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Sample records for zooplankton population model

  1. Environmental toxicology: population modeling of cod larvae shows high sensitivity to loss of zooplankton prey.

    PubMed

    Stige, Leif Christian; Ottersen, Geir; Hjermann, Dag Ø; Dalpadado, Padmini; Jensen, Louise K; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-02-01

    Two factors determine whether pollution is likely to affect a population indirectly through loss of prey: firstly, the sensitivity of the prey to the pollutants, and secondly, the sensitivity of the predator population to loss of prey at the given life stage. We here apply a statistical recruitment model for Northeast Arctic cod to evaluate the sensitivity of cod cohorts to loss of zooplankton prey, for example following an oil spill. The calculations show that cod cohorts are highly sensitive to possible zooplankton biomass reductions in the distribution area of the cod larvae, and point to a need for more knowledge about oil-effects on zooplankton. Our study illustrates how knowledge about population dynamics may guide which indirect effects to consider in environmental impact studies.

  2. Acoustic Scattering Models of Zooplankton and Microstructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    Acoustic Scattering Models of Zooplankton and Microstructure Timothy K. Stanton Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Woods Hole...understand the acoustic reverberation properties of zooplankton and microstructure. The results will lead to improved capability in 1) predicting sonar...performance and 2) use of sonars in the mapping of the zooplankton and microstructure. OBJECTIVES To understand the physics of the scattering by

  3. Acoustic Scattering Models of Zooplankton and Microstructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    Acoustic Scattering Models of Zooplankton and Microstructure Timothy K. Stanton Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Woods Hole...understand the acoustic reverberation properties of zooplankton and microstructure. The results will lead to improved capability in 1) predicting sonar...performance and 2) use of sonars in the mapping of the zooplankton and microstructure. OBJECTIVES To understand the physics of the scattering by

  4. Acoustic Scattering Models of Zooplankton and Microstructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    Acoustic Scattering Models of Zooplankton and Microstructure Timothy K. Stanton Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Woods Hole...LONG-TERM GOALS To understand the acoustic reverberation properties of zooplankton and microstructure. The results will lead to improved capability...in 1) predicting sonar performance and 2) use of sonars in the mapping of the zooplankton and microstructure. OBJECTIVES To understand the physics of

  5. Lake acidification: Effects on crustacean zooplankton populations

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, K.E. ); Yan, N.D. ); Keller, W. )

    1993-08-01

    The ranked acid sensitivities of six common crustacean zooplankton taxa were determined from a multilake field survey in Ontario and from laboratory bioassays. The two approaches gave the same ranking (from most to least sensitive): Daphnia galeata mendotae, Daphnia retrocurva, and Skistodiaptomus oregonensis > Diaphanosoma birgei > Mesocyclops edax > Bosmina longirostris. This finding suggests that acidification has caused the widespread damage which has been documented for the zooplankton of Ontario and northeastern US lakes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. An approach for the assessment of risk from chronic radiation to populations of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R C; Vives i Batlle, J; Watts, S J; McDonald, P; Jones, S R; Craze, A

    2010-03-01

    A conceptual model of the effects of chronic radiation on a population of phytoplankton and zooplankton in an oceanic nutrient layer is presented. The model shows that there are distinct threshold dose rates at which the different plankton populations become unsustainable. These are 10,400 microGy h(-1) for phytoplankton and 125 microGy h(-1) for zooplankton. Both these values are considerably greater than the current screening values for protection of 10 microGy h(-1). The model highlights the effects of predator-prey dynamics in predicting that when the zooplankton is affected by the radiation dose, the phytoplankton population can increase. In addition, the model was altered to replicate the dose rates to the plankton of a previous ERICA Irish Sea assessment (24 microGy h(-1) for zooplankton and 430 microGy h(-1) to phytoplankton). The results showed only a 10% decrease in the zooplankton population and a 15% increase in the phytoplankton population. Therefore, at this level of dose, the model predicts that although the dose rate exceeds the guideline value, populations are not significantly affected. This result highlights the limitations of a single screening value for different groups of organisms.

  7. Zooplankton population dynamics in experimentally toxified pond ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Sierszen, M.E.; Boston, H.L.; Horn, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate ecosystem response to and recovery from toxic contamination, we added phenolic compounds to a series of experimental ponds. Toxicants were added repeatedly in a temporally staggered sequence to evaluate the influence of seasonal factors and previous exposure history on the responses to toxicant stress. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in ecosystem structure, e.g. shifts in the relative importance of ''top-down'' and ''bottom-up'' controls on energy flow, would influence the system-level responses to the toxicant. Information from these experiments is being incorporated into models that predict ecological risk and system-level behavior under toxicant stress. Here we focus on the responses of zooplankton populations to toxicants, and factors which may affect the apparent severity of toxic effects. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Evaluation of abiotic stresses of temperate estuaries by using resident zooplankton: A community vs. population approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sourav; Wooldridge, Tris; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-03-01

    By using permanently resident zooplankton, we assessed the ecological level (i.e. community and or population) that provides more in-depth indication of the stress related to salinity and temperature fluctuations in temperate estuaries. In the semi-arid warm temperate South Africa, the Gamtoos estuary experiences a full salinity gradient maintained by irregular but relatively frequent freshwater pulses, whereas the Kromme estuary is euhaline throughout its extent and receives only occasional freshwater inputs when the storage reservoir six km upstream overtops. Changes in the species evenness index of Pielou and the abundances of estuarine resident zooplankton species were modelled against salinity and temperature variations of respective estuaries. In the Gamtoos estuary, response of individual populations provided more in-depth information regarding zooplankton variability. However the most abundant resident zooplankton i.e. Acartia longipatella a copepod was not the best predictor of the salinity and temperature fluctuations. Conversely, the Kromme estuary study provided insights into the potential vulnerability of the resident estuarine zooplankton community to cold. Further, the population level study exposed responses of specific species against salinity changes. We discuss the pros and cons of designing ecological indicators of abiotic stress based on specific species, targeted to specific ecological level, and needs of considering the frequency and magnitude of fresh water inflow in an estuary. A suggestion is to use specific taxonomic group(s) (e.g. Copepods) to better understand the abiotic stress factors of specific set of estuaries (e.g. freshwater rich/starved) until a 'one size fits all' indicator is found for temperate estuaries.

  9. Effects of alewife predation on zooplankton populations in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1970-01-01

    The zooplankton populations in southeastern Lake Michigan underwent striking, size-related changes between 1954 and 1966. Forms that decline sharply were the largest cladocerans (Leptodora kindtii, Daphnia galeata, and D. retrocurva), the largest calanoid copepods (Limnocalanus macrurus, Epischura lacustris, and Diaptomus sicilis), and the largest cyclopoid copepod (Mesocyclops edax). Two of these, D. galeata and M. edax (both abundant in 1954), became extremely rare. Certain medium-sized or small species increased in numbers: Daphnia longiremis, Holopedium gibberum, Polyphemus pediculus, Bosmina longirostris, Bosmina coregoni, Ceriodaphnia sp., Cyclops bicuspidatus, Cyclops vernalis, and Diaptomus ashlandi. Evidence is strong that the changes were due to selective predation by alewives. The alewife was uncommon in southeastern Lake Michigan in 1954 but had increased to enormous proportions by 1966; there was a massive dieoff in spring 1967, and abundance remained relatively low in 1968. The composition of zooplankton populations in 1968 generally had shifted back toward that of 1954, although D. galeata and M. edax remained rare. The average size, and size at onset of maturity, of D. retrocurva decreased noticeably between 1954 and 1966 but increased between 1966 and 1968.

  10. Zooplankton population in relation to physico-chemical parameters of Lal Diggi pond in Aligarh, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Uzma; Parveen, Saltanat; Abdel Mola, Hesham R; Kabir, Habeeba A; Ganai, Altaf H

    2012-11-01

    Physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton were assessed Lal Diggi pond from January to December, 2008. Four groups of zooplankton were recorded. Rotifera constituted the main dominant group in this pond contributing 44.89% of the total zooplankton population followed by Cladocera (30.41%), Copepoda (15.51%) and Ostracoda (4.68%). The highest density of zooplankton was recorded during January and February being 197 and 182 no l(-1) respectively, while the lowest density was recorded during May and June being 64 no l(-1) each could be due to the negative and significant value of correlation between zooplankton and water temperature (r = -0.700). These data is supported by similarity indices which recorded high values during January and February while the lowest values recorded during June and July.

  11. Roles of predation, food, and temperature in structuring the epilimnetic zooplankton populations in Lake Ontario, 1981-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We sampled phytoplankton, zooplankton, and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and measured water temperature in Lake Ontario during 1981–1986. Through the use of general linear regression models we then sought evidence of control of the eplimnetic zooplankton community (mid-July to mid-October) by producers, consumers, and temperature. Our measures of the zooplankton community were total biomass, cladoceran biomass, and the ratio of large to small Daphnia spp. (D. galeata mendotae andD. retrocurva). Zooplankton population variables assessed were abundance, egg ratio, and productivity. Through factor analysis, factors were created from the standardized, transformed independent variables for use in the regression analyses. Regression models showed significant inverse relationships (P < 0.05) between alewives and Bosmina longirostris (abundance, production, and egg ratio), Ceriodaphnia lacustris (egg ratio), andDaphnia retrocurva (egg ratio). Bosmina longirostris and D. retrocurva egg ratios were inversely related to algae biomass (<20 μm), thus the smaller algae might be controlled in part by the zooplankton community. Production of C. lacustris was directly related to temperature, as was the production and abundance of Tropocyclops prasinus. The annual size-frequency distributions of B. longirostris and D. retrocurva were inversely related to yearling alewife abundance and directly related to adult alewife abundance, which suggested that yearlings use a particulate-feeding mode on these zooplankton species more frequently than adults. We found no significant negative correlations among the zooplankton species, which suggested that interzooplankton predation and competition were not as important in structuring the community as were planktivory and temperature.

  12. Large nonlethal effects of an invasive invertebrate predator on zooplankton population growth rate.

    PubMed

    Pangle, Kevin L; Peacor, Scott D; Johannsson, Ora E

    2007-02-01

    We conducted a study to determine the contribution of lethal and nonlethal effects to a predator's net effect on a prey's population growth rate in a natural setting. We focused on the effects of an invasive invertebrate predator, Bythotrephes longimanus, on zooplankton prey populations in Lakes Michigan and Erie. Field data taken at multiple dates and locations in both systems indicated that the prey species Daphnia mendotae, Daphnia retrocurva, and Bosmina longirostris inhabited deeper portions of the water column as Bythotrephes biomass increased, possibly as an avoidance response to predation. This induced migration reduces predation risk but also can reduce birth rate due to exposure to cooler temperatures. We estimated the nonlethal (i.e., resulting from reduced birth rate) and lethal (i.e., consumptive) effects of Bythotrephes on D. mendotae and Bosmina longirostris. These estimates used diel field survey data of the vertical gradient of zooplankton prey density, Bythotrephes density, light intensity, and temperature with growth and predation rate models derived from laboratory studies. Results indicate that nonlethal effects played a substantial role in the net effect of Bythotrephes on several prey population growth rates in the field, with nonlethal effects on the same order of magnitude as or greater (up to 10-fold) than lethal effects. Our results further indicate that invasive species can have strong nonlethal, behaviorally based effects, despite short evolutionary coexistence with prey species.

  13. Distribution and abundance of zooplankton populations in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Truitt, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    The zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake exhibited consistency in species richness and general taxonomic composition, but varied in density and biomass during the period between 1988 and 2000. Collectively, the assemblages included 2 cladoceran taxa and 10 rotifer taxa (excluding rare taxa). Vertical habitat partitioning of the water column to a depth of 200 m was observed for most species with similar food habits and/or feeding mechanisms. No congeneric replacement was observed. The dominant species in the assemblages were variable, switching primarily between periods of dominance of Polyarthra-Keratella cochlearis and Daphnia. The unexpected occurrence and dominance of Asplanchna in 1991 and 1992 resulted in a major change in this typical temporal shift between Polyarthra-K. cochlearis and Daphnia. Following a collapse of the zooplankton biomass in 1993 that was probably caused by predation from Asplanchna, Kellicottia dominated the zooplankton assemblage biomass between 1994 and 1997. The decline in biomass of Kellicottia by 1998 coincided with a dramatic increase in Daphnia biomass. When Daphnia biomass declined by 2000, Keratella biomass increased again. Thus, by 1998 the assemblage returned to the typical shift between Keratella-Polyarthra and Daphnia. Although these observations provided considerable insight about the interannual variability of the zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake, little was discovered about mechanisms behind the variability. When abundant, kokanee salmon may have played an important role in the disappearance of Daphnia in 1990 and 2000 either through predation, inducing diapause, or both. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. New view of population genetics of zooplankton: RAD-seq analysis reveals population structure of the North Atlantic planktonic copepod Centropages typicus.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Bercial, L; Bucklin, A

    2016-04-01

    Detection of population genetic structure of zooplankton at medium-to-small spatial scales in the absence of physical barriers has remained challenging and controversial. The large population sizes and high rates of gene flow characteristic of zooplankton have made resolution of geographical differentiation very difficult, especially when using few genetic markers and assuming equilibrium conditions. Next-generation sequencing now allows simultaneous sampling of hundreds to thousands of genetic markers; new analytical approaches allow studies under nonequilibrium conditions and directional migration. Samples of the North Atlantic Ocean planktonic copepod, Centropages typicus, were analysed using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing on a PROTON platform. Although prior studies revealed no genetic differentiation of populations across the geographical range of the species, analysis of RAD tags showed significant structure across the North Atlantic Ocean. We also compared the likelihood for models of connectivity among NW Atlantic populations under various directional flow scenarios that replicate oceanographic conditions of the sampled domain. High-density marker sampling with RAD sequencing markedly outperformed other technical and analytical approaches in detection of population genetic structure and characterization of connectivity of this high geneflow zooplankton species.

  15. Population dynamics of pond zooplankton, I. Diaptomus pallidus Herrick

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armitage, K.B.; Saxena, B.; Angino, E.E.

    1973-01-01

    The simultaneous and lag relationships between 27 environmental variables and seven population components of a perennial calanoid copepod were examined by simple and partial correlations and stepwise regression. The analyses consistently explained more than 70% of the variation of a population component. The multiple correlation coefficient (R) usually was highest in no lag or in 3-week or 4-week lag except for clutch size in which R was highest in 1-week lag. Population control, egg-bearing, and clutch size were affected primarily by environmental components categorized as weather; food apparently was relatively minor in affecting population control or reproduction. ?? 1973 Dr. W. Junk B.V. Publishers.

  16. Gelatinous zooplankton in the Belgian part of the North Sea and the adjacent Schelde estuary: Spatio-temporal distribution patterns and population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansteenbrugge, Lies; Van Regenmortel, Tina; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2015-03-01

    Many ocean ecosystems are thought to be heading towards a dominance of gelatinous organisms. However, gelatinous zooplankton has been largely understudied and the absence of quantitative long-term data for the studied area impedes drawing conclusions on potential increasing densities. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of gelatinous zooplankton in terms of diversity and density in the Belgian part of the North Sea and the adjacent Schelde estuary, based on monthly and seasonal samples between March 2011 and February 2012. Three Scyphozoa, three Ctenophora and 27 Hydrozoa taxa were identified, including three non-indigenous species: Mnemiopsis leidyi, Nemopsis bachei and Lovenella assimilis. In general, one gelatinous zooplankton assemblage was found across locations and seasons. Average gelatinous zooplankton densities reached up to 18 ind·m-3 near the coast, gradually declining towards the open sea. In the brackish Schelde estuary, average densities remained below 3 ind·m-3. Highest gelatinous zooplankton densities were recorded in summer and autumn. Overall, hydromedusae were the most important group both in terms of diversity and density. The ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus and the hydromedusa Clytia sp. were present in every season and at every location. Gelatinous zooplankton densities never outnumbered the non-gelatinous zooplankton densities recorded from the WP3 samples. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns seemed to be mainly driven by temperature (season) and salinity (location). Other environmental parameters including (larger) non-gelatinous zooplankton densities (as an important food source) were not retained in the most parsimonious DistLM model.In terms of population dynamics, Beroe sp. seemed to follow the three reproductive cycles of its prey P. pileus and the presence of M. leidyi, which were abundant in a broad size spectrum in summer and autumn. In general, gelatinous zooplankton

  17. A hybrid approach to transport processes in the Gulf of Naples: an application to phytoplankton and zooplankton population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieco, L.; Tremblay, L.-B.; Zambianchi, E.

    2005-03-01

    A hybrid numerical approach was developed to study the dispersion of passive/reactive tracers in the Gulf of Naples (GON). To this end, an Eulerian and a Lagrangian scheme were implemented in the barotropic form of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and applied to the dispersion of zoo- and phytoplankton in the GON. The hybrid technique was first validated by comparing the tracer concentration patterns from the Eulerian model and maps of particle positions from the Lagrangian model. Excellent agreement in both spatial distribution and temporal evolution of these quantities was found between the two models. Second, the circulation in the GON was simulated using the POM model. While using simplified forcing fields, the simulated circulation patterns in the GON reproduce many observed features. These include the flushing of the GON waters typically occurring in spring and the formation of a close cyclonic gyre (trapping and homogenizing tracers in the GON) in autumn. The circulation patterns are strongly influenced by both the surface wind stresses and bathymetry and only "remotely" by the Tyrrhenian circulation. For the biological application, the spatial and temporal evolution of passive tracers (e.g., nutrients) was simulated using the Eulerian approach and that of the zoo- and phytoplankton using the Lagrangian approach. These populations were assumed to follow a prey-predator relationship and were studied using a grid resolution of 1.5 km. At these scales, the biological and physical processes (e.g., grazing, phyto- and zooplankton growth rate, mesoscale eddies, horizontal turbulent diffusion), influence plankton heterogeneity and patchiness. In particular, the model results show that phytoplankton variability have spatial and temporal scales similar than those of the carrying capacity (considered here as the effect of a limiting nutrient), yet bigger than the flow turbulence due to diffusion processes. The zooplankton population on the other hand develops on

  18. Effects of toxic substances on zooplankton populations: a Great Lakes perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.S.; McNaught, D.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter discusses how toxic substances can affect zooplankton, both at the species and community level, modifying factors affecting toxicity, the effects of various environmental pertubations, including toxic substances, on Great Lakes zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton in the transport, persistence, and biomagnification of toxic substances.

  19. Wetland defense: naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic stressors are ubiquitous and have been implicated in worldwide declines of terrestrial and aquatic species. Pesticides are one such stressor that can have profound effects on aquatic communities by directly affecting sensitive species and indirectly affecting other species via trophic cascades, which can alter ecosystem function. However, there is growing evidence that non-target species can evolve increased resistance. When such species are important drivers of the food web, then evolved resistance should help buffer communities from the effects of pesticides. To examine this possibility, we cultured four populations of the common zooplankton Daphnia pulex that we previously demonstrated were either sensitive or resistant to a common insecticide (i.e., chlorpyrifos) due to their proximity to agriculture. Using outdoor mesocosms that contained identical aquatic communities of phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens), we manipulated four D. pulex populations and four insecticide concentrations. As we monitored the communities for nearly 3 months, we found that the insecticide caused direct mortality of D. pulex in communities containing sensitive populations, and this led to a bloom of phytoplankton. In contrast, the insecticide caused much less direct mortality in communities containing resistant D. pulex populations, and the trophic cascade was prevented under low to moderate insecticide concentrations. Across all insecticide treatments, survivorship of leopard frogs was approximately 72 % in communities with resistant D. pulex but only 35 % in communities with sensitive D. pulex. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use naturally occurring population variation in insecticide resistance to show that the evolution of pesticide resistance in zooplankton can mitigate the effects of insecticide-induced trophic cascades, and that this outcome can have far-reaching community effects.

  20. Impact of climate change on zooplankton communities, seabird populations and arctic terrestrial ecosystem—A scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempniewicz, Lech; Błachowiak-Samołyk, Katarzyna; Węsławski, Jan M.

    2007-11-01

    Many arctic terrestrial ecosystems suffer from a permanent deficiency of nutrients. Marine birds that forage at sea and breed on land can transport organic matter from the sea to land, and thus help to initiate and sustain terrestrial ecosystems. This organic matter initiates the emergence of local tundra communities, increasing primary and secondary production and species diversity. Climate change will influence ocean circulation and the hydrologic regime, which will consequently lead to a restructuring of zooplankton communities between cold arctic waters, with a dominance of large zooplankton species, and Atlantic waters in which small species predominate. The dominance of large zooplankton favours plankton-eating seabirds, such as the little auk ( Alle alle), while the presence of small zooplankton redirects the food chain to plankton-eating fish, up through to fish-eating birds (e.g., guillemots Uria sp.). Thus, in regions where the two water masses compete for dominance, such as in the Barents Sea, plankton-eating birds should dominate the avifauna in cold periods and recess in warmer periods, when fish-eaters should prevail. Therefore under future anthropogenic climate scenarios, there could be serious consequences for the structure and functioning of the terrestrial part of arctic ecosystems, due in part to changes in the arctic marine avifauna. Large colonies of plankton-eating little auks are located on mild mountain slopes, usually a few kilometres from the shore, whereas colonies of fish-eating guillemots are situated on rocky cliffs at the coast. The impact of guillemots on the terrestrial ecosystems is therefore much smaller than for little auks because of the rapid washing-out to sea of the guano deposited on the seabird cliffs. These characteristics of seabird nesting sites dramatically limit the range of occurrence of ornithogenic soils, and the accompanying flora and fauna, to locations where talus-breeding species occur. As a result of climate

  1. Population structure changes in zooplankton following PAH exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, J.H.; Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    Studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have generally concentrated on single compounds. However, PAHs are usually found as mixtures in the aquatic environment and may pose significant risk to the ecosystem. A study was conducted to determine the effect of creosote (a mixture of PAHs) on pelagic invertebrates, including cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, and rotifers. Artificial aquatic mesocosms consisting of a simple community structure, including fish, algae, macrophytes and invertebrates, were utilized. Four doses of creosote and a control were used. Dosing was accomplished by adding contaminated sediment to the mesocosm, ranging from 100 cm{sup 2} to 3 m{sup 2} in area. As well, 1 to 8 creosote coated log pilings were added to several mesocosms, simulating aquatic exposure to preserved log pilings. The zooplankton at the various dose levels were enumerated. The changes in population structure will be described.

  2. Response of predatory zooplankton populations to the experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Sierszen, M.E.; Frost, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    To assess the effects of lake acidification on large predatory zooplankton, the authors monitored population levels of four limnetic taxa for 6 years in a lake with two basins, one of which was experimentally acidified (2 years at each of three levels: pH 5.6, 5.2 and 4.7). Concentrations of phantom midge (Chaoborus spp.), the most abundant large predator, remained similar in the treatment and reference basins until the fourth year (pH 5.2) when they increased in the treatment basin. In contrast, Epischura lacustris and Leptodora kindtii disappeared from limnetic samples, and water mites declined to near zero upon acidification. Treatment basin populations of E. lacustris declined sharply during the second year of acidification. The nature of the decline suggested sensitivity of an early life stage during the first year at pH 5.6. Leptodora kindtii showed no population response at pH 5.6, but declined to essentially zero at pH 5.2. Treatment basin populations of water mites fluctuated until declining in the fifth and sixth years (pH 4.7). These changes indicate a variety of direct and indirect responses to lake acidification.

  3. Effects of inorganic turbidity and reservoir floods on the feeding and population dynamics of Cladoceran zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Clearance rates of {sup 32}P-labeled yeast cell tracer particles and gravimetric seston analysis were used to estimate in situ seston ingestion rates of Daphnia parvula and Bosmina along the seston gradient in Tuttle Creek Reservoir, near Manhattan, Kansas. An ingestion rate depression occurred for both species at the highest seston concentration. The smallest animals, Bosmina, had a lower incipient limiting concentration and exhibited a stronger ingestion rate depression. The fecundity and abundance of Daphnia parvula, grown in enclosures along the seston gradient prior to the ingestion rate measurements, were highest at the river inflow region. Reservoir Bosmina, however, were least abundant and had the lowest fecundity at the river inflow region. The abundance of Bosmina, calanoid copepods, and cyclopoid copepods were lower following large storm inflows in the late spring of 1983 and 1984, while the abundance of Diaphanosoma and Moina were similar. Both open reservoir and in situ enclosure populations of Daphnia pulex were reduced following the storm inflow, while only enclosure populations of Daphnia parvula were lower. Diaphanosoma and calanoid copepods dominated the zooplankton during sampling from spring through fall 1984, particularly in midsummer when temperatures were greater than 25{degree}C. Daphnids dominated numerically during the fall baseflow period.

  4. Environmental influence on coastal phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity: a multivariate statistical model analysis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Rung; Fang, Lee-Shing; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Tew, Kwee Siong

    2012-09-01

    In a marine ecosystem, the diversity of phytoplankton can influence the diversity of zooplankton, or vice versa, and both can be affected by the environmental factors. In this study, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the major sources of influence on the coastal water near an industrial park, following by construction of structural equation model (SEM) to determine the direct and indirect effect of the factors on phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity. PCA results indicated that the coastal area was mainly affected by riverine discharge (represented by high PC factor loadings of transparency and turbidity) and seasonal change (represented by temperature). SEM further suggested that both riverine discharge and seasonal influences can directly affect phytoplankton diversity, but indirectly affected zooplankton diversity via changes in phytoplankton. Using PCA to determine the sources of influence followed by construction of SEM allowed us to understand the relative importance of the environmental factors, direct or indirect, on phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity. When environmental changes occur, a new SEM could be constructed using the same category of physical and biological data and then compared to the current model to verify whether the environmental changes were the cause of alterations in planktonic communities in the area.

  5. A case study of an enhanced eutrophication model with stoichiometric zooplankton growth sub-model calibrated by Bayesian method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Likun; Peng, Sen; Sun, Jingmei; Zhao, Xinhua; Li, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Urban lakes in China have suffered from severe eutrophication over the past several years, particularly those with relatively small areas and closed watersheds. Many efforts have been made to improve the understanding of eutrophication physiology with advanced mathematical models. However, several eutrophication models ignore zooplankton behavior and treat zooplankton as particles, which lead to the systematic errors. In this study, an eutrophication model was enhanced with a stoichiometric zooplankton growth sub-model that simulated the zooplankton predation process and the interplay among nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen cycles. A case study in which the Bayesian method was used to calibrate the enhanced eutrophication model parameters and to calculate the model simulation results was carried out in an urban lake in Tianjin, China. Finally, a water quality assessment was also conducted for eutrophication management. Our result suggests that (1) integration of the Bayesian method and the enhanced eutrophication model with a zooplankton feeding behavior sub-model can effectively depict the change in water quality and (2) the nutrients resulting from rainwater runoff laid the foundation for phytoplankton bloom.

  6. Indicators: Zooplankton

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Zooplankton are small, free-floating aquatic microorganisms including crustaceans, rotifers, open water insect larvae, and aquatic mites. The zooplankton community is composed of both primary consumers and secondary consumers.

  7. Biomass, growth, and development of populations of herbivorous zooplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea during spring

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, J.; Smith, S.L.

    1985-09-01

    Two distinct communities of herbivorous zooplankton, separated by an oceanographic front, inhabit the continental shelf and slope of the southeastern Bering Sea during spring. The community over the outer shelf and slope is dominated by populations of large-sized oceanic copepods (mainly Neocalanus ssp.) that develop early in spring and attain maximum biomass and growth rates by mid- to late spring. Total biomass and growth rates of herbivores follow the spring outburst of phytoplankton; during April and May biomass increases from less than or equal to1 to approx.14 g C m/sup -2/ on the slope and to approx.10 g C m/sup -2/ on the outer shelf, and maximum growth rates >500 and approx.300 mg C m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ occure on the slope and outer shelf, respectively in May. The dominant species, N. plumchrus, grows from copepodid I and V between late March and early May, and after attaining maximum body weight in late May and early June it begins its downward migration. The inshore community on the middle shelf is dominated by the euphausiid Thysanoessa raschi in April and May and by the copepod Calanus marshallae in late May and early June. Total biomass (less than or equal to g C m/sup -2/) and growth rates (less than or equal to50 mg C m/sup -2/) of the inshore community are substantially lower than those of the offshore community and show a delayed response to the spring bloom of phytoplankton; both biomass and growth rates increase about one month after the bloom. Small herbivorous copepods contributed little to the total biomass and growth rates of either community and the cumulative community growth rates during April and May decreases from 18.3 g C m/sup -2/ on the slope to 2.5 g C m/sup -2/ on the middle shelf. 79 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Biomixing due to diel vertical migrations of zooplankton: Comparison of computational fluid dynamics model with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Cayla; Soloviev, Alexander; Hirons, Amy; Frank, Tamara; Wood, Jon

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies (Dewar et al., 2006; Wilhelmus and Dabiri, 2014) suggest that diel vertical migrations (DVM) of zooplankton (or other migrating organisms) may have an impact on ocean mixing, though details are not completely clear. Zooplankton that undergo DVM can have an impact on oil transport through the water column, and oil and dispersants can have a negative or even lethal effect on the organisms. Kunze et al. (2006) reported an increase of dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, ε, by four to five orders of magnitude during DVM of zooplankton over background turbulence in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. However, the effect was not observed in the same area by Rousseau et al. (2010) and was later reassessed by Kunze (2011). In our work, an 11-month data set obtained in the Straits of Florida with a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler revealed strong sound scattering layers undergoing DVM. We used a 3-D non-hydrostatic computational fluid dynamics model with Lagrangian particle injections (a proxy for migrating organisms) via a discrete phase model to simulate the effect of turbulence generation by DVM. We tested a range of organism concentrations from 1000 to 10,000 organisms/m3 based on measurements by Greenlaw (1979) and Mackie and Mills (1983) in Saanich Inlet. At a concentration close to the upper limit, the simulation showed an increase in ε by two to three orders of magnitude during DVM over background turbulence, 10-9 W kg-1. At a concentration of 1000 organisms/m3, almost no turbulence above the background level was produced in the model. These results suggest that the Kunze et al. (2006) observations could have been performed at a larger concentration of migrating zooplankton than those reported by Rousseau et al. (2010). No exact zooplankton concentrations data were provided in either work. The difference between observations and the model can, in part, be explained by the fact that Kunze et al. (2006) measured

  9. Is there enough zooplankton to feed forage fish populations off Peru? An acoustic (positive) answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballón, Michael; Bertrand, Arnaud; Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Ayón, Patricia; Grados, Daniel; Gerlotto, François

    2011-12-01

    The Northern Humboldt Current system (NHCS) produces more fish per unit area than any other region in the world. Although the system produces enough macrozooplankton to sustain its high production of forage fish, the paucity of information on macrozooplankton hampers research into the system. In this study, we estimated the biomass of the epipelagic crustacean macrozooplankton from the NHCS during both austral summer and spring 2005. To do this, we developed a bi-frequency acoustic method and extracted high-resolution information on the biomass and the patterns of distribution of crustacean macrozooplankton, fish and other marine compartments. We found that, although macrozooplankton comprises a number of distinct organisms, the euphausiids were the zooplankton group that better fitted the patterns from independent net sampling zooplankton data. Also, the similarities between the nocturnal patterns of size and biomass macrozooplankton distribution from this study and the known patterns of euphausiids, in particular Euphausia mucronata, suggest that euphausiids were the main constituent of the estimated nocturnal acoustic macrozooplankton biomass even if other organisms such as large copepods may have contributed considerably to the macrozooplankton biomass. The total macrozooplankton biomass was estimated to about 105 g m -2, i.e., two to five times more than previous estimates. This direct biomass estimation of macrozooplankton is in agreement with the new findings in trophic ecology indicating that forage fish consume mainly macrozooplankton. This high biomass also supports the current hypotheses explaining the NHCS high fish production. Using the method, we are able to revisit present-day and historical acoustic databases and extract high-resolution data on macrozooplankton, a key ecological compartment of the ecosystem. Since zooplankton is the link between the physically driven primary producers and the biologically driven tertiary consumers, this information

  10. Implementation of the zooplankton functional response in plankton models: State of the art, recent challenges and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Andrew; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Cordoleani, Flora

    2012-09-01

    The conventional way of describing grazing in plankton models is based on a zooplankton functional response framework, according to which the consumption rate is computed as the product of a certain function of food (the functional response) and the density/biomass of herbivorous zooplankton. A large amount of literature on experimental feeding reports the existence of a zooplankton functional response in microcosms and small mesocosms, which goes a long way towards explaining the popularity of this framework both in mean-field (e.g. NPZD models) and spatially resolved models. On the other hand, the complex foraging behaviour of zooplankton (feeding cycles) as well as spatial heterogeneity of food and grazer distributions (plankton patchiness) across time and space scales raise questions as to the existence of a functional response of herbivores in vivo. In the current review, we discuss limitations of the ‘classical’ zooplankton functional response and consider possible ways to amend this framework to cope with the complexity of real planktonic ecosystems. Our general conclusion is that although the functional response of herbivores often does not exist in real ecosystems (especially in the form observed in the laboratory), this framework can be rather useful in modelling - but it does need some amendment which can be made based on various techniques of model reduction. We also show that the shape of the functional response depends on the spatial resolution (‘frame’) of the model. We argue that incorporating foraging behaviour and spatial heterogeneity in plankton models would not necessarily require the use of individual based modelling - an approach which is now becoming dominant in the literature. Finally, we list concrete future directions and challenges and emphasize the importance of a closer collaboration between plankton biologists and modellers in order to make further progress towards better descriptions of zooplankton grazing.

  11. Culture optimization for the emergent zooplanktonic model organism Oikopleura dioica

    PubMed Central

    Bouquet, Jean-Marie; Spriet, Endy; Troedsson, Christofer; Otterå, Helen; Chourrout, Daniel; Thompson, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    The pan-global marine appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, shows considerable promise as a candidate model organism for cross-disciplinary research ranging from chordate genetics and evolution to molecular ecology research. This urochordate, has a simplified anatomical organization, remains transparent throughout an exceptionally short life cycle of less than 1 week and exhibits high fecundity. At 70 Mb, the compact, sequenced genome ranks among the smallest known metazoan genomes, with both gene regulatory and intronic regions highly reduced in size. The organism occupies an important trophic role in marine ecosystems and is a significant contributor to global vertical carbon flux. Among the short list of bona fide biological model organisms, all share the property that they are amenable to long-term maintenance in laboratory cultures. Here, we tested diet regimes, spawn densities and dilutions and seawater treatment, leading to optimization of a detailed culture protocol that permits sustainable long-term maintenance of O. dioica, allowing continuous, uninterrupted production of source material for experimentation. The culture protocol can be quickly adapted in both coastal and inland laboratories and should promote rapid development of the many original research perspectives the animal offers. PMID:19461862

  12. Estimating release rates of phosphorus from zooplankton: model and experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The flux of phosphorus in a zooplankton-phytoplankton system is described by a simple compartment model, with differential equations for grazing, growth and reproduction of animals, and release and recycling of P. The mean release rates from zooplankton for a given period are derived for cases restricted to animals feeding on algae at densities above the incipient limiting food concentration. The model is used to analyze short term incubation experiments with Daphnia pulex feeding on Scenedesmus sp. and Daphnia longispina feeding on Rhodomonas lacustris in dim light. When food organisms were saturated with P. total release rates were in the range 1.1-1.5 ..mu..g P (mg dry wt)/sup -1/h/sup -1/ in accordance with a maximal excretion rate of 0.8 ..mu..g P (mg dry wt)/sup -1/h)/sup 1/ predicted by the model of Peters. Phosphorus-starved phytoplankton, containing less P, gave much lower release rates, about 0.05 ..mu..g P (mg dry wt)/sup -1/h/sup -1/, only 10% of the excretion rate predicted by the model of Peters.

  13. Discrete modeling of dynamics of zooplankton community at the different stages of an antropogeneous eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Zholtkevych, G N; Bespalov, G Yu; Nosov, K V; Abhishek, Mahalakshmi

    2013-12-01

    Mathematical modeling is a convenient way for characterization of complex ecosystems. This approach was applied to study the dynamics of zooplankton in Lake Sevan (Armenia) at different stages of anthropogenic eutrophication with the use of a novel method called discrete modeling of dynamical systems with feedback (DMDS). Simulation demonstrated that the application of this method helps in characterization of inter- and intra-component relationships in a natural ecosystem. This method describes all possible pairwise inter-component relationships like "plus-plus," "minus-minus," "plus-minus," "plus-zero," "minus-zero," and "zero-zero" that occur in most ecosystems. Based on the results, a working hypothesis was formulated. It was found that the sensitivity to weak external influence in zooplanktons was the greatest during the mid period of eutrophication in Lake Sevan, whereas in the final stages of eutrophication, an outbreak in the biomass production of cyanobacteria was evident. To support this approach, a weak external disturbance in the form of magnetic storm was used to see its effect on species Daphnia longispina sevanica. A statistically significant correlation between the frequency of magnetic storms and the number of this species was revealed and an increase in the number of toxic cyanobacteria species as a consequence of eutrophication. This paper, for the first time, suggests a DMDS method, to diagnose impact of anthropogenic eutrophication on environment.

  14. Nonresonant Double Hopf Bifurcation in Toxic Phytoplankton-Zooplankton Model with Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Rui; Jiang, Weihua; Wang, Yong

    This paper investigates a toxic phytoplankton-zooplankton model with Michaelis-Menten type phytoplankton harvesting. The model has rich dynamical behaviors. It undergoes transcritical, saddle-node, fold, Hopf, fold-Hopf and double Hopf bifurcation, when the parameters change and go through some of the critical values, the dynamical properties of the system will change also, such as the stability, equilibrium points and the periodic orbit. We first study the stability of the equilibria, and analyze the critical conditions for the above bifurcations at each equilibrium. In addition, the stability and direction of local Hopf bifurcations, and the completion bifurcation set by calculating the universal unfoldings near the double Hopf bifurcation point are given by the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. We obtained that the stable coexistent equilibrium point and stable periodic orbit alternate regularly when the digestion time delay is within some finite value. That is, we derived the pattern for the occurrence, and disappearance of a stable periodic orbit. Furthermore, we calculated the approximation expression of the critical bifurcation curve using the digestion time delay and the harvesting rate as parameters, and determined a large range in terms of the harvesting rate for the phytoplankton and zooplankton to coexist in a long term.

  15. Metal and proton toxicity to lake zooplankton: a chemical speciation based modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Anthony; Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen; Fott, Jan; Garmo, Oyvind A; Hruska, Jakub; Keller, Bill; Löfgren, Stefan; Maberly, Stephen C; Majer, Vladimir; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A; Persson, Gunnar; Schartau, Ann-Kristin; Thackeray, Stephen J; Valois, Amanda; Vrba, Jaroslav; Walseng, Bjørn; Yan, Norman

    2014-03-01

    The WHAM-FTOX model quantifies the combined toxic effects of protons and metal cations towards aquatic organisms through the toxicity function (FTOX), a linear combination of the products of organism-bound cation and a toxic potency coefficient for each cation. We describe the application of the model to predict an observable ecological field variable, species richness of pelagic lake crustacean zooplankton, studied with respect to either acidification or the impacts of metals from smelters. The fitted results give toxic potencies increasing in the order H(+) < Al < Cu < Zn < Ni. In general, observed species richness is lower than predicted, but in some instances agreement is close, and is rarely higher than predictions. The model predicts recovery in agreement with observations for three regions, namely Sudbury (Canada), Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) and a subset of lakes across Norway, but fails to predict observed recovery from acidification in Adirondack lakes (USA).

  16. Living on the edge: populations of two zooplankton species living closer to agricultural fields are more resistant to a common insecticide.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-12-01

    Ecological communities across the globe are exposed to diverse natural and anthropogenic stressors and disturbances that can lead to community-wide impacts. Contaminants are a group of anthropogenic disturbances that are ubiquitous in the environment and can trigger trophic cascades, increased susceptibility to pathogens, reduced biodiversity, and altered ecosystems. In these ecosystems, substantial attention has been given to evolved resistance in targeted pest species, but little attention has been given to the evolution of resistance in nontarget species in nature. For the present study, the authors used laboratory toxicity tests to determine if 2 common, co-occurring species of freshwater zooplankton (Simocephalus vetulus and Daphnia pulex) showed population-level variation in sensitivity to a common insecticide (chlorpyrifos). For both species, it was found that populations living near agricultural fields--a proxy for pesticide use--were more resistant to chlorpyrifos than populations collected from ponds far from agriculture. This finding is consistent with the evolution of resistance to pesticides. To the authors' knowledge, only 1 previous study (using Daphnia magna) has demonstrated this relationship. Collectively, these results suggest that evolved resistance may be common in zooplankton populations located near agriculture. Moreover, because zooplankton play a key role in aquatic food webs, it is expected that population variation in resistance would dramatically alter aquatic food webs, particularly with exposure to low concentrations of insecticides.

  17. A New Trait-Based Auto-Emergent Model for Zooplankton and Confrontation with Size-Structured Observations from the Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, Pieter; Sourisseau, Marc; Huret, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Zooplankton plays a significant role in marine ecosystems bridging the gap between primary producers and top consumers and interacting with the particle flux through complex dynamics. Scarcity of data and complexity of observing zooplankton make it difficult to integrate it in biogeochemical models where it is most often formulated in a simpler manner, i.e. classic box models with usually two compartments (micro and meso/macro zooplankton). Recent advances in automatic sizing, counting and identification allow better estimates of the dynamics and distribution of zooplankton, notably through the measurement of its size structure, and for zooplankton size matter. Most zooplankton physiological rates as well as predator:prey interactions can be significantly relied to individuals size through allometric relations. Such size-dependency was used in recent models. Yet, these models were neither confronted to observations nor integrated in 3D biogeochemical models. Here we propose a newly developed model of zooplankton dynamics based on size-dependent allometric relations but which allows various diet types regardless of the size. A size and a degree of herbivory is randomly drawn for each zooplankton species generated within the model (up to 400 here, limited by actual computational costs). By generating random degree of herbivory zooplankton species of same size could have various diet (from herbivore to carnivore). Other parameters leading to various reproductive strategies or vertical migration could also be drawn randomly (not tested here). The zooplankton model is coupled to the 3D biogeochemical model MARS3D on a test case representing a simplified view of the Bay of Biscay (i.e., continental shelf, estuary, tides). The model shows auto-emergent properties with the selection of size/diet most adapted to local conditions (here offshore vs. coastal, estuary…). Then, patterns of the modeled size-structure of the zooplankton are confronted to the ones observed during

  18. Lagrangian model of zooplankton dispersion: numerical schemes comparisons and parameter sensitivity tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhongfeng; Doglioli, Andrea M.; He, Yijun; Carlotti, Francois

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents two comparisons or tests for a Lagrangian model of zooplankton dispersion: numerical schemes and time steps. Firstly, we compared three numerical schemes using idealized circulations. Results show that the precisions of the advanced Adams-Bashfold-Moulton (ABM) method and the Runge-Kutta (RK) method were in the same order and both were much higher than that of the Euler method. Furthermore, the advanced ABM method is more efficient than the RK method in computational memory requirements and time consumption. We therefore chose the advanced ABM method as the Lagrangian particle-tracking algorithm. Secondly, we performed a sensitivity test for time steps, using outputs of the hydrodynamic model, Symphonie. Results show that the time step choices depend on the fluid response time that is related to the spatial resolution of velocity fields. The method introduced by Oliveira et al. in 2002 is suitable for choosing time steps of Lagrangian particle-tracking models, at least when only considering advection.

  19. Zooplankton and forage fish species off Peru: Large-scale bottom-up forcing and local-scale depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón, Patricia; Swartzman, Gordon; Bertrand, Arnaud; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Bertrand, Sophie

    2008-10-01

    The Humboldt Current System, like all upwelling systems, has dramatic quantities of plankton-feeding fish, which suggested that their population dynamics may ‘drive’ or ‘control’ ecosystem dynamics. With this in mind we analysed the relationship between forage fish populations and their main prey, zooplankton populations. Our study combined a zooplankton sampling program (1961-2005) with simultaneous acoustic observations on fish from 40 pelagic surveys (1983-2005) conducted by the Peruvian Marine Research Institute (IMARPE) and landing statistics for anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) and sardine ( Sardinops sagax) along the Peruvian coast from 1961 to 2005. The multi-year trend of anchoveta population abundance varied consistently with zooplankton biovolume trend, suggesting bottom-up control on anchovy at the population scale (since oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton production support the changes in zooplankton abundance). For a finer-scale analysis (km) we statistically modelled zooplankton biovolume as a function of geographical (latitude and distance from the 200-m isobath), environmental (sea surface temperature), temporal (year, month and time-of-day) and biological (acoustic anchovy and sardine biomass within 5 km of each zooplankton sample) covariates over all survey using both classification and regression trees (CART) and generalized additive models (GAM). CART showed local anchoveta density to have the strongest effect on zooplankton biovolume, with significantly reduced levels of biovolume for higher neighbourhood anchoveta biomass. Additionally, zooplankton biovolume was higher offshore than on the shelf. GAM results corroborated the CART findings, also showing a clear diel effect on zooplankton biovolume, probably due to diel migration or daytime net avoidance. Apparently, the observed multi-year population scale bottom-up control is not inconsistent with local depletion of zooplankton when anchoveta are locally abundant, since the

  20. Modeling downward particulate organic nitrogen flux from zooplankton ammonium regeneration in the northern Benguela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Gómez, M.; Pollehne, F.; Postel, L.; Packard, T. T.

    2016-12-01

    The vertical fluxes of particulate organic matter play a crucial role in the distribution of nutrients throughout the oceans. Although they have been the focus of intensive research, little effort has been made to explore alternative approaches that quantify the particle export at a high spatial resolution. In this study, we assess the minimum nitrogen flux (FN) required to sustain the heterotrophic metabolism in the water column from ocean depth profiles of zooplankton NH4+ excretion (RNH4+). The reduction of RNH4+ as a function of depth was described by a power law fit, RNH4+ = (RNH4+)m (z /zm)b , whereby the b-value determines the net particulate nitrogen loss with increasing depth. Integrating these excretory functions from the base of the euphotic zone to the ocean bottom, we calculated FN at two stations located over the Namibian outer shelf. Estimates of FN (ranging between 0.52 and 1.14 mmol N m-2 d-1) were compared with the sinking fluxes of particles collected in sediment traps (0.15-1.01 mmol N m-2 d-1) 50 m over the seafloor. We found a reasonable agreement between the two approaches when fast-sinking particles dominated the ecosystem, but the FN was somewhat at odds with the measured gravitational flux during a low-sedimentation regime. Applying our conceptual model to the mesozooplankton RNH4+ we further constructed a section of FN along a cross-shelf transect at 20° S, and estimated the efficiency of the epipelagic ecosystem to retain nutrients. Finally, we address the impact of the active flux driven by the migrant mesozooplankton to the total nitrogen export. Depending on the sedimentation regime, the downward active flux (0.86 mmol N m-2 d-1 at 150 m) accounted for between 50 and 307% of the gravitational flux.

  1. Zooplankton interactions with toxic phytoplankton: Some implications for food web studies and algal defence strategies of feeding selectivity behaviour, toxin dilution and phytoplankton population diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, A.; Guisande, C.; Maneiro, I.; Vergara, A. R.; Riveiro, I.; Iglesias, P.

    2007-11-01

    This study focuses on the interactions between toxic phytoplankton and zooplankton grazers. The experimental conditions used are an attempt to simulate situations that have, so far, received little attention. We presume the phytoplankton community to be a set of species where a population of a toxic species is intrinsically diverse by the presence of coexisting strains with different toxic properties. The other species in the community may not always be high-quality food for herbivorous zooplankton. Zooplankton populations may have developed adaptive responses to sympatric toxic phytoplankton species. Zooplankton grazers may perform a specific feeding behaviour and its consequences on fitness will depend on the species ingested, the effect of toxins, and the presence of mechanisms of toxin dilution and compensatory feeding. Our target species are a strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and a sympatric population of the copepod Acartia clausi. Mixed diets were used with two kinds of A. minutum cells: non-toxic and toxic. The flagellate Rhodomonas baltica and the non-toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense were added as accompanying species. The effect of each alga was studied in separate diets. The toxic A. minutum cells were shown to have negative effects on egg production, hatching success and total reproductive output, while, in terms of its effect on fitness, the non-toxic A. minutum was the best quality food offered. R. baltica and A. tamarense were in intermediate positions. In the mixed diets, copepods showed a strong preference for toxic A. minutum cells and a weaker one for A. tamarense cells, while non-toxic A. minutum was slightly negatively selected and R. baltica strongly negatively selected. Although the level of toxins accumulated by copepods was very similar, in both the diet with only toxic A. minutum cells and in the mixed diet, the negative effects on fitness in the mixed diet could be offset by toxin dilution mechanisms. The

  2. Dynamics of the parasite Marteilia refringens (Paramyxea) in Mytilus galloprovincialis and zooplankton populations in Alfacs Bay (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; López-Flores, I; Alcaraz, M; Furones, M D; Berthe, F C J; Arzul, I

    2007-10-01

    Since the first description of Marteilia refringens (Paramyxea) in flat oysters Ostrea edulis in 1968 in the Aber Wrach, Brittany (France), the life-cycle of this parasite has remained unknown. However, recent studies, conducted in the 'claire' system, have proposed the planktonic copepod Acartia grani as a potential intermediate host for the parasite. Nevertheless, experimental transmission of the parasite through the copepod has failed. Recent studies in this field have reported the presence of the parasite in zooplankton from the bays of the Delta de l'Ebre, a more complex and natural estuarine environment than that of the claire. As a result, 2 new Marteilia host species were proposed: the copepods Oithona sp. (Cyclopoida) and an indeterminate Harpaticoida. Consequently, the objective of the present work was to study the dynamics of Marteilia in the zooplankton community from one of the bays, Alfacs Bay, as well as the dynamics of the parasite in cultivated mussels during 1 complete year. Six different zooplankton taxa appeared to be parasitized by M. refringens, including copepods (3 Calanoida, Acartia discaudata, A. clausi and A. italica; 1 Cyclopoida, Oithona sp.; and 1 Harpacticoida, Euterpina acutifrons), and larval stages of decapod crustaceans (zoea larvae of Brachyura, probably Portumnus sp.). These taxa are thus proposed as new subjects for study, since they could be intermediate hosts in the infection process of mussels by Marteilia.

  3. Hydroacoustic estimation of zooplankton biomass at two shoal complexes in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, B.V.; Hrabik, T.R.; Branstrator, D.K.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroacoustics can be used to assess zooplankton populations, however, backscatter must be scaled to be biologically meaningful. In this study, we used a general model to correlate site-specific hydroacoustic backscatter with zooplankton dry weight biomass estimated from net tows. The relationship between zooplankton dry weight and backscatter was significant (p < 0.001) and explained 76% of the variability in the dry weight data. We applied this regression to hydroacoustic data collected monthly in 2003 and 2004 at two shoals in the Apostle Island Region of Lake Superior. After applying the regression model to convert hydroacoustic backscatter to zooplankton dry weight biomass, we used geostatistics to analyze the mean and variance, and ordinary kriging to create spatial zooplankton distribution maps. The mean zooplankton dry weight biomass estimates from plankton net tows and hydroacoustics were not significantly different (p = 0.19) but the hydroacoustic data had a significantly lower coefficient of variation (p < 0.001). The maps of zooplankton distribution illustrated spatial trends in zooplankton dry weight biomass that were not discernable from the overall means.

  4. Temperature effects on stocks and stability of a phytoplankton-zooplankton model and the dependence on light and nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norberg, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a closed phytoplankton—zooplankton ecosystem was analyzed for effects of temperature on stocks and stability and the dependence of these effects on light and total nutrient concentration of the system. An analysis of the steady state equations showed that the effect of temperature on zooplankton and POM biomass was levelled when primary production is nutrient limited. Temperature increase had a generally negative effect on all biomasses at high nutrient levels due to increased maintenance costs. Nutrient limitation of net primary production is the main factor governing the effect of stocks and flows as well as the stability of the system. All components of the system, except for phytoplankton biomass, are proportional to net production and thus to the net effect of light on photosynthesis. However, temperature determines the slope of that relationship. The resilience of the system was measured by calculating the eigenvalues of the steady state. Under oligotrophic conditions, the system can be stable, but an increase in temperature can cause instability or a decrease in resilience. This conclusion is discussed in the face of recent models that take spatial heterogeneity into account and display far more stable behavior, in better agreement to empirical data. Using simulations, we found that the amplitude of fluctuations of the herbivore stock increases with temperature while the mean biomass and minimum values decrease in comparison with steady state predictions

  5. Model-based acoustic characterization and classification of irregular-shaped targets: Application to fisheries and zooplankton acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Dezhang; Stanton, Timothy K.; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2002-11-01

    Acoustic scattering by fish and zooplankton is a complicated function of the geometrical and physical properties of the targets, as well as the environmental and sonar system parameters. The shape and anatomy of zooplankton vary significantly from taxa to taxa and their dominant scattering mechanisms can be completely different. As a result, the acoustic classification of such targets is extremely difficult and often nonunique. To reduce the ambiguity and nonuniqueness, a number of model-based methods are presented. These methods use the temporal, spatial, spectral, and statistical signatures of acoustical scattering signals and can be applied to a variety of acoustic systems, including narrow-band, broadband, and multifrequency systems. The methods also depend strongly on whether or not the targets are resolved. Individual targets with different shapes and material properties have their unique characteristics and can be classified acoustically in terms of their size, orientation, scattering mechanisms, as well as their material properties. Results of applying these methods to the laboratory and field data will be presented and analyzed. [Work supported by ONR, NSF, and the Comer Science and Education Foundation.

