower resistance scores (median, 2 [range, 0 to 3] versus 4 [range, 0 to 10]; P = 0.008) but no difference in ExPEC status or virulence scores. These findings document a persisting reservoir of extensively antimicrobial-resistant ExPEC isolates, including isolates from ST131, in retail chicken products in the United States, suggesting a potential public health threat. IMPORTANCE We found that among Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products

  18. Evaluation of the presence and zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia suis in a pig slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    De Puysseleyr, Kristien; De Puysseleyr, Leentje; Dhondt, Hendrik; Geens, Tom; Braeckman, Lutgart; Morré, Servaas A; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-10-30

    A significant number of studies on pig farms and wild boars worldwide, demonstrate the endemic presence of Chlamydia suis in pigs. However, the zoonotic potential of this pathogen, phylogenetically closely related to Chlamydia trachomatis, is still uninvestigated. Therefore, this study aims to examine the zoonotic transmission in a Belgian pig abattoir. Presence of Chlamydia suis in pigs, contact surfaces, air and employees was assessed using a Chlamydia suis specific real-time PCR and culture. Furthermore, Chlamydia suis isolates were tested for the presence of the tet(C) gene. Chlamydia suis bacteria could be demonstrated in samples from pigs, the air and contact surfaces. Moreover, eye swabs of two employees were positive for Chlamydia suis by both PCR and culture. The tet(C) gene was absent in both human Chlamydia suis isolates and no clinical signs were reported. These findings suggest the need for further epidemiological and clinical research to elucidate the significance of human ocular Chlamydia suis infections.

  19. Chlamydia gallinacea: a widespread emerging Chlamydia agent with zoonotic potential in backyard poultry.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Luther, M; Macklin, K; Pugh, D; Li, J; Zhang, J; Roberts, J; Kaltenboeck, B; Wang, C

    2017-10-01

    Chlamydia gallinacea, a new chlamydial agent, has been reported in four European countries as well as Argentina and China. Experimentally infected chickens with C. gallinacea in previous study showed no clinical signs but had significantly reduced gains in body weight (6·5-11·4%). Slaughterhouse workers exposed to infected chickens have developed atypical pneumonia, indicating C. gallinacea is likely a zoonotic agent. In this study, FRET-PCR confirmed that C. gallinacea was present in 12·4% (66/531) of oral-pharyngeal samples from Alabama backyard poultry. Phylogenetic comparisons based on ompA variable domain showed that 16 sequenced samples represented 14 biotypes. We report for the first time the presence of C. gallinacea in North America, and this warrants further research on the organism's pathogenicity, hosts, transmission, and zoonotic potential.

  20. [The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis)--no zoonotic risk for Brandenburg?].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Sabine; Sutor, Astrid; Mattis, Roswitha; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of the raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris [B.] procyonis), a dangerous zoonotic pathogen for humans, in raccoons living in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany. In the years 2008 to 2013, a total of 762 raccoons, dating from hunting bags, were examined for intestinal helminths. No raccoon roundworm specimen was detected, but 27 samples were positive for Mesocestoides spp. Earlier studies had proved the presence of B. procyonis in Hesse and since 2005 the parasite has also been found in the western part of Saxony-Anhalt. The migration ability of raccoons may promote a further distribution of this parasite and could increase the risk for zoonotic infections in humans.

  1. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level.

  2. [Mosquitoes as vectors for exotic pathogens in Germany].

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Krüger, A; Kuhn, C; Plenge-Bönig, A; Thomas, S M; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Tannich, E

    2014-05-01

    As a result of intensified globalization of international trade and of substantial travel activities, mosquito-borne exotic pathogens are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. In Germany some 50 different mosquito species are known, several of which have vector competence for pathogens. During the last few years a number of zoonotic arboviruses that are pathogenic for humans have been isolated from mosquitoes in Germany including Usutu, Sindbis and Batai viruses. In addition, filarial worms, such as Dirofilaria repens have been repeatedly detected in mosquitoes from the federal state of Brandenburg. Other pathogens, in particular West Nile virus, are expected to emerge sooner or later in Germany as the virus is already circulating in neighboring countries, e.g. France, Austria and the Czech Republic. In upcoming years the risk for arbovirus transmission might increase in Germany due to increased occurrence of new so-called "invasive" mosquito species, such as the Asian bush mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus or the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. These invasive species are characterized by high vector competence for a broad range of pathogens and a preference for human blood meals. For risk assessment, a number of mosquito and pathogen surveillance projects have been initiated in Germany during the last few years; however, mosquito control strategies and plans of action have to be developed and put into place to allow early and efficient action against possible vector-borne epidemics.

  3. Enterococcus faecalis urinary-tract infections: Do they have a zoonotic origin?

    PubMed

    Abat, Cédric; Huart, Michael; Garcia, Vincent; Dubourg, Grégory; Raoult, Didier

    2016-10-01

    Major human pathogens are frequently isolated from meat-producing animals, particularly poultry. Among them is Enterococcus faecalis, which is known to be one of the main cause of human urinary-tract infections worldwide. Early in 2015, we detected several, consecutive abnormal increases in the weekly number of human E. faecalis infections in various medical settings in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France, especially including community-acquired urinary-tract infections. Speculating that this region-wide epidemiological event may have originated from animal-based food, we initiated this work to provide an overview of the epidemiology of E. faecalis, with a particular focus on the possible link between E. faecalis clones isolated from food-producing animals and those responsible for human urinary-tract infections. At that time, only one study had clearly identified strong epidemiological links between E. faecalis clones isolated from food-producing animals and human E. faecalis urinary-tract infections. This observation, coupled with our region-wide epidemiological experience, leads us to strongly believe that E. faecalis is a real zoonotic pathogen with potentially highly significant impact on human health. This is of particular concern because of its ability to acquire antibiotic-resistance genes and to infect animals and humans. Various strategies must be urgently implemented to address this public health threat, in particular through the development and implementation of large integrated automated surveillance systems based on animal and human health data to enable us to detect E. faecalis epidemiological events. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, C E; Burgess, G W

    2015-05-01

    As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological

  5. Prevalence and characterization of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. in poultry of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Shuvro Prokash; Sultana, Munawar; Hossain, M Anwar

    2013-05-01

    Poultry and poultry products are major contributors of zoonotic pathogens. Limited data are available on Enterobacter spp. as a potent zoonotic pathogen in poultry. The present study is a first endeavor on the emergence of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. and its prevalence arising from poultry in Bangladesh. Cloacal swabs from poultry samples of five different farms at Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh were collected and from 106 isolates, 18 presumptive Enterobacter spp. were obtained. Antibiogram using 19 used antibiotics belonging to 15 major groups revealed that all of the 18 isolates were completely resistant to penicillin and rifampicin, but differed in their drug resistance pattern against ampicillin (94.4%), clindamycin (94.4%), erythromycin (94.4%), vancomycin (88.9%), sulfonamides (72.2%), imipenem (66.6%), streptomycin (55.6%), nitrofurantoin (33.3%), doxycycline (33.3%), tetracyclines (33.3%), cefepime (11.1%), and gentamicin (5.6%). All Enterobacter spp. were found to be plasmid free, implying that multidrug-resistant properties are chromosomal borne. The vanA and sulI were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay in 17 and 13 isolates, respectively. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA distributed the 18 multidrug-resistant Enterobacter spp. into three genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the representatives of the three genotypes using partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (approximately 900 bp) showed that the genotypically diverse groups belonged to Enterobacter hormaechei, E. cloacae, and E. cancerogenus, respectively. The clinical significance of the close relative Enterobacter spp. is indicative of their zoonotic potential. Therefore, urgent intervention is required to limit the emergence and spread of these bacteria in poultry feed as well as prudent use of antibiotics among poultry farmers in Bangladesh.

  6. Zoonotic Transmission of Waterborne Disease: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Waters, Edward K; Hamilton, Andrew J; Sidhu, Harvinder S; Sidhu, Leesa A; Dunbar, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne parasites that infect both humans and animals are common causes of diarrhoeal illness, but the relative importance of transmission between humans and animals and vice versa remains poorly understood. Transmission of infection from animals to humans via environmental reservoirs, such as water sources, has attracted attention as a potential source of endemic and epidemic infections, but existing mathematical models of waterborne disease transmission have limitations for studying this phenomenon, as they only consider contamination of environmental reservoirs by humans. This paper develops a mathematical model that represents the transmission of waterborne parasites within and between both animal and human populations. It also improves upon existing models by including animal contamination of water sources explicitly. Linear stability analysis and simulation results, using realistic parameter values to describe Giardia transmission in rural Australia, show that endemic infection of an animal host with zoonotic protozoa can result in endemic infection in human hosts, even in the absence of person-to-person transmission. These results imply that zoonotic transmission via environmental reservoirs is important.

  7. Zoonotic Poxviruses Associated with Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Danielle M.; Reynolds, Mary G.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Contemporary enthusiasm for the ownership of exotic animals and hobby livestock has created an opportunity for the movement of poxviruses—such as monkeypox, cowpox, and orf—outside their traditional geographic range bringing them into contact with atypical animal hosts and groups of people not normally considered at risk. It is important that pet owners and practitioners of human and animal medicine develop a heightened awareness for poxvirus infections and understand the risks that can be associated with companion animals and livestock. This article reviews the epidemiology and clinical features of zoonotic poxviruses that are most likely to affect companion animals. Abstract Understanding the zoonotic risk posed by poxviruses in companion animals is important for protecting both human and animal health. The outbreak of monkeypox in the United States, as well as current reports of cowpox in Europe, point to the fact that companion animals are increasingly serving as sources of poxvirus transmission to people. In addition, the trend among hobbyists to keep livestock (such as goats) in urban and semi-urban areas has contributed to increased parapoxvirus exposures among people not traditionally considered at high risk. Despite the historic notoriety of poxviruses and the diseases they cause, poxvirus infections are often missed. Delays in diagnosing poxvirus-associated infections in companion animals can lead to inadvertent human exposures. Delays in confirming human infections can result in inappropriate treatment or prolonged recovery. Early recognition of poxvirus-associated infections and application of appropriate preventive measures can reduce the spread of virus between companion animals and their owners. This review will discuss the epidemiology and clinical features associated with the zoonotic poxvirus infections most commonly associated with companion animals. PMID:26486622

  8. Household Animal and Human Medicine Use and Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Risk Factors for Emerging Zoonotic Disease and Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Roess, A A; Winch, P J; Akhter, A; Afroz, D; Ali, N A; Shah, R; Begum, N; Seraji, H R; El Arifeen, S; Darmstadt, G L; Baqui, A H

    2015-11-01

    Animal antimicrobial use and husbandry practices increase risk of emerging zoonotic disease and antibiotic resistance. We surveyed 700 households to elicit information on human and animal medicine use and husbandry practices. Households that owned livestock (n = 265/459, 57.7%) reported using animal treatments 630 times during the previous 6 months; 57.6% obtained medicines, including antibiotics, from drug sellers. Government animal healthcare providers were rarely visited (9.7%), and respondents more often sought animal health care from pharmacies and village doctors (70.6% and 11.9%, respectively), citing the latter two as less costly and more successful based on past performance. Animal husbandry practices that could promote the transmission of microbes from animals to humans included the following: the proximity of chickens to humans (50.1% of households reported that the chickens slept in the bedroom); the shared use of natural bodies of water for human and animal bathing (78.3%); the use of livestock waste as fertilizer (60.9%); and gender roles that dictate that females are the primary caretakers of poultry and children (62.8%). In the absence of an effective animal healthcare system, villagers must depend on informal healthcare providers for treatment of their animals. Suboptimal use of antimicrobials coupled with unhygienic animal husbandry practices is an important risk factor for emerging zoonotic disease and resistant pathogens. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Prevalence of enteric pathogens in dogs of north-central Colorado.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Tim; Lappin, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of enteric pathogens in dogs of north-central Colorado, fecal samples were obtained from client-owned dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Colorado State University for evaluation of acute small-bowel, large-bowel, or mixed-bowel diarrhea (n=71) and from age-matched, client-owned, healthy dogs (n=59). Infectious agents potentially associated with gastrointestinal disease were detected in 34 of 130 (26.1%) fecal samples. Agents with zoonotic potential were detected in feces from 21 (16.2%) of 130 dogs and included Giardia spp. (5.4%), Cryptosporidium parvum (3.8%), Toxocara canis (3.1%), Salmonella spp. (2.3%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.8%), and Campylobacter jejuni (0.8%). Positive test results occurred in dogs with or without gastrointestinal signs of disease. Dogs, particularly those in homes of immunocompromised humans, should be evaluated for enteric zoonotic agents.

  10. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the raccoon (Procyon lotor)-their role and impact of maintaining and transmitting zoonotic diseases in Austria, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Tanja; Hodžić, Adnan; Glawischnig, Walter; Duscher, Georg G

    2017-04-01

    The neozoan species raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) are widespread in Europe and potential vectors of many diseases that can threaten human and domestic animal health. Facing a further spread of these species, it is important to know about (i) pathogens imported and/or (ii) pathogens acquired in the new habitat. Thus, we investigated the parasite fauna of wild raccoon dogs and raccoons from Austria, at the edge of their new distribution range. The eight examined raccoons were nearly free of pathogens including Baylisascaris procyonis, and thus assumed to have a low epidemiological impact, so far. Out of ten raccoon dog specimens, we found one from western Austria to be infected with Echinococcus multilocularis and another three from the eastern wetland regions to harbour adults of Alaria alata. Furthermore, we detected Babesia cf. microti in five of eight raccoon dogs all over Austria but none of our samples were tested positive for Trichinella spp. Nevertheless, the raccoon dog seems to be a relevant host, at least for the zoonotic pathogens E. multilocularis and A. alata, and we suggest to further monitor the raccoon dogs parasite fauna.

  11. Multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogens challenging veterinary infection control.

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Tedin, Karsten; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2017-02-01

    Although the problems associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and the emergence of zoonotic and multidrug-resistant pathogens in companion animal (dogs, cats and horses) medicine have been well-known for decades, current progress with respect to practical implementation of infection control programs in veterinary clinics has been limited. Clinical outbreak events reported for methicillin-resistant Staphylooccus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Serovars indicate the necessity of infection control strategies for protecting animal patients at risk as well as veterinary personnel. The close bond between humans and their companion animals provides opportunities for exchange of microorganisms, including MDR pathogens. This particular aspect of the "One Health" idea requires more representative surveillance efforts and infection control strategies with respect to animal-species specific characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. What Makes a Bacterial Species Pathogenic?:Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Genus Leptospira

    PubMed Central

    Fouts, Derrick E.; Matthias, Michael A.; Adhikarla, Haritha; Adler, Ben; Amorim-Santos, Luciane; Berg, Douglas E.; Bulach, Dieter; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Chang, Yung-Fu; Galloway, Renee L.; Haake, David A.; Haft, Daniel H.; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Ko, Albert I.; Levett, Paul N.; Matsunaga, James; Mechaly, Ariel E.; Monk, Jonathan M.; Nascimento, Ana L. T.; Nelson, Karen E.; Palsson, Bernhard; Peacock, Sharon J.; Picardeau, Mathieu; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Thaipandungpanit, Janjira; Wunder, Elsio A.; Yang, X. Frank; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, is a globally widespread, neglected and emerging zoonotic disease. While whole genome analysis of individual pathogenic, intermediately pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species has been reported, comprehensive cross-species genomic comparison of all known species of infectious and non-infectious Leptospira, with the goal of identifying genes related to pathogenesis and mammalian host adaptation, remains a key gap in the field. Infectious Leptospira, comprised of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira, evolutionarily diverged from non-infectious, saprophytic Leptospira, as demonstrated by the following computational biology analyses: 1) the definitive taxonomy and evolutionary relatedness among all known Leptospira species; 2) genomically-predicted metabolic reconstructions that indicate novel adaptation of infectious Leptospira to mammals, including sialic acid biosynthesis, pathogen-specific porphyrin metabolism and the first-time demonstration of cobalamin (B12) autotrophy as a bacterial virulence factor; 3) CRISPR/Cas systems demonstrated only to be present in pathogenic Leptospira, suggesting a potential mechanism for this clade’s refractoriness to gene targeting; 4) finding Leptospira pathogen-specific specialized protein secretion systems; 5) novel virulence-related genes/gene families such as the Virulence Modifying (VM) (PF07598 paralogs) proteins and pathogen-specific adhesins; 6) discovery of novel, pathogen-specific protein modification and secretion mechanisms including unique lipoprotein signal peptide motifs, Sec-independent twin arginine protein secretion motifs, and the absence of certain canonical signal recognition particle proteins from all Leptospira; and 7) and demonstration of infectious Leptospira-specific signal-responsive gene expression, motility and chemotaxis systems. By identifying large scale changes in infectious (pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic

  13. What Makes a Bacterial Species Pathogenic?:Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Genus Leptospira.

    PubMed

    Fouts, Derrick E; Matthias, Michael A; Adhikarla, Haritha; Adler, Ben; Amorim-Santos, Luciane; Berg, Douglas E; Bulach, Dieter; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Chang, Yung-Fu; Galloway, Renee L; Haake, David A; Haft, Daniel H; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Ko, Albert I; Levett, Paul N; Matsunaga, James; Mechaly, Ariel E; Monk, Jonathan M; Nascimento, Ana L T; Nelson, Karen E; Palsson, Bernhard; Peacock, Sharon J; Picardeau, Mathieu; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Thaipandungpanit, Janjira; Wunder, Elsio A; Yang, X Frank; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, is a globally widespread, neglected and emerging zoonotic disease. While whole genome analysis of individual pathogenic, intermediately pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species has been reported, comprehensive cross-species genomic comparison of all known species of infectious and non-infectious Leptospira, with the goal of identifying genes related to pathogenesis and mammalian host adaptation, remains a key gap in the field. Infectious Leptospira, comprised of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira, evolutionarily diverged from non-infectious, saprophytic Leptospira, as demonstrated by the following computational biology analyses: 1) the definitive taxonomy and evolutionary relatedness among all known Leptospira species; 2) genomically-predicted metabolic reconstructions that indicate novel adaptation of infectious Leptospira to mammals, including sialic acid biosynthesis, pathogen-specific porphyrin metabolism and the first-time demonstration of cobalamin (B12) autotrophy as a bacterial virulence factor; 3) CRISPR/Cas systems demonstrated only to be present in pathogenic Leptospira, suggesting a potential mechanism for this clade's refractoriness to gene targeting; 4) finding Leptospira pathogen-specific specialized protein secretion systems; 5) novel virulence-related genes/gene families such as the Virulence Modifying (VM) (PF07598 paralogs) proteins and pathogen-specific adhesins; 6) discovery of novel, pathogen-specific protein modification and secretion mechanisms including unique lipoprotein signal peptide motifs, Sec-independent twin arginine protein secretion motifs, and the absence of certain canonical signal recognition particle proteins from all Leptospira; and 7) and demonstration of infectious Leptospira-specific signal-responsive gene expression, motility and chemotaxis systems. By identifying large scale changes in infectious (pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic

  14. Aquatic polymers can drive pathogen transmission in coastal ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Karen; Krusor, Colin; Mazzillo, Fernanda F. M.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Largier, John L.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Silver, Mary W.

    2014-01-01

    Gelatinous polymers including extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are fundamental to biophysical processes in aquatic habitats, including mediating aggregation processes and functioning as the matrix of biofilms. Yet insight into the impact of these sticky molecules on the environmental transmission of pathogens in the ocean is limited. We used the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii as a model to evaluate polymer-mediated mechanisms that promote transmission of terrestrially derived pathogens to marine fauna and humans. We show that transparent exopolymer particles, a particulate form of EPS, enhance T. gondii association with marine aggregates, material consumed by organisms otherwise unable to access micrometre-sized particles. Adhesion to EPS biofilms on macroalgae also captures T. gondii from the water, enabling uptake of pathogens by invertebrates that feed on kelp surfaces. We demonstrate the acquisition, concentration and retention of T. gondii by kelp-grazing snails, which can transmit T. gondii to threatened California sea otters. Results highlight novel mechanisms whereby aquatic polymers facilitate incorporation of pathogens into food webs via association with particle aggregates and biofilms. Identifying the critical role of invisible polymers in transmission of pathogens in the ocean represents a fundamental advance in understanding and mitigating the health impacts of coastal habitat pollution with contaminated runoff. PMID:25297861

  15. Public farms: hygiene and zoonotic agents.

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, A E; Valkenburgh, S M; Tilburg, J J H C; Van Heerwaarden, C; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, J T M; De Boer, E

    2007-10-01

    In three successive years, we visited petting farms (n=132), care farms (n=91), and farmyard campsites (n=84), respectively, and completed a standard questionnaire with the objective of determining the hygienic status of these farms and describing hygiene measures implemented to reduce the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents from the animals to humans. For at least 85% of the farms, the overall impression of hygiene was recorded as good. However, more attention must be paid to: informing visitors on hygiene and handwashing, provision of handwashing facilities, and a footwear cleaning facility. Examination of samples of freshly voided faeces resulted in the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and/or Salmonella spp. and/or Campylobacter spp. at almost two-thirds (64.9%) of the petting farms, and around half of the care farms (56.0%) and farmyard campsites (45.2%). These data reinforce the need for control measures for both public and private farms to reduce human exposure to livestock faeces and thus the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases. Public awareness of the risk associated with handling animals or faecal material should be increased.

  16. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  17. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities ofmore » potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.« less

  18. Constructing Rigorous and Broad Biosurveillance Networks for Detecting Emerging Zoonotic Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; Powell, Dennis; LaBute, Montiago; Hyman, James M.; Rivas, Ariel; Jankowski, Mark; Berendzen, Joel; Loeppky, Jason; Manore, Carrie; Fair, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities of potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic. PMID:25946164

  19. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; ...

    2015-05-06

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities ofmore » potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.« less

  20. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Burch, Tucker R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy manure, like the fecal excrement from any domesticated or wild animal, can contain pathogens capable of infecting humans and causing illness or even death. Pathogens in dairy manure can be broadly divided into categories of taxonomy or infectiousness. Dividing by taxonomy there are three pathogen groups in dairy manure: viruses (e.g., bovine rotavirus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella species), and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum). There are two categories of infectiousness for pathogens found in animals: those that are zoonotic and those that are not. A zoonotic pathogen is one that can infect both human and animal hosts. Some zoonotic pathogens found in dairy manure cause illness in both hosts (e.g., Salmonella) while other zoonotic pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157:H7, (enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)) cause illness only in humans. As a general rule, the gastrointestinal viruses found in dairy manure are not zoonotic. While there are exceptions (e.g., rare reports of bovine rotavirus infecting children), for the most part the viruses in dairy manure are not a human health concern. The primary concerns are the zoonotic bacteria and protozoa in dairy manure.

  1. The spread of pathogens through trade in honey bees and their products (including queen bees and semen): overview and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Mutinelli, F

    2011-04-01

    International trade in bees and bee products is a complex issue, affected bytheir different origins and uses. The trade in bees, which poses the main risk for disease dissemination, is very active and not all transactions may be officially registered by the competent authorities. Globally, bee health continues to deteriorate as pathogens, pests, parasites and diseases are spread internationally through legitimate trade, smuggling and well-intentioned but ill-advised bee introductions by professionals. International trade rules strengthen the ability of many countries to protect bee health while trading but also carry obligations. Countries that are Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) should only restrict imports to protect against identifiable health risks. If imports are safe, trade should be permitted. The trading rules of the WTO have given greater importance to the international standards applicable to bee health, developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health, which aims to prevent the spread of animal diseases while facilitating international trade in animals and animal products.

  2. Tropism and Infectivity of Influenza Virus, Including Highly Pathogenic Avian H5N1 Virus, in Ferret Tracheal Differentiated Primary Epithelial Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Maines, Taronna R.; Belser, Jessica A.; Gustin, Kortney M.; Pekosz, Andrew; Zaki, Sherif R.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and adaptation of influenza viruses to new hosts is partly dependent on the distribution of the sialic acid (SA) receptors to which the viral hemagglutinin (HA) binds. Ferrets have been established as a valuable in vivo model of influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission because of similarities to humans in the distribution of HA receptors and in clinical signs of infection. In this study, we developed a ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture model that consisted of a layered epithelium structure with ciliated and nonciliated cells on its apical surface. We found that human-like (α2,6-linked) receptors predominated on ciliated cells, whereas avian-like (α2,3-linked) receptors, which were less abundant, were presented on nonciliated cells. When we compared the tropism and infectivity of three human (H1 and H3) and two avian (H1 and H5) influenza viruses, we observed that the human influenza viruses primarily infected ciliated cells and replicated efficiently, whereas a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) replicated efficiently within nonciliated cells despite a low initial infection rate. Furthermore, compared to other influenza viruses tested, VN/1203 virus replicated more efficiently in cells isolated from the lower trachea and at a higher temperature (37°C) compared to a lower temperature (33°C). VN/1203 virus infection also induced higher levels of immune mediator genes and cell death, and virus was recovered from the basolateral side of the cell monolayer. This ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture system provides a valuable in vitro model for studying cellular tropism, infectivity, and the pathogenesis of influenza viruses. PMID:23255802

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses, Including Highly Pathogenic H5N1, from Poultry in Live Bird Markets in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Doan C.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Jadhao, Samadhan; Maines, Taronna; Shaw, Michael; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Smith, Catherine; Rowe, Thomas; Lu, Xiuhua; Hall, Henrietta; Xu, Xiyan; Balish, Amanda; Klimov, Alexander; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Swayne, David E.; Huynh, Lien P. T.; Nghiem, Ha K.; Nguyen, Hanh H. T.; Hoang, Long T.; Cox, Nancy J.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1997, outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 and circulation of H9N2 viruses among domestic poultry in Asia have posed a threat to public health. To better understand the extent of transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) to humans in Asia, we conducted a cross-sectional virologic study in live bird markets (LBM) in Hanoi, Vietnam, in October 2001. Specimens from 189 birds and 18 environmental samples were collected at 10 LBM. Four influenza A viruses of the H4N6 (n = 1), H5N2 (n = 1), and H9N3 (n = 2) subtypes were isolated from healthy ducks for an isolation frequency of over 30% from this species. Two H5N1 viruses were isolated from healthy geese. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these H5N1 viruses possessed multiple basic amino acid motifs at the cleavage site, were HP for experimentally infected chickens, and were thus characterized as HP AIV. These HA genes shared high amino acid identities with genes of other H5N1 viruses isolated in Asia during this period, but they were genetically distinct from those of H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans in Vietnam during the early 2004 outbreaks. These viruses were not highly virulent for experimentally infected ducks, mice, or ferrets. These results establish that HP H5N1 viruses with properties similar to viruses isolated in Hong Kong and mainland China circulated in Vietnam as early as 2001, suggest a common source for H5N1 viruses circulating in these Asian countries, and provide a framework to better understand the recent widespread emergence of HP H5N1 viruses in Asia. PMID:15767421

  4. Tropism and infectivity of influenza virus, including highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus, in ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Maines, Taronna R; Belser, Jessica A; Gustin, Kortney M; Pekosz, Andrew; Zaki, Sherif R; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Tropism and adaptation of influenza viruses to new hosts is partly dependent on the distribution of the sialic acid (SA) receptors to which the viral hemagglutinin (HA) binds. Ferrets have been established as a valuable in vivo model of influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission because of similarities to humans in the distribution of HA receptors and in clinical signs of infection. In this study, we developed a ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture model that consisted of a layered epithelium structure with ciliated and nonciliated cells on its apical surface. We found that human-like (α2,6-linked) receptors predominated on ciliated cells, whereas avian-like (α2,3-linked) receptors, which were less abundant, were presented on nonciliated cells. When we compared the tropism and infectivity of three human (H1 and H3) and two avian (H1 and H5) influenza viruses, we observed that the human influenza viruses primarily infected ciliated cells and replicated efficiently, whereas a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) replicated efficiently within nonciliated cells despite a low initial infection rate. Furthermore, compared to other influenza viruses tested, VN/1203 virus replicated more efficiently in cells isolated from the lower trachea and at a higher temperature (37°C) compared to a lower temperature (33°C). VN/1203 virus infection also induced higher levels of immune mediator genes and cell death, and virus was recovered from the basolateral side of the cell monolayer. This ferret tracheal differentiated primary epithelial cell culture system provides a valuable in vitro model for studying cellular tropism, infectivity, and the pathogenesis of influenza viruses.