  6. Oxygenation of anoxic sediments triggers hatching of zooplankton eggs.

    PubMed

    Broman, Elias; Brüsin, Martin; Dopson, Mark; Hylander, Samuel

    2015-10-22

    Many coastal marine systems have extensive areas with anoxic sediments and it is not well known how these conditions affect the benthic-pelagic coupling. Zooplankton lay their eggs in the pelagic zone, and some sink and lie dormant in the sediment, before hatched zooplankton return to the water column. In this study, we investigated how oxygenation of long-term anoxic sediments affects the hatching frequency of dormant zooplankton eggs. Anoxic sediments from the brackish Baltic Sea were sampled and incubated for 26 days with constant aeration whereby, the sediment surface and the overlying water were turned oxic. Newly hatched rotifers and copepod nauplii (juveniles) were observed after 5 and 8 days, respectively. Approximately 1.5 × 10(5) nauplii m(-2) emerged from sediment turned oxic compared with 0.02 × 10(5) m(-2) from controls maintained anoxic. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic-pelagic coupling of the system. Modelling of the studied anoxic zone suggested that a substantial part of the pelagic copepod population can derive from hatching of dormant eggs. We suggest that this process should be included in future studies to understand population dynamics and carbon flows in marine pelagic systems.

  7. Oxygenation of anoxic sediments triggers hatching of zooplankton eggs

    PubMed Central

    Broman, Elias; Brüsin, Martin; Dopson, Mark; Hylander, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Many coastal marine systems have extensive areas with anoxic sediments and it is not well known how these conditions affect the benthic–pelagic coupling. Zooplankton lay their eggs in the pelagic zone, and some sink and lie dormant in the sediment, before hatched zooplankton return to the water column. In this study, we investigated how oxygenation of long-term anoxic sediments affects the hatching frequency of dormant zooplankton eggs. Anoxic sediments from the brackish Baltic Sea were sampled and incubated for 26 days with constant aeration whereby, the sediment surface and the overlying water were turned oxic. Newly hatched rotifers and copepod nauplii (juveniles) were observed after 5 and 8 days, respectively. Approximately 1.5 × 105 nauplii m−2 emerged from sediment turned oxic compared with 0.02 × 105 m−2 from controls maintained anoxic. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic–pelagic coupling of the system. Modelling of the studied anoxic zone suggested that a substantial part of the pelagic copepod population can derive from hatching of dormant eggs. We suggest that this process should be included in future studies to understand population dynamics and carbon flows in marine pelagic systems. PMID:26468249

  8. Statistical Mechanics of Zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Hinow, Peter; Nihongi, Ai; Strickler, J Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of many-particle systems and macroscopic properties such as pressure and temperature. Observations of similar "microscopic" quantities exist for the motion of zooplankton, as well as many species of other social animals. Herein, we propose to take average squared velocities as the definition of the "ecological temperature" of a population under different conditions on nutrients, light, oxygen and others. We test the usefulness of this definition on observations of the crustacean zooplankton Daphnia pulicaria. In one set of experiments, D. pulicaria is infested with the pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. We find that infested D. pulicaria under light exposure have a significantly greater ecological temperature, which puts them at a greater risk of detection by visual predators. In a second set of experiments, we observe D. pulicaria in cold and warm water, and in darkness and under light exposure. Overall, our ecological temperature is a good discriminator of the crustacean's swimming behavior.

  9. Statistical Mechanics of Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Hinow, Peter; Nihongi, Ai; Strickler, J. Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of many-particle systems and macroscopic properties such as pressure and temperature. Observations of similar “microscopic” quantities exist for the motion of zooplankton, as well as many species of other social animals. Herein, we propose to take average squared velocities as the definition of the “ecological temperature” of a population under different conditions on nutrients, light, oxygen and others. We test the usefulness of this definition on observations of the crustacean zooplankton Daphnia pulicaria. In one set of experiments, D. pulicaria is infested with the pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. We find that infested D. pulicaria under light exposure have a significantly greater ecological temperature, which puts them at a greater risk of detection by visual predators. In a second set of experiments, we observe D. pulicaria in cold and warm water, and in darkness and under light exposure. Overall, our ecological temperature is a good discriminator of the crustacean’s swimming behavior. PMID:26270537

  10. The effects of juvenile American shad planktivory on zooplankton production in Columbia River food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    Columbia River reservoirs support a large population of nonnative American Shad Alosa sapidissima that consume the zooplankton that native fishes also rely on. We hypothesized that the unprecedented biomass of juvenile American Shad in John Day Reservoir is capable of altering the zooplankton community if these fish consume a large portion of the zooplankton production. We derived taxon-specific estimates of zooplankton production using field data and a production model from the literature. Empirical daily ration was estimated for American Shad and expanded to population-level consumption using abundance and biomass data from hydroacoustic surveys. Daphnia spp. production was high in early summer but declined to near zero by September as shad abundance increased. American Shad sequentially consumed Daphnia spp., copepods, and Bosmina spp., which tracked the production trends of these taxa. American Shad evacuation rates ranged from 0.09 to 0.24/h, and daily rations ranged from 0.008 to 0.045 g·g−1·d−1 (dry weight) over all years. We observed peak American Shad biomass (45.2 kg/ha) in 1994, and daily consumption (1.6 kg/ha) approached 30% (5.3 kg/ha) of zooplankton production. On average, American Shad consumed 23.6% of the available zooplankton production (range, <1–83%). The changes in the zooplankton community are consistent with a top-down effect of planktivory by American Shad associated with their unprecedented biomass and consumption, but the effects are likely constrained by temperature, nutrient flux, and the seasonal production patterns of zooplankton in John Day Reservoir. American Shad add to the planktivory exerted by other species like Neomysis mercedis to reduce the capacity of the reservoir to support other planktivorous fishes. The introduction of American Shad and other nonnative species will continue to alter the food web in John Day Reservoir, potentially affecting native fishes, including Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.

  11. High evolutionary potential of marine zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Goetze, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Open ocean zooplankton often have been viewed as slowly evolving species that have limited capacity to respond adaptively to changing ocean conditions. Hence, attention has focused on the ecological responses of zooplankton to current global change, including range shifts and changing phenology. Here, we argue that zooplankton also are well poised for evolutionary responses to global change. We present theoretical arguments that suggest plankton species may respond rapidly to selection on mildly beneficial mutations due to exceptionally large population size, and consider the circumstantial evidence that supports our inference that selection may be particularly important for these species. We also review all primary population genetic studies of open ocean zooplankton and show that genetic isolation can be achieved at the scale of gyre systems in open ocean habitats (100s to 1000s of km). Furthermore, population genetic structure often varies across planktonic taxa, and appears to be linked to the particular ecological requirements of the organism. In combination, these characteristics should facilitate adaptive evolution to distinct oceanographic habitats in the plankton. We conclude that marine zooplankton may be capable of rapid evolutionary as well as ecological responses to changing ocean conditions, and discuss the implications of this view. We further suggest two priority areas for future research to test our hypothesis of high evolutionary potential in open ocean zooplankton, which will require (1) assessing how pervasive selection is in driving population divergence and (2) rigorously quantifying the spatial and temporal scales of population differentiation in the open ocean. Recent attention has focused on the ecological responses of open ocean zooplankton to current global change, including range shifts and changing phenology. Here, we argue that marine zooplankton also are well poised for evolutionary responses to global change. PMID:24567838

  12. Latitudinal comparisons of equatorial Pacific zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, M. R.; Dam, H. G.; Le Borgne, R.; Zhang, X.

    Zooplankton biomass and rates of ingestion, egestion and production in the equatorial Pacific Ocean along 140°W and 180° exhibit maximum values in the High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) zone associated with equatorial upwelling (5°S-5°N) as compared to the more oligotrophic regions to the north and south. Zooplankton biomass and rates are not usually highest on the equator, but increase "downstream" of the upwelling center as the zooplankton populations exhibit a delayed response to enhanced phytoplankton production. The vertical distribution of zooplankton biomass in the equatorial HNLC area tends to be concentrated in surface waters and is more uniform with depth in oligotrophic regions to the north and south of the equatorial upwelling zone. In general, the amount of mesozooplankton (>200 μm) carbon biomass is approximately 25% of estimated phytoplankton biomass and 30% of bacterial biomass in the HNLC area of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton is low in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, generally <5% of the total chlorophyll-a standing stock grazed per day. Based on estimates of metabolic demand, it is apparent that zooplankton in the equatorial Pacific Ocean are omnivores, consuming primarily microzooplankton and detritus. Estimated zooplankton growth rates in the warm waters of the HNLC equatorial Pacific Ocean are high, ranging from 0.58 d -1 for 64-200 μm zooplankton to 0.08 d -1 for 1000-2000 μm zooplankton. Thus, the numerical and functional response of equatorial zooplankton to increases in phytoplankton production are more rapid than normally occurs in sub-tropical and temperate waters. Potential zooplankton fecal pellet production, estimated from metabolic demand, is approximately 1.6 times the estimated gravitational carbon flux at 150 m in the zone of equatorial upwelling (5°S-5°N) and 1.1 times the export flux in the more oligotrophic regions to the north and south. The active flux of carbon by diel migrant

  13. Simulation Modeling of Zooplankton and Benthos in Reservoirs: Documentation and Development of Model Constructs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    phosphorus to account for material flow in the system. Fourth, the recommended minimum time frame for model simulation is 1 day. Subject areas covered by...percent N after 15 weeks in a buffered Hexamine solution (Hopkins 1968). Hopkins believed that most of the leached material was protein. Similar...Modeling such a simple flow of material would be relatively easy, but, unfortunately, it would probably have little relation to the real world. The

  14. Modeling the direct and indirect effects of copper on phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions.

    PubMed

    Prosnier, Loïc; Loreau, Michel; Hulot, Florence D

    2015-05-01

    Predicting the effects of pollution at the community level is difficult because of the complex impacts of ecosystem dynamics and properties. To predict the effects of copper on a plant-herbivore interaction in a freshwater ecosystem, we built a model that focuses on the interaction between an alga, Scenedesmus sp., and a herbivore, Daphnia sp. The model assumes logistic growth for Scenedesmus and a type II functional response for Daphnia. Internal copper concentrations in Scenedesmus and Daphnia are calculated using a biodynamic model. We include two types of direct effects of copper on Scenedesmus and Daphnia that results from hormesis: a deficiency effect at low concentration and a toxic effect at high concentration. We perform a numerical analysis to predict the combined effects of copper and nutrient enrichment on the Scenedesmus-Daphnia interaction. Results show three types of outcomes depending on copper concentration. First, low (4 μg L(-1)) and high (50 μg L(-1)) copper concentrations cause deficiency and toxicity, respectively, leading to the extinction of all populations; for less extreme concentrations (between 4 and 5 μg L(-1) and between 16.5 and 50 μg L(-1)), only the consumer population becomes extinct. The two populations survive with intermediate concentrations. Second, when population dynamics present oscillations, copper has a stabilizing effect and reduces or suppresses oscillations. Third, copper, on account of its stabilizing effect, opposes the destabilizing effect of nutrient enrichment. Our model shows that (1) Daphnia is affected by copper at lower concentrations when community interactions are taken into account than when analyzed alone, and (2) counterintuitive effects may arise from the interaction between copper pollution and nutrient enrichment. Our model also suggests that single-value parameters such as NOEC and LOEC, which do not take community interactions into account to characterize pollutants effects, are unable to

  15. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  16. Population dynamics of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its impact on the zooplankton in the coastal regions of the Black Sea of the Crimean coast in 2004-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finenko, G. A.; Abolmasova, G. I.; Romanova, Z. A.; Datsyk, N. A.; Anninskii, B. E.

    2013-02-01

    The abundance, biomasses, and population structure of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were monitored in the coastal waters of the northern part of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Bay and the adjacent continental shelf regions) in 2004-2008. The abundance and species composition of the comb jelly's food in the sea were obtained along with experimental data on the digestion time. Based upon these data, the feeding intensity of the ctenophore in situ was estimated. This information was used to calculate the predatory impact of the comb jelly population on certain groups of forage organisms and the forage zooplankton community as a whole. The predatory impact of the M. leidyi population on the bivalve veligers was the highest (up to 90% of the abundance a day) compared to the Copepoda and Cladocera (30% and 40%, respectively). In the summers of 2004-2008, the daily consumption rates of the zooplankton by the ctenophore population in the shelf zone and in the bay were similar to each other: up to 15% and 12% of the abundance a day, respectively. The highest pressure of the ctenophore upon the zooplankton was observed in 2004 and 2008, when M. leidyi was especially abundant in the plankton for a long time.

  17. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, David J; Ricoy, Ulises M; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  18. Modeling Honey Bee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Torres, David J.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  19. Zooplankton mortality in 3D ecosystem modelling considering variable spatial-temporal fish consumptions in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maar, Marie; Rindorf, Anna; Møller, Eva Friis; Christensen, Asbjørn; Madsen, Kristine S.; van Deurs, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    We tested the feasibility of imposing mesozooplankton mortality into a 3D model based on estimated consumption rates of the dominant planktivorous fish in the North Sea-Kattegat area. The spatial biomass distribution of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sandeel (Ammodytidae) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was derived from quarterly scientific trawl surveys and Danish commercial catches. Spatio-temporal indices of mortality were created based on the estimated biomasses and ingestion rates from the literature. The fish larvae grazing pressure was obtained from a spatial, size-based larval community model. In this model, larvae, herring and sandeel were the most important fish predators on mesozooplankton, but these groups had different spatial and temporal (seasonal) distributions. Fish larvae were particularly dominant in the eastern and southern areas in early summer. Herring and sandeel had the highest consumption in the central and north-western areas and were more important in late summer. The fish index changed the perceived annual, seasonal and spatial patterns in modelled mesozooplankton biomass, production and mortality. In the present study, the index was kept relatively simple and can be further developed with respect to the description of fish as well carnivorous zooplankton ingestion rates. The data input required to create the fish index is (i) planktivorous fish stock biomasses and (ii) relative fish spawning distribution information and (iii) physics (ocean currents and temperatures) for the region and situation of interest. The fish index seems promising as a realistic mortality term for lower trophic levels in 3D ecosystem models in areas with available data on fish stocks to improve management of marine resources.

  20. If you see one, have you seen them all?: Community-wide effects of insecticide cross-resistance in zooplankton populations near and far from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide use of pesticides has led to increases in agricultural yields by reducing crop losses. However, increased pesticide use has resulted in pesticide-resistant pest species and recent studies have discovered pesticide-resistance in non-target species living close to farms. Such increased tolerance not only affects the species, but can alter the entire food web. Given that some species can evolve not only resistance to a single pesticide, but also cross-resistance to other pesticides that share the same mode of action, one would predict that cross-resistance to pesticides would also have effects on the entire community and affect community stability. To address this hypothesis, we conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment comprised of 200 identical aquatic communities with phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles. To these communities, we added one of four Daphnia pulex populations that we previously discovered were either resistant or sensitive to the insecticide of chlorpyrifos as a result of living close to or far from agriculture, respectively. We then exposed the communities to either no insecticide or three different concentrations of AChE-inhibiting insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion or carbaryl) or sodium channel-inhibiting insecticides (permethrin or cypermethrin). We discovered that communities containing sensitive Daphnia pulex experienced phytoplankton blooms and subsequent cascades through all trophic groups including amphibians at moderate to high concentrations of all five insecticides. However, communities containing resistant D. pulex were buffered from these effects at low to moderate concentrations of all AChE-inhibiting insecticides, but were not buffered against the pyrethroid insecticides. These data suggest that a simple change in the population-level resistance of zooplankton to a single insecticide can have widespread consequences for community stability and that the effects can be extrapolated

  1. Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Fileman, Elaine; Halsband, Claudia; Goodhead, Rhys; Moger, Julian; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-06-18

    Small plastic detritus, termed "microplastics", are a widespread and ubiquitous contaminant of marine ecosystems across the globe. Ingestion of microplastics by marine biota, including mussels, worms, fish, and seabirds, has been widely reported, but despite their vital ecological role in marine food-webs, the impact of microplastics on zooplankton remains under-researched. Here, we show that microplastics are ingested by, and may impact upon, zooplankton. We used bioimaging techniques to document ingestion, egestion, and adherence of microplastics in a range of zooplankton common to the northeast Atlantic, and employed feeding rate studies to determine the impact of plastic detritus on algal ingestion rates in copepods. Using fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy we identified that thirteen zooplankton taxa had the capacity to ingest 1.7-30.6 μm polystyrene beads, with uptake varying by taxa, life-stage and bead-size. Post-ingestion, copepods egested faecal pellets laden with microplastics. We further observed microplastics adhered to the external carapace and appendages of exposed zooplankton. Exposure of the copepod Centropages typicus to natural assemblages of algae with and without microplastics showed that 7.3 μm microplastics (>4000 mL(-1)) significantly decreased algal feeding. Our findings imply that marine microplastic debris can negatively impact upon zooplankton function and health.

  2. Habitat structure determines resource use by zooplankton in temperate lakes.

    PubMed

    Francis, Tessa B; Schindler, Daniel E; Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Larson, Eric R; Scheuerell, Mark D; Semmens, Brice X; Ward, Eric J

    2011-04-01

    While the importance of terrestrial linkages to aquatic ecosystems is well appreciated, the degree of terrestrial support of aquatic consumers remains debated. Estimates of terrestrial contributions to lake zooplankton have omitted a key food source, phytoplankton produced below the mixed layer. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from 25 Pacific Northwest lakes to assess the relative importance of particulate organic matter (POM) from the mixed layer, below the mixed layer and terrestrial detritus to zooplankton. Zooplankton and deep POM were depleted in ¹³C relative to mixed layer POM in lakes that can support deep primary production. A Bayesian stable isotope mixing model estimated that terrestrial detritus contributed <5% to zooplankton production, and confirms the role of lake optical and thermal properties; deep POM accounted for up to 80% of zooplankton production in the clearest lakes. These results suggest terrestrial support of lake zooplankton production is trivial.

  3. Impacts of reduced pH from ocean CO{sub 2} disposal: Sensitivity of zooplankton mortality to model parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E.E.; Caulfield, J.A.; Herzog, H.J.; Auerbach, D.I.

    1998-07-01

    The authors have developed a methodology to quantify mortality suffered by marine zooplankton passing through a CO{sub 2}-enriched sea water plume. Here the authors explore model sensitivity to some of the more important biological, physical and engineering design parameters, with particular reference to CO{sub 2} injection as a buoyant droplet plume. Uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, e.g. caused by the use of data for surface organisms, will affect predicted values of total mortality by less than a factor of two for a single point discharge from 10 standard (500 MWe) coal-fired values of total mortality by less than a factor of two for a single point discharge from 10 standard 500 MWe coal-fired electric power plants and a factor of five for a single point discharge from one standard plant. The most important design variable is the number of physically separated discharge points (diffuser ports or groups of ports) used to disperse the CO{sub 2}. Predicted mortality drops to zero as the number of discharge points per standard plants exceeds two. Finally the most important physical parameters are ambient current speed and turbulent diffusivity. As with the dose-response data, most physical oceanographic measurements have been conducted near the ocean surface. Model sensitivity suggests that a factor of 2.5 reduction in current speed or a factor of 3 reduction in ambient diffusivity, relative to the base case, would require that the number of discharge points per standard plant increase from 2 to 12 in order to avoid mortality. Thus, impacts can be strongly site-specific, and additional oceanographic measurements are needed at depths appropriate for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Nonetheless, it should be easy to design an environmentally conservative multi-point discharge system that can disperse CO{sub 2} as a droplet plume without significant mortality, even under adverse environmental conditions.

  4. Phytoplankton-zooplankton dynamics in periodic environments taking into account eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhuo

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we derive and analyze a mathematical model for the interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton in a periodic environment, in which the growth rate and the intrinsic carrying-capacity of phytoplankton are changing with respect to time and nutrient concentration. A threshold value: "Predator's average growth rate" is introduced and it is proved that the phytoplankton-zooplankton ecosystem is permanent (both populations survive cronically) and possesses a periodic solution if and only if the value is positive. We use TP (Total Phosphorus) concentration to mark the degree of eutrophication. Based on experimental data, we fit the growth rate function and the environmental carrying capacity function with temperature and nutrient concentration as independent variables. Using measured data of temperature on water bodies we fit a periodic temperature function of time, and this leads the growth rate and intrinsic carrying-capacity of phytoplankton to be periodic functions of time. Thus we establish a periodic system with TP concentration as parameter. The simulation results reveal a high diversity of population levels of the ecosystem that are mainly sensitive to TP concentration and the death-rate of zooplankton. It illustrates that the eruption of algal bloom is mainly resulted from the increasing of nutrient concentration while zooplankton only plays a role to alleviate the scale of algal bloom, which might be used to explain the mechanism of algal bloom occurrence in many natural waters. What is more, our results provide a better understanding of the traditional manipulation method.

  5. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  6. The ICES Working Group on Zooplankton Ecology: Accomplishments of the first 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Peter H.; Harris, Roger; Gislason, Astthor; Margonski, Piotr; Skjoldal, Hein Rune; Benfield, Mark; Hay, Steve; O'Brien, Todd; Valdés, Luis

    2016-02-01

    The ICES Study Group on Zooplankton Ecology was created in 1991 to address issues of current and future concern within the field of zooplankton ecology. Within three years it became the ICES Working Group on Zooplankton Ecology (ICES WGZE) and this unique group in the world's oceanographic community has now been active for 25 years. This article reviews and synthesizes the products, and major accomplishments of the group. Achievements of the group, including the Zooplankton Methodology Manual, the Zooplankton Status Reports, and the International Zooplankton Symposia, have had an important impact on the wider field. Among the future issues that remain to be addressed by the group are the assessment of exploratory fisheries on zooplankton and micronekton species; further development of the zooplankton time-series; compilation and integration of allometric relationships for zooplankton species, and evaluation of new methodologies for the study of zooplankton distribution, abundance, physiology, and genetics. Marine science is an increasingly global undertaking and groups such as the ICES WGZE will continue to be essential to the advancement of understanding of zooplankton community structure and population dynamics in the world's oceans.

  7. Zooplankton Aggregations Near Sills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    frequency echo-sounder system. This data were supplemented with multi-net (BIONESS) trawls, bongo nets, and otter trawls (operated by D. Mackas and group...side. The general composition of the zooplankton aggregations can be deduced from the relative levels of the three echo-sounder frequencies; krill ...Nov. 20th, 2002. Krill layer is evident at 66 – 90 m, coincident with BIONESS trawl through the region. 3 Figure 2 shows a comparison between

  8. Zooplankton feeding ecology and the experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Sierszen, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable variety in both the selective behavior of suspension feeders and the quality of food available to them. The author reviews this variability and incorporate it in a simple model of particle selection that quantifies the consequences of selective feeding under various feeding conditions. To evaluate the concept that selective feeding enhances fitness, the author tests the hypothesis than an herbivorous zooplankton selects food items that best support its reproduction. Investigations of zooplankton herbivory in experimentally acidified Little Rock Lake indicate that acidification from pH 6.2 to pH 5.2 has not directly impaired feeding rates, while effects on selective feeding behavior are evident. Assessment of the effects of lake acidification on large predatory zooplankton indicate that Chaoborus spp. and water mite populations remain as yet unaffected, while Epischura lacustris and Leptodora kindtii have both declined in the acidified basin. Methodological tests show that preservation of labelled zooplankton by rapid freezing on dry ice minimizes loss of {sup 14}C and {sup 32}P. {sup 14}C retention approximates 100%, while {sup 32}P retention is more variable.

  9. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  10. Population Density Modeling Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-05

    of fatalities per loss. (2) where: POCA = Probability of Casualty (fatalities per loss) LCA = Lethal Crash Area of Aircraft (square...miles) Population Density = The average population density within the Potential Crash Area (PCA) (people per square miles) The LCA ...component in equation 2 has been previously calculated in the 3PRAT. The methodology used to determine the LCA is outlined in the report: Crash Lethality

  11. Population modeling for furbearer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Sanderson, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The management of furbearers has become increasingly complex as greater demands are placed on their populations. Correspondingly, needs for information to use in management have increased. Inadequate information leads the manager to err on the conservative side; unless the size of the 'harvestable surplus' is known, the population cannot be fully exploited. Conversely, information beyond what is needed becomes an unaffordable luxury. Population modeling has proven useful for organizing information on numerous game animals. Modeling serves to determine if information of the right kind and proper amount is being gathered; systematizes data collection, data interpretation, and decision making; and permits more effective management and better utilization of game populations. This report briefly reviews the principles of population modeling, describes what has been learned from previous modeling efforts on furbearers, and outlines the potential role of population modeling in furbearer management.

  12. Rapid local adaptation mediates zooplankton community assembly in experimental mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Pantel, Jelena H; Duvivier, Cathy; Meester, Luc De

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive evolution can occur over similar timescales as ecological processes such as community assembly, but its particular effects on community assembly and structure and their magnitude are poorly understood. In experimental evolution trials, Daphnia magna were exposed to varying environments (presence and absence of fish and artificial macrophytes) for 2 months. Then, in a common gardening experiment, we compared zooplankton community composition when either experimentally adapted or D. magna from the original population were present. Local adaptation of D. magna significantly altered zooplankton community composition, leading to a suppression of abundances for some zooplankton taxa and facilitation for others. The effect size of D. magna adaptation was similar to that of adding fish or macrophytes to mesocosms, two important drivers of zooplankton community structure. Our results suggest that substantial amounts of variation in community composition in natural systems may be unexplained if evolutionary dynamics are ignored.

  13. Estimating In Situ Zooplankton Non-Predation Mortality in an Oligo-Mesotrophic Lake from Sediment Trap Data: Caveats and Reality Check

    PubMed Central

    Dubovskaya, Olga P.; Tang, Kam W.; Gladyshev, Michail I.; Kirillin, Georgiy; Buseva, Zhanna; Kasprzak, Peter; Tolomeev, Aleksandr P.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Mortality is a main driver in zooplankton population biology but it is poorly constrained in models that describe zooplankton population dynamics, food web interactions and nutrient dynamics. Mortality due to non-predation factors is often ignored even though anecdotal evidence of non-predation mass mortality of zooplankton has been reported repeatedly. One way to estimate non-predation mortality rate is to measure the removal rate of carcasses, for which sinking is the primary removal mechanism especially in quiescent shallow water bodies. Objectives and Results We used sediment traps to quantify in situ carcass sinking velocity and non-predation mortality rate on eight consecutive days in 2013 for the cladoceran Bosmina longirostris in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Stechlin; the outcomes were compared against estimates derived from in vitro carcass sinking velocity measurements and an empirical model correcting in vitro sinking velocity for turbulence resuspension and microbial decomposition of carcasses. Our results show that the latter two approaches produced unrealistically high mortality rates of 0.58-1.04 d-1, whereas the sediment trap approach, when used properly, yielded a mortality rate estimate of 0.015 d-1, which is more consistent with concurrent population abundance data and comparable to physiological death rate from the literature. Ecological implications Zooplankton carcasses may be exposed to water column microbes for days before entering the benthos; therefore, non-predation mortality affects not only zooplankton population dynamics but also microbial and benthic food webs. This would be particularly important for carbon and nitrogen cycles in systems where recurring mid-summer decline of zooplankton population due to non-predation mortality is observed. PMID:26146995

  14. Modeling Population Growth and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2009-01-01

    The exponential growth model and the logistic model typically introduced in the mathematics curriculum presume that a population grows exclusively. In reality, species can also die out and more sophisticated models that take the possibility of extinction into account are needed. In this article, two extensions of the logistic model are considered,…

  15. Population Propensity Measurement Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    school DQ702 Taken elementary algebra DQ703 Taken plane geometry DQ70 Taken computer science DQ706 Taken intermediate algebra DQ707 Taken trigonometry ...with separate models for distributing the arrival of applicants over FY’s, quarters, or months. The primary obstacle in these models is shifting the...to ŕ" = Otherwise DQ706 Binary: 1 = Taken intermediate Q706 is equal to ŕ" algebra, 0 = Otherwise DQ707 Binary: 1 = Taken trigonometry , 0 = Q707 is

  16. Can microcystins affect zooplankton structure community in tropical eutrophic reservoirs?

    PubMed

    Paes, T A S V; Costa, I A S; Silva, A P C; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of our study was to assess whether cyanotoxins (microcystins) can affect the composition of the zooplankton community, leading to domination of microzooplankton forms (protozoans and rotifers). Temporal variations in concentrations of microcystins and zooplankton biomass were analyzed in three eutrophic reservoirs in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil. The concentration of microcystins in water proved to be correlated with the cyanobacterial biovolume, indicating the contributions from colonial forms such as Microcystis in the production of cyanotoxins. At the community level, the total biomass of zooplankton was not correlated with the concentration of microcystin (r2 = 0.00; P > 0.001), but in a population-level analysis, the biomass of rotifers and cladocerans showed a weak positive correlation. Cyclopoid copepods, which are considered to be relatively inefficient in ingesting cyanobacteria, were negatively correlated (r2 = - 0.01; P > 0.01) with the concentration of cyanotoxins. Surprisingly, the biomass of calanoid copepods was positively correlated with the microcystin concentration (r2 = 0.44; P > 0.001). The results indicate that allelopathic control mechanisms (negative effects of microcystin on zooplankton biomass) do not seem to substantially affect the composition of mesozooplankton, which showed a constant and high biomass compared to the microzooplankton (rotifers). These results may be important to better understand the trophic interactions between zooplankton and cyanobacteria and the potential effects of allelopathic compounds on zooplankton.

  17. Modeling sandhill crane population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of sport hunting on the Central Flyway population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) has been a subject of controversy for several years. A recent study (Buller 1979) presented new and important information on sandhill crane population dynamics. The present report is intended to incorporate that and other information into a mathematical model for the purpose of assessing the long-range impact of hunting on the population of sandhill cranes.The model is a simple deterministic system that embodies density-dependent rates of survival and recruitment. The model employs four kinds of data: (1) spring population size of sandhill cranes, estimated from aerial surveys to be between 250,000 and 400,000 birds; (2) age composition in fall, estimated for 1974-76 to be 11.3% young; (3) annual harvest of cranes, estimated from a variety of sources to be about 5 to 7% of the spring population; and (4) age composition of harvested cranes, which was difficult to estimate but suggests that immatures were 2 to 4 times as vulnerable to hunting as adults.Because the true nature of sandhill crane population dynamics remains so poorly understood, it was necessary to try numerous (768 in all) combinations of survival and recruitment functions, and focus on the relatively few (37) that yielded population sizes and age structures comparable to those extant in the real population. Hunting was then applied to those simulated populations. In all combinations, hunting resulted in a lower asymptotic crane population, the decline ranging from 5 to 54%. The median decline was 22%, which suggests that a hunted sandhill crane population might be about three-fourths as large as it would be if left unhunted. Results apply to the aggregate of the three subspecies in the Central Flyway; individual subspecies or populations could be affected to a greater or lesser degree.

  18. Zooplankton community responses to synthetic oil exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, L.A.; Franco, P.J.; Giddings, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The responses of microcosm and pond zooplankton communities to oil treatment were quite similar. Their close agreement lends support for using shallow-water pond microcosms as surrogates for field experiments in hazard evaluation. Changes in cladoceran densities were the most sensitive indicators of stress in the zooplankton communities. Copepods were slightly less sensitive, and rotifers were least sensitive to oil treatment. Indirect effects on populations were observed at intermediate treatment levels. The lowest treatment levels at which persistent and significant ecological changes occurred were the same in both systems. These levels were similar to the lowest observed-effect concentration (LOEC) for the Daphnia magna chronic bioassay, or approximately 30% of the D. magna 48-h LC/sub 50/. Community structure responses were generally consistent between systems; however, sensitivity for detecting oil treatment effects varied greatly among the measures of community structure. Species richness and diversity measures were not as sensitive as individual species responses. Cluster and multivariate post-clustering analyses of community similarity values reflected indirect effects and had sufficient sensitivity to allow early impact detection. An expanded principal components technique, which used both zooplankton and water quality data, was also relatively sensitive and would be applicable for routine monitoring.

  19. The zooplankton of the north sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransz, H. G.; Colebrook, J. M.; Gamble, J. C.; Krause, M.

    This review summarizes available knowledge on herbivorous and omnivorous zooplankton of the North Sea. After an introductory chapter on history and general approach of zooplankton studies, the four main contributions review distribution patterns, cycles and trends in temporal variation, trophic interactions and population dyamics and production. The distribution of zooplankton species in relation to hydrography and origin of watermasses is described for copepods. It highlights the influence of Atlantic Ocean influx from the northwest, which to a large extent dominates the species composition and its seasonal variation in the summer-stratified waters. In contrast, the more neritic communities in the southeast region mainly depend on the local populations of the species abundant in coastal mixed waters. The chapter on cycles and trends in temporal variation discusses the differences in seasonal variation with respect to species, area, and community structure in terms of herbivores, omnivores and carnivores. The year-to-year changes are considered as dependent on the overwintering stocks and strategies. Patterns in long-term variation appearing from long-term data series are related to climatic changes, leading to two hypotheses with respect to the effects of changes in wind regime. The chapter on trophic interactions deals with the utilization of primary particulate production by planktonic herbivores and its variation in time and space. Emphasis is put on differences between north and south, which are partly due to differences in species composition, community structure and seasonal variation already discussed in foregoing chapters. The various aspects of copepod grazing are reviewed, but also the role of microzooplankton as both grazers and food organisms is brought to attention. The last chapter deals with population dynamics and production of key species. Seasonal fluctuations in abundance and biomass are discussed and related to underlying population processes

  20. Rotenone Decreases Hatching Success in Brine Shrimp Embryos by Blocking Development: Implications for Zooplankton Egg Banks

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Evan R.; Neumeyer, Courtney H.; Gunderson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    While many zooplankton species recover quickly after the treatment of water resources with the piscicide, rotenone, some fail to reach pretreatment population density or, in rare cases, do not reappear at all. The variable impact of rotenone on zooplankton populations could stem from differences in the capacity of species to switch entirely to anaerobic catabolic pathways in the presence of rotenone, which blocks mitochondrial electron transport. Alternatively, variable responses among species could originate from differences in permeability of dormant life-stages to lipophilic chemicals like rotenone. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of rotenone on development, emergence and hatching of zooplankton embryos that lack both the anaerobic capacity to develop in the presence of rotenone and a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of rotenone during dormancy. Post-diapause embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were employed as a model system, because they are permeable to lipophilic compounds when dechorionated and require aerobic conditions to support development. Early development in this species is also well characterized in the literature. Brine shrimp embryos were exposed to rotenone while development was either slowed by chilling or suspended by anoxia. Development, emergence and hatching were then observed in rotenone-free artificial seawater. The data presented demonstrate that rotenone freely diffuses across the embryonic cuticle in a matter of hours, and prevents development and emergence after brief exposures to ecologically relevant concentrations (0.025–0.5 mg L-1) of the piscicide. Neither the removal of rotenone from the environment, nor the removal of embryonic water with a hypertonic solution, are sufficient to reverse this block on development and emergence. These data indicate that rotenone could impair recruitment from egg banks for species of zooplankton that lack both an embryonic barrier to the entry

  1. Modeling the prehistoric Maori population.

    PubMed

    Brewis, A A; Molloy, M A; Sutton, D G

    1990-03-01

    Skeletal and comparative evidence of mortality is combined with fertility estimates for the precontact Maori population of New Zealand to determine the implied rate of precontact population growth. This rate is found to be too low to populate New Zealand within the time constraints of its prehistoric sequence, the probable founding population size, and the probable population size at contact. Rates of growth necessary to populate New Zealand within the accepted time span are calculated. The differences between this minimum necessary rate and the skeletally derived rate are too large to result solely from inadequacies in the primary data. Four alternative explanations of this conundrum are proposed: 1) skeletal evidence of precontact mortality is highly inaccurate; 2) skeletal evidence of fertility is severely underestimating actual levels; 3) there was very rapid population growth in the earliest part of the sequence up to 1150 A.D., from which no skeletal evidence currently is available; or 4) the prehistoric sequence of New Zealand may have been longer than the generally accepted 1,000-1,200 years. These alternatives are examined, and a combination of the last two is found to be the most probable. The implications of this model for New Zealand prehistory and Oceanic paleodemography are discussed.

  2. Biodiversity and ecosystem function in the Gulf of Maine: pattern and role of zooplankton and pelagic nekton.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Catherine L; Runge, Jeffrey A; Curtis, K Alexandra; Durbin, Edward G; Hare, Jonathan A; Incze, Lewis S; Link, Jason S; Melvin, Gary D; O'Brien, Todd D; Van Guelpen, Lou

    2011-01-31

    This paper forms part of a broader overview of biodiversity of marine life in the Gulf of Maine area (GoMA), facilitated by the GoMA Census of Marine Life program. It synthesizes current data on species diversity of zooplankton and pelagic nekton, including compilation of observed species and descriptions of seasonal, regional and cross-shelf diversity patterns. Zooplankton diversity in the GoMA is characterized by spatial differences in community composition among the neritic environment, the coastal shelf, and deep offshore waters. Copepod diversity increased with depth on the Scotian Shelf. On the coastal shelf of the western Gulf of Maine, the number of higher-level taxonomic groups declined with distance from shore, reflecting more nearshore meroplankton. Copepod diversity increased in late summer, and interdecadal diversity shifts were observed, including a period of higher diversity in the 1990s. Changes in species diversity were greatest on interannual scales, intermediate on seasonal scales, and smallest across regions, in contrast to abundance patterns, suggesting that zooplankton diversity may be a more sensitive indicator of ecosystem response to inter annual climate variation than zoo plankton abundance. Local factors such as bathymetry, proximity of the coast, and advection probably drive zooplankton and pelagic nekton diversity patterns in the GoMA, while ocean-basin scale diversity patterns probably contribute to the increase in diversity at the Scotian Shelf break, a zone of mixing between the cold-temperate community of the shelf and the warm-water community offshore. Pressing research needs include establishment of a comprehensive system for observing change in zooplankton and pelagic nekton diversity, enhanced observations of "underknown" but important functional components of the ecosystem, population and metapopulation studies, and development of analytical modeling tools to enhance understanding of diversity patterns and drivers. Ultimately

  3. Quantifying Preferences and Responsiveness of Marine Zooplankton to Changing Environmental Conditions using Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Nirupama; Simakov, Oleg; Merten, Christoph A; Arendt, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Global environmental change significantly affects marine species composition. However, analyzing the impact of these changes on marine zooplankton communities was so far mostly limited to assessing lethal doses through mortality assays and hence did not allow a direct assessment of the preferred conditions, or preferendum. Here, we use a microfluidic device to characterize individual behavior of actively swimming zooplankton, and to quantitatively determine their ecological preferendum. For the annelid zooplankton model Platynereis dumerilii we observe a broader pH preferendum than for the copepod Euterpina acutifrons, and reveal previously unrecognized sub-populations with different pH preferenda. For Platynereis, the minimum concentration difference required to elicit a response (responsiveness) is ~1 μM for H+ and ~13.7 mM for NaCl. Furthermore, using laser ablations we show that olfactomedin-expressing sensory cells mediate chemical responsiveness in the Platynereis foregut. Taken together, our microfluidic approach allows precise assessment and functional understanding of environmental perception on planktonic behaviour.

  4. Quantifying Preferences and Responsiveness of Marine Zooplankton to Changing Environmental Conditions using Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Christoph A.; Arendt, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Global environmental change significantly affects marine species composition. However, analyzing the impact of these changes on marine zooplankton communities was so far mostly limited to assessing lethal doses through mortality assays and hence did not allow a direct assessment of the preferred conditions, or preferendum. Here, we use a microfluidic device to characterize individual behavior of actively swimming zooplankton, and to quantitatively determine their ecological preferendum. For the annelid zooplankton model Platynereis dumerilii we observe a broader pH preferendum than for the copepod Euterpina acutifrons, and reveal previously unrecognized sub-populations with different pH preferenda. For Platynereis, the minimum concentration difference required to elicit a response (responsiveness) is ~1 μM for H+ and ~13.7 mM for NaCl. Furthermore, using laser ablations we show that olfactomedin-expressing sensory cells mediate chemical responsiveness in the Platynereis foregut. Taken together, our microfluidic approach allows precise assessment and functional understanding of environmental perception on planktonic behaviour. PMID:26517120

  5. Fission Models of Population Variability

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Most models in population genetics are models of allele frequency, making implicit or explicit assumptions of equilibrium or constant population size. In recent papers, we have attempted to develop more appropriate models for the analysis of rare variant data in South American Indian tribes; these are branching process models for the total number of replicates of a variant allele. The spatial distribution of a variant may convey information about its history and characteristics, and this paper extends previous models to take this factor into consideration. A model of fission into subdivisions is superimposed on the previous branching process, and variation between subdivisions is considered. The case where fission is nonrandom and the locations of like alleles are initially positively associated, as would happen were a tribal cluster or village to split on familial lines, is also analyzed. The statistics developed are applied to Yanomama Indian data on rare genetic variants. Due to insufficient time depth, no definitive new inferences can be drawn, but the analysis shows that this model provides results consistent with previous conclusions, and demonstrates the general type of question that may be answered by the approach taken here. In particular, striking confirmation of a higher-than-average growth rate, and hence smaller-than-previously-estimated age, is obtained for the Yan2 serum albumen variant. PMID:535728

  6. Physical control of zooplankton communities in the Catalan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Calbet, A.; Estrada, M.; Marrasé, C.; Saiz, E.; Trepat, I.

    2007-08-01

    The study of the response of planktonic systems to environmental variability, and particularly to differences in the intensity and frequency of mechanical energy inputs, one of the leading objectives of GLOBEC, has been an important part of the research developed in the Spanish Mediterranean over the last decades. In this review we will discuss the research conducted at different space and time scales, intended to cope with the broad space and time variability scales of plankton. The time- and space scales considered range from small- (i.e., from seconds and mm, affecting zooplankton at individual level) to meso- (weeks and tens of km) and large scales (i.e., seasonal changes in the density structure of the water column). The discussion includes laboratory research using visual observation techniques at individual level, the use of experimental micro- and mesocosms, as well as data obtained by sampling natural systems during oceanographic cruises. At the smaller scales, mechanical energy inputs produce turbulent water movements that enhance the encounter probability between zooplankton and their prey, modify their swimming behaviour (higher frequency of fast-swimming events, escape responses), increase metabolic rates and affect energetic balances. Consequently, the development of organisms is accelerated, and the size of adults significantly reduced. The changes induced by turbulence on zooplankton at individual levels modify, by cumulative processes, the characteristics of zooplankton populations and of the whole planktonic ecosystems. Such changes can be observed by using micro- and mesocosm experiments. The physical control of zooplankton communities can also be observed, even at larger scales, in the highly hydrodynamic physical structures (i.e., fronts and ergoclines) of the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean). In these structures mechanical energy inputs are amplified, resulting in turbulence increases that contribute to modify, from individual rate processes

  7. A three-dimensional biophysical model of Karenia brevis dynamics on the west Florida shelf: A look at physical transport and potential zooplankton grazing controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Scott P.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; He, Ruoying; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.; Lester, Kristen M.; Steidinger, Karen A.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Walsh, John J.; Weisberg, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The development of accurate predictive models of toxic dinoflagellate blooms is of great ecological importance, particularly in regions that are most susceptible to their detrimental effects. This is especially true along the west Florida shelf (WFS) and coast, where episodic bloom events of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis often wreak havoc on the valuable commercial fisheries and tourism industries of west Florida. In an effort to explain the dynamics at work within the maintenance and termination phases of a red tide, a simple three-dimensional coupled biophysical model was used in the analysis of the October 1999 red tide offshore Sarasota, Florida. Results of the numerical experiments indicate that: (1) measured and modeled flowfields were capable of transporting the observed offshore inoculum of K. brevis to within 16 km of the coastal boundary; (2) background concentrations (1000 cells L -1) of K. brevis could grow to a red tide of over 2×10 6 cells L -1 in little more than a month, assuming an estuarine initiation site with negligible offshore advection, no grazing losses, negligible competition from other phytoplankton groups, and no nutrient limitation; (3) maximal grazing pressure could not prevent the initiation of a red tide or cause its termination, assuming no other losses to algal biomass and a zooplankton community ingestion rate similar to that of Acartia tonsa; and (4) the light-cued ascent behavior of K. brevis served as an aggregational mechanism, concentrating K. brevis at the 55 μE m -2 s -1 isolume when mean concentrations of K. brevis exceeded 100,000 cells L -1. Further improvements in model fidelity will be accomplished by the future inclusion of phytoplankton competitors, disparate nutrient availability and limitation schemes, a more realistic rendering of the spectral light field and the attendant effects of photo-inhibition and compensation, and a mixed community of vertically-migrating proto- and metazoan grazers. These model

  8. Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Davis, B.M.; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and

  9. Role of zooplankton dynamics for Southern Ocean phytoplankton biomass and global biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Moriarty, R.; Alvain, S.; Aumont, O.; Bopp, L.; Chollet, S.; Enright, C.; Franklin, D. J.; Geider, R. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Hirst, A.; Larsen, S.; Legendre, L.; Platt, T.; Prentice, I. C.; Rivkin, R. B.; Sathyendranath, S.; Stephens, N.; Vogt, M.; Sailley, S.; Vallina, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    Global ocean biogeochemistry models currently employed in climate change projections use highly simplified representations of pelagic food webs. These food webs do not necessarily include critical pathways by which ecosystems interact with ocean biogeochemistry and climate. Here we present a global biogeochemical model which incorporates ecosystem dynamics based on the representation of ten plankton functional types (PFTs); six types of phytoplankton, three types of zooplankton, and heterotrophic bacteria. We improved the representation of zooplankton dynamics in our model through (a) the explicit inclusion of large, slow-growing zooplankton, and (b) the introduction of trophic cascades among the three zooplankton types. We use the model to quantitatively assess the relative roles of iron vs. grazing in determining phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region during summer. When model simulations do not represent crustacean macrozooplankton grazing, they systematically overestimate Southern Ocean chlorophyll biomass during the summer, even when there was no iron deposition from dust. When model simulations included the developments of the zooplankton component, the simulation of phytoplankton biomass improved and the high chlorophyll summer bias in the Southern Ocean HNLC region largely disappeared. Our model results suggest that the observed low phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean during summer is primarily explained by the dynamics of the Southern Ocean zooplankton community rather than iron limitation. This result has implications for the representation of global biogeochemical cycles in models as zooplankton faecal pellets sink rapidly and partly control the carbon export to the intermediate and deep ocean.

  10. Conditions for patchiness in plankton models.

    PubMed

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Fasani, Stefano; Rinaldi, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    Plankton patchiness in homogeneous physical environments is studied in this paper assuming that all involved populations disperse diffusively. A recent but powerful sufficient condition for the emergence of spatial patterns in models with any number of species is systematically applied to all food chain and food web plankton models and the result is rather sharp: all models explicitly containing phytoplankton, zooplankton and planktivorous fish suggest zooplankton patchiness, while models not containing phytoplankton or fish populations do not. The results are in agreement with many previous but particular theoretical studies on plankton patchiness and Turing instability, and a testable prediction of the models satisfying the sufficient predictions is that zooplankton should be more patchy than phytoplankton, a property that is often seen in natural settings. An application to a complex model with five compartments (nutrient, phytoplankton, zooplankton, planktivorous fish, carnivorous fish) highlights the predictive power of the method.

  11. Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: Fish-zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the distribution of major calanoid copepods in the western Labrador Sea in relation to that of the myctophid Benthosema glaciale, and investigated patterns of prey composition and feeding periodicity by the latter to assess the potential impact of mesopelagic fish on copepod populations that reside in the deep ocean. Hydroacoustic surveys indicated that B. glaciale and the deep-scattering layer are widely distributed throughout the region with limited evidence of patchiness, with an average abundance of 6 fish m-2 and biomass of 9.3 g m-2. There was clear evidence of diurnal variations in feeding activity that was achieved through vertical migration from several hundred meters depths to the surface layer. B. glaciale fed principally on calanoid copepods, with prey size dependent on the length of the fish but the relative variability in prey size was independent of predator length. Average rations were generally less than 1% of body weight per day, and the patterns of diurnal vertical migration by myctophids suggest that individuals fed once every two days rather than daily. The estimated mortality caused by B. glaciale on the calanoid populations, which considers most sources of uncertainty, ranged from 0.002 to 1.8% d-1, with the mid-point of these estimates being ˜0.15% d-1, which is well below the estimated mortality rates of 10-20% d-1 based on vertical life tables. From observations from this and other ecosystems, understanding and contrasting the drivers of population dynamics and productivity of calanoid copepods in different deep basins of the North Atlantic will likely require a more comprehensive characterization of the plankton and pelagic and oceanic fish faunas of the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones and their trophic relationships and interactions.

  12. Role of zooplankton in determining the efficiency of the biological carbon pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavan, Emma L.; Henson, Stephanie A.; Belcher, Anna; Sanders, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of the ocean's biological carbon pump (BCPeff - here the product of particle export and transfer efficiencies) plays a key role in the air-sea partitioning of CO2. Despite its importance in the global carbon cycle, the biological processes that control BCPeff are poorly known. We investigate the potential role that zooplankton play in the biological carbon pump using both in situ observations and model output. Observed and modelled estimates of fast, slow, and total sinking fluxes are presented from three oceanic sites: the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, the temperate North Atlantic, and the equatorial Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We find that observed particle export efficiency is inversely related to primary production likely due to zooplankton grazing, in direct contrast to the model estimates. The model and observations show strongest agreement in remineralization coefficients and BCPeff at the OMZ site where zooplankton processing of particles in the mesopelagic zone is thought to be low. As the model has limited representation of zooplankton-mediated remineralization processes, we suggest that these results point to the importance of zooplankton in setting BCPeff, including particle grazing and fragmentation, and the effect of diel vertical migration. We suggest that improving parameterizations of zooplankton processes may increase the fidelity of biogeochemical model estimates of the biological carbon pump. Future changes in climate such as the expansion of OMZs may decrease the role of zooplankton in the biological carbon pump globally, hence increasing its efficiency.

  13. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  14. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  15. Resurrecting the ghost of competition past with dormant zooplankton eggs.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Christopher F; Cáceres, Carla E; Smith, Sigrid D P

    2007-03-01

    A common prediction of evolutionary theory is that the strength of interspecific competition should decline over time among sympatric populations of competing species. Here we provide experimental evidence of historical declines in competition effects among competing zooplankton populations. Using diapausing eggs, we resurrected clones of three species of zooplankton obtained from different periods of community assembly in a single lake. We show that clones of Daphnia ambigua obtained from early in assembly when D. ambigua was dominant became extinct in competition with clones of Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia dentifera (the current lake dominants). In contrast, D. ambigua clones obtained from later in the lake's history experienced weaker competition effects and persisted with D. dentifera. While we cannot rule out the role of intraspecific competition within D. ambigua, our results are in line with the view that natural selection favors reduced interaction strength among co-occurring species, facilitating coexistence and population persistence.

  16. Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

  17. Interactions of Vibrio spp. with Zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Erken, Martina; Lutz, Carla; McDougald, Diane

    2015-06-01

    Members of the genus Vibrio are known to interact with phyto- and zooplankton in aquatic environments. These interactions have been proven to protect the bacterium from various environmental stresses, serve as a nutrient source, facilitate exchange of DNA, and to serve as vectors of disease transmission. This review highlights the impact of Vibrio-zooplankton interactions at the ecosystem scale and the importance of studies focusing on a wide range of Vibrio-zooplankton interactions. The current knowledge on chitin utilization (i.e., chemotaxis, attachment, and degradation) and the role of these factors in attachment to nonchitinous zooplankton is also presented.

  18. Advances in Biochemical Indices of Zooplankton Production.

    PubMed

    Yebra, L; Kobari, T; Sastri, A R; Gusmão, F; Hernández-León, S

    2017-01-01

    Several new approaches for measuring zooplankton growth and production rates have been developed since the publication of the ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) Zooplankton Methodology Manual (Harris et al., 2000). In this review, we summarize the advances in biochemical methods made in recent years. Our approach explores the rationale behind each method, the design of calibration experiments, the advantages and limitations of each method and their suitability as proxies for in situ rates of zooplankton community growth and production. We also provide detailed protocols for the existing methods and information relevant to scientists wanting to apply, calibrate or develop these biochemical indices for zooplankton production.

  19. Comparing models of Red Knot population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Predictive population modeling contributes to our basic scientific understanding of population dynamics, but can also inform management decisions by evaluating alternative actions in virtual environments. Quantitative models mathematically reflect scientific hypotheses about how a system functions. In Delaware Bay, mid-Atlantic Coast, USA, to more effectively manage horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) harvests and protect Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations, models are used to compare harvest actions and predict the impacts on crab and knot populations. Management has been chiefly driven by the core hypothesis that horseshoe crab egg abundance governs the survival and reproduction of migrating Red Knots that stopover in the Bay during spring migration. However, recently, hypotheses proposing that knot dynamics are governed by cyclical lemming dynamics garnered some support in data analyses. In this paper, I present alternative models of Red Knot population dynamics to reflect alternative hypotheses. Using 2 models with different lemming population cycle lengths and 2 models with different horseshoe crab effects, I project the knot population into the future under environmental stochasticity and parametric uncertainty with each model. I then compare each model's predictions to 10 yr of population monitoring from Delaware Bay. Using Bayes' theorem and model weight updating, models can accrue weight or support for one or another hypothesis of population dynamics. With 4 models of Red Knot population dynamics and only 10 yr of data, no hypothesis clearly predicted population count data better than another. The collapsed lemming cycle model performed best, accruing ~35% of the model weight, followed closely by the horseshoe crab egg abundance model, which accrued ~30% of the weight. The models that predicted no decline or stable populations (i.e. the 4-yr lemming cycle model and the weak horseshoe crab effect model) were the most weakly supported.

  20. Development of a Multimetric Indicator of Pelagic Zooplankton ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We used zooplankton data collected for the 2012 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) to develop multimetric indices (MMIs) for five aggregated ecoregions of the conterminous USA (Coastal Plains, Eastern Highlands, Plains, Upper Midwest, and Western Mountains and Xeric [“West’]). We classified candidate metrics into six categories: We evaluated the performance of candidate metrics, and used metrics that had passed these screens to calculate all possible candidate MMIs that included at least one metric from each category. We selected the candidate MMI that had high responsiveness, a reasonable value for repeatability, low mean pairwise correlation among component metrics, and, when possible, a maximum pairwise correlation among component metrics that was <0.7. We were able to develop MMIs that were sufficiently responsive and repeatable to assess ecological condition for the NLA without the need to reduce the effects of natural variation using models. We did not observe effects of either lake size, lake origin, or site depth on the MMIs. The MMIs appear to respond more strongly to increased nutrient concentrations than to shoreline habitat conditions. Improving our understanding of how zooplankton assemblages respond to increased human disturbance, and obtaining more complete autecological information for zooplankton taxa would likely improve MMIs developed for future assessments. Using zooplankton assemblage data from the 2012 National Lakes Assessment (NLA),

  1. Calvert Cliffs zooplankton entrainment study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    Entrainment studies to evaluate plant effects on zooplankton were conducted at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Plant. Specific effects tested were (a) the spatial and temporal variation of zooplankton density; (b) pump sampling efficiency; (c) delayed mortality; (d) vital staining as an indicator of mortality.

  2. Zooplankton data: Vertical distributions of zooplankton in the Norweigian and Greenland Seas during summer, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, P.V.Z.; Smith, S.L.; Schwarting, E.M.

    1993-08-01

    Recent studies of zooplankton populations in the Greenland Sea have focused on processes at the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and the areas immediately adjacent to it under the ice and in open water. These studies have shown a relatively short period of intense secondary productivity which is closely linked temporally and spatially to phytoplankton blooms occurring near the ice edge in spring and early summer. During the summer of 1989 we participated in a project focusing on benthic and water column processes in the basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. This study allowed us to compare biological processes at the MIZ with those occurring in the open waters of the Greenland Sea, and to compare processes at both of these locations with those in the Norwegian Sea. The data presented in this report are the results of zooplankton net tows covering the upper 1000 meters of the water column over the Norwegian Sea basin and the Greenland Sea basin, and the upper 500 meters of open water adjacent to the MIZ in the Greenland Sea. Sampling was conducted between 12 and 29 July 1989.

  3. Zooplankton community changes confound the biodilution theory of methylmercury accumulation in a recovering mercury-contaminated lake.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Svetoslava; Driscoll, Charles T; Matthews, David A; Effler, Steven W

    2015-04-07

    In this study, the biodilution hypothesis of methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation was examined in a Hg-contaminated ecosystem that has undergone concurrent changes in nutrient loading and zooplankton community composition. Using a long-term record of 17 years (between 1980 and 2009), we demonstrate that zooplankton MeHg concentrations in Onondaga Lake, NY, are strongly driven by changes in the zooplankton community and body size. MeHg concentrations in zooplankton increased with an increase in body size and biomass. The highest concentrations of MeHg were observed under eutrophic and hypereutrophic conditions when large-bodied Daphnia species, Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia galeata mendotae, were present. Bioconcentration rather than biodilution was governing the accumulation of MeHg in zooplankton without apparent growth dilution or zooplankton biomass dilution. Algal-bloom dilution controlled the variability in the MeHg concentration only under hypereutrophic conditions when Ceriodaphnia predominated the cladoceran population. Our study demonstrates that changes in zooplankton community composition confound the biodilution theory in Onondaga Lake and that the presence of large-bodied zooplankton species drives elevated MeHg concentrations.

  4. Zooplankton data report: Winter MIZEX, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.; Lane, P.V.Z.; Schwartling, E.M.; Beck, B.

    1988-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) was an interdisciplinary, international Arctic research program designed to study the atmospheric, oceanic, and ice interactions in the Fram Strait region of the Greenland Sea. This report focuses on zooplankton data collected during the winter MIZEX program of 1987. The primary objectives of our group during MIZEX 87 were to study the distribution of zooplankton species in relation to the ice-edge, the Polar Front, and the mesoscale eddy field, and to study zooplanktonic physiology just prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. The data in this report are quantitative analyses of zooplankton samples collected while aboard the research vessel HAKON MOSBY during MIZEX 87. This is the third in a series of data reports on zooplankton collected in the Fram Strait region during the MIZEX project. A complete catalog of the reports generated from the MIZEX program is archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado, USA. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Extinction of Inhomogeneous Populations

    PubMed Central

    Karev, G.P.; Kareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of population extinction have a variety of applications in such areas as ecology, paleontology and conservation biology. Here we propose and investigate two types of sub-exponential models of population extinction. Unlike the more traditional exponential models, the life duration of sub-exponential models is finite. In the first model, the population is assumed to be composed clones that are independent from each other. In the second model, we assume that the size of the population as a whole decreases according to the sub-exponential equation. We then investigate the “unobserved heterogeneity”, i.e. the underlying inhomogeneous population model, and calculate the distribution of frequencies of clones for both models. We show that the dynamics of frequencies in the first model is governed by the principle of minimum of Tsallis information loss. In the second model, the notion of “internal population time” is proposed; with respect to the internal time, the dynamics of frequencies is governed by the principle of minimum of Shannon information loss. The results of this analysis show that the principle of minimum of information loss is the underlying law for the evolution of a broad class of models of population extinction. Finally, we propose a possible application of this modeling framework to mechanisms underlying time perception. PMID:27090117

  6. Modelling population change from time series data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; McCullough, D.R.; Barrett, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Information on change in population size over time is among the most basic inputs for population management. Unfortunately, population changes are generally difficult to identify, and once identified difficult to explain. Sources of variald (patterns) in population data include: changes in environment that affect carrying capaciyy and produce trend, autocorrelative processes, irregular environmentally induced perturbations, and stochasticity arising from population processes. In addition. populations are almost never censused and many surveys (e.g., the North American Breeding Bird Survey) produce multiple, incomplete time series of population indices, providing further sampling complications. We suggest that each source of pattern should be used to address specific hypotheses regarding population change, but that failure to correctly model each source can lead to false conclusions about the dynamics of populations. We consider hypothesis tests based on each source of pattern, and the effects of autocorrelated observations and sampling error. We identify important constraints on analyses of time series that limit their use in identifying underlying relationships.

  7. Population Modelling with M&M's[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Several activities in which population dynamics can be modelled by tossing M&M's[R] candy are presented. Physical activities involving M&M's[R] can be modelled by difference equations and several population phenomena, including death and immigration, are studied. (Contains 1 note.)

  8. Modeling wildlife populations with HexSim

    EPA Science Inventory

    HexSim is a framework for constructing spatially-explicit, individual-based computer models designed for simulating terrestrial wildlife population dynamics and interactions. HexSim is useful for a broad set of modeling applications including population viability analysis for on...

  9. Population genetics models of local ancestry.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon

    2012-06-01

    Migrations have played an important role in shaping the genetic diversity of human populations. Understanding genomic data thus requires careful modeling of historical gene flow. Here we consider the effect of relatively recent population structure and gene flow and interpret genomes of individuals that have ancestry from multiple source populations as mosaics of segments originating from each population. This article describes general and tractable models for local ancestry patterns with a focus on the length distribution of continuous ancestry tracts and the variance in total ancestry proportions among individuals. The models offer improved agreement with Wright-Fisher simulation data when compared to the state-of-the art and can be used to infer time-dependent migration rates from multiple populations. Considering HapMap African-American (ASW) data, we find that a model with two distinct phases of "European" gene flow significantly improves the modeling of both tract lengths and ancestry variances.

  10. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  11. Statistical Models of Adaptive Immune populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethna, Zachary; Callan, Curtis; Walczak, Aleksandra; Mora, Thierry

    The availability of large (104-106 sequences) datasets of B or T cell populations from a single individual allows reliable fitting of complex statistical models for naïve generation, somatic selection, and hypermutation. It is crucial to utilize a probabilistic/informational approach when modeling these populations. The inferred probability distributions allow for population characterization, calculation of probability distributions of various hidden variables (e.g. number of insertions), as well as statistical properties of the distribution itself (e.g. entropy). In particular, the differences between the T cell populations of embryonic and mature mice will be examined as a case study. Comparing these populations, as well as proposed mixed populations, provides a concrete exercise in model creation, comparison, choice, and validation.

  12. Disentangling the mechanisms behind climate effects on zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Kvile, Kristina Ø; Langangen, Øystein; Prokopchuk, Irina; Stenseth, Nils C; Stige, Leif C

    2016-02-16

    Understanding how climate influences ecosystems is complicated by the many correlated and interrelated impacting factors. Here we quantify climate effects on Calanus finmarchicus in the northeastern Norwegian Sea and southwestern Barents Sea. By combining oceanographic drift models and statistical analyses of field data from 1959 to 1993 and investigating effects across trophic levels, we are able to elucidate pathways by which climate influences zooplankton. The results show that both chlorophyll biomass in spring and C. finmarchicus biomass in summer relate positively to a combination of shallow mixed layer depth and increased wind in spring, suggesting that C. finmarchicus biomass in summer is influenced by bottom-up effects of food availability. Furthermore, spatially resolved C. finmarchicus biomass in summer is linked to favorable transport from warmer, core areas to the south. However, increased mean temperature in spring does not lead to increased C. finmarchicus biomass in summer. Rather, spring biomass is generally higher, but population growth from spring to summer is lower, after a warm compared with a cold spring. Our study illustrates how improved understanding of climate effects can be obtained when different datasets and different methods are combined in a unified approach.

  13. Disentangling the mechanisms behind climate effects on zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Kvile, Kristina Ø.; Langangen, Øystein; Prokopchuk, Irina; Stenseth, Nils C.; Stige, Leif C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate influences ecosystems is complicated by the many correlated and interrelated impacting factors. Here we quantify climate effects on Calanus finmarchicus in the northeastern Norwegian Sea and southwestern Barents Sea. By combining oceanographic drift models and statistical analyses of field data from 1959 to 1993 and investigating effects across trophic levels, we are able to elucidate pathways by which climate influences zooplankton. The results show that both chlorophyll biomass in spring and C. finmarchicus biomass in summer relate positively to a combination of shallow mixed layer depth and increased wind in spring, suggesting that C. finmarchicus biomass in summer is influenced by bottom-up effects of food availability. Furthermore, spatially resolved C. finmarchicus biomass in summer is linked to favorable transport from warmer, core areas to the south. However, increased mean temperature in spring does not lead to increased C. finmarchicus biomass in summer. Rather, spring biomass is generally higher, but population growth from spring to summer is lower, after a warm compared with a cold spring. Our study illustrates how improved understanding of climate effects can be obtained when different datasets and different methods are combined in a unified approach. PMID:26831099

  14. A new model for care population management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeni

    2013-03-01

    Steps toward building a population management model of care should include: Identifying the population that would be cared for through a population management initiative. Conducting an actuarial analysis for this population, reviewing historical utilization and cost data and projecting changes in utilization. Investing in data infrastructure that supports the exchange of data among providers and with payers. Determining potential exposure to downside risk and organizational capacity to assume this risk. Experimenting with payment models and care delivery approaches Hiring care coordinators to manage care for high-risk patients.

  15. Avoidance of strobe lights by zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at <1 m, 15 m and ⩾100 m distance intervals away from the strobe light. Copepods represented 67.2% and Daphnia spp. represented 23.3% of all zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.

  16. Effect of advection on variations in zooplankton at a single location near Cabo Nazca, Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S L; Brink, K H; Santander, H; Cowles, T J; Huyer, A

    1980-04-01

    Temporal variations in the biomass and species composition of zooplankton at a single midshelf station in an upwelling area off Peru can be explained to a large extent by onshore-offshore advection in the upper 20 m of the water column. During periods of strong or sustained near-surface onshore flow, peaks in biomass of zooplankton were observed at midshelf and typically oceanic species of copepod were collected. In periods of offshore flow at the surface, a copepod capable of migrating into oxygen-depleted layers deeper than 30 m was collected. A simple translocation model of advection applied to the cross-shelf distribution of Paracalanus parvus suggests that the fluctuations in P. pavus observed in the midshelf time-series were closely related to onshore-offshore flow in the upper 20 m. Fluctuations in abundance of the numerically dominant copepod, Acartia tonsa, were apparently affected by near surface flow also. The population age-structure suggests that A. tonsa was growing at maximal rates, due in part to its positive feeding response to the dinoflagellate/diatom assemblage of phytoplankton.

  17. Ecosystem model-based approach for modelling the dynamics of 137Cs transfer to marine plankton populations: application to the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belharet, M.; Estournel, C.; Charmasson, S.

    2015-06-01

    Huge amounts of radionuclides, especially 137Cs, were released into the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP) accident that occurred on 11 March 2011, resulting in contamination of the marine biota. In this study we developed a radioecological model to estimate 137Cs concentrations in phytoplankton and zooplankton populations representing the lower levels of the pelagic trophic chain. We coupled this model to a lower trophic level ecosystem model and an ocean circulation model to take into account the site-specific environmental conditions in the area. The different radioecological parameters of the model were estimated by calibration, and a sensitivity analysis to parameter uncertainties was carried out, showing a high sensitivity of the model results, especially to the 137Cs concentration in seawater, to the rates of uptake from water and to the radionuclide assimilation efficiency for zooplankton. The results of the 137Cs concentrations in planktonic populations simulated in this study were then validated through comparison with the some data available in the region after the accident. The model results have shown that the maximum concentrations in plankton after the accident were about two to four orders of magnitude higher than those observed before the accident depending on the distance from FNPP. Finally, the maximum 137Cs absorbed dose rate for phyto- and zooplankton populations was estimated to be about 10-2 μGy h-1, and was, therefore, lower than the 10 μGy h-1 benchmark value defined in the ERICA assessment approach from which a measurable effect on the marine biota can be observed.

  18. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence.

  19. Next Generation Sequencing Reveals the Hidden Diversity of Zooplankton Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Rachel A.; Somerfield, Paul J.; Atkinson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    Background Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. Methodology/Principle Findings Plankton net hauls (200 µm) were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. Conclusions Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may become increasingly

  20. The Career Counseling with Underserved Populations Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Providing effective career counseling to culturally diverse individuals is not the same as helping those from majority cultures. The Career Counseling With Underserved Populations model aids career counselors in supporting underserved populations as they strive to address their important career counseling issues.

  1. "Trophic overyielding": phytoplankton diversity promotes zooplankton productivity.

    PubMed

    Striebel, Maren; Singer, Gabriel; Stibor, Herwig; Andersen, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Diversity-productivity relationships at the primary producer level have been extensively studied, especially for terrestrial systems. Here, we explore whether the diversity of aquatic primary producers (phytoplankton) has effects on higher trophic levels (zooplankton). We investigated the effect of phytoplankton diversity on an artificial zooplankton community in a laboratory experiment where phytoplankton biomass and elemental composition (carbon-to-phosphorus ratio) were kept constant. Phytoplankton diversity increased the means of both zooplankton growth rate and abundance while suppressing their variability, and sustained higher zooplankton diversity. Likely explanations include resource complementarity effects among phytoplankton species as food entities, as well as niche complementarity effects among Daphnia species as competitors. By affecting the productivity as well as the variability of the next trophic level, biodiversity of primary producers may have far-reaching consequences in aquatic food webs.

  2. Zooplankton and the Ocean Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Deborah K.; Landry, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Marine zooplankton comprise a phylogenetically and functionally diverse assemblage of protistan and metazoan consumers that occupy multiple trophic levels in pelagic food webs. Within this complex network, carbon flows via alternative zooplankton pathways drive temporal and spatial variability in production-grazing coupling, nutrient cycling, export, and transfer efficiency to higher trophic levels. We explore current knowledge of the processing of zooplankton food ingestion by absorption, egestion, respiration, excretion, and growth (production) processes. On a global scale, carbon fluxes are reasonably constrained by the grazing impact of microzooplankton and the respiratory requirements of mesozooplankton but are sensitive to uncertainties in trophic structure. The relative importance, combined magnitude, and efficiency of export mechanisms (mucous feeding webs, fecal pellets, molts, carcasses, and vertical migrations) likewise reflect regional variability in community structure. Climate change is expected to broadly alter carbon cycling by zooplankton and to have direct impacts on key species.

  3. Melatonin Signaling Controls Circadian Swimming Behavior in Marine Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Bucher, Daniel; Vopalensky, Pavel; Arendt, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the “hormone of darkness,” is a key regulator of vertebrate circadian physiology and behavior. Despite its ubiquitous presence in Metazoa, the function of melatonin signaling outside vertebrates is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of melatonin signaling on circadian swimming behavior in a zooplankton model, the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We find that melatonin is produced in brain photoreceptors with a vertebrate-type opsin-based phototransduction cascade and a light-entrained clock. Melatonin released at night induces rhythmic burst firing of cholinergic neurons that innervate locomotor-ciliated cells. This establishes a nocturnal behavioral state by modulating the length and the frequency of ciliary arrests. Based on our findings, we propose that melatonin signaling plays a role in the circadian control of ciliary swimming to adjust the vertical position of zooplankton in response to ambient light. PMID:25259919

  4. Population-expression models of immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, Sean P.; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-06-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable.

  5. Simple models for reading neuronal population codes.

    PubMed Central

    Seung, H S; Sompolinsky, H

    1993-01-01

    In many neural systems, sensory information is distributed throughout a population of neurons. We study simple neural network models for extracting this information. The inputs to the networks are the stochastic responses of a population of sensory neurons tuned to directional stimuli. The performance of each network model in psychophysical tasks is compared with that of the optimal maximum likelihood procedure. As a model of direction estimation in two dimensions, we consider a linear network that computes a population vector. Its performance depends on the width of the population tuning curves and is maximal for width, which increases with the level of background activity. Although for narrowly tuned neurons the performance of the population vector is significantly inferior to that of maximum likelihood estimation, the difference between the two is small when the tuning is broad. For direction discrimination, we consider two models: a perceptron with fully adaptive weights and a network made by adding an adaptive second layer to the population vector network. We calculate the error rates of these networks after exhaustive training to a particular direction. By testing on the full range of possible directions, the extent of transfer of training to novel stimuli can be calculated. It is found that for threshold linear networks the transfer of perceptual learning is nonmonotonic. Although performance deteriorates away from the training stimulus, it peaks again at an intermediate angle. This nonmonotonicity provides an important psychophysical test of these models. PMID:8248166

  6. Population changes: contemporary models and theories.

    PubMed

    Sauvy, A

    1981-01-01

    In many developing countries rapid population growth has promoted a renewed interest in the study of the effect of population growth on economic development. This research takes either the macroeconomic viewpoint, where the nation is the framework, or the microeconomic perspective, where the family is the framework. For expository purposes, the macroeconomic viewpoint is assumed, and an example of such an investment is presented. Attention is directed to the following: a simplified model--housing; the lessons learned from experience (primitive populations, Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries, comparing development in Spain and Italy, 19th century Western Europe, and underdeveloped countries); the positive factors of population growth; and the concept of the optimal rate of growth. Housing is the typical investment that an individual makes. Hence, the housing per person (roughly 1/3 of the necessary amount of housing per family) is taken as a unit, and the calculations are made using averages. The conclusion is that growth is expensive. A population decrease might be advantageous, for this decrease would enable the entire population to benefit from past capital accumulation. It is also believed, "a priori," that population growth is more expensive for a developed than for a developing country. This belief may be attributable to the fact that the capital per person tends to be high in the developed countries. Any further increase in the population requires additional capital investments, driving this ratio even higher. Yet, investment is not the only factor inhibiting economic development. The literature describes factors regarding population growth, yet this writer prefers to emphasize 2 other factors that have been the subject of less study: a growing population's ease of adaptation and the human factor--behavior. A growing population adapts better to new conditions than does a stationary or declining population, and contrary to "a priori" belief, a growing

  7. Design issues for population growth models

    PubMed Central

    López Fidalgo, J.; Ortiz Rodríguez, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review and discuss design issues for population growth and decline models. We then use a flexible growth and decline model as an illustrative example and apply optimal design theory to find optimal sampling times for estimating model parameters, specific parameters and interesting functions of the model parameters for the model with two real applications. Robustness properties of the optimal designs are investigated when nominal values or the model is mis-specified, and also under a different optimality criterion. To facilitate use of optimal design ideas in practice, we also introduce a website for generating a variety of optimal designs for popular models from different disciplines. PMID:21647244

  8. Bivalves: From individual to population modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.; Ruardij, P.

    2014-11-01

    An individual based population model for bivalves was designed, built and tested in a 0D approach, to simulate the population dynamics of a mussel bed located in an intertidal area. The processes at the individual level were simulated following the dynamic energy budget theory, whereas initial egg mortality, background mortality, food competition, and predation (including cannibalism) were additional population processes. Model properties were studied through the analysis of theoretical scenarios and by simulation of different mortality parameter combinations in a realistic setup, imposing environmental measurements. Realistic criteria were applied to narrow down the possible combination of parameter values. Field observations obtained in the long-term and multi-station monitoring program were compared with the model scenarios. The realistically selected modeling scenarios were able to reproduce reasonably the timing of some peaks in the individual abundances in the mussel bed and its size distribution but the number of individuals was not well predicted. The results suggest that the mortality in the early life stages (egg and larvae) plays an important role in population dynamics, either by initial egg mortality, larvae dispersion, settlement failure or shrimp predation. Future steps include the coupling of the population model with a hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model to improve the simulation of egg/larvae dispersion, settlement probability, food transport and also to simulate the feedback of the organisms' activity on the water column properties, which will result in an improvement of the food quantity and quality characterization.

  9. Formalisms for Specifying Markovian Population Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzinger, Thomas A.; Jobstmann, Barbara; Wolf, Verena

    We compare several languages for specifying Markovian population models such as queuing networks and chemical reaction networks. These languages —matrix descriptions, stochastic Petri nets, stoichiometric equations, stochastic process algebras, and guarded command models— all describe continuous-time Markov chains, but they differ according to important properties, such as compositionality, expressiveness and succinctness, executability, ease of use, and the support they provide for checking the well-formedness of a model and for analyzing a model.

  10. A Population Model of Integrative Cardiovascular Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, William A.; Husband, Leland D.; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G.; Hester, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model. PMID:24058546

  11. Zooplankton of the waters adjacent to the C. P. Crane generating station. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, G.C.; Womack, C.J.; Olney, J.E.

    1980-08-01

    Zooplankton population in the Gunpowder River and its tributaries were sampled monthly from July, 1979-March, 1980 in a continuation of similar studies begun in March, 1979. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the present once-through cooling system of the Crane Power Plant. The principal effect of the C.P. Crane generating station on zooplankton of the area is a displacement of an original freshwater community through the pumping of cooling water from Seneca Creek to Saltpeter Creek.

  12. Climate warming and the decline of zooplankton in the California current

    SciTech Connect

    Roemmich, D.; McGowan, J.

    1995-03-03

    Since 1951, the biomass of macrozooplankton in waters off southern California has decreased by 80 percent. During the same period, the surface layer warmed-by more than 1.5{degrees}C in some places-and the temperature differences across the thermocline increased. Increased stratification resulted in less lifting of the thermocline by wind-driven upwelling. A shallower source of upwelled waters provided less inorganic nutrient for new biological production and hence supported a smaller zooplankton population. Continued warming could lead to further decline of zooplankton. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Microcystins affect zooplankton biodiversity in oxbow lakes.

    PubMed

    Krztoń, Wojciech; Pudaś, Krzysztof; Pociecha, Agnieszka; Strzesak, Magdalena; Kosiba, Joanna; Walusiak, Edward; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Wilk-Woźniak, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that zooplankton diversity and density are affected by the presence of cyanotoxins in the water. The authors focused on 4 oxbow lakes of the Vistula River in southern Poland, which are subjected to mass cyanobacterial development. In 2 of the oxbows (Piekary and Tyniec), microcystins released into the water were found. The highest concentration of microcystins (0.246 μg/L) was observed for microcystins LR. Zooplankton diversity showed a weak response to the presence of microcystins released into the water. The Shannon index (H') of total zooplankton diversity decreased in the Piekary and Tyniec oxbows during periods when the microcystin concentrations were highest. The same trend was noted for diversity of rotifers in both oxbows and for diversity of copepods in Piekary, but not for copepods in Tyniec. No such trends were found for the diversity of cladocerans in any of the oxbows, nor was a relationship found between density of zooplankton and microcystins. Statistical analyses showed that the number of species in individual samples was negatively correlated with the levels of sulfates, phosphates, and ammonia, but the microcystin concentration was positively related to those levels. This points to the complexity of the interactions and synergies among toxins, abiotic factors, and zooplankton biodiversity. In focusing on the problem of cyanotoxins, conservation studies should pay attention to this complexity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:165-174. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast (h) was measured for Pacific hake flesh, myctophid flesh, Humboldt squid mantle, and Humboldt squid braincase. Sound speed varied within and between nekton taxa. The material properties reported in this study can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models which would increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these zooplankton and nekton.

  15. Role of zooplankton dynamics for Southern Ocean phytoplankton biomass and global biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Moriarty, Róisín; Alvain, Séverine; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Chollet, Sophie; Enright, Clare; Franklin, Daniel J.; Geider, Richard J.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Larsen, Stuart; Legendre, Louis; Platt, Trevor; Prentice, I. Colin; Rivkin, Richard B.; Sailley, Sévrine; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Stephens, Nick; Vogt, Meike; Vallina, Sergio M.

    2016-07-01

    Global ocean biogeochemistry models currently employed in climate change projections use highly simplified representations of pelagic food webs. These food webs do not necessarily include critical pathways by which ecosystems interact with ocean biogeochemistry and climate. Here we present a global biogeochemical model which incorporates ecosystem dynamics based on the representation of ten plankton functional types (PFTs): six types of phytoplankton, three types of zooplankton, and heterotrophic procaryotes. We improved the representation of zooplankton dynamics in our model through (a) the explicit inclusion of large, slow-growing macrozooplankton (e.g. krill), and (b) the introduction of trophic cascades among the three zooplankton types. We use the model to quantitatively assess the relative roles of iron vs. grazing in determining phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region during summer. When model simulations do not include macrozooplankton grazing explicitly, they systematically overestimate Southern Ocean chlorophyll biomass during the summer, even when there is no iron deposition from dust. When model simulations include a slow-growing macrozooplankton and trophic cascades among three zooplankton types, the high-chlorophyll summer bias in the Southern Ocean HNLC region largely disappears. Our model results suggest that the observed low phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean during summer is primarily explained by the dynamics of the Southern Ocean zooplankton community, despite iron limitation of phytoplankton community growth rates. This result has implications for the representation of global biogeochemical cycles in models as zooplankton faecal pellets sink rapidly and partly control the carbon export to the intermediate and deep ocean.

  16. Speciation patterns and processes in the zooplankton of the ancient lakes of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, James J; Bock, Dan G; Haffner, G Douglas; Cristescu, Melania E

    2013-09-01

    Although studies of ancient lake fauna have provided important insights about speciation patterns and processes of organisms in heterogeneous benthic environments, evolutionary forces responsible for speciation in the relatively homogenous planktonic environment remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate possible mechanisms of speciation in zooplankton using the freshwater diaptomids of the ancient lakes of Sulawesi, Indonesia, as a model system. We integrate phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes with morphological and genome size data. Overall, our results support the conclusion that colonization order and local adaptation are dominant at the large, island scale, whereas at local and intralacustrine scales, speciation processes are regulated by gene flow among genetically differentiated and locally adapted populations. In the Malili lakes, the diaptomid populations are homogenous at nuclear loci, but show two highly divergent mitochondrial clades that are geographically restricted to single lakes despite the interconnectivity of the lake systems. Our study, based on coalescent simulations and population genetic analyses, indicates that unidirectional hybridization allows gene flow across the nuclear genome, but prevents the introgression of mitochondria into downstream populations. We suggest that hybridization and introgression between young lineages is a significant evolutionary force in freshwater plankton.

  17. Zooplankton responses to increasing sea surface temperatures in the southeastern Australia global marine hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Paige; Clementson, Lesley; Davies, Claire; Corney, Stuart; Swadling, Kerrie

    2016-10-01

    Southeastern Australia is a 'hotspot' for oceanographic change. Here, rapidly increasing sea surface temperatures, rising at more than double the global trend, are largely associated with a southerly extension of the East Australian Current (EAC) and its eddy field. Maria Island, situated at the southern end of the EAC extension at 42°S, 148°E, has been used as a site to study temperature-driven biological trends in this region of accelerated change. Zooplankton have short life cycles (usually < 1 year) and are highly sensitive to environmental change, making them an ideal indicator of the biological effects of an increased southward flow of the EAC. Data from in-situ net drops and the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR), collected since 2009, together with historical zooplankton abundance data, have been analysed in this study. Like the North Atlantic, zooplankton communities of southeastern Australia are responding to increased temperatures through relocation, long-term increases in warm-water species and a shift towards a zooplankton community dominated by small copepods. The biological trends present evidence of extended EAC influence at Maria Island into autumn and winter months, which has allowed for the rapid establishment of warm-water species during these seasons, and has increased the similarity between Maria Island and the more northerly Port Hacking zooplankton community. Generalised Linear Models (GLM) suggest the high salinity and low nutrient properties of EAC-water to be the primary drivers of increasing abundances of warm-water species off southeastern Australia. Changes in both the species composition and size distribution of the Maria Island zooplankton community will have effects for pelagic fisheries. This study provides an indication of how zooplankton communities influenced by intensifying Western Boundary currents may respond to rapid environmental change.

  18. New Model for Population-Subpopulation Differences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    compares the previous and new models. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Lognormal distribution Risk assessment Normal distribution Demographics Conversion factor ...difference by applying an uncertainty factor ; the default uncertainty factor for the difference between a population and a subpopulation is 10-see, for...example, Whalan, Foureman, and Vandenberg (2006). Uncertainty factors are typically applied to a low percentile of a distribution to estimate a safe

  19. Population mixture model for nonlinear telomere dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzkovitz, Shalev; Shlush, Liran I.; Gluck, Dan; Skorecki, Karl

    2008-12-01

    Telomeres are DNA repeats protecting chromosomal ends which shorten with each cell division, eventually leading to cessation of cell growth. We present a population mixture model that predicts an exponential decrease in telomere length with time. We analytically solve the dynamics of the telomere length distribution. The model provides an excellent fit to available telomere data and accounts for the previously unexplained observation of telomere elongation following stress and bone marrow transplantation, thereby providing insight into the nature of the telomere clock.

  20. Analysis of six groups of zooplankton in samples taken in 1978/79 at the proposed OTEC site in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Flock, M.E.; Hopkins T.L.

    1981-05-01

    Zooplankton populations have been sampled from various depths in the region of the proposed Ocean thermal energy conversion site in the Gulf of Mexico. Data are presented on the numbers and species present at each depth sampled. (DMC)

  1. Population Coding of Visual Space: Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Lehky, Sidney R.; Sereno, Anne B.

    2011-01-01

    We examine how the representation of space is affected by receptive field (RF) characteristics of the encoding population. Spatial responses were defined by overlapping Gaussian RFs. These responses were analyzed using multidimensional scaling to extract the representation of global space implicit in population activity. Spatial representations were based purely on firing rates, which were not labeled with RF characteristics (tuning curve peak location, for example), differentiating this approach from many other population coding models. Because responses were unlabeled, this model represents space using intrinsic coding, extracting relative positions amongst stimuli, rather than extrinsic coding where known RF characteristics provide a reference frame for extracting absolute positions. Two parameters were particularly important: RF diameter and RF dispersion, where dispersion indicates how broadly RF centers are spread out from the fovea. For large RFs, the model was able to form metrically accurate representations of physical space on low-dimensional manifolds embedded within the high-dimensional neural population response space, suggesting that in some cases the neural representation of space may be dimensionally isomorphic with 3D physical space. Smaller RF sizes degraded and distorted the spatial representation, with the smallest RF sizes (present in early visual areas) being unable to recover even a topologically consistent rendition of space on low-dimensional manifolds. Finally, although positional invariance of stimulus responses has long been associated with large RFs in object recognition models, we found RF dispersion rather than RF diameter to be the critical parameter. In fact, at a population level, the modeling suggests that higher ventral stream areas with highly restricted RF dispersion would be unable to achieve positionally-invariant representations beyond this narrow region around fixation. PMID:21344012

  2. Anisotropy in high-frequency broadband acoustic backscattering in the presence of turbulent microstructure and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Leong, Doris; Ross, Tetjana; Lavery, Andone

    2012-08-01

    High-frequency broadband (120-600 kHz) acoustic backscattering measurements have been made in the vicinity of energetic internal waves. The transducers on the backscattering system could be adjusted so as to insonify the water-column either vertically or horizontally. The broadband capabilities of the system allowed spectral classification of the backscattering. The distribution of spectral shapes is significantly different for scattering measurements made with the transducers oriented horizontally versus vertically, indicating that scattering anisotropy is present. However, the scattering anisotropy could not be unequivocally explained by either turbulent microstructure or zooplankton, the two primary sources of scattering expected in internal waves. Daytime net samples indicate a predominance of short-aspect-ratio zooplankton. Using zooplankton acoustic scattering models, a preferential orientation of the observed zooplankton cannot explain the measured anisotropy. Yet model predictions of scattering from anisotropic turbulent microstructure, with inputs from coincident microstructure measurements, were not consistent with the observations. Possible explanations include bandwidth limitations that result in many spectra that cannot be unambiguously attributed to turbulence or zooplankton based on spectral shape. Extending the acoustic bandwidth to cover the range from 50 kHz to 2 MHz could help improve identification of the dominant sources of backscattering anisotropy.

  3. The link between environmental variation and evolutionary shifts in dormancy in zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    Sex and dormancy are intertwined in organisms that engage in asexual and sexual reproduction. The transition between asexual and sexual reproduction typically results in a dormant stage that provides a mechanism for persisting under harsh environmental conditions. For example, many zooplankton engage in sexual reproduction when environmental conditions deteriorate and produce resting eggs that remain viable for decades. It has long been assumed that observed variation in the timing and magnitude of investment into a dormant stage among populations or species reflects local environmental conditions. Yet, the importance of dormancy for the persistence of a given population can differ dramatically among habitats (i.e., permanent vs. seasonal ponds). As a result, environmental conditions may exert selection on the propensity for zooplankton to engage in sexual reproduction and enter dormancy in natural populations. Here, I highlight a growing body of research illustrating an important link between environmental conditions and divergent reproductive strategies in zooplankton. I specifically: (1) review the environmental cues that initiate a transition between asexual and sexual reproduction in zooplankton and (2) describe recent work demonstrating an evolutionary consequence of ecological selective pressures, such as predation and habitat predictability, on variation in the extent to which organisms engage in sex and enter dormancy. Such results have implications for the genetics and ecology of these organisms.

  4. Collection and culture techniques for gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Raskoff, Kevin A; Sommer, Freya A; Hamner, William M; Cross, Katrina M

    2003-02-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton are the least understood of all planktonic animal groups. This is partly due to their fragility, which typically precludes the capture of intact specimens with nets or trawls. Specialized tools and techniques have been developed that allow researchers and aquarists to collect intact gelatinous animals at sea and to maintain many of these alive in the laboratory. This paper summarizes the scientific literature on the capture, collection, and culture of gelatinous zooplankton and incorporates many unpublished methods developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium in the past 15 years.

  5. Fitting population models from field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.; Kirchhoff, M.D.; Alados, C.L.; Escos, J.; Duda, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The application of population and community ecology to solving real-world problems requires population and community dynamics models that reflect the myriad patterns of interaction among organisms and between the biotic and physical environments. Appropriate models are not hard to construct, but the experimental manipulations needed to evaluate their defining coefficients are often both time consuming and costly, and sometimes environmentally destructive, as well. In this paper we present an empirical approach for finding the coefficients of broadly inclusive models without the need for environmental manipulation, demonstrate the approach with both an animal and a plant example, and suggest possible applications. Software has been developed, and is available from the senior author, with a manual describing both field and analytic procedures.

  6. Eclipse effects on field crops and marine zooplankton: the 29 March 2006 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, G.; Christou, E. D.; Giannakourou, A.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kotoulas, V.; Lyra, D.; Tsakalis, N.; Tziortzou, M.; Vahamidis, P.; Papathanassiou, E.; Karamanos, A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects in the biosphere from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 were investigated in field crops and marine zooplankton. Taking into account the decisive role of light on the photoenergetic and photoregulatory plant processes, measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour were conducted on seven important field-grown cereal and leguminous crops. A drop in photosynthetic rates, by more than a factor of 5 in some cases, was observed, and the minimum values of photosynthetic rates ranged between 3.13 and 10.13 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. However, since solar irradiance attenuation has not at the same time induced stomatal closure thus not blocking CO2 uptake by plants, it is probably other endogenous factors that has been responsible for the observed fall in photosynthetic rates. Field studies addressing the migratory responses of marine zooplankton (micro-zooplankton (ciliates), and meso-zooplankton) due to the rapid changes in underwater light intensity were also performed. The light intensity attenuation was simulated with the use of accurate underwater radiative transfer modeling techniques. Ciliates, responded to the rapid decrease in light intensity during the eclipse adopting night-time behaviour. From the meso-zooplankton assemblage, various vertical migratory behaviours were adopted by different species.

  7. Eclipse effects on field crops and marine zooplankton: the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, G.; Christou, E. D.; Giannakourou, A.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kotoulas, V.; Lyra, D.; Tsakalis, N.; Tzortziou, M.; Vahamidis, P.; Papathanassiou, E.; Karamanos, A.

    2008-08-01

    Some effects in the biosphere from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 were investigated in field crops and marine zooplankton. Taking into account the decisive role of light on plant life and productivity, measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour were conducted on seven important field-grown cereal and leguminous crops. A drop in photosynthetic rates, by more than a factor of 5 in some cases, was observed, and the minimum values of photosynthetic rates ranged between 3.13 and 10.13 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The drop in solar irradiance and the increase in mesophyll CO2-concentration during the eclipse did not induce stomatal closure thus not blocking CO2 uptake by plants. Light effects on the photochemical phase of photosynthesis may be responsible for the observed depression in photosynthetic rates. Field studies addressing the migratory responses of marine zooplankton (micro-zooplankton (ciliates), and meso-zooplankton) due to the rapid changes in underwater light intensity were also performed. The light intensity attenuation was simulated with the use of accurate underwater radiative transfer modeling techniques. Ciliates, responded to the rapid decrease in light intensity during the eclipse adopting night-time behaviour. From the meso-zooplankton assemblage, various vertical migratory behaviours were adopted by different species.

  8. Minimal Model of Plankton Systems Revisited with Spatial Diffusion and Maturation Delay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiantao; Tian, Jianjun Paul; Wei, Junjie

    2016-03-01

    This study revisits the minimal model for a plankton ecosystem proposed by Scheffer with spatial diffusion of plankton and the delay of the maturation period of herbivorous zooplankton. It deepens our understanding of effects of the nutrients and the predation of fish upon zooplankton on the dynamical patterns of the plankton system and also presents new phenomena induced by the delay with spatial diffusion. When the nutrient level is sufficient low, the zooplankton population collapses and the phytoplankton population reaches its carrying capacity. Mathematically, the global stability of the boundary equilibrium is proved. As the nutrient level increases, the system switches to coexistent equilibria or oscillations depending on the maturation period of zooplankton and the predation rate of fish on herbivorous zooplankton. Under an eutrophic condition, there is a unique coexistent homogeneous equilibrium, and the equilibrium density of phytoplankton increases, while the equilibrium density of herbivorous zooplankton decreases as the fish predation rate on herbivorous zooplankton is increasing. The study shows that the system will never collapses under the eutrophic condition unless the fish predation rate approaches infinite. The study also finds a functional bifurcation relation between the delay parameter of the maturation period of herbivorous zooplankton and the fish predation rate on herbivorous zooplankton that, above a critical value of the fish predation rate, the system stays at the coexistent equilibrium, and below that value, the system switches its dynamical patterns among stable and unstable equilibria and oscillations. The oscillations emerge from Hopf bifurcations, and a detailed mathematical analysis about the Hopf bifurcations is carried out to give relevant ecological predications.

  9. Cyanobacteria bloom: selective filter for zooplankton?

    PubMed

    Mello, N A S T; Maia-Barbosa, P M

    2015-01-01

    The Ibirité reservoir is an urban and eutrophic environment, with regular occurrences of cyanobacteria blooms. The reservoir is warm monomict and remains stratified most of the year, circulating in the dry season (winter). During the hydrological cycle of October/07 to October/08 there were four scenarios with different environmental conditions, which influenced the structure of the zooplankton community, as confirmed in a previous study. Changes in the zooplankton community structure between the scenarios were studied, aiming at analyzing the stability and persistence of this community. The Spearman's coefficient of correlation was used to measure the stability; the persistence was evaluated through a cluster analysis and changes in community composition were estimated by the "temporal" β diversity index. Considering the distribution patterns of abundance, the community was stable only in the transition between scenarios 1 and 2 (n = 30, r = 0.71, p = 0.00001), when there were no cyanobacteria blooms. The persistence of zooplankton between the scenarios was low, showing a distinct species composition for each scenario. The highest variations in species composition, observed by the values of temporal β diversity index, were the transitions between scenarios 3-0 (1.45) and 0-1 (1.05), and the lowest variations occurred in the transition between scenarios 1-2 (0.57). The results suggest that the cyanobacteria blooms at Ibirité reservoir are be acting as "selective filters", and are, thus, disturbances with sufficient ability to change the structure of the zooplankton community.

  10. SENSITIVITY OF ZOOPLANKTON INDICATORS IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes an approach for assessing and selecting ecological indicators for regional monitoring of northeastern US lakes. We analyze the components of variance for indicators of zooplankton richness and abundance in the context of the spatial and temporal sampling des...

  11. Intraguild Predation Dynamics in a Lake Ecosystem Based on a Coupled Hydrodynamic-Ecological Model: The Example of Lake Kinneret (Israel).

    PubMed

    Makler-Pick, Vardit; Hipsey, Matthew R; Zohary, Tamar; Carmel, Yohay; Gal, Gideon

    2017-03-29

    The food web of Lake Kinneret contains intraguild predation (IGP). Predatory invertebrates and planktivorous fish both feed on herbivorous zooplankton, while the planktivorous fish also feed on the predatory invertebrates. In this study, a complex mechanistic hydrodynamic-ecological model, coupled to a bioenergetics-based fish population model (DYCD-FISH), was employed with the aim of revealing IGP dynamics. The results indicate that the predation pressure of predatory zooplankton on herbivorous zooplankton varies widely, depending on the season. At the time of its annual peak, it is 10-20 times higher than the fish predation pressure. When the number of fish was significantly higher, as occurs in the lake after atypical meteorological years, the effect was a shift from a bottom-up controlled ecosystem, to the top-down control of planktivorous fish and a significant reduction of predatory and herbivorous zooplankton biomass. Yet, seasonally, the decrease in predatory-zooplankton biomass was followed by a decrease in their predation pressure on herbivorous zooplankton, leading to an increase of herbivorous zooplankton biomass to an extent similar to the base level. The analysis demonstrates the emergence of non-equilibrium IGP dynamics due to intra-annual and inter-annual changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of the lake, and suggests that IGP dynamics should be considered in food web models in order to more accurately capture mass transfer and trophic interactions.

  12. SIMULATING TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN NUTRIENT, PHYTOPLANKTON, AND ZOOPLANKTON ON THE INNER OREGON SHELF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to use a numerical model to examine the linkages between physical processes and temporal variability in the plankton dynamics in a coastal upwelling system. We used a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model coupled to a two-dimensional circulation...

  13. Regulation of Mnemiopsis leidyi dynamics by potential changes in temperature and zooplankton conditions in the Black Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihoglu, B.; Fach, B.; Oguz, T.

    2009-04-01

    Providing a comprehensive understanding of the effects that cause formations of ctenophore blooms in the Black Sea is the main objective of this study. In order to analyse ctenophore dynamics in the Black Sea a zero-dimensional population based model of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is developed. The stage resolving ctenophore model combines the modified form of stage resolving approach of Fennel, 2001 with the growth dynamics model of Kremer, 1976; Kremer and Reeve, 1989 under 4 stages of model-ctenophore. These stages include the different growth characteristics of egg, juvenile, transitional and adult stages. The dietary patterns of the different stages follows the observations obtained from the literature. The model is able to represent consistent development patterns, while reflecting the physiological complexity of a population of Mnemiopsis leidyi. Model results suggest that different nutritional requirement of each stage may serve as the bottlenecks for population growth and only when growth conditions are favorable for both larval and lobate stages, the high overall population growth rates may occur. Model is also used to analyse the influence of climatic changes on Mnemiopsis leidyi reproduction and outburst. This study presents and discussed how potential changes in temperature and zooplankton conditions in the Black Sea may regulate Mnemiopsis leidyi dynamics.

  14. Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Chang, C.; García-Comas, C.; Gong, G.; Hsieh, C.

    2012-12-01

    generalized linear mixed-effect model in investigating the effect of each factor on the spatiotemporal dynamics of zooplankton/phytoplankton biomass ratio in the East China Sea, with sampling cruises as a random effect. A lower value of AIC represents better goodness of fit of the model. The p-value was estimated based on MCMC sampling.

  15. Hierarchical spatial capture-recapture models: Modeling population density from stratified populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Converse, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Capture–recapture studies are often conducted on populations that are stratified by space, time or other factors. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian spatial capture–recapture (SCR) modelling framework for stratified populations – when sampling occurs within multiple distinct spatial and temporal strata.We describe a hierarchical model that integrates distinct models for both the spatial encounter history data from capture–recapture sampling, and also for modelling variation in density among strata. We use an implementation of data augmentation to parameterize the model in terms of a latent categorical stratum or group membership variable, which provides a convenient implementation in popular BUGS software packages.We provide an example application to an experimental study involving small-mammal sampling on multiple trapping grids over multiple years, where the main interest is in modelling a treatment effect on population density among the trapping grids.Many capture–recapture studies involve some aspect of spatial or temporal replication that requires some attention to modelling variation among groups or strata. We propose a hierarchical model that allows explicit modelling of group or strata effects. Because the model is formulated for individual encounter histories and is easily implemented in the BUGS language and other free software, it also provides a general framework for modelling individual effects, such as are present in SCR models.

  16. Estimating population trends with a linear model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, J.; Collins, B.; Morrison, R.I.G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a simple and robust method for estimating trends in population size. The method may be used with Breeding Bird Survey data, aerial surveys, point counts, or any other program of repeated surveys at permanent locations. Surveys need not be made at each location during each survey period. The method differs from most existing methods in being design based, rather than model based. The only assumptions are that the nominal sampling plan is followed and that sample size is large enough for use of the t-distribution. Simulations based on two bird data sets from natural populations showed that the point estimate produced by the linear model was essentially unbiased even when counts varied substantially and 25% of the complete data set was missing. The estimating-equation approach, often used to analyze Breeding Bird Survey data, performed similarly on one data set but had substantial bias on the second data set, in which counts were highly variable. The advantages of the linear model are its simplicity, flexibility, and that it is self-weighting. A user-friendly computer program to carry out the calculations is available from the senior author.

  17. Dispersive models describing mosquitoes’ population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, W. M. S.; Takahashi, L. T.; Chapiro, G.

    2016-08-01

    The global incidences of dengue and, more recently, zica virus have increased the interest in studying and understanding the mosquito population dynamics. Understanding this dynamics is important for public health in countries where climatic and environmental conditions are favorable for the propagation of these diseases. This work is based on the study of nonlinear mathematical models dealing with the life cycle of the dengue mosquito using partial differential equations. We investigate the existence of traveling wave solutions using semi-analytical method combining dynamical systems techniques and numerical integration. Obtained solutions are validated through numerical simulations using finite difference schemes.

  18. [Kinetics of zooplankton in an aquatic continuum: from the Marne River and reservoir to the Seine estuary].

    PubMed

    Akopian, Maïa; Garnier, Josette; Pourriot, Roger

    2002-07-01

    A study was carried out within a 700-km river sector, including three types of ecosystems (a reservoir, a river and its estuary) to characterise the major features of zooplankton communities in the Seine Basin. In rivers, zooplankton biomass becomes significant only when the growth rate of the organisms is higher than the dilution rate (4-5th orders rivers, according to River Continuum Concept). Upstream, short residence times favour the development of small species (Rotifers) with low individual body weight and biomass. Conversely, larger species (microcrustaceans) develop more downstream, where increased residence time leads to autochthonous production (Riverine Productivity Model). Such a pattern is greatly modified by human impact. Zooplankton input from the Marne reservoir represents one type of disruption in the general upstream-downstream trend (according to the Serial Discontinuity Concept). This reservoir is a source of microcrustaceans; they rapidly disappear mainly through fish predation, and therefore have little impact on the river phytoplankton. Discontinuities, such as confluences, have a relatively small effect on the stock of zooplankton with regard to the water release from the reservoir, but they persist more downstream, because they have the same lotic origin. A few microhabitats with macrophytes play a small role for this canalised river, but they can modify locally the plankton community structure and composition. As a whole, the flux of zooplankton rises exponentially, whereas discharge increases linearly from upstream (4th order) to downstream (8th order). In the canalised sectors, Dreissena larvae build up an important biomass, adding to that of the zooplankton sensu stricto. Especially abundant in the downstream sector of the Marne and Seine Rivers, the larvae show a widespread colonisation of the benthic substrates by the adult Dreissena. One of the largest mussel colonies in the middle estuary can contribute to a rapid decrease of

  19. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes.

  20. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

  1. Sustainability in single-species population models.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Terrance J; Collie, Jeremy S

    2005-01-29

    In this paper, we review the concept of sustainability with regard to a single-species, age-structured fish population with density dependence at some stage of its life history. We trace the development of the view of sustainability through four periods. The classical view of sustainability, prevalent in the 1970s and earlier, developed from deterministic production models, in which equilibrium abundance or biomass is derived as a function of fishing mortality. When there is no fishing mortality, the population equilibrates about its carrying capacity. We show that carrying capacity is the result of reproductive and mortality processes and is not a fixed constant unless these processes are constant. There is usually a fishing mortality, F(MSY), which results in MSY, and a higher value, F(ext), for which the population is eventually driven to extinction. For each F between 0 and F(ext), there is a corresponding sustainable population. From this viewpoint, the primary tool for achieving sustainability is the control of fishing mortality. The neoclassical view of sustainability, developed in the 1980s, involved population models with depensation and stochasticity. This view point is in accord with the perception that a population at a low level is susceptible to collapse or to a lack of rebuilding regardless of fishing. Sustainability occurs in a more restricted range from that in the classical view and includes an abundance threshold. A variety of studies has suggested that fishing mortality should not let a population drop below a threshold at 10-20% of carrying capacity. The modern view of sustainability in the 1990s moves further in the direction of precaution. The fishing mortality limit is the former target of F(MSY) (or some proxy), and the target fishing mortality is set lower. This viewpoint further reduces the range of permissible fishing mortalities and resultant desired population sizes. The objective has shifted from optimizing long-term catch to

  2. Sustainability in single-species population models

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Terrance J.; Collie, Jeremy S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we review the concept of sustainability with regard to a single-species, age-structured fish population with density dependence at some stage of its life history. We trace the development of the view of sustainability through four periods. The classical view of sustainability, prevalent in the 1970s and earlier, developed from deterministic production models, in which equilibrium abundance or biomass is derived as a function of fishing mortality. When there is no fishing mortality, the population equilibrates about its carrying capacity. We show that carrying capacity is the result of reproductive and mortality processes and is not a fixed constant unless these processes are constant. There is usually a fishing mortality, FMSY, which results in MSY, and a higher value, Fext, for which the population is eventually driven to extinction. For each F between 0 and Fext, there is a corresponding sustainable population. From this viewpoint, the primary tool for achieving sustainability is the control of fishing mortality. The neoclassical view of sustainability, developed in the 1980s, involved population models with depensation and stochasticity. This viewpoint is in accord with the perception that a population at a low level is susceptible to collapse or to a lack of rebuilding regardless of fishing. Sustainability occurs in a more restricted range from that in the classical view and includes an abundance threshold. A variety of studies has suggested that fishing mortality should not let a population drop below a threshold at 10–20% of carrying capacity. The modern view of sustainability in the 1990s moves further in the direction of precaution. The fishing mortality limit is the former target of FMSY (or some proxy), and the target fishing mortality is set lower. This viewpoint further reduces the range of permissible fishing mortalities and resultant desired population sizes. The objective has shifted from optimizing long-term catch to preserving

  3. Bridging the gap between marine biogeochemical and fisheries sciences; configuring the zooplankton link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Aditee; Castellani, Claudia; Gentleman, Wendy C.; Jónasdóttir, Sigrún H.; Flynn, Kevin J.; Bode, Antonio; Halsband, Claudia; Kuhn, Penelope; Licandro, Priscilla; Agersted, Mette D.; Calbet, Albert; Lindeque, Penelope K.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Møller, Eva F.; Gislason, Astthor; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; St. John, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Exploring climate and anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems requires an understanding of how trophic components interact. However, integrative end-to-end ecosystem studies (experimental and/or modelling) are rare. Experimental investigations often concentrate on a particular group or individual species within a trophic level, while tropho-dynamic field studies typically employ either a bottom-up approach concentrating on the phytoplankton community or a top-down approach concentrating on the fish community. Likewise the emphasis within modelling studies is usually placed upon phytoplankton-dominated biogeochemistry or on aspects of fisheries regulation. In consequence the roles of zooplankton communities (protists and metazoans) linking phytoplankton and fish communities are typically under-represented if not (especially in fisheries models) ignored. Where represented in ecosystem models, zooplankton are usually incorporated in an extremely simplistic fashion, using empirical descriptions merging various interacting physiological functions governing zooplankton growth and development, and thence ignoring physiological feedback mechanisms. Here we demonstrate, within a modelled plankton food-web system, how trophic dynamics are sensitive to small changes in parameter values describing zooplankton vital rates and thus the importance of using appropriate zooplankton descriptors. Through a comprehensive review, we reveal the mismatch between empirical understanding and modelling activities identifying important issues that warrant further experimental and modelling investigation. These include: food selectivity, kinetics of prey consumption and interactions with assimilation and growth, form of voided material, mortality rates at different age-stages relative to prior nutrient history. In particular there is a need for dynamic data series in which predator and prey of known nutrient history are studied interacting under varied pH and temperature regimes.