  5. Beyond bushmeat: Animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Sarah B.; Frost, Simon D.W.; Gibson, Mhairi A.; Holland, James; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M.; Ting, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/ 1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where “bushmeat hunting” is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:24845574

  6. Beyond bushmeat: animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Paige, Sarah B; Frost, Simon D W; Gibson, Mhairi A; Jones, James Holland; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M; Ting, Nelson; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long-term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where "bushmeat hunting" is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission.

  7. Protective practices against zoonotic infections among rural and slum communities from South Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Mason, Meghan R; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Hodges, James S; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia

    2015-07-28

    Despite well-recognized recommendations to reduce human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, the use of personal and herd-level protective practices is inconsistent in communities where human interactions with animals are common. This study assessed household-level participation in rodent- (extermination, proper food storage, trash disposal), occupational- (preventive veterinary care, boot-wearing, glove-wearing), and garden-associated (restricting animal access, boot-wearing, glove-wearing) protective practices in farms, villages, and slums in the Los Rios region, Chile, where zoonotic pathogens are endemic. Questionnaires administered at 422 households across 12 communities recorded household-level socio-demographic characteristics and participation in nine protective practices. Household inclusion in the analysis of occupational practices required having livestock and a household member with occupational exposure to livestock (n = 127), and inclusion in analysis of garden practices required having a garden and at least one animal (n = 233). The proportion of households participating in each protective practice was compared across community types through chi-square analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression assessed household-level associations between socio-demographic characteristics and participation in each protective practice. Most households (95.3 %) reported participation in rodent control, and a positive association between the number of rodent signs in a household and rodent extermination was observed (OR: 1.75, 95 % CI: 1.41, 2.16). Occupational protective practices were reported in 61.8 % of eligible households; household size (OR: 1.63, 95 % CI: 1.17, 5.84) and having children (OR: 0.22, 95 % CI: 0.06, 0.78) were associated with preventive veterinary care. Among eligible households, 73.8 % engaged in protective practices when gardening, and species diversity was positively associated with wearing boots (OR: 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.56). Household

  8. Detection of Zoonotic Enteropathogens in Children and Domestic Animals in a Semirural Community in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Karla; Graham, Jay P; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-07-15

    Animals are important reservoirs of zoonotic enteropathogens, and transmission to humans occurs more frequently in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where small-scale livestock production is common. In this study, we investigated the presence of zoonotic enteropathogens in stool samples from 64 asymptomatic children and 203 domestic animals of 62 households in a semirural community in Ecuador between June and August 2014. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to assess zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC), which were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in children and domestic animals (30.7% and 10.5%, respectively). Four sequence types (STs) of C. jejuni and four STs of aEPEC were identical between children and domestic animals. The apparent sources of human infection were chickens, dogs, guinea pigs, and rabbits for C. jejuni and pigs, dogs, and chickens for aEPEC. Other pathogens detected in children and domestic animals were Giardia lamblia (13.1%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.1%), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (2.6%). Salmonella enterica was detected in 5 dogs and Yersinia enterocolitica was identified in 1 pig. Even though we identified 7 enteric pathogens in children, we encountered evidence of active transmission between domestic animals and humans only for C. jejuni and aEPEC. We also found evidence that C. jejuni strains from chickens were more likely to be transmitted to humans than those coming from other domestic animals. Our findings demonstrate the complex nature of enteropathogen transmission between domestic animals and humans and stress the need for further studies. We found evidence that Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia, and aEPEC organisms were the most common zoonotic enteropathogens in children and domestic animals in a region close to Quito, the capital of Ecuador. Genetic analysis of the isolates suggests transmission of some genotypes of C. jejuni and a

  9. Detection of Zoonotic Enteropathogens in Children and Domestic Animals in a Semirural Community in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Vasco, Karla; Graham, Jay P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animals are important reservoirs of zoonotic enteropathogens, and transmission to humans occurs more frequently in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where small-scale livestock production is common. In this study, we investigated the presence of zoonotic enteropathogens in stool samples from 64 asymptomatic children and 203 domestic animals of 62 households in a semirural community in Ecuador between June and August 2014. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to assess zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC), which were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in children and domestic animals (30.7% and 10.5%, respectively). Four sequence types (STs) of C. jejuni and four STs of aEPEC were identical between children and domestic animals. The apparent sources of human infection were chickens, dogs, guinea pigs, and rabbits for C. jejuni and pigs, dogs, and chickens for aEPEC. Other pathogens detected in children and domestic animals were Giardia lamblia (13.1%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.1%), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (2.6%). Salmonella enterica was detected in 5 dogs and Yersinia enterocolitica was identified in 1 pig. Even though we identified 7 enteric pathogens in children, we encountered evidence of active transmission between domestic animals and humans only for C. jejuni and aEPEC. We also found evidence that C. jejuni strains from chickens were more likely to be transmitted to humans than those coming from other domestic animals. Our findings demonstrate the complex nature of enteropathogen transmission between domestic animals and humans and stress the need for further studies. IMPORTANCE We found evidence that Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia, and aEPEC organisms were the most common zoonotic enteropathogens in children and domestic animals in a region close to Quito, the capital of Ecuador. Genetic analysis of the isolates suggests transmission of some genotypes

  10. Molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in Nigerian ticks.

    PubMed

    Ogo, Ndudim Isaac; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; Galindo, Ruth C; Okubanjo, Oluyinka O; Inuwa, Hauwa Mairo; Agbede, Rowland I S; Torina, Alessandra; Alongi, Angelina; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-07-06

    A molecular epidemiology investigation was undertaken in two Nigerian states (Plateau and Nassarawa) to determine the prevalence of pathogens of veterinary and public health importance associated with ticks collected from cattle and dogs using PCR, cloning and sequencing or reverse line blot techniques. A total of 218 tick samples, Amblyomma variegatum (N=153), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (N=45), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (N=20) were sampled. Pathogens identified in ticks included piroplasmids (Babesia spp., Babesia bigemina and Babesia divergens), Anaplasma marginale and Rickettsia africae. Piroplasmids were identified in A. variegatum, A. marginale was found in R. decoloratus, while R. africae was detected in all tick species examined. Ehrlichia spp. and Theileria spp. were not identified in any of the ticks examined. Of the 218 ticks examined, 33 (15.1%) contained pathogen DNA, with the presence of B. divergens and R. africae that are zoonotic pathogens of public health and veterinary importance. The variety of tick-borne pathogens identified in this study suggests a risk for the emergence of tick-borne diseases in domestic animals and humans, especially amongst the Fulani pastoralists in Plateau and Nassarawa states of Nigeria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, Paul A M; van Zutphen, Linda; Hoek, Denise; Yaya, Felix O; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Pinelli, Elena; van Knapen, Frans; Kortbeek, Laetitia M

    2009-07-07

    Pets may carry zoonotic pathogens for which owners are at risk. The aim of the study is to investigate whether healthy pets harbour zoonotic parasitic infections and to make an inventory of the interactions between pet-owners and their companion animals in The Netherlands. Fecal and hair samples were collected from healthy household dogs and cats in Dutch veterinary practices. Owners were interviewed about interaction with their pets. The samples were investigated by microscopy, ELISA, and PCR. From 159 households, 152 dogs (D) and 60 cats (C), information and samples were collected and examination for several zoonotic parasites was performed. Toxocara eggs were found in 4.4% (D) and 4.6% (C) of the fecal samples and in 12.2% (D) and 3.4% (C) of the fur samples. The median epg in the fur was 17 (D) and 28 (C) and none of these eggs were viable. From 15.2% of the dog and 13.6% of the cat feces Giardia was isolated. One canine and one feline Giardia isolate was a zoonotic assemblage A (12%). Cryptosporidium sp. were present in 8.7% (D) and 4.6% (C) of the feces. Fifty percent of the owners allow the pet to lick their faces. Sixty percent of the pets visit the bedroom; 45-60% (D-C) are allowed on the bed, and 18-30% (D-C) sleep with the owner in bed. Six percent of the pets always sleep in the bedroom. Of the cats, 45% are allowed to jump onto the kitchen sink. Nearly 39% of the dog owners never clean up the feces of their dog. Fifteen percent of the dog owners and 8% of the cat owners always wash their hands after contact with the animals. Close physical contact between owners and their pets is common and poses an increased risk of transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Education of owners by the vet, specifically about hygiene and potential risks, is required.

  12. Nipah virus: transmission of a zoonotic paramyxovirus.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Bronwyn Anne

    2017-02-01

    Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions. While Nipah virus isolates associated with outbreaks of human infection have not resulted in sustained transmission to date, specific exposures carry a high risk of person-to-person transmission, an observation which is supported by recent findings in animal models. Novel paramyxoviruses continue to emerge from wildlife hosts, and represent an ongoing threat to human health globally. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sarcoptic mange: a zoonotic ectoparasitic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic.

  14. Sarcoptic Mange: A Zoonotic Ectoparasitic Skin Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic. PMID:23450734

  15. Zoonotic helminths of urban brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the UK: neglected public health considerations?

    PubMed

    McGarry, J W; Higgins, A; White, N G; Pounder, K C; Hetzel, U

    2015-02-01

    Urban brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry microbial human pathogens but their role as reservoir hosts for helminths of public health importance is less well known. In this study, 42 brown rats trapped on Merseyside were subject to thorough combined helminthological and pathohistological post-mortem examination. Eggs of the rodent-borne zoonotic nematode Calodium hepaticum were initially detected in histological sections of the livers of 9.5% of rats, but overall diagnostic sensitivity increased to 16.6% when entire liver tissue was disrupted and the resulting filtrates were examined for released eggs. In their rat host, mainly trapped inside the dockland, infections with C. hepaticum were associated with a chronic multifocal pyogranulomatous hepatitis with intralesional eggs and peripheral fibrosis. Mean intensity of hepatic C. hepaticum egg infections was 1041 eggs. This is the first report of C. hepaticum in an urban brown rat population in the UK and provides original data for liver egg burdens in this abundant commensal rodent. The zoonotic cestode Rodentolepis nana had a prevalence of infection of 14.3%. Rodent-specific, non-zoonotic helminths found were the spiruroid Mastophorus muris (16.0%) in the stomach, the trichuroid Trichosomoides crassicauda in the urinary bladder (31.0%); the ascarid Heterakis spumosa was the commonest helminth of the large intestine (76.2%). Many millions of brown rats inhabit cities and rural areas of the UK, and the infective stages of the zoonotic worm species, particularly C. hepaticum, are likely to be widely distributed in the environment presenting a threat to public health. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Detection of hepatitis E virus and other livestock-related pathogens in Iowa streams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure application is a major source of pathogens to the environment. Through overland runoff and tile drainage, these pathogens contaminate surface water and stream bed sediment. Some of these pathogens are zoonotic that can potentially affect both animal and human health. This study examined the p...

  17. Detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. infections among mammals captured in the Peruvian Amazon basin region.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, J E; Hice, C L; Watts, D M; Montrueil, V; Tesh, R B; Vinetz, J M

    2000-01-01

    To identify potential zoonotic reservoirs of pathogenic leptospires in the Peruvian Amazon basin, wild mammals were trapped from July 1997 to December 1998 near the city of Iquitos. After extraction of nucleic acids from animal kidneys, DNA of pathogenic leptospires was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using one of two primer sets, one amplifying a region of the 23S rRNA gene, and the other amplifying a gene fragment specific for Leptospira spp (G1/G2 primers). Overall, 29% (40 of 136) of the mammals tested showed evidence of renal infection by Leptospira spp., including 20% (13 of 64) of the rodents, 39% (20 of 51) of the marsupials, and 35% (7 of 20) of the chiropterans (bats). Marsupials and chiropterans were implicated as more significant reservoir hosts of leptospires pathogenic to humans than previously recognized.

  18. Biocontrol of Pathogens in the Meat Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Catherine M.; Rivas, Lucia; McDonnell, Mary J.; Duffy, Geraldine

    Bacterial foodborne zoonotic diseases are of major concern, impacting public health and causing economic losses for the agricultural-food sector and the wider society. In the United States (US) alone foodborne illness from pathogens is responsible for 76 million cases of illnesses each year (Mead et al., 1999). Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Enterohaemorraghic Escherichia coli (EHEC; predominately serotype O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes are the most predominant foodborne bacterial pathogens reported in the developed world (United States Department of Agriculture, 2001). The importance of meat and meat products as a vehicle of foodborne zoonotic pathogens cannot be underestimated (Center for Disease Control, 2006; Gillespie, O’Brien, Adak, Cheasty, & Willshaw, 2005; Mazick, Ethelberg, Nielsen, Molbak, & Lisby, 2006; Mead et al., 2006).

  19. Dynamics of a Global Zoonotic Research Network Over 33 Years (1980-2012).

    PubMed

    Hossain, Liaquat; Karimi, Faezeh; Wigand, Rolf T

    2015-10-01

    The increasing rate of outbreaks in humans of zoonotic diseases requires detailed examination of the education, research, and practice of animal health and its connection to human health. This study investigated the collaboration network of different fields engaged in conducting zoonotic research from a transdisciplinary perspective. Examination of the dynamics of this network for a 33-year period from 1980 to 2012 is presented through the development of a large scientometric database from Scopus. In our analyses we compared several properties of these networks, including density, clustering coefficient, giant component, and centrality measures over time. We also elicited patterns in different fields of study collaborating with various other fields for zoonotic research. We discovered that the strongest collaborations across disciplines are formed among the fields of medicine; biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology; immunology and microbiology; veterinary; agricultural and biological sciences; and social sciences. Furthermore, the affiliation network is growing overall in terms of collaborative research among different fields of study such that more than two-thirds of all possible collaboration links among disciplines have already been formed. Our findings indicate that zoonotic research scientists in different fields (human or animal health, social science, earth and environmental sciences, engineering) have been actively collaborating with each other over the past 11 years.

  20. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Awareness and practices regarding zoonotic influenza prevention in Romanian swine workers.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Huang, Eileen; Paccha, Blanca; Vegso, Sally; Gurzau, Anca

    2013-12-01

    Swine workers may play a key role in transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses. At the same time, little is known about the extent and effectiveness of influenza prevention programs for these at-risk workers. To characterize practices and attitudes regarding zoonotic influenza transmission among swine workers in Romania. We conducted a convenience survey of swine workers in Romania. The confidential survey included questions about awareness of zoonotic influenza risk, work tasks performed, flu vaccination status, and reported influenza-like illness. A total of 103 workers at seven farms completed the survey. The percentage of workers reporting concern about either contracting influenza from pigs or giving influenza to pigs was 78% and 70%, respectively. Although 60% of workers reported having a sick-leave policy at work, only 7% of workers reported receiving seasonal influenza vaccination during the past flu season. Only 5% of the workers reported flu-like illness during the past year while 3% of workers reported that pigs appeared sick with influenza over the same time period. The majority of workers reported using protective overalls and rubber boots during swine work, with lower rates of use of gloves. Reported use of respiratory protection was rare, and use of any personal protective equipment did not differ when pigs appeared ill. Despite awareness and concern regarding zoonotic influenza, Romanian swine workers report low rates of influenza vaccine or respiratory protection. As part of global pandemic influenza preparedness, enhanced prevention programs for swine workers should address such gaps. © 2013 Blackwell publishing Ltd.

  2. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Karen M [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos, NM; Shreve, Andrew P [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  3. Evaluation of ceftobiprole activity against a variety of gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (β-lactamase positive and β-lactamase negative), and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in a rabbit meningitis model.

    PubMed

    Stucki, A; Cottagnoud, M; Acosta, F; Egerman, U; Läuffer, J; Cottagnoud, P

    2012-02-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril, a new cephalosporin, is highly active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. In this study, we tested ceftobiprole against various Gram-negative pathogens in a rabbit meningitis model and determined its penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal model, ceftobiprole produced an antibacterial activity similar to that of cefepime against an Escherichia coli strain, a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, and a β-lactamase-negative Haemophilus influenzae strain. Against a β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae strain, ceftobiprole was significantly superior. The penetration of ceftobiprole through inflamed meninges reached about 16% of serum levels compared to about 2% of serum levels through uninflamed meninges.

  4. Evaluation of Ceftobiprole Activity against a Variety of Gram-Negative Pathogens, Including Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (β-Lactamase Positive and β-Lactamase Negative), and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in a Rabbit Meningitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Stucki, A.; Cottagnoud, M.; Acosta, F.; Egerman, U.; Läuffer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril, a new cephalosporin, is highly active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. In this study, we tested ceftobiprole against various Gram-negative pathogens in a rabbit meningitis model and determined its penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal model, ceftobiprole produced an antibacterial activity similar to that of cefepime against an Escherichia coli strain, a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, and a β-lactamase-negative Haemophilus influenzae strain. Against a β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae strain, ceftobiprole was significantly superior. The penetration of ceftobiprole through inflamed meninges reached about 16% of serum levels compared to about 2% of serum levels through uninflamed meninges. PMID:22064544

  5. From Barnyard to Food Table: the Omnipresence of Hepatitis E virus and Risk for Zoonotic Infection and Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important but extremely understudied pathogen. The mechanisms of HEV replication and pathogenesis are poorly understood, and a vaccine against HEV is not yet available. HEV is classified in the family Hepeviridae consisting of at least four recognized major genotypes. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans and associated with epidemics in developing countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic cases worldwide. The identification and characterization of a number of animal strains of HEV from pigs, chickens, rabbits, rats, mongoose, deer, and possibly cattle and sheep have significantly broadened the host range and diversity of HEV. The demonstrated ability of cross-species infection by some animal strains of HEV raises public health concerns for zoonotic HEV infection. Pigs are a recognized reservoir for HEV, and pig handlers are at increased risk of zoonotic HEV infection. Sporadic cases of hepatitis E have been definitively linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked animal meats such as pig livers, sausages, and deer meats. In addition, since large amounts of viruses excreted in feces, animal manure land application and runoffs can contaminate irrigation and drinking water with concomitant contamination of produce or shellfish. HEV RNA of swine origin has been detected in swine manure, sewage water and oysters, and consumption of contaminated shellfish has also been implicated in sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Therefore, the animal strains of HEV pose not only a zoonotic risk but also food and environmental safety concerns. PMID:21316404

  6. Adaptive Radiation within Marine Anisakid Nematodes: A Zoogeographical Modeling of Cosmopolitan, Zoonotic Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Thomas; García-Màrquez, Jaime; Klimpel, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Parasites of the nematode genus Anisakis are associated with aquatic organisms. They can be found in a variety of marine hosts including whales, crustaceans, fish and cephalopods and are known to be the cause of the zoonotic disease anisakiasis, a painful inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract caused by the accidental consumptions of infectious larvae raw or semi-raw fishery products. Since the demand on fish as dietary protein source and the export rates of seafood products in general is rapidly increasing worldwide, the knowledge about the distribution of potential foodborne human pathogens in seafood is of major significance for human health. Studies have provided evidence that a few Anisakis species can cause clinical symptoms in humans. The aim of our study was to interpolate the species range for every described Anisakis species on the basis of the existing occurrence data. We used sequence data of 373 Anisakis larvae from 30 different hosts worldwide and previously published molecular data (n = 584) from 53 field-specific publications to model the species range of Anisakis spp., using a interpolation method that combines aspects of the alpha hull interpolation algorithm as well as the conditional interpolation approach. The results of our approach strongly indicate the existence of species-specific distribution patterns of Anisakis spp. within different climate zones and oceans that are in principle congruent with those of their respective final hosts. Our results support preceding studies that propose anisakid nematodes as useful biological indicators for their final host distribution and abundance as they closely follow the trophic relationships among their successive hosts. The modeling might although be helpful for predicting the likelihood of infection in order to reduce the risk of anisakiasis cases in a given area. PMID:22180787

  7. Zoonotic bacteria and parasites found in raw meat-based diets for cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Bree, Freek P J; Bokken, Gertie C A M; Mineur, Robin; Franssen, Frits; Opsteegh, Marieke; van der Giessen, Joke W B; Lipman, Len J A; Overgaauw, Paul A M

    2018-01-13

    Feeding raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) to companion animals has become increasingly popular. Since these diets may be contaminated with bacteria and parasites, they may pose a risk to both animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of zoonotic bacterial and parasitic pathogens in Dutch commercial RMBDs. We analysed 35 commercial frozen RMBDs from eight different brands. Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 was isolated from eight products (23 per cent) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing E coli was found in 28 products (80 per cent). Listeria monocytogenes was present in 19 products (54 per cent), other Listeria species in 15 products (43 per cent) and Salmonella species in seven products (20 per cent). Concerning parasites, four products (11 per cent) contained Sarcocystis cruzi and another four (11 per cent) S tenella In two products (6 per cent) Toxoplasma gondii was found. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of potential zoonotic pathogens in frozen RMBDs that may be a possible source of bacterial infections in pet animals and if transmitted pose a risk for human beings. If non-frozen meat is fed, parasitic infections are also possible. Pet owners should therefore be informed about the risks associated with feeding their animals RMBDs. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases with animal morbidity and mortality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Ssebide, Benard J; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Diseases transmitted between animals and people have made up more than 50% of emerging infectious diseases in humans over the last 60 years and have continued to arise in recent months. Yet, public health and animal disease surveillance programs continue to operate independently. Here, we assessed whether recent emerging zoonotic pathogens (n = 143) are known to cause morbidity or mortality in their animal host and if so, whether they were first detected with an animal morbidity/mortality event. We show that although sick or dead animals are often associated with these pathogens (52%), only 9% were first detected from an animal morbidity or mortality event prior to or concurrent with signs of illness in humans. We propose that an animal morbidity and mortality reporting program will improve detection and should be an essential component of early warning systems for zoonotic diseases. With the use of widespread low-cost technology, such a program could engage both the public and professionals and be easily tested and further incorporated as part of surveillance efforts by public health officials.

  9. In vitro activity of the siderophore monosulfactam BAL30072 against contemporary Gram-negative pathogens from New York City, including multidrug-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Landman, David; Singh, Manisha; El-Imad, Badiaa; Miller, Ezra; Win, Thida; Quale, John

    2014-06-01

    The in vitro activity of BAL30072 was assessed against clinical isolates from NYC hospitals, including isolates from a citywide surveillance study and a collection of isolates with well-characterised resistance mechanisms. BAL30072 was the most active β-lactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 μg/mL), Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL) and KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL). Combining BAL30072 with meropenem resulted in a ≥ 4-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC90 both for A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. For isolates with a BAL30072 MIC>4 μg/mL, addition of a sub-MIC concentration of colistin resulted in a four-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC in 44% of P. aeruginosa, 82% of A. baumannii and 23% of K. pneumoniae. Using sub-MIC concentrations, BAL30072 plus colistin was bactericidal against 4 of 11 isolates in time-kill studies. BAL30072 MICs were frequently lower for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae when tested using Mueller-Hinton agar versus Iso-Sensitest agar or Mueller-Hinton broth. Against the well-characterised isolates, reduced susceptibility to BAL30072 correlated with mexA and mexX expression (P. aeruginosa), adeB expression (A. baumannii) and presence of SHV-type ESBLs (A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae). BAL30072 shows promising activity against contemporary Gram-negatives, including MDR P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. Enhanced activity was often present when BAL30072 was combined with meropenem or colistin. BAL30072 MICs were influenced by the testing method, particularly for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the potential clinical utility of BAL30072 alone and combined with other agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Impacts of an introduced forest pathogen on the risk of Lyme disease in California.

    PubMed

    Swei, Andrea; Briggs, Cheryl J; Lane, Robert S; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2012-08-01

    Global changes such as deforestation, climate change, and invasive species have the potential to greatly alter zoonotic disease systems through impacts on biodiversity. This study examined the impact of the invasive pathogen that causes sudden oak death (SOD) on the ecology of Lyme disease in California. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in the far western United States by a suite of animal reservoirs including the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), and is transmitted by the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus). Other vertebrates, such as the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), are important tick hosts but are not reservoirs of the pathogen. Previous work found that higher levels of SOD are correlated with greater abundance of P. maniculatus and S. occidentalis and lower N. fuscipes abundance. Here we model the contribution of these tick hosts to Lyme disease risk and also evaluate the potential impact of SOD on infection prevalence of the tick vector. By empirically parameterizing a static model with field and laboratory data on tick hosts, we predict that SOD reduces an important index of disease risk, nymphal infection prevalence, leading to a reduction in Lyme disease risk in certain coastal woodlands. Direct observational analysis of the impact of SOD on nymphal infection prevalence supports these model results. This study underscores the important direct and indirect impacts of invasive plant pathogens on biodiversity, the transmission cycles of zoonotic diseases, and ultimately human health.