  4. Population Models for Massive Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Wook; Joo, Seok-Joo; Han, Sang-Il; Na, Chongsam; Lim, Dongwook; Roh, Dong-Goo

    2015-03-01

    Increasing number of massive globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way are now turned out to host multiple stellar populations having different heavy element abundances enriched by supernovae. Recent observations have further shown that [CNO/Fe] is also enhanced in metal-rich subpopulations in most of these GCs, including ω Cen and M22 (Marino et al. 2011, 2012). In order to reflect this in our population modeling, we have expanded the parameter space of Y 2 isochrones and horizontal-branch (HB) evolutionary tracks to include the cases of normal and enhanced nitrogen abundances ([N/Fe] = 0.0, 0.8, and 1.6). The observed variations in the total CNO content were reproduced by interpolating these nitrogen enhanced stellar models. Our test simulations with varying N and O abundances show that, once the total CNO sum ([CNO/Fe]) is held constant, both N and O have almost identical effects on the HR diagram (see Fig. 1).

  5. A hybrid numerical-experimental study of fluid transport by migrating zooplankton aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Monica; Dabiri, John; Nawroth, Janna; Gemmell, Brad; Collins, Samantha

    2014-11-01

    Zooplankton aggregations that undergo diel vertical migrations have been hypothesized to play an important role in local nutrient transport and global ocean dynamics. The degree of the contributions of these naturally occurring events ultimately relies on how efficiently fluid is transported and eventually mixed within the water column. By implementing solutions to the Stokes equations, numerical models have successfully captured the time-averaged far-field flow of self-propelled swimmers. However, discrepancies between numerical fluid transport estimates and field measurements of individual jellyfish suggest the need to include near-field effects to assess the impact of biomixing in oceanic processes. Here, we bypass the inherent difficulty of modeling the unsteady flow of active swimmers while including near-field effects by integrating experimental velocity data of zooplankton into our numerical model. Fluid transport is investigated by tracking a sheet of artificial fluid particles during vertical motion of zooplankton. Collective effects are addressed by studying different swimmer configurations within an aggregation from the gathered data for a single swimmer. Moreover, the dependence of animal swimming mode is estimated by using data for different species of zooplankton.

  6. Trade-offs in the vertical distribution of zooplankton: ideal free distribution with costs?

    PubMed

    Lampert, Winfried; McCauley, Edward; Manly, Bryan F J

    2003-04-07

    Zooplankton vertical migratory patterns are a classic example of optimal habitat choice. We hypothesize that zooplankton distribute themselves vertically in the water column according to an ideal free distribution (IFD) with costs such as to optimize their fitness. In lakes with a deep-water chlorophyll maximum, zooplankton are faced with a trade-off, either experiencing high food (high reproductive potential) but low temperature (slow development) in the hypolimnion or high temperature and low food in the epilimnion. Thus, in the absence of fish predation (e.g. at night) they should allocate the time spent in the different habitats according to fitness gain dependent on the temperature gradient and distribution of food. We tested this hypothesis with a Daphnia hyalina x galeata clone in large indoor columns (Plön Plankton Towers) and with a dynamic energy budget model. In the tower experiments, we simulated a deep-water algal maximum below the thermocline with epilimnetic/hypolimnetic temperature differences of 2, 5 and 10 degrees C. Experimental data supported the model. We found a significantly larger proportion of daphniids in the hypolimnion when the temperature difference was smaller. Our results are consistent with the concept of IFD with costs originally developed for stream fishes. This concept can be applied to predict the vertical distribution of zooplankton in habitats where fish predation is of minor importance.

  7. Trade-offs in the vertical distribution of zooplankton: ideal free distribution with costs?

    PubMed Central

    Lampert, Winfried; McCauley, Edward; Manly, Bryan F J

    2003-01-01

    Zooplankton vertical migratory patterns are a classic example of optimal habitat choice. We hypothesize that zooplankton distribute themselves vertically in the water column according to an ideal free distribution (IFD) with costs such as to optimize their fitness. In lakes with a deep-water chlorophyll maximum, zooplankton are faced with a trade-off, either experiencing high food (high reproductive potential) but low temperature (slow development) in the hypolimnion or high temperature and low food in the epilimnion. Thus, in the absence of fish predation (e.g. at night) they should allocate the time spent in the different habitats according to fitness gain dependent on the temperature gradient and distribution of food. We tested this hypothesis with a Daphnia hyalina x galeata clone in large indoor columns (Plön Plankton Towers) and with a dynamic energy budget model. In the tower experiments, we simulated a deep-water algal maximum below the thermocline with epilimnetic/hypolimnetic temperature differences of 2, 5 and 10 degrees C. Experimental data supported the model. We found a significantly larger proportion of daphniids in the hypolimnion when the temperature difference was smaller. Our results are consistent with the concept of IFD with costs originally developed for stream fishes. This concept can be applied to predict the vertical distribution of zooplankton in habitats where fish predation is of minor importance. PMID:12713752

  8. Stochastic modeling in biological populations with sexual reproduction through branching models: application to Coho salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    The motivation behind this research is to develop appropriate mathematical models to describe the demographic dynamics of animal populations with sexual reproduction. We introduce a new class of two-sex branching models where several mating strategies between females and males and a variety of possibilities for the process of reproduction are taken into account. Unlike other classes of two-sex models which assume that mating and reproduction are influenced by the number of couples in the population, we now consider the most realistic case where both biological processes are affected by the numbers of females and males in the population, which may differ. Under a general parametric setting, we deal with inferential questions about the main parameters affecting the reproduction process. By considering the observation over time of the numbers of females and males up to when a certain pre-set generation is reached, we derive Bayes estimators for such parameters. With the purpose of determining highest posterior density credibility sets, we also propose a computational algorithm. As illustration, we include an application to Coho salmon populations.

  9. How zooplankton feed: mechanisms, traits and trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Zooplankton is a morphologically and taxonomically diverse group and includes organisms that vary in size by many orders of magnitude, but they are all faced with the common problem of collecting food from a very dilute suspension. In order to maintain a viable population in the face of mortality, zooplankton in the ocean have to clear daily a volume of ambient water for prey particles that is equivalent to about 10(6) times their own body volume. While most size-specific vital rates and mortality rates decline with size, the clearance requirement is largely size-independent because food availability also declines with size. There is a limited number of solutions to the problem of concentrating dilute prey from a sticky medium: passive and active ambush feeding; feeding-current feeding, where the prey is either intercepted directly, retained on a filter, or individually perceived and extracted from the feeding current; cruise feeding; and colonization of large particles and marine snow aggregates. The basic mechanics of these food-collection mechanisms are described, and it is shown that their efficiencies are inherently different and that each of these mechanisms becomes less efficient with increasing size. Mechanisms that compensate for this decline in efficiency are described, including inflation of feeding structures and development of vision. Each feeding mode has implications beyond feeding in terms of risk of encountering predators and chance of meeting mates, and they partly target different types of prey. The main dichotomy is between (inefficient) ambush feeding on motile prey and the more efficient active feeding modes; a secondary dichotomy is between (efficient) hovering and (less efficient) cruising feeding modes. The efficiencies of the various feeding modes are traded off against feeding-mode-dependent metabolic expenses, predation risks, and mating chances. The optimality of feeding strategies, evaluated as the ratio of gain over risk, varies with

  10. Zooplankton abundance, biovolume and size spectra down to 3000 m depth in the western tropical North Pacific during autumn 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Luping; Li, Chaolun; Tao, Zhencheng; Yang, Guang; Wang, Xiaocheng; Zhu, Mingliang

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the vertical distribution of the zooplankton abundance, biovolume, and size spectra down to greater depths (0-3000 m) in the Pacific western boundary currents of the western tropical North Pacific during autumn 2014 based on ZooScan measurements with samples obtained using a MultiNet system. Ranges of the integrated zooplankton abundance and biovolume through the water columns were 259.2-1560.6 ind. m-3 and 121.1-851.0 mm3 m-3, respectively. Both the zooplankton abundance and biovolume decreased as the depth increased. The pattern of declining zooplankton abundance with depth was described better by a power regression model, whereas that of the biovolume fitted better to an exponential regression model. The slopes of the normalized biovolume size spectra for most samples (60/63) were lower than -1 (range from -1.11 to -0.25), which indicates that the zooplankton communities in the study area were characterized by low productivity and high energy transfer efficiency. Larger body size was observed with greater depth, which may be a strategy that has developed to increase buoyancy and reduce attacks by predators. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis based on the biovolume of zooplankton size classes of each taxonomic group at intervals of 1 (log2 mm3 ind.-1) between -8 and 13 classified the zooplankton communities into three groups, which basically coincided with the vertical patterns of the optical layers of water, i.e., the epipelagic zone, the mesopelagic zone, and the bathypelagic zone, respectively.

  11. Organism and population-level ecological models for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecological risk assessment typically focuses on animal populations as endpoints for regulatory ecotoxicology. Scientists at USEPA are developing models for animal populations exposed to a wide range of chemicals from pesticides to emerging contaminants. Modeled taxa include aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and birds, and employ a wide range of methods, from matrix-based projection models to mechanistic bioenergetics models and spatially explicit population models. not applicable

  12. Modeling populations of rotationally mixed massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brott, I.

    2011-02-01

    Massive stars can be considered as cosmic engines. With their high luminosities, strong stellar winds and violent deaths they drive the evolution of galaxies through-out the history of the universe. Despite the importance of massive stars, their evolution is still poorly understood. Two major issues have plagued evolutionary models of massive stars until today: mixing and mass loss On the main sequence, the effects of mass loss remain limited in the considered mass and metallicity range, this thesis concentrates on the role of mixing in massive stars. This thesis approaches this problem just on the cross road between observations and simulations. The main question: Do evolutionary models of single stars, accounting for the effects of rotation, reproduce the observed properties of real stars. In particular we are interested if the evolutionary models can reproduce the surface abundance changes during the main-sequence phase. To constrain our models we build a population synthesis model for the sample of the VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive stars, for which star-formation history and rotational velocity distribution are well constrained. We consider the four main regions of the Hunter diagram. Nitrogen un-enriched slow rotators and nitrogen enriched fast rotators that are predicted by theory. Nitrogen enriched slow rotators and nitrogen unenriched fast rotators that are not predicted by our model. We conclude that currently these comparisons are not sufficient to verify the theory of rotational mixing. Physical processes in addition to rotational mixing appear necessary to explain the stars in the later two regions. The chapters of this Thesis have been published in the following Journals: Ch. 2: ``Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars I: Grids of Evolutionary Models and Isochrones'', I. Brott, S. E. de Mink, M. Cantiello, N. Langer, A. de Koter, C. J. Evans, I. Hunter, C. Trundle, J.S. Vink submitted to Astronomy & Astrop hysics Ch. 3: ``The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive

  13. Spatio-temporal variability in the GDH activity to ammonium excretion ratio in epipelagic marine zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Packard, T. T.; Maldonado, F.; Gómez, M.

    2016-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities have been widely used in oceanographic research as an index of in situ NH4+ excretion rates (RNH4+) in zooplankton. Here we study the variability in the relationship between the enzymatic rates and the actual rates measured in epipelagic marine zooplankton between several marine ecosystems. Although both measures were significantly correlated across zooplankton assemblages, the regression models yielded different GDH/RNH4+ ratios across ecosystems. Accordingly, the error of a general equation increased up to ±42.5 % when regressing all our data together. Aside from possible interspecific differences, some of the variability was explained by the unequal allometric relation that each rate maintained with protein. Scaling exponents were 1.38 for GDH activities and 0.87 for RNH4+, which would induce uncertainties in the GDH/RNH4+ ratios when organisms with different sizes were considered. Nevertheless, the main factor causing divergence between GDH activities and RNH4+ was the potential prey availability. We compared the excretory metabolism of the zooplankton community at different productivity periods in waters off Gran Canaria, and observed an important decrease in the RNH4+ during stratification. A similar decrease was found in the internal pool of glutamate, which may be critical in the regulation of in vivo rates. Strengthening our knowledge of the relationship between GDH activities and the RNH4+ will lead to more meaningful predictions of phytoplankton regeneration and community nitrogen fluxes across large spatial scales.

  14. A mathematical model of population dynamics for Batesian mimicry system.

    PubMed

    Seno, Hiromi; Kohno, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    We analyse a mathematical model of the population dynamics among a mimic, a corresponding model, and their common predator populations. Predator changes its search-and-attack probability by forming and losing its search image. It cannot distinguish the mimic from the model. Once a predator eats a model individual, it comes to omit both the model and the mimic species from its diet menu. If a predator eats a mimic individual, it comes to increase the search-and-attack probability for both model and mimic. The predator may lose the repulsive/attractive search image with a probability per day. By analysing our model, we can derive the mathematical condition for the persistence of model and mimic populations, and then get the result that the condition for the persistence of model population does not depend on the mimic population size, while the condition for the persistence of mimic population does depend the predator's memory of search image.

  15. Population Education Models and Strategies. Population Education Research Utilization (Cycle 2) Reprint Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Comp.; And Others

    Thirty-one models on population education for teacher training, evaluation of training, and values clarification are presented in this report. Some models were developed in the United States and others were designed by educators in the Philippines. The objective of the report is to compile the models as a guide for population education program…

  16. Impacts of zooplankton composition and algal enrichment on the accumulation of mercury in an experimental freshwater food web.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Paul C; Folt, Carol L; Chen, Celia Y; Klaue, Bjoern; Blum, Joel D

    2005-03-01

    There is a well documented accumulation of mercury in fish to concentrations of concern for human consumption. Variation in fish Hg burden between lakes is often high and may result from differences in Hg transfer through lower levels of the food web where mercury is bioconcentrated to phytoplankton and transferred to herbivorous zooplankton. Prior research derived patterns of mercury accumulation in freshwater invertebrates from field collected animals. This study provides results from controlled mesocosm experiments comparing the effects of zooplankton composition, algal abundance, and the chemical speciation of mercury on the ability of zooplankton to accumulate mercury from phytoplankton and transfer that mercury to planktivores. Experiments were conducted in 550-L mesocosms across a gradient of algal densities manipulated by inorganic nutrient additions. Enriched, stable isotopes of organic (CH3(200HgCl)) and inorganic (201HgCl2) mercury were added to mesocosms and their concentrations measured in water, seston, and three common zooplankton species. After 2 weeks, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations were two to three times lower in the two copepod species, Leptodiaptomus minutus and Mesocyclops edax than in the cladoceran, Daphnia mendotae. All three zooplankton species had higher MMHg concentrations in mesocosms with low versus high initial algal abundance. However, despite higher concentrations of inorganic mercury (HgI) in seston from low nutrient mesocosms, there were no significant differences in the HgI accumulated by zooplankton across nutrient treatments. Bioaccumulation factors for MMHg in the plankton were similar to those calculated for plankton in natural lakes and a four-compartment (aqueous, seston, macrozooplankton, and periphyton/sediments) mass balance model after 21 days accounted for approximately 18% of the CH3(200Hg) and approximately 33% of the 201Hg added. Results from our experiments corroborate results from field studies and

  17. Population balance modeling of antibodies aggregation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Paolo; Rima, Simonetta; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-06-21

    The aggregates morphology and the aggregation kinetics of a model monoclonal antibody under acidic conditions have been investigated. Growth occurs via irreversible cluster-cluster coagulation forming compact, fractal aggregates with fractal dimension of 2.6. We measured the time evolution of the average radius of gyration, , and the average hydrodynamic radius, , by in situ light scattering, and simulated the aggregation kinetics by a modified Smoluchowski's population balance equations. The analysis indicates that aggregation does not occur under diffusive control, and allows quantification of effective intermolecular interactions, expressed in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). In particular, by introducing a dimensionless time weighed on W, the time evolutions of measured under various operating conditions (temperature, pH, type and concentration of salt) collapse on a single master curve. The analysis applies also to data reported in the literature when growth by cluster-cluster coagulation dominates, showing a certain level of generality in the antibodies aggregation behavior. The quantification of the stability ratio gives important physical insights into the process, including the Arrhenius dependence of the aggregation rate constant and the relationship between monomer-monomer and cluster-cluster interactions. Particularly, it is found that the reactivity of non-native monomers is larger than that of non-native aggregates, likely due to the reduction of the number of available hydrophobic patches during aggregation.

  18. Harvesting and Processing Zooplankton for Use as Supplemental Fry Feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the methods that we used to capture and dry large zooplankton from ponds to feed to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fry. Using a submersible pump and canister filter, we were able to capture about 1.0 kg (wet weight; 200 g in terms of dry weight) of zooplankton from well-fertilized po...

  19. Thermal stress studies on selected zooplankton species and an isopod

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, D.L.; Cheper, N.J.

    1980-06-01

    Laboratory determination of temperature stress levels and assessment of their ecological consequences was carried out for selected zooplankton species to develop data for ecological impact associated with industrial use of natural water for cooling. An included literature search revealed substantial fish and benthos data, but little on stress temperature effects on zooplankton. Information was gathered on two cladocerans, four copepods and an isopod.

  20. Limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe, May-October 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1974-01-01

    The limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe was dominated by copepods. Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi was the dominant crustacean throughout the lake. Mesocyclops edax, Diaptomus ashlandi and Daphnia pulex were major components of the zooplankton in the deep, downstream portion of the lake while Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva were important constituents in the river-like, upstream section of the lake.

  1. COMPARISONS OF ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY SIZE STRUCTURE IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zooplankton mean-size and size-spectra distribution potentially reflect the condition of trophic interactions and ecosystem health because they are affected by both resource availability and planktivore pressure. We assessed zooplankton mean-size and size-spectra using an optical...

  2. Functional bioassays utilizing zooplankton: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McNaught, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Functional zooplankton bioassays based on ingestion, reproduction and respiration are described, with methods for a new ingestion bioassay included. All bioassays are compared using three indices, including the variability of controls, the range of experimental responses, and a listing of contaminants causing inhibition/stimulation of response. The ingestion bioassay showed the greatest range of response, and was sensitive to pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. It was also commonly characterized by a hormesis response. The reproduction bioassay showed the lowest variability, illustrated a reduced range of response, and was sensitive to nutrients and heavy metals. In one study, the respiration bioassay was sensitive only to PCBs.

  3. Effects of a synthetic oil on zooplankton community structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a coal-derived oil on the structure of zooplankton communities of laboratory pond microcosms and outdoor experimental ponds. Several measures of community structure and multivariate statistical techniques were used to reveal changes in the patterns of zooplankton community structure caused by the perturbation. From these results the basic ecological mechanisms responsible for maintenance of zooplankton community structure were inferred. The comparison of the field, laboratory microcosm, and laboratory bioassay results for the effects of oil provided an empirical basis for predicting pollutant effects on aquatic ecosystems. The responses of the microcosm and pond zooplankton communities to oil treatment were quite similar. Changes in cladoceran densities were the most sensitive indicators of stress in the zooplankton communities. Copepods were slightly less sensitive, and rotifers were least sensitive to oil treatment.

  4. Landscape Modeling of Lygus hesperus Populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus is a key pest in several of the 200 crops grown in the geographically distinct San Joaquin Valley. Spring weather patterns drive population build-up on host-plants. Habitat maps were created from survey sites in cropping regions of Kern County, CA. Population simulations were used to predict a...

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey) effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST) from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  6. Complexity and demographic stability in population models.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Gundlach, Volker Matthias; Ochs, Gunter

    2004-05-01

    This article is concerned with relating the stability of a population, as defined by the rate of decay of fluctuations induced by demographic stochasticity, with its heterogeneity in age-specific birth and death rates. We invoke the theory of large deviations to establish a fluctuation theorem: The demographic stability of a population is positively correlated with evolutionary entropy, a measure of the variability in the age of reproducing individuals in the population. This theorem is exploited to predict certain correlations between ecological constraints and evolutionary trends in demographic stability, namely, (i) bounded growth constraints--a uni-directional increase in stability, (ii) unbounded growth constraints (large population size)--a uni-directional decrease in stability, (iii) unbounded growth constraints (small population size)--random, non-directional change in stability. These principles relating ecological constraints with trends in demographic stability are shown to be far reaching generalizations of the tenets derived from classical studies of stability in an evolutionary context. These results thus provide a new conceptual framework for explaining patterns of variation in population numbers observed in natural populations.

  7. AN INDIVIDUAL-BASED MODEL OF COTTUS POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We explored population dynamics of a southern Appalachian population of Cottus bairdi using a spatially-explicit, individual-based model. The model follows daily growth, mortality, and spawning of individuals as a function of flow and temperature. We modeled movement of juveniles...

  8. Population resistance to climate change: modelling the effects of low recruitment in open populations.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Carl Johan; Jenkins, Stuart R; Hawkins, Stephen J; Aberg, Per

    2005-01-01

    Isolated populations or those at the edge of their distribution are usually more sensitive to changes in the environment, such as climate change. For the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.), one possible effect of climate change is that unpredictable spring weather could lead to the mismatching of larval release with spring phytoplankton bloom, hence reducing the recruitment. In this paper, model simulations of a variable open population with space limited recruitment were used to investigate the effects of low and zero recruitment on population abundance in S. balanoides. Data for model parameters was taken from an isolated population in the Isle of Man, British Isles. Model simulations with observed frequencies of years with low recruitment showed only small changes in population dynamics. Increased frequencies of low recruitment had large effects on the variation in population growth rate and free space and on population structure. Furthermore, populations with intermediate to high frequencies of low recruitment appeared more sensitive to additional changes in recruitment. Exchanging low recruitment with zero recruitment severely increased the risk of local extinctions. Simulations with consecutive years of low recruitment showed a substantial increase in free space and an increase in the time taken to recover to normal densities. In conclusion, model simulations indicate that variable populations can be well buffered to changes in the demography caused by introduced environmental noise, but also, that intermediate to high frequencies of disturbance can lead to a swift change in population dynamics, which in turn, may affect the dynamics of whole communities.

  9. SMALL POPULATIONS REQUIRE SPECIFIC MODELING APPROACHES FOR ASSESSING RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    All populations face non-zero risks of extinction. However, the risks for small populations, and therefore the modeling approaches necessary to predict them, are different from those of large populations. These differences are currently hindering assessment of risk to small pop...

  10. Population model for Alaska Peninsula sea otters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Siniff, D.B.

    1988-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide a basis for assessing risks of oil spills to sea otter populations along the Alaska Peninsula. The principal efforts were devoted to analyzing the available data on population dynamics. Curves characterizing survivorship and reproduction for sea otters were devised and fitted to several data sets. A detailed review was conducted of methods of assessing population dynamics data, and several new techniques (e.g., bootstrapping) were applied to available data. A simplified model for use with Alaska Peninsula sea otter populations was devised and implemented in a 'spreadsheet' format. Various aspects of model development and data on population size in Alaska Peninsula areas were reviewed.

  11. Modeling of LEO orbital debris populations for ORDEM2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J.-C.; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Stokely, C. L.; Whitlock, D.

    2009-03-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM2000, is in the process of being updated to a new version: ORDEM2008. The data-driven ORDEM covers a spectrum of object size from 10 μm to greater than 1 m, and ranging from LEO (low Earth orbit) to GEO (geosynchronous orbit) altitude regimes. ORDEM2008 centimeter-sized populations are statistically derived from Haystack and HAX (the Haystack Auxiliary) radar data, while micron-sized populations are estimated from shuttle impact records. Each of the model populations consists of a large number of orbits with specified orbital elements, the number of objects on each orbit (with corresponding uncertainty), and the size, type, and material assignment for each object. This paper describes the general methodology and procedure commonly used in the statistical inference of the ORDEM2008 LEO debris populations. Major steps in the population derivations include data analysis, reference-population construction, definition of model parameters in terms of reference populations, linking model parameters with data, seeking best estimates for the model parameters, uncertainty analysis, and assessment of the outcomes. To demonstrate the population-derivation process and to validate the Bayesian statistical model applied in the population derivations throughout, this paper uses illustrative examples for the special cases of large-size (>1 m, >32 cm, and >10 cm) populations that are tracked by SSN (the Space Surveillance Network) and also monitored by Haystack and HAX radars operating in a staring mode.

  12. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses: Progress report, June 1988--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.

    1989-02-07

    It is our objective to determine the major processes governing the abundance, composition and disruption of zooplankton as part of the interdisciplinary southeastern US continental shelf program of the Department of Energy. We will study the effects of physical processes such as along- and cross shelf advection and frontogenesis, on the development and fate of zooplankton populations during winter. Our proposed research consists of shipboard sampling, laboratory experiments and in situ determination of zooplankton abundance over time. The last objective represents a novel approach because the observations are (a) non-destructive with great spatial resolution, and (b) occur on current meter arrays at similar scales as measurements of current velocity and direction. Results to date show prolonged residence times of upwelled water masses on the middle and inner shelf during summer which results in the development of massive copepod and tunicate populations. During spring, the extent of displacement of nearshore zooplankton was a function of wind stress. Our results can be used to predict the impact of energy-related technology on the ecosystem of the southeastern continental shelf. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal zone of the North-Eastern Black Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishina, A. B.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Louppova, N. E.; Soloviev, K. A.

    2009-04-01

    The phenological response of zooplankton community is a result of simultaneous effect of several factors: feeding conditions, predation abundance, periods of reproduction of common species and hydrodynamic regime. The Black sea ecosystem is one of the best studied in the world, otherwise there is still some illegibility about ecosystem functioning and especially about environmental factors influence on zooplankton dynamics. For the last twenty years pelagic system of the Black Sea has changed dramatically. The invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the middle of eighties caused significant decrease in zooplankton biomass. It also altered plankton structure and shifted periods of mass reproduction of the abundant species and biomass maximums. For instance, before the invasion of Mnemiopsis the maximum of zooplankton biomass was observed in autumn (data by A. Pasternak, 1983), and after that the maximum moved to the spring (data by V.S. Khoroshilov, 1999). The incursion of ctenophore Beroe ovata feeding on Mnemiopsis in the nineties has led to the enhancement of zooplankton community. Although the detailed analysis of seasonal zooplankton dynamics wasn't performed in the recent years. The object of our research was to study seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal area of the North-Eastern Black Sea. Analysis of interannual, seasonal and spatial changes in zooplankton distribution, abundance and species composition along with age structure of dominant populations were performed based on investigations during 2005-2008 years in the North-Eastern Black Sea. Plankton samples were obtained monthly since June 2005 till December 2008. Plankton was collected at three stations at depths 25m, 50m and 500-1000m along the transect from the Blue Bay to the open sea. Sampling of gelatinous animals was conducted in parallel to the zooplankton sampling. Simultaneously with plankton sampling CTD data were obtained. The feeding conditions were

  14. Characterization of Lake Michigan coastal lakes using zooplankton assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Goodrich, Maria L.; Murphy, Paul C.; Davis, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Zooplankton assemblages and water quality were examined bi-weekly from 17 April to 19 October 1998 in 11 northeastern Lake Michigan coastal lakes of similar origin but varied in trophic status and limnological condition. All lakes were within or adjacent to Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan. Zooplankton (principally microcrustaceans and rotifers) from triplicate Wisconsin net (80 I?m) vertical tows taken at each lake's deepest location were analyzed. Oxygen-temperature-pH-specific conductivity profiles and surface water quality were concurrently measured. Bray-Curtis similarity analysis showed small variations among sample replicates but large temporal differences. The potential use of zooplankton communities for environmental lake comparisons was evaluated by means of BIOENV (Primer 5.1) and principal component analyses. Zooplankton analyzed at the lowest identified taxonomic level yielded greatest sensitivity to limnological variation. Taxonomic and ecological aggregations of zooplankton data performed comparably, but less well than the finest taxonomic analysis. Secchi depth, chlorophyll a, and sulfate concentrations combined to give the best correlation with patterns of variation in the zooplankton data set. Principal component analysis of these variables revealed trophic status as the most influential major limnological gradient among the study lakes. Overall, zooplankton abundance was an excellent indicator of variation in trophic status.

  15. Zooplankton functional groups on the continental shelf of the yellow sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Song; Huo, Yuanzi; Yang, Bo

    2010-06-01

    Zooplankton plays a vital role in marine ecosystems. Variations in the zooplankton species composition, biomass, and secondary production will change the structure and function of the ecosystem. How to describe this process and make it easier to be modeled in the Yellow Sea ecosystem is the main purpose of this paper. The zooplankton functional groups approach, which is considered a good method of linking the structure of food webs and the energy flow in the ecosystems, is used to describe the main contributors of secondary produciton of the Yellow Sea ecosystem. The zooplankton can be classified into six functional groups: giant crustaceans, large copepods, small copepods, chaetognaths, medusae, and salps. The giant crustaceans, large copepods, and small copepods groups, which are the main food resources for fish, are defined depending on the size spectrum. Medusae and chaetognaths are the two gelatinous carnivorous groups, which compete with fish for food. The salps group, acting as passive filter-feeders, competes with other species feeding on phytoplankton, but their energy could not be efficiently transferred to higher trophic levels. From the viewpoint of biomass, which is the basis of the food web, and feeding activities, the contributions of each functional group to the ecosystem were evaluated; the seasonal variations, geographical distribution patterns, and species composition of each functional group were analyzed. The average zooplankton biomass was 2.1 g dry wt m -2 in spring, to which the giant crustaceans, large copepods, and small copepods contributed 19, 44, and 26%, respectively. High biomasses of the large copepods and small copepods were distributed at the coastal waters, while the giant crustaceans were mainly located at offshore area. In summer, the mean biomass was 3.1 g dry wt m -2, which was mostly contributed by the giant crustaceans (73%), and high biomasses of the giant crustaceans, large copepods, and small copepods were all distributed

  16. Survival models for harvest management of mourning dove populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative models of the relationship between annual survival and harvest rate of migratory game-bird populations are essential to science-based harvest management strategies. I used the best available band-recovery and harvest data for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) to build a set of models based on different assumptions about compensatory harvest mortality. Although these models suffer from lack of contemporary data, they can be used in development of an initial set of population models that synthesize existing demographic data on a management-unit scale, and serve as a tool for prioritization of population demographic information needs. Credible harvest management plans for mourning dove populations will require a long-term commitment to population monitoring and iterative population analysis.

  17. Effects of drought and pluvial periods on fish and zooplankton communities in prairie lakes: systematic and asystematic responses.

    PubMed

    Starks, Elizabeth; Cooper, Ryan; Leavitt, Peter R; Wissel, Björn

    2014-04-01

    The anticipated impacts of climate change on aquatic biota are difficult to evaluate because of potentially contrasting effects of temperature and hydrology on lake ecosystems, particularly those closed-basin lakes within semiarid regions. To address this shortfall, we quantified decade-scale changes in chemical and biological properties of 20 endorheic lakes in central North America in response to a pronounced transition from a drought to a pluvial period during the early 21st century. Lakes exhibited marked temporal changes in chemical characteristics and formed two discrete clusters corresponding to periods of substantially different effective moisture (as Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI). Discriminant function analysis (DFA) explained 90% of variability in fish assemblage composition and showed that fish communities were predicted best by environmental conditions during the arid interval (PDSI <-2). DFA also predicted that lakes could support more fish species during pluvial periods, but their occurrences may be limited by periodic stress due to recurrent droughts and physical barriers to colonization. Zooplankton taxonomic assemblages in fishless lakes were resilient to short-term changes in meteorological conditions, and did not vary between drought and deluge periods. Conversely, zooplankton taxa in fish-populated lakes decreased substantially in biomass during the wet interval, likely due to increased zooplanktivory by fish. The powerful effects of such climatic variability on hydrology and the strong subsequent links to water chemistry and biota indicate that future changes in global climate could result in significant restructuring of aquatic communities. Together these findings suggest that semiarid lakes undergoing temporary climate shifts provide a useful model system for anticipating the effects of global climate change on lake food webs.

  18. A spatial ecosystem and populations dynamics model (SEAPODYM) Modeling of tuna and tuna-like populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2008-09-01

    An enhanced version of the spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model SEAPODYM is presented to describe spatial dynamics of tuna and tuna-like species in the Pacific Ocean at monthly resolution over 1° grid-boxes. The simulations are driven by a bio-physical environment predicted from a coupled ocean physical-biogeochemical model. This new version of SEAPODYM includes expanded definitions of habitat indices, movements, and natural mortality based on empirical evidences. A thermal habitat of tuna species is derived from an individual heat budget model. The feeding habitat is computed according to the accessibility of tuna predator cohorts to different vertically migrating and non-migrating micronekton (mid-trophic) functional groups. The spawning habitat is based on temperature and the coincidence of spawning fish with presence or absence of predators and food for larvae. The successful larval recruitment is linked to spawning stock biomass. Larvae drift with currents, while immature and adult tuna can move of their own volition, in addition to being advected by currents. A food requirement index is computed to adjust locally the natural mortality of cohorts based on food demand and accessibility to available forage components. Together these mechanisms induce bottom-up and top-down effects, and intra- (i.e. between cohorts) and inter-species interactions. The model is now fully operational for running multi-species, multi-fisheries simulations, and the structure of the model allows a validation from multiple data sources. An application with two tuna species showing different biological characteristics, skipjack ( Katsuwonus pelamis) and bigeye ( Thunnus obesus), is presented to illustrate the capacity of the model to capture many important features of spatial dynamics of these two different tuna species in the Pacific Ocean. The actual validation is presented in a companion paper describing the approach to have a rigorous mathematical parameter optimization

  19. Global stability of Gompertz model of three competing populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yumei; Wang, Wendi; Lu, Zhengyi

    2007-10-01

    The model of three competitive populations with Gompertz growth is studied. The periodic solutions are ruled out by generalized Dulac criteria. On the basis of the analysis, we obtain conditions that ensure the asymptotic behavior of the model is simple.

  20. Effect of various intake designs on zooplankton entrainment

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    Field studies were conducted at the intakes of three Tennessee Valley Authority electric power plants to determine whether intake design is a feasible means of mitigating effects on zooplankton by minimizing the quantity entrained. Three intake designs were evaluated: one with a shallow skimmer wall, one with a deep skimmer wall, and one with no skimmer wall. Several studies indicated possible differences between day and night in the quantity of zooplankton entrained. None of these studies indicated that the intake designs studied minimized the quantity of zooplankton entrained because the quantities in the intake canals were similar to the quantities in the source water body.

  1. Zooplankton distribution in the western Arctic during summer 2002: Hydrographic habitats and implications for food chain dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Peter V. Z.; Llinás, Leopoldo; Smith, Sharon L.; Pilz, Dora

    Global warming is presently a widely accepted phenomenon with a broad range of anticipated impacts on marine ecosystems. Alterations in temperature, circulation and ice cover in Arctic seas may result in changes in food chain dynamics, beginning with planktonic processes. As part of the Shelf-Basin Interactions (SBI) program, we conducted zooplankton surveys during summer 2002 to assess the biomass, distribution and abundance of copepods and other pelagic zooplankton over the Chukchi and Beaufort shelves, slope regions and the adjacent Canada Basin. The motivation for our fieldwork was the question, "Will global change, particularly warming, result in more large-sized zooplankton which support a pelagic food web of fish, birds, and certain mammals over the Chukchi and Beaufort shelves or in more smaller-sized zooplankton which will diminish the fish, birds and mammals and favor sedentary benthic organisms?" The objectives of the present study were 1) to census the regional zooplankton community and establish a baseline for comparisons with historical and future studies and 2) to determine whether large-bodied copepods associated with deep waters of the Bering Sea or the Canada Basin were transported to the shelves in sufficient numbers to modify the food web in a region where smaller copepods often dominate the zooplankton numerically. Spatial distributions of zooplankton communities were clearly associated with hydrographic habitats determined by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the upper water layer. Smaller taxa dominated the shelf communities while offshore zooplankton assemblages were characterized by large-bodied copepods. The mesozooplankton community was numerically dominated by copepod nauplii and small-bodied juveniles, including Pseudocalanus spp. and Oithona similis. We observed very few large-bodied copepods from the Bering Sea. However, much of the shelf region surveyed included relatively numerous Calanus glacialis juveniles

  2. Effect of planktivores, zooplankton, and macrobenthos on material flow in a small lake

    SciTech Connect

    Starkel, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    Planktivores, zooplankton grazers, and macrobenthos were studied to determine how changes in animal community structure may alter the flow of material in Dunham Pond, CT. Chaoborus and chironomid larvae were studied to determine how they affect the flux of matter across the sediment/water interface. This was done by incubating undisturbed cores in situ and relating changes in water chemistry to larval density. The log-transformed flux rates of iron, manganese, and phosphorus were linearly related to larval biomass. Functional groups may be successfully used to predict rates of material flow. Changes in the mass of macroinvertebrates affect the flux rates of redox-active substances across the sediment/water interface. The use of population densities and feeding characteristics to estimate trophic transfer in Dunham Pond indicate that (1) visual planktivory by larval perch may result in overutilization of prey, (2) ambush planktivory by univoltine Chaoborus appears to under utilize prey, and (3) zooplankton grazing tracks net primary productivity, regardless of zooplankton community structure. Animal groups cycle 30-100% of the phosphorus required for /sup 14/C productivity in Dunham Pond.

  3. Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Frias, J P G L; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2014-04-01

    Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study. A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m⁻³) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm³ m⁻³), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries. Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC).

  4. Phytoplankton limitation by phosphorus and zooplankton grazing in an acidic Adirondack lake

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.; Evans, G.L.; Pratt, N.C.

    1984-08-01

    Lakes which are believed to have been acidified by atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic substances are known for their unusually high water clarity and low nutrient concentrations. Some evidence indicates that alterations in predator/prey relationships, an indirect effect of acidification, bring about the increase in water clarity. Enclosures were used to study the effects of phosphorus addition and zooplankton removal on the phytoplankton of an acidic lake in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Fertilized enclosures had significantly lower alkalinities and contained significantly more dissolved oxygen after the incubation period than did unfertilized enclosures. The P concentration remained at or near the limit of detection in the unfertilized enclosures. The phytoplankton population bloomed after the addition of 80 micro g/liter of phosphate as KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/. The response was measured by cell counts of the dominant phytoplankton. Chlamydomonas, and by changes in chlorophyll a concentration. About half the number of algal cells were present after the two week incubation when zooplankton were not removed, indicating that zooplankton herbivory can influence, but not totally control, the algal production. 46 references.

  5. Changes in the nearshore and offshore zooplankton communities in Lake Ontario: 1981-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; Mills, Edward L.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We examined trends and factors influencing changes in nearshore and offshore zooplankton abundance and composition in Lake Ontario between 1981 and 1988. In the nearshore (southshore and eastern basin), zooplankton abundance decreased and shifts occurred in the relative abundances of Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva (eastern basin) and Daphnia retrocurva and Daphnia galeata mendotae (southshore). These changes could have resulted from increased vertebrate predation or reduced food resources which intensified the effects of predation. In the offshore, the first appearance (FA) of the larger, less common cladoceran species occurred earlier in the season as of 1985. FA was correlated with cumulative epilimnetic temperature (CET) and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) a?Y165 mm caught in U.S. waters in the spring. In 1987, when CET was high and CPUE of alewife a?Y165 mm was low, large populations of these cladocerans developed in June and July. Bythotrephes cederstroemi, a recent invader in the Great Lakes, was abundant only in 1987 when the CPUE of alewife was lowest. Changes in zooplankton abundance, development, and composition along the nearshore-offshore gradient reflected effects of temperature, habitat, and planktivory on the community.

  6. Zooplankton may serve as transmission vectors for viruses infecting algal blooms in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Frada, Miguel José; Schatz, Daniella; Farstey, Viviana; Ossolinski, Justin E; Sabanay, Helena; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Koren, Ilan; Vardi, Assaf

    2014-11-03

    Marine viruses are recognized as a major driving force regulating phytoplankton community composition and nutrient cycling in the oceans. Yet, little is known about mechanisms that influence viral dispersal in aquatic systems, other than physical processes, and that lead to the rapid demise of large-scale algal blooms in the oceans. Here, we show that copepods, abundant migrating crustaceans that graze on phytoplankton, as well as other zooplankton can accumulate and mediate the transmission of viruses infecting Emiliania huxleyi, a bloom-forming coccolithophore that plays an important role in the carbon cycle. We detected by PCR that >80% of copepods collected during a North Atlantic E. huxleyi bloom carried E. huxleyi virus (EhV) DNA. We demonstrated by isolating a new infectious EhV strain from a copepod microbiome that these viruses are infectious. We further showed that EhVs can accumulate in high titers within zooplankton guts during feeding or can be adsorbed to their surface. Subsequently, EhV can be dispersed by detachment or via viral-dense fecal pellets over a period of 1 day postfeeding on EhV-infected algal cells, readily infecting new host populations. Intriguingly, the passage through zooplankton guts prolonged EhV's half-life of infectivity by 35%, relative to free virions in seawater, potentially enhancing viral transmission. We propose that zooplankton, swimming through topographically adjacent phytoplankton micropatches and migrating daily over large areas across physically separated water masses, can serve as viral vectors, boosting host-virus contact rates and potentially accelerating the demise of large-scale phytoplankton blooms.

  7. Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: Efficacy of treatment on zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all zooplankton. The composition and relative survival of zooplankton in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. Zooplankton populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all zooplankton present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.

  8. Population models for passerine birds: structure, parameterization, and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noon, B.R.; Sauer, J.R.; McCullough, D.R.; Barrett, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Population models have great potential as management tools, as they use infonnation about the life history of a species to summarize estimates of fecundity and survival into a description of population change. Models provide a framework for projecting future populations, determining the effects of management decisions on future population dynamics, evaluating extinction probabilities, and addressing a variety of questions of ecological and evolutionary interest. Even when insufficient information exists to allow complete identification of the model, the modelling procedure is useful because it forces the investigator to consider the life history of the species when determining what parameters should be estimated from field studies and provides a context for evaluating the relative importance of demographic parameters. Models have been little used in the study of the population dynamics of passerine birds because of: (1) widespread misunderstandings of the model structures and parameterizations, (2) a lack of knowledge of life histories of many species, (3) difficulties in obtaining statistically reliable estimates of demographic parameters for most passerine species, and (4) confusion about functional relationships among demographic parameters. As a result, studies of passerine demography are often designed inappropriately and fail to provide essential data. We review appropriate models for passerine bird populations and illustrate their possible uses in evaluating the effects of management or other environmental influences on population dynamics. We identify environmental influences on population dynamics. We identify parameters that must be estimated from field data, briefly review existing statistical methods for obtaining valid estimates, and evaluate the present status of knowledge of these parameters.

  9. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  10. A general consumer-resource population model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  11. [Population projection and its principal components: the future model of population in the province of Alicante].

    PubMed

    Norman Mora, E

    1994-01-01

    "In this article we analyze the different demographic patterns defining the population in the province of Alicante [Spain]. The behaviour of the demographic factors in the past and in the present is studied here, and a series of models are put into practice in order to foresee the future pattern of population.... The result shows either the effect of a possible ageing in an already aged population, as is the case of the province of Alicante, or what the job market would have to endure if the above mentioned ageing took place, increased by the possibility of an inmigration of an older population." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  12. An open-population hierarchical distance sampling model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sollmann, Rachel; Beth Gardner,; Richard B Chandler,; Royle, J. Andrew; T Scott Sillett,

    2015-01-01

    Modeling population dynamics while accounting for imperfect detection is essential to monitoring programs. Distance sampling allows estimating population size while accounting for imperfect detection, but existing methods do not allow for direct estimation of demographic parameters. We develop a model that uses temporal correlation in abundance arising from underlying population dynamics to estimate demographic parameters from repeated distance sampling surveys. Using a simulation study motivated by designing a monitoring program for island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), we investigated the power of this model to detect population trends. We generated temporally autocorrelated abundance and distance sampling data over six surveys, using population rates of change of 0.95 and 0.90. We fit the data generating Markovian model and a mis-specified model with a log-linear time effect on abundance, and derived post hoc trend estimates from a model estimating abundance for each survey separately. We performed these analyses for varying number of survey points. Power to detect population changes was consistently greater under the Markov model than under the alternatives, particularly for reduced numbers of survey points. The model can readily be extended to more complex demographic processes than considered in our simulations. This novel framework can be widely adopted for wildlife population monitoring.

  13. Further thoughts on simplicity and complexity in population projection models.

    PubMed

    Smith, S K

    1997-12-01

    "This article is a review of--and response to--a special issue of Mathematical Population Studies that focused on the relative performance of simpler vs. more complex population projection models. I do not attempt to summarize or comment on each of the articles in the special issue, but rather present an additional perspective on several points: definitions of simplicity and complexity, empirical evidence regarding population forecast accuracy, the costs and benefits of disaggregation, the potential benefits of combining forecasts, criteria for evaluating projection models, and issues of economic efficiency in the production of population projections."

  14. IBSEM: An Individual-Based Atlantic Salmon Population Model.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Marco; Heino, Mikko; Gilbey, John; Araki, Hitoshi; Svåsand, Terje; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    Ecology and genetics can influence the fate of individuals and populations in multiple ways. However, to date, few studies consider them when modelling the evolutionary trajectory of populations faced with admixture with non-local populations. For the Atlantic salmon, a model incorporating these elements is urgently needed because many populations are challenged with gene-flow from non-local and domesticated conspecifics. We developed an Individual-Based Salmon Eco-genetic Model (IBSEM) to simulate the demographic and population genetic change of an Atlantic salmon population through its entire life-cycle. Processes such as growth, mortality, and maturation are simulated through stochastic procedures, which take into account environmental variables as well as the genotype of the individuals. IBSEM is based upon detailed empirical data from salmon biology, and parameterized to reproduce the environmental conditions and the characteristics of a wild population inhabiting a Norwegian river. Simulations demonstrated that the model consistently and reliably reproduces the characteristics of the population. Moreover, in absence of farmed escapees, the modelled populations reach an evolutionary equilibrium that is similar to our definition of a 'wild' genotype. We assessed the sensitivity of the model in the face of assumptions made on the fitness differences between farm and wild salmon, and evaluated the role of straying as a buffering mechanism against the intrusion of farm genes into wild populations. These results demonstrate that IBSEM is able to capture the evolutionary forces shaping the life history of wild salmon and is therefore able to model the response of populations under environmental and genetic stressors.

  15. IBSEM: An Individual-Based Atlantic Salmon Population Model

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Marco; Heino, Mikko; Gilbey, John; Araki, Hitoshi; Svåsand, Terje; Glover, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Ecology and genetics can influence the fate of individuals and populations in multiple ways. However, to date, few studies consider them when modelling the evolutionary trajectory of populations faced with admixture with non-local populations. For the Atlantic salmon, a model incorporating these elements is urgently needed because many populations are challenged with gene-flow from non-local and domesticated conspecifics. We developed an Individual-Based Salmon Eco-genetic Model (IBSEM) to simulate the demographic and population genetic change of an Atlantic salmon population through its entire life-cycle. Processes such as growth, mortality, and maturation are simulated through stochastic procedures, which take into account environmental variables as well as the genotype of the individuals. IBSEM is based upon detailed empirical data from salmon biology, and parameterized to reproduce the environmental conditions and the characteristics of a wild population inhabiting a Norwegian river. Simulations demonstrated that the model consistently and reliably reproduces the characteristics of the population. Moreover, in absence of farmed escapees, the modelled populations reach an evolutionary equilibrium that is similar to our definition of a ‘wild’ genotype. We assessed the sensitivity of the model in the face of assumptions made on the fitness differences between farm and wild salmon, and evaluated the role of straying as a buffering mechanism against the intrusion of farm genes into wild populations. These results demonstrate that IBSEM is able to capture the evolutionary forces shaping the life history of wild salmon and is therefore able to model the response of populations under environmental and genetic stressors. PMID:26383256

  16. Modelling production per unit of food consumed in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Mauricio A; Milessi, Andrés C; Quiroz, J C; Harwood, John

    2015-01-21

    The ratio of production-to-consumption (ρ) reflects how efficiently a population can transform ingested food into biomass. Usually this ratio is estimated by separately integrating cohort per-recruit production and consumption per unit of biomass. Estimates of ρ from cohort analysis differ from those that consider the whole population, because fish populations are usually composed of cohorts that differ in their relative abundance. Cohort models for ρ also assume a stable age-structure and a constant population size (stationary condition). This may preclude their application to harvested populations, in which variations in fishing mortality and recruitment will affect age-structure. In this paper, we propose a different framework for estimating (ρ) in which production and consumption are modelled simultaneously to produce a population estimator of ρ. Food consumption is inferred from the physiological concepts underpinning the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). This general framework allows the effects of different age-structures to be explored, with a stationary population as a special case. Three models with different complexities, depending mostly on what assumptions are made about age-structure, are explored. The full data model requires knowledge about food assimilation efficiency, parameters of the VBGF and the relative proportion of individuals at age a at time y (Py(a)). A simpler model, which requires less data, is based on the stationary assumption. Model results are compared with estimates from cohort models for ρ using simulated fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here were also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in the south-east Pacific. Uncertainty in the estimation of ρ was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulation showed that cohort and population models produce different estimates for ρ and those differences depend on lifespan, fishing mortality and

  17. Response of zooplankton and phytoplankton communities to creosote-impregnated Douglas fir pilings in freshwater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sibley, P K; Harris, M L; Bestari, K T; Steele, T A; Robinson, R D; Gensemer, R W; Day, K E; Solomon, K R

    2004-07-01

    Creosote has been used extensively as an industrial wood preservative for the protection of marine pilings, railway ties, and utility poles and is a common source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. At present, there is little information by which to judge the potential for creosote leached from impregnated pilings to cause toxicity to biota in aquatic environments. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of creosote on zooplankton and phytoplankton populations in freshwater microcosms in relation to changes in the concentration and composition of PAHs leached from creosote-impregnated Douglas fir pilings during an 83-day exposure period. The study consisted of single microcosms containing one half, one, two, three, four, and six treated pilings. Two microcosms that received untreated pilings were used as controls. The total surface area of pilings in each microcosm was normalized by adding the appropriate number of untreated pilings. Samples were collected periodically between -14 and 83 days pre- and postexposure to determine aqueous concentrations of 15 priority PAHs and to assess the response of zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Plankton community response to creosote was analyzed using principle responses curves. Peak aqueous concentrations of sigmaPAH occurred at day 7, ranging from 7.3 to 97.3 microg/L. Zooplankton abundance decreased in all microcosms after introduction of the impregnated pilings, with the magnitude of response varying as a function of aqueous creosote concentration. Using inverse regression, a no-observed-effect concentration for the zooplankton community of 11.1 microg/L was estimated. In contrast, algal abundance and diversity increased in all treatments between 7 and 21 days and attained levels up to twice that in control microcosms. This trend most likely reflected decreased grazing pressure because of the decrease in zooplankton populations, but it may also have reflected

  18. A quantitative model of honey bee colony population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Khoury, David S; Myerscough, Mary R; Barron, Andrew B

    2011-04-18

    Since 2006 the rate of honey bee colony failure has increased significantly. As an aid to testing hypotheses for the causes of colony failure we have developed a compartment model of honey bee colony population dynamics to explore the impact of different death rates of forager bees on colony growth and development. The model predicts a critical threshold forager death rate beneath which colonies regulate a stable population size. If death rates are sustained higher than this threshold rapid population decline is predicted and colony failure is inevitable. The model also predicts that high forager death rates draw hive bees into the foraging population at much younger ages than normal, which acts to accelerate colony failure. The model suggests that colony failure can be understood in terms of observed principles of honey bee population dynamics, and provides a theoretical framework for experimental investigation of the problem.