  11. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, Do Thuy; Siembieda, Jennifer; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Hung, Pham; Ky, Van Dang; Bandyopahyay, Santanu; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2015-12-30

    Prioritization of zoonotic diseases is critical as it facilitates optimization of resources, greater understanding of zoonotic diseases and implementation of policies promoting multisectoral collaboration. This study aimed to establish strategic priorities for zoonotic diseases in Vietnam taking a key stakeholder approach. Two weeks prior to a workshop on zoonotic diseases a questionnaire was developed and posted to key professionals involved in different areas of zoonotic disease management in Vietnam. Respondents were asked to assess the relative priority of 12 zoonotic diseases using a number of evidence-based criteria, and to provide suggestions to strengthen multisectoral collaboration. A response rate of 69% (51/74) was obtained, and 75% (38/51) respondents worked in non-international Vietnamese organizations. Respondents identified the top five diseases for prioritization in Vietnam as: avian influenza, rabies, Streptococcus suis infection, pandemic influenza and foodborne bacterial diseases. The three criteria most used to rank diseases were severity of disease, outbreak potential and public attention. Avian influenza was ranked as the number one priority zoonotic disease in Vietnam by 57% of the respondents, followed by rabies (18%). Respondents identified coordination mechanisms, information sharing and capacity building as the most important areas for strengthening to enhance multisectoral collaboration. This study is the first systematic and broad-based attempt to prioritize zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam using key stakeholders, and a comparative and transparent method. There is limited literature for policy makers and planners on this topic and the results of this study can be used to guide decision-making.

  13. Examining the differences in format and characteristics of zoonotic virus surveillance data on state agency websites.

    PubMed

    Scotch, Matthew; Baarson, Brittany; Beard, Rachel; Lauder, Robert; Varman, Aarthi; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-04-26

    Zoonotic viruses are infectious organisms transmittable between animals and humans. Agencies of public health, agriculture, and wildlife conduct surveillance of zoonotic viruses and often report data on their websites. However, the format and characteristics of these data are not known. To describe and compare the format and characteristics of statistics of zoonotic viruses on state public health, agriculture, and wildlife agency websites. For each state, we considered the websites of that state's public health, agriculture, and wildlife agency. For each website, we noted the presence of any statistics for zoonotic viruses from 2000-2012. We analyzed the data using numerous categories including type of statistic, temporal and geographic level of detail, and format. We prioritized our analysis within each category based on assumptions of individuals' preferences for extracting and analyzing data from websites. Thus, if two types of data (such as city and state-level) were present for a given virus in a given year, we counted the one with higher priority (city). External links from agency sites to other websites were not considered. From 2000-2012, state health departments had the most extensive virus data, followed by agriculture, and then wildlife. We focused on the seven viruses that were common across the three agencies. These included rabies, West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, influenza, and dengue fever. Simple numerical totals were most often used to report the data (89% for public health, 81% for agriculture, and 82% for wildlife), and proportions were not different (chi-square P=.15). Public health data were most often presented yearly (66%), while agriculture and wildlife agencies often described cases as they occurred (Fisher's Exact test P<.001). Regarding format, public health agencies had more downloadable PDF files (68%), while agriculture (61%) and wildlife agencies (46%) presented data

  14. West Nile virus lineage 2 as a cause of zoonotic neurological disease in humans and horses in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, Marietjie; Swanepoel, Robert

    2010-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in South Africa, but since a few cases of neurological disease have been reported from this region, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be of low virulence. Several cases of nonfatal encephalitis in humans as well as fatal cases in a foal, dog, and ostrich chicks have, however, been associated with lineage 2 WNV in South Africa. The pathogenesis of lineage 2 WNV strains was investigated using mouse neuroinvasive experiments, gene expression experiments, and genome sequence comparisons which indicated that lineage 2 strains that are highly pathogenic exist. To determine whether cases of WNV were being missed in South Africa, horses with fever and neurological disease were investigated. Several cases of WNV were identified, all associated with severe neurological disease, 85% of which had to be euthanized or died. All cases positive by RT-PCR were shown to belong to lineage 2 WNV by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Two cases of occupational infection were investigated, including a case of zoonotic transmission to a veterinarian who performed an autopsy on one of the horses as well as a laboratory infection after a needle stick injury with a neuroinvasive lineage 2 strain. Both resulted in neurological disease. Cytokine expression was investigated in the second case to assess the immunopathogenesis of WNV. Collectively, these studies suggest that lineage 2 WNV may be significantly under estimated as a cause of neurological disease in South Africa.

  15. Parasitic diseases of zoonotic importance in humans of northeast India, with special reference to ocular involvement.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipankar; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Deka, Angshuman; Yambem, Dinakumar; Tahiliani, Prerana Sushil; Deka, Panna; Bhattacharyya, Pankaj; Deka, Satyen; Das, Kalyan; Bharali, Gayatri; Deka, Apurba; Paul, Rajashree

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent in India, including the northeastern states. Proper epidemiological data are lacking from this part of the country on zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in the current scenario. Systemic manifestation of such diseases as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. The incidence of acquired toxoplasmal infection is showing an increasing trend in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Among the ocular parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, dirofilariasis, gnathostomiasis, hydatidosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, etc, are the real problems that are seen in this subset of the population. Therefore, proper coordination between various medical specialities, including veterinary science and other governing bodies, is needed for better and more effective strategic planning to control zoonoses.

  16. Zoonotic helminths parasites in the digestive tract of feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Li, Jian; Huang, Tengfei; Guillot, Jacques; Huang, Weiyi

    2015-08-16

    In Guangxi, a province of southern China, an important number of dogs and cats roam freely in rural settings, and the presence of these animals in proximity of people may represent a risk of parasitic zoonoses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and identify gastrointestinal helminths in feral carnivores in Guangxi province. Therefore, post mortem examination was performed in 40 dogs and in 39 cats. The Gastrointestinal helminths were found in all the necropsied dogs and in 37 out of 39 cats. Fifteen species were identified including 7 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 5 nematodes. Most of them may be responsible for zoonotic infections. Major zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths, including liver and intestinal flukes, Toxocara spp., and Ancylostoma spp., are present in feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, and may represent a significant risk for public health.

  17. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  18. [Parasites of zoonotic importance in dog feces collected in parks and public squares of the city of Los Angeles, Bío-Bío, Chile].

    PubMed

    Luzio, Álvaro; Belmar, Pablo; Troncoso, Ignacio; Luzio, Patricia; Jara, Alexis; Fernández, Ítalo

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of public squares and parks with dog feces poses a risk to the population, since it may contain parasitic elements of zoonotic importance. To identify human pathogenic parasites in samples of dog feces collected from parks and public squares. 452 fecal dog samples collected from 65 squares and public parks were analyzed using the technique of Burrows. 60% (39/65) of the samples contained some parasitic forms with a zoonotic potential. Parasitic taxa with zoonotic risk were Toxocara sp., Ancylostoma sp., Dipylidium caninum, Giardia sp., Taenia sp., Toxascaris sp., Strongyloides sp., and Uncinaria sp. The detected parasites present a risk to human health, so it seems necessary to implement health education activities in the community, develop deworming plans, and control the canine overpopulation.

  19. Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David M

    2013-06-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. These pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (Leptospira interrogans, Yersina pestis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (Seoul hantavirus), and parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). A more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is critical for determining the public health risks associated with urban rats and for developing strategies to monitor and mitigate those risks. Although the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses is complex, due to the multiple ways in which rats, people, pathogens, vectors, and the environment may interact, common determinants of human disease can still be identified. This review summarizes the ecology of zoonoses associated with urban rats with a view to identifying similarities, critical differences, and avenues for further study.

  20. Wildlife as Source of Zoonotic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kirkemo, Anne-Mette; Handeland, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    Zoonoses with a wildlife reservoir represent a major public health problem, affecting all continents. Hundreds of pathogens and many different transmission modes are involved, and many factors influence the epidemiology of the various zoonoses. The importance and recognition of wildlife as a reservoir of zoonoses are increasing. Cost-effective prevention and control of these zoonoses necessitate an interdisciplinary and holistic approach and international cooperation. Surveillance, laboratory capability, research, training and education, and communication are key elements. PMID:15663840

  1. Human and Animal Dirofilariasis: the Emergence of a Zoonotic Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchón, Rodrigo; González-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections. PMID:22763636

  2. The zoonotic potential of Clostridium difficile from small companion animals and their owners.

    PubMed

    Rabold, Denise; Espelage, Werner; Abu Sin, Muna; Eckmanns, Tim; Schneeberg, Alexander; Neubauer, Heinrich; Möbius, Nadine; Hille, Katja; Wieler, Lothar H; Seyboldt, Christian; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in humans range from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening intestinal disease. Findings on C. difficile in various animal species and an overlap in ribotypes (RTs) suggest potential zoonotic transmission. However, the impact of animals for human CDI remains unclear. In a large-scale survey we collected 1,447 fecal samples to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in small companion animals (dogs and cats) and their owners and to assess potential epidemiological links within the community. The Germany-wide survey was conducted from July 2012-August 2013. PCR ribotyping, Multilocus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) and PCR detection of toxin genes were used to characterize isolated C. difficile strains. A database was defined and logistic regression used to identify putative factors associated with fecal shedding of C. difficile. In total, 1,418 samples met the inclusion criteria. The isolation rates for small companion animals and their owners within the community were similarly low with 3.0% (25/840) and 2.9% (17/578), respectively. PCR ribotyping revealed eight and twelve different RTs in animals and humans, respectively, whereas three RTs were isolated in both, humans and animals. RT 014/0, a well-known human hospital-associated lineage, was predominantly detected in animal samples. Moreover, the potentially highly pathogenic RTs 027 and 078 were isolated from dogs. Even though, C. difficile did not occur simultaneously in animals and humans sharing the same household. The results of the epidemiological analysis of factors associated with fecal shedding of C. difficile support the hypothesis of a zoonotic potential. Molecular characterization and epidemiological analysis revealed that the zoonotic risk for C. difficile associated with dogs and cats within the community is low but cannot be excluded.

  3. Host-Nonspecific Iron Acquisition Systems and Virulence in the Zoonotic Serovar of Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Pajuelo, David; Lee, Chung-Te; Roig, Francisco J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Hor, Lien-I

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic serovar of Vibrio vulnificus (known as biotype 2 serovar E) is the etiological agent of human and fish vibriosis. The aim of the present work was to discover the role of the vulnibactin- and hemin-dependent iron acquisition systems in the pathogenicity of this zoonotic serovar under the hypothesis that both are host-nonspecific virulence factors. To this end, we selected three genes for three outer membrane receptors (vuuA, a receptor for ferric vulnibactin, and hupA and hutR, two hemin receptors), obtained single and multiple mutants as well as complemented strains, and tested them in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays, using eels and mice as animal models. The overall results confirm that hupA and vuuA, but not hutR, are host-nonspecific virulence genes and suggest that a third undescribed host-specific plasmid-encoded system could also be used by the zoonotic serovar in fish. hupA and vuuA were expressed in the internal organs of the animals in the first 24 h of infection, suggesting that they may be needed to achieve the population size required to trigger fatal septicemia. vuuA and hupA were sequenced in strains representative of the genetic diversity of this species, and their phylogenies were reconstructed by multilocus sequence analysis of selected housekeeping and virulence genes as a reference. Given the overall results, we suggest that both genes might form part of the core genes essential not only for disease development but also for the survival of this species in its natural reservoir, the aquatic environment. PMID:24478087

  4. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium Species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in HIV-Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhao, Xudong; Zhang, Longxian; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Meijin; Liu, Lili; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic tools have been used increasingly in the characterization of the transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis in developing countries. However, few studies have examined the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. In the present study, 683 HIV-positive patients in the National Free Antiretroviral Therapy Program in China and 683 matched HIV-negative controls were enrolled. Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes were detected and differentiated by PCR and DNA sequencing. The infection rates were 1.5% and 0.15% for Cryptosporidium and 5.7% and 4.2% for E. bieneusi in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants, respectively. The majority (8/11) of Cryptosporidium cases were infections by zoonotic species, including Cryptosporidium meleagridis (5), Cryptosporidium parvum (2), and Cryptosporidium suis (1). Prevalent E. bieneusi genotypes detected, including EbpC (39), D (12), and type IV (7), were also potentially zoonotic. The common occurrence of EbpC was a feature of E. bieneusi transmission not seen in other areas. Contact with animals was a risk factor for both cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. The results suggest that zoonotic transmission was significant in the epidemiology of both diseases in rural AIDS patients in China. PMID:23224097

  5. Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals

    PubMed Central

    Olival, Kevin J.; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Ross, Noam; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Daszak, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The majority of human emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonotic, with viruses originating in wild mammals of particular concern (e.g. HIV, Ebola, SARS)1–3. Understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs4. However, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species likely harbor the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species boundaries5–7. Here we conduct the most comprehensive analysis yet of mammalian host-virus relationships and show that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species, and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable. After controlling for research effort, the proportion of zoonotic viruses per species is predicted by phylogenetic relatedness to humans, host taxonomy, and human population within a species range – which may reflect human-wildlife contact. We demonstrate for the first time that bats harbor a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than all other mammalian orders. We identify the taxa and geographic regions with the largest estimated number of ‘missing viruses’ and ‘missing zoonoses’ and therefore of highest value for future surveillance. We then show that phylogenetic host breadth and other viral traits are significant predictors of zoonotic potential, providing a novel framework to assess if a newly discovered mammalian virus could infect people. PMID:28636590

  6. Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.

    PubMed

    Olival, Kevin J; Hosseini, Parviez R; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Ross, Noam; Bogich, Tiffany L; Daszak, Peter

    2017-06-29

    The majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, HIV, Ebola and SARS). Understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. However, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species boundaries. Here we conduct a comprehensive analysis of mammalian host-virus relationships and show that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable. After controlling for research effort, the proportion of zoonotic viruses per species is predicted by phylogenetic relatedness to humans, host taxonomy and human population within a species range-which may reflect human-wildlife contact. We demonstrate that bats harbour a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than all other mammalian orders. We also identify the taxa and geographic regions with the largest estimated number of 'missing viruses' and 'missing zoonoses' and therefore of highest value for future surveillance. We then show that phylogenetic host breadth and other viral traits are significant predictors of zoonotic potential, providing a novel framework to assess if a newly discovered mammalian virus could infect people.

  7. Molecular survey on zoonotic tick-borne bacteria and chlamydiae in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Mani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the presence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from urban areas. Spleen samples from 84 feral pigeons, found dead with traumatic injuries in urban areas, were examined by PCR to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp., and Chlamydophila spp. Twenty (23.8%) pigeons were infected by tick-borne agents, in particular 2 (2.38%) animals resulted positive for Bartonella spp., 5 (5.95%) for C. burnetii, 5 (5.95%) for Rickettsia spp., 13 (15.47%) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. All birds scored negative for A. phagocytophilum. Moreover, 17 (20.23%) pigeons were positive for Chlamydophila spp. and among them 10 (11.9%) for Chlamydophila psittaci. Mixed infections by two or three agents were detected in 8 (9.52%) animals. Feral pigeons living in urban and periurban areas are a hazard for the human health as source of several pathogens. The obtained results confirm pigeons as reservoirs of chlamydial agents and suggest that they may be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic tick-borne infections too. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid Detection and Identification of a Pathogen's DNA Using Phi29 DNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Dunn, J.; Gao, S.

    2008-10-31

    Zoonotic pathogens including those transmitted by insect vectors are some of the most deadly of all infectious diseases known to mankind. A number of these agents have been further weaponized and are widely recognized as being potentially significant biothreat agents. We describe a novel method based on multiply-primed rolling circle in vitro amplification for profiling genomic DNAs to permit rapid, cultivation-free differential detection and identification of circular plasmids in infectious agents. Using Phi29 DNA polymerase and a two-step priming reaction we could reproducibly detect and characterize by DNA sequencing circular DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi B31 in DNA samples containing asmore » little as 25 pg of Borrelia DNA amongst a vast excess of human DNA. This simple technology can ultimately be adapted as a sensitive method to detect specific DNA from both known and unknown pathogens in a wide variety of complex environments.« less

  9. Molecular survey of neglected bacterial pathogens reveals an abundant diversity of species and genotypes in ticks collected from animal hosts across Romania.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin O; Tolf, Conny; Tamba, Paula; Stefanache, Mircea; Radbea, Gabriel; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Tomaso, Herbert; Waldenström, Jonas; Dobler, Gerhard; Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2018-03-20

    Ticks are transmitting a wide range of bacterial pathogens that cause substantial morbidity and mortality in domestic animals. The full pathogen burden transmitted by tick vectors is incompletely studied in many geographical areas, and extensive studies are required to fully understand the diversity and distribution of pathogens transmitted by ticks. We sampled 824 ticks of 11 species collected in 19 counties in Romania. Ticks were collected mainly from dogs, but also from other domestic and wild animals, and were subjected to molecular screening for pathogens. Rickettsia spp. was the most commonly detected pathogen, occurring in 10.6% (87/824) of ticks. Several species were detected: Rickettsia helvetica, R. raoultii, R. massiliae, R. monacensis, R. slovaca and R. aeschlimannii. A single occurrence of the zoonotic bacterium Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Anaplasma phagocytophilum occurred in four samples, and sequences similar to Anaplasma marginale/ovis were abundant in ticks from ruminants. In addition, molecular screening showed that ticks from dogs were carrying an Ehrlichia species identical to the HF strain as well as the enigmatic zoonotic pathogen "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". An organism similar to E. chaffeensis or E. muris was detected in an Ixodes ricinus collected from a fox. We describe an abundant diversity of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from animal hosts in Romania, both on the level of species and genotypes/strains within these species. Several findings were novel for Romania, including Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii that causes bacteremia and endocarditis in dogs. "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Previously, a single case of infection in a dog was diagnosed in Germany. The results warrant further studies on the consequences of tick-borne pathogens in domestic animals in Romania.

  10. Opportunities for optimization: fate of manure-borne pathogens during anaerobic digestion and solids separation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic digestion can inactivate zoonotic pathogens present in cattle manure, which reduces transmission of these pathogens from farms to humans through the environment. However, the variability in extent of inactivation across farms and over time is unknown because most studies have examined pat...

  11. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pumidonming, Wilawan; Salman, Doaa; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Abdelbaset, Abdelbaset E; Sangkaeo, Khamphon; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Igarashi, Makoto

    2017-01-10

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand.

  12. High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia--short communication.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobrć, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2008-09-01

    To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in military working (100%) and stray dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the subgroups (100%, 62.7% and 46.2% for military working dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission.

  13. Zoonotic helminth infections with particular emphasis on fasciolosis and other trematodiases

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark W.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for >60 per cent of all human infectious diseases. Some of the most important and well-known human zoonoses are caused by worm or helminth parasites, including species of nematodes (trichinellosis), cestodes (cysticercosis, echinococcosis) and trematodes (schistosomiasis). However, along with social, epidemiological and environmental changes, together with improvements in our ability to diagnose helminth infections, several neglected parasite species are now fast-becoming recognized as important zoonotic diseases of humans, e.g. anasakiasis, several fish-borne trematodiasis and fasciolosis. In the present review, we discuss the current disease status of these primary helminth zoonotic infections with particular emphasis on their diagnosis and control. Advances in molecular biology, proteomics and the release of helminth genome-sequencing project data are revolutionizing parasitology research. The use of these powerful experimental approaches, and their potential benefits to helminth biology are also discussed in relation to the future control of helminth infections of animals and humans. PMID:19687044

  14. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens and putative symbionts of black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from Georgia and Florida.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Nims, Todd N; Savage, Mason Y; Durden, Lance A

    2009-10-01

    Ticks were collected from 38 black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from northwestern Florida (n = 18) from 2003 to 2005 and southern Georgia (n = 20) in 2006. Five species (Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and I. affinis) were collected from Florida bears, and 4 species (A. americanum, A. maculatum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis) were collected from bears in Georgia. Ixodes scapularis was the most frequently collected tick, followed by D. variabilis, A. americanum, A. maculatum, and I. affinis. The collection of I. affinis from a Florida bear represents a new host record. A subset of ticks was screened for pathogens and putative symbionts by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The zoonotic tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Rickettsia parkeri were detected in 1 of 23 (4.3%) A. americanum and 1 of 12 (8.3%) A. maculatum, respectively. The putative zoonotic pathogen "Rickettsia amblyommii" was detected in 4 (17.4%) A. americanum and 1 (8.3%) A. maculatum. Other putative symbiotic rickettsiae detected included R. bellii and R. montanensis in D. variabilis, a Rickettsia cooleyi-like sp. and Rickettsia sp. Is-1 in I. scapularis, and Rickettsia TR39-like sp. in I. scapularis and A. americanum. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp., E. ewingii, Francisella tularensis, and Borrelia spp.

  15. Efficient replication of the novel human betacoronavirus EMC on primary human epithelium highlights its zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R; Muth, Doreen; Hamming, Ole J; Hartmann, Rune; Rodriguez, Regulo; Geffers, Robert; Fouchier, Ron A M; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A; Dijkman, Ronald; Thiel, Volker

    2013-02-19

    The recent emergence of a novel human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC) in the Middle East raised considerable concerns, as it is associated with severe acute pneumonia, renal failure, and fatal outcome and thus resembles the clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) observed in 2002 and 2003. Like SARS-CoV, HCoV-EMC is of zoonotic origin and closely related to bat coronaviruses. The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry point and primary target tissue for respiratory viruses and is highly relevant for assessing the zoonotic potential of emerging respiratory viruses, such as HCoV-EMC. Here, we show that pseudostratified HAE cultures derived from different donors are highly permissive to HCoV-EMC infection, and by using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and RNAseq data, we experimentally determined the identity of seven HCoV-EMC subgenomic mRNAs. Although the HAE cells were readily responsive to type I and type III interferon (IFN), we observed neither a pronounced inflammatory cytokine nor any detectable IFN responses following HCoV-EMC, SARS-CoV, or HCoV-229E infection, suggesting that innate immune evasion mechanisms and putative IFN antagonists of HCoV-EMC are operational in the new host. Importantly, however, we demonstrate that both type I and type III IFN can efficiently reduce HCoV-EMC replication in HAE cultures, providing a possible treatment option in cases of suspected HCoV-EMC infection. IMPORTANCE A novel human coronavirus, HCoV-EMC, has recently been described to be associated with severe respiratory tract infection and fatalities, similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) observed during the 2002-2003 epidemic. Closely related coronaviruses replicate in bats, suggesting that, like SARS-CoV, HCoV-EMC is of zoonotic origin. Since the animal reservoir and circumstances of zoonotic transmission are yet elusive, it is critically important to assess potential species barriers of HCoV-EMC infection. An important first

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacterial Poultry Pathogens: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Carrique-Mas, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health threat, and antimicrobial usage and AMR in animal production is one of its contributing sources. Poultry is one of the most widespread types of meat consumed worldwide. Poultry flocks are often raised under intensive conditions using large amounts of antimicrobials to prevent and to treat disease, as well as for growth promotion. Antimicrobial resistant poultry pathogens may result in treatment failure, leading to economic losses, but also be a source of resistant bacteria/genes (including zoonotic bacteria) that may represent a risk to human health. Here we reviewed data on AMR in 12 poultry pathogens, including avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella Pullorum/Gallinarum, Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum, Gallibacterium anatis, Ornitobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium, Clostridium perfringens, Mycoplasma spp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Riemerella anatipestifer. A number of studies have demonstrated increases in resistance over time for S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, M. gallisepticum, and G. anatis. Among Enterobacteriaceae, APEC isolates displayed considerably higher levels of AMR compared with S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, with prevalence of resistance over >80% for ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline across studies. Among the Gram-negative, non-Enterobacteriaceae pathogens, ORT had the highest levels of phenotypic resistance with median levels of AMR against co-trimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, and ceftiofur all exceeding 50%. In contrast, levels of resistance among P. multocida isolates were less than 20% for all antimicrobials. The study highlights considerable disparities in methodologies, as well as in criteria for phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing and result interpretation. It is necessary to increase efforts to harmonize testing practices, and to promote free access to data on AMR in order to improve treatment guidelines as well as to

  17. Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequent combination of antimicrobial multiresistance and extraintestinal pathogenicity in Escherichia coli isolates from urban rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Sebastian; Bethe, Astrid; Fruth, Angelika; Semmler, Torsten; Ulrich, Rainer G; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs), indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95), which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1), and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9), pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public health

  19. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F; Grant, Donald S; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M; Nichols, Gordon; Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Webb, Colleen T; Wood, James L N

    2016-09-01

    A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir.

  20. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F.; Grant, Donald S.; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M.; Nichols, Gordon; Schieffelin, John S.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Webb, Colleen T.; Wood, James L. N.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: ‘spillover’, i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and ‘stuttering transmission’, i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir. PMID:27588425

  1. The Surface-Exposed Protein SntA Contributes to Complement Evasion in Zoonotic Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Simin; Xu, Tong; Fang, Qiong; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Jiaqi; Chen, Long; Liu, Jiahui; Zhou, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing streptococcal toxic shock like syndrome (STSLS), meningitis, septicemia, and even sudden death in human and pigs. Serious septicemia indicates this bacterium can evade the host complement surveillance. In our previous study, a functionally unknown protein SntA of S. suis has been identified as a heme-binding protein, and contributes to virulence in pigs. SntA can interact with the host antioxidant protein AOP2 and consequently inhibit its antioxidant activity. In the present study, SntA is identified as a cell wall anchored protein that functions as an important player in S. suis complement evasion. The C3 deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation on the surface of sntA -deleted mutant strain Δ sntA are demonstrated to be significantly higher than the parental strain SC-19 and the complementary strain CΔ sntA . The abilities of anti-phagocytosis, survival in blood, and in vivo colonization of Δ sntA are obviously reduced. SntA can interact with C1q and inhibit hemolytic activity via the classical pathway. Complement activation assays reveal that SntA can also directly activate classical and lectin pathways, resulting in complement consumption. These two complement evasion strategies may be crucial for the pathogenesis of this zoonotic pathogen. Concerning that SntA is a bifunctional 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase/3'-nucleotidase in many species of Gram-positive bacteria, these complement evasion strategies may have common biological significance.