  19. Numerical integration of population models satisfying conservation laws: NSFD methods.

    PubMed

    Mickens, Ronald E

    2007-10-01

    Population models arising in ecology, epidemiology and mathematical biology may involve a conservation law, i.e. the total population is constant. In addition to these cases, other situations may occur for which the total population, asymptotically in time, approach a constant value. Since it is rarely the situation that the equations of motion can be analytically solved to obtain exact solutions, it follows that numerical techniques are needed to provide solutions. However, numerical procedures are only valid if they can reproduce fundamental properties of the differential equations modeling the phenomena of interest. We show that for population models, involving a dynamical conservation law the use of nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) methods allows the construction of discretization schemes such that they are dynamically consistent (DC) with the original differential equations. The paper will briefly discuss the NSFD methodology, the concept of DC, and illustrate their application to specific problems for population models.

  20. Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza, A.; Garijo, J. C.; Landeira, J. M.; Bordes, F.; Hernández-León, S.

    2015-05-01

    Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) in marine ecosystems is performed by zooplankton and micronekton, promoting a poorly accounted export of carbon to the deep ocean. Major efforts have been made to estimate carbon export due to gravitational flux and to a lesser extent, to migrant zooplankton. However, migratory flux by micronekton has been largely neglected in this context, due to its time-consuming and difficult sampling. In this paper, we evaluated gravitational and migratory flux due to the respiration of zooplankton and micronekton in the northeast subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Migratory flux was addressed by calculating the biomass of migrating components and measuring the electron transfer system (ETS) activity in zooplankton and dominant species representing micronekton (Euphausia gibboides, Sergia splendens and Lobianchia dofleini). Our results showed similar biomass in both components. The main taxa contributing to DVM within zooplankton were juvenile euphausiids, whereas micronekton were mainly dominated by fish, followed by adult euphausiids and decapods. The contribution to respiratory flux of zooplankton (3.4 ± 1.9 mg C m-2 d-1) was similar to that of micronekton (2.9 ± 1.0 mg C m-2 d-1). In summary, respiratory flux accounted for 53% (range 23-71) of the gravitational flux measured at 150 m depth (11.9 ± 5.8 mg C m-2 d-1). However, based on larger migratory ranges and gut clearance rates, micronekton are expected to be the dominant component that contributes to carbon export in deeper waters. Micronekton estimates in this paper as well as those in existing literature, although variable due to regional differences and difficulties in calculating their biomass, suggest that carbon fluxes driven by this community are important for future models of the biological carbon pump.

  1. Contribution and pathways of diazotroph-derived nitrogen to zooplankton during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the oligotrophic New Caledonia lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Brian P. V.; Bonnet, Sophie; Berthelot, Hugo; Conroy, Brandon J.; Foster, Rachel A.; Pagano, Marc

    2016-05-01

    In oligotrophic tropical and subtropical oceans, where strong stratification can limit the replenishment of surface nitrate, dinitrogen (N2) fixation by diazotrophs can represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) for primary production. The VAHINE (VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of fixed N2 in the south-wEst Pacific) experiment was designed to examine the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in such ecosystems. In austral summer 2013, three large ( ˜ 50 m3) in situ mesocosms were deployed for 23 days in the New Caledonia lagoon, an ecosystem that typifies the low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll environment, to stimulate diazotroph production. The zooplankton component of the study aimed to measure the incorporation of DDN into zooplankton biomass, and assess the role of direct diazotroph grazing by zooplankton as a DDN uptake pathway. Inside the mesocosms, the diatom-diazotroph association (DDA) het-1 predominated during days 5-15 while the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria UCYN-C predominated during days 15-23. A Trichodesmium bloom was observed in the lagoon (outside the mesocosms) towards the end of the experiment. The zooplankton community was dominated by copepods (63 % of total abundance) for the duration of the experiment. Using two-source N isotope mixing models we estimated a mean ˜ 28 % contribution of DDN to zooplankton nitrogen biomass at the start of the experiment, indicating that the natural summer peak of N2 fixation in the lagoon was already contributing significantly to the zooplankton. Stimulation of N2 fixation in the mesocosms corresponded with a generally low-level enhancement of DDN contribution to zooplankton nitrogen biomass, but with a peak of ˜ 73 % in mesocosm 1 following the UCYN-C bloom. qPCR analysis targeting four of the common diazotroph groups present in the mesocosms (Trichodesmium, het-1, het-2, UCYN-C) demonstrated that all four were ingested by copepod grazers, and that their abundance in copepod

  2. Parasitic chytrids sustain zooplankton growth during inedible algal bloom

    PubMed Central

    Rasconi, Serena; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlène; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on the planktonic food web of two contrasting freshwater lakes during different algal bloom situations. Carbon-based food web models were used to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin (oligo-mesotrophic) and the autumn cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Aydat (eutrophic). Linear inverse modeling was employed to estimate undetermined flows in both lakes. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modeling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results confirm recent theories on the impact of parasites on food web function through grazers and recyclers. During blooms of “inedible” algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores), the epidemic growth of chytrids channeled 19–20% of the primary production in both lakes through the production of grazer exploitable zoospores. The parasitic throughput represented 50% and 57% of the zooplankton diet, respectively, in the oligo-mesotrophic and in the eutrophic lakes. Parasites also affected ecological network properties such as longer carbon path lengths and loop strength, and contributed to increase the stability of the aquatic food web, notably in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Pavin. PMID:24904543

  3. Global biodiversity patterns of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Irigoien, Xabier; Huisman, Jef; Harris, Roger P

    2004-06-24

    Although the oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface, our knowledge of biodiversity patterns in marine phytoplankton and zooplankton is very limited compared to that of the biodiversity of plants and herbivores in the terrestrial world. Here, we present biodiversity data for marine plankton assemblages from different areas of the world ocean. Similar to terrestrial vegetation, marine phytoplankton diversity is a unimodal function of phytoplankton biomass, with maximum diversity at intermediate levels of phytoplankton biomass and minimum diversity during massive blooms. Contrary to expectation, we did not find a relation between phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity. Zooplankton diversity is a unimodal function of zooplankton biomass. Most strikingly, these marine biodiversity patterns show a worldwide consistency, despite obvious differences in environmental conditions of the various oceanographic regions. These findings may serve as a new benchmark in the search for global biodiversity patterns of plants and herbivores.

  4. Connecting micro dynamics and population distributions in system dynamics models.

    PubMed

    Fallah-Fini, Saeideh; Rahmandad, Hazhir; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Xue, Hong; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    Researchers use system dynamics models to capture the mean behavior of groups of indistinguishable population elements (e.g., people) aggregated in stock variables. Yet, many modeling problems require capturing the heterogeneity across elements with respect to some attribute(s) (e.g., body weight). This paper presents a new method to connect the micro-level dynamics associated with elements in a population with the macro-level population distribution along an attribute of interest without the need to explicitly model every element. We apply the proposed method to model the distribution of Body Mass Index and its changes over time in a sample population of American women obtained from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Comparing the results with those obtained from an individual-based model that captures the same phenomena shows that our proposed method delivers accurate results with less computation than the individual-based model.

  5. Connecting micro dynamics and population distributions in system dynamics models

    PubMed Central

    Rahmandad, Hazhir; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Xue, Hong; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Researchers use system dynamics models to capture the mean behavior of groups of indistinguishable population elements (e.g., people) aggregated in stock variables. Yet, many modeling problems require capturing the heterogeneity across elements with respect to some attribute(s) (e.g., body weight). This paper presents a new method to connect the micro-level dynamics associated with elements in a population with the macro-level population distribution along an attribute of interest without the need to explicitly model every element. We apply the proposed method to model the distribution of Body Mass Index and its changes over time in a sample population of American women obtained from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Comparing the results with those obtained from an individual-based model that captures the same phenomena shows that our proposed method delivers accurate results with less computation than the individual-based model. PMID:25620842

  6. Augmenting superpopulation capture-recapture models with population assignment data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wen, Zhi; Pollock, Kenneth; Nichols, James; Waser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists applying capture-recapture models to animal populations sometimes have access to additional information about individuals' populations of origin (e.g., information about genetics, stable isotopes, etc.). Tests that assign an individual's genotype to its most likely source population are increasingly used. Here we show how to augment a superpopulation capture-recapture model with such information. We consider a single superpopulation model without age structure, and split each entry probability into separate components due to births in situ and immigration. We show that it is possible to estimate these two probabilities separately. We first consider the case of perfect information about population of origin, where we can distinguish individuals born in situ from immigrants with certainty. Then we consider the more realistic case of imperfect information, where we use genetic or other information to assign probabilities to each individual's origin as in situ or outside the population. We use a resampling approach to impute the true population of origin from imperfect assignment information. The integration of data on population of origin with capture-recapture data allows us to determine the contributions of immigration and in situ reproduction to the growth of the population, an issue of importance to ecologists. We illustrate our new models with capture-recapture and genetic assignment data from a population of banner-tailed kangaroo rats Dipodomys spectabilis in Arizona.

  7. Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within a mixed population composed of core and sensitive subpopulations. The latest includes first to third generation immigrants. Respective ways of life may be partially incompatible. In case of a conflict core agents behave as inflexible about the issue. In contrast, sensitive agents can decide either to live peacefully adjusting their way of life to the core one, or to oppose it with eventually joining violent activities. The interplay dynamics between peaceful and opponent sensitive agents is driven by pairwise interactions. These interactions occur both within the sensitive population and by mixing with core agents. The update process is monitored using a Lotka-Volterra-like Ordinary Differential Equation. Given an initial tiny minority of opponents that coexist with both inflexible and peaceful agents, we investigate implications on the emergence of radicalization. Opponents try to turn peaceful agents to opponents driving radicalization. However, inflexible core agents may step in to bring back opponents to a peaceful choice thus weakening the phenomenon. The required minimum individual core involvement to actually curb radicalization is calculated. It is found to be a function of both the majority or minority status of the sensitive subpopulation with respect to the core subpopulation and the degree of activeness of opponents. The results highlight the instrumental role core agents can have to hinder radicalization within the sensitive subpopulation. Some hints are outlined to favor novel public policies towards social integration. PMID:27166677

  8. Zooplankton data report: the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment MIZEX, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.; Lane, P.V.Z.; Schwarting, E.M.

    1986-03-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 84) concentrated on atmospheric, oceanic, and ice interactions in the Fram Strait region of the Greenland Sea, specifically the effect of the retreating ice margin on the productivity in the area and the use of zooplanktonic species as indicators of Arctic and North Atlantic water masses. The data in this report are the quantitative analyses of zooplankton collected while aboard the research vessel Polarstern.

  9. Zooplankton Patterns in Relation to Physical Processes and Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Sea Research 36:385-405. Haury, L.R. 1988. Vertical distribution of Pleuromanmma ( Copepoda , Metridinidae) across the eastern North Pacific Ocean...Hydrobiologia 167/168:335-342. Genin, A., L.R. Haury, and P. Greenblatt 1988. Interactions of migrating zooplankton with shallow topography: predation by... predation on the zooplankton b, sz-amount-associated predators . This work led to the continuing study of patchiness intensification aý ound both deep and

  10. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambler, Julie W.; Cloern, James E.; Hutchinson, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal cycles of zooplankton abundance appear to be constant among years (1978–1981) and are similar in the deep (>10 m) channels and lateral shoals (<3 m). The seasonal zooplankton community dynamics are discussed in relation to: (1) river discharge which alters salinity distribution and residence time of plankton; (2) temperature which induces production and hatching of dormant copepod eggs; (3) coastal hydrography which brings neritic copepods of different zoogeographic affinities into the bay; and (4) seasonal cycles of phytoplankton.

  11. Fitting Models of the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance to Data from Marine Mammal Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    unlimited. Fitting Models of the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance to Data from Marine Mammal Populations James S. Clark H.L... model  that provides daily  estimates  of lipid status, as lipid status of the mother is directly linked  to  pup survival.  This  model  will use the drift...assess the feasibility of #2. WORK COMPLETED We have completed the following tasks: 1. Built the statistical model to estimate at-sea lipid status 2

  12. Multifrequency acoustic observations of zooplankton in Knight Inlet, B.C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevorrow, Mark V.; Mackas, David L.; Benfield, Mark C.

    2004-05-01

    A collaborative investigation of midwater zooplankton aggregations in a coastal fjord was conducted in November 2002. Midwater aggregations of zooplankton in a coastal fjord were sampled and mapped using a calibrated, three-frequency (38, 120, and 200 kHz) vessel-based echo-sounder system, a multinet towed zooplankton net (BIONESS), and a high-resolution in situ camera system (ZOOVIS). Dense daytime layers of euphausiids and amphipods near 70- to 90-m depth were found in the lower reaches of the inlet, especially concentrated by tidal flows around a sill which rises above the layer. Quantitative euphausiid and amphipod backscattering measurements, combined with in situ species, size, and abundance estimates, were found to agree closely with recent size- and orientation-averaged fluid-cylinder scattering models produced by Stanton et al. Also, in situ scattering measurements of physonect siphonophores were found to have a much stronger low-frequency (38 kHz) scattering strength, in agreement with a simple bubble scattering model. [Work supported by Dr. J. Eckman, ONR code 322BC.

  13. Correspondence between zooplankton assemblages and the Estuary Environment Classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucena-Moya, Paloma; Duggan, Ian C.

    2017-01-01

    We tested whether variability in zooplankton assemblages was consistent with the categories of estuarine environments proposed by the 'Estuary Environment Classification' system (EEC) (Hume et al., 2007) across a variety of North Island, New Zealand, estuaries. The EEC classifies estuaries in to eight categories (A to F) based primarily on a combination of three abiotic controlling factors: ocean forcing, river forcing and basin morphometry. Additionally, we tested whether Remane's curve, which predicts higher diversities of benthic macrofauna and high and low salinities, can be applied to zooplankton assemblages. We focused on three of the eight EEC categories (B, D and F), which covered the range of estuaries with river inputs dominating (B) to ocean influence dominating (F). Additionally, we included samples from river (FW) and sea (MW) to encompass the entire salinity range. Zooplankton assemblages varied across the categories examined in accordance with a salinity gradient predicted by the EEC. Three groups of zooplankton were distinguishable: the first formed by the most freshwater categories, FW and B, and dominated by rotifers (primarily Bdelloidea) and estuarine copepods (Gladioferans pectinatus), a second group formed by categories D and F, of intermediate salinity, dominated by copepods (Euterpina acutifrons), and a final group including the purely marine category MW and dominated also by E. acutifrons along with other marine taxa. Zooplankton diversity responded to the salinity gradient in a manner expected from Remane's curve. The results of this study support others which have shown salinity to be the main factor driving zooplankton community composition and diversity.

  14. Modeling Human Population Separation History Using Physically Phased Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shiya; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Emery, Sarah; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Phased haplotype sequences are a key component in many population genetic analyses since variation in haplotypes reflects the action of recombination, selection, and changes in population size. In humans, haplotypes are typically estimated from unphased sequence or genotyping data using statistical models applied to large reference panels. To assess the importance of correct haplotype phase on population history inference, we performed fosmid pool sequencing and resolved phased haplotypes of five individuals from diverse African populations (including Yoruba, Esan, Gambia, Maasai, and Mende). We physically phased 98% of heterozygous SNPs into haplotype-resolved blocks, obtaining a block N50 of 1 Mbp. We combined these data with additional phased genomes from San, Mbuti, Gujarati, and Centre de’Etude du Polymorphism Humain European populations and analyzed population size and separation history using the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent and multiple sequentially Markovian coalescent models. We find that statistically phased haplotypes yield a more recent split-time estimation compared with experimentally phased haplotypes. To better interpret patterns of cross-population coalescence, we implemented an approximate Bayesian computation approach to estimate population split times and migration rates by fitting the distribution of coalescent times inferred between two haplotypes, one from each population, to a standard isolation-with-migration model. We inferred that the separation between hunter-gatherer populations and other populations happened ∼120–140 KYA, with gene flow continuing until 30–40 KYA; separation between west-African and out-of-African populations happened ∼70–80 KYA; while the separation between Maasai and out-of-African populations happened ∼50 KYA. PMID:28049708

  15. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  16. Population extinction in an inhomogeneous host-pathogen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarti, Trilochan

    2016-01-01

    We study inhomogeneous host-pathogen dynamics to model the global amphibian population extinction in a lake basin system. The lake basin system is modeled as quenched disorder. In this model we show that once the pathogen arrives at the lake basin it spreads from one lake to another, eventually spreading to the entire lake basin system in a wave like pattern. The extinction time has been found to depend on the steady state host population and pathogen growth rate. Linear estimate of the extinction time is computed. The steady state host population shows a threshold behavior in the interaction strength for a given growth rate.

  17. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population.

    PubMed

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk.

  18. Population viability analysis of plant and animal populations with stochastic integral projection models.

    PubMed

    Jaffré, Malo; Le Galliard, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Integral projection models (IPM) make it possible to study populations structured by continuous traits. Recently, Vindenes et al. (Ecology 92:1146-1156, 2011) proposed an extended IPM to analyse the dynamics of small populations in stochastic environments, but this model has not yet been used to conduct population viability analyses. Here, we used the extended IPM to analyse the stochastic dynamics of IPM of small size-structured populations in one plant and one animal species (evening primrose and common lizard) including demographic stochasticity in both cases and environmental stochasticity in the lizard model. We also tested the accuracy of a diffusion approximation of the IPM for the two empirical systems. In both species, the elasticity for λ was higher with respect to parameters linked to body growth and size-dependent reproduction rather than survival. An analytical approach made it possible to quantify demographic and environmental variance to calculate the average stochastic growth rate. Demographic variance was further decomposed to gain insights into the most important size classes and demographic components. A diffusion approximation provided a remarkable fit to the stochastic dynamics and cumulative extinction risk, except for very small populations where stochastic growth rate was biased upward or downward depending on the model. These results confirm that the extended IPM provides a powerful tool to assess the conservation status and compare the stochastic demography of size-structured species, but should be complemented with individual based models to obtain unbiased estimates for very small populations of conservation concern.

  19. [On the relation between encounter rate and population density: Are classical models of population dynamics justified?].

    PubMed

    Nedorezov, L V

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model of migrations on a lattice and with discrete time is considered. It is assumed that space is homogenous with respect to its properties and during one time step every individual (independently of local population numbers) can migrate to nearest nodes of lattice with equal probabilities. It is also assumed that population size remains constant during certain time interval of computer experiments. The following variants of estimation of encounter rate between individuals are considered: when for the fixed time moments every individual in every node of lattice interacts with all other individuals in the node; when individuals can stay in nodes independently, or can be involved in groups in two, three or four individuals. For each variant of interactions between individuals, average value (with respect to space and time) is computed for various values of population size. The samples obtained were compared with respective functions of classic models of isolated population dynamics: Verhulst model, Gompertz model, Svirezhev model, and theta-logistic model. Parameters of functions were calculated with least square method. Analyses of deviations were performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Lilliefors test, Shapiro-Wilk test, and other statistical tests. It is shown that from traditional point of view there are no correspondence between the encounter rate and functions describing effects of self-regulatory mechanisms on population dynamics. Best fitting of samples was obtained with Verhulst and theta-logistic models when using the dataset resulted from the situation when every individual in the node interacts with all other individuals.

  20. Surrogate population models for large-scale neural simulations.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Bryan P

    2015-06-01

    Because different parts of the brain have rich interconnections, it is not possible to model small parts realistically in isolation. However, it is also impractical to simulate large neural systems in detail. This article outlines a new approach to multiscale modeling of neural systems that involves constructing efficient surrogate models of populations. Given a population of neuron models with correlated activity and with specific, nonrandom connections, a surrogate model is constructed in order to approximate the aggregate outputs of the population. The surrogate model requires less computation than the neural model, but it has a clear and specific relationship with the neural model. For example, approximate spike rasters for specific neurons can be derived from a simulation of the surrogate model. This article deals specifically with neural engineering framework (NEF) circuits of leaky-integrate-and-fire point neurons. Weighted sums of spikes are modeled by interpolating over latent variables in the population activity, and linear filters operate on gaussian random variables to approximate spike-related fluctuations. It is found that the surrogate models can often closely approximate network behavior with orders-of-magnitude reduction in computational demands, although there are certain systematic differences between the spiking and surrogate models. Since individual spikes are not modeled, some simulations can be performed with much longer steps sizes (e.g., 20 ms). Possible extensions to non-NEF networks and to more complex neuron models are discussed.

  1. Stimulus-dependent Maximum Entropy Models of Neural Population Codes

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Ronen; Schneidman, Elad

    2013-01-01

    Neural populations encode information about their stimulus in a collective fashion, by joint activity patterns of spiking and silence. A full account of this mapping from stimulus to neural activity is given by the conditional probability distribution over neural codewords given the sensory input. For large populations, direct sampling of these distributions is impossible, and so we must rely on constructing appropriate models. We show here that in a population of 100 retinal ganglion cells in the salamander retina responding to temporal white-noise stimuli, dependencies between cells play an important encoding role. We introduce the stimulus-dependent maximum entropy (SDME) model—a minimal extension of the canonical linear-nonlinear model of a single neuron, to a pairwise-coupled neural population. We find that the SDME model gives a more accurate account of single cell responses and in particular significantly outperforms uncoupled models in reproducing the distributions of population codewords emitted in response to a stimulus. We show how the SDME model, in conjunction with static maximum entropy models of population vocabulary, can be used to estimate information-theoretic quantities like average surprise and information transmission in a neural population. PMID:23516339

  2. Population dynamics of pond zooplankton II Daphnia ambigua Scourfield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angino, E.E.; Armitage, K.B.; Saxena, B.

    1973-01-01

    Calcium was the most important of 27 environmental components affecting density for a 50 week period. Simultaneous stepwise regression accounted for more variability in total number/1 and in the number of ovigerous females/1 than did any of the lag analyses; 1-week lag accounted for the greatest amount of variability in clutch size. Total number and clutch size were little affected by measures of food. ?? 1973 Dr. W. Junk b.v. Publishers.

  3. A Role for M-Matrices in Modelling Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Glyn; Rumchev, Ventsi

    2006-01-01

    Adopting a discrete-time cohort-type model to represent the dynamics of a population, the problem of achieving a desired total size of the population under a balanced growth (contraction) and the problem of maintaining the desired size, once achieved, are studied. Properties of positive-time systems and M-matrices are used to develop the results,…

  4. Modeling seasonal interactions in the population dynamics of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Marra, P.P.; Greenberg, Russell; Marra, Peter P.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of migratory birds requires understanding the relevant biological events that occur during breeding, migratory, and overwintering periods. The few available population models for passerine birds focus on breeding-season events, disregard or oversimplify events during nonbreeding periods, and ignore interactions that occur between periods of the annual cycle. Identifying and explicitly incorporating seasonal interactions into population models for migratory birds could provide important insights about when population limitation actually occurs in the annual cycle. We present a population model for the annual cycle of a migratory bird, based on the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) but more generally applicable, that examines the importance of seasonal interactions by incorporating: (1) density dependence during the breeding and winter seasons, (2) a carry-over effect of winter habitat on breeding-season productivity, and (3) the effects of behavioral dominance on seasonal and habitat specific demographic rates. First, we show that habitat availability on both the wintering and breeding grounds can strongly affect equilibrium population size and sex ratio. Second, sex ratio dynamics, as mediated by behavioral dominance, can affect all other aspects of population dynamics. Third, carry-over effects can be strong, especially when winter events are limiting. These results suggest that understanding the population dynamics of migratory birds may require more consideration of the seasonal interactions induced by carry-over effects and density dependence in multiple seasons. This model provides a framework in which to explore more fully these seasonal dynamics and a context for estimation of life history parameters.

  5. Permanence and Stability of a Kill the Winner Model in Marine Ecology.

    PubMed

    Korytowski, Daniel A; Smith, Hal

    2017-03-27

    We focus on the long-term dynamics of "killing the winner" Lotka-Volterra models of marine communities consisting of bacteria, virus, and zooplankton. Under suitable conditions, it is shown that there is a unique equilibrium with all populations present which is stable, the system is permanent, and the limiting behavior of its solutions is strongly constrained.

  6. Spatial models of Northern Bobwhite populations for conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy; Keister, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1980, northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) range-wide populations declined 3.9% annually. Within the West Gulf Coastal Plain Bird Conservation Region in the south-central United States, populations of this quail species have declined 6.8% annually. These declines sparked calls for land use change and prompted implementation of various conservation practices. However, to effectively reverse these declines and restore northern bobwhite to their former population levels, habitat conservation and management efforts must target establishment and maintenance of sustainable populations. To provide guidance for conservation and restoration of habitat capable of supporting sustainable northern bobwhite populations in the West Gulf Coastal Plain, we modeled their spatial distribution using landscape characteristics derived from 1992 National Land Cover Data and bird detections, from 1990 to 1994, along 10-stop Breeding Bird Survey route segments. Four landscape metrics influenced detections of northern bobwhite: detections were greater in areas with more grassland and increased aggregation of agricultural lands, but detections were reduced in areas with increased density of land cover edge and grassland edge. Using these landscape metrics, we projected the abundance and spatial distribution of northern bobwhite populations across the entire West Gulf Coastal Plain. Predicted populations closely approximated abundance estimates from a different cadre of concurrently collected data but model predictions did not accurately reflect bobwhite detections along species-specific call-count routes in Arkansas and Louisiana. Using similar methods, we also projected northern bobwhite population distribution circa 1980 based on Land Use Land Cover data and bird survey data from 1976 to 1984. We compared our 1980 spatial projections with our spatial estimate of 1992 populations to identify areas of population change. Additionally, we used our projection of the spatial

  7. Assessing the importance of demographic parameters for population dynamics using Bayesian integrated population modeling.

    PubMed

    Eacker, Daniel R; Lukacs, Paul M; Proffitt, Kelly M; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2017-02-11

    To successfully respond to changing habitat, climate or harvest, managers need to identify the most effective strategies to reverse population trends of declining species and/or manage harvest of game species. A classic approach in conservation biology for the last two decades has been the use of matrix population models to determine the most important vital rates affecting population growth rate (λ), that is, sensitivity. Ecologists quickly realized the critical role of environmental variability in vital rates affecting population growth rate by developing approaches such as life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) that account for both sensitivity and variability of a vital rate. These LSA methods used matrix-population modeling and Monte Carlo simulation methods, but faced challenges in integrating data from different sources, disentangling process and sampling variation, and in their flexibility. Here, we developed a Bayesian integrated population model (IPM) for two populations of a large herbivore, elk (Cervus canadensis) in Montana, USA. We then extended the IPM to evaluate sensitivity in a Bayesian framework. We integrated known-fate survival data from radio-marked adults and juveniles, fecundity data, and population counts in a hierarchical population model that explicitly accounted for process and sampling variance. Next, we tested the prevailing paradigm in large herbivore population ecology that juvenile survival of neonates <90 days old drives λ using our Bayesian LSA approach. In contrast to the prevailing paradigm in large herbivore ecology, we found that adult female survival explained more of the variation in λ than elk calf survival, and that summer and winter elk calf survival periods were nearly equivalent in importance for λ. Our Bayesian IPM improved precision of our vital rate estimates and highlighted discrepancies between count and vital rate data that could refine population monitoring, demonstrating that combining sensitivity analysis

  8. Population models of burrowing mayfly recolonization in Western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schloesser, D.W.; Krieger, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies, Hexagenia spp. (H. limbata and H. rigida), began recolonizing western Lake Erie during the 1990s. Survey data for mayfly nymph densities indicated that the population experienced exponential growth between 1991 and 1997. To predict the time to full recovery of the mayfly population, we fitted logistic models, ranging in carrying capacity from 600 to 2000 nymphs/m2, to these survey data. Based on the fitted logistic curves, we forecast that the mayfly population in western Lake Erie would achieve full recovery between years 1998 and 2000, depending on the carrying capacity of the western basin. Additionally, we estimated the mortality rate of nymphs in western Lake Erie during 1994 and then applied an age-based matrix model to the mayfly population. The results of the matrix population modeling corroborated the exponential growth model application in that both methods yielded an estimate of the population growth rate, r, in excess of 0.8 yr-1. This was the first evidence that mayfly populations are capable of recolonizing large aquatic ecosystems at rates comparable with those observed in much smaller lentic ecosystems. Our model predictions should prove valuable to managers of power plant facilities along the western basin in planning for mayfly emergences and to managers of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) fishery in western Lake Erie.

  9. Modeling oscillations and spiral waves in Dictyostelium populations.

    PubMed

    Noorbakhsh, Javad; Schwab, David J; Sgro, Allyson E; Gregor, Thomas; Mehta, Pankaj

    2015-06-01

    Unicellular organisms exhibit elaborate collective behaviors in response to environmental cues. These behaviors are controlled by complex biochemical networks within individual cells and coordinated through cell-to-cell communication. Describing these behaviors requires new mathematical models that can bridge scales-from biochemical networks within individual cells to spatially structured cellular populations. Here we present a family of "multiscale" models for the emergence of spiral waves in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our models exploit new experimental advances that allow for the direct measurement and manipulation of the small signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) used by Dictyostelium cells to coordinate behavior in cellular populations. Inspired by recent experiments, we model the Dictyostelium signaling network as an excitable system coupled to various preprocessing modules. We use this family of models to study spatially unstructured populations of "fixed" cells by constructing phase diagrams that relate the properties of population-level oscillations to parameters in the underlying biochemical network. We then briefly discuss an extension of our model that includes spatial structure and show how this naturally gives rise to spiral waves. Our models exhibit a wide range of novel phenomena. including a density-dependent frequency change, bistability, and dynamic death due to slow cAMP dynamics. Our modeling approach provides a powerful tool for bridging scales in modeling of Dictyostelium populations.

  10. Modeling oscillations and spiral waves in Dictyostelium populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorbakhsh, Javad; Schwab, David J.; Sgro, Allyson E.; Gregor, Thomas; Mehta, Pankaj

    2015-06-01

    Unicellular organisms exhibit elaborate collective behaviors in response to environmental cues. These behaviors are controlled by complex biochemical networks within individual cells and coordinated through cell-to-cell communication. Describing these behaviors requires new mathematical models that can bridge scales—from biochemical networks within individual cells to spatially structured cellular populations. Here we present a family of "multiscale" models for the emergence of spiral waves in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our models exploit new experimental advances that allow for the direct measurement and manipulation of the small signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) used by Dictyostelium cells to coordinate behavior in cellular populations. Inspired by recent experiments, we model the Dictyostelium signaling network as an excitable system coupled to various preprocessing modules. We use this family of models to study spatially unstructured populations of "fixed" cells by constructing phase diagrams that relate the properties of population-level oscillations to parameters in the underlying biochemical network. We then briefly discuss an extension of our model that includes spatial structure and show how this naturally gives rise to spiral waves. Our models exhibit a wide range of novel phenomena. including a density-dependent frequency change, bistability, and dynamic death due to slow cAMP dynamics. Our modeling approach provides a powerful tool for bridging scales in modeling of Dictyostelium populations.

  11. The vertical distribution of zooplankton in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Thomas L.

    1982-09-01

    The zooplankton community in the eastern Gulf of Mexico was investigated to determine the quantity and taxonomic composition of forage available to higher trophic levels and to provide a data base for future trophodynamic modelling. Standing stock (1.2 g m -2, dw) in the upper 1000 m is in the range for oligotrophic low-latitude boundary currents but is greater than in central gyre areas. Abundance decreases exponentially with depth, over half the biomass occuring in the upper 200 m. Diel variations are apparent, the greatest differences in biomass occuring in the upper 50 m and at 300 to 350 m. Copepods were dominant, contributing over 80% of the number and half the net-caught biomass. The zooplankton community is diverse, 21 genera individually exceeding 1% of the biomass in the 0 to 100-m layer. Grazers (herbivores, detritivores, omnivores) were 66% of the 0 to 1000-m standing stock and carnivores 34%, their biomass in the epipelagic zone above the base of the thermocline (150 m) at night increasing 46 and 57%, respectively. Zooplankton biomass available as forage for higher trophic levels is most concentrated in the upper 50 m, whereas, paradoxically, the zooplanktivorous micronekton, the myctophid fishes in particular, are centered deeper, primarily between 50 and 150 m.

  12. Stable isotope analysis of 1987-1991 zooplankton samples and bowhead whale tissues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    Stable isotope analyses of bowhead whale tissue samples and bowhead whale prey organisms collected over the years 1987 to 1991 were used to provide detail on the isotope ratio gradients evident in the arctic Alaskan zooplankton and to verify previous findings regarding the growth rates and age determination techniques developed for bowhead whales. Zooplankton of the Bering and Chukchi seas are enriched in (13)C relative to the eastern Beaufort Sea. The analysis of baleen from bowhead whales taken between 1987 to 1990 indicate that the whales are slow-growing and the young animals between year one and about six to seven years of age, undergo a period of little or no linear growth. The authors estimate that bowheads require 16-18 years to reach the length of sexual maturity, i.e., 13-14 m. From baleen Delta(13C) cycles, a 20 year record of the isotope ratios in the phytoplankton of the northern Bering and Chukchi seas was constructed. The long-term record has been compared with the temperature anomalies in surface waters of the Bering Sea. The Delta(13C) of the zooplankton is inversely correlated with temperature and refutes current models attempting to relate ocean temperature, and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels with the Delta(13C) of ocean sediment organic matter.

  13. A decade of predatory control of zooplankton species composition of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Bertram, Paul; Lewis, Theodore; Brown, Edward H.

    1995-01-01

    From 1983 to 1992, 71 species representing 38 genera from the Calanoida, Cladocera, Cyclopoida, Mysidacea, Rotifera, Mollusca and Harpacticoida comprised the offshore zooplankton community of Lake Michigan. Our data demonstrate that the composition and abundance of the calanoid community after 1983 is not unlike that of 1960s and that species diversity of the calanoid community is more diverse than the cladoceran community in the 1990s as compared to the early 1980s. Even though the relative biomass of the cladocerans has remained similar over the 1983-1993 period, the species diversity and evenness of the Cladocera community in the early 1990s is unlike anything that has been previously reported for Lake Michigan. Cladocera dominance is centered in one species, Daphnia galeata mendotae, and only three species of Cladocera were observed in the pelagic region of the lake in 1991 and 1992. Nutrient levels, phytoplankton biomass, and the abundance of planktivorous alewife and bloater chub and Bythotrephes are examined as possible causes of these changes in zooplankton species composition. The increase in Rotifera biomass, but not Crustacea, was correlated with an increase in relative biomass of unicellular algae. Food web models suggest Bythotrephes will cause Lake Michigan's plankton to return to a community similar to that of the 1970s; that is Diaptomus dominated. Such a change has occurred. However, correlational analysis suggest that alewife and bloater chubs (especially juveniles) are affecting size and biomass of larger species of zooplankton as well as Bythotrephes.

  14. Parameter Estimates in Differential Equation Models for Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the parameters present in several differential equation models of population growth, specifically logistic growth models and two-species competition models. We discuss student-evolved strategies and offer "Mathematica" code for a gradient search approach. We use historical (1930s) data from microbial studies of the Russian biologist,…

  15. Hierarchical animal movement models for population-level inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Buderman, Frances E.; Brost, Brian M.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Ivans, Jacob S.

    2016-01-01

    New methods for modeling animal movement based on telemetry data are developed regularly. With advances in telemetry capabilities, animal movement models are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Despite a need for population-level inference, animal movement models are still predominantly developed for individual-level inference. Most efforts to upscale the inference to the population level are either post hoc or complicated enough that only the developer can implement the model. Hierarchical Bayesian models provide an ideal platform for the development of population-level animal movement models but can be challenging to fit due to computational limitations or extensive tuning required. We propose a two-stage procedure for fitting hierarchical animal movement models to telemetry data. The two-stage approach is statistically rigorous and allows one to fit individual-level movement models separately, then resample them using a secondary MCMC algorithm. The primary advantages of the two-stage approach are that the first stage is easily parallelizable and the second stage is completely unsupervised, allowing for an automated fitting procedure in many cases. We demonstrate the two-stage procedure with two applications of animal movement models. The first application involves a spatial point process approach to modeling telemetry data, and the second involves a more complicated continuous-time discrete-space animal movement model. We fit these models to simulated data and real telemetry data arising from a population of monitored Canada lynx in Colorado, USA.

  16. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population

    SciTech Connect

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. - Highlights: • Interpretation of urine cadmium concentrations in France • PBPK and Bayesian population modelling of cadmium exposure • Assessment of the historic time-trend of the cadmium exposure in France • Risk assessment from current and future external and internal exposure.

  17. Modeled Population Connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Wren, Johanna L K; Kobayashi, Donald R; Jia, Yanli; Toonen, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive estimate of connectivity of passive pelagic particles released from coral reef habitat throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Potential connectivity is calculated using a Lagrangian particle transport model coupled offline with currents generated by an oceanographic circulation model, MITgcm. The connectivity matrices show a surprising degree of self-recruitment and directional dispersal towards the northwest, from the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). We identify three predicted connectivity breaks in the archipelago, that is, areas in the mid and northern part of the archipelago that have limited connections with surrounding islands and reefs. Predicted regions of limited connectivity generally match observed patterns of genetic structure reported for coral reef species in the uninhabited NWHI, but multiple genetic breaks observed in the inhabited MHI are not explained by passive dispersal. The better congruence in our modeling results based on physical transport of passive particles in the low-lying atolls of the uninhabited NWHI, but not in the anthropogenically impacted high islands of the MHI begs the question: what ultimately controls connectivity in this system?

  18. Modeled Population Connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Johanna L. K.; Kobayashi, Donald R.; Jia, Yanli; Toonen, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive estimate of connectivity of passive pelagic particles released from coral reef habitat throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Potential connectivity is calculated using a Lagrangian particle transport model coupled offline with currents generated by an oceanographic circulation model, MITgcm. The connectivity matrices show a surprising degree of self-recruitment and directional dispersal towards the northwest, from the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). We identify three predicted connectivity breaks in the archipelago, that is, areas in the mid and northern part of the archipelago that have limited connections with surrounding islands and reefs. Predicted regions of limited connectivity generally match observed patterns of genetic structure reported for coral reef species in the uninhabited NWHI, but multiple genetic breaks observed in the inhabited MHI are not explained by passive dispersal. The better congruence in our modeling results based on physical transport of passive particles in the low-lying atolls of the uninhabited NWHI, but not in the anthropogenically impacted high islands of the MHI begs the question: what ultimately controls connectivity in this system? PMID:27930680

  19. A general method for modeling population dynamics and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K

    2013-12-01

    Studying populations, be it a microbe colony or mankind, is important for understanding how complex systems evolve and exist. Such knowledge also often provides insights into evolution, history and different aspects of human life. By and large, populations' prosperity and decline is about transformation of certain resources into quantity and other characteristics of populations through growth, replication, expansion and acquisition of resources. We introduce a general model of population change, applicable to different types of populations, which interconnects numerous factors influencing population dynamics, such as nutrient influx and nutrient consumption, reproduction period, reproduction rate, etc. It is also possible to take into account specific growth features of individual organisms. We considered two recently discovered distinct growth scenarios: first, when organisms do not change their grown mass regardless of nutrients availability, and the second when organisms can reduce their grown mass by several times in a nutritionally poor environment. We found that nutrient supply and reproduction period are two major factors influencing the shape of population growth curves. There is also a difference in population dynamics between these two groups. Organisms belonging to the second group are significantly more adaptive to reduction of nutrients and far more resistant to extinction. Also, such organisms have substantially more frequent and lesser in amplitude fluctuations of population quantity for the same periodic nutrient supply (compared to the first group). Proposed model allows adequately describing virtually any possible growth scenario, including complex ones with periodic and irregular nutrient supply and other changing parameters, which present approaches cannot do.

  20. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Bowen, M.

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  1. Demographics of reintroduced populations: estimation, modeling, and decision analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Armstrong, Doug P.

    2013-01-01

    Reintroduction can be necessary for recovering populations of threatened species. However, the success of reintroduction efforts has been poorer than many biologists and managers would hope. To increase the benefits gained from reintroduction, management decision making should be couched within formal decision-analytic frameworks. Decision analysis is a structured process for informing decision making that recognizes that all decisions have a set of components—objectives, alternative management actions, predictive models, and optimization methods—that can be decomposed, analyzed, and recomposed to facilitate optimal, transparent decisions. Because the outcome of interest in reintroduction efforts is typically population viability or related metrics, models used in decision analysis efforts for reintroductions will need to include population models. In this special section of the Journal of Wildlife Management, we highlight examples of the construction and use of models for informing management decisions in reintroduced populations. In this introductory contribution, we review concepts in decision analysis, population modeling for analysis of decisions in reintroduction settings, and future directions. Increased use of formal decision analysis, including adaptive management, has great potential to inform reintroduction efforts. Adopting these practices will require close collaboration among managers, decision analysts, population modelers, and field biologists.

  2. Minimal models of growth and decline of microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Juška, Alfonsas

    2011-01-21

    Dynamics of growth and decline of microbial populations were analysed and respective models were developed in this investigation. Analysis of the dynamics was based on general considerations concerning the main properties of microorganisms and their interactions with the environment which was supposed to be affected by the activity of the population. Those considerations were expressed mathematically by differential equations or systems of the equations containing minimal sets of parameters characterizing those properties. It has been found that: (1) the factors leading to the decline of the population have to be considered separately, namely, accumulation of metabolites (toxins) in the medium and the exhaustion of resources; the latter have to be separated again into renewable ('building materials') and non-renewable (sources of energy); (2) decline of the population is caused by the exhaustion of sources of energy but no decline is predicted by the model because of the exhaustion of renewable resources; (3) the model determined by the accumulation of metabolites (toxins) in the medium does not suggest the existence of a separate 'stationary phase'; (4) in the model determined by the exhaustion of energy resources the 'stationary' and 'decline' phases are quite discernible; and (5) there is no symmetry in microbial population dynamics, the decline being slower than the rise. Mathematical models are expected to be useful in getting insight into the process of control of the dynamics of microbial populations. The models are in agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Distinguishing between population bottleneck and population subdivision by a Bayesian model choice procedure.

    PubMed

    Peter, Benjamin M; Wegmann, Daniel; Excoffier, Laurent

    2010-11-01

    Although most natural populations are genetically subdivided, they are often analysed as if they were panmictic units. In particular, signals of past demographic size changes are often inferred from genetic data by assuming that the analysed sample is drawn from a population without any internal subdivision. However, it has been shown that a bottleneck signal can result from the presence of some recent immigrants in a population. It thus appears important to contrast these two alternative scenarios in a model choice procedure to prevent wrong conclusions to be made. We use here an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach to infer whether observed patterns of genetic diversity in a given sample are more compatible with it being drawn from a panmictic population having gone through some size change, or from one or several demes belonging to a recent finite island model. Simulations show that we can correctly identify samples drawn from a subdivided population in up to 95% of the cases for a wide range of parameters. We apply our model choice procedure to the case of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and find conclusive evidence that Western and Eastern chimpanzee samples are drawn from a spatially subdivided population.

  4. Modeling Bacterial Population Growth from Stochastic Single-Cell Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Ignacio; Theodoropoulos, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    A few bacterial cells may be sufficient to produce a food-borne illness outbreak, provided that they are capable of adapting and proliferating on a food matrix. This is why any quantitative health risk assessment policy must incorporate methods to accurately predict the growth of bacterial populations from a small number of pathogens. In this aim, mathematical models have become a powerful tool. Unfortunately, at low cell concentrations, standard deterministic models fail to predict the fate of the population, essentially because the heterogeneity between individuals becomes relevant. In this work, a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model is proposed to describe variability within single-cell growth and division and to simulate population growth from a given initial number of individuals. We provide evidence of the model ability to explain the observed distributions of times to division, including the lag time produced by the adaptation to the environment, by comparing model predictions with experiments from the literature for Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Salmonella enterica. The model is shown to accurately predict experimental growth population dynamics for both small and large microbial populations. The use of stochastic models for the estimation of parameters to successfully fit experimental data is a particularly challenging problem. For instance, if Monte Carlo methods are employed to model the required distributions of times to division, the parameter estimation problem can become numerically intractable. We overcame this limitation by converting the stochastic description to a partial differential equation (backward Kolmogorov) instead, which relates to the distribution of division times. Contrary to previous stochastic formulations based on random parameters, the present model is capable of explaining the variability observed in populations that result from the growth of a small number of initial cells as well as the lack of it compared to

  5. Modeling bacterial population growth from stochastic single-cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Antonio A; Molina, Ignacio; Theodoropoulos, Constantinos

    2014-09-01

    A few bacterial cells may be sufficient to produce a food-borne illness outbreak, provided that they are capable of adapting and proliferating on a food matrix. This is why any quantitative health risk assessment policy must incorporate methods to accurately predict the growth of bacterial populations from a small number of pathogens. In this aim, mathematical models have become a powerful tool. Unfortunately, at low cell concentrations, standard deterministic models fail to predict the fate of the population, essentially because the heterogeneity between individuals becomes relevant. In this work, a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model is proposed to describe variability within single-cell growth and division and to simulate population growth from a given initial number of individuals. We provide evidence of the model ability to explain the observed distributions of times to division, including the lag time produced by the adaptation to the environment, by comparing model predictions with experiments from the literature for Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Salmonella enterica. The model is shown to accurately predict experimental growth population dynamics for both small and large microbial populations. The use of stochastic models for the estimation of parameters to successfully fit experimental data is a particularly challenging problem. For instance, if Monte Carlo methods are employed to model the required distributions of times to division, the parameter estimation problem can become numerically intractable. We overcame this limitation by converting the stochastic description to a partial differential equation (backward Kolmogorov) instead, which relates to the distribution of division times. Contrary to previous stochastic formulations based on random parameters, the present model is capable of explaining the variability observed in populations that result from the growth of a small number of initial cells as well as the lack of it compared to

  6. Characterization of intermittency in zooplankton behaviour in turbulence.

    PubMed

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Schmitt, François G; Souissi, Sami; Holzner, Markus

    2015-10-01

    We consider Lagrangian velocity differences of zooplankters swimming in still water and in turbulence. Using cumulants, we quantify the intermittency properties of their motion recorded using three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. Copepods swimming in still water display an intermittent behaviour characterized by a high probability of small velocity increments, and by stretched exponential tails. Low values arise from their steady cruising behaviour while heavy tails result from frequent relocation jumps. In turbulence, we show that at short time scales, the intermittency signature of active copepods clearly differs from that of the underlying flow, and reflects the frequent relocation jumps displayed by these small animals. Despite these differences, we show that copepods swimming in still and turbulent flow belong to the same intermittency class that can be modelled by a log-stable model with non-analytical cumulant generating function. Intermittency in swimming behaviour and relocation jumps may enable copepods to display oriented, collective motion under strong hydrodynamic conditions and thus, may contribute to the formation of zooplankton patches in energetic environments.

  7. From home range dynamics to population cycles: validation and realism of a common vole population model for pesticide risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Magnus

    2013-04-01

    Despite various attempts to establish population models as standard tools in pesticide risk assessment, population models still receive limited acceptance by risk assessors and authorities in Europe. A main criticism of risk assessors is that population models are often not, or not sufficiently, validated. Hence the realism of population-level risk assessments conducted with such models remains uncertain. We therefore developed an individual-based population model for the common vole, Microtus arvalis, and demonstrate how population models can be validated in great detail based on published data. The model is developed for application in pesticide risk assessment, therefore, the validation covers all areas of the biology of the common vole that are relevant for the analysis of potential effects and recovery after application of pesticides. Our results indicate that reproduction, survival, age structure, spatial behavior, and population dynamics reproduced from the model are comparable to field observations. Also interannual population cycles, which are frequently observed in field studies of small mammals, emerge from the population model. These cycles were shown to be caused by the home range behavior and dispersal. As observed previously in the field, population cycles in the model were also stronger for longer breeding season length. Our results show how validation can help to evaluate the realism of population models, and we discuss the importance of taking field methodology and resulting bias into account. Our results also demonstrate how population models can help to test or understand biological mechanisms in population ecology.

  8. A hierarchical model for estimating change in American Woodcock populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Kelley, J.R.; Niven, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    The Singing-Ground Survey (SGS) is a primary source of information on population change for American woodcock (Scolopax minor). We analyzed the SGS using a hierarchical log-linear model and compared the estimates of change and annual indices of abundance to a route regression analysis of SGS data. We also grouped SGS routes into Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) and estimated population change and annual indices using BCRs within states and provinces as strata. Based on the hierarchical model?based estimates, we concluded that woodcock populations were declining in North America between 1968 and 2006 (trend = -0.9%/yr, 95% credible interval: -1.2, -0.5). Singing-Ground Survey results are generally similar between analytical approaches, but the hierarchical model has several important advantages over the route regression. Hierarchical models better accommodate changes in survey efficiency over time and space by treating strata, years, and observers as random effects in the context of a log-linear model, providing trend estimates that are derived directly from the annual indices. We also conducted a hierarchical model analysis of woodcock data from the Christmas Bird Count and the North American Breeding Bird Survey. All surveys showed general consistency in patterns of population change, but the SGS had the shortest credible intervals. We suggest that population management and conservation planning for woodcock involving interpretation of the SGS use estimates provided by the hierarchical model.

  9. Developing population models with data from marked individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hae Yeong Ryu,; Kevin T. Shoemaker,; Eva Kneip,; Anna Pidgeon,; Patricia Heglund,; Brooke Bateman,; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Reşit Akçakaya,

    2016-01-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a powerful tool for biodiversity assessments, but its use has been limited because of the requirements for fully specified population models such as demographic structure, density-dependence, environmental stochasticity, and specification of uncertainties. Developing a fully specified population model from commonly available data sources – notably, mark–recapture studies – remains complicated due to lack of practical methods for estimating fecundity, true survival (as opposed to apparent survival), natural temporal variability in both survival and fecundity, density-dependence in the demographic parameters, and uncertainty in model parameters. We present a general method that estimates all the key parameters required to specify a stochastic, matrix-based population model, constructed using a long-term mark–recapture dataset. Unlike standard mark–recapture analyses, our approach provides estimates of true survival rates and fecundities, their respective natural temporal variabilities, and density-dependence functions, making it possible to construct a population model for long-term projection of population dynamics. Furthermore, our method includes a formal quantification of parameter uncertainty for global (multivariate) sensitivity analysis. We apply this approach to 9 bird species and demonstrate the feasibility of using data from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program. Bias-correction factors for raw estimates of survival and fecundity derived from mark–recapture data (apparent survival and juvenile:adult ratio, respectively) were non-negligible, and corrected parameters were generally more biologically reasonable than their uncorrected counterparts. Our method allows the development of fully specified stochastic population models using a single, widely available data source, substantially reducing the barriers that have until now limited the widespread application of PVA. This method

  10. Estimation of population size using open capture-recapture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, T.L.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important needs for wildlife managers is an accurate estimate of population size. Yet, for many species, including most marine species and large mammals, accurate and precise estimation of numbers is one of the most difficult of all research challenges. Open-population capture-recapture models have proven useful in many situations to estimate survival probabilities but typically have not been used to estimate population size. We show that open-population models can be used to estimate population size by developing a Horvitz-Thompson-type estimate of population size and an estimator of its variance. Our population size estimate keys on the probability of capture at each trap occasion and therefore is quite general and can be made a function of external covariates measured during the study. Here we define the estimator and investigate its bias, variance, and variance estimator via computer simulation. Computer simulations make extensive use of real data taken from a study of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Beaufort Sea. The population size estimator is shown to be useful because it was negligibly biased in all situations studied. The variance estimator is shown to be useful in all situations, but caution is warranted in cases of extreme capture heterogeneity.

  11. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    PubMed

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as < 4 days, application of B[a]P induced decrease of zooplankton abundance. However, the recovery pattern was different among cladocerans and rotifers. Consequently, B[a]P showed insecticide-like impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary.

  12. Analysis of six groups of zooplankton in samples taken in 1978/79 at the proposed OTEC site in the eastern Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Flock, M.E.; Hopkins, T.L.

    1981-05-01

    Continued analysis has been made of the 33 zooplankton collections made at the proposed OTEC site in the Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay. Six groups of zooplankton - siphonophores (Calycophora), pteropods (Thecosomata), chaetognaths, thaliaceans, euphausiids and amphipods were quantitatively investigated. Numbers and biomass were determined for all taxa and diurnal, seasonal and depth trends were discussed. Considering the present study and the previous investigation of the copepod population, this proposed OTEC site is probably one of the faunistically better known locales in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean.

  13. Mathematically modelling proportions of Japanese populations by industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Yoshito

    2016-10-01

    I propose a mathematical model for temporal changes of proportions for industrial sectors. I prove that the model keeps the proportions for the primary, the secondary, and the tertiary sectors between 0 and 100% and preserves their total as 100%. The model fits the Japanese historical data between 1950 and 2005 for the population proportions by industry very well. The model also predicts that the proportion for the secondary industry becomes negligible and becomes less than 1% at least around 2080.

  14. Role of toxin and nutrient for the occurrence and termination of plankton bloom--results drawn from field observations and a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Pal, S; Chatterjee, Samrat; Chattopadhyay, J

    2007-01-01

    The termination of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and coexistence of phytoplankton-zooplankton populations are of great importance to human health, ecosystem, environment, tourism and fisheries. In this paper we propose a three-component model consisting of dissolved limiting nutrients (N) supplied at constant rate and partially recycled after the death of plankton by bacterial decomposition, phytoplankton (P) and zooplankton (Z), where the growth of zooplankton species reduce due to toxic chemicals released by phytoplankton species. Our analysis leads to different thresholds which are expressible in terms of model parameters and determine the existence and stability of various states of the system. We observe that phytoplankton-zooplankton persist if the maximal zooplankton ingestion rate exceeds a lower threshold value. It is shown that the coexistence equilibrium loses its stability when the dilution rate of the nutrient concentration passes through a critical value and Hopf bifurcation occurs that induces oscillations of the population. Our results indicate that the occurrence of bloom increases when the nutrient concentration is very high, and in that case toxin produced by the phytoplankton plays a very crucial role towards the termination of the planktonic bloom.

  15. An aerial sightability model for estimating ferruginous hawk population size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, L.W.; Anderson, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    Most raptor aerial survey projects have focused on numeric description of visibility bias without identifying the contributing factors or developing predictive models to account for imperfect detection rates. Our goal was to develop a sightability model for nesting ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) that could account for nests missed during aerial surveys and provide more accurate population estimates. Eighteen observers, all unfamiliar with nest locations in a known population, searched for nests within 300 m of flight transects via a Maule fixed-wing aircraft. Flight variables tested for their influence on nest-detection rates included aircraft speed, height, direction of travel, time of day, light condition, distance to nest, and observer experience level. Nest variables included status (active vs. inactive), condition (i.e., excellent, good, fair, poor, bad), substrate type, topography, and tree density. A multiple logistic regression model identified nest substrate type, distance to nest, and observer experience level as significant predictors of detection rates (P < 0.05). The overall model was significant (??26 = 124.4, P < 0.001, n = 255 nest observations), and the correct classification rate was 78.4%. During 2 validation surveys, observers saw 23.7% (14/59) and 36.5% (23/63) of the actual population. Sightability model predictions, with 90% confidence intervals, captured the true population in both tests. Our results indicate standardized aerial surveys, when used in conjunction with the predictive sightability model, can provide unbiased population estimates for nesting ferruginous hawks.

  16. Zooplankton structure and dynamics in two estuaries from the Atlantic coast in relation to multi-stressors exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. R.; Guilhermino, L.; Morgado, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the response of pelagic zooplankton to different levels of abiotic multi-stressors in the North Atlantic coast, taking advantage of the comparison of the communities of two adjacent estuaries with different levels of historical pollution (estuaries of Minho and Lima Rivers). The zooplankton community structure, composition and temporal variation were comparatively investigated for 15 months, using different net meshes. Several abiotic factors were measured in situ and water samples were simultaneously collected for determination of nutrients and chlorophyll a. The overall results revealed a diverse community represented by species that have been found in subtropical and temperate zones. Although the highest diversity was observed in the Lima estuary, supported by higher contributions of marine taxa, the total zooplankton biomass was found to be significantly higher in the Minho estuary. The salinity gradient differences between estuaries, associated to significant differences in water nutrients levels, were found to be the main forcing factors affecting micro and mesozooplankton. Considering the importance of the impacts resulting from abiotic variation on the basis of aquatic food webs, the present investigation represented a case-study, based in two contrasting estuaries, one strongly influenced by freshwater discharges (Minho estuary) and the other with higher salinity levels (Lima estuary), contributing to a better understanding of the effects of multi-stressors on pelagic zooplankton communities, providing useful information for studies related with climate change impacts, biogeography, conservation and providing data contributing to the improvement of pelagic fisheries management models.

  17. Interannual abundance changes of gelatinous carnivore zooplankton unveil climate-driven hydrographic variations in the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Mariaelena; Molinero, Juan C; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Pardal, Miguel A; Primo, Ana L; Nyitrai, Daniel; Marques, Sónia C

    2016-09-01

    The persistent massive blooms of gelatinous zooplankton recorded during recent decades may be indicative of marine ecosystem changes. In this study, we investigated the potential influence of the North Atlantic climate (NAO) variability on decadal abundance changes of gelatinous carnivore zooplankton in the Mondego estuary, Portugal, over the period 2003-2013. During the 11-year study, the community of gelatinous carnivores encompassed a larger diversity of hydromedusae than siphonophores; the former dominated by Obelia spp., Lizzia blondina, Clythia hemisphaerica, Liriope tetraphylla and Solmaris corona, while the latter dominated by Muggiaea atlantica. Gelatinous carnivore zooplankton displayed marked interannual variability and mounting species richness over the period examined. Their pattern of abundance shifted towards larger abundances ca. 2007 and significant phenological changes. The latter included a shift in the mean annual pattern (from unimodal to bimodal peak, prior and after 2007 respectively) and an earlier timing of the first annual peak concurrent with enhanced temperatures. These changes were concurrent with the climate-driven environmental variability mainly controlled by the NAO, which displayed larger variance after 2007 along with an enhanced upwelling activity. Structural equation modelling allowed depicting cascading effects derived from the NAO influence on regional climate and upwelling variability further shaping water temperature. Such cascading effect percolated the structure and dynamics of the community of gelatinous carnivore zooplankton in the Mondego estuary.

  18. Modeling structured population dynamics using data from unmarked individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Zipkin, Elise; Thorson, James T.; See, Kevin; Lynch, Heather J.; Kanno, Yoichiro; Chandler, Richard; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The study of population dynamics requires unbiased, precise estimates of abundance and vital rates that account for the demographic structure inherent in all wildlife and plant populations. Traditionally, these estimates have only been available through approaches that rely on intensive mark–recapture data. We extended recently developed N-mixture models to demonstrate how demographic parameters and abundance can be estimated for structured populations using only stage-structured count data. Our modeling framework can be used to make reliable inferences on abundance as well as recruitment, immigration, stage-specific survival, and detection rates during sampling. We present a range of simulations to illustrate the data requirements, including the number of years and locations necessary for accurate and precise parameter estimates. We apply our modeling framework to a population of northern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) in the mid-Atlantic region (USA) and find that the population is unexpectedly declining. Our approach represents a valuable advance in the estimation of population dynamics using multistate data from unmarked individuals and should additionally be useful in the development of integrated models that combine data from intensive (e.g., mark–recapture) and extensive (e.g., counts) data sources.

  19. Nitrogen isotopic ratios in fecal pellets produced by marine zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Altabet, M.A. ); Small, L.F. )

    1990-01-01

    At each site and in every season studied, zooplankton in the upper ocean produced fecal pellets that were 1.3% lower in {delta}{sup 15}N than their body tissue but 2.2% higher than their apparent food source. {sup 14}N-containing molecules are evidently preferentially assimilated in zooplankton intestinal tracts, though other isotopic effects must account for the enrichment in {sup 15}N of these organisms relative to their food. These results also show zooplankton to be important modifiers of nitrogen isotopic ratios for marine particulate matter. {delta}{sup 15}N values for sinking particles and fecal pellets are similar, supporting the perspective that macrozooplankton are important factors in producing and processing particles that sink into the ocean's interior and sediments. In contrast, the relationship in {delta}{sup 15}N between fecal pellets and suspended particles in the euphotic zone is more variable. It appears that zooplankton select food particles of varying {delta}{sup 15}N from the suspended particle pool. These results suggest that both zooplankton feeding behavior and their digestive chemistry are important in determining the composition of sinking particulate matter in the ocean with respect to the suspended particle source in the euphotic zone.

  20. Zooplankton communities of a new pumped storage reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, D.U.; Meyer, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    Zooplankton colonization was followed for 16 months in Lake Oconee, Georgia, a new pumped storage reservoir. Data were interpreted to identify differences among stations and seasons, as a function of the reservoir's early stage of development and of pumped storage operations. Colonization was rapid, and the zooplankton community was characterized by a high species diversity; approximately 40 rotifer species and 14 cladoceran genera were recorded. Zooplankton density varied along an environmental gradient from riverine to lentic conditions. Rotifer abundance varied from 10/sup 4/-10/sup 6/ individuals/m/sup 3/, with maxima in the summers. Copepod and cladoceran densities ranged from 10/sup 3/ to nearly 10/sup 5/ individuals/m/sup 3/; maxima for stations other than the dam were observed in the summer and early fall, but high values at the dam station occurred throughout winter 1980. When pumped storage operations began in December 1979, zooplankton densities increased at the dam station. Pumpback decreased the intensity of the environmental gradient from riverine to lentic conditions, and led to a more similar zooplankton community structure throughout the reservoir.

  1. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  2. Isolation with migration models for more than two populations.

    PubMed

    Hey, Jody

    2010-04-01

    A method for studying the divergence of multiple closely related populations is described and assessed. The approach of Hey and Nielsen (2007, Integration within the Felsenstein equation for improved Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in population genetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104:2785-2790) for fitting an isolation-with-migration model was extended to the case of multiple populations with a known phylogeny. Analysis of simulated data sets reveals the kinds of history that are accessible with a multipopulation analysis. Necessarily, processes associated with older time periods in a phylogeny are more difficult to estimate; and histories with high levels of gene flow are particularly difficult with more than two populations. However, for histories with modest levels of gene flow, or for very large data sets, it is possible to study large complex divergence problems that involve multiple closely related populations or species.

  3. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  4. Student-Teacher Population Growth Model. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabrowski, Edward K.; And Others

    This mathematical model of the educational system calculates information on population groups by sex, race, age, and educational level. The model can be used to answer questions about what would happen to the flows of students and teachers through the formal educational system if these flows are changed at various stages. The report discusses the…

  5. FISHERY-ORIENTED MODEL OF MARYLAND OYSTER POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used time series data to calibrate a model of oyster population dynamics for Maryland's Chesapeake Bay. Model parameters were fishing mortality, natural mortality, recruitment, and carrying capacity. We calibrated for the Maryland bay as a whole and separately for 3 salinity z...

  6. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control.

    PubMed

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-12-08

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects' internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output.

  7. Joint Modeling of Anatomical and Functional Connectivity for Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Yogesh; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Golland, Polina

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel probabilistic framework to merge information from diffusion weighted imaging tractography and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging correlations to identify connectivity patterns in the brain. In particular, we model the interaction between latent anatomical and functional connectivity and present an intuitive extension to population studies. We employ the EM algorithm to estimate the model parameters by maximizing the data likelihood. The method simultaneously infers the templates of latent connectivity for each population and the differences in connectivity between the groups. We demonstrate our method on a schizophrenia study. Our model identifies significant increases in functional connectivity between the parietal/posterior cingulate region and the frontal lobe and reduced functional connectivity between the parietal/posterior cingulate region and the temporal lobe in schizophrenia. We further establish that our model learns predictive differences between the control and clinical populations, and that combining the two modalities yields better results than considering each one in isolation. PMID:21878411

  8. Changes in fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition of zooplankton assemblages related to environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in zooplankton fatty acid and hydrocarbon patterns are described in relation to changes in environmental conditions and species composition. The regulation of zooplankton abundance by sea nettle-ctenophore interaction was examined in a small Rhode Island coastal pond. Sea nettles were nettles were able to eliminate ctenophores from the pond and subsequently zooplankton abundance increased. During one increase in zooplankton abundance, it was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased while monounsaturated fatty acids increased. It was concluded that this shift in biochemical pattern was due to food limitation. In addition, zooplankton fatty acids were used in multivariate discriminant analysis to classify whether zooplankton were from coastal or estuarine environments. Zooplankton from coastal environments were characterized by higher monounsaturate fatty acids. Zooplankton hydrocarbon composition was affected by species composition and by pollution inputs. The presence of Calanus finmarchicus was detected by increased levels of pristane.

  9. Size-specific sensitivity: Applying a new structured population model

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, M.R.; Ellner, S.P.; Dixon, P.M.

    2000-03-01

    Matrix population models require the population to be divided into discrete stage classes. In many cases, especially when classes are defined by a continuous variable, such as length or mass, there are no natural breakpoints, and the division is artificial. The authors introduce the integral projection model, which eliminates the need for division into discrete classes, without requiring any additional biological assumptions. Like a traditional matrix model, the integral projection model provides estimates of the asymptotic growth rate, stable size distribution, reproductive values, and sensitivities of the growth rate to changes in vital rates. However, where the matrix model represents the size distributions, reproductive value, and sensitivities as step functions (constant within a stage class), the integral projection model yields smooth curves for each of these as a function of individual size. The authors describe a method for fitting the model to data, and they apply this method to data on an endangered plant species, northern monkshood (Aconitum noveboracense), with individuals classified by stem diameter. The matrix and integral models yield similar estimates of the asymptotic growth rate, but the reproductive values and sensitivities in the matrix model are sensitive to the choice of stage classes. The integral projection model avoids this problem and yields size-specific sensitivities that are not affected by stage duration. These general properties of the integral projection model will make it advantageous for other populations where there is no natural division of individuals into stage classes.

  10. Selection for fitness at the individual or population levels: modelling effects of genetic modifications in microalgae on productivity and environmental safety.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Kevin J; Greenwell, H Christopher; Lovitt, Robert W; Shields, Robin J

    2010-04-07

    A mechanistic model of microalgae is used to explore the implications of modifying microalgal chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency with an aim to optimising commercial biomass production. The models show the potential for a 10 fold increase in microalgae productivity in genetically modified versus unmodified configurations, while also enabling the use of bioreactors of greater optical depth operating at lower dilution rates. Analysis suggests that natural selection of a trait benefiting the individual (high Chl:C(max), i.e., high antennae size) conflicts with artificial selection of a trait (low Chl:C(max)) of most benefit to production at the population level. The implication is that GM strains rather than strains selected from nature will be most beneficial for commercial algal biofuels production. Further, escaped GM algae populations may, depending on the specific nature of the modification, be quickly out-competed by the natural forms because individually a high Chl:C is beneficial in low light environments. However, it remains possible that changes in biochemical composition associated with genetic modification of photosystem competence, or with other selection processes to enhance commercial gain, may adversely affect the value of such organisms as prey for zooplankton, leading to the unwanted generation of future harmful algae.

  11. Locomotor adaptations of some gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q

    1985-01-01

    cost of locomotion is greater in Doliolum. Few gelatinous zooplankton show special adaptations both for rapid escape movements, and for slow sustained swimming, those that do deserve further study.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity in zooplankton summer distribution in the eastern Chukchi Sea in 2012-2013 as a result of large-scale interactions of water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic shelf ecosystems has increased in recent years as the climate has rapidly warmed and sea ice declined. These changing conditions prompted the broad-scale multidisciplinary Arctic Ecosystem integrated survey (Arctic Eis) aimed at systematic, comparative analyses of interannual variability of the shelf ecosystem. In this study, we compared zooplankton composition and geographical distribution in relation to water properties on the eastern Chukchi and northern Bering Sea shelves during the summers of 2012 and 2013. In 2012, waters of Pacific origin prevailed over the study area carrying expatriate oceanic species (e.g. copepods Neocalanus spp., Eucalanus bungii) from the Bering Sea outer shelf well onto the northeastern Chukchi shelf. In contrast, in 2013, zooplankton of Pacific origin was mainly distributed over the southern Chukchi shelf, suggesting a change of advection pathways into the Arctic. These changes also manifested in the emergence of large lipid-rich Arctic zooplankton (e.g. Calanus hyperboreus) on the northeastern Chukchi shelf in 2013. The predominant copepod Calanus glacialis was composed of two distinct populations originating from the Bering Sea and from the Arctic, with the Arctic population expanding over a broader range in 2013. The observed interannual variability in zooplankton distribution on the Chukchi Sea shelf may be explained by previously described systematic oceanographic patterns derived from long-term observations. Variability in oceanic circulation and related zooplankton distributions (e.g. changes in southwestward advection of C. hyperboreus) may impact keystone predators such as Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) that feed on energy-rich zooplankton.

  13. Delay driven spatiotemporal chaos in single species population dynamics models.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Masha; Petrovskii, Sergei; Banerjee, Malay

    2016-08-01

    Questions surrounding the prevalence of complex population dynamics form one of the central themes in ecology. Limit cycles and spatiotemporal chaos are examples that have been widely recognised theoretically, although their importance and applicability to natural populations remains debatable. The ecological processes underlying such dynamics are thought to be numerous, though there seems to be consent as to delayed density dependence being one of the main driving forces. Indeed, time delay is a common feature of many ecological systems and can significantly influence population dynamics. In general, time delays may arise from inter- and intra-specific trophic interactions or population structure, however in the context of single species populations they are linked to more intrinsic biological phenomena such as gestation or resource regeneration. In this paper, we consider theoretically the spatiotemporal dynamics of a single species population using two different mathematical formulations. Firstly, we revisit the diffusive logistic equation in which the per capita growth is a function of some specified delayed argument. We then modify the model by incorporating a spatial convolution which results in a biologically more viable integro-differential model. Using the combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we investigate the effect of time delay on pattern formation. In particular, we show that for sufficiently large values of time delay the system's dynamics are indicative to spatiotemporal chaos. The chaotic dynamics arising in the wake of a travelling population front can be preceded by either a plateau corresponding to dynamical stabilisation of the unstable equilibrium or by periodic oscillations.

  14. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. ); Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation.

  15. A model for dengue disease with variable human population.

    PubMed

    Esteva, L; Vargas, C

    1999-03-01

    A model for the transmission of dengue fever with variable human population size is analyzed. We find three threshold parameters which govern the existence of the endemic proportion equilibrium, the increase of the human population size, and the behaviour of the total number of human infectives. We prove the global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points using the theory of competitive systems, compound matrices, and the center manifold theorem.

  16. Statistical validation of structured population models for Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Adoteye, Kaska; Banks, H T; Cross, Karissa; Eytcheson, Stephanie; Flores, Kevin B; LeBlanc, Gerald A; Nguyen, Timothy; Ross, Chelsea; Smith, Emmaline; Stemkovski, Michael; Stokely, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    In this study we use statistical validation techniques to verify density-dependent mechanisms hypothesized for populations of Daphnia magna. We develop structured population models that exemplify specific mechanisms and use multi-scale experimental data in order to test their importance. We show that fecundity and survival rates are affected by both time-varying density-independent factors, such as age, and density-dependent factors, such as competition. We perform uncertainty analysis and show that our parameters are estimated with a high degree of confidence. Furthermore, we perform a sensitivity analysis to understand how changes in fecundity and survival rates affect population size and age-structure.

  17. Modelling interactions of toxicants and density dependence in wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, Harrie W.M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2013-01-01

    1. A major challenge in the conservation of threatened and endangered species is to predict population decline and design appropriate recovery measures. However, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife populations are notoriously difficult to predict due to potentially nonlinear responses and interactions with natural ecological processes like density dependence. 2. Here, we incorporated both density dependence and anthropogenic stressors in a stage-based matrix population model and parameterized it for a density-dependent population of peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus exposed to two anthropogenic toxicants [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)]. Log-logistic exposure–response relationships were used to translate toxicant concentrations in peregrine falcon eggs to effects on fecundity. Density dependence was modelled as the probability of a nonbreeding bird acquiring a breeding territory as a function of the current number of breeders. 3. The equilibrium size of the population, as represented by the number of breeders, responded nonlinearly to increasing toxicant concentrations, showing a gradual decrease followed by a relatively steep decline. Initially, toxicant-induced reductions in population size were mitigated by an alleviation of the density limitation, that is, an increasing probability of territory acquisition. Once population density was no longer limiting, the toxicant impacts were no longer buffered by an increasing proportion of nonbreeders shifting to the breeding stage, resulting in a strong decrease in the equilibrium number of breeders. 4. Median critical exposure concentrations, that is, median toxicant concentrations in eggs corresponding with an equilibrium population size of zero, were 33 and 46 μg g−1 fresh weight for DDE and PBDEs, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our modelling results showed that particular life stages of a density-limited population may be relatively insensitive to

  18. Fitting Models of the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance to Data from Marine Mammal Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    2011 to 00-00-2011 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fitting Models of the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance to Data from Marine Mammal...and 4 ) initialize each of the MCMC chains. The Gibbs sampler allows us to factor the above high dimensional model into a series of lower dimension 4 ...at NEAq, and an example time series for one animal highlights both body fat code, and entanglement episodes (Figure 4 ). Individual health is a

  19. Rapid evolution of tolerance to road salt in zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Coldsnow, Kayla D; Mattes, Brian M; Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-03-01

    Organisms around the globe are experiencing novel environments created by human activities. One such disturbance of growing concern is the salinization of freshwater habitats from the application of road deicing salts, which creates salinity levels not experienced within the recent evolutionary history of most freshwater organisms. Moreover, salinization can induce trophic cascades and alter the structure of freshwater communities, but knowledge is still scarce about the ability of freshwater organisms to adapt to elevated salinity. We examined if a common zooplankton of freshwater lakes (Daphnia pulex) could evolve a tolerance to the most commonly used road deicing salt (sodium chloride, NaCl). Using a mesocosm experiment, we exposed freshwater communities containing Daphnia to five levels of NaCl (15, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 mg Cl(-) L(-1)). After 2.5 months, we collected Daphnia from each mesocosm and raised them in the lab for three generations under low salt conditions (15 mg Cl(-) L(-1)). We then conducted a time-to-death experiment with varying concentrations of NaCl (30, 1300, 1500, 1700, 1900 mg Cl(-) L(-1)) to test for evolved tolerance. All Daphnia populations exhibited high survival when subsequently exposed to the lowest salt concentration (30 mg Cl(-) L(-1)). At the intermediate concentration (1300 mg Cl(-) L(-1)), however, populations previously exposed to elevated concentrations (i.e.100-1000 mg Cl(-) L(-1)) had higher survival than populations previously exposed to natural background levels (15 mg Cl(-) L(-1)). All populations survived poorly when subsequently exposed to the highest concentrations (1500, 1700, and 1900 mg Cl(-) L(-1)). Our results show that the evolution of tolerance to moderate levels of salt can occur within 2.5 months, or 5-10 generations, in Daphnia. Given the importance of Daphnia in freshwater food webs, such evolved tolerance might allow Daphnia to buffer food webs from the impacts of freshwater

  20. Impact of zooplankton grazing on Alexandrium blooms in the offshore Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.; Borkman, David G.

    2005-09-01

    Zooplankton grazing was investigated by shipboard experiments during natural blooms of Alexandrium spp. in the offshore Gulf of Maine in spring and/or summer of 1998, 2000, and 2001. Grazing studies were done in conjunction with studies of accumulation of Alexandrium toxins in the zooplankton, as part of the ECOHAB-Gulf of Maine regional program. Several species of copepods, marine cladocerans, and appendicularians were allowed to graze upon natural phytoplankton assemblages, at ambient temperatures (14-17 °C). Grazing was measured by quantitative microscopic analyses of disappearance of phytoplankton cells in initial, control, and experimental food suspensions. Thus, we were able to examine grazing upon Alexandrium in comparison to grazing on other co-occurring phytoplankton taxa. Even during Alexandrium "blooms," this dinoflagellate was a minor component of the overall phytoplankton assemblage. It was present at stations where grazing experiments were conducted at levels of 0.12-7.57×10 3 cells l -1, or 0.03-3.93% of total phytoplankton cells. Maximum ingestion of Alexandrium accounted for only up to 3.2% of total cells ingested. Phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by athecate microflagellates, and to a lesser extent by diatoms and non-toxic dinoflagellates. Microflagellates were present at abundances of 159.62-793.93 cells ml -1, or 60.6-95.56% of total cells. Grazing on microflagellates accounted for 35.59-98.21% of total grazing. Grazing on Alexandrium spp. and microflagellates was generally non-selective, with these taxa being ingested in similar proportions to their availability in food assemblages. Grazing on diatoms was selective, with diatoms being disproportionately ingested, compared to their proportions in food assemblages. There were no apparent adverse effects of Alexandrium on grazers during incubations of 18-24 h, and grazer survival was 100%. Estimated daily zooplankton grazing impact on Alexandrium spp. field populations by field

  1. A model for evaluation of satellite population management alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, R. E., Jr.; Jones, R. K.

    1983-12-01

    A Q-GERT model was developed to simulate the satellite environment, including the untracked man-made population, and to calculate a probability of collision for any satellite of interest. Provision for launches, explosions, collisions (including ASAT), retrieval, reposition, and decay was made. The model is structured to easily vary the rates at which these activities occur and to observe changes in the satellite population through which a satellite of interest must travel. Variance of the rates, and the resultant change in probability of collision allows evaluation of satellite population management alternatives such as reducing launch rates or increasing retrieval of spent, but still capable of exploding, satellites. The model is proposed for use by both the USAF SPACE COMMAND and NASA.

  2. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  3. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  4. High Mortality of Red Sea Zooplankton under Ambient Solar Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M. O.; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h−1, five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h−1% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:25309996

  5. Effects of hydrology on zooplankton communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on zooplankton communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant zooplankton taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.

  6. Zooplankton Successions in Neighboring Lakes with Contrasting Impacts of Amphibian and Fish Predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schabetsberger, Robert; Grill, Susanne; Hauser, Gabriele; Wukits, Petra

    2006-06-01

    Two pairs of neighboring subalpine lakes located in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria were investigated. Each pair comprised a deeper lake containing European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus ), and a corresponding shallower lake harboring Alpine newts (Triturus alpestris ) as top predators. Plankton successions within fish and amphibian lakes differed markedly from each other. Throughout the year rotifers numerically dominated within the minnow lakes, while pigmented copepods (Genera Heterocope, Acanthodiaptomus , Arctodiaptomus , Mixodiaptomus ) and Daphnia were prominent in the amphibian lakes, at least early during the ice-free period. We argue that size-selective predation by minnows was the ultimate reason for this predominance of smaller zooplankton. While one of the minnow lakes was characterized by a succession of spatially and temporally segregated rotifer species, the other minnow lake permitted the development of populations of small-sized Bosmina and Ceriodaphnia during summer, probably due to the existence of a strong oxycline allowing zooplankton crustaceans to avoid predation from shore-based shoals of minnows. Once trout were introduced into this lake, minnows were visibly reduced in abundance. Bosmina and Ceriodaphnia disappeared and Daphnia together with a predacious copepod (Heterocope ) emerged either from egg banks or arrived from nearby source populations. We argue that the crustacean communities within the fishless lakes were adapted to the comparatively weak predation rates of Alpine newts.

  7. Influence of a multiyear event of low salinity on the zooplankton from Mexican eco-regions of the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaniegos, Bertha E.

    2009-12-01

    Data are presented from the southern part of the California Current System (CCS) for the period 1997-2007, derived from the IMECOCAL monitoring program. Apart from El Niño 1997 to 1998, and La Niña 1998-1999 the strongest perturbation occurred in 2002 due to an intrusion of subarctic water affecting all the CCS. The response of zooplankton biomass to the strong cooling and freshening of the upper layer was an immediate drop followed by a progressive recovery between 2003 and 2007. Though the low salinity influence ended in 2006, the increased zooplankton trend continued, reinforced by increased upwelling activity beginning 2005 off north Baja California region (30-32°N) and beginning 2006 off central Baja California (24-30°N). Multiple regression analysis was done between regional variables and Upwelling Index (UI) and two basin-scale proxies: the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The significant influence of the NPGO on surface salinity, salinity stratification, zooplankton volume and secondary consumers (zooplankton carnivores) suggests a basin scale control on these variables more than local mechanisms. The signature of the NPGO was also evident in the base of the trophic web, but more related to the group of crustacean herbivores in the north eco-region, and the tunicates in central Baja California. In this last region, the effect from NPGO on the zooplankton volume and tunicates was antagonist with UI indicative of similar importance of basin and local processes. However, when the time interval is limited to the post-subarctic intrusion (2003-2007) the significance of multiple regression models and physical variables was lost. Therefore, though data and bio-physical coupling analysis off Baja California suggest a better relation with NPGO compared to PDO, it is still not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the perturbation observed in 2002.

  8. Population projections for AIDS using an actuarial model.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, A D

    1989-09-05

    This paper gives details of a model for forecasting AIDS, developed for actuarial purposes, but used also for population projections. The model is only appropriate for homosexual transmission, but it is age-specific, and it allows variation in the transition intensities by age, duration in certain states and calendar year. The differential equations controlling transitions between states are defined, the method of numerical solution is outlined, and the parameters used in five different Bases of projection are given in detail. Numerical results for the population of England and Wales are shown.

  9. Multi-population model of a microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Pinto, R P; Srinivasan, B; Escapa, A; Tartakovsky, B

    2011-06-01

    This work presents a multi-population dynamic model of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The model describes the growth and metabolic activity of fermentative, electricigenic, methanogenic acetoclastic, and methanogenic hydrogenophilic microorganisms and is capable of simulating hydrogen production in a MEC fed with complex organic matter, such as wastewater. The model parameters were estimated with the experimental results obtained in continuous flow MECs fed with acetate or synthetic wastewater. Following successful model validation with an independent data set, the model was used to analyze and discuss the influence of applied voltage and organic load on hydrogen production and COD removal.

  10. Population based models of cortical drug response: insights from anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bojak, Ingo; Liley, David T. J.

    2008-01-01

    A great explanatory gap lies between the molecular pharmacology of psychoactive agents and the neurophysiological changes they induce, as recorded by neuroimaging modalities. Causally relating the cellular actions of psychoactive compounds to their influence on population activity is experimentally challenging. Recent developments in the dynamical modelling of neural tissue have attempted to span this explanatory gap between microscopic targets and their macroscopic neurophysiological effects via a range of biologically plausible dynamical models of cortical tissue. Such theoretical models allow exploration of neural dynamics, in particular their modification by drug action. The ability to theoretically bridge scales is due to a biologically plausible averaging of cortical tissue properties. In the resulting macroscopic neural field, individual neurons need not be explicitly represented (as in neural networks). The following paper aims to provide a non-technical introduction to the mean field population modelling of drug action and its recent successes in modelling anaesthesia. PMID:19003456

  11. Zooplankton Responses to Low-Oxygen Condition upon a Shallow Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Upwelling Region off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a critical component in the coastal upwelling ecosystem off Chile. This OMZ causes oxygen-deficient water entering the photic layer and affecting plankton communities having low tolerance to hypoxia. Variable, and usually species-dependent, responses of zooplankton to hypoxia condition can be found. Most dominant species avoid hypoxia by restricting their vertical distribution, while others can temporarily enter and even spent part of their life cycle within the OMZ. Whatever the case, low-oxygen conditions appear to affect virtually all vital rates of zooplankton, such as mortality, fecundity, development and growth and metabolism, and early developmental stages seem more sensitive, with significant consequences for population and community dynamics. For most study cases, these effects are negative at individual and population levels. Observations and predictions upon increasing upwelling intensity over the last 20-30 years indicate a gradual shoaling of the OMZ, and so that an expected enhancement of these negative effects of hypoxia on the zooplankton community. Unknown processes of adaptation and community-structure adjustments are expected to take place with uncertain consequences for the food web of this highly productive eastern boundary current ecosystem.

  12. Tidally oriented vertical migration and position maintenance of zooplankton in a temperate estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimmerer, W.J.; Burau, J.R.; Bennett, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    In many estuaries, maxima in turbidity and abundance of several common species of zooplankton occur in the low salinity zone (LSZ) in the range of 0.5-6 practical salinity units (psu). Analysis of zooplankton abundance from monitoring in 1972-1987 revealed that historical maxima in abundance of the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid Neomysis mercedis, and in turbidity as determined from Secchi disk data, were close to the estimated position of 2 psu bottom salinity. The copepod Sinocalanus doerrii had a maximum slightly landward of that of E. affinis. After 1987 these maxima decreased and shifted to a lower salinity, presumably because of the effects of grazing by the introduced clam Potamocorbula amurensis. At the same time, the copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, the mysid Acanthomysis sp., and amphipods became abundant with peaks at salinity around 0.2-0.5 psu. Plausible mechanisms for maintenance of these persistent abundance peaks include interactions between variation in flow and abundance, either in the vertical or horizontal plane, or higher net population growth rate in the peaks than seaward of the peaks. In spring of 1994, a dry year, we sampled in and near the LSZ using a Lagrangian sampling scheme to follow selected isohalines while sampling over several complete tidal cycles. Acoustic Doppler current profilers were used to provide detailed velocity distributions to enable us to estimate longitudinal fluxes of organisms. Stratification was weak and gravitational circulation nearly absent in the LSZ. All of the common species of zooplankton migrated vertically in response to the tides, with abundance higher in the water column on the flood than on the ebb. Migration of mysids and amphipods was sufficient to override net seaward flow to produce a net landward flux of organisms. Migration of copepods, however, was insufficient to reverse or even greatly diminish the net seaward flux of organisms, implying alternative mechanisms of position maintenance.

  13. Ciliate Epibionts Associated with Crustacean Zooplankton in German Lakes: Distribution, Motility, and Bacterivory

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Samantha L.; Tang, Kam W.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and re-attachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from 1 to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate−1 h−1 and 24.33 μl ciliate−1 h−1, respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations. PMID:22783247

  14. Bifurcation analysis of a population model and the resulting SIS epidemic model with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junjie; Zou, Xingfu

    2006-12-01

    This paper deals with the model for matured population growth proposed in Cooke et al. [Interaction of matiration delay and nonlinear birth in population and epidemic models, J. Math. Biol. 39 (1999) 332-352] and the resulting SIS epidemic model. The dynamics of these two models are still largely undetermined, and in this paper, we perform some bifurcation analysis to the models. By applying the global bifurcation theory for functional differential equations, we are able to show that the population model allows multiple periodic solutions. For the SIS model, we obtain some local bifurcation results and derive formulas for determining the bifurcation direction and the stability of the bifurcated periodic solution.

  15. Modeling Climate Change and Sturgeon Populations in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), in collaboration with researchers from the University of Missouri and Iowa State University, is conducting research to address effects of climate change on sturgeon populations (Scaphirhynchus spp.) in the Missouri River. The CERC is conducting laboratory, field, and modeling research to identify causative factors for the responses of fish populations to natural and human-induced environmental changes and using this information to understand sensitivity of sturgeon populations to potential climate change in the Missouri River drainage basin. Sturgeon response information is being used to parameterize models predicting future population trends. These models will provide a set of tools for natural resource managers to assess management strategies in the context of global climate change. This research complements and builds on the ongoing Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) at the CERC. The CSRP is designed to provide information critical to restoration of the Missouri River ecosystem and the endangered pallid sturgeon (S. albus). Current research is being funded by USGS through the National Climate Change Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) and the Science Support Partnership (SSP) Program that is held by the USGS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The national mission of the NCCWSC is to improve the capacity of fish and wildlife agencies to respond to climate change and to address high-priority climate change effects on fish and wildlife. Within the national context, the NCCWSC research on the Missouri River focuses on temporal and spatial downscaling and associated uncertainty in modeling climate change effects on sturgeon species in the Missouri River. The SSP research focuses on improving survival and population estimates for pallid sturgeon population models.

  16. Incorporating parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from model projections. We present a method for explicitly incorporating this source of uncertainty into population models to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is incorporated into the replication loop of the model and temporal variance is incorporated into the loop for time steps in the model. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that incorporated parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population models.

  17. GIS-Based Population Model Applied to Nevada Transportation Routes

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-03-04

    Recently, a model based on geographic information system (GIS) processing of US Census Block data has made high-resolution population analysis for transportation risk analysis technically and economically feasible. Population density bordering each kilometer of a route may be tabulated with specific route sections falling into each of three categories (Rural, Suburban or Urban) identified for separate risk analysis. In addition to the improvement in resolution of Urban areas along a route, the model provides a statistically-based correction to population densities in Rural and Suburban areas where Census Block dimensions may greatly exceed the 800-meter scale of interest. A semi-automated application of the GIS model to a subset of routes in Nevada (related to the Yucca Mountain project) are presented, and the results compared to previous models including a model based on published Census and other data. These comparisons demonstrate that meaningful improvement in accuracy and specificity of transportation risk analyses is dependent on correspondingly accurate and geographically-specific population density data.

  18. An inbreeding model of associative overdominance during a population bottleneck.

    PubMed Central

    Bierne, N; Tsitrone, A; David, P

    2000-01-01

    Associative overdominance, the fitness difference between heterozygotes and homozygotes at a neutral locus, is classically described using two categories of models: linkage disequilibrium in small populations or identity disequilibrium in infinite, partially selfing populations. In both cases, only equilibrium situations have been considered. In the present study, associative overdominance is related to the distribution of individual inbreeding levels (i.e., genomic autozygosity). Our model integrates the effects of physical linkage and variation in inbreeding history among individual pedigrees. Hence, linkage and identity disequilibrium, traditionally presented as alternatives, are summarized within a single framework. This allows studying nonequilibrium situations in which both occur simultaneously. The model is applied to the case of an infinite population undergoing a sustained population bottleneck. The effects of bottleneck size, mating system, marker gene diversity, deleterious genomic mutation parameters, and physical linkage are evaluated. Bottlenecks transiently generate much larger associative overdominance than observed in equilibrium finite populations and represent a plausible explanation of empirical results obtained, for instance, in marine species. Moreover, the main origin of associative overdominance is random variation in individual inbreeding whereas physical linkage has little effect. PMID:10924490

  19. Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

    2008-08-01

    The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from

  20. Thermal habitat constraints on zooplankton species associated with Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) on the US Northeast Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Kane, Joe; Hare, Jonathan A.; Lough, R. Gregory; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Fogarty, Michael J.; Nye, Janet A.

    2013-09-01

    The US Northeast Continental Shelf is experiencing a period of increasing temperature levels and range, which impacts the quantity of thermal habitats within the ecosystem. With increasing temperatures, the amount of warmer, surface water thermal habitats (16-27 °C) has increased while there has been a reciprocal decline in cooler water habitats (5-15 °C). These cooler water habitats are the most abundant and comprise the core habitats of the ecosystem. The coldest thermal habitats (1-4 °C), however, have increased slightly in amount or have remained constant, reflecting a discontinuity in the progression of warming along a latitudinal gradient. This discontinuity may be the result of recent changes in the circulation of water masses in the northern Gulf of Maine, potentially associated with the Labrador Current. The contraction of core thermal habitats appears to have had biological consequences on multiple trophic levels. In particular, two zooplankton species associated with the larval feeding of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, have declined in abundance in the same areas where cod populations have exhibited continually poor recruitment. The zooplankton species group Pseudocalanus spp., which is associated with winter-spawning cod, has declined on Georges Bank and in the Eastern Gulf of Maine. The zooplankton Centropages typicus has declined in the Gulf of Maine during late summer into fall, potentially affecting spring-spawning cod in that area. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that portions of the population complex of cod have lower reproductive output due to changes in zooplankton abundance, which we associate with the distribution of temperatures within the ecosystem.

  1. Scale-invariant model of marine population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Capitán, José A; Delius, Gustav W

    2010-06-01

    A striking feature of the marine ecosystem is the regularity in its size spectrum: the abundance of organisms as a function of their weight approximately follows a power law over almost ten orders of magnitude. We interpret this as evidence that the population dynamics in the ocean is approximately scale-invariant. We use this invariance in the construction and solution of a size-structured dynamical population model. Starting from a Markov model encoding the basic processes of predation, reproduction, maintenance respiration, and intrinsic mortality, we derive a partial integro-differential equation describing the dependence of abundance on weight and time. Our model represents an extension of the jump-growth model and hence also of earlier models based on the McKendrick-von Foerster equation. The model is scale-invariant provided the rate functions of the stochastic processes have certain scaling properties. We determine the steady-state power-law solution, whose exponent is determined by the relative scaling between the rates of the density-dependent processes (predation) and the rates of the density-independent processes (reproduction, maintenance, and mortality). We study the stability of the steady-state against small perturbations and find that inclusion of maintenance respiration and reproduction in the model has a strong stabilizing effect. Furthermore, the steady state is unstable against a change in the overall population density unless the reproduction rate exceeds a certain threshold.

  2. Stirring effects in models of oceanic plankton populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Zoltan

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview and extend previous results on the effects of large scale oceanic transport processes on plankton population dynamics, considering different types of ecosystem models. We find that increasing stirring rate in an environment where the carrying capacity is non-uniformly distributed leads to an overall decrease of the effective carrying capacity of the system. This may lead to sharp regime shifts induced by stirring in systems with multiple steady states. In prey-predator type systems, stirring leads to resonant response of the population dynamics to fluctuations enhancing the spatial variability—patchiness—in a certain range of stirring rates. Oscillatory population models produce strongly heterogeneous patchy distribution of plankton blooms when the stirring is weak, while strong stirring may either synchronise the oscillatory dynamics, when the inhomogeneity is relatively weak, or suppress oscillations completely (oscillator death) by reducing the effective carrying capacity below the bifurcation point.

  3. Stirring effects in models of oceanic plankton populations.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Zoltan

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview and extend previous results on the effects of large scale oceanic transport processes on plankton population dynamics, considering different types of ecosystem models. We find that increasing stirring rate in an environment where the carrying capacity is non-uniformly distributed leads to an overall decrease of the effective carrying capacity of the system. This may lead to sharp regime shifts induced by stirring in systems with multiple steady states. In prey-predator type systems, stirring leads to resonant response of the population dynamics to fluctuations enhancing the spatial variability-patchiness-in a certain range of stirring rates. Oscillatory population models produce strongly heterogeneous patchy distribution of plankton blooms when the stirring is weak, while strong stirring may either synchronise the oscillatory dynamics, when the inhomogeneity is relatively weak, or suppress oscillations completely (oscillator death) by reducing the effective carrying capacity below the bifurcation point.

  4. Acoustic backscatter measurements with a 153 kHz ADCP in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: determination of dominant zooplankton and micronekton scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressler, Patrick H.

    2002-11-01

    A 153 kHz narrowband acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used to measure volume backscattering strength ( Sv) during a deepwater oceanographic survey of cetacean and seabird habitat in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Sv was positively related to zooplankton and micronekton biomass (wet displacement volume) in 'sea-truth' net hauls made with a 1 m 2 Multiple Opening-Closing Net Environmental Sensing System (MOCNESS). A subset of these MOCNESS tows was used to explore the relationship between the numerical densities of various taxonomic categories of zooplankton and the ADCP backscatter signal. Crustaceans, small fish, and fragments of non-gas-bearing siphonophores in the net samples all showed significant, positive correlations with the acoustic signal, while other types of gelatinous zooplankton, pteropod and atlantid molluscs, and gas-filled siphonophore floats showed no significant correlation with Sv. Previously published acoustic scattering models for zooplankton were used to calculate expected scattering for several general zooplankton types and sizes for comparison with the field data. Even though gelatinous material often made up a large fraction of the total biomass, crustaceans, small fish, and pteropods were most likely the important scatterers. Since only crustacean and small fish densities were significantly correlated with Sv, it is suggested that Sv at 153 kHz can be used as a relative proxy for the abundance of these organisms in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Nonlinear PI controllers for continuous bioreactors using population balance models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Chang, Haw-Yuan

    2005-11-01

    Continuous bioreactors are critical unit operations in many biological systems, but the unique modeling is very complicated due to the underlying biochemical reactions and the distributed properties of cell population. The scope of this paper considers a popular modeling method for microbial cell cultures by population balance equation models, and the control objective aims to attenuate undesired oscillations appeared in the nonlinear distributed parameter system. In view of pursuing the popular/practical control configuration and the lack of on-line sensors, an approximate technique by exploiting the "pseudo-steady-state" approach constructs a simple nonlinear control model. Through an off-line estimation mechanism for the system having self-oscillating behavior, two kinds of nonlinear PI configurations are developed. Closed-loop simulation results have confirmed that the regulatory and tracking performances of the control system proposed are good.

  6. Modeling Population Exposures to Silver Nanoparticles Present in Consumer Products

    PubMed Central

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (Geographic Information System) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human Life Stage Analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs Probabilistic Material Flow Analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employs screening Microenvironmental Modeling and Intake Fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically-relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters. PMID:25745354

  7. Modeling population exposures to silver nanoparticles present in consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-11-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (geographic information system) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product life cycle analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human life stage analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs probabilistic material flow analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employ screening microenvironmental modeling and intake fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters.

  8. Modeling Population Exposures to Silver Nanoparticles Present in Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Royce, Steven G; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S; Alexander, Jocelyn A; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-11-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (Geographic Information System) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human Life Stage Analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs Probabilistic Material Flow Analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employs screening Microenvironmental Modeling and Intake Fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically-relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters.

  9. Population genetics of Setaria viridis, a new model system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extensive survey of the standing genetic variation in natural populations is among the priority steps in developing a species into a model system. In recent years, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), along with its domesticated form foxtail millet (S. italica), has rapidly become a promising new mod...

  10. Galactic dual population models of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, J. C.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate in more detail the properties of two-population models for gamma-ray bursts in the galactic disk and halo. We calculate the gamma-ray burst statistical properties, mean value of (V/V(sub max)), mean value of cos Theta, and mean value of (sin(exp 2) b), as functions of the detection flux threshold for bursts coming from both Galactic disk and massive halo populations. We consider halo models inferred from the observational constraints on the large-scale Galactic structure and we compare the expected values of mean value of (V/V(sub max)), mean value of cos Theta, and mean value of (sin(exp 2) b), with those measured by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) and other detectors. We find that the measured values are consistent with solely Galactic populations having a range of halo distributions, mixed with local disk distributions, which can account for as much as approximately 25% of the observed BATSE bursts. M31 does not contribute to these modeled bursts. We also demonstrate, contrary to recent arguments, that the size-frequency distributions of dual population models are quite consistent with the BATSE observations.

  11. On stochastic Gilpin-Ayala population model with Markovian switching.

    PubMed

    Settati, Adel; Lahrouz, Aadil

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze a stochastic Gilpin-Ayala population model with Markovian switching and white noise. The Gilpin-Ayala parameter is also allowed to switch. We establish the global stability of the trivial equilibrium state of the model. Verifiable sufficient conditions which guarantee the extinction and persistence are provided. Furthermore, we show the existence of a stationary distribution. The analytical results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  12. [Identification of a multihit model for nonhomogeneous cell population].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, L V; Khanin, L G; Iakovlev, A Iu

    1992-01-01

    A generalized multihit-multitarget model for a nonhomogeneous, with respect to radiosensitivity, population of irradiated cells is presented. The least squares and the maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters is given. The estimates quality is evaluated by the computer-based study. The results obtained show the possibility of the parametric identification of cell radiosensitivity distribution according to the "dose-response" data.

  13. Mean occupancy time: linking mechanistic movement models, population dynamics and landscape ecology to population persistence.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, Christina A; Lutscher, Frithjof

    2014-02-01

    Reaction-diffusion models for the dynamics of a biological population in a fragmented landscape can incorporate detailed descriptions of movement and behavior, but are difficult to analyze and hard to parameterize. Patch models, on the other hand, are fairly easy to analyze and can be parameterized reasonably well, but miss many details of the movement process within and between patches. We develop a framework to scale up from a reaction-diffusion process to a patch model and, in particular, to determine movement rates between patches based on behavioral rules for individuals. Our approach is based on the mean occupancy time, the mean time that an individuals spends in a certain area of the landscape before it exits that area or dies. We illustrate our approach using several different landscape configurations. We demonstrate that the resulting patch model most closely captures persistence conditions and steady state densities as compared with the reaction-diffusion model.

  14. Late-summer zooplankton community structure, abundance, and distribution in the Hudson Bay system (Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions, 2003-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Rafael; Harvey, Michel; Gosselin, Michel; Starr, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Straneo, Fiammetta

    2012-08-01

    weakly stratified Arctic-North Atlantic waters coming from southwestern Davis Strait (inflow). In general, the RDA models tested among the HBS regions were very consistent with its general surface circulation pattern for summer conditions in terms of environmental variables and distinct zooplankton assemblages. Overall, zooplankton biomass and diversity indices (H‧, J‧, and S) were lower in the most stratified environment (i.e., HB) than in the deeper (FB) and more dynamic (HS) regions. The results of this work clearly show that the spatial differentiation and structure of the zooplankton communities are strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic conditions in the HBS that, trough their actions on temperature, salinity, stratification, mixing conditions and depth strata, lead to the spatial differentiation of these communities.

  15. Intraspecific Autochthonous and Allochthonous Resource Use by Zooplankton in a Humic Lake during the Transitions between Winter, Summer and Fall

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Martin; Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Karlsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal patterns in assimilation of externally produced, allochthonous, organic matter into aquatic food webs are poorly understood, especially in brown-water lakes. We studied the allochthony (share biomass of terrestrial origin) in cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid micro-crustacean zooplankton from late winter to fall during two years in a small humic lake (Sweden). The use of allochthonous resources was important for sustaining a small population of calanoids in the water column during late winter. However, in summer the calanoids shifted to 100% herbivory, increasing their biomass several-fold by making efficient use of the pelagic primary production. In contrast, the cyclopoids and cladocerans remained at high levels of allochthony throughout the seasons, both groups showing the mean allochthony of 0.56 (range in mean 0.17-0.79 and 0.34-0.75, for the respective group, depending on model parameters). Our study shows that terrestrial organic matter can be an important resource for cyclopoids and cladocerans on an annual basis, forming a significant link between terrestrial organic matter and the higher trophic levels of the food web, but it can also be important for sustaining otherwise herbivorous calanoids during periods of low primary production in late winter. PMID:25764501

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Zooplankton Thin Layers: The Effects of Composition and Orientation on Acoustic Detection of Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and Temporal Variability of Zooplankton Thin Layers: The Effects of Composition and Orientation...to better understand the physical and biological mechanisms of formation and maintenance of thin layers of zooplankton . Because zooplankton can be...strong sound scatterers, acoustic instruments are effective at detecting and describing zooplankton thin layers. Using a combination of instruments

  17. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Zooplankton Thin Layers: The Effects of Composition and Orientation on Acoustic Detection of Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    zooplankton . We saw many images that contained multiple copepods and delicate gelatinous taxa such as larvaceans and medusae (Figures 7 and 8). Images of...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Zooplankton Thin...understand the physical and biological mechanisms of formation and maintenance of thin layers of zooplankton . Because zooplankton can be strong sound

  18. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Zooplankton Thin Layers: The Effects of Composition and Orientation on Acoustic Detection of Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    Spatial and Temporal Variability of Zooplankton Thin Layers: The Effects of Composition and Orientation on Acoustic Detection of Layers Carin...physical and biological mechanisms of formation and maintenance of thin layers of zooplankton . Because zooplankton can be strong sound scatterers...acoustic instruments are effective at detecting and describing zooplankton thin layers. Using a combination of instruments (acoustics, image-forming

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Zooplankton Thin Layers: The Effects of Composition and Orientation on Acoustic Detection of Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Spatial and Temporal Variability of Zooplankton Thin Layers: The Effects of Composition and Orientation on Acoustic Detection of Layers Carin...physical and biological mechanisms of formation and maintenance of thin layers of zooplankton . Because zooplankton can be strong sound scatterers...acoustic instruments are effective at detecting and describing zooplankton thin layers. Using a combination of instruments (acoustics, image-forming

  20. Isolation mediates persistent founder effects on zooplankton colonisation in new temporary ponds

    PubMed Central

    Badosa, Anna; Frisch, Dagmar; Green, Andy J.; Rico, Ciro; Gómez, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the colonisation process in zooplankton is crucial for successful restoration of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we analyzed the clonal and genetic structure of the cyclical parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis by following populations established in new temporary ponds during the first three hydroperiods. Rotifer populations established rapidly after first flooding, although colonisation was ongoing throughout the study. Multilocus genotypes from 7 microsatellite loci suggested that most populations (10 of 14) were founded by few clones. The exception was one of the four populations that persisted throughout the studied hydroperiods, where high genetic diversity in the first hydroperiod suggested colonisation from a historical egg bank, and no increase in allelic diversity was detected with time. In contrast, in another of these four populations, we observed a progressive increase of allelic diversity. This population became less differentiated from the other populations suggesting effective gene flow soon after its foundation. Allelic diversity and richness remained low in the remaining two, more isolated, populations, suggesting little gene flow. Our results highlight the complexity of colonisation dynamics, with evidence for persistent founder effects in some ponds, but not in others, and with early immigration both from external source populations, and from residual, historical diapausing egg banks. PMID:28276459

  1. Isolation mediates persistent founder effects on zooplankton colonisation in new temporary ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badosa, Anna; Frisch, Dagmar; Green, Andy J.; Rico, Ciro; Gómez, Africa

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the colonisation process in zooplankton is crucial for successful restoration of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we analyzed the clonal and genetic structure of the cyclical parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis by following populations established in new temporary ponds during the first three hydroperiods. Rotifer populations established rapidly after first flooding, although colonisation was ongoing throughout the study. Multilocus genotypes from 7 microsatellite loci suggested that most populations (10 of 14) were founded by few clones. The exception was one of the four populations that persisted throughout the studied hydroperiods, where high genetic diversity in the first hydroperiod suggested colonisation from a historical egg bank, and no increase in allelic diversity was detected with time. In contrast, in another of these four populations, we observed a progressive increase of allelic diversity. This population became less differentiated from the other populations suggesting effective gene flow soon after its foundation. Allelic diversity and richness remained low in the remaining two, more isolated, populations, suggesting little gene flow. Our results highlight the complexity of colonisation dynamics, with evidence for persistent founder effects in some ponds, but not in others, and with early immigration both from external source populations, and from residual, historical diapausing egg banks.