  2. Collection and Utilization of Animal Carcasses Associated with zoonotic Disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Doty, Jeffrey B; Moses, Cynthia; Ibata, Saturnin; Reynolds, Mary; Carroll, Darin

    2015-07-01

    The collection and consumption of animal carcasses is a common activity in forested areas of the Congo River basin and creates sustainability, conservation, and health concerns. Residents of the Tshuapa District reported collecting the remains of 5,878 animals from >30 species when surveyed about their wildlife consumption habits. Carcasses were discovered in varying degrees of decomposition and were often consumed at home or sold in local markets. The most commonly collected animals were Cricetomys gambianus (Northern giant pouched rat), Cercopithecus ascanius (red-tailed monkey), and Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel). Many of the species recorded may be hosts of zoonotic pathogens, creating concern for spillover events.

  3. Metacommunity and phylogenetic structure determine wildlife and zoonotic infectious disease patterns in time and space.

    PubMed

    Suzán, Gerardo; García-Peña, Gabriel E; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Rico, Oscar; Rubio, André V; Tolsá, María J; Roche, Benjamin; Hosseini, Parviez R; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Murray, Kris A; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Vittecoq, Marion; Bailly, Xavier; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene; Mills, James N; Guégan, Jean-Francois

    2015-02-01

    The potential for disease transmission at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals and humans has become a major concern for public health and conservation biology. Research in this subject is commonly conducted at local scales while the regional context is neglected. We argue that prevalence of infection at local and regional levels is influenced by three mechanisms occurring at the landscape level in a metacommunity context. First, (1) dispersal, colonization, and extinction of pathogens, reservoir or vector hosts, and nonreservoir hosts, may be due to stochastic and niche-based processes, thus determining distribution of all species, and then their potential interactions, across local communities (metacommunity structure). Second, (2) anthropogenic processes may drive environmental filtering of hosts, nonhosts, and pathogens. Finally, (3) phylogenetic diversity relative to reservoir or vector host(s), within and between local communities may facilitate pathogen persistence and circulation. Using a metacommunity approach, public heath scientists may better evaluate the factors that predispose certain times and places for the origin and emergence of infectious diseases. The multidisciplinary approach we describe fits within a comprehensive One Health and Ecohealth framework addressing zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks and their relationship to their hosts, other animals, humans, and the environment.

  4. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F.; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H.; Graham, Jay P.

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27928092

  5. Zoonotic Potential and Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia Species and Giardiasis†

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Molecular diagnostic tools have been used recently in assessing the taxonomy, zoonotic potential, and transmission of Giardia species and giardiasis in humans and animals. The results of these studies have firmly established giardiasis as a zoonotic disease, although host adaptation at the genotype and subtype levels has reduced the likelihood of zoonotic transmission. These studies have also identified variations in the distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes among geographic areas and between domestic and wild ruminants and differences in clinical manifestations and outbreak potentials of assemblages A and B. Nevertheless, our efforts in characterizing the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis and the roles of various animals in the transmission of human giardiasis are compromised by the lack of case-control and longitudinal cohort studies and the sampling and testing of humans and animals living in the same community, the frequent occurrence of infections with mixed genotypes and subtypes, and the apparent heterozygosity at some genetic loci for some G. duodenalis genotypes. With the increased usage of multilocus genotyping tools, the development of next-generation subtyping tools, the integration of molecular analysis in epidemiological studies, and an improved understanding of the population genetics of G. duodenalis in humans and animals, we should soon have a better appreciation of the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis, the disease burden of zoonotic transmission, the taxonomy status and virulences of various G. duodenalis genotypes, and the ecology of environmental contamination. PMID:21233509

  6. Intestinal protozoan parasites with zoonotic potential in birds.

    PubMed

    Marietto-Gonçalves, G A; Fernandes, T M; Silva, R J; Lopes, R S; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of potentially zoonotic intestinal protozoan infections in exotic and wildlife Brazilian birds. Fecal samples from 207 birds of 45 species were examined. Infections by Balantidium sp., Entamoeba sp., and Blastocystis sp. were observed in 17 individuals (8.2%) of Gnorimopsar chopi, Oryzoborus angolensis, Sporophila caerulescens, Ramphastos toco, Aratinga leucophtalmus, and Pavo cristatus.

  7. Overview of zoonotic infections from fish and shellfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zoonosis refers to diseases that can be transferred from animals, whether wild or domesticated, to humans. Zoonotic infections can be divided into: 1) topically acquired infection caused by contact with aquatic animals or their products and 2) food borne infection caused by eating raw or undercooked...

  8. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (NHP). From a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. In this study we carried out the molecular identification of G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of Rome, to better ascertain their occurrence and zoonotic potential. Results G. duodenalis was found only in Lemur catta (47.0%). Entamoeba spp. were detected in all species studied, with the exception of Eulemur macaco and Varecia rubra. The number of positive pools ranged from 5.9% in L. catta to 81.2% in Mandrillus sphinx; in Pan troglodytes the observed prevalence was 53.6%. A mixed Entamoeba-Giardia infection was recorded only in one sample of L. catta. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to the zoonotic assemblage B, sub assemblage BIV. Three Entamoeba species were identified: E. hartmanni, E. coli and E. dispar. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of regularly testing animals kept in zoos for the diagnosis of zoonotic parasites, in order to evaluate their pathogenic role in the housed animals and the zoonotic risk linked to their presence. A quick detection of the arrival of pathogens into the enclosures could also be a prerequisite to limit their spread into the structure via the introduction of specific control strategies. The need for molecular identification of some parasite species/genotype in order to better define the zoonotic risk is also highlighted. PMID:21988762

  9. The Increase of Exotic Zoonotic Helminth Infections: The Impact of Urbanization, Climate Change and Globalization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic parasitic diseases are increasingly impacting human populations due to the effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change. Here we review the recent literature on the most important helminth zoonoses, including reports of incidence and prevalence. We discuss those helminth diseases which are increasing in endemic areas and consider their geographical spread into new regions within the framework of globalization, urbanization and climate change to determine the effect these variables are having on disease incidence, transmission and the associated challenges presented for public health initiatives, including control and elimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    PubMed Central

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  11. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  12. WATERBORNE PATHOGENS IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogens are microorganisms that can cause sickness or even death. A serious concern for managers of water resources, pathogens in the urban environment easily enter waters through a number of pathways, including discharge of inadequately treated sewage, stormwater runoff, combi...

  13. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tebug, Stanly Fon; Njunga, Gilson R; Chagunda, Mizeck G G; Mapemba, Jacob P; Awah-Ndukum, Julius; Wiedemann, Steffi

    2014-02-28

    Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers' awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers' general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1%) knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%). The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0%) and meat (56.0%). Almost all survey participants (96.4%) practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0%) and consumption (34.0%) of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%), whilst one animal (1.1%) reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease prevention

  14. Chitin Mixed in Potting Soil Alters Lettuce Growth, the Survival of Zoonotic Bacteria on the Leaves and Associated Rhizosphere Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Debode, Jane; De Tender, Caroline; Soltaninejad, Saman; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Haegeman, Annelies; Van der Linden, Inge; Cottyn, Bart; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is a promising soil amendment for improving soil quality, plant growth, and plant resilience. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, to study the effect of chitin mixed in potting soil on lettuce growth and on the survival of two zoonotic bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on the lettuce leaves. Second, to assess the related changes in the microbial lettuce rhizosphere, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and amplicon sequencing of a bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragment and the fungal ITS2. As a result of chitin addition, lettuce fresh yield weight was significantly increased. S. enterica survival in the lettuce phyllosphere was significantly reduced. The E. coli O157:H7 survival was also lowered, but not significantly. Moreover, significant changes were observed in the bacterial and fungal community of the lettuce rhizosphere. PLFA analysis showed a significant increase in fungal and bacterial biomass. Amplicon sequencing showed no increase in fungal and bacterial biodiversity, but relative abundances of the bacterial phyla Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria and the fungal phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota were significantly changed. More specifically, a more than 10-fold increase was observed for operational taxonomic units belonging to the bacterial genera Cellvibrio, Pedobacter, Dyadobacter, and Streptomyces and to the fungal genera Lecanicillium and Mortierella. These genera include several species previously reported to be involved in biocontrol, plant growth promotion, the nitrogen cycle and chitin degradation. These results enhance the understanding of the response of the rhizosphere microbiome to chitin amendment. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the use of soil amendments to control the survival of S. enterica on plant leaves. PMID:27148242

  15. Neotropical Zoonotic Parasites in Bush Dogs (Speothos venaticus) from Upper Paraná Atlantic Forests in Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Rinas, Miguel; Irazu, Lucia; Miyagi, Adriana; Argüelles, Carina F; DeMatteo, Karen E

    2016-10-01

    Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine. From May to August 2011, a detection dog located 34 scats that were genetically confirmed as bush dog and georeferenced to northern Misiones. Of these 34 scats, 27 had sufficient quantity that allowed processing for zoonotic parasites using morphological (sedimentation and flotation) and antigen (coproantigen technique) analyses. Within these 27 scats, we determined that the parasitic prevalence was 63.0% (n = 17) with 8 (47.1%) having mixed infections with 2-4 parasitic genera. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between sampling areas, sex, and parasite taxa were found. We were able to summarize the predominant nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, and Lagochilascaris spp.), cestodes (Taenia spp. and Spirometra spp.), and apicomplexa (Cystoisospora caninum) found in these bush dogs. With the copro-ELISA technique, 14.8% (n = 4) of the samples were positive for Echinococcus spp. This study represents the first comprehensive study about parasitic fauna with zoonotic potential in the free-ranging bush dog. This information combined with the innovative set of techniques used to collect the samples constitute a valuable contribution that can be used in control programs, surveillance of zoonotic diseases, and wildlife conservation, both regionally and across the bush dog's broad distribution.

  16. Seroprevalence of major bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Vongxay, Khamphouth; Conlan, James V; Khounsy, Syseng; Dorny, Pierre; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2012-10-01

    Bovine-associated zoonotic infectious diseases pose a significant threat to human health in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In all, 905 cattle and buffalo serum samples collected in northern Lao PDR in 2006 were used to determine seroprevalence of five major bovine zoonotic infectious diseases that included Taenia saginata cysticercosis, bovine tuberculosis, Q-fever, bovine brucellosis, and bovine leptospirosis. Five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to test for the presence of antibodies to the diseases, except Taenia saginata, for which we tested for the presence of Taenia metacestode circulating antigens. The overall highest prevalence was for T. saginata (46.4%), with lower prevalence for Q-fever (4%), leptospirosis (3%), tuberculosis (1%), and brucellosis (0.2%). Although there were no significant differences in the proportion of seroprevalence between sex and age of the animals sampled, there were significant differences between the provincial distributions. Further studies are required to determine the seroprevalence of these infections in other locations in Lao PDR, as well as other animal species including humans, in order to develop effective prevention and control strategies. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of bovine zoonotic infectious agents in the Lao PDR. Positivity was demonstrated for all diseases investigated, with the highest prevalence for T. saginata antigen and Coxiella burnetti antibodies. For T. saginata, there were significant differences in the provincial distribution. Approximately 16% seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetti was noted in Xayabuly Province; however, there are no clear reasons why this was the case, and further studies are required to determine risk factors associated with this observation.

  17. II. Pathogens

    Treesearch

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Brian W. Geils

    2011-01-01

    Invasive fungal pathogens have caused immeasurably large ecological and economic damage to forests. It is well known that invasive fungal pathogens can cause devastating forest diseases (e.g., white pine blister rust, chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease, dogwood anthracnose, butternut canker, Scleroderris canker of pines, sudden oak death, pine pitch canker) (Maloy 1997...

  18. Ecological study on antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic bacteria transmitted by flies in cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asmaa N; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Abdel-Azeem, Naglaa M; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Flies were qualitatively and quantitatively monitored on both livestock animals and the surrounding environment to investigate their role as a potential carrier for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance in cattle farms. This was done by the use of visual observations and animal photography; meanwhile, in the surrounding environment, flies were collected using sticky cards and then microscopically identified. Representative fly samples were cultured for bacterial isolation, biochemical identification, and then tested against common 12 antibiotics. The total average of dipterous flies in examined farms was 400.42 ± 6.2. Culicoides biting midges were the most common existing species (70.01 %) followed by house flies, stable flies, and mosquitoes (18.31, 7.74, and 3.91 %, respectively) at X (2) = 9.0, P < 0.05. The most predominant bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (22.6 %), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter (17.3 % each), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) (14.7 %), Klebsiella sp. (8 %), Salmonella spp. (6.7 %), and Shigella spp. and Proteus spp. (6.7 % each). The tested bacterial isolates were resistant to variant antibiotics used. S. aureus exhibited 100 % resistance to colistine. However, E. coli revealed 92.9 and 78.6 % resistance against tetracycline and colistine, respectively. Both Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 100 % resistant to penicillin, and Klebsiella sp. had 100 % resistance to tetracycline. In conclusion, Culicoides biting midges and house flies could be considered as a potential carrier for multi-drug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance. Furthermore, cows' environment has an essential role in propagation and wide spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  19. A Quantitative Approach to the Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in North America: A Health Professionals’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Victoria; Sargeant, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, zoonoses account for 58% to 61% of all communicable diseases causing illness in humans globally and up to 75% of emerging human pathogens. Although the impact of zoonoses on animal health and public health in North America is significant, there has been no published research involving health professionals on the prioritization of zoonoses in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings We used conjoint analysis (CA), a well-established quantitative method in market research, to identify the relative importance of 21 key characteristics of zoonotic diseases for their prioritization in Canada and the US. Relative importance weights from the CA were used to develop a point-scoring system to derive a recommended list of zoonoses for prioritization in Canada and the US. Study participants with a background in epidemiology, public health, medical sciences, veterinary sciences and infectious disease research were recruited to complete the online survey (707 from Canada and 764 from the US). Hierarchical Bayes models were fitted to the survey data to derive CA-weighted scores for disease criteria. Scores were applied to 62 zoonotic diseases to rank diseases in order of priority. Conclusions/Significance We present the first zoonoses prioritization exercise involving health professionals in North America. Our previous study indicated individuals with no prior knowledge in infectious diseases were capable of producing meaningful results with acceptable model fits (79.4%). This study suggests health professionals with some knowledge in infectious diseases were capable of producing meaningful results with better-fitted models than the general public (83.7% and 84.2%). Despite more similarities in demographics and model fit between the combined public and combined professional groups, there was more uniformity across priority lists between the Canadian public and Canadian professionals and between the US public and US professionals. Our study suggests that

  20. Sarcoptes infestation in two miniature pigs with zoonotic transmission - a case report.

    PubMed

    Grahofer, Alexander; Bannoehr, Jeanette; Nathues, Heiko; Roosje, Petra

    2018-03-13

    Scabies is a contagious skin disease rarely described in miniature pigs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, a zoonotic transfer from infected pet pigs to humans has not been reported previously. This case report describes the infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei mites in two miniature pigs presenting with unusual clinical signs, and disease transmission to a child. Two 7-month-old male castrated miniature pig siblings were examined. Both had developed skin lesions, one animal was presented for neurological signs and emaciation. They were housed together in an indoor- and outdoor enclosure. Dermatological examination revealed a dull, greasy coat with generalized hypotrichosis and multifocal erythema. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings, impression smears of affected skin and ear swabs revealed high numbers of Sarcoptes mites in both animals as well as bacterial overgrowth. A subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 0.3 mg/kg was administered to both animals and repeated after 2 weeks. Both miniature pigs received subcutaneous injections with butafosfan and cyanocobalamin, were washed with a 3% chlorhexidine shampoo and were fed on a well-balanced diet. Pig enclosures were cleaned. The infested child was examined by a physician and an antipruritic cream was prescribed. Both miniature pigs and the child went into clinical remission after treatment. Sarcoptic mange is rare or even eradicated in commercial pig farming in many countries but miniature pigs may represent a niche for Sarcoptes scabiei infections. This case report indicates that miniature pigs kept as pets can efficiently transmit zoonotic disease to humans. In addition, these animals may represent a niche for Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in countries where sarcoptic mange in commercial pig farms has been eradicated and could therefore pose, a hazard for specific pathogen free farms.

  1. Modelling H5N1 in Bangladesh across spatial scales: Model complexity and zoonotic transmission risk.

    PubMed

    Hill, Edward M; House, Thomas; Dhingra, Madhur S; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Morzaria, Subhash; Osmani, Muzaffar G; Yamage, Mat; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius; Tildesley, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a persistent public health threat, capable of causing infection in humans with a high mortality rate while simultaneously negatively impacting the livestock industry. A central question is to determine regions that are likely sources of newly emerging influenza strains with pandemic causing potential. A suitable candidate is Bangladesh, being one of the most densely populated countries in the world and having an intensifying farming system. It is therefore vital to establish the key factors, specific to Bangladesh, that enable both continued transmission within poultry and spillover across the human-animal interface. We apply a modelling framework to H5N1 epidemics in the Dhaka region of Bangladesh, occurring from 2007 onwards, that resulted in large outbreaks in the poultry sector and a limited number of confirmed human cases. This model consisted of separate poultry transmission and zoonotic transmission components. Utilising poultry farm spatial and population information a set of competing nested models of varying complexity were fitted to the observed case data, with parameter inference carried out using Bayesian methodology and goodness-of-fit verified by stochastic simulations. For the poultry transmission component, successfully identifying a model of minimal complexity, which enabled the accurate prediction of the size and spatial distribution of cases in H5N1 outbreaks, was found to be dependent on the administration level being analysed. A consistent outcome of non-optimal reporting of infected premises materialised in each poultry epidemic of interest, though across the outbreaks analysed there were substantial differences in the estimated transmission parameters. The zoonotic transmission component found the main contributor to spillover transmission of H5N1 in Bangladesh was found to differ from one poultry epidemic to another. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for these discrepancies in

  2. Cross-species infection of hepatitis E virus in a zoo-like location, including birds

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, W.; SHEN, Q.; MOU, J.; YANG, Z. B.; YUAN, C. L.; CUI, L.; ZHU, J. G.; HUA, X. G.; XU, C. M.; HU, J.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animals are considered to be reservoirs. Thirty-eight faecal samples, obtained from 22 species of animals including birds in a wildlife first-aid centre in Eastern China, were tested for HEV RNA. Our survey revealed that in total 28·9% (95% confidence interval 14·5–43·4) of the faecal samples from various mammals and birds were HEV RNA positive. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 11 isolates demonstrated that all sequences clustered in genotype 4 with 96–100% identity to each other. In addition, serum samples from seven animal handlers have shown that five (71·4%) were seropositive. The findings imply that cross-species infection of HEV had probably occurred in this zoo-like location, and moreover, birds can be infected naturally with mammalian HEV. PMID:17961279

  3. Understanding and Managing Zoonotic Risk in the New Livestock Industries

    PubMed Central

    Waage, Jeff; Barnett, Tony; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Rushton, Jonathan; Rudge, James W.; Loevinsohn, Michael E.; Scoones, Ian; Smith, Richard D.; Cooper, Ben S.; White, Lisa J.; Goh, Shan; Horby, Peter; Wren, Brendan; Gundogdu, Ozan; Woods, Abigail; Coker, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In many parts of the world, livestock production is undergoing a process of rapid intensification. The health implications of this development are uncertain. Intensification creates cheaper products, allowing more people to access animal-based foods. However, some practices associated with intensification may contribute to zoonotic disease emergence and spread: for example, the sustained use of antibiotics, concentration of animals in confined units, and long distances and frequent movement of livestock. Objectives: Here we present the diverse range of ecological, biological, and socioeconomic factors likely to enhance or reduce zoonotic risk, and identify ways in which a comprehensive risk analysis may be conducted by using an interdisciplinary approach. We also offer a conceptual framework to guide systematic research on this problem. Discussion: We recommend that interdisciplinary work on zoonotic risk should take into account the complexity of risk environments, rather than limiting studies to simple linear causal relations between risk drivers and disease emergence and/or spread. In addition, interdisciplinary integration is needed at different levels of analysis, from the study of risk environments to the identification of policy options for risk management. Conclusion: Given rapid changes in livestock production systems and their potential health implications at the local and global level, the problem we analyze here is of great importance for environmental health and development. Although we offer a systematic interdisciplinary approach to understand and address these implications, we recognize that further research is needed to clarify methodological and practical questions arising from the integration of the natural and social sciences. PMID:23665854

  4. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Lassa fever in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mylne, Adrian Q. N.; Pigott, David M.; Longbottom, Joshua; Shearer, Freya; Duda, Kirsten A.; Messina, Jane P.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Golding, Nick; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic illness responsible for disease outbreaks across West Africa. It is a zoonosis, with the primary reservoir species identified as the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis. The host is distributed across sub-Saharan Africa while the virus' range appears to be restricted to West Africa. The majority of infections result from interactions between the animal reservoir and human populations, although secondary transmission between humans can occur, particularly in hospital settings. Methods Using a species distribution model, the locations of confirmed human and animal infections with Lassa virus (LASV) were used to generate a probabilistic surface of zoonotic transmission potential across sub-Saharan Africa. Results Our results predict that 37.7 million people in 14 countries, across much of West Africa, live in areas where conditions are suitable for zoonotic transmission of LASV. Four of these countries, where at-risk populations are predicted, have yet to report any cases of Lassa fever. Conclusions These maps act as a spatial guide for future surveillance activities to better characterise the geographical distribution of the disease and understand the anthropological, virological and zoological interactions necessary for viral transmission. Combining this zoonotic niche map with detailed patient travel histories can aid differential diagnoses of febrile illnesses, enabling a more rapid response in providing care and reducing the risk of onward transmission. PMID:26085474

  5. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Lassa fever in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mylne, Adrian Q N; Pigott, David M; Longbottom, Joshua; Shearer, Freya; Duda, Kirsten A; Messina, Jane P; Weiss, Daniel J; Moyes, Catherine L; Golding, Nick; Hay, Simon I

    2015-08-01

    Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic illness responsible for disease outbreaks across West Africa. It is a zoonosis, with the primary reservoir species identified as the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis. The host is distributed across sub-Saharan Africa while the virus' range appears to be restricted to West Africa. The majority of infections result from interactions between the animal reservoir and human populations, although secondary transmission between humans can occur, particularly in hospital settings. Using a species distribution model, the locations of confirmed human and animal infections with Lassa virus (LASV) were used to generate a probabilistic surface of zoonotic transmission potential across sub-Saharan Africa. Our results predict that 37.7 million people in 14 countries, across much of West Africa, live in areas where conditions are suitable for zoonotic transmission of LASV. Four of these countries, where at-risk populations are predicted, have yet to report any cases of Lassa fever. These maps act as a spatial guide for future surveillance activities to better characterise the geographical distribution of the disease and understand the anthropological, virological and zoological interactions necessary for viral transmission. Combining this zoonotic niche map with detailed patient travel histories can aid differential diagnoses of febrile illnesses, enabling a more rapid response in providing care and reducing the risk of onward transmission. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Species loss on spatial patterns and composition of zoonotic parasites

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Nyeema C.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Species loss can result in the subsequent loss of affiliate species. Though largely ignored to date, these coextinctions can pose threats to human health by altering the composition, quantity and distribution of zoonotic parasites. We simulated host extinctions from more than 1300 host–parasite associations for 29 North American carnivores to investigate changes in parasite composition and species richness. We also explored the geography of zoonotic parasite richness under three carnivore composition scenarios and examined corresponding levels of human exposure. We found that changes in parasite assemblages differed among parasite groups. Because viruses tend to be generalists, the proportion of parasites that are viruses increased as more carnivores went extinct. Coextinction of carnivore parasites is unlikely to be common, given that few specialist parasites exploit hosts of conservation concern. However, local extirpations of widespread carnivore hosts can reduce overall zoonotic richness and shift distributions of parasite-rich areas. How biodiversity influences disease risks remains the subject of debate. Our results make clear that hosts vary in their contribution to human health risks. As a consequence, so too does the loss (or gain) of particular hosts. Anticipating changes in host composition in future environments may help inform parasite conservation and disease mitigation efforts. PMID:24068356

  7. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil: frequency and zoonotic risk.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Fernanda Melo; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Calado, Andréa Maria Campos; Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Ramos, Ingrid Carla do Nascimento; Tenório, Rodrigo Ferreira Lima; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-04-12

    Gastrointestinal helminths are considered to be the most common parasites affecting cats worldwide. Correct diagnosis of these parasites in animals living in urban areas is pivotal, especially considering the zoonotic potential of some species (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.). In this study, a copromicroscopic survey was conducted using fecal samples (n = 173) from domestic cats living in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were examined through the FLOTAC technique and the overall results showed positivity of 65.31% (113/173) among the samples analyzed. Coinfections were observed in 46.01% (52/113) of the positive samples. The most common parasites detected were Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris sp., Dipylidium caninum and Cystoisospora sp. From an epidemiological point of view, these findings are important, especially considering that zoonotic parasites (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.) were the nematodes most frequently diagnosed in this study. Therefore, the human population living in close contact with cats is at risk of infection caused by the zoonotic helminths of these animals. In addition, for the first time the FLOTAC has been used to diagnosing gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil.

  8. Lobomycosis: risk of zoonotic transmission from dolphins to humans.

    PubMed

    Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D

    2013-10-01

    Lobomycosis, a fungal disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Lacazia loboi, is sometimes referred to as a zoonotic disease because it affects only specific delphinidae and humans; however, the evidence that it can be transferred directly to humans from dolphins is weak. Dolphins have also been postulated to be responsible for an apparent geographic expansion of the disease in humans. Morphological and molecular differences between the human and dolphin organisms, differences in geographic distribution of the diseases between dolphins and humans, the existence of only a single documented case of presumed zoonotic transmission, and anecdotal evidence of lack of transmission to humans following accidental inoculation of tissue from infected dolphins do not support the hypothesis that dolphins infected with L. loboi represent a zoonotic hazard for humans. In addition, the lack of human cases in communities adjacent to coastal estuaries with a high prevalence of lobomycosis in dolphins, such as the Indian River Lagoon in Florida (IRL), suggests that direct or indirect transmission of L. loboi from dolphins to humans occurs rarely, if at all. Nonetheless, attention to personal hygiene and general principals of infection control are always appropriate when handling tissues from an animal with a presumptive diagnosis of a mycotic or fungal disease.

  9. Isolation of a zoonotic pathogen Kluyvera ascorbata from Egyptian fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus.

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Eun; Gomez, Dennis K; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choresca, Casiano H; Shin, Sang Phil; Park, Se Chang

    2010-01-01

    The Egyptian fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus which had been raised at the private commercial aquarium in Seoul, Korea for indoor exhibition was found dead and submitted to College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University for postmortem examination. A pure bacterium of Kluyvera ascorbata was isolated from the blood specimen. The isolation of K. ascorbata from fruit bat is very important, because it is the most infectious agent of the genus Kluyvera that cause serious diseases to animals and human. Fruit-bats which are distributed in pet shops through black-market in Korea although unproven become popular pet nowadays. This situation enhances chance of zoonosis. This paper describes the first isolation of K. ascorbata from the Egyptian fruit-bat.

  10. An Invasive Vector of Zoonotic Disease Sustained by Anthropogenic Resources: The Raccoon Dog in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010–2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1%) and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%). Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with ‘carrion’ and ‘anthropogenic plants’ making up the bulk of both species’ diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, ‘anthropogenic plants’ and ‘carrion’ provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa), this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange. PMID:24852942

  11. An invasive vector of zoonotic disease sustained by anthropogenic resources: the raccoon dog in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Süld, Karmen; Valdmann, Harri; Laurimaa, Leidi; Soe, Egle; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an introduced species in Europe with a continually expanding range. Since the species is capable of affecting local ecosystems and is a vector for a number of severe zoonotic diseases, it is important to understand its food habits. Raccoon dog diet was studied in Estonia by examining the contents of 223 stomach samples collected during the coldest period of the year, August to March, in 2010-2012. The most frequently consumed food categories were anthropogenic plants (e.g. cereals, fruits; FO = 56.1%) and carrion (e.g. carcasses of artiodactyls and carnivores; FO = 48.4%). Carrion was also the only food category that was consumed significantly more frequently by raccoon dogs exhibiting symptoms of sarcoptic mange than by uninfected animals. Small mammals, which represent intermediate hosts for the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, were more commonly recorded in samples also containing anthropogenic plants than expected by chance. Comparison of raccoon dog and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) diet in Estonia revealed higher overlap than found elsewhere in Europe, with 'carrion' and 'anthropogenic plants' making up the bulk of both species' diet; however, raccoon dogs were more omnivorous than red foxes. Our results suggest that while the use of most food categories reflects the phenology of natural food sources, 'anthropogenic plants' and 'carrion' provide an essential resource for raccoon dogs during the coldest period of the year, with the latter resource especially important for individuals infected with sarcoptic mange. Since both of these food categories and small mammals are often found at supplementary feeding sites for wild boar (Sus scrofa), this game management practice may facilitate high densities of mesocarnivores and promote the spread of some severe zoonotic diseases, including alveolar echinococcosis, trichinellosis, rabies and sarcoptic mange.

  12. Comparison of phenology and pathogen prevalence, including infection with the Ehrlichia muris-like (EML) agent, of Ixodes scapularis removed from soldiers in the midwestern and the northeastern United States over a 15 year period (1997-2012).

    PubMed

    Stromdahl, Ellen; Hamer, Sarah; Jenkins, Sarah; Sloan, Lynne; Williamson, Phillip; Foster, Erik; Nadolny, Robyn; Elkins, Chad; Vince, Mary; Pritt, Bobbi

    2014-12-04

    Since 1997, human-biting ticks submitted to the Department of Defense Human Tick Test Kit Program (HTTKP) of the US Army Public Health Command have been tested for pathogens by PCR. We noted differences in the phenology and infection prevalence among Ixodes scapularis ticks submitted from military installations in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize these observed differences, comparing the phenology and pathogen infection rates of I. scapularis submitted from soldiers at two sites in the upper Midwest (Camp Ripley, MN, and Ft. McCoy, WI) and one site in the northeastern US (Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA). From 1997 through 2012, the HTTKP received 1,981 I. scapularis from the three installations and tested them for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi and the Ehrlichia muris-like (EML) agent using PCR; pathogen presence was confirmed via sequencing or amplification of a second gene target. Pathogen and co-infection prevalence, tick engorgement status, and phenology were compared among installations. Greater rates of A. phagocytophilum and Ba. microti infections were detected in ticks submitted from installations in Minnesota than in Wisconsin or Pennsylvania, and the EML agent was only detected in ticks from Minnesota and Wisconsin. Midwestern ticks were also more likely to be co-infected than those from Pennsylvania. Both adult and nymphal ticks showed evidence of feeding on people, although nymphs were more often submitted engorged. Adult I. scapularis were received more frequently in June from Minnesota than from either of the other sites. Minnesota adult and nymphal peaks overlapped in June, and submissions of adults exceeded nymphs in that month. There were clear differences in I. scapularis phenology, pathogen prevalence and rates of co-infection among the three military installations. Seasonal and temperature differences between the three sites and length of time a population had been established in

  13. Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ≥ 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households

  14. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    PubMed

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Predicting Zoonotic Risk of Influenza A Viruses from Host Tropism Protein Signature Using Random Forest

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Christine L. P.; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses remain a significant health problem, especially when a novel subtype emerges from the avian population to cause severe outbreaks in humans. Zoonotic viruses arise from the animal population as a result of mutations and reassortments, giving rise to novel strains with the capability to evade the host species barrier and cause human infections. Despite progress in understanding interspecies transmission of influenza viruses, we are no closer to predicting zoonotic strains that can lead to an outbreak. We have previously discovered distinct host tropism protein signatures of avian, human and zoonotic influenza strains obtained from host tropism predictions on individual protein sequences. Here, we apply machine learning approaches on the signatures to build a computational model capable of predicting zoonotic strains. The zoonotic strain prediction model can classify avian, human or zoonotic strains with high accuracy, as well as providing an estimated zoonotic risk. This would therefore allow us to quickly determine if an influenza virus strain has the potential to be zoonotic using only protein sequences. The swift identification of potential zoonotic strains in the animal population using the zoonotic strain prediction model could provide us with an early indication of an imminent influenza outbreak. PMID:28587080

  16. Predicting Zoonotic Risk of Influenza A Viruses from Host Tropism Protein Signature Using Random Forest.

    PubMed

    Eng, Christine L P; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2017-05-25

    Influenza A viruses remain a significant health problem, especially when a novel subtype emerges from the avian population to cause severe outbreaks in humans. Zoonotic viruses arise from the animal population as a result of mutations and reassortments, giving rise to novel strains with the capability to evade the host species barrier and cause human infections. Despite progress in understanding interspecies transmission of influenza viruses, we are no closer to predicting zoonotic strains that can lead to an outbreak. We have previously discovered distinct host tropism protein signatures of avian, human and zoonotic influenza strains obtained from host tropism predictions on individual protein sequences. Here, we apply machine learning approaches on the signatures to build a computational model capable of predicting zoonotic strains. The zoonotic strain prediction model can classify avian, human or zoonotic strains with high accuracy, as well as providing an estimated zoonotic risk. This would therefore allow us to quickly determine if an influenza virus strain has the potential to be zoonotic using only protein sequences. The swift identification of potential zoonotic strains in the animal population using the zoonotic strain prediction model could provide us with an early indication of an imminent influenza outbreak.

  17. The zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato

    2014-10-01

    Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections.

  18. Coastal development and precipitation drive pathogen flow from land to sea: evidence from a Toxoplasma gondii and felid host system.

    PubMed

    VanWormer, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Tim E; Singh, Purnendu; Shapiro, Karen; Wallender, Wesley W; Conrad, Patricia A; Largier, John L; Maneta, Marco P; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2016-07-26

    Rapidly developing coastal regions face consequences of land use and climate change including flooding and increased sediment, nutrient, and chemical runoff, but these forces may also enhance pathogen runoff, which threatens human, animal, and ecosystem health. Using the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii in California, USA as a model for coastal pathogen pollution, we examine the spatial distribution of parasite runoff and the impacts of precipitation and development on projected pathogen delivery to the ocean. Oocysts, the extremely hardy free-living environmental stage of T. gondii shed in faeces of domestic and wild felids, are carried to the ocean by freshwater runoff. Linking spatial pathogen loading and transport models, we show that watersheds with the highest levels of oocyst runoff align closely with regions of increased sentinel marine mammal T. gondii infection. These watersheds are characterized by higher levels of coastal development and larger domestic cat populations. Increases in coastal development and precipitation independently raised oocyst delivery to the ocean (average increases of 44% and 79%, respectively), but dramatically increased parasite runoff when combined (175% average increase). Anthropogenic changes in landscapes and climate can accelerate runoff of diverse pathogens from terrestrial to aquatic environments, influencing transmission to people, domestic animals, and wildlife.

  19. Coastal development and precipitation drive pathogen flow from land to sea: evidence from a Toxoplasma gondii and felid host system

    PubMed Central

    VanWormer, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Tim E; Singh, Purnendu; Shapiro, Karen; Wallender, Wesley W.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Largier, John L.; Maneta, Marco P.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly developing coastal regions face consequences of land use and climate change including flooding and increased sediment, nutrient, and chemical runoff, but these forces may also enhance pathogen runoff, which threatens human, animal, and ecosystem health. Using the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii in California, USA as a model for coastal pathogen pollution, we examine the spatial distribution of parasite runoff and the impacts of precipitation and development on projected pathogen delivery to the ocean. Oocysts, the extremely hardy free-living environmental stage of T. gondii shed in faeces of domestic and wild felids, are carried to the ocean by freshwater runoff. Linking spatial pathogen loading and transport models, we show that watersheds with the highest levels of oocyst runoff align closely with regions of increased sentinel marine mammal T. gondii infection. These watersheds are characterized by higher levels of coastal development and larger domestic cat populations. Increases in coastal development and precipitation independently raised oocyst delivery to the ocean (average increases of 44% and 79%, respectively), but dramatically increased parasite runoff when combined (175% average increase). Anthropogenic changes in landscapes and climate can accelerate runoff of diverse pathogens from terrestrial to aquatic environments, influencing transmission to people, domestic animals, and wildlife. PMID:27456911

  20. Pathogen inactivation techniques.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J P R; Transue, S; Snyder, E L

    2006-01-01

    The desire to rid the blood supply of pathogens of all types has led to the development of many technologies aimed at the same goal--eradication of the pathogen(s) without harming the blood cells or generating toxic chemical agents. This is a very ambitious goal, and one that has yet to be achieved. One approach is to shun the 'one size fits all' concept and to target pathogen-reduction agents at the Individual component types. This permits the development of technologies that might be compatible with, for example, plasma products but that would be cytocidal and thus incompatible with platelet concentrates or red blood cell units. The technologies to be discussed include solvent detergent and methylene blue treatments--designed to inactivate plasma components and derivatives; psoralens (S-59--amotosalen) designed to pathogen-reduce units of platelets; and two products aimed at red blood cells, S-303 (a Frale--frangible anchor-linker effector compound) and Inactine (a binary ethyleneimine). A final pathogen-reduction material that might actually allow one material to inactivate all three blood components--riboflavin (vitamin B2)--is also under development. The sites of action of the amotosalen (S-59), the S-303 Frale, Inactine, and riboflavin are all localized in the nucleic acid part of the pathogen. Solvent detergent materials act by dissolving the plasma envelope, thus compromising the integrity of the pathogen membrane and rendering it non-infectious. By disrupting the pathogen's ability to replicate or survive, its infectivity is removed. The degree to which bacteria and viruses are affected by a particular pathogen-reducing technology relates to its Gram-positive or Gram-negative status, to the sporulation characteristics for bacteria, and the presence of lipid or protein envelopes for viruses. Concerns related to photoproducts and other breakdown products of these technologies remain, and the toxicology of pathogen-reduction treatments is a major ongoing area

  1. Zoonotic and Potentially Host-Adapted Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in Sheep and Cattle in Northeast China and an Increasing Concern about the Zoonotic Importance of Previously Considered Ruminant-Adapted Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanxue; Tao, Wei; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yongchao; Zhang, Siwen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fecal specimens from 489 sheep and 537 cattle in multiple cities in northeast China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. Sixty-eight sheep specimens (13.9%) and 32 cattle specimens (6.0%) were positive for E. bieneusi. Sequence polymorphisms enabled the identification of 9 known genotypes (BEB4, BEB6, CM7, CS-4, EbpC, G, I, J, and OEB1) and 11 new genotypes (NESH1 to NESH6 and NECA1 to NECA5). The genotypes formed two genetic clusters in a phylogenetic analysis, with CS-4, EbpC, G, NESH1 to NESH3, and NECA1 to NECA5 distributed in zoonotic group 1 and BEB4, BEB6, CM7, EbpI, J, OEB1, and NESH4 to NESH6 distributed in potentially host-adapted group 2. Nearly 70% of cases of E. bieneusi infections in sheep were contributed by human-pathogenic genotypes BEB6, CS-4, and EbpC, and over 80% of those in cattle were by genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J. The cooccurrence of genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J in domestic ruminants and children in northeast China and the identification of BEB6 and EbpC in humans and water in central China imply the possibility of zoonotic transmission. This study also summarizes E. bieneusi genotypes obtained from ruminants worldwide and displays their host ranges, geographical distributions, and phylogenetic relationships. The data suggest a host range expansion in some group 2 genotypes (notably BEB4, BEB6, I, and J) that were previously considered to be adapted to ruminants. We should be concerned about the increasing zoonotic importance of group 2 genotypes with low host specificity. PMID:25746997

  2. Prevalence of zoonotic bacteria in wild and farmed aquatic species and seafood: a scoping study, systematic review, and meta-analysis of published research.

    PubMed

    Tuševljak, Nataša; Rajić, Andrijana; Waddell, Lisa; Dutil, Lucie; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Greig, Judy; Wilhelm, Barbara J; Wilkins, Wendy; Totton, Sarah; Uhland, F Carl; Avery, Brent; McEwen, Scott A

    2012-06-01

    Increased reliance on seafood has brought to light concerns regarding food safety, but the information to inform risk assessment or surveillance needs is lacking. A scoping study (ScS) was conducted to characterize published research investigating selected zoonotic bacteria and public health topics in various wild and farmed aquatic species and seafood. This was followed by a systematic review (SR) on selected bacteria (Aeromonas spp., generic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Vibrio spp.) and aquatic species (clams, mussels, oysters, salmon, and shrimp [including prawn]); a meta-analysis (MA) was conducted only at the retail level due to considerable variability among various pathogen/seafood combinations. The ScS revealed the most frequently investigated themes were farm-level prevalence and intervention research for Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas spp. Antimicrobial use (AMU) and the association between AMU and antimicrobial resistance were rarely investigated. The SR indicated a consistent lack of reporting regarding study methodology and results, precluding the use of many studies in and full benefits of MA. MA of Aeromonas, E. coli, and Salmonella prevalence in retail salmon resulted in pooled estimates of 13% (6-27%), 2% (0.1-11%), and 1% (0-5%), respectively. When MA of pathogen/seafood combination resulted in statistically significant heterogeneity (p<0.1), median/range were reported at the region level. The results from our ScS, SR, and MA could be used for better design of future bacteriological surveys of seafood and as inputs for risk assessments or surveillance initiatives in this field.

  3. Challenge for One Health: Co-Circulation of Zoonotic H5N1 and H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza. The H5N1 viruses acquired enhanced bird-to-human transmissibility by (1) altering amino acids in hemagglutinin (HA) that enable binding affinity to human-type receptors, (2) loss of the glycosylation site and 130 loop in the HA protein and (3) mutation of E627K in the PB2 protein to enhance viral replication in mammalian hosts. The receptor binding site of HA of Egyptian H9N2 viruses has been shown to contain the Q234L substitution along with a H191 mutation, which can increase human-like receptor specificity. Therefore, co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry farming and live bird markets has increased the risk of human exposure, resulting in complication of the epidemiological situation and raising a concern for potential emergence of a new influenza A virus pandemic. For efficient control of infection and transmission, the efficacy of vaccine and vaccination needs to be improved with a comprehensive control strategy, including enhanced biosecurity, education, surveillance, rapid diagnosis and culling of infected poultry. PMID:29522492

  4. Challenge for One Health: Co-Circulation of Zoonotic H5N1 and H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee

    2018-03-09

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza. The H5N1 viruses acquired enhanced bird-to-human transmissibility by (1) altering amino acids in hemagglutinin (HA) that enable binding affinity to human-type receptors, (2) loss of the glycosylation site and 130 loop in the HA protein and (3) mutation of E627K in the PB2 protein to enhance viral replication in mammalian hosts. The receptor binding site of HA of Egyptian H9N2 viruses has been shown to contain the Q234L substitution along with a H191 mutation, which can increase human-like receptor specificity. Therefore, co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry farming and live bird markets has increased the risk of human exposure, resulting in complication of the epidemiological situation and raising a concern for potential emergence of a new influenza A virus pandemic. For efficient control of infection and transmission, the efficacy of vaccine and vaccination needs to be improved with a comprehensive control strategy, including enhanced biosecurity, education, surveillance, rapid diagnosis and culling of infected poultry.

  5. Mammal decline, linked to invasive Burmese python, shifts host use of vector mosquito towards reservoir hosts of a zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Isaiah J; Blosser, Erik M; Acevedo, Carolina; Thompson, Anna Carels; Reeves, Lawrence E; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2017-10-01

    Invasive apex predators have profound impacts on natural communities, yet the consequences of these impacts on the transmission of zoonotic pathogens are unexplored. Collapse of large- and medium-sized mammal populations in the Florida Everglades has been linked to the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl. We used historic and current data to investigate potential impacts of these community effects on contact between the reservoir hosts (certain rodents) and vectors of Everglades virus, a zoonotic mosquito-borne pathogen that circulates in southern Florida. The percentage of blood meals taken from the primary reservoir host, the hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord, increased dramatically (422.2%) from 1979 (14.7%) to 2016 (76.8%), while blood meals from deer, raccoons and opossums decreased by 98.2%, reflecting precipitous declines in relative abundance of these larger mammals, attributed to python predation. Overall species diversity of hosts detected in Culex cedecei blood meals from the Everglades declined by 40.2% over the same period ( H (1979) = 1.68, H (2016) = 1.01). Predictions based upon the dilution effect theory suggest that increased relative feedings upon reservoir hosts translate into increased abundance of infectious vectors, and a corresponding upsurge of Everglades virus occurrence and risk of human exposure, although this was not tested in the current study. This work constitutes the first indication that an invasive predator can increase contact between vectors and reservoirs of a human pathogen and highlights unrecognized indirect impacts of invasive predators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Environmental Transport of Emerging Human-Pathogenic Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes through Combined Sewer Overflow and Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chengchen; Hu, Yue; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yuanfei; Li, Na; Guo, Yaqiong; Xiao, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The environmental transport of Cryptosporidium spp. through combined sewer overflow (CSO) and the occurrence of several emerging human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species in developing countries remain unclear. In this study, we collected 40 CSO samples and 40 raw wastewater samples from Shanghai, China, and examined them by PCR and DNA sequencing for Cryptosporidium species (targeting the small subunit rRNA gene) and Giardia duodenalis (targeting the triosephosphate isomerase, β-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi (targeting the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) genotypes. Human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species were further subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene, with additional multilocus sequence typing on the emerging zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi were detected in 12 and 15, 33 and 32, and 37 and 40 CSO and wastewater samples, respectively, including 10 Cryptosporidium species, 3 G. duodenalis assemblages, and 8 E. bieneusi genotypes. In addition to Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, two new pathogens identified in industrialized nations, C. ubiquitum and Cryptosporidium viatorum, were frequently detected. The two novel C. ubiquitum subtype families identified appeared to be genetic recombinants of known subtype families. Similarly, the dominant group 1 E. bieneusi genotypes and G. duodenalis subassemblage AII are known human pathogens. The similar distribution of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis genotypes between wastewater and CSO samples reaffirms that storm overflow is potentially a significant contamination source of pathogens in surface water. The frequent identification of C. ubiquitum and C. viatorum in urban wastewater suggests that these newly identified human pathogens may be endemic in China. IMPORTANCE Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and

  7. High Prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Asymptomatic Pigs and Assessment of Zoonotic Risk at the Genotype Level

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Yang, Fengkun; Cao, Jianping; Liu, Hua; Yang, Dong; Shen, Yujuan

    2014-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and clinically significant enteric parasite infecting humans and animals and can cause life-threatening diarrhea in immunocompromised people. Pigs are considered to be one of the main reservoir hosts of E. bieneusi based on their high prevalence rates and zoonotic genotypes in pigs. As an opportunistic pathogen, E. bieneusi infection of pigs can be inapparent, which leads to neglect in detecting this parasite in pigs and assessing the epidemiological role of pigs in the transmission of human microsporidiosis. In the present study, 95 healthy pigs aged 2 or 3 months were randomly selected from three areas in Heilongjiang Province, China. E. bieneusi isolates were identified and genotyped based on the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene by PCR and sequencing. A high prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed, 83.2% (79/95) at the SSU rRNA locus versus 89.5% (85/95) at the ITS locus. Ten ITS genotypes were obtained, comprising six known genotypes—EbpA (n = 30), D (n = 19), H (n = 18), O (n = 11), CS-1 (n = 1), and LW1 (n = 1)—and four novel genotypes named HLJ-I to HLJ-IV; 70.6% (60/85) of E. bieneusi genotypes were zoonotic (genotypes EbpA, D, and O). The findings of a high prevalence of E. bieneusi in pigs and a large percentage of zoonotic genotypes indicate that pigs may play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans and may become an important source of water contamination in our investigated areas. PMID:24727270

  8. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Miguel L.; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M.; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky’s disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  9. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    PubMed

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Lucero, Nidia; Morici, Gabriel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Farace, María Isabel; Caracostantogolo, Jorge; Cavia, Regino

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid contact with other

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems

    PubMed Central

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Caracostantogolo, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Methodology/Principal findings Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Conclusions/Significance Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and

  12. Evidence Supporting Zoonotic Transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in Wisconsin▿

    PubMed Central

    Feltus, Dawn C.; Giddings, Catherine W.; Schneck, Brianna L.; Monson, Timothy; Warshauer, David; McEvoy, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the primary species of Cryptosporidium that infect humans. C. hominis has an anthroponotic transmission cycle, while C. parvum is zoonotic, infecting cattle and other ruminants, in addition to humans. Most cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in the United States have been caused by C. hominis, and this species is often reported as the primary cause of cryptosporidiosis in this country. However, outbreaks account for only 10% of the overall cryptosporidiosis cases, and there are few data on the species that cause sporadic cases. The present study identified the species/genotypes and subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium in 49 cases of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Wisconsin during the period from 2003 to 2005. The species/genotype of isolates was determined by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 18S rRNA and Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein genes. The C. parvum and C. hominis isolates were subgenotyped by sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Forty-four of 49 isolates were identified as C. parvum, and 1 was identified as C. hominis. Of the remaining isolates, one was identified as being of the cervine genotype, one was identified as being a cervine genotype variant, and two were identified as being of a novel human genotype, previously reported as W17. Nine different subgenotypes were identified within the C. parvum species, and two of these were responsible for 60% of the cases. In this study we found that most sporadic cases of cryptosporidiosis in Wisconsin are caused by zoonotic Cryptosporidium species, indicating that zoonotic transmission could be more frequently associated with sporadic cases in the United States. PMID:17005736

  13. Evidence supporting zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Feltus, Dawn C; Giddings, Catherine W; Schneck, Brianna L; Monson, Timothy; Warshauer, David; McEvoy, John M

    2006-12-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the primary species of Cryptosporidium that infect humans. C. hominis has an anthroponotic transmission cycle, while C. parvum is zoonotic, infecting cattle and other ruminants, in addition to humans. Most cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in the United States have been caused by C. hominis, and this species is often reported as the primary cause of cryptosporidiosis in this country. However, outbreaks account for only 10% of the overall cryptosporidiosis cases, and there are few data on the species that cause sporadic cases. The present study identified the species/genotypes and subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium in 49 cases of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Wisconsin during the period from 2003 to 2005. The species/genotype of isolates was determined by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 18S rRNA and Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein genes. The C. parvum and C. hominis isolates were subgenotyped by sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Forty-four of 49 isolates were identified as C. parvum, and 1 was identified as C. hominis. Of the remaining isolates, one was identified as being of the cervine genotype, one was identified as being a cervine genotype variant, and two were identified as being of a novel human genotype, previously reported as W17. Nine different subgenotypes were identified within the C. parvum species, and two of these were responsible for 60% of the cases. In this study we found that most sporadic cases of cryptosporidiosis in Wisconsin are caused by zoonotic Cryptosporidium species, indicating that zoonotic transmission could be more frequently associated with sporadic cases in the United States.