  2. Does salinity change determine zooplankton variability in the saline Qarun Lake (Egypt)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shabrawy, Gamal M.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Germoush, Mousa O.; Goher, Mohamed E.; Shadrin, Nickolai V.

    2015-11-01

    Zooplankton and 14 abiotic variables were studied during August 2011 at 10 stations in Lake Qarun, Egypt. Stations with the lowest salinity and highest nutrient concentrations and turbidity were close to the discharge of waters from the El-Bats and El-Wadi drainage systems. A total of 15 holozooplankton species were identified. The salinity in Lake Qarun increased and fluctuated since 1901: 12 g/L in 1901; 8.5 g/L in 1905; 12.0 g/L in 1922; 30.0 g/L in 1985; 38.7 g/L in 1994; 35.3 g/L in 2006, and 33.4 g/L in 2011. The mean concentration of nutrients (nitrate, nitrite and orthophosphate) gradually increased from 35, 0.16 and 0.38 µg/L, respectively, in 1953-1955 to 113, 16.4, and 30.26 µg/L in 2011. From 1999-2003 some decrease of species diversity occurred. Average total zooplankton density was 30 000 ind./m3 in 1974-1977; 356 125 ind./m3 in 1989; 534 000 ind./m3 in 1994-1995; from 965 000 to 1 452 000 ind./m3 in 2006, and 595 000 ind./m3 in 2011. A range of long-term summer salinity variability during the last decades was very similar to a range of salinity spatial variability in summer 2011. There is no significant correlation between zooplankton abundance and salinity in spatial and long-term changes. We conclude that salinity fluctuations since at least 1955 did not directly drive the changes of composition and abundance of zooplankton in the lake. A marine community had formed in the lake, and it continues to change. One of the main drivers of this change is a regular introduction and a pressure of alien species on the existent community. Eutrophication also plays an important role. The introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi, first reported in 2014, may lead to a start of a new stage of the biotic changes in Lake Qarun, when eutrophication and the population dynamics of this ctenophore will be main drivers of the ecosystem change.

  3. Can modeling improve estimation of desert tortoise population densities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nussear, K.E.; Tracy, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    The federally listed desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is currently monitored using distance sampling to estimate population densities. Distance sampling, as with many other techniques for estimating population density, assumes that it is possible to quantify the proportion of animals available to be counted in any census. Because desert tortoises spend much of their life in burrows, and the proportion of tortoises in burrows at any time can be extremely variable, this assumption is difficult to meet. This proportion of animals available to be counted is used as a correction factor (g0) in distance sampling and has been estimated from daily censuses of small populations of tortoises (6-12 individuals). These censuses are costly and produce imprecise estimates of g0 due to small sample sizes. We used data on tortoise activity from a large (N = 150) experimental population to model activity as a function of the biophysical attributes of the environment, but these models did not improve the precision of estimates from the focal populations. Thus, to evaluate how much of the variance in tortoise activity is apparently not predictable, we assessed whether activity on any particular day can predict activity on subsequent days with essentially identical environmental conditions. Tortoise activity was only weakly correlated on consecutive days, indicating that behavior was not repeatable or consistent among days with similar physical environments. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Can modeling improve estimation of desert tortoise population densities?

    PubMed

    Nussear, Kenneth E; Tracy, C Richard

    2007-03-01

    The federally listed desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is currently monitored using distance sampling to estimate population densities. Distance sampling, as with many other techniques for estimating population density, assumes that it is possible to quantify the proportion of animals available to be counted in any census. Because desert tortoises spend much of their life in burrows, and the proportion of tortoises in burrows at any time can be extremely variable, this assumption is difficult to meet. This proportion of animals available to be counted is used as a correction factor (g0) in distance sampling and has been estimated from daily censuses of small populations of tortoises (6-12 individuals). These censuses are costly and produce imprecise estimates of go due to small sample sizes. We used data on tortoise activity from a large (N = 150) experimental population to model activity as a function of the biophysical attributes of the environment, but these models did not improve the precision of estimates from the focal populations. Thus, to evaluate how much of the variance in tortoise activity is apparently not predictable, we assessed whether activity on any particular day can predict activity on subsequent days with essentially identical environmental conditions. Tortoise activity was only weakly correlated on consecutive days, indicating that behavior was not repeatable or consistent among days with similar physical environments.

  5. FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

  6. Effect of various intake designs on zooplankton entrainment

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    Field studies were conducted at the intakes of three Tennessee Valley Authority electric power plants to determine whether intake design is a feasible means of mitigating effects on zooplankton by minimizing the quantity entrained. Three intake designs were evaluated: one with a shallow skimmer wall, one with a deep skimmer wall, and one with no skimmer wall. Many sample sets from these studies were highly variable because of inadequate sample replication, thus precluding the use of statistical tests on some of the data. Where possible, an analysis of variance and a Student, Newman, Keuls multiple range test were computed and tested at the 0.05 level. Several studies indicated possible differences between day and night in the quantity of zooplankton entrained. The greater quantities entrained at night were related to a greater abundance in the source water body at night rather than to intake design. These results indicate that time-of-day differences might be used to mitigate effects on zooplankton at some intakes if the intake could be operated to require less cooling water when concentrations were greatest. None of these studies indicated that the intake designs studied minimized the quantity of zooplankton entrained because the quantities in the intake canals were similar to the quantities in the source water body.

  7. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  8. Correlates of zooplankton beta diversity in tropical lake systems.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paloma M; Bini, Luis M; Declerck, Steven A J; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Vieira, Ludgero C G; Bonecker, Claudia C; Lansac-Toha, Fabio A; Esteves, Francisco A; Bozelli, Reinaldo L

    2014-01-01

    The changes in species composition between habitat patches (beta diversity) are likely related to a number of factors, including environmental heterogeneity, connectivity, disturbance and productivity. Here, we used data from aquatic environments in five Brazilian regions over two years and two seasons (rainy and dry seasons or high and low water level periods in floodplain lakes) in each year to test hypotheses underlying zooplankton beta diversity variation. The regions present different levels of hydrological connectivity, where three regions present lakes that are permanent and connected with the main river, while the water bodies of the other two regions consist of permanent lakes and temporary ponds, with no hydrological connections between them. We tested for relationships between zooplankton beta diversity and environmental heterogeneity, spatial extent, hydrological connectivity, seasonality, disturbance and productivity. Negative relationships were detected between zooplankton beta diversity and both hydrological connectivity and disturbance (periodic dry-outs). Hydrological connectivity is likely to affect beta diversity by facilitating dispersal between habitats. In addition, the harsh environmental filter imposed by disturbance selected for only a small portion of the species from the regional pool that were able to cope with periodic dry-outs (e.g., those with a high production of resting eggs). In summary, this study suggests that faunal exchange and disturbance play important roles in structuring local zooplankton communities.

  9. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-05-22

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling.

  10. Evolutionary adaptation of marine zooplankton to global change.

    PubMed

    Dam, Hans G

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the response of the biota to global change remains a formidable endeavor. Zooplankton face challenges related to global warming, ocean acidification, the proliferation of toxic algal blooms, and increasing pollution, eutrophication, and hypoxia. They can respond to these changes by phenotypic plasticity or genetic adaptation. Using the concept of the evolution of reaction norms, I address how adaptive responses can be unequivocally discerned from phenotypic plasticity. To date, relatively few zooplankton studies have been designed for such a purpose. As case studies, I review the evidence for zooplankton adaptation to toxic algal blooms, hypoxia, and climate change. Predicting the response of zooplankton to global change requires new information to determine (a) the trade-offs and costs of adaptation, (b) the rates of evolution versus environmental change, (c) the consequences of adaptation to stochastic or cyclic (toxic algal blooms, coastal hypoxia) versus directional (temperature, acidification, open ocean hypoxia) environmental change, and (d) the interaction of selective pressures, and evolutionary and ecological processes, in promoting or hindering adaptation.

  11. Ecogenomics of Zooplankton Community Reveals Ecological Threshold of Ammonia Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianghua; Zhang, Xiaowei; Xie, Yuwei; Song, Chao; Sun, Jingying; Zhang, Yong; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-02-23

    Communities of zooplankton can be adversely affected by contamination resulting from human activities. Yet understanding the influence of water quality on zooplankton under field-conditions is hindered by traditional labor-intensive approaches that are prone to incomplete or uncertain taxonomic determinations. Here, for the first time, an eco-genomic approach, based on genetic diversity in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) region of DNA of zooplankton was used to develop a site-specific, water quality criterion (WQC) for ammonia (NH3). Ammonia has been recognized as a primary stressor in the catchment of the large, eutrophic Tai Lake, China. Nutrients, especially NH3 and nitrite (NO3(-)) had more significant effects on structure of the zooplankton community than did other environmental factors. Abundances of rotifers increased along a gradient of increasing concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), while abundances of copepods and cladocera decreased. A novel, rapid, species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was established to develop a WQC for NH3. The WQC based on OTUs was consistent with the WQC based on the traditional morphology taxonomy approach. This genetics-based SSD approach could be a useful tool for monitoring for status and trends in species composition and deriving ecological criteria and an efficient biomonitoring tool to protect local aquatic ecosystems in virtually any aquatic ecosystem.

  12. Correlates of Zooplankton Beta Diversity in Tropical Lake Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Paloma M.; Bini, Luis M.; Declerck, Steven A. J.; Farjalla, Vinicius F.; Vieira, Ludgero C. G.; Bonecker, Claudia C.; Lansac-Toha, Fabio A.; Esteves, Francisco A.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The changes in species composition between habitat patches (beta diversity) are likely related to a number of factors, including environmental heterogeneity, connectivity, disturbance and productivity. Here, we used data from aquatic environments in five Brazilian regions over two years and two seasons (rainy and dry seasons or high and low water level periods in floodplain lakes) in each year to test hypotheses underlying zooplankton beta diversity variation. The regions present different levels of hydrological connectivity, where three regions present lakes that are permanent and connected with the main river, while the water bodies of the other two regions consist of permanent lakes and temporary ponds, with no hydrological connections between them. We tested for relationships between zooplankton beta diversity and environmental heterogeneity, spatial extent, hydrological connectivity, seasonality, disturbance and productivity. Negative relationships were detected between zooplankton beta diversity and both hydrological connectivity and disturbance (periodic dry-outs). Hydrological connectivity is likely to affect beta diversity by facilitating dispersal between habitats. In addition, the harsh environmental filter imposed by disturbance selected for only a small portion of the species from the regional pool that were able to cope with periodic dry-outs (e.g., those with a high production of resting eggs). In summary, this study suggests that faunal exchange and disturbance play important roles in structuring local zooplankton communities. PMID:25330034

  13. Lake St. Clair zooplankton: Evidence for post-dreissena changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, K.A.; Davis, B.M.; Hunter, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed the zooplankton of Lake St. Clair at 12 sites over ten dates from May to October 2000. Mean zooplankton density by site and date was 168.6 individuals/L, with Dreissena spp. veligers the most abundant taxon at 122.7 individuals/L. Rotifers, copepods, and cladocerans were far lower in mean abundance than in the early 1970s (rotifers, 20.9/L; copepods, 18.1/L; and cladocerans, 6.8/L). Species richness of zooplankton taxa in 2000 was 147, which was virtually unchanged from that of the first reported survey in 1894. Overall, the decline in abundance was greatest for rotifers (-90%) and about equal for cladocerans (-69%) and copepods (-66%). The decrease in abundance of Daphnia spp. was especially dramatic in Canadian waters. The decline in the southeastern region was significant for all three major groups of zooplankton, whereas in the northwestern region the decline was significant only for rotifers. From June to August 2000, Lake St. Clair open waters were numerically dominated by Dreissena spp. veligers, with a reduced abundance of rotifers and crustaceans compared to pre-Dreissena spp. surveys. Mean nutrient concentrations were not different from the 1970s, but Secchi depth (greater) and chlorophyll a concentration (lower) were. Disproportionate reduction in rotifer abundance is consistent with hypotheses implicating direct consumption by settled Dreissena spp. Reduction of crustaceans is likely due to more complex interactions including removal of nauplii as well as resource competition for phytoplankton.

  14. A frictional population model of seismicity rate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.; Cocco, M.; Belardinelli, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We study models of seismicity rate changes caused by the application of a static stress perturbation to a population of faults and discuss our results with respect to the model proposed by Dieterich (1994). These models assume distribution of nucleation sites (e.g., faults) obeying rate-state frictional relations that fail at constant rate under tectonic loading alone, and predicts a positive static stress step at time to will cause an immediate increased seismicity rate that decays according to Omori's law. We show one way in which the Dieterich model may be constructed from simple general idead, illustratted using numerically computed synthetic seismicity and mathematical formulation. We show that seismicity rate change predicted by these models (1) depend on the particular relationship between the clock-advanced failure and fault maturity, (2) are largest for the faults closest to failure at to, (3) depend strongly on which state evolution law faults obey, and (4) are insensitive to some types of population hetrogeneity. We also find that if individual faults fail repeatedly and populations are finite, at timescales much longer than typical aftershock durations, quiescence follows at seismicity rate increase regardless of the specific frictional relations. For the examined models the quiescence duration is comparable to the ratio of stress change to stressing rate ????/??,which occurs after a time comparable to the average recurrence interval of the individual faults in the population and repeats in the absence of any new load may pertubations; this simple model may partly explain observations of repeated clustering of earthquakes. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Seasonal dynamics of zooplankton in the southern Chukchi Sea revealed from acoustic backscattering strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Minoru; Amakasu, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto

    2017-02-01

    To understand the seasonal dynamics of zooplankton in the southern Chukchi Sea, we use observations from a moored multi-frequency echo-sounder from July 2012 to July 2014. Zooplankton biomass, as indicated by area backscattering strength, was high during autumn and low in early spring; the seasonal peak in zooplankton biomass did not coincide with the spring phytoplankton bloom. This suggests that the seasonal zooplankton dynamics in the southern Chukchi Sea are less influenced by local growth of zooplankton during the spring phytoplankton bloom and more influenced by advection of zooplankton from the Bering Sea. The differences between volume backscattering strengths at 200 and 125 kHz suggest that the main acoustic scatterers are large zooplankton (euphausiids and Neocalanus cristatus) in late summer and autumn and small zooplankton (other copepods) in other seasons. The decrease in acoustic backscatter from large zooplankton from winter to early summer also suggests the unsuccessful overwintering of advected Pacific zooplankton. The temporal mismatch between zooplankton and phytoplankton production suggests that there is still tight pelagic-benthic coupling in the southern Chukchi Sea.

  16. Modelling binary rotating stars by new population synthesis code bonnfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, H. H. B.; Izzard, R. G.; Schneider, F. R. N.

    2013-02-01

    bonnfires, a new generation of population synthesis code, can calculate nuclear reaction, various mixing processes and binary interaction in a timely fashion. We use this new population synthesis code to study the interplay between binary mass transfer and rotation. We aim to compare theoretical models with observations, in particular the surface nitrogen abundance and rotational velocity. Preliminary results show binary interactions may explain the formation of nitrogen-rich slow rotators and nitrogen-poor fast rotators, but more work needs to be done to estimate whether the observed frequencies of those stars can be matched.

  17. Negative binomial models for abundance estimation of multiple closed populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyce, Mark S.; MacKenzie, Darry I.; Manly, Bryan F.J.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Moody, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Counts of uniquely identified individuals in a population offer opportunities to estimate abundance. However, for various reasons such counts may be burdened by heterogeneity in the probability of being detected. Theoretical arguments and empirical evidence demonstrate that the negative binomial distribution (NBD) is a useful characterization for counts from biological populations with heterogeneity. We propose a method that focuses on estimating multiple populations by simultaneously using a suite of models derived from the NBD. We used this approach to estimate the number of female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) with cubs-of-the-year in the Yellowstone ecosystem, for each year, 1986-1998. Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC) indicated that a negative binomial model with a constant level of heterogeneity across all years was best for characterizing the sighting frequencies of female grizzly bears. A lack-of-fit test indicated the model adequately described the collected data. Bootstrap techniques were used to estimate standard errors and 95% confidence intervals. We provide a Monte Carlo technique, which confirms that the Yellowstone ecosystem grizzly bear population increased during the period 1986-1998.

  18. A Bibliometric Analysis on Cancer Population Science with Topic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ding-Cheng; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Okamoto, Janet; Liu, Hongfang; Leichow, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometric analysis is a research method used in library and information science to evaluate research performance. It applies quantitative and statistical analyses to describe patterns observed in a set of publications and can help identify previous, current, and future research trends or focus. To better guide our institutional strategic plan in cancer population science, we conducted bibliometric analysis on publications of investigators currently funded by either Division of Cancer Preventions (DCP) or Division of Cancer Control and Population Science (DCCPS) at National Cancer Institute. We applied two topic modeling techniques: author topic modeling (AT) and dynamic topic modeling (DTM). Our initial results show that AT can address reasonably the issues related to investigators' research interests, research topic distributions and popularities. In compensation, DTM can address the evolving trend of each topic by displaying the proportion changes of key words, which is consistent with the changes of MeSH headings.

  19. A stochastic population model of mid-continental mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koford, Rolf R.; Sauer, J.R.; Johnson, D.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Samuel, M.D.; McCullough, D.R.; Barrett, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a simulation model that integrates infonnation on factors affecting the population dynamics of mallards in the mid-continental region of the United States. In the model we vary age, body mass, and reproductive and molt status of simulated females. Females use several types of nesting and foraging habitat in 15 geographic areas. Deterministic and stochastic events cause mortality or attribute changes on a daily basis, depending on current attributes, habitat, area, calendar date, wetland conditions, temperature, and various mortality agents. Because the model encompasses the entire year, it can be used to examine cross-seasonal effects. A simulated increase in nest success from 0.14 to 0.17 changed the annual rate of population growth from -6% to -1 %. A simulated 75% reduction in lead poisoning changed the rate from -6% to -3%.

  20. Two-population dynamics in a growing network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Kristinka; Iordanov, Ivan

    2012-02-01

    We introduce a growing network evolution model with nodal attributes. The model describes the interactions between potentially violent V and non-violent N agents who have different affinities in establishing connections within their own population versus between the populations. The model is able to generate all stable triads observed in real social systems. In the framework of rate equations theory, we employ the mean-field approximation to derive analytical expressions of the degree distribution and the local clustering coefficient for each type of nodes. Analytical derivations agree well with numerical simulation results. The assortativity of the potentially violent network qualitatively resembles the connectivity pattern in terrorist networks that was recently reported. The assortativity of the network driven by aggression shows clearly different behavior than the assortativity of the networks with connections of non-aggressive nature in agreement with recent empirical results of an online social system.

  1. ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009 Modeled Small Debris Population Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Flegel, S.

    2010-01-01

    The latest versions of the two premier orbital debris engineering models, NASA s ORDEM2010 and ESA s MASTER-2009, have been publicly released. Both models have gone through significant advancements since inception, and now represent the state-of-the-art in orbital debris knowledge of their respective agencies. The purpose of these models is to provide satellite designers/operators and debris researchers with reliable estimates of the artificial debris environment in near-Earth orbit. The small debris environment within the size range of 1 mm to 1 cm is of particular interest to both human and robotic spacecraft programs. These objects are much more numerous than larger trackable debris but are still large enough to cause significant, if not catastrophic, damage to spacecraft upon impact. They are also small enough to elude routine detection by existing observation systems (radar and telescope). Without reliable detection the modeling of these populations has always coupled theoretical origins with supporting observational data in different degrees. This paper details the 1 mm to 1 cm orbital debris populations of both ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009; their sources (both known and presumed), current supporting data and theory, and methods of population analysis. Fluxes on spacecraft for chosen orbits are also presented and discussed within the context of each model.

  2. Resource Requirements of the Pacific Leatherback Turtle Population

    PubMed Central

    Jones, T. Todd; Bostrom, Brian L.; Hastings, Mervin D.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.; Pauly, Daniel; Jones, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements) of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance). Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924–1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×106 t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0–3.7×106) equivalent to 4.2×108 megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0–7.4×108). Model estimates suggest 2–7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×106 t of jellyfish or 2.2×108 MJ per year). Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians); they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output. PMID:23071518

  3. Resource requirements of the Pacific leatherback turtle population.

    PubMed

    Jones, T Todd; Bostrom, Brian L; Hastings, Mervin D; Van Houtan, Kyle S; Pauly, Daniel; Jones, David R

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements) of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance). Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924-1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×10(6) t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0-3.7×10(6)) equivalent to 4.2×10(8) megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0-7.4×10(8)). Model estimates suggest 2-7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×10(6) t of jellyfish or 2.2×10(8) MJ per year). Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians); they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output.

  4. Computational models of populations of bacteria and lytic phage.

    PubMed

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Martin, Gregory J O; Stickland, Anthony D; Scales, Peter J; Gras, Sally L

    2016-11-01

    The use of phages to control and reduce numbers of unwanted bacteria can be traced back to the early 1900s, when phages were explored as a tool to treat infections before the wide scale use of antibiotics. Recently, phage therapy has received renewed interest as a method to treat multiresistant bacteria. Phages are also widely used in the food industry to prevent the growth of certain bacteria in foods, and are currently being explored as a tool for use in bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Despite the large body of biological research on phages, relatively little attention has been given to computational modeling of the population dynamics of phage and bacterial interactions. The earliest model was described by Campbell in the 1960s. Subsequent modifications to this model include partial or complete resistance, multiple phage binding sites, and spatial heterogeneity. This review provides a general introduction to modeling of the population dynamics of bacteria and phage. The review introduces the basic model and relevant concepts and evaluates more complex variations of the basic model published to date, including a model of disease epidemics caused by infectious bacteria. Finally, the shortcomings and potential ways to improve the models are discussed.

  5. Searching for an Integrated Watershed Salmonid Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligon, F. K.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2005-05-01

    In proposing to restore a stream or watershed, we imply that we know what we are restoring and why. However, in many cases, restoration proceeds without having the tools to adequately assess the efficacy of a project-both in terms of its likely local success and what effects it may have at a larger watershed or regional scale. In salmonid ecology and restoration, our approach has been to "step back" and investigate the degree to which geology, tectonics, and climate determine the relative abundance and temporal variability of the species present in a watershed or reach. In other words, does the habitat provided by a landscape prior to European disturbance (the so-called historical reference condition) allow us to predict, using salmon life history theory, the historical population dynamics of all salmonid species for a watershed or region? Likewise, as changes in physical processes have occurred due to human disturbance, can we predict the differential effects on the abundance of different salmonid species historically present in the watershed? To explore these questions, we have developed the "reference model". The reference model is based on a set of desktop watershed analyses tools that estimate a number of landscape attributes including channel slope, drainage area, stream temperature, and shallow landslide sensitivity. The model uses these tools to predict the spatial distribution of habitat and its quality and quantity. Then, by relating the habitat to life stage specific survival, the model predicts population dynamics under reference and current conditions, and under proposed restoration scenarios. In applying the reference model, we explicitly link salmon restoration targets and plans to an understanding of the role of physical processes on the historical and current population dynamics. As is true with most models, the reference model's predictions have the greatest value when they can be treated as testable hypotheses. Ongoing restoration projects that

  6. [Zooplankton in north branch waters of Changiiang Estuary].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoli

    2005-07-01

    Based on the investigation data during the high-water (July, 2003) and low-water (January, 2004) periods, a causal analysis was made on the variation of zooplankton distribution in the north branch waters of the Changjiang Estuary. The results showed that in high-water period, the average of zooplankton biomass was 234.38 mg x m(-3), being 141.35 mg x m(-3) in flood tide and 327.40 mg x m(-3) in ebb tide, while in low-water period, it was 188.81 mg x m(-3), being 184.69 mg x m(-3) in flood tide and 192.93 mg x m(-3) in ebb tide. The biomass increased from the east to the west in flood tide, but a contrary trend was observed in ebb tide. The species number did not change obviously both in flood tide and in ebb tide. The value of diversity index (H') was higher in flood tide than in ebb tide. In high-water period, the biomass near the north shore was higher than that near the south shore, but it was contrary in the ebb tide. The difference between the waters of two shores was not obvious in low-water period as in high-water period, though the trend of biomass variation was similar. The variation of zooplankton distribution in the north branch waters of the Changjiang Estuary had a close relation with the seasonal changes of zooplankton biomass outside the Changjiang Estuary and the tide, but not significantly related with the Changjiang runoff water. Coriolis force accounted for the difference of zooplankton biomass in the waters of two shores via tide movement.

  7. Development of zooplankton culture subsystem for a closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system (CERAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Katsunori; Oguchi, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Ten parthenogenetic females of Moina macrocopa were placed in small cells with different flow conditions. The cells were opened after three-days of cultivation, and the water fleas in each cell were counted. It appeared that M. macrocopa were cultured effectively in a relatively slow current, 10 cm/min., but the population growth was not significantly influenced by the difference in flow direction. Subsequent, filtration efficiencies of filters with various pore sizes were compared. Four available porous hollow-fiber membrane modules, ACP-1010, AHP-1010, PSP-103, and PMP-102 (Asahi-Kasei Corp.), were tested. The module with the larger pore size initially filtered a greater amount of water but clogged up sooner. ACP-1010, which has the smallest pores, was considered to be suitable to filter condensed algal water due to its durability and stable filtration. An improved zooplankton culture device (IZCD) was designed and constructed based on these examinations. IZCD is a 13.2L airtight device characterized by a short and thick rearing tank and alternate filtration with paired fine hollow-fiber membrane modules. It must be tested and revised to be used in research into the optimal conditions for a zooplankton culture in a closed environment.

  8. Induced pigmentation in zooplankton: a trade-off between threats from predation and ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, L A

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is harmful to all life, and the ongoing depletion of the ozone layer is likely to affect interactions among both terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Some organisms have evolved adaptations to reduce radiation damage, such as the various types of protective pigmentation of freshwater zooplankton. However, strong pigmentation also increases vulnerability to visually hunting predators. Hence, where both UV radiation and predation are intense, zooplankton may be sandwiched between conflicting selective pressures: to be pigmented and to be transparent at the same time. Here, I show that the level of pigmentation in copepods is up to ten times higher in lakes without predatory fishes than where fishes are present. Moreover, animals from the same population exposed to either UV light or predator scent showed a 10% difference in pigmentation after only four days, suggesting that pigmentation is an inducible trait. Hence, individual copepods are not passive victims of selective predation or radiation damage, but adjust the level of pigmentation according to the prevailing threat. The ability to adjust pigmentation level rapidly may be especially useful in situations where risk assessment is difficult due to strong seasonal and spatial variation in risk variables, such as in Arctic regions. With progressive thinning of the ozone layer, the ability of some but not other organisms to adjust protection against UV radiation may lead to counter-intuitive, large-scale alterations in freshwater food webs. PMID:11413651

  9. The role of zooplankton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Small, L.F.; Huh, Chih-An.

    1988-01-01

    The overall objective of our research is to understand the transport pathways and mass balances of selected metabolically active and inactive chemical species in the Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. One focus of our study is to examine the role of zooplankton and micronekton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight, with particular reference to C, N and certain radionuclides and trace metals. A second focus is to examine these same radionuclides and trace metals in other important reservoirs. Knowledge of the rates and routes of transfer of these nuclides and metals through these reservoirs should lead to a cogent model for these elements in SM/SP Basins. Our zooplankton C and N data, should lead ultimately to a model of C and N cycling in the upper water column. Our sediment core data will lead to the construction of mass balances and budgets in the SM/SP Basins. 4 refs.

  10. Modeling the Effects of Mortality on Sea Otter Populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation and management of sea otters can benefit from managing the magnitude and sex composition of human related mortality, including harvesting within sustainable levels. Using age and sex-specific reproduction and survival rates from field studies, we created matrix population models representing sea otter populations with growth rates of 1.005, 1.072, and 1.145, corresponding to stable, moderate, and rapid rates of change. In each modeled population, we incrementally imposed additional annual mortality over a 20-year period and calculated average annual rates of change (lambda). Additional mortality was applied to (1) males only, (2) at a 1:1 ratio of male to female, and (3) at a 3:1 ratio of male to female. Dependent pups (age 0-0.5) were excluded from the mortality. Maintaining a stable or slightly increasing population was largely dependent on (1) the magnitude of additional mortality, (2) the underlying rate of change in the population during the period of additional mortality, and (3) the extent that females were included in the additional mortality (due to a polygnous reproductive system where one male may breed with more than one female). In stable populations, additional mortality as high as 2.4 percent was sustainable if limited to males only, but was reduced to 1.2 percent when males and females were removed at ratios of 3:1 or 0.5 percent at ratios of 1:1. In moderate growth populations, additional mortality of 9.8 percent (male-only) and 15.0 percent (3:1 male to female) maximized the sustainable mortality about 3-10 ten-fold over the stable population levels. However, if additional mortality consists of males and females at equal proportions, the sustainable rate is 7.7 percent. In rapid growth populations, maximum sustainable levels of mortality as high as 27.3 percent were achieved when the ratio of additional mortality was 3:1 male to female. Although male-only mortality maximized annual harvest in stable populations, high male biased

  11. Quantitative Modeling of Growth and Dispersal in Population Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    partial differential equations. Applications to dispersal and nonlinear growth/predation models arc dnsity- depresented . Computational iresults using...depend only on size x. The ideas we present here can be readily modified to treat theoretically and computationally the more general case where g and m

  12. Evaluating models of population process in a threatened population of Steller’s eiders: A retrospective approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Kylee; Grand, James B.

    2016-10-11

    The Alaskan breeding population of Steller’s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1997 in response to perceived declines in abundance throughout their breeding and nesting range. Aerial surveys suggest the breeding population is small and highly variable in number, with zero birds counted in 5 of the last 25 years. Research was conducted to evaluate competing population process models of Alaskan-breeding Steller’s eiders through comparison of model projections to aerial survey data. To evaluate model efficacy and estimate demographic parameters, a Bayesian state-space modeling framework was used and each model was fit to counts from the annual aerial surveys, using sequential importance sampling and resampling. The results strongly support that the Alaskan breeding population experiences population level nonbreeding events and is open to exchange with the larger Russian-Pacific breeding population. Current recovery criteria for the Alaskan breeding population rely heavily on the ability to estimate population viability. The results of this investigation provide an informative model of the population process that can be used to examine future population states and assess the population in terms of the current recovery and reclassification criteria.

  13. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  14. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  15. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects’ internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10015.001 PMID:26646183

  16. Modelling malaria population structure and its implications for control.

    PubMed

    Buckee, Caroline O; Gupta, Sunetra

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models of malaria transmission have been used to inform the design of malaria control programs since the mid 20th century, and many of these models have provided useful insights into the complexity of the disease. Among developing countries, however and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. One of the main difficulties in controlling the most virulent human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is its genetic diversity, which confounds attempts to design an effective vaccine. The population structure of P. falciparum remains poorly understood but plays a key role in determining epidemiological patterns of disease and the development of immunity. We discuss the seminal model of malaria transmission developed by Ross and MacDonald, and the modifications that have been made since to include more realism. We show that age profiles of disease and serological data support a theoretical model in which the parasite population is diverse and structured into several antigenic types and highlight the implications of this structure for controlling malaria. Lastly, we discuss the current sequence data on parasite antigen genes that are important for the aquisition of immunity, and the results of a new analysis of P. falciparum population structure at the genomic level.

  17. Modelling food and population dynamics in honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Khoury, David S; Barron, Andrew B; Myerscough, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are increasingly in demand as pollinators for various key agricultural food crops, but globally honey bee populations are in decline, and honey bee colony failure rates have increased. This scenario highlights a need to understand the conditions in which colonies flourish and in which colonies fail. To aid this investigation we present a compartment model of bee population dynamics to explore how food availability and bee death rates interact to determine colony growth and development. Our model uses simple differential equations to represent the transitions of eggs laid by the queen to brood, then hive bees and finally forager bees, and the process of social inhibition that regulates the rate at which hive bees begin to forage. We assume that food availability can influence both the number of brood successfully reared to adulthood and the rate at which bees transition from hive duties to foraging. The model predicts complex interactions between food availability and forager death rates in shaping colony fate. Low death rates and high food availability results in stable bee populations at equilibrium (with population size strongly determined by forager death rate) but consistently increasing food reserves. At higher death rates food stores in a colony settle at a finite equilibrium reflecting the balance of food collection and food use. When forager death rates exceed a critical threshold the colony fails but residual food remains. Our model presents a simple mathematical framework for exploring the interactions of food and forager mortality on colony fate, and provides the mathematical basis for more involved simulation models of hive performance.

  18. Moving across the border: Modeling migratory bat populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruscena, Wiederholt; López-Hoffman, Laura; Cline, Jon; Medellin, Rodrigo; Cryan, Paul M.; Russell, Amy; McCracken, Gary; Diffendorfer, Jay; Semmens, Darius J.

    2013-01-01

    The migration of animals across long distances and between multiple habitats presents a major challenge for conservation. For the migratory Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), these challenges include identifying and protecting migratory routes and critical roosts in two countries, the United States and Mexico. Knowledge and conservation of bat migratory routes is critical in the face of increasing threats from climate change and wind turbines that might decrease migratory survival. We employ a new modeling approach for bat migration, network modeling, to simulate migratory routes between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding habitat in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. We use the model to identify key migratory routes and the roosts of greatest conservation value to the overall population. We measure roost importance by the degree to which the overall bat population declined when the roost was removed from the model. The major migratory routes—those with the greatest number of migrants—were between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding roosts in Texas and the northern Mexican states of Sonora and Nuevo Leon. The summer breeding roosts in Texas, Sonora, and Nuevo Leon were the most important for maintaining population numbers and network structure – these are also the largest roosts. This modeling approach contributes to conservation efforts by identifying the most influential areas for bat populations, and can be used as a tool to improve our understanding of bat migration for other species. We anticipate this approach will help direct coordination of habitat protection across borders.

  19. Bayesian Modeling of Haplotype Effects in Multiparent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei; Valdar, William

    2014-01-01

    A general Bayesian model, Diploffect, is described for estimating the effects of founder haplotypes at quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected in multiparental genetic populations; such populations include the Collaborative Cross (CC), Heterogeneous Socks (HS), and many others for which local genetic variation is well described by an underlying, usually probabilistically inferred, haplotype mosaic. Our aim is to provide a framework for coherent estimation of haplotype and diplotype (haplotype pair) effects that takes into account the following: uncertainty in haplotype composition for each individual; uncertainty arising from small sample sizes and infrequently observed haplotype combinations; possible effects of dominance (for noninbred subjects); genetic background; and that provides a means to incorporate data that may be incomplete or has a hierarchical structure. Using the results of a probabilistic haplotype reconstruction as prior information, we obtain posterior distributions at the QTL for both haplotype effects and haplotype composition. Two alternative computational approaches are supplied: a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler and a procedure based on importance sampling of integrated nested Laplace approximations. Using simulations of QTL in the incipient CC (pre-CC) and Northport HS populations, we compare the accuracy of Diploffect, approximations to it, and more commonly used approaches based on Haley–Knott regression, describing trade-offs between these methods. We also estimate effects for three QTL previously identified in those populations, obtaining posterior intervals that describe how the phenotype might be affected by diplotype substitutions at the modeled locus. PMID:25236455

  20. A stage-based model of manatee population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Langtimm, C.A.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    A stage-structured population model for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was developed that explicitly incorporates uncertainty in parameter estimates. The growth rates calculated with this model reflect the status of the regional populations over the most recent 10-yr period. The Northwest and Upper St. Johns River regions have growth rates (8) of 1.037 (95% interval, 1.016?1.056) and 1.062 (1.037?1.081), respectively. The Southwest region has a growth rate of 0.989 (0.946?1.024), suggesting this population has been declining at about 1.1% per year. The estimated growth rate in the Atlantic region is 1.010 (0.988?1.029), but there is some uncertainty about whether adult survival rates have been constant over the last 10 yr; using the mean survival rates from the most recent 5-yr period, the estimated growth rate in this region is 0.970 (0.938?0.998). Elasticity analysis indicates that the most effective management actions should seek to increase adult survival rates. Decomposition of the uncertainty in the growth rates indicates that uncertainty about population status can best be reduced through increased monitoring of adult survival rate.

  1. Wave trains in a model of gypsy moth population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, J. W.; Vasquez, D. A.; Christie, I.; Colbert, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    A recent model of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] populations led to the observation of traveling waves in a one-dimensional spatial model. In this work, these waves are studied in more detail and their nature investigated. It was observed that when there are no spatial effects the model behaves chaotically under certain conditions. Under the same conditions, when diffusion is allowed, traveling waves develop. The biomass densities involved in the model, when examined at one point in the spatial domain, are found to correspond to a limit cycle lying on the surface of the chaotic attractor of the spatially homogeneous model. Also observed are wave trains that have modulating maxima, and which when examined at one point in the spatial domain show a quasiperiodic temporal behavior. This complex behavior is determined to be due to the interaction of the traveling wave and the chaotic background dynamics.

  2. Integration of manatee life-history data and population modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L.L.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    Aerial counts and the number of deaths have been a major focus of attention in attempts to understand the population status of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Uncertainties associated with these data have made interpretation difficult. However, knowledge of manatee life-history attributes increased and now permits the development of a population model. We describe a provisional model based on the classical approach of Lotka. Parameters in the model are based on data from'other papers in this volume and draw primarily on observations from the Crystal River, Blue Spring, and Adantic Coast areas. The model estimates X (the finite rate ofincrease) at each study area, and application ofthe delta method provides estimates of variance components and partial derivatives ofX with respectto key input parameters (reproduction, adult survival, and early survival). In some study areas, only approximations of some parameters are available. Estimates of X and coefficients of variation (in parentheses) of manatees were 1.07 (0.009) in the Crystal River, 1.06 (0.012) at Blue Spring, and 1.01 (0.012) on the Atlantic Coast. Changing adult survival has a major effect on X. Early-age survival has the smallest effect. Bootstrap comparisons of population growth estimates from trend counts in the Crystal River and at Blue Spring and the reproduction and survival data suggest that the higher, observed rates from counts are probably not due to chance. Bootstrapping for variance estimates based on reproduction and survival data from manatees at Blue Spring and in the Crystal River provided estimates of X, adult survival, and rates of reproduction that were similar to those obtained by other methods. Our estimates are preliminary and suggestimprovements for future data collection and analysis. However, results support efforts to reduce mortality as the most effective means to promote the increased growth necessary for the eventual recovery of the Florida manatee

  3. Population models in pesticide risk assessment: lessons for assessing population-level effects, recovery, and alternative exposure scenarios from modeling a small mammal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Magnus; Grimm, Volker

    2010-06-01

    In the last few years, the interest in using ecological population models as a tool for pesticide risk assessment has increased rapidly. Practical guidance, however, on how to perform a risk assessment with a population model is still lacking. It is still unclear which endpoint (population density, population growth, etc.) is the most sensitive indicator of population-level effects and how risk can be evaluated at the population level. Moreover, a main added value of model-based risk assessments, which is an understanding of the mechanisms involved in alternative exposure scenarios, so far has received little attention. We therefore used an example model to compare commonly used endpoints and alternative exposure scenarios. The model is a structurally realistic, but relatively simple, individual-based, spatially explicit model for the common shrew (Sorex araneus), which was selected because it has been tested and validated extensively. We show that population density is more sensitive for detecting population-level effects in the short term (months) than population growth rate. Population viability measured by extinction risk can also be a relevant endpoint, because it is especially sensitive for small populations. We show that landscape structure and the timing of pesticide application (population structure at the time of application) can have a great impact on population recovery, and we analyze statistical tests for use in population-level risk assessments. Our results demonstrate which factors and insights should be taken into account in population-level risk assessments.

  4. Deterministic versus stochastic aspects of superexponential population growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Nicolas; Huillet, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Deterministic population growth models with power-law rates can exhibit a large variety of growth behaviors, ranging from algebraic, exponential to hyperexponential (finite time explosion). In this setup, selfsimilarity considerations play a key role, together with two time substitutions. Two stochastic versions of such models are investigated, showing a much richer variety of behaviors. One is the Lamperti construction of selfsimilar positive stochastic processes based on the exponentiation of spectrally positive processes, followed by an appropriate time change. The other one is based on stable continuous-state branching processes, given by another Lamperti time substitution applied to stable spectrally positive processes.

  5. Fossil zooplankton and the historical status of westslope cutthroat trout in a headwater lake of Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verschuren, D.; Marnell, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Surviving pure-strain populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in headwater lakes of Glacier National Park could play an important role in the managed recovery of regional cutthroat trout fisheries. However, uncertainty exists about whether native trout could have naturally invaded several park lakes where they now occur. This study used paleolimnological techniques to address the question of whether the population of native trout in Avalanche Lake is indigenous or became established through an undocumented introduction. The validity of using fossil diapause eggs (ephippia) of the fish-sensitive cladocerans Daphnia spp. as indicators for the historical presence of zooplanktivorous fish was tested with a survey of live zooplankton and corresponding surface-sediment fossil assemblages in eight Glacier Park lakes with or without trout. Analysis of a sediment core from Avalanche Lake dated by lead radioisotopes, historical wildfires, and a flood allowed reconstruction of zooplankton dynamics from about 1700 A.D. to the present. Fossil Daphnia ephippia were rare or absent in Avalanche Lake sediments deposited before 1910, suggesting intense zooplanktivory due to sustained presence of an indigenous population of native cutthroat trout. Fossil evidence for larger Daphnia populations in the 1930s and early 1940s revealed a temporary disturbance of the lake's normal food web interactions during which zooplanktivory was significantly reduced. This disturbance may have resulted from a collapse of the native trout population caused indirectly by failed attempts between 1915 and 1943 to stock Avalanche Lake with Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarki bouvieri.

  6. The impact of fish predation and cyanobacteria on zooplankton size structure in 96 subtropical lakes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Xie, Ping; Tao, Min; Guo, Longgen; Chen, Jun; Li, Li; Xuezhen Zhang; Zhang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are relatively small in size in the subtropical regions. This characteristic has been attributed to intense predation pressure, high nutrient loading and cyanobacterial biomass. To provide further information on the effect of predation and cyanobacteria on zooplankton size structure, we analyzed data from 96 shallow aquaculture lakes along the Yangtze River. Contrary to former studies, both principal components analysis and multiple regression analysis showed that the mean zooplankton size was positively related to fish yield. The studied lakes were grouped into three types, namely, natural fishing lakes with low nutrient loading (Type1), planktivorous fish-dominated lakes (Type 2), and eutrophic lakes with high cyanobacterial biomass (Type 3). A marked difference in zooplankton size structure was found among these groups. The greatest mean zooplankton size was observed in Type 2 lakes, but zooplankton density was the lowest. Zooplankton abundance was highest in Type 3 lakes and increased with increasing cyanobacterial biomass. Zooplankton mean size was negatively correlated with cyanobacterial biomass. No obvious trends were found in Type 1 lakes. These results were reflected by the normalized biomass size spectrum, which showed a unimodal shape with a peak at medium sizes in Type 2 lakes and a peak at small sizes in Type 3 lakes. These results indicated a relative increase in medium-sized and small-sized species in Types 2 and 3 lakes, respectively. Our results suggested that fish predation might have a negative effect on zooplankton abundance but a positive effect on zooplankton size structure. High cyanobacterial biomass most likely caused a decline in the zooplankton size and encouraged the proliferation of small zooplankton. We suggest that both planktivorous fish and cyanobacteria have substantial effects on the shaping of zooplankton community, particularly in the lakes in the eastern plain along the Yangtze River where aquaculture is widespread

  7. The Impact of Fish Predation and Cyanobacteria on Zooplankton Size Structure in 96 Subtropical Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Xie, Ping; Tao, Min; Guo, Longgen; Chen, Jun; Li, Li; XueZhen Zhang; Zhang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are relatively small in size in the subtropical regions. This characteristic has been attributed to intense predation pressure, high nutrient loading and cyanobacterial biomass. To provide further information on the effect of predation and cyanobacteria on zooplankton size structure, we analyzed data from 96 shallow aquaculture lakes along the Yangtze River. Contrary to former studies, both principal components analysis and multiple regression analysis showed that the mean zooplankton size was positively related to fish yield. The studied lakes were grouped into three types, namely, natural fishing lakes with low nutrient loading (Type1), planktivorous fish-dominated lakes (Type 2), and eutrophic lakes with high cyanobacterial biomass (Type 3). A marked difference in zooplankton size structure was found among these groups. The greatest mean zooplankton size was observed in Type 2 lakes, but zooplankton density was the lowest. Zooplankton abundance was highest in Type 3 lakes and increased with increasing cyanobacterial biomass. Zooplankton mean size was negatively correlated with cyanobacterial biomass. No obvious trends were found in Type 1 lakes. These results were reflected by the normalized biomass size spectrum, which showed a unimodal shape with a peak at medium sizes in Type 2 lakes and a peak at small sizes in Type 3 lakes. These results indicated a relative increase in medium-sized and small-sized species in Types 2 and 3 lakes, respectively. Our results suggested that fish predation might have a negative effect on zooplankton abundance but a positive effect on zooplankton size structure. High cyanobacterial biomass most likely caused a decline in the zooplankton size and encouraged the proliferation of small zooplankton. We suggest that both planktivorous fish and cyanobacteria have substantial effects on the shaping of zooplankton community, particularly in the lakes in the eastern plain along the Yangtze River where aquaculture is widespread

  8. Spatial distribution and feeding of dominant zooplankton species in the Ob River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drits, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.; Semenova, T. N.; Sergeeva, V. M.; Solovyev, K. A.; Flint, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    The distribution and feeding of dominant mesozooplankton species were studied in the estuary of the Ob River and adjacent inner Kara Sea shelf waters in September 2013. It was shown that the spatial distributions of Cyclops sp., Senecella siberica, Limnocalanus macrurus, Mysis oculata, Drepanopus bungei, Jashnovia tolli and Pseudocalanus sp. are related to the specific characteristics of the hydrographic regime in the estuarine frontal zone. The distributions of Cyclops sp., Senecella siberica, and Pseudocalanus sp. are mainly limited by salinity, while other species inhabit an area with a wide range of salinity values without clear preferences. Peaks of their abundance could be either consolidated or distanced in space. The populations of Jashnovia tolli, Drepanopus bungei, and Pseudocalanus sp. permanently inhabit the layer under the pycnohalocline; the populations of Cyclops sp. and Mysis oculata inhabit the upper mixed layer. Limnocalanus macrurus demonstrates a different vertical distribution pattern: the copepod undertakes diel vertical migrations in the southern part of the estuarine frontal zone; in its northern part, the population is concentrated below the pycnocline during day and night. The differences in the distributions of the studied species determine their feeding behavior and their role in phytoplankton grazing. The most intense utilization of biomass and production of autotrophic phytoplankton by zooplankton occur in the freshened water zone and the adjacent southern periphery of the estuarine frontal zone: the total daily phytoplankton consumption makes up 10-18% of the biomass and 60-380% of primary production. Daily zooplankton consumption of phytoplankton in the estuarine frontal zone decreases to 2-7% of the biomass and to 14% of primary production; in inner shelf waters, the values do not exceed 1% for both phytoplankton biomass and production.

  9. Comparison of multifrequency acoustic and in situ measurements of zooplankton abundances in Knight Inlet, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Trevorrow, Mark V; Mackas, David L; Benfield, Mark C

    2005-06-01

    An investigation of midwater zooplankton aggregations in a coastal fjord was conducted in November 2002. This study focused on quantitative comparisons between a calibrated, three-frequency (38, 120, and 200 kHz) vessel-based echo-sounder, a multinet towed zooplankton sampler (BIONESS), and a high-resolution underwater camera (ZOOVIS). Daytime layers of euphausiids and amphipods near 70-90-m depth were observed in lower parts of the inlet, especially concentrated by tidal flows around a sill. Quantitative backscatter measurements of euphausiids and amphipods, combined with in situ size and abundance estimates, and using an assumed tilt-angle distribution, were in agreement with averaged fluid-cylinder scattering models produced by Stanton and Chu [ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57, 793-807, (2000)]. Acoustic measurements of physonect siphonophores in the upper inlet were found to have a strong 38-kHz scattering strength, in agreement with a damped bubble scattering model using a diameter of 0.4 mm. In relatively dense euphausiid layers, ZOOVIS abundance estimates were found to be a factor of 2 to 4 higher than the acoustic estimates, potentially due to deviations from assumed euphausiid orientation. Nocturnal near-surface euphausiid scattering exhibited a strong (15 dB) and rapid (seconds) sensitivity to vessel lights, interpreted as due to changing animal orientation.

  10. Simulation models in population breast cancer screening: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Koleva-Kolarova, Rositsa G; Zhan, Zhuozhao; Greuter, Marcel J W; Feenstra, Talitha L; De Bock, Geertruida H

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review was to critically evaluate published simulation models for breast cancer screening of the general population and provide a direction for future modeling. A systematic literature search was performed to identify simulation models with more than one application. A framework for qualitative assessment which incorporated model type; input parameters; modeling approach, transparency of input data sources/assumptions, sensitivity analyses and risk of bias; validation, and outcomes was developed. Predicted mortality reduction (MR) and cost-effectiveness (CE) were compared to estimates from meta-analyses of randomized control trials (RCTs) and acceptability thresholds. Seven original simulation models were distinguished, all sharing common input parameters. The modeling approach was based on tumor progression (except one model) with internal and cross validation of the resulting models, but without any external validation. Differences in lead times for invasive or non-invasive tumors, and the option for cancers not to progress were not explicitly modeled. The models tended to overestimate the MR (11-24%) due to screening as compared to optimal RCTs 10% (95% CI - 2-21%) MR. Only recently, potential harms due to regular breast cancer screening were reported. Most scenarios resulted in acceptable cost-effectiveness estimates given current thresholds. The selected models have been repeatedly applied in various settings to inform decision making and the critical analysis revealed high risk of bias in their outcomes. Given the importance of the models, there is a need for externally validated models which use systematical evidence for input data to allow for more critical evaluation of breast cancer screening.

  11. A Biomass Flow Approach to Population Models and Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    The dominant differential equation paradigm for modeling the population dynamics of species interacting in the framework of a food web retains at its core the basic prey-predator and competition models formulation by Alfred J. Lotka (1880–1945) and Vito Volterra (1860–1940) nearly nine decades ago. This paradigm lacks a trophic-level-independent formulation of population growth leading to ambiguities in how to treat populations that are simultaneously both prey and predator. Also, this paradigm does not fundamentally include inertial (i.e. change resisting) processes needed to account for the response of populations to fluctuating resource environments. Here I present an approach that corrects both these deficits and provides a unified framework for accounting for biomass transformation in food webs that include both live and dead components of all species in the system. This biomass transformation formulation (BTW) allows for a unified treatment of webs that include consumers of both live and dead material—both carnivores and carcasivores, herbivores and detritivores—and incorporates scavengers, parasites, and other neglected food web consumption categories in a coherent manner. I trace how BTW is an outgrowth of the metaphysiological growth modeling paradigm and I provide a general compact formulation of BTW in terms of a three-variable differential equation formulation for each species in the food web: viz. live biomass, dead biomass, and a food-intake-related measure called deficit-stress. I then illustrate the application of this new paradigm to provide insights into two-species competition in variable environments and discuss application of BTW to food webs that incorporate parasites and pathogens. PMID:27688596

  12. A population model of chaparral vegetation response to frequent wildfires.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Timothy A; Johns, Garrett; Jiang, Wancen; Yang, Lucie

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase in wildfire frequency in the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) may substantially impact plant community structure. Species of Chaparral shrubs represent the dominant vegetation type in the SMM. These species can be divided into three life history types according to their response to wildfires. Nonsprouting species are completely killed by fire and reproduce by seeds that germinate in response to a fire cue, obligate sprouting species survive by resprouting from dormant buds in a root crown because their seeds are destroyed by fire, and facultative sprouting species recover after fire both by seeds and resprouts. Based on these assumptions, we developed a set of nonlinear difference equations to model each life history type. These models can be used to predict species survivorship under varying fire return intervals. For example, frequent fires can lead to localized extinction of nonsprouting species such as Ceanothus megacarpus while several facultative sprouting species such as Ceanothus spinosus and Malosma (Rhus) laurina will persist as documented by a longitudinal study in a biological preserve in the SMM. We estimated appropriate parameter values for several chaparral species using 25 years of data and explored parameter relationships that lead to equilibrium populations. We conclude by looking at the survival strategies of these three species of chaparral shrubs under varying fire return intervals and predict changes in plant community structure under fire intervals of short return. In particular, our model predicts that an average fire return interval of greater than 12 years is required for 50 % of the initial Ceanothus megacarpus population and 25 % of the initial Ceanothus spinosus population to survive. In contrast, we predict that the Malosma laurina population will have 90 % survivorship for an average fire return interval of at least 6 years.