  14. Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Revich, Boris; Tokarevich, Nikolai; Parkinson, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax. PMID:22868189

  15. Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Classification, Animal Reservoirs and Transmission Routes

    PubMed Central

    Doceul, Virginie; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; Demange, Antonin; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    During the past ten years, several new hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) have been identified in various animal species. In parallel, the number of reports of autochthonous hepatitis E in Western countries has increased as well, raising the question of what role these possible animal reservoirs play in human infections. The aim of this review is to present the recent discoveries of animal HEVs and their classification within the Hepeviridae family, their zoonotic and species barrier crossing potential, and possible use as models to study hepatitis E pathogenesis. Lastly, this review describes the transmission pathways identified from animal sources. PMID:27706110

  16. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium Species in Animals Inhabiting Sydney Water Catchments

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Alireza; Monis, Paul; Aucote, Sarah; King, Brendon; Paparini, Andrea; Jian, Fuchun; Yang, Rongchang; Oskam, Charlotte; Ball, Andrew; Robertson, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most common zoonotic waterborne parasitic diseases worldwide and represents a major public health concern of water utilities in developed nations. As animals in catchments can shed human-infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, determining the potential role of animals in dissemination of zoonotic Cryptosporidium to drinking water sources is crucial. In the present study, a total of 952 animal faecal samples from four dominant species (kangaroos, rabbits, cattle and sheep) inhabiting Sydney’s drinking water catchments were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) and positives sequenced at multiple loci. Cryptosporidium species were detected in 3.6% (21/576) of kangaroos, 7.0% (10/142) of cattle, 2.3% (3/128) of sheep and 13.2% (14/106) of rabbit samples screened. Sequence analysis of a region of the 18S rRNA locus identified C. macropodum and C. hominis in 4 and 17 isolates from kangaroos respectively, C. hominis and C. parvum in 6 and 4 isolates respectively each from cattle, C. ubiquitum in 3 isolates from sheep and C. cuniculus in 14 isolates from rabbits. All the Cryptosporidium species identified were zoonotic species with the exception of C. macropodum. Subtyping using the 5’ half of gp60 identified C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 12) and IdA15G1 (n = 2) in kangaroo faecal samples; C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 4) and C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 (n = 4) in cattle faecal samples, C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa (n = 1) in sheep and C. cuniculus VbA23 (n = 9) in rabbits. Additional analysis of a subset of samples using primers targeting conserved regions of the MIC1 gene and the 3’ end of gp60 suggests that the C. hominis detected in these animals represent substantial variants that failed to amplify as expected. The significance of this finding requires further investigation but might be reflective of the ability of this C. hominis variant to infect animals. The finding of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in these

  17. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks Among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H; Graham, Jay P

    2016-12-07

    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. An investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul hantavirus in rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

    2015-01-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species.

  20. Molecular epidemiological survey of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-Ye; Gong, Xiang-Yao; Zheng, Chen; Song, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Ting; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Jie; Deng, Hong-Kuan; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Ticks are able to transmit various pathogens-viruses, bacteria, and parasites-to their host during feeding. Several molecular epidemiological surveys have been performed to evaluate the risk of tick-borne pathogens in China, but little is known about pathogens circulating in ticks from eastern China. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of bacteria and parasites in ticks collected from Xuzhou, a 11258km 2 region in eastern China. In the present study, ticks were collected from domestic goats and grasses in urban districts of Xuzhou region from June 2015 to July 2016. After tick species identification, the presence of tick-borne bacterial and parasitic pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia sp., Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and Theileria sp., was established via conventional or nested polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) and sequence analysis. Finally, a total of 500 questing adult ticks, identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, were investigated. Among them, 28/500 tick samples (5.6%) were infected with A. phagocytophilum, and 23/500 (4.6%) with Theileria luwenshuni, whereas co-infection with these pathogens was detected in only 1/51 (2%) of all infected ticks. In conclusion, H. longicornis is the dominant tick species in the Xuzhou region and plays an important role in zoonotic pathogen transmission. Both local residents and animals are at a significant risk of exposure to anaplasmosis and theileriosis, due to the high rates of A. phagocytophilum and T. luwenshuni tick infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotype-dependent Molecular Evolution of Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Prions in Vitro Affects Their Zoonotic Potential*

    PubMed Central

    Krejciova, Zuzana; Barria, Marcelo A.; Jones, Michael; Ironside, James W.; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo; Head, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the United Kingdom sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie while maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modeled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggests that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie it would lose its ability to affect humans. PMID:25100723

  2. Variations in the Rate of Infestations of Dogs with Zoonotic Nematodes and the Contamination of Soil in Different Environments.

    PubMed

    Studzińska, Maria Bernadeta; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Marta; Borecka, Anna; Meisner, Michał; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Roczeń-Karczmarz, Monika; Kłapeć, Teresa; Abbass, Zahrai; Cholewa, Alicja

    2017-09-01

    Companion animals are an important aspect in human life. However, they may also be considered a source of pathogens. An example of zoonotic parasitoses is toxocarosis or cutaneous larva migrans (CLM). The aim of the study was to detect zoonotic nematodes of dogs living in different areas and the intensity of contamination in parasite polluted environments that are hazardous to human health. The fecal samples were examined using standard flotation and decantation methods as well as McMaster's quantitative technique. The soil samples in urban and rural areas were examined using a modified flotation method as described by Quinn et al. Statistical analyses were performed by IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23. The overall prevalence of parasites in dogs was 38%, 17.02% and 56.60% from urban and rural areas, respectively. The percentage values of nematodes important for human health ( Toxocara canis , Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis ) remained at the same level (16%). The infected dogs were dominated by a single parasite species, the main was T. canis (28.95%). In total, 54.30% of the soil samples were contaminated with parasite eggs. The contamination of urban and rural sandpits was 40% and 60%, respectively. The molecular examinations of soil samples using LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) confirmed the presence of nematode eggs of the species T. canis in all samples previously classified as positive.

  3. Variations in the Rate of Infestations of Dogs with Zoonotic Nematodes and the Contamination of Soil in Different Environments

    PubMed Central

    Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Marta; Borecka, Anna; Meisner, Michał; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Roczeń-Karczmarz, Monika; Kłapeć, Teresa; Abbass, Zahrai; Cholewa, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Companion animals are an important aspect in human life. However, they may also be considered a source of pathogens. An example of zoonotic parasitoses is toxocarosis or cutaneous larva migrans (CLM). The aim of the study was to detect zoonotic nematodes of dogs living in different areas and the intensity of contamination in parasite polluted environments that are hazardous to human health. The fecal samples were examined using standard flotation and decantation methods as well as McMaster’s quantitative technique. The soil samples in urban and rural areas were examined using a modified flotation method as described by Quinn et al. Statistical analyses were performed by IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23. The overall prevalence of parasites in dogs was 38%, 17.02% and 56.60% from urban and rural areas, respectively. The percentage values of nematodes important for human health (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis) remained at the same level (16%). The infected dogs were dominated by a single parasite species, the main was T. canis (28.95%). In total, 54.30% of the soil samples were contaminated with parasite eggs. The contamination of urban and rural sandpits was 40% and 60%, respectively. The molecular examinations of soil samples using LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) confirmed the presence of nematode eggs of the species T. canis in all samples previously classified as positive PMID:28862690

  4. Insights into genetic diversity and biological propensities of potentially zoonotic avian influenza H9N2 viruses circulating in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Parvin, Rokshana; Beer, Martin; Vahlenkamp, Thomas; Harder, Timm C

    2017-11-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have established endemic status in Egyptian poultry populations since 2012. Recently, four cases of human H9N2 virus infections in Egypt demonstrated the zoonotic potential of these viruses. Egyptian H9N2 viruses obtained from 2011 to 2014 phylogenetically grouped into three clusters (1-3) within subclade B of the G1 lineage. Antigenically, a close clustering of the Egyptian H9N2 viruses with other recent G1-B like H9N2 strains and a significant antigenic distance from viruses outside the G1-B lineage was evident. Recent Egyptian LPAIV H9N2 showed a tendency to increased binding with erythrocytes expressing α 2,6-linked sialic acid which correlated with the Q226L amino acid substitution at the receptor binding unit of the hemagglutinin (Q234L, H9 numbering). Sequence analyses of the N2 neuraminidase (NA) revealed substitutions in the NA hemadsorption site similar to the N2 of prepandemic H3N2/1968, but no distinct antigenic or functional characteristics of the H9N2 NA associated with increased zoonotic potential could be identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Landscape characteristics influence helminth infestations in a peri-domestic rodent--implications for possible zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Froeschke, Götz; Matthee, Sonja

    2014-08-26

    Anthropogenic habitat change often results in altered landscapes that can provide new environments where hosts, parasites and pathogens can interact. The latter can have implications for human and animal health when in close proximity to developed areas. We recorded the helminth species richness and level of infestation in the peri-domestic rodent, Rhabdomys pumilio, in three different human linked landscapes. The aim was, to investigate the potential of R. pumilio to act as a reservoir host for zoonotic helminths and to compare the effect of anthropogenic habitat change on its parasite infestation patterns. Rodents (n = 518) were trapped in natural areas (nature reserves) and in three human linked landscapes (crop, livestock and urban fragments). Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were recovered and helminths identified from each animal. Generalized linear models were applied to investigate the effect of different landscape types on helminth infestation. Rhabdomys pumilio was the most abundant rodent species within each landscape type. Eight helminths species were recovered and overall helminth prevalence was 86.68%. Mean helminth species richness, prevalence and abundance were significantly higher in crop fragments compared to natural landscapes and overall lower for nematodes in livestock and urban areas. Cestode prevalence showed a tendency to be elevated at anthropogenic linked landscape types. Host parameters and parasite infestations were strongly influenced by landscape characteristics. Resource-rich landscapes (crop fragments) provide favorable conditions for helminth infestations, while landscapes that are more closely associated with humans (livestock and urban landscapes) pose a larger risk by zoonotic species.

  6. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in household and stray dogs in rural areas of Hamadan, Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Sardarian, K; Maghsood, A H; Ghiasian, S A; Zahirnia, A H

    2015-06-01

    Zoonotic parasitic infections are a major global public and veterinary health problem and widespread among dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray and household dogs in the rural areas of Hamadan district. During 2012, 1,500 fresh fecal samples from 243 household and 1,257 stray dogs were examined by using direct wet mount, simple zinc sulfate flotation, and Lugol's solution staining. Of 1,500 dogs, 20.4% were positive for intestinal parasites. Helminthes eggs were more frequently found in fecal samples than protozoan cysts or trophozoites (15.9% vs. 4.5%, respectively). Toxocara canis was the most frequently detected parasite, with a prevalence of 6.3%, followed by Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (2.9%), Isospora spp. (2.7%), and Toxascaris leonina (2.6%). Helminthes and protozoa were significantly more prevalent in household dogs than in stray dogs (P<0.001). There were significant differences in the prevalence of Isospora spp., T. canis and D. caninum among three age groups (P<0.05). The wide range of isolated parasites indicated that people residing in this area are at risk of exposure to these potentially hazardous zoonotic pathogens. Mass education of the general population is highly recommended to increase awareness of the potential for horizontal transmission of these parasitic infections from dogs to humans.

  7. A replicative plasmid vector allows efficient complementation of pathogenic Leptospira strains.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christopher J; Benaroudj, Nadia; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-05-01

    Leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease, remains poorly understood because of a lack of genetic manipulation tools available for pathogenic leptospires. Current genetic manipulation techniques include insertion of DNA by random transposon mutagenesis and homologous recombination via suicide vectors. This study describes the construction of a shuttle vector, pMaORI, that replicates within saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic leptospires. The shuttle vector was constructed by the insertion of a 2.9-kb DNA segment including the parA, parB, and rep genes into pMAT, a plasmid that cannot replicate in Leptospira spp. and contains a backbone consisting of an aadA cassette, ori R6K, and oriT RK2/RP4. The inserted DNA segment was isolated from a 52-kb region within Leptospira mayottensis strain 200901116 that is not found in the closely related strain L. mayottensis 200901122. Because of the size of this region and the presence of bacteriophage-like proteins, it is possible that this region is a result of a phage-related genomic island. The stability of the pMaORI plasmid within pathogenic strains was tested by passaging cultures 10 times without selection and confirming the presence of pMaORI. Concordantly, we report the use of trans complementation in the pathogen Leptospira interrogans. Transformation of a pMaORI vector carrying a functional copy of the perR gene in a null mutant background restores the expression of PerR and susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide comparable to that of wild-type cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate the replication of a stable plasmid vector in a large panel of Leptospira strains, including pathogens. The shuttle vector described will expand our ability to perform genetic manipulation of Leptospira spp. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.

  9. Optimal sampling strategies for detecting zoonotic disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jake M; Langebrake, Jessica B; Cannataro, Vincent L; Garcia, Andres J; Hamman, Elizabeth A; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W

    2014-06-01

    The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests.

  10. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bukachi, Salome; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a ‘One Health’ approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies—trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya—we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of ‘structural violence’ that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an ‘anti-political’ focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584177

  11. Zoonotic parapoxviruses detected in symptomatic cattle in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Edith; Khan, Salah Uddin; Luby, Stephen; Zhao, Hui; Braden, Zachary; Gao, JinXin; Karem, Kevin; Damon, Inger; Reynolds, Mary; Li, Yu

    2014-11-19

    Application of molecular diagnostic methods to the determination of etiology in suspected poxvirus-associated infections of bovines is important both for the diagnosis of the individual case and to form a more complete understanding of patterns of strain occurrence and spread. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize bovine-associated zoonotic poxviruses in Bangladesh which are relevant to animal and human health. Investigators from the International Center Diarrhoeal Disease Research (icddr,b), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Bangladesh Department of Livestock Services traveled to three districts in Bangladesh-Siranjganj, Rangpur and Bhola-to collect diagnostic specimens from dairy cattle and buffalo that had symptoms consistent with poxvirus-associated infections. Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) DNA was obtained from lesion material (teat) and an oral swab collected from an adult cow and calf (respectively) from a dairy production farm in Siranjganj. Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) DNA signatures were obtained from a scab and oral swab collected from a second dairy cow and her calf from Rangpur. We report the first detection of zoonotic poxviruses from Bangladesh and show phylogenetic comparisons between the Bangladesh viruses and reference strains based on analyses of the B2L and J6R loci (vaccinia orthologs). Understanding the range and diversity of different species and strains of parapoxvirus will help to spotlight unusual patterns of occurrence that could signal events of significance to the agricultural and public health sectors.

  12. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976–2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04395.001 PMID:25201877

  13. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Bukachi, Salome; Leach, Melissa; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian; Wilkinson, Annie

    2017-07-19

    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a 'One Health' approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies-trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya-we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of 'structural violence' that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an 'anti-political' focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Zoonotic echinostome infections in free-grazing ducks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Duenngai, Kunyarat; Tantrawatpan, Chairat

    2013-12-01

    Free-grazing ducks play a major role in the rural economy of Eastern Asia in the form of egg and meat production. In Thailand, the geographical location, tropical climate conditions and wetland areas of the country are suitable for their husbandry. These environmental factors also favor growth, multiplication, development, survival, and spread of duck parasites. In this study, a total of 90 free-grazing ducks from northern, central, and northeastern regions of Thailand were examined for intestinal helminth parasites, with special emphasis on zoonotic echinostomes. Of these, 51 (56.7%) were infected by one or more species of zoonotic echinostomes, Echinostoma revolutum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, and Hypoderaeum conoideum. Echinostomes found were identified using morphological criteria when possible. ITS2 sequences were used to identify juvenile and incomplete worms. The prevalence of infection was relatively high in each region, namely, north, central, and northeast region was 63.2%, 54.5%, and 55.3%, respectively. The intensity of infection ranged up to 49 worms/infected duck. Free-grazing ducks clearly play an important role in the life cycle maintenance, spread, and transmission of these medically important echinostomes in Thailand.

  15. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Wild boars, Sus scrofa , are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin's solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli , 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki , 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  16. [Usefulness of the molecular techniques for detecting and/or identifing of parasites and fungi in humans and animals or pathogens transmitted by ticks (Part I)].

    PubMed

    Myjak, P; Majewska, A C; Bajer, A; Siński, E; Wedrychowicz, H; Gołab, E; Budak, A; Stańczak, J

    2001-01-01

    After a long period of using basic microscopic, immunological and biochemical methods for diagnosis, rapid development of nucleic acids investigation enabled introduction of specific and sensitive methods of detection of pathogenic agents on the molecular level. Among others, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), discovered in mid of 80'ies and then automatized, offered an attractive alternative to conventional testing systems. In this paper we describe reliable diagnostic tests widely used in the world, including Poland, and capable of detecting different disease agents as parasites and fungi in clinical specimens and pathogens of emerging zoonotic diseases in ticks. The possibilities of using molecular methods for determination of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance is also discussed. Moreover, the report offers information concerning kinds of molecular tests and institutions in which there are executed.

  17. [Zoonotic diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella genus: new reservoirs ? New vectors?].

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2005-03-01

    Domestic animals and wildlife represent a large reservoir for bartonellae, at least eight species or subspecies of which have been reported to cause zoonotic infections. In addition, numerous orphan clinical syndromes are now being attributed to Bartonella henselae infection. Many mammalian species, including cats, dogs, rodents and ruminants are the main bartonellae reservoirs. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae. It appears that domestic dogs, at least in non tropical regions, are more likely to be accidental hosts than reservoirs, and constitute excellent sentinels for human infections. Bartonellae are vector-borne bacteria. The mode of B. henselae transmission by cat fleas is now better understood, but new potential vectors have recently been identified, including ticks and biting flies. This articles summarizes current knowledge of the etiology, new clinical features and epidemiological characteristics of these emerging zoonoses.

  18. Culinary delights and travel? A review of zoonotic cestodiases and metacestodiases.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Budke, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased globalization, food-borne parasitic infections are becoming more prevalent worldwide, including in countries where these parasites and parasitic diseases had previously been well controlled or eradicated. Improved sanitation, health education, and establishment of appropriate food safety mechanisms can go a long way towards the control of many these infections. However, food-borne parasitic infections are still common diseases in developing countries, especially in rural areas. As many of today's travelers are looking to explore more distant locations and partake in the local cuisine, they may be at greater risk of acquiring a food-borne parasitic infection, including those caused by a number of adult and larval tapeworms. This review discusses fish and meat-borne tapeworms and zoonotic metacestodiases of public health importance to both developing and developed countries, with a focus on infection prevention in travelers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation, genotyping, and antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an enteric pathogen linked to outbreaks of human gastroenteritis with diverse clinical spectra. Traditional culture and isolation methods, including selective enrichment and differential plating, have enabled the effective recovery of STEC. Ruminants ...

  20. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David

    2004-01-01

    Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area. PMID:18159512

  1. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R.; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David

    2005-01-01

    Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area. PMID:15759832

  2. Pan-European resistance monitoring programmes encompassing food-borne bacteria and target pathogens of food-producing and companion animals.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A; Thomas, V; Klein, U; Marion, H; Moyaert, H; Simjee, S; Vallé, M

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a concern both for animal and human health. Veterinary programmes monitoring resistance of animal and zoonotic pathogens are therefore essential. Various European countries have implemented national surveillance programmes, particularly for zoonotic and commensal bacteria, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is compiling the data. However, harmonisation is identified as a weakness and an essential need in order to compare data across countries. Comparisons of resistance monitoring data among national programmes are hampered by differences between programmes, such as sampling and testing methodology, and different epidemiological cut-off values or clinical breakpoints. Moreover, only very few valid data are available regarding target pathogens both of farm and companion animals. The European Animal Health Study Centre (CEESA) attempts to fill these gaps. The resistance monitoring programmes of CEESA have been a collaboration of veterinary pharmaceutical companies for over a decade and include two different projects: the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme, which collects food-borne bacteria at slaughter from healthy animals, and the pathogen programmes that collect first-intention target pathogens from acutely diseased animals. The latter comprises three subprogrammes: VetPath; MycoPath; and ComPath. All CEESA projects include uniform sample collection and bacterial identification to species level in various European Union (EU) member states. A central laboratory conducts quantitative susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents either important in human medicine or commonly used in veterinary medicine. This 'methodology harmonisation' allows easy comparisons among EU member states and makes the CEESA programmes invaluable to address food safety and antibiotic efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Synanthropic Mammals as Potential Hosts of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Sergio E.; Gottdenker, Nicole; Krishnvajhala, Aparna; Fox, Amy; Wilder, Hannah K.; González, Kadir; Smith, Diorene; López, Marielena; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; Montilla, Santiago; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Caballero, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos), four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen. Immunoblotting was performed using Borrelia turicatae protein lysates and rGlpQ, to assess infection caused by RF spirochetes. One coyote (25%) and 27 (43%) opossums showed seroreactivity to SFGR. Of these opossums, 11 were seroreactive to C. R. amblyommii. Serological reactivity was not detected to B. turicatae in mammal samples. These findings may reflect a potential role of both mammals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Panama. PMID:28060928

  4. Synanthropic Mammals as Potential Hosts of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Panama.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Sergio E; Gottdenker, Nicole; Krishnvajhala, Aparna; Fox, Amy; Wilder, Hannah K; González, Kadir; Smith, Diorene; López, Marielena; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; Montilla, Santiago; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Caballero, Carlos M; Lopez, Job E

    2017-01-01

    Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos), four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen. Immunoblotting was performed using Borrelia turicatae protein lysates and rGlpQ, to assess infection caused by RF spirochetes. One coyote (25%) and 27 (43%) opossums showed seroreactivity to SFGR. Of these opossums, 11 were seroreactive to C. R. amblyommii. Serological reactivity was not detected to B. turicatae in mammal samples. These findings may reflect a potential role of both mammals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Panama.

  5. Using Modelling to Disentangle the Relative Contributions of Zoonotic and Anthroponotic Transmission: The Case of Lassa Fever

    PubMed Central

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F.; Grant, Donald S.; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M.; Schieffelin, John S.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Webb, Colleen T.; Wood, James L. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Zoonotic infections, which transmit from animals to humans, form the majority of new human pathogens. Following zoonotic transmission, the pathogen may already have, or may acquire, the ability to transmit from human to human. With infections such as Lassa fever (LF), an often fatal, rodent-borne, hemorrhagic fever common in areas of West Africa, rodent-to-rodent, rodent-to-human, human-to-human and even human-to-rodent transmission patterns are possible. Indeed, large hospital-related outbreaks have been reported. Estimating the proportion of transmission due to human-to-human routes and related patterns (e.g. existence of super-spreaders), in these scenarios is challenging, but essential for planned interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we make use of an innovative modeling approach to analyze data from published outbreaks and the number of LF hospitalized patients to Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone to estimate the likely contribution of human-to-human transmission. The analyses show that almost of the cases at KGH are secondary cases arising from human-to-human transmission. However, we found much of this transmission is associated with a disproportionally large impact of a few individuals (‘super-spreaders’), as we found only of human cases result in an effective reproduction number (i.e. the average number of secondary cases per infectious case) , with a maximum value up to . Conclusions/Significance This work explains the discrepancy between the sizes of reported LF outbreaks and a clinical perception that human-to-human transmission is low. Future assessment of risks of LF and infection control guidelines should take into account the potentially large impact of super-spreaders in human-to-human transmission. Our work highlights several neglected topics in LF research, the occurrence and nature of super-spreading events and aspects of social behavior in transmission and detection. PMID:25569707

  6. Using modelling to disentangle the relative contributions of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission: the case of lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F; Grant, Donald S; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M; Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Webb, Colleen T; Wood, James L N

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic infections, which transmit from animals to humans, form the majority of new human pathogens. Following zoonotic transmission, the pathogen may already have, or may acquire, the ability to transmit from human to human. With infections such as Lassa fever (LF), an often fatal, rodent-borne, hemorrhagic fever common in areas of West Africa, rodent-to-rodent, rodent-to-human, human-to-human and even human-to-rodent transmission patterns are possible. Indeed, large hospital-related outbreaks have been reported. Estimating the proportion of transmission due to human-to-human routes and related patterns (e.g. existence of super-spreaders), in these scenarios is challenging, but essential for planned interventions. Here, we make use of an innovative modeling approach to analyze data from published outbreaks and the number of LF hospitalized patients to Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone to estimate the likely contribution of human-to-human transmission. The analyses show that almost [Formula: see text] of the cases at KGH are secondary cases arising from human-to-human transmission. However, we found much of this transmission is associated with a disproportionally large impact of a few individuals ('super-spreaders'), as we found only [Formula: see text] of human cases result in an effective reproduction number (i.e. the average number of secondary cases per infectious case) [Formula: see text], with a maximum value up to [Formula: see text]. This work explains the discrepancy between the sizes of reported LF outbreaks and a clinical perception that human-to-human transmission is low. Future assessment of risks of LF and infection control guidelines should take into account the potentially large impact of super-spreaders in human-to-human transmission. Our work highlights several neglected topics in LF research, the occurrence and nature of super-spreading events and aspects of social behavior in transmission and detection.

  7. Molecular identification of zoonotic and livestock-specific Giardia-species in faecal samples of calves in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Gillhuber, Julia; Pallant, Louise; Ash, Amanda; Thompson, R C Andrew; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C

    2013-12-10

    Giardia-infection in cattle is often subclinical or asymptomatic, but it can also cause diarrhoea. The livestock-specific species Giardia bovis is the most frequently observed in cattle, however, the two zoonotic species Giardia duodenalis and Giardia enterica have also been found. Therefore calves are thought to be of public health significance. The aim of this study was to obtain current data about the frequency of the different Giardia-species in calves in Southern Germany. Faecal samples of calves (diarrhoeic and healthy) in Southern Germany, diagnosed Giardia-positive by microscopy, were characterised by multi-locus PCR and sequencing.Of 152 microscopically Giardia-positive samples 110 (72.4%) were positive by PCR and successfully sequenced. G. bovis (Assemblage E) was detected in 101/110 (91.8%) PCR-positive samples, whilst G. duodenalis (Assemblage A) was detected in 8/110 (7.3%) samples and a mixed infection with G. duodenalis and G. bovis (Assemblage A+E) was identified in 1/110 (0.9%) samples. The sub-genotypes A1, E2 and E3 were identified with the β-giardin and the glutamate dehydrogenase genes. In the majority of diarrhoeic faecal samples a co-infection with Cryptosporidium spp. or Eimeria spp. was present, however, there were some in which G. bovis was the only protozoan pathogen found. The results suggest that there is potentially a risk for animal handlers as calves in Southern Germany are, at a low percentage, infected with the zoonotic species G. duodenalis. In addition, it was found that G. bovis was the only pathogen identified in some samples of diarrhoeic calves, indicating that this parasite may be a contributing factor to diarrhoea in calves.

  8. The mature virion of ectromelia virus, a pathogenic poxvirus, is capable of intrahepatic spread and can serve as a target for delayed therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xueying; Xu, Ren-Huan; Roscoe, Felicia; Whitbeck, J Charles; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Sigal, Luis J

    2013-06-01

    Orthopoxviruses (OPVs), which include the agent of smallpox (variola virus), the zoonotic monkeypox virus, the vaccine and zoonotic species vaccinia virus, and the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), form two types of infectious viral particles: the mature virus (MV), which is cytosolic, and the enveloped virus (EV), which is extracellular. It is believed that MVs are required for viral entry into the host, while EVs are responsible for spread within the host. Following footpad infection of susceptible mice, ECTV spreads lymphohematogenously, entering the liver at 3 to 4 days postinfection (dpi). Afterwards, ECTV spreads intrahepatically, killing the host. We found that antibodies to an MV protein were highly effective at curing mice from ECTV infection when administered after the virus reached the liver. Moreover, a mutant ECTV that does not make EV was able to spread intrahepatically and kill immunodeficient mice. Together, these findings indicate that MVs are sufficient for the spread of ECTV within the liver and could have implications regarding the pathogenesis of other OPVs, the treatment of emerging OPV infections, as well as strategies for preparedness in case of accidental or intentional release of pathogenic OPVs.

  9. Modeling risk of occupational zoonotic influenza infection in swine workers.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Jones, Rachael M; Gibbs, Shawn; Kane, Michael J; Torremorell, Montserrat; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    Zoonotic transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) between swine and workers in swine production facilities may play a role in the emergence of novel influenza strains with pandemic potential. Guidelines to prevent transmission of influenza to swine workers have been developed but there is a need for evidence-based decision-making about protective measures such as respiratory protection. A mathematical model was applied to estimate the risk of occupational IAV exposure to swine workers by contact and airborne transmission, and to evaluate the use of respirators to reduce transmission.  The Markov model was used to simulate the transport and exposure of workers to IAV in a swine facility. A dose-response function was used to estimate the risk of infection. This approach is similar to methods previously used to estimate the risk of infection in human health care settings. This study uses concentration of virus in air from field measurements collected during outbreaks of influenza in commercial swine facilities, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction.  It was found that spending 25 min working in a barn during an influenza outbreak in a swine herd could be sufficient to cause zoonotic infection in a worker. However, this risk estimate was sensitive to estimates of viral infectivity to humans. Wearing an excellent fitting N95 respirator reduced this risk, but with high aerosol levels the predicted risk of infection remained high under certain assumptions.  The results of this analysis indicate that under the conditions studied, swine workers are at risk of zoonotic influenza infection. The use of an N95 respirator could reduce such risk. These findings have implications for risk assessment and preventive programs targeting swine workers. The exact level of risk remains uncertain, since our model may have overestimated the viability or infectivity of IAV. Additionally, the potential for partial immunity in swine workers associated with repeated low

  10. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666

  11. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  12. Continent-wide panmixia of an African fruit bat facilitates transmission of potentially zoonotic viruses.

    PubMed

    Peel, Alison J; Sargan, David R; Baker, Kate S; Hayman, David T S; Barr, Jennifer A; Crameri, Gary; Suu-Ire, Richard; Broder, Christopher C; Lembo, Tiziana; Wang, Lin-Fa; Fooks, Anthony R; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2013-01-01

    The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is Africa's most widely distributed and commonly hunted fruit bat, often living in close proximity to human populations. This species has been identified as a reservoir of potentially zoonotic viruses, but uncertainties remain regarding viral transmission dynamics and mechanisms of persistence. Here we combine genetic and serological analyses of populations across Africa, to determine the extent of epidemiological connectivity among E. helvum populations. Multiple markers reveal panmixia across the continental range, at a greater geographical scale than previously recorded for any other mammal, whereas populations on remote islands were genetically distinct. Multiple serological assays reveal antibodies to henipaviruses and Lagos bat virus in all locations, including small isolated island populations, indicating that factors other than population size and connectivity may be responsible for viral persistence. Our findings have potentially important public health implications, and highlight a need to avoid disturbances that may precipitate viral spillover.

  13. Zoonotic potential of emerging paramyxoviruses: knowns and unknowns

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Patricia A; Watkinson, Ruth E; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Drexler, Jan Felix; Lee, Benhur

    2017-01-01

    The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses, and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations, are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly-lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown potential to spill over into humans. We outline our current understanding of paramyxovirus reservoir hosts and the ecological factors that may drive spillover, and we explore the molecular barriers to spillover that emergent paramyxoviruses may encounter. By outlining what is known about enzootic paramyxovirus receptor usage, mechanisms of innate immune evasion, and other host-specific interactions, we highlight the breadth of unexplored avenues that may be important in understanding paramyxovirus emergence. PMID:28433050

  14. Evaluation of oxfendazole in the treatment of zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infection in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Vito; Maia, Carla; Pereira, André; Gonçalves, Nuno; Caruso, Marta; Martin, Coralie; Cardoso, Luís; Campino, Lenea; Scandale, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    The genus Onchocerca encompasses parasitic nematodes including Onchocerca volvulus, causative agent of river blindness in humans, and the zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs and cats. In dogs, O. lupi adult worms cause ocular lesions of various degrees while humans may bear the brunt of zoonotic onchocercosis with patients requiring neurosurgical intervention because of central nervous system localization of nematodes. Though the zoonotic potential of O. lupi has been well recognized from human cases in Europe, the United States and the Middle East, a proper therapy for curing this parasitic infection in dogs is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy of oxfendazole, 11 out of the 21 client-owned dogs (21/123; 17.1%) positive for skin-dwelling O. lupi microfilariae (mfs), were enrolled in the efficacy study and were treated with oxfendazole (50 mg/kg) per OS once a day for 5 (G2) or 10 (G3) consecutive days or were left untreated (G1). The efficacy of oxfendazole in the reduction of O. lupi mfs was evaluated by microfilarial count and by assessing the percentage of mfs reduction and mean microfilaricidal efficacy, whereas the efficacy in the reduction of ocular lesions was evaluated by ultrasound imaging. All dogs where subjected to follow-ups at 30 (D30), 90 (D90) and 180 (D180) days post-treatment. The percentage of reduction of mfs was 78% for G2 and 12.5% for G3 at D180. The mean microfilaricidal efficacy of oxfendazole in the treatment of canine onchocercosis by O. lupi at D30, D90 and D180 was 41%, 81% and 90%, in G2 and 40%, 65% and 70%, in G3, respectively. Retrobulbar lesions did not reduce from D0 to D180 in control group (dogs in G1), whereas all treated dogs (in G2 and G3) had slightly decreased ocular lesions. Percentage of reduction of ocular lesions by ultrasound examination was 50% and 47.5% in G2 and G3 at D180, respectively. Despite the decrease in ocular lesions in all treated dogs (G2 and G3), oxfendazole was ineffective in reducing ocular lesions

  15. Viral pathogen discovery

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  16. Public health significance of zoonotic tapeworms in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, J R

    1976-06-01

    Through an epidemiological review on the zoonotic tapeworms in Korea, the frequency and severity of the zoonoses have been recognized. Taeniasis and human cysticercosis are of importance to the public health in Korea. The frequency of taeniasis is 0.3% to 12.7% discovered by stool examination and 4.5% to 38.0% discovered by questionaire survey. Taeniasis occurs more frequently in males than in females and, especially, in both sexes in the age-group of 20 to 49. T. saginata is more common that T. solium. No case of human cysticercosis caused by T.saginata has been reported in Korea. To the contrary, human cysticercosis caused by T. solium has been reported frequently during the 1960's. The severity of human cysticercosis is a significant problem of public health in Korea. Old data on bovine cysticercosis in the 1920's and 1930's are not useful for present control measures. Systematic surveys on bovine and swine cysticercosis as well as taeniasis and human cysticercosis are needed in Korea. Cases of sparganosis have been reported frequently during the past 15 years. Most of the 34 cases of sparganosis reported involved the eating of raw snakes and frogs. Most of the cases occurred in older males. Sparganosis in snakes, frogs, chickens, and swine has been reported in Korea. Human infection of Hymenolepis nana ranged from 0.2% to 1.4% discovered by stool examination. A few cases of adult worm collections of Diphyllobothrium latum and Hymenolepis diminuta have been reported in Korea. Two cases of human hydatid disease have been reported in Korea. No study on the disease in domestic animals is available. No case of human infection with dog tapeworm has been reported, even though it is highly prevalent in the indigenous dogs in Korea. I recommend that further study on the zoonotic tapeworms be conducted epidemiologically in Korea to get basic data for the public health programming.

  17. Zoonotic Malaria – Global Overview and Research and Policy Needs

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The four main Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale, are transmitted between humans by mosquito vectors belonging to the genus Anopheles. It has recently become evident that Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that typically infects forest macaque monkeys, can be transmitted by anophelines to cause malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi infections are frequently misdiagnosed microscopically as P. malariae. Direct human to human transmission of P. knowlesi by anophelines has not yet been established to occur in nature. Knowlesi malaria must therefore be presently considered a zoonotic disease. Polymerase chain reaction is now the definitive method for differentiating P. knowlesi from P. malariae and other human malaria parasites. The origin of P. falciparum and P. vivax in African apes are examples of ancient zoonoses that may be continuing at the present time with at least P. vivax, and possibly P. malariae and P. ovale. Other non-human primate malaria species, e.g., Plasmodium cynomolgi in Southeast Asia and Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium in South America, can be transmitted to humans by mosquito vectors further emphasizing the potential for continuing zoonoses. The potential for zoonosis is influenced by human habitation and behavior as well as the adaptive capabilities of parasites and vectors. There is insufficient knowledge of the bionomics of Anopheles vector populations relevant to the cross-species transfer of malaria parasites and the real extent of malaria zoonoses. Appropriate strategies, based on more research, need to be developed for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of zoonotic malaria. PMID:25184118

  18. The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa A; Rajić, Andrijana; Sargeant, Jan; Harris, Janet; Amezcua, Rocio; Downey, Lindsay; Read, Susan; McEwen, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has been debated for almost a century because of similarities between Johne's Disease (JD) in cattle and Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. Our objective was to evaluate scientific literature investigating the potential association between these two diseases (MAP and CD) and the presence of MAP in retail milk or dairy products using a qualitative systematic review. The search strategy included 19 bibliographic databases, 8 conference proceedings, reference lists of 15 articles and contacting 28 topic-related scientists. Two independent reviewers performed relevance screening, quality assessment and data extraction stages of the review. Seventy-five articles were included. Among 60 case-control studies that investigated the association between MAP and CD, 37 were of acceptable quality. Twenty-three studies reported significant positive associations, 23 reported non-significant associations, and 14 did not detect MAP in any sample. Different laboratory tests, test protocols, types of samples and source populations were used in these studies resulting in large variability among studies. Seven studies investigated the association between CD and JD, two challenge trials reported contradictory results, one cross-sectional study did not support the association, and four descriptive studies suggested that isolated MAP is often closely related to cattle isolates. MAP detection in raw and pasteurized milk was reported in several studies. Evidence for the zoonotic potential of MAP is not strong, but should not be ignored. Interdisciplinary collaboration among medical, veterinary and other public health officials may contribute to a better understanding of the potential routes of human exposure to MAP.

  19. Responding to a Zoonotic Emergency with Multi-omics Research: Pentatrichomonas hominis Hydrogenosomal Protein Characterization with Use of RNA Sequencing and Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Kai; Chien, Kun-Yi; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Cheng, Wei-Hung; Ku, Fu-Mann; Lin, Rose; Chen, Ting-Wen; Huang, Po-Jung; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Petrus

    2016-11-01

    Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic flagellated protist that colonizes the large intestine of a number of mammals, including cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. The wide host range of this organism is alarming and suggests a rising zoonotic emergency. However, knowledge on in-depth biology of this protist is still limited. Similar to the human pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis, P. hominis possesses hydrogenosomes instead of mitochondria. Studies in T. vaginalis indicated that hydrogenosome is essential for cell survival and associated with numerous pivotal biological functions, including drug resistance. To further decipher the biology of this important organelle, we undertook proteomic research in P. hominis hydrogenosomes. Lacking a decoded P. hominis genome, we utilized an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data set generated from P. hominis axenic culture as the reference for proteome analysis. Using this in-house reference data set and mass spectrometry (MS), we identified 442 putative hydrogenosomal proteins. Interestingly, the composition of the P. hominis hydrogenosomal proteins is very similar to that of T. vaginalis, but proteins such as Hmp36, Pam16, Pam18, and Isd11 are absent based on both MS and the RNA-seq. Our data underscore that P. hominis expresses different homologs of multiple gene families from T. vaginalis. To the best of our knowledge, we present here the first hydrogenosome proteome in a protist other than T. vaginalis that offers crucial new scholarship for global health, therapeutics, diagnostics, and veterinary medicine research. In addition, the research strategy used here using RNA sequencing and proteomics might inform future multi-omics research in other understudied organisms without decoded genomes.

  20. The impact of illegal waste sites on a transmission of zoonotic viruses.

    PubMed

    Duh, Darja; Hasic, Sandra; Buzan, Elena

    2017-07-20

    Illegal waste disposal impacts public health and causes aesthetic and environmental pollution. Waste disposed in places without permitted and controlled facilities can provide a ready source of nutrition and shelter for rodents and thus promote the spread of their ecto- and endoparasites. The presence of two distinct zoonotic viruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), was searched at illegal waste sites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection with both viruses in rodents and to discuss the virus-rodent relations in such environments. Rodents sampled between October 2011 and April 2013 at 7 locations in the Istrian peninsula, were identified morphologically and genetically to minimize misidentification. Serological and molecular techniques were used to determine seroprevalence of infection in rodents and to detect viral RNAs. Serological testing was performed by immune fluorescence assay for detection of LCMV and TBEV specific antibodies. Real-time RT PCR was used for the detection of LCMV nucleoprotein gene and TBEV 3' non-coding region. Data were statistically analysed using SPSS statistic v2.0. Out of 82 rodent sera tested, the presence of LCMV antibodies was demonstrated in 24.93%. The highest prevalence of LCMV infection was found in commensal Mus musculus (47.37%), followed by 11.53%, 19.04% and 25% prevalence of infection in A. agrarius, A. flavicolis and A. sylvaticus, respectively. The highest prevalence of infection in rodents (53.33%) was found in locations with large waste sites and high anthropogenic influence. LCMV seroprevalence was significantly lower in rodents sampled from natural habitats. Viral nucleic acids were screened in 46 samples but yielded no amplicons of LCMV or TBEV. In addition, TBEV specific antibodies were not detected. Illegal waste sites have considerable impact on the area where they are located. Results have shown that the transmission of human

  1. Spatial distribution of canine zoonotic enteroparasites in Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

    PubMed

    La Sala, Luciano F; Leiboff, Anastasia; Burgos, Julián M; Costamagna, Sixto R

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: (1) to determine the occurrence of zoonotic enteroparasites in dog feces from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; (2) to characterize the spatial distribution of the parasites found in association with the quality of life index (QLI) in neighborhoods of Bahía Blanca; and (3) to determine if the presence of a particular parasite genus in a stool sample was facilitated or impeded by the presence of other parasite genera. Samples of dog stools (n=475) were collected between December 2012 and December 2013 in areas with varying QLI. The association between QLI values and the presence of parasites was analyzed using logistic regression. Overall enteroparasite occurrence was 36.6%. Parasitic forms found included nematode larvae, cysts of Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., and eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, cestodes and Trichuris spp. For certain enteroparasites, we detected significant associations between their occurrence and QLI. Feces collected in areas with medium and low QLI were 2.46 and 5.43 times more likely, respectively, to contain A. caninum than stools from the high-QLI area. Samples from areas with low QLI were 2.36 times more likely to contain Trichuris spp. than those from the high QLI area. Regarding protozoa, feces from areas with low QLI were 2.4 times more likely to be positive than those from areas with high QLI. We demonstrated that canine zoonotic parasites have a wide distribution in the study area, and that occurrence is higher in neighborhoods with lower QLI. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Compositions and methods for pathogen transport

    SciTech Connect

    El-Etr, Sahar; Farquar, George R.

    This disclosure provides a method for transporting a pathogen under ambient conditions, by culturing the pathogen with an amoeba under conditions that favor the incorporation of the pathogen into a trophozoite, starving the amoeba until it encysts, then culturing under conditions that favor conversion of the amoeba back to a trophozoite. In one aspect, the conditions that favor incorporation of the pathogen into the cyst of the amoeba comprises contacting the pathogen with the amoeba in an iron rich environment. Virus and/or bacteria are pathogens that can be transported by the disclosed method. Amoeba that are useful in the disclosedmore » methods include, without limitation Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria gruberi. The disclosed methods have utility in: transporting pathogens from military field hospitals and clinics to the laboratory; transporting pathogens from global satellite laboratories to clinical laboratories; long term storage of pathogens; enriching contaminated patient samples for pathogens of interest; biosurveillance and detection efforts.« less

  3. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    DOEpatents

    McBride, Mary [Brentwood, CA; Slezak, Thomas [Livermore, CA; Birch, James M [Albany, CA

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  4. Foodborne pathogens in unpasteurized milk in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Artursson, Karin; Schelin, Jenny; Thisted Lambertz, Susanne; Hansson, Ingrid; Olsson Engvall, Eva

    2018-05-19

    Raw milk may be a risk for public health if it is contaminated with zoonotic pathogens. To study the prevalence in unpasteurized milk from Swedish farms, bovine and small ruminant dairy farms were sampled. Since the sampling method and transport conditions may influence the outcome of analyses, efforts were made to optimize the methodology. Culturing of bacteria was done from in-line milk filters collected from the milk pipe at the point where it enters the milk bulk tank at the farms and this way of sampling was compared to sampling bulk tank milk (BTM) directly. Analysing milk filters were found to be superior to analysing BTM directly. Conditions for transport of milk filter samples were further improved by the addition of Cary Blair transport medium, which significantly increased the number of positive samples for pathogenic bacteria. The isolation of several foodborne pathogens from milk filters was demonstrated. The prevalence of samples with Staphylococcus aureus was 71% and 64%, and Listeria spp. 21% and 29% from dairy cow and goat/sheep farms, respectively. Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 were detected in 9%, 2% and 2% of samples from bovine milk, respectively. We conclude that the choice of sampling method and sample handling influence the results of bacterial culturing. From the results of this study, we strongly recommend to sample in-line milk filters instead of BTM directly and to use Cary Blair medium during transport, especially if the samples are to be analysed for Campylobacter spp. and/or Listeria spp. The findings also show that unpasteurized milk from Swedish farms occasionally contain bacteria with zoonotic potential. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence and prevalence of selected zoonotic agents: Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella spiralis and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the population of Polish hunters--results of the study conducted in 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna; Wnukowska, Natalia; Popczyk, Bartłomiej; Kucharczyk, Bożena; Gołąb, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In Poland the development of the knowledge concerning zoonotic pathogens, of which free-living animals are the reservoir of is gaining in importance both in epidemiological aspect as well as in the context of prevention for improving public health. Dietary habits such as the consumption of forest undergrowth products and wild game meat, and the way of those products being prepared (in the process of barbequing) pose a risk factors of infection with the foodborne pathogens such as Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella spp., and HEV. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of infections caused by Trichinella spp., Echinococcus multilocularis, and HEV in the population of Polish hunters, describing their geographical distribution in Poland, and to try to define basic factors, which may contribute to their occurrence. In 2010-2012 a cross-sectional study was carried out among Polish hunters. A blood samples were collected as well as a survey of 1027 participants recruited in the 16 provinces was also carried out. Serological tests were performed for the presence of specific antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella spp. and HEV using commercial or "in home" ELISA tests. In case of positive result for Echinococcus, an Em2plus ELISA or/and western blot test were carried out, and for positive results for IgM for HEV a recomLine HEV IgM test was carried out. In the studied population a total number of 2 cases of Echinococcus multilocularis infection were found. Moreover in 47 (4,6%) participants presence of antibodies against Trichinella spp. were found, including 17 positive and 30 borderline results. In 206 persons (25%) IgG anti-HEV antibodies were found (by ELISA test). Geographical diversity in prevalence of both, the Trichinella spp. and HEV cases was observed. The study confirmed presence of zoonotic infections such as Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella spp., and hepatitis E (HEV) among Polish hunters. In the case of

  6. Prevention and Control of Fish-borne Zoonotic Trematodes in Fish Nurseries, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K. Darwin; Van, Phan Thi; Thu, Ha Nguyen Thi; Do, Dung Trung; Thi, Lan Anh Nguyen; Manh, Hung Nguyen; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, >18 million persons were infected with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in 2002. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for reducing prevalence and intensity of fish-borne zoonotic trematode infections in juvenile fish, we compared transmission rates at nurseries in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam. Rates were significantly lower for nurseries that reduced snail populations and trematode egg contamination in ponds than for nurseries that did not. These interventions can be used in the development of programs for sustained control of zoonotic trematodes in farmed fish. PMID:22932069

  7. Prevention and control of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in fish nurseries, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard Clausen, Jesper; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K Darwin; Van, Phan Thi; Thu, Ha Nguyen Thi; Do, Dung Trung; Nguyen Thi, Lan Anh; Nguyen Manh, Hung; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    Worldwide, >18 million persons were infected with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in 2002. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for reducing prevalence and intensity of fish-borne zoonotic trematode infections in juvenile fish, we compared transmission rates at nurseries in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam. Rates were significantly lower for nurseries that reduced snail populations and trematode egg contamination in ponds than for nurseries that did not. These interventions can be used in the development of programs for sustained control of zoonotic trematodes in farmed fish.

  8. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Reye, Anna L; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5-17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved.

  9. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  10. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  11. Pathogen Transmission from Humans to Great Apes is a Growing Threat to Primate Conservation.

    PubMed

    Dunay, Emily; Apakupakul, Kathleen; Leard, Stephen; Palmer, Jamie L; Deem, Sharon L

    2018-01-23

    All six great ape species are listed as endangered or critically endangered by the IUCN and experiencing decreasing population trends. One of the threats to these non-human primates is the transmission of pathogens from humans. We conducted a literature review on occurrences of pathogen transmission from humans to great apes to highlight this often underappreciated issue. In total, we found 33 individual occurrences of probable or confirmed pathogen transmission from humans to great apes: 23 involved both pathogen and disease transmission, 7 pathogen transmission only, 2 positive antibody titers to zoonotic pathogens, and 1 pathogen transmission with probable disease. Great ape populations were categorized into captive, semi-free-living, and free-living conditions. The majority of occurrences involved chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (n = 23) or mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) (n = 8). These findings have implications for conservation efforts and management of endangered great ape populations. Future efforts should focus on monitoring and addressing zoonotic pathogen and disease transmission between humans, great ape species, and other taxa to ensure the health of humans, wild and domestic animals, and the ecosystems we share.

  12. Modeling spatial risk of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Shiravand, Babak; Tafti, Abbas Ali Dehghani; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Almodaresi, S Ali; Mirzaei, Masoud; Abai, Mohammad Reza

    2018-06-18

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is one of the endemic diseases in central part of Iran. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to find the areas with a higher risk of infection considering the distribution of vector, reservoir hosts and human infection. Passive data recorded the positive cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yazd province health center were collected for 10 years, from 2007 to 2016 at the County level. Considering all earlier studies conducted in Yazd province, records of Phlebotomus papatasi, the main vector of ZCL, and Rhombomys opimus, the main reservoir of ZCL, were collected and entered in a database. ArcGIS and MaxEnt model were used to map and predict the best ecological niches for both vector and reservoir. The most cumulative incidence of the disease was found to be in Khatam County, south of Yazd province. The area under curve (AUC) for R. opimus and P. papatasi was 0.955 and 0.914, respectively. We found higher presence probability of both vector and reservoir in central and eastern parts of the province. The jackknife test indicated that temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) had the most effect on the model for the vector and reservoir, respectively. The areas with higher presence probability for the reservoirs and vectors were considered having the higher potential for ZCL transmission. These findings can be used to prevent and control the disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Prevalence Among Farmers in Central Tunisia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bellali, Hedia; Chemak, Fraj; Nouiri, Issam; Ben Mansour, Dorra; Ghrab, Jamila; Chahed, Mohamed Kouni

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in central Tunisia and is more prevalent in rural agricultural areas. The aim of this work was to determine ZCL prevalence among farmers and to test their availability to take ownership of the problem and participate actively to fight and address the disease. A sample of farmers from Sidi Bouzid, central Tunisia, was selected randomly. Farmers were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about ZCL lesion occurrence, its date of onset among family members, and the farmers' availability to contribute to fighting this disease. ZCL occurred in at least one of the family members of 38.5% interviewed farmers. The disease was endemic with recurrent epidemics every 4 or 5 years. ZCL among farmers was associated with irrigation management. With regard to ZCL preventive measures, the majority of farmers agreed and expressed willingness to collaborate (93.1%), to follow health care facilities instructions (73.1%), and to join the nongovernmental organization (NGO) (56.9%). However, they did not agree to reduce irrigation activities mainly at night, to live far from their irrigated fields, or to sleep out of their houses at night. ZCL is more prevalent in farmers engaged in irrigation activities. Farmers are not agreeable to reducing their activity to avoid exposure to the sand fly bites. Thus, population involvement and commitment is required to implement effective control measures to fight and address ZCL.

  14. Does confirmed pathogen transfer between sanctuary workers and great apes mean that reintroduction should not occur? Commentary on "Drug-resistant human Staphylococcus aureus findings in sanctuary apes and its threat to wild ape populations".