  13. A Biomass Flow Approach to Population Models and Food Webs.

    PubMed

    Getz, Wayne M

    2012-02-01

    The dominant differential equation paradigm for modeling the population dynamics of species interacting in the framework of a food web retains at its core the basic prey-predator and competition models formulation by Alfred J. Lotka (1880-1945) and Vito Volterra (1860-1940) nearly nine decades ago. This paradigm lacks a trophic-level-independent formulation of population growth leading to ambiguities in how to treat populations that are simultaneously both prey and predator. Also, this paradigm does not fundamentally include inertial (i.e. change resisting) processes needed to account for the response of populations to fluctuating resource environments. Here I present an approach that corrects both these deficits and provides a unified framework for accounting for biomass transformation in food webs that include both live and dead components of all species in the system. This biomass transformation formulation (BTW) allows for a unified treatment of webs that include consumers of both live and dead material-both carnivores and carcasivores, herbivores and detritivores-and incorporates scavengers, parasites, and other neglected food web consumption categories in a coherent manner. I trace how BTW is an outgrowth of the metaphysiological growth modeling paradigm and I provide a general compact formulation of BTW in terms of a three-variable differential equation formulation for each species in the food web: viz. live biomass, dead biomass, and a food-intake-related measure called deficit-stress. I then illustrate the application of this new paradigm to provide insights into two-species competition in variable environments and discuss application of BTW to food webs that incorporate parasites and pathogens.

  14. Modelling Lipid Competition Dynamics in Heterogeneous Protocell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Shirt-Ediss, Ben; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Mavelli, Fabio; Solé, Ricard V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental work in the field of synthetic protocell biology has shown that prebiotic vesicles are able to ‘steal’ lipids from each other. This phenomenon is driven purely by asymmetries in the physical state or composition of the vesicle membranes, and, when lipid resource is limited, translates directly into competition amongst the vesicles. Such a scenario is interesting from an origins of life perspective because a rudimentary form of cell-level selection emerges. To sharpen intuition about possible mechanisms underlying this behaviour, experimental work must be complemented with theoretical modelling. The aim of this paper is to provide a coarse-grain mathematical model of protocell lipid competition. Our model is capable of reproducing, often quantitatively, results from core experimental papers that reported distinct types vesicle competition. Additionally, we make some predictions untested in the lab, and develop a general numerical method for quickly solving the equilibrium point of a model vesicle population. PMID:25024020

  15. CALIBRATING STELLAR POPULATION MODELS WITH MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Noeel, N. E. D.; Carollo, C. M.; Greggio, L.; Renzini, A.; Maraston, C.

    2013-07-20

    Stellar population models are commonly calculated using star clusters as calibrators for those evolutionary stages that depend on free parameters. However, discrepancies exist among different models, even if similar sets of calibration clusters are used. With the aim of understanding these discrepancies, and of improving the calibration procedure, we consider a set of 43 Magellanic Cloud (MC) clusters, taking age and photometric information from the literature. We carefully assign ages to each cluster based on up-to-date determinations, ensuring that these are as homogeneous as possible. To cope with statistical fluctuations, we stack the clusters in five age bins, deriving for each of them integrated luminosities and colors. We find that clusters become abruptly red in optical and optical-infrared colors as they age from {approx}0.6 to {approx}1 Gyr, which we interpret as due to the development of a well-populated thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB). We argue that other studies missed this detection because of coarser age binnings. Maraston and Girardi et al. models predict the presence of a populated TP-AGB at {approx}0.6 Gyr, with a correspondingly very red integrated color, at variance with the data; Bruzual and Charlot and Conroy models run within the error bars at all ages. The discrepancy between the synthetic colors of Maraston models and the average colors of MC clusters results from the now obsolete age scale adopted. Finally, our finding that the TP-AGB phase appears to develop between {approx}0.6 and 1 Gyr is dependent on the adopted age scale for the clusters and may have important implications for stellar evolution.

  16. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  17. Individual-based model of young-of-the-year striped bass population dynamics. II. Factors affecting recruitment in the Potomac River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. ); Rose, K.A. ); Rutherford, E.S.; Houde, E.D. )

    1993-05-01

    An individual-based model of the population dynamics of young-of-the-year striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Potomac River, Maryland, was used to test the hypothesis that historically high recruitment variability can be explained by changes in environmental and biological factors that result in relatively small changes in growth and mortality rates of striped bass larvae. The four factors examined were (1) size distribution of female parents, (2) zooplankton prey density during the development of striped bass larvae, (3) density of completing larval white perch M. americana, and (4) temperature during larval development. Simulation results suggest that variations in female size and in prey for larvae alone could cause 10-fold variability in recruitment. But no single factor alone caused changes in vital rates of age-0 fish that could account for the 145-fold variability in the Potomac River index of juvenile recruitment. However, combined positive or negative effects of two or more factors resulted in more than a 150-fold simulated recruitment variability, suggesting that combinations of factors can account for the high observed annual variability in striped bass recruitment success. Higher cumulative mortality of feeding larvae and younger life stages than of juveniles was common to all simulations. supporting the contention that striped bass year-class strength is determined prior to metamorphosis. 76 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Neural population models for perception of motion in depth.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiuyan; Shi, Bertram E

    2014-08-01

    Changing disparity (CD) and interocular velocity difference (IOVD) are two possible mechanisms for stereomotion perception. We propose two neurally plausible models for the representation of motion-in-depth (MID) via the CD and IOVD mechanisms. These models create distributed representations of MID velocity as the responses from a population of neurons selective to different MID velocity. Estimates of perceived MID velocity can be computed from the population response. They can be applied directly to binocular image sequences commonly used to characterize MID perception in psychophysical experiments. Contrary to common assumptions, we find that the CD and IOVD mechanisms cannot be distinguished easily by random dot stereograms that disrupt correlations between the two eyes or through time. We also demonstrate that the assumed spatial connectivity between the units in these models can be learned through exposure to natural binocular stimuli. Our experiments with these developmental models of MID selectivity suggest that neurons selective to MID are more likely to develop via the CD mechanism than the IOVD mechanism.

  19. Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine zooplankton and fish.

    PubMed

    Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia

    2012-01-17

    The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that zooplankton that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and zooplankton, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea.

  20. Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine zooplankton and fish

    PubMed Central

    Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that zooplankton that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and zooplankton, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea. PMID:22203999

  1. Exact Solution of Population Redistributions in a Migration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Wen; Zhang, Li-Jie; Yang, Guo-Hong; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2013-10-01

    We study a migration model, in which individuals migrate from one community to another. The choices of the source community i and the destination one j are proportional to some power of the population of i (kαi) and j (kβj), respectively. Both analytical calculation and numerical simulation show that the population distribution of communities in stationary states is determined by the parameters α and β. The distribution is widely homogeneous with a characteristic size if α > β. Whereas, for α < β, the distribution is highly heterogeneous with the emergence of condensing phenomenon. Between the two regimes, α = β, the distribution gradually shifts from the nonmonotonous (α < 0) to scale-free (α > 0).

  2. An integro-PDE model from population genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yuan; Nagylaki, Thomas; Su, Linlin

    We investigate an integro-partial differential equation that models the evolution of the frequencies for two alleles at a single locus under the joint action of migration, selection, and partial panmixia (i.e., global random mating). We extend previous analyses [T. Nagylaki, Clines with partial panmixia, Theor. Popul. Biol. 81 (2012) 45-68] on the maintenance of both alleles from conservative to arbitrary migration and prove the uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the nontrivial equilibrium. For conservative migration, we show that increasing the rate of panmixia makes it harder to maintain the allele with the smaller average fitness in the population. In terms of the selection function, we estimate the dependence on the panmictic rate of the minimal value of the selection intensity for the persistence of the allele with the smaller average fitness. We also show that, at least in an average sense, increasing panmixia flattens the cline.

  3. Modelling Multi-Pulse Population Dynamics from Ultrafast Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Lincoln, Craig N.; van Thor, Jasper J.

    2011-01-01

    Current advanced laser, optics and electronics technology allows sensitive recording of molecular dynamics, from single resonance to multi-colour and multi-pulse experiments. Extracting the occurring (bio-) physical relevant pathways via global analysis of experimental data requires a systematic investigation of connectivity schemes. Here we present a Matlab-based toolbox for this purpose. The toolbox has a graphical user interface which facilitates the application of different reaction models to the data to generate the coupled differential equations. Any time-dependent dataset can be analysed to extract time-independent correlations of the observables by using gradient or direct search methods. Specific capabilities (i.e. chirp and instrument response function) for the analysis of ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopic data are included. The inclusion of an extra pulse that interacts with a transient phase can help to disentangle complex interdependent pathways. The modelling of pathways is therefore extended by new theory (which is included in the toolbox) that describes the finite bleach (orientation) effect of single and multiple intense polarised femtosecond pulses on an ensemble of randomly oriented particles in the presence of population decay. For instance, the generally assumed flat-top multimode beam profile is adapted to a more realistic Gaussian shape, exposing the need for several corrections for accurate anisotropy measurements. In addition, the (selective) excitation (photoselection) and anisotropy of populations that interact with single or multiple intense polarised laser pulses is demonstrated as function of power density and beam profile. Using example values of real world experiments it is calculated to what extent this effectively orients the ensemble of particles. Finally, the implementation includes the interaction with multiple pulses in addition to depth averaging in optically dense samples. In summary, we show that mathematical modelling is

  4. Towards a continuous population model for natural language vowel shift.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Patrick D; Faria, Sérgio H; Strickland, Christopher

    2013-09-07

    The Great English Vowel Shift of 16th-19th centuries and the current Northern Cities Vowel Shift are two examples of collective language processes characterized by regular phonetic changes, that is, gradual changes in vowel pronunciation over time. Here we develop a structured population approach to modeling such regular changes in the vowel systems of natural languages, taking into account learning patterns and effects such as social trends. We treat vowel pronunciation as a continuous variable in vowel space and allow for a continuous dependence of vowel pronunciation in time and age of the speaker. The theory of mixtures with continuous diversity provides a framework for the model, which extends the McKendrick-von Foerster equation to populations with age and phonetic structures. We develop the general balance equations for such populations and propose explicit expressions for the factors that impact the evolution of the vowel pronunciation distribution. For illustration, we present two examples of numerical simulations. In the first one we study a stationary solution corresponding to a state of phonetic equilibrium, in which speakers of all ages share a similar phonetic profile. We characterize the variance of the phonetic distribution in terms of a parameter measuring a ratio of phonetic attraction to dispersion. In the second example we show how vowel shift occurs upon starting with an initial condition consisting of a majority pronunciation that is affected by an immigrant minority with a different vowel pronunciation distribution. The approach developed here for vowel systems may be applied also to other learning situations and other time-dependent processes of cognition in self-interacting populations, like opinions or perceptions.

  5. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  6. Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Galbraith, Moira; Ross, Peter S

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual zooplankton and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two zooplankton species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 μm) than in copepods (556 ± 149 μm) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine zooplankton indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing zooplankton will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ≤91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults.

  7. Flow disturbances generated by feeding and swimming zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo; Gonçalves, Rodrigo Javier; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Wadhwa, Navish

    2014-08-12

    Interactions between planktonic organisms, such as detection of prey, predators, and mates, are often mediated by fluid signals. Consequently, many plankton predators perceive their prey from the fluid disturbances that it generates when it feeds and swims. Zooplankton should therefore seek to minimize the fluid disturbance that they produce. By means of particle image velocimetry, we describe the fluid disturbances produced by feeding and swimming in zooplankton with diverse propulsion mechanisms and ranging from 10-µm flagellates to greater than millimeter-sized copepods. We show that zooplankton, in which feeding and swimming are separate processes, produce flow disturbances during swimming with a much faster spatial attenuation (velocity u varies with distance r as u ∝ r(-3) to r(-4)) than that produced by zooplankton for which feeding and propulsion are the same process (u ∝ r(-1) to r(-2)). As a result, the spatial extension of the fluid disturbance produced by swimmers is an order of magnitude smaller than that produced by feeders at similar Reynolds numbers. The "quiet" propulsion of swimmers is achieved either through swimming erratically by short-lasting power strokes, generating viscous vortex rings, or by "breast-stroke swimming." Both produce rapidly attenuating flows. The more "noisy" swimming of those that are constrained by a need to simultaneously feed is due to constantly beating flagella or appendages that are positioned either anteriorly or posteriorly on the (cell) body. These patterns transcend differences in size and taxonomy and have thus evolved multiple times, suggesting a strong selective pressure to minimize predation risk.

  8. Flow disturbances generated by feeding and swimming zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo; Gonçalves, Rodrigo Javier; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Wadhwa, Navish

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between planktonic organisms, such as detection of prey, predators, and mates, are often mediated by fluid signals. Consequently, many plankton predators perceive their prey from the fluid disturbances that it generates when it feeds and swims. Zooplankton should therefore seek to minimize the fluid disturbance that they produce. By means of particle image velocimetry, we describe the fluid disturbances produced by feeding and swimming in zooplankton with diverse propulsion mechanisms and ranging from 10-µm flagellates to greater than millimeter-sized copepods. We show that zooplankton, in which feeding and swimming are separate processes, produce flow disturbances during swimming with a much faster spatial attenuation (velocity u varies with distance r as u ∝ r−3 to r−4) than that produced by zooplankton for which feeding and propulsion are the same process (u ∝ r−1 to r−2). As a result, the spatial extension of the fluid disturbance produced by swimmers is an order of magnitude smaller than that produced by feeders at similar Reynolds numbers. The “quiet” propulsion of swimmers is achieved either through swimming erratically by short-lasting power strokes, generating viscous vortex rings, or by “breast-stroke swimming.” Both produce rapidly attenuating flows. The more “noisy” swimming of those that are constrained by a need to simultaneously feed is due to constantly beating flagella or appendages that are positioned either anteriorly or posteriorly on the (cell) body. These patterns transcend differences in size and taxonomy and have thus evolved multiple times, suggesting a strong selective pressure to minimize predation risk. PMID:25071196

  9. Phytoplankton, not allochthonous carbon, sustains herbivorous zooplankton production.

    PubMed

    Brett, Michael T; Kainz, Martin J; Taipale, Sami J; Seshan, Hari

    2009-12-15

    Terrestrial organic matter inputs have long been thought to play an important role in aquatic food web dynamics. Results from recent whole lake (13)C addition experiments suggest terrestrial particulate organic carbon (t-POC) inputs account for a disproportionate portion of zooplankton production. For example, several studies concluded that although t-POC only represented approximately 20% of the flux of particulate carbon available to herbivorous zooplankton, this food source accounted for approximately 50% of the C incorporated by zooplankton. We tested the direct dietary impact of t-POC (from the leaves of riparian vegetation) and various phytoplankton on Daphnia magna somatic growth, reproduction, growth efficiency, and lipid composition. By itself, t-POC was a very poor quality resource compared to cryptophytes, diatoms, and chlorophytes, but t-POC had similar food quality compared to cyanobacteria. Small additions of high quality Cryptomonas ozolinii to t-POC-dominated diets greatly increased Daphnia growth and reproduction. When offered alone, t-POC resulted in a Daphnia growth efficiency of 5 +/- 1%, whereas 100% Cryptomonas and Scenedesmus obliquus diets resulted in growth efficiencies of 46 +/- 8% (+/- SD) and 36 +/- 3%, respectively. When offered in a 50:50 mixed diet with Cryptomonas or Scenedesmus, the t-POC fraction resulted in a partial growth efficiency of 22 +/- 9% and 15 +/- 6%, respectively. Daphnia that obtained 80% of their available food from t-POC assimilated 84% of their fatty acids from the phytoplankton component of their diet. Overall, our results suggest Daphnia selectively allocate phytoplankton-derived POC and lipids to enhance somatic growth and reproduction, while t-POC makes a minor contribution to zooplankton production.

  10. Dynamics of stochastic SEIS epidemic model with varying population size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Wei, Fengying

    2016-12-01

    We introduce the stochasticity into a deterministic model which has state variables susceptible-exposed-infected with varying population size in this paper. The infected individuals could return into susceptible compartment after recovering. We show that the stochastic model possesses a unique global solution under building up a suitable Lyapunov function and using generalized Itô's formula. The densities of the exposed and infected tend to extinction when some conditions are being valid. Moreover, the conditions of persistence to a global solution are derived when the parameters are subject to some simple criteria. The stochastic model admits a stationary distribution around the endemic equilibrium, which means that the disease will prevail. To check the validity of the main results, numerical simulations are demonstrated as end of this contribution.

  11. Dynamic modeling of cellular populations within iBioSim.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jason T; Myers, Chris J

    2013-05-17

    As the complexity of synthetic genetic circuits increases, modeling is becoming a necessary first step to inform subsequent experimental efforts. In recent years, the design automation community has developed a wealth of computational tools for assisting experimentalists in designing and analyzing new genetic circuits at several scales. However, existing software primarily caters to either the DNA- or single-cell level, with little support for the multicellular level. To address this need, the iBioSim software package has been enhanced to provide support for modeling, simulating, and visualizing dynamic cellular populations in a two-dimensional space. This capacity is fully integrated into the software, capitalizing on iBioSim's strengths in modeling, simulating, and analyzing single-celled systems.

  12. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America).

    PubMed

    Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 2005-2008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies.

  14. Zooplankton distribution as related to summer hydrographic conditions in Onslow Bay, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Zooplankton concentration and composition was related to hydrographic parameters in Onslow Bay, NC. During summer the hydrography of Onslow Bay is often characterized by the presence of nutrient-rich Gulf Stream waters. These originate from greater depths of the Gulf Stream, intrude at subsurface depths, frequently strand in the Bay and have high concentrations of particulate matter and chlorophyll a. Since such water masses can maintain their integrity for up to one month, temporal changes in phyto- and zooplankton communities may be followed. This paper describes the concentration, composition and distribution of abundant zooplankton taxa from summer 1976. Zooplankton distribution was affected by hydrography. Zooplankton biomass and composition indicate relatively high production of and low predation rates on zooplankton in intruded waters.

  15. Zooplankton distribution as related to summer hydrographic conditions in Onslow Bay, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Zooplankton concentration and composition were related to hydrographic parameters in Onslow Bay, NC. During summer the hydrography of Onslow Bay is often characterized by the presence of nutrient-rich Gulf Stream waters. These originate from greater depths of the Gulf Stream, intrude at subsurface depths, frequently strand in the Bay and have high concentrations of particulate matter and chlorophyll a. Since such water masses can maintain their integrity for up to one month, temporal changes in phyto- and zooplankton communities may be followed. Researchers describe the concentration, composition and distribution of abundant zooplankton taxa from summer 1976. Zooplankton distribution was affected by hydrography as, for example, Oncaeidae and Corycaeidae were significantly more abundant in intrusions than in the upper mixed layer. Zooplankton biomass and composition indicate relatively high production of and low predation rates on zooplankton in intruded waters.

  16. Zooplankton distribution as related to summer hydrographic conditions in Onslow Bay, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Zooplankton concentration and composition was related to hydrographic parameters in Onslow Bay, NC. During summer the hydrography of Onslow Bay is often characterized by the presence of nutrient-rich Gulf Stream waters. These originate from greater depths of the Gulf Stream, intrude at subsurface depths, frequently strand in the Bay and have high concentrations of particulate matter and chlorophyll a. Since such water masses can maintain their integrity for up to one month, temporal changes in phyto- and zooplankton communities may be followed. Researchers describe the concentration, composition and distribution of abundant zooplankton taxa from summer 1976. Zooplankton distribution was affected by hydrography as, for example, Oncaeidae and Corycaeidae were significantly more abundant in intrusions than in the upper mixed layer. Zooplankton biomass and composition indicate relatively high production of and low predation rates on zooplankton in intruded waters.

  17. Trophic conditions govern summer zooplankton production variability along the SE Spanish coast (SW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yebra, Lidia; Putzeys, Sébastien; Cortés, Dolores; Mercado, Jesús M.; Gómez-Jakobsen, Francisco; León, Pablo; Salles, Soluna; Herrera, Inma

    2017-03-01

    The influence of hydrochemistry and trophic conditions on the coastal zooplankton community metabolic rates was investigated along the southeastern Spanish coast, from Algeciras to Cartagena. Zooplankton metabolism was assessed from measurements of gut fluorescence (GF), electron transport system (ETS) and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) activities. Zooplankton had higher biomass-specific respiration and growth rates in the Mediterranean stations to the East, driven by warmer seawater temperatures. However, zooplankton biomass and abundance were significantly higher in the Alboran Sea and, consequently, the zooplankton community in these coastal waters presented the highest production rates of the study area and among the highest of the Mediterranean Sea. We observed that summer zooplankton production variability was driven by the trophic conditions rather than by the hydrological variability.

  18. Small-scale zooplankton aggregations at the front of a Kuroshio warm-core ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tamiji; Nishizawa, Satoshi

    1986-11-01

    A Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder was used to study the small-scale zooplankton distribution across the front of a Kuroshio warm-core ring in June 1979. Zooplankton were strongly aggregated in the frontal region; patches of zooplankton and phytoplankton were spatially separated. A major part of the zooplankton assemblage consisted of neritic forms such as cladocerans and indicator species of the cold Oyashio water. This implies that lateral entrainment of coastal waters, which is directly influenced by the Oyashio, was an important factor in the formation of the aggregations at the Kuroshio warm-core ring front. Variation in the distribution of abundance peaks of individual zooplankton species was also observed. Futhermore, zooplankton showed more intensive non-randomness (aggregation) than phytoplankton and non-motile euphausiid's eggs. Thus, biological processes, such as motility and prey-predator interaction, also appeared to be regulating the patchiness.

  19. Increased zooplankton PAH concentrations across hydrographic fronts in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Ko, Fung-Chi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Wu, Jian-Ming; Chiang, Hsin-Lun; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-06-15

    The Changjiang has transported large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the East China Sea (ECS), but information of these pollutants in zooplankton is limited. To understand PAHs pollution in zooplankton in the ECS, total concentrations of PAHs in zooplankton from surface waters were measured. Values of PAHs ranged from 2 to 3500 ng m(-3) in the ECS, with highest PAHs levels located at the salinity front between the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and the mid-shelf waters. In contrast, concentrations of zooplankton PAHs in the mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters were significantly lower (2-23 ng m(-3)) than those in the CDW. These results demonstrate that PAHs are conspicuously accumulated in zooplankton at the salinity front between the CDW and the mid-shelf waters. These higher levels of PAHs in zooplankton at the salinity front may be further biomagnified in marine organisms of higher trophic levels through their feeding activities.

  20. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  1. Biomass of zooplankton estimated by acoustical sensors in the Arabian sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, D.V.

    1996-11-22

    The long term goal of our overall research program is the development of data-based models to predict ecological relationships of zooplankton, phytoplankton and the physical environment in the sea. The overall objective of the work carried out within the scope of this particular contract was to acoustically measure the dynamics of zooplankton and micronekton in the northern Arabian Sea during several seasons. The scientific focus was to examine the impact, if any, of the two annual monsoons that are thought to drive the ecosystem response in the area. This particular project involved the design and construction of two sensors which were then deployed in the Arabian Sea by several of our co-PIVs in the ONR ARI on Forced Upper Ocean Dynamics during the time period in which the JGOFS program also focused their efforts on the northern Arabian Sea. This contract involved only the development, calibration and maintenance of the instrumentation. The data processing, other than that which has been necessary for the purposes of quality assurance, was not induded in our original proposal.

  2. Chemical Response of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi Against Grazing by Three Species of Zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Dang, Lin-Xi; Li, Yue; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the toxicity of Karenia mikimotoi toward three model grazers, the cladoceran Moina mongolica, the copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, and the crustacean Artemia salina, and explored its chemical response upon zooplankton grazing. An induction experiment, where K. mikimotoi was exposed to grazers or waterborne cues from the mixed cultures revealed that K. mikimotoi might be toxic or nutritionally inadequate toward the three grazers. In general, direct exposure to the three grazers induced the production of hemolytic toxins and the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Both EPA and the hemolytic toxins from K. mikimotoi decreased the survival rate of the three grazers. In addition, the survival rates of M. mongolica, P. annandalei, and A. salina in the presence of induced K. mikimotoi that had previously been exposed to a certain grazer were lower than their counterparts caused by fresh K. mikimotoi, suggesting that exposure to some grazers might increase the toxicity of K. mikimotoi. The chemical response and associated increased resistance to further grazing suggested that K. mikimotoi could produce deterrents to protect against grazing by zooplankton and that the substances responsible might be hemolytic toxins and EPA.

  3. Population pharmacokinetic model of lithium and drug compliance assessment.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castelló, Isabel; Mangas-Sanjuan, Víctor; González-García, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Marco-Garbayo, Jose Luis; Trocóniz, Iñaki F

    2016-12-01

    Population pharmacokinetic analysis of lithium during therapeutic drug monitoring and drug compliance assessment was performed in 54 patients and 246 plasma concentrations levels were included in this study. Patients received several treatment cycles (1-9) and one plasma concentration measurement for each patient was obtained always before starting next cycle (pre-dose) at steady state. Data were analysed using the population approach with NONMEM version 7.2. Lithium measurements were described using a two-compartment model (CL/F=0.41Lh(-1), V1/F=15.3L, Q/F=0.61Lh(-1), and V2/F = 15.8L) and the most significant covariate on lithium CL was found to be creatinine clearance (reference model). Lithium compliance was analysed using inter-occasion variability or Markovian features (previous lithium measurement as ordered categorical covariate) on bioavailability parameter. Markov-type model predicted the lithium compliance in the next cycle with higher success rate (79.8%) compared to IOV model (65.2%) and reference model (43.2%). This model becomes an efficient tool, not only being able to adequately describe the observed outcome, but also to predict the individual drug compliance in the next cycle. Therefore, Bipolar disorder patients can be classified regarding their probability to become extensive or poor compliers in the next cycle and then, individual probabilities lower than 0.5 highlight the need of intensive monitoring, as well as other pharmaceutical care measurements that might be applied to enhance drug compliance for a better and safer lithium treatment.

  4. The Evolution of the AGN population in the MORGANA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanot, F.; Monaco, P.; Cristiani, S.; Tozzi, P.

    2008-10-01

    We present the results of the MOdel for the Rise of Galaxies aNd Agns (MORGANA), that includes in a self-consistent way the accretion of matter onto Super-Massive Black Holes. We compare MORGANA predictions to the observed evolution of the AGN space density (inferred from optical and X-ray surveys) and we find that that it is possible to reproduce the apparent downsizing of the AGN population in the framework of concordance cosmology. We will show that this result is likely due to the improved treatment of gas cooling and feedback in MORGANA, and in particular to the modeling of the stellar kinetic feedback, arising in star-forming bulges as a consequence of the level of turbolence. On the other hand, the predicted low-mass end of BH-bulge relation is steeper than observed: we discuss this disagreement on the light of the predicted excess of small bulges, which is common to several models of galaxy formation and evolution. Finally we will show that a stronger constrain on the relative importance of the physical processes involved in the build up of the AGN population move from the observed redshift evolution of the BH-Bulge relation.

  5. Mathematical modeling of glassy-winged sharpshooter population.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Mi; Hrynkiv, Volodymyr; Morano, Lisa; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Wilder, Sara; Mitchell, Forrest

    2014-06-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a fatal disease of grapevines which results from an infection by the plant pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. This bacterium grows in the xylem (water-conducting) vessels of the plant blocking movement of water. PD can kill vines in one year and poses a serious threat to both the California and the expanding Texas wine industries. Bacteria are vectored from one vine to the next by a number of xylem feeding insect species. Of these, the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter (GWSS) is considered to be the primary xylem feeding insect in Texas vineyards. An extensive database of the xylem-feeding population frequencies was collected by USDA-APHIS for Texas vineyards over multiple years. This project focused on a subset of data, GWSS frequencies within 25 vineyards in Edwards Plateau located in central Texas. The proposed model investigates the natural population dynamics and the decline in GWSS, likely the result of pest management campaigns on the insects within the region. The model is a delay Gompertz differential equation with harvesting and immigration terms, and we use the data to estimate the model parameters.

  6. The model of fungal population dynamics affected by nystatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voychuk, Sergei I.; Gromozova, Elena N.; Sadovskiy, Mikhail G.

    Fungal diseases are acute problems of the up-to-day medicine. Significant increase of resistance of microorganisms to the medically used antibiotics and a lack of new effective drugs follows in a growth of dosage of existing chemicals to solve the problem. Quite often such approach results in side effects on humans. Detailed study of fungi-antibiotic dynamics can identify new mechanisms and bring new ideas to overcome the microbial resistance with a lower dosage of antibiotics. In this study, the dynamics of the microbial population under antibiotic treatment was investigated. The effects of nystatin on the population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were used as a model system. Nystatin effects were investigated both in liquid and solid media by viability tests. Dependence of nystatin action on osmotic gradient was evaluated in NaCl solutions. Influences of glucose and yeast extract were additionally analyzed. A "stepwise" pattern of the cell death caused by nystatin was the most intriguing. This pattern manifested in periodical changes of the stages of cell death against stages of resistance to the antibiotic. The mathematical model was proposed to describe cell-antibiotic interactions and nystatin viability effects in the liquid medium. The model implies that antibiotic ability to cause a cells death is significantly affected by the intracellular compounds, which came out of cells after their osmotic barriers were damaged

  7. Late stages of stellar evolution in population models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraston, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    My contribution to Roger's celebration symposium focuses on the treatment of late stellar evolutionary phases in stellar population models, reviewing the state of art and discussing some very recent developments, ranging from local stellar clusters up to distant galaxies at high redshift. I shall focus in particular on the Thermally Pulsating Asymptotic Giant Branch, about which a vivid discussion has been ongoing since a few years. I shall present renewed evidence in favour of a sizable contribution from this phase for matching the observed spectral energy distribution of distant massive galaxies. I shall also discuss the possible reasons why such a conclusion has been controversial in the recent literature. Stellar population models are the magic tool to shape the physics of galaxies out of their observed light, and enter virtually all papers presented at this symposium. In a collective effort to properly treat all relevant aspects of the modelling, we split the discussion into six contributions given by experts in the field, as our present to Roger and his outstanding career.

  8. Modelling biological invasions: Individual to population scales at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Belmonte-Beitia, J; Woolley, T E; Scott, J G; Maini, P K; Gaffney, E A

    2013-10-07

    Extracting the population level behaviour of biological systems from that of the individual is critical in understanding dynamics across multiple scales and thus has been the subject of numerous investigations. Here, the influence of spatial heterogeneity in such contexts is explored for interfaces with a separation of the length scales characterising the individual and the interface, a situation that can arise in applications involving cellular modelling. As an illustrative example, we consider cell movement between white and grey matter in the brain which may be relevant in considering the invasive dynamics of glioma. We show that while one can safely neglect intrinsic noise, at least when considering glioma cell invasion, profound differences in population behaviours emerge in the presence of interfaces with only subtle alterations in the dynamics at the individual level. Transport driven by local cell sensing generates predictions of cell accumulations along interfaces where cell motility changes. This behaviour is not predicted with the commonly used Fickian diffusion transport model, but can be extracted from preliminary observations of specific cell lines in recent, novel, cryo-imaging. Consequently, these findings suggest a need to consider the impact of individual behaviour, spatial heterogeneity and especially interfaces in experimental and modelling frameworks of cellular dynamics, for instance in the characterisation of glioma cell motility.

  9. Episodic Upwelling of Zooplankton within a Bowhead Whale Feeding Area near Barrow, AK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Episodic Upwelling of Zooplankton within a Bowhead Whale...N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Episodic Upwelling of Zooplankton within a Bowhead Whale Feeding Area near Barrow, AK 5a...is associated with changes in climate and ice. 1. Document exchanges of Pacific Water and plankton/krill (acoustic backscatter as a zooplankton

  10. Selenium in San Francisco Bay zooplankton: Potential effects of hydrodynamics and food web interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purkerson, D.G.; Doblin, M.A.; Bollens, S.M.; Luoma, S.N.; Cutter, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential toxicity of elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in aquatic ecosystems has stimulated efforts to measure Se concentrations in benthos, nekton, and waterfowl in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay). In September 1998, we initiated a 14 mo field study to determine the concentration of Se in SF Bay zooplankton, which play a major role in the Bay food web, but which have not previously been studied with respect to Se. Monthly vertical plankton tows were collected at several stations throughout SF Bay, and zooplankton were separated into two operationally defined size classes for Se analyses: 73-2,000 ??m, and ???2,000 ??m. Selenium values ranged 1.02-6.07 ??g Se g-1 dry weight. No spatial differences in zooplankton Se concentrations were found. However, there were inter- and intra-annual differences. Zooplankton Se concentrations were enriched in the North Bay in Fall 1999 when compared to other seasons and locations within and outside SF Bay. The abundance and biovolume of the zooplankton community varied spatially between stations, but not seasonally within each station. Smaller herbivorous-omnivorous zooplankton had higher Se concentrations than larger omnivorous-carnivorous zooplankton. Selenium concentrations in zooplankton were negatively correlated with the proportion of total copepod biovolume comprising the large carnivorous copepod Tortanus dextrilobatus, but positively correlated with the proportion of copepod biovolume comprising smaller copepods of the family Oithonidae, suggesting an important role of trophic level and size in regulating zooplankton Se concentrations.

  11. Diel vertical migration: Ecological controls and impacts on the biological pump in a one-dimensional ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Daniele; Stock, Charles; Galbraith, Eric D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2013-04-01

    vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton and micronekton is widespread in the ocean and forms a fundamental component of the biological pump, but is generally overlooked in global models of the Earth system. We develop a parameterization of DVM in the ocean and integrate it with a size-structured NPZD model. We assess the model's ability to recreate ecosystem and DVM patterns at three well-observed Pacific sites, ALOHA, K2, and EQPAC, and use it to estimate the impact of DVM on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical dynamics. Our model includes the following: (1) a representation of migration dynamics in response to food availability and light intensity; (2) a representation of the digestive and metabolic processes that decouple zooplankton feeding from excretion, egestion, and respiration; and (3) a light-dependent parameterization of visual predation on zooplankton. The model captures the first-order patterns in plankton biomass and productivity across the biomes, including the biomass of migrating organisms. We estimate that realistic migratory populations sustain active fluxes to the mesopelagic zone equivalent to between 15% and 40% of the particle export and contribute up to half of the total respiration within the layers affected by migration. The localized active transport has important consequences for the cycling of oxygen, nutrients, and carbon. We highlight the importance of decoupling zooplankton feeding and respiration and excretion with depth for capturing the impact of migration on the redistribution of carbon and nutrients in the upper ocean.

  12. Mathematical model of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti mosquito population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Dengue became major public concern in these countries due to the unavailability of vaccine or drugs for dengue disease in the market. Hence, the only way to control the spread of DF and DHF is by controlling the vectors carrying the disease, for instance with fumigation, temephos or genetic manipulation. Many previous studies conclude that Aedes aegypti may develop resistance to many kind of insecticide, including temephos. Mathematical model for transmission of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti population is discussed in this paper. Nontrivial equilibrium point of the system and the corresponding existence are shown analytically. The model analysis have shown epidemiological trends condition that permits the coexistence of nontrivial equilibrium is given analytically. Numerical results are given to show parameter sensitivity and some cases of worsening effect values for illustrating possible conditions in the field.

  13. Noise-induced extinction in Bazykin-Berezovskaya population model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev

    2016-07-01

    A nonlinear Bazykin-Berezovskaya prey-predator model under the influence of parametric stochastic forcing is considered. Due to Allee effect, this conceptual population model even in the deterministic case demonstrates both local and global bifurcations with the change of predator mortality. It is shown that random noise can transform system dynamics from the regime of coexistence, in equilibrium or periodic modes, to the extinction of both species. Geometry of attractors and separatrices, dividing basins of attraction, plays an important role in understanding the probabilistic mechanisms of these stochastic phenomena. Parametric analysis of noise-induced extinction is carried out on the base of the direct numerical simulation and new analytical stochastic sensitivity functions technique taking into account the arrangement of attractors and separatrices.

  14. Study of a mixed dispersal population dynamics model

    DOE PAGES

    Chugunova, Marina; Jadamba, Baasansuren; Kao, Chiu -Yen; ...

    2016-08-27

    In this study, we consider a mixed dispersal model with periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions and its corresponding linear eigenvalue problem. This model describes the time evolution of a population which disperses both locally and non-locally. We investigate how long time dynamics depend on the parameter values. Furthermore, we study the minimization of the principal eigenvalue under the constraints that the resource function is bounded from above and below, and with a fixed total integral. Biologically, this minimization problem is motivated by the question of determining the optimal spatial arrangement of favorable and unfavorable regions for the species to diemore » out more slowly or survive more easily. Our numerical simulations indicate that the optimal favorable region tends to be a simply-connected domain. Numerous results are shown to demonstrate various scenarios of optimal favorable regions for periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions.« less

  15. Study of a mixed dispersal population dynamics model

    SciTech Connect

    Chugunova, Marina; Jadamba, Baasansuren; Kao, Chiu -Yen; Klymko, Christine F.; Thomas, Evelyn; Zhao, Bingyu

    2016-08-27

    In this study, we consider a mixed dispersal model with periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions and its corresponding linear eigenvalue problem. This model describes the time evolution of a population which disperses both locally and non-locally. We investigate how long time dynamics depend on the parameter values. Furthermore, we study the minimization of the principal eigenvalue under the constraints that the resource function is bounded from above and below, and with a fixed total integral. Biologically, this minimization problem is motivated by the question of determining the optimal spatial arrangement of favorable and unfavorable regions for the species to die out more slowly or survive more easily. Our numerical simulations indicate that the optimal favorable region tends to be a simply-connected domain. Numerous results are shown to demonstrate various scenarios of optimal favorable regions for periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  16. MULTISCALE MODELS OF TAXIS-DRIVEN PATTERNING IN BACTERIAL POPULATIONS

    PubMed Central

    XUE, CHUAN; OTHMER, HANS G.

    2009-01-01

    Spatially-distributed populations of various types of bacteria often display intricate spatial patterns that are thought to result from the cellular response to gradients of nutrients or other attractants. In the past decade a great deal has been learned about signal transduction, metabolism and movement in E. coli and other bacteria, but translating the individual-level behavior into population-level dynamics is still a challenging problem. However, this is a necessary step because it is computationally impractical to use a strictly cell-based model to understand patterning in growing populations, since the total number of cells may reach 1012 - 1014 in some experiments. In the past phenomenological equations such as the Patlak-Keller-Segel equations have been used in modeling the cell movement that is involved in the formation of such patterns, but the question remains as to how the microscopic behavior can be correctly described by a macroscopic equation. Significant progress has been made for bacterial species that employ a “run-and-tumble” strategy of movement, in that macroscopic equations based on simplified schemes for signal transduction and turning behavior have been derived [14, 15]. Here we extend previous work in a number of directions: (i) we allow for time-dependent signals, which extends the applicability of the equations to natural environments, (ii) we use a more general turning rate function that better describes the biological behavior, and (iii) we incorporate the effect of hydrodynamic forces that arise when cells swim in close proximity to a surface. We also develop a new approach to solving the moment equations derived from the transport equation that does not involve closure assumptions. Numerical examples show that the solution of the lowest-order macroscopic equation agrees well with the solution obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation of cell movement under a variety of temporal protocols for the signal. We also apply the method to

  17. Modelling Oyster Population Response to Variation in Freshwater Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, R. J.; Lewis, F. G.; Woodsum, G. C.; Niu, X.-F.; Galperin, B.; Huang, W.; Christensen, J. D.; Monaco, M. E.; Battista, T. A.; Klein, C. J.; Howell, R. L.; Ray, G. L.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes the linkage of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation model with descriptive and experimental biological data concerning oyster (Crassostrea virginica) population dynamics in the Apalachicola Estuary (Florida, U.S.A.). Our intent was to determine the direct and indirect role of Apalachicola River flow in the maintenance of oyster production. Results of a monthly field sampling programme conducted on the oyster reefs in the Apalachicola system during 1985-1986 were used to develop statistical models relating several life-history characteristics of oysters to physical-chemical aspects of water quality. The same life-history characteristics were related statistically to output from a circulation model of Apalachicola Bay. Highest oyster densities and overall bar growth were found in the vicinity of the confluence of high salinity water moving westwards from St George Sound and river-dominated (low salinity) water moving south and eastwards from East Bay. With the exception of models for oyster mortality, the predictive capability of results from the parallel modelling efforts was low. A time-averaged model was developed for oyster mortality during the summer of 1985 by running a regression analysis with averaged predictors derived from the hydrodynamic model and observed (experimental) mortality rates throughout the estuary. A geographic information system was then used to depict the results spatially and to compare the extent of expected mortality in 1985 and 1986. High salinity, relatively low-velocity current patterns, and the proximity of a given oyster bar to entry points of saline Gulf water into the bay were important factors that contribute to increased oyster mortality. Mortality was a major determinant of oyster production in the Apalachicola Estuary with predation as a significant aspect of such mortality. By influencing salinity levels and current patterns throughout the bay, the Apalachicola River was important in controlling

  18. Estimating population trends with a linear model: Technical comments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, John R.; Link, William A.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Controversy has sometimes arisen over whether there is a need to accommodate the limitations of survey design in estimating population change from the count data collected in bird surveys. Analyses of surveys such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) can be quite complex; it is natural to ask if the complexity is necessary, or whether the statisticians have run amok. Bart et al. (2003) propose a very simple analysis involving nothing more complicated than simple linear regression, and contrast their approach with model-based procedures. We review the assumptions implicit to their proposed method, and document that these assumptions are unlikely to be valid for surveys such as the BBS. One fundamental limitation of a purely design-based approach is the absence of controls for factors that influence detection of birds at survey sites. We show that failure to model observer effects in survey data leads to substantial bias in estimation of population trends from BBS data for the 20 species that Bart et al. (2003) used as the basis of their simulations. Finally, we note that the simulations presented in Bart et al. (2003) do not provide a useful evaluation of their proposed method, nor do they provide a valid comparison to the estimating- equations alternative they consider.

  19. Sexual Reproduction in a Simple Growth Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, Carlos Gentil Oro; Santos, Marcio

    2012-05-01

    One of the most important characteristics in the survival of a species is related to the kind of reproduction responsible for the offspring generation. However, only in the last years the role played by sexual reproduction has been investigated. Then, for a better understanding of this kind of process we introduce, in this work, a surface reaction model that describes the role of the sexual reproduction. In our model two different elements of the species, representing male and female, can interact to reproduce a new element. The sex of this new element is chosen with a given probability and in order to take into account the mortality rate we introduce another kind of individual. The value of the spatial density of this element remains constant during the time evolution of the system. The model is studied using Monte Carlo simulations and mean field approximation. Depending on the values of the control parameters of the model, the system can attain two stationary states: In one of them the population survives and in the other it can be extinguished. Besides, accordingly to our results, the phase diagram of the model shows a discontinuous transition between these two states.

  20. Population effects of increased climate variation.

    PubMed

    Drake, John M

    2005-09-07

    Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation increases. This results from the fact that population growth is a multiplicative process and that long-run population growth rate is the geometric mean of growth rates over time, which is always less than the arithmetic mean. However, when population growth rates for unstructured populations are related nonlinearly to environmental drivers, increasing environmental variation can increase a population's long-run growth rate. This suggests that patterns of environmental variation associated with different aspects of climate change may affect population dynamics in different ways. Specifically, increasing variation in rainfall might result in diminished long-run growth rates for many animal species while increasing variation in temperature might result in increased long-run growth rates. While the effect of rainfall is theoretically well understood and supported by data, the hypothesized effect of temperature is not. Here, I analyse two datasets to study the effect of fluctuating temperatures on growth rates of zooplankton. Results are consistent with the prediction that fluctuating temperatures should increase long-run growth rates and the frequency of extreme demographic events.

  1. Modeling the impact of the indigenous microbial population on the maximum population density of Salmonella on alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Rijgersberg, Hajo; Franz, Eelco; Nierop Groot, Masja; Tromp, Seth-Oscar

    2013-07-01

    Within a microbial risk assessment framework, modeling the maximum population density (MPD) of a pathogenic microorganism is important but often not considered. This paper describes a model predicting the MPD of Salmonella on alfalfa as a function of the initial contamination level, the total count of the indigenous microbial population, the maximum pathogen growth rate and the maximum population density of the indigenous microbial population. The model is parameterized by experimental data describing growth of Salmonella on sprouting alfalfa seeds at inoculum size, native microbial load and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. The obtained model fits well to the experimental data, with standard errors less than ten percent of the fitted average values. The results show that the MPD of Salmonella is not only dictated by performance characteristics of Salmonella but depends on the characteristics of the indigenous microbial population like total number of cells and its growth rate. The model can improve the predictions of microbiological growth in quantitative microbial risk assessments. Using this model, the effects of preventive measures to reduce pathogenic load and a concurrent effect on the background population can be better evaluated. If competing microorganisms are more sensitive to a particular decontamination method, a pathogenic microorganism may grow faster and reach a higher level. More knowledge regarding the effect of the indigenous microbial population (size, diversity, composition) of food products on pathogen dynamics is needed in order to make adequate predictions of pathogen dynamics on various food products.

  2. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of

  3. Understanding Peripheral Bat Populations Using Maximum-Entropy Suitability Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Paul R.; Gillam, Erin H.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals along the periphery of a species distribution regularly encounter more challenging environmental and climatic conditions than conspecifics near the center of the distribution. Due to these potential constraints, individuals in peripheral margins are expected to change their habitat and behavioral characteristics. Managers typically rely on species distribution maps when developing adequate management practices. However, these range maps are often too simplistic and do not provide adequate information as to what fine-scale biotic and abiotic factors are driving a species occurrence. In the last decade, habitat suitability modelling has become widely used as a substitute for simplistic distribution mapping which allows regional managers the ability to fine-tune management resources. The objectives of this study were to use maximum-entropy modeling to produce habitat suitability models for seven species that have a peripheral margin intersecting the state of North Dakota, according to current IUCN distributions, and determine the vegetative and climatic characteristics driving these models. Mistnetting resulted in the documentation of five species outside the IUCN distribution in North Dakota, indicating that current range maps for North Dakota, and potentially the northern Great Plains, are in need of update. Maximum-entropy modeling showed that temperature and not precipitation were the variables most important for model production. This fine-scale result highlights the importance of habitat suitability modelling as this information cannot be extracted from distribution maps. Our results provide baseline information needed for future research about how and why individuals residing in the peripheral margins of a species’ distribution may show marked differences in habitat use as a result of urban expansion, habitat loss, and climate change compared to more centralized populations. PMID:27935936

  4. An isotopic (Δ14C, δ13C, and δ15N) investigation of particulate organic matter and zooplankton biomass in Lake Superior and across a size-gradient of aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigah, P. K.; Minor, E. C.; Werne, J. P.; McCallister, S. Leigh

    2012-04-01

    Food webs in aquatic systems can be supported both by carbon from recent local primary productivity and by carbon subsidies, such as material from terrestrial ecosystems or past in situ primary productivity. The importance of these subsidies to respiration and biomass production remains a topic of debate, but they may play major roles in determining the fate of organic carbon and in sustaining upper trophic levels, including those contributing to economically important fisheries. While some studies have reported that terrigenous organic carbon supports disproportionately high zooplankton production, others have suggested that phytoplankton preferentially supports zooplankton production in aquatic ecosystems. Here we apply natural abundance radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analyses to show that zooplankton in Lake Superior selectively incorporate recently-fixed, locally-produced (autochthonous) organic carbon even though other carbon sources are readily available. Estimates from Bayesian isotopic modeling based on Δ14C values show that the average lakewide median contributions of recent in situ algal, terrestrial, sedimentary, and bacterial organic carbon to the bulk POM in Lake Superior were 23%, 28%, 15%, and 25%, respectively. However, the isotopic modeling estimates show that recent in situ production (algae) contributed a disproportionately large amount (median, 40-89%) of the carbon in zooplankton biomass in Lake Superior. Although terrigenous organic carbon and old organic carbon from resuspended sediments were significant portions of the available basal food resources, these contributed only a small amount to zooplankton biomass (average lakewide median, 2% from sedimentary organic carbon and 9% from terrigenous organic carbon). Comparison of zooplankton food sources based on their radiocarbon composition showed that terrigenous organic carbon was relatively more important in rivers and small lakes, and the proportion of terrestrially

  5. Organism and population-level ecological models for chemical risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological risk assessment typically focuses on animal populations as endpoints for regulatory ecotoxicology. Scientists at USEPA are developing models for animal populations exposed to a wide range of chemicals from pesticides to emerging contaminants. Modeled taxa include aquat...

  6. Statistical modelling of supernova remnant populations in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarbadhicary, S.; Badenes, C.; Chomiuk, L.; Caprioli, D.; Huizenga, D.

    2016-06-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Local Group offer unique insights into the origin of different types of supernovae. However, the intrinsic diversity and environment-driven evolution of SNRs require the use of statistical methods to model SNR populations in the context of their host galaxy. We introduce a semi-analytic model for SNR radio light curves that uses the physics of shock propagation through the ISM, the resultant particle acceleration and the range of kinetic energies observed in supernovae. We use this model to reproduce the fundamental properties of observed SNR populations, taking into account the detection limits of radio surveys and the wealth of observational constraints on the stellar distribution and ISM structure of the host galaxy from radio, optical, and IR images. We can reproduce the observed radio luminosity function of SNRs in M33 with a SN rate of (3.5 - 4.3)x10^-3 SN per year and an electron acceleration efficiency, ɛ_e~0.01.This is the first measurement of ɛ_e using a large sample of SNRs. We show that dim Galactic SNRs like SN1006 would have been missed by archival radio surveys at the distance of M33, and we predict that most SNRs in M33 have radio visibility times of 20-80 kyrs that are correlated with the measured ISM column densities N_H: t_vis ~ N_H^a with α = -0.36(+0.01/-0.01), whereas a small fraction of SNRs have visibility times 10 kyrs that appear uncorrelated with column density. This observationally-anchored approach to the visibility time of SNRs will allow us to use SNR catalogs as SN surveys; to calculate SN rates and delay time distributions in the Local Group.

  7. Population variability in the Active Brownian Particle model of Daphnia motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Frank; Erdmann, Udo; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Ordmann, Anke

    2004-03-01

    Three characteristic motions of foraging biological agents are predicted by the Active Brownian Particle model [1]. These are random motions about the minimum of a central attracting potential, a bifurcation to bidirectional circular motions about the axis of symmetry of the potential, and a transition to vortex motion. All three can be observed in swarms of the zooplankton Daphnia swimming in light fields. Here we focus on the bidirectional circular motions in 2-D space [1]. The mean radii, as well as other characteristics of the paths, are determined by three strength parameters appropriate to individual Daphnia: energy uptake from the medium, metabolistic drain, and dissipation due to movement. It is shown that individual variability can be represented by distributions of these strength parameters. Conditions for which the experimental data are best described by the model are discussed. [1] U. Erdmann, W. Ebeling and V. S. Anishchenko, Excitation of rotational modes in two-dimensional systems of driven Brownian particles. Phys. Rev. E 65, 061106 (2002)

  8. Toward population management in an integrated care model.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Franklin W; McMurray, Stephen; Nissenson, Allen R

    2013-01-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will be the primary mechanism for achieving the dual goals of high-quality patient care at managed per capita costs. To achieve these goals in the newly emerging health care environment, the nephrology community must plan for and direct integrated delivery and coordination of renal care, focusing on population management. Even though the ESRD patient population is a complex group with comorbid conditions that may confound integration of care, the nephrology community has unique experience providing integrated care through ACO-like programs. Specifically, the recent ESRD Management Demonstration Project sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the current ESRD Prospective Payment System with it Quality Incentive Program have demonstrated that integrated delivery of renal care can be accomplished in a manner that provides improved clinical outcomes with some financial margin of savings. Moving forward, integrated renal care will probably be linked to provider performance and quality outcomes measures, and clinical integration initiatives will share several common elements, namely performance-based payment models, coordination of communication via health care information technology, and development of best practices for care coordination and resource utilization. Integration initiatives must be designed to be measured and evaluated, and, consistent with principles of continuous quality improvement, each initiative will provide for iterative improvements of the initiative.

  9. Explaining the Linguistic Diversity of Sahul Using Population Models

    PubMed Central

    Reesink, Ger; Singer, Ruth; Dunn, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The region of the ancient Sahul continent (present day Australia and New Guinea, and surrounding islands) is home to extreme linguistic diversity. Even apart from the huge Austronesian language family, which spread into the area after the breakup of the Sahul continent in the Holocene, there are hundreds of languages from many apparently unrelated families. On each of the subcontinents, the generally accepted classification recognizes one large, widespread family and a number of unrelatable smaller families. If these language families are related to each other, it is at a depth which is inaccessible to standard linguistic methods. We have inferred the history of structural characteristics of these languages under an admixture model, using a Bayesian algorithm originally developed to discover populations on the basis of recombining genetic markers. This analysis identifies 10 ancestral language populations, some of which can be identified with clearly defined phylogenetic groups. The results also show traces of early dispersals, including hints at ancient connections between Australian languages and some Papuan groups (long hypothesized, never before demonstrated). Systematic language contact effects between members of big phylogenetic groups are also detected, which can in some cases be identified with a diffusional or substrate signal. Most interestingly, however, there remains striking evidence of a phylogenetic signal, with many languages showing negligible amounts of admixture. PMID:19918360

  10. Complex Transition to Cooperative Behavior in a Structured Population Model

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Luciano; de Souza, Adauto J. F.; Ferreira, Fernando F.; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation plays an important role in the evolution of species and human societies. The understanding of the emergence and persistence of cooperation in those systems is a fascinating and fundamental question. Many mechanisms were extensively studied and proposed as supporting cooperation. The current work addresses the role of migration for the maintenance of cooperation in structured populations. This problem is investigated in an evolutionary perspective through the prisoner's dilemma game paradigm. It is found that migration and structure play an essential role in the evolution of the cooperative behavior. The possible outcomes of the model are extinction of the entire