    PubMed

    Unwin, Steve; Robinson, Ian; Schmidt, Vanessa; Colin, Chris; Ford, Lisa; Humle, Tatyana

    2012-12-01

    This commentary discusses the findings and conclusions of the paper "Drug resistant human Staphylococcus aureus findings in sanctuary apes and its threat to wild ape populations." This paper confirms the zoonotic transfer of Staphylococcus aureus in a sanctuary setting. The assertion that this in itself is enough to reconsider the conservation potential of ape reintroduction provides an opportunity to discuss risk analysis of pathogen transmission, following IUCN guidelines, using S. aureus as an example. It is concluded that ape reintroduction projects must have disease risk mitigation strategies that include effective biosecurity protocols and pathogen surveillance. These strategies will assist with creating a well planned and executed reintroduction. This provides one way to enforce habitat protection, to minimise human encroachment and the risks from the illegal wildlife trade. Thus reintroduction must remain a useful tool in the conservation toolbox. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Production of infectious dromedary camel hepatitis E virus by a reverse genetic system: Potential for zoonotic infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Zhou, Xianfeng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenicity, epidemiology and replication mechanism of dromedary camel hepatitis E virus (DcHEV), a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV), has been unclear. Here we used a reverse genetic system to produce DcHEV and examined the possibility of zoonotic infection. Capped genomic RNA derived from a synthetic DcHEV cDNA was transfected into human hepatocarcinoma cells PLC/PRF/5. The DcHEV capsid protein and RNA were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or RT-qPCR. A neutralization test for DcHEV was carried out by using antisera against HEV-like particles. DcHEV was used to inoculate two cynomolgus monkeys to examine the potential for cross-species infection. The transfection of PLC/PRF/5 cells with capped DcHEV RNA resulted in the production of infectious DcHEV. The genome sequence analysis demonstrated that both nucleotide and amino acid changes accumulated during the passages in PLC/PRF/5 cells. The cynomolgus monkeys showed serological signs of infection when DcHEV was intravenously inoculated. DcHEV was neutralized by not only anti-DcHEV-LPs antibody, but also anti-genotype 1 (G1), G3 and G4 HEV-LPs antibodies. Moreover, the monkeys immunized with DcHEV escaped the G3 HEV challenge, indicating that the serotype of DcHEV is similar to those of other human HEVs. Infectious DcHEV was produced using a reverse genetic system and propagated in PLC/PRF/5 cells. The antigenicity and immunogenicity of DcHEV are similar to those of G1, G3 and G4 HEV. DcHEV was experimentally transmitted to primates, demonstrating the possibility of a zoonotic infection by DcHEV. Dromedary camel hepatitis E virus (DcHEV) was produced by a reverse genetic system and grows well in PLC/PRF/5 cells. Cynomolgus monkeys experimentally infected with DcHEV indicated serological signs of infection, suggesting that DcHEV has the potential to cause zoonotic HEV infection. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Hanaa Mohamed; Afifi, Rabab; Al-Qabili, Dheyazan Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Wild birds are considered silent vectors of some zoonotic water and food borne pathogens of public health significance. Owing to the importance of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as the most pathogenic among the emerging diarrheagenic E. coli groups that can infect man; the present study was designed to detect the occurrence of STEC among wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 intestinal content swab samples originating from five wild bird species were investigated for the presence of E. coli and STEC by standard culture methods. Suspect STEC isolates were further characterized by serotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR), antimicrobial resistance pattern and PCR detection of stx1, stx2, and eae genes. Results: A total of 30 suspect STEC isolates from 30 positive birds’ samples were detected and identified on STEC CHROMagar (semi-captive pigeons, 15; house crows, 8; cattle egrets, 3; moorhens, 2; and house teals, 2). 25 isolates were grouped into 13 serogroups (O:20, O:25, O:26, O:27, O:63, O:78, O:111, O:114, O:125, O:128, O:142, O:153, and O:158), while five were rough strains. The distribution of STEC virulence genes among wild birds was as follows: 16 birds carried stx1 gene only (nine pigeons [28.1%], six crows [7.1%], and one cattle egret [5.6%]). Stx1 and stx2 genes together were detected in four birds (one cattle egret [5.6%], two moorhens [6.1%], and one house teal, [10%]). Only one pigeon (3.1%) possessed the three alleles. Disk diffusion test results showed that cefixime was the most effective against STEC serotypes with (93.3%) sensitivity, followed by gentamycin (56.7%), and amoxicillin (50%). On the other hand, all the recovered STEC isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, doxycycline, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. RAPD fingerprinting using primers OPA-2 and OPA-9 showed that STEC isolates were heterogeneous; they yielded 30 and 27 different clusters, respectively

  17. Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Prior to Pandemic Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    equally closely strains of both H1N2 influenza A virus of swine origin and H3N2 influenza A virus of avian origin. The expected matches for each of...Naval Health Research Center Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Virus Prior to Pandemic Spread...10.1128/JCM.01336-10 PMCID: PMC3020883 Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Virus Prior to Pandemic

  18. Distinct Host Tropism Protein Signatures to Identify Possible Zoonotic Influenza A Viruses.

    PubMed

    Eng, Christine L P; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic influenza A viruses constantly pose a health threat to humans as novel strains occasionally emerge from the avian population to cause human infections. Many past epidemic as well as pandemic strains have originated from avian species. While most viruses are restricted to their primary hosts, zoonotic strains can sometimes arise from mutations or reassortment, leading them to acquire the capability to escape host species barrier and successfully infect a new host. Phylogenetic analyses and genetic markers are useful in tracing the origins of zoonotic infections, but there are still no effective means to identify high risk strains prior to an outbreak. Here we show that distinct host tropism protein signatures can be used to identify possible zoonotic strains in avian species which have the potential to cause human infections. We have discovered that influenza A viruses can now be classified into avian, human, or zoonotic strains based on their host tropism protein signatures. Analysis of all influenza A viruses with complete proteome using the host tropism prediction system, based on machine learning classifications of avian and human viral proteins has uncovered distinct signatures of zoonotic strains as mosaics of avian and human viral proteins. This is in contrast with typical avian or human strains where they show mostly avian or human viral proteins in their signatures respectively. Moreover, we have found that zoonotic strains from the same influenza outbreaks carry similar host tropism protein signatures characteristic of a common ancestry. Our results demonstrate that the distinct host tropism protein signature in zoonotic strains may prove useful in influenza surveillance to rapidly identify potential high risk strains circulating in avian species, which may grant us the foresight in anticipating an impending influenza outbreak.

  19. An 18S rRNA Workflow for Characterizing Protists in Sewage, with a Focus on Zoonotic Trichomonads.

    PubMed

    Maritz, Julia M; Rogers, Krysta H; Rock, Tara M; Liu, Nicole; Joseph, Susan; Land, Kirkwood M; Carlton, Jane M

    2017-11-01

    Microbial eukaryotes (protists) are important components of terrestrial and aquatic environments, as well as animal and human microbiomes. Their relationships with metazoa range from mutualistic to parasitic and zoonotic (i.e., transmissible between humans and animals). Despite their ecological importance, our knowledge of protists in urban environments lags behind that of bacteria, largely due to a lack of experimentally validated high-throughput protocols that produce accurate estimates of protist diversity while minimizing non-protist DNA representation. We optimized protocols for detecting zoonotic protists in raw sewage samples, with a focus on trichomonad taxa. First, we investigated the utility of two commonly used variable regions of the 18S rRNA marker gene, V4 and V9, by amplifying and Sanger sequencing 23 different eukaryotic species, including 16 protist species such as Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia intestinalis, Toxoplasma gondii, and species of trichomonad. Next, we optimized wet-lab methods for sample processing and Illumina sequencing of both regions from raw sewage collected from a private apartment building in New York City. Our results show that both regions are effective at identifying several zoonotic protists that may be present in sewage. A combination of small extractions (1 mL volumes) performed on the same day as sample collection, and the incorporation of a vertebrate blocking primer, is ideal to detect protist taxa of interest and combat the effects of metazoan DNA. We expect that the robust, standardized methods presented in our workflow will be applicable to investigations of protists in other environmental samples, and will help facilitate large-scale investigations of protistan diversity.

  20. Zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in relation to knowledge level of dog owners.

    PubMed

    Raval, Heli S; Nayak, J B; Patel, B M; Bhadesiya, C M

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to understand the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis with special reference to the knowledge level of dog owners in urban areas of Gujarat. The study was carried out in randomly selected 120 dog owners of 3 urban cities (viz., Ahmedabad, Anand and Vadodara) of Gujarat state, India. Dog owners (i.e., respondents) were subjected to a detailed interview regarding the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in dogs. Ex-post-facto research design was selected because of the independent variables of the selected respondent population for the study. The crucial method used in collecting data was a field survey to generate null hypothesis (Ho1). Available data was subjected to statistical analysis. The three independent variables, viz., extension contact (r=0.522**), mass-media exposure (r=0.205*) and management orientation (r=0.264**) had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Other independent variables, viz., education, experience in dog keeping and housing space were observed to have negative and non-significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Extension contact, exposure to extension mass-media, management orientation and innovation proneness among dog owners of 3 urban cities of Gujarat state had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners on zoonotic aspects of canine scabies and dermatophytosis. Data provided new insights on the present status of zoonotic disease-awareness, which would be an aid to plan preventive measures.

  1. Unexpected infection outcomes of China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Marek J; Seekings, Amanda H; Mahmood, Sahar; Thomas, Saumya; Puranik, Anita; Watson, Samantha; Byrne, Alexander M P; Hicks, Daniel; Nunez, Alejandro; Brown, Ian H; Brookes, Sharon M

    2018-05-09

    The China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) emerged as a zoonotic threat in 2013 where it continues to circulate in live poultry markets. Absence of overt clinical signs in poultry is a typical LPAIV infection outcome, and has contributed to its insidious maintenance in China. This study is the first description of H7N9 LPAIV (A/Anhui/1/13) infection in turkeys, with efficient transmission to two additional rounds of introduced contact turkeys which all became infected during cohousing. Surprisingly, mortality was observed in six of eight (75%) second-round contact turkeys which is unusual for LPAIV infection, with unexpected systemic dissemination to many organs beyond the respiratory and enteric tracts, but interestingly no accompanying mutation to highly pathogenic AIV. The intravenous pathogenicity index score for a turkey-derived isolate (0.39) affirmed the LPAIV phenotype. However, the amino acid change L235Q in the haemagglutinin gene occurred in directly-infected turkeys and transmitted to the contacts, including those that died and the two which resolved infection to survive to the end of the study. This polymorphism was indicative of a reversion from mammalian to avian adaptation for the H7N9 virus. This study underlined a new risk to poultry in the event of H7N9 spread beyond China.

  2. Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Infections Among Urban Homeless and Marginalized People in the United States and Europe, 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Leibler, Jessica H; Zakhour, Christine M; Gadhoke, Preety; Gaeta, Jessie M

    2016-07-01

    In high-income countries, homeless individuals in urban areas often live in crowded conditions with limited sanitation and personal hygiene. The environment of homelessness in high-income countries may result in intensified exposure to ectoparasites and urban wildlife, which can transmit infections. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the published literature to assess vector-borne and zoonotic disease risk to these populations. The primary objectives of this study were to identify diversity, prevalence, and risk factors for vector-borne and zoonotic infections among people experiencing homelessness and extreme poverty in urban areas of high-income countries. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of published epidemiologic studies of zoonotic and vector-borne infections among urban homeless and very poor people in the United States and Europe from 1990 to 2014. Thirty-one observational studies and 14 case studies were identified (n = 45). Seroprevalence to the human louse-borne pathogen Bartonella quintana (seroprevalence range: 0-37.5%) was identified most frequently, with clinical disease specifically observed among HIV-positive individuals. Seropositivity to Bartonella henselae (range: 0-10.3%) and Rickettsia akari (range: 0-16.2%) was noted in multiple studies. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella elizabethae, West Nile virus, Borellia recurrentis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Wohlfartiimonas chitiniclastica, Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), and Leptospira species was also identified in published studies, with SEOV associated with chronic renal disease later in life. HIV infection, injection drug use, and heavy drinking were noted across multiple studies as risk factors for infection with vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens. B. quintana was the most frequently reported vector-borne infection identified in our article. Delousing efforts and active surveillance among HIV

  3. History of Mosquitoborne Diseases in the United States and Implications for New Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Madriñán, Max J; Turell, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The introduction and spread of West Nile virus and the recent introduction of chikungunya and Zika viruses into the Americas have raised concern about the potential for various tropical pathogens to become established in North America. A historical analysis of yellow fever and malaria incidences in the United States suggests that it is not merely a temperate climate that keeps these pathogens from becoming established. Instead, socioeconomic changes are the most likely explanation for why these pathogens essentially disappeared from the United States yet remain a problem in tropical areas. In contrast to these anthroponotic pathogens that require humans in their transmission cycle, zoonotic pathogens are only slightly affected by socioeconomic factors, which is why West Nile virus became established in North America. In light of increasing globalization, we need to be concerned about the introduction of pathogens such as Rift Valley fever, Japanese encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses.

  4. The novel polysaccharide deacetylase homologue Pdi contributes to virulence of the aquatic pathogen Streptococcus iniae

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Carlo J. E.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Locke, Jeffrey B.; Dahesh, Samira; Nizet, Victor; Buchanan, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The aquatic zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae represents a threat to the worldwide aquaculture industry and poses a risk to humans who handle raw fish. Because little is known about the mechanisms of S. iniae pathogenesis or virulence factors, we established a high-throughput system combining whole-genome pyrosequencing and transposon mutagenesis that allowed us to identify virulence proteins, including Pdi, the polysaccharide deacetylase of S. iniae, that we describe here. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified a highly conserved signature motif in Pdi that is also conserved in the peptidoglycan deacetylase PgdA protein family. A Δpdi mutant was attenuated for virulence in the hybrid striped bass model and for survival in whole fish blood. Moreover, Pdi was found to promote bacterial resistance to lysozyme killing and the ability to adhere to and invade epithelial cells. On the other hand, there was no difference in the autolytic potential, resistance to oxidative killing or resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides between S. iniae wild-type and Δpdi. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that pdi is involved in S. iniae adherence and invasion, lysozyme resistance and survival in fish blood, and have shown that pdi plays a role in the pathogenesis of S. iniae. Identification of Pdi and other S. iniae virulence proteins is a necessary initial step towards the development of appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures against diseases and economic losses caused by this pathogen. PMID:19762441

  5. Detection of pathogenic Leptospira from selected environment in Kelantan and Terengganu, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ridzlan, F R; Bahaman, A R; Khairani-Bejo, S; Mutalib, A R

    2010-12-01

    Leptospirosis is recognized as one of the important zoonotic diseases in the world including Malaysia. A total of 145 soil and water samples were collected from selected National Service Training Centres (NSTC) in Kelantan and Terengganu. The samples were inoculated into modified semisolid Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH) medium, incubated at room temperature for 1 month and examined under the dark-field microscope. Positive growth of the leptospiral isolates were then confirmed with 8-Azaguanine Test, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay and Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Fifteen cultures (10.34%) exhibited positive growths which were seen under dark field microscope whilst only 20% (3/15) were confirmed as pathogenic species. based on 8-Azaguanine Test and PCR. Serological identification of the isolates with MAT showed that hebdomadis was the dominant serovar in Terengganu. Pathogenic leptospires can be detected in Malaysian environment and this has the potential to cause an outbreak. Therefore, precautionary steps against leptospirosis should be taken by camp authorities to ensure the safety of trainees.

  6. Urban Breeding Corvids as Disseminators of Ticks and Emerging Tick-Borne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Attila D; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Matei, Ioana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Mărcuţan, Ioan-Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Crows (Corvidae) are common city dwellers worldwide and are increasingly important subjects of epidemiology studies. Although their importance as hosts and transmitters of a number of zoonotic parasites and pathogens is well known, there are no studies on their importance as tick hosts. After mosquitoes, ticks are the most important vectors of zoonotic pathogens, especially for those causing emerging zoonotic diseases. Pathogenic bacteria, especially Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma spp., vectored by ticks, are the cause for most vector-borne diseases in Europe. Here we report on ticks and tick-borne pathogens harbored by urban breeding crows. A total of 36 birds (33.33%, n = 108) hosted ticks, with 91 individual ticks belonging to 6 species (Haemaphysalis concinna, Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes arboricola, and Ixodes ricinus). Rickettsia spp. DNA was found in 6.6% of ticks and 1.9% of bird tissues, whereas Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 5.9% of ticks and 0.9% of birds. Two rickettsial genospecies were located, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis. This is the first study to determine such a diverse tick spectrum feeding on urban corvids, while highlighting their importance as tick hosts and raising concerns about their potential risk to human health.

  7. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Zoonotic disease risk perceptions in the British veterinary profession.

    PubMed

    Robin, Charlotte; Bettridge, Judy; McMaster, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    In human and veterinary medicine, reducing the risk of occupationally-acquired infections relies on effective infection prevention and control practices (IPCs). In veterinary medicine, zoonoses present a risk to practitioners, yet little is known about how these risks are understood and how this translates into health protective behaviour. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions within the British veterinary profession and identify motivators and barriers to compliance with IPCs. A cross-sectional study was conducted using veterinary practices registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Here we demonstrate that compliance with IPCs is influenced by more than just knowledge and experience, and understanding of risk is complex and multifactorial. Out of 252 respondents, the majority were not concerned about the risk of zoonoses (57.5%); however, a considerable proportion (34.9%) was. Overall, 44.0% of respondents reported contracting a confirmed or suspected zoonoses, most frequently dermatophytosis (58.6%). In veterinary professionals who had previous experience of managing zoonotic cases, time or financial constraints and a concern for adverse animal reactions were not perceived as barriers to use of personal protective equipment (PPE). For those working in large animal practice, the most significant motivator for using PPE was concerns over liability. When assessing responses to a range of different "infection control attitudes", veterinary nurses tended to have a more positive perspective, compared with veterinary surgeons. Our results demonstrate that IPCs are not always adhered to, and factors influencing motivators and barriers to compliance are not simply based on knowledge and experience. Educating veterinary professionals may help improve compliance to a certain extent, however increased knowledge does not necessarily equate to an increase in risk-mitigating behaviour. This highlights that the construction of risk is complex and

  9. Vaccine Efficacy in Senescent Mice Challenged with Recombinant SARS-CoV Bearing Epidemic and Zoonotic Spike Variants

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Damon; Sheahan, Timothy; Heise, Mark; Yount, Boyd; Davis, Nancy; Sims, Amy; Suthar, Mehul; Harkema, Jack; Whitmore, Alan; Pickles, Raymond; West, Ande; Donaldson, Eric; Curtis, Kristopher; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Background In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was identified as the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome, a disease characterized by severe pneumonia that sometimes results in death. SARS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that crossed the species barrier, most likely originating from bats or from other species including civets, raccoon dogs, domestic cats, swine, and rodents. A SARS-CoV vaccine should confer long-term protection, especially in vulnerable senescent populations, against both the 2003 epidemic strains and zoonotic strains that may yet emerge from animal reservoirs. We report the comprehensive investigation of SARS vaccine efficacy in young and senescent mice following homologous and heterologous challenge. Methods and Findings Using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP) expressing the 2003 epidemic Urbani SARS-CoV strain spike (S) glycoprotein (VRP-S) or the nucleocapsid (N) protein from the same strain (VRP-N), we demonstrate that VRP-S, but not VRP-N vaccines provide complete short- and long-term protection against homologous strain challenge in young and senescent mice. To test VRP vaccine efficacy against a heterologous SARS-CoV, we used phylogenetic analyses, synthetic biology, and reverse genetics to construct a chimeric virus (icGDO3-S) encoding a synthetic S glycoprotein gene of the most genetically divergent human strain, GDO3, which clusters among the zoonotic SARS-CoV. icGD03-S replicated efficiently in human airway epithelial cells and in the lungs of young and senescent mice, and was highly resistant to neutralization with antisera directed against the Urbani strain. Although VRP-S vaccines provided complete short-term protection against heterologous icGD03-S challenge in young mice, only limited protection was seen in vaccinated senescent animals. VRP-N vaccines not only failed to protect from homologous or heterologous challenge, but resulted in enhanced immunopathology with

  10. The enemy within: phloem-limited pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growing impact of phloem-limited pathogens on high-value crops has led to a renewed interest in understanding how they cause disease. Although these pathogens cause substantial crop losses, many are poorly characterized. In this review, we present examples of phloem-limited pathogens that includ...

  11. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  12. Phylodynamics and Human-Mediated Dispersal of a Zoonotic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, Chiraz; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A.; Abdelatif, Elbia; Elharrak, Mehdi; Jalal, Nourlil; Faouzi, Abdellah; Echevarría, Juan E.; Vazquez Morón, Sonia; Rambaut, Andrew; Campiz, Nicholas; Tatem, Andrew J.; Holmes, Edward C.; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of humans in the dispersal of predominately animal pathogens is essential for their control. We used newly developed Bayesian phylogeographic methods to unravel the dynamics and determinants of the spread of dog rabies virus (RABV) in North Africa. Each of the countries studied exhibited largely disconnected spatial dynamics with major geo-political boundaries acting as barriers to gene flow. Road distances proved to be better predictors of the movement of dog RABV than accessibility or raw geographical distance, with occasional long distance and rapid spread within each of these countries. Using simulations that bridge phylodynamics and spatial epidemiology, we demonstrate that the contemporary viral distribution extends beyond that expected for RABV transmission in African dog populations. These results are strongly supportive of human-mediated dispersal, and demonstrate how an integrated phylogeographic approach will turn viral genetic data into a powerful asset for characterizing, predicting, and potentially controlling the spatial spread of pathogens. PMID:21060816

  13. Well-known surface and extracellular antigens of pathogenic microorganisms among the immunodominant proteins of the infectious microalgae Prototheca zopfii

    PubMed Central

    Irrgang, Alexandra; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Weise, Christoph; Azab, Walid; Roesler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae of the genus Prototheca (P.) are associated with rare but severe infections (protothecosis) and represent a potential zoonotic risk. Genotype (GT) 2 of P. zopfii has been established as pathogenic agent for humans, dogs, and cattle, whereas GT1 is considered to be non-pathogenic. Since pathogenesis is poorly understood, the aim of this study was to determine immunogenic proteins and potential virulence factors of P. zopfii GT2. Therefore, 2D western blot analyses with sera and isolates of two dogs naturally infected with P. zopfii GT2 have been performed. Cross-reactivity was determined by including the type strains of P. zopfii GT2, P. zopfii GT1, and P. blaschkeae, a close relative of P. zopfii, which is known to cause subclinical forms of bovine mastitis. The sera showed a high strain-, genotype-, and species-cross-reactivity. A total of 198 immunogenic proteins have been analyzed via MALDI—TOF MS. The majority of the 86 identified proteins are intracellularly located (e.g., malate dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, 3-dehydroquinate synthase) but some antigens and potential virulence factors, known from other pathogens, have been found (e.g., phosphomannomutase, triosephosphate isomerase). One genotype-specific antigen could be identified as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a well-known antigen of eukaryotic pathogens with immunological importance when located extracellularly. Both sera were reactive to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase of all investigated strains. This house-keeping enzyme is found to be located on the surface of several pathogens as virulence factor. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed its presence on the surface of P. blaschkeae. PMID:26484314

  14. The rumen microbiome as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity genes is directly affected by diet in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marc D; Dewhurst, Richard J; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Rooke, John A; John Wallace, R; Freeman, Tom C; Stewart, Robert; Watson, Mick; Roehe, Rainer

    2017-12-11

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is the most urgent current threat to human and animal health. An improved understanding of the abundance of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes associated with microbial colonisation and pathogenicity in the animal gut will have a major role in reducing the contribution of animal production to this problem. Here, the influence of diet on the ruminal resistome and abundance of pathogenicity genes was assessed in ruminal digesta samples taken from 50 antibiotic-free beef cattle, comprising four cattle breeds receiving two diets containing different proportions of concentrate. Two hundred and four genes associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR), colonisation, communication or pathogenicity functions were identified from 4966 metagenomic genes using KEGG identification. Both the diversity and abundance of these genes were higher in concentrate-fed animals. Chloramphenicol and microcin resistance genes were dominant in samples from forage-fed animals (P < 0.001), while aminoglycoside and streptomycin resistances were enriched in concentrate-fed animals. The concentrate-based diet also increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, which includes many animal and zoonotic pathogens. A high ratio of Proteobacteria to (Firmicutes + Bacteroidetes) was confirmed as a good indicator for rumen dysbiosis, with eight cases all from concentrate-fed animals. Finally, network analysis demonstrated that the resistance/pathogenicity genes are potentially useful as biomarkers for health risk assessment of the ruminal microbiome. Diet has important effects on the complement of AMR genes in the rumen microbial community, with potential implications for human and animal health.

  15. The molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium species in relinquished dogs in Great Britain: a novel zoonotic risk?

    PubMed

    Rosanowski, S M; Banica, M; Ellis, E; Farrow, E; Harwood, C; Jordan, B; James, C; McKenna, D; Fox, M; Blake, D P

    2018-05-01

    Surveillance was conducted to investigate the occurrence of protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium in dogs newly admitted to a dog rehoming charity in London, Great Britain. Voided faecal samples were collected from all new admissions between 2011 and 2012 during six separate 4-week sampling periods. Information on host signalment, including age, breed and reason for submission and faecal consistency, was collected. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, confirmed by sequencing, was conducted on the faecal samples to detect Cryptosporidium genomic DNA and determine Cryptosporidium identity. In total, 677 dogs were included in the study. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium-positive faecal samples was 4.6% (31/676). There were positive samples in all of the six sampling periods. Cryptosporidium canis (n = 28), C. parvum (n = 2) and C. andersoni (n = 1) were identified. Sixty KDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene amplicon sequencing of the C. parvum samples identified genotypes IIaA17G1R1 and IIaA15G2R1 for the first time from a dog. There were no significant associations between signalment data and Cryptosporidium status. While this was a study of one rehoming shelter, the presence of the potentially zoonotic C. parvum and C. canis in dogs highlights a public health concern. Further research is needed to better understand the epidemiology and potential impacts of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs.

  16. Occurrence, Molecular Characterization and Assessment of Zoonotic Risk of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Pigs in Henan, Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Yayun; Li, Junqiang; Qi, Meng; Li, Tingwen; Wang, Jianling; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2018-05-12

    Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal pathogens in humans and animals. Little is known about them and the range of species/assemblages/genotypes occurring in domestic pigs in China. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of these pathogens detected in the faeces from farms in Henan, central China. Of 897 fecal samples tested, 28 (3.1%), 15 (1.7%) and 408 (45.5%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi, respectively. Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis were most frequently detected in piglets, while E. bieneusi was markedly more prevalent in fattening pigs. Sequence analysis of SSU rRNA gene revealed that positive Cryptosporidium strains belonged to C. suis (n=18) and C. scrofarum (n=10). G. duodenalis assemblages E (n=9), assemblages A (n=3) and assemblages C (n=3) were characterized based on the sequence analysis of tpi gene. Thirteen E. bieneusi genotypes comprising four novel (pigHN-I to pigHN-IV) and nine known (EbpC, EbpA, pigEbITS5, LW1, H, CM8, G, CHG19, and CHS5) genotypes were identified by ITS sequence analysis of a large proportion (n=200) of E. bieneusi-positive samples. EbpC was the most frequent genotype, detected in 60 specimens. All 13 genotypes identified in this study clustered in zoonotic Group 1. The findings indicate that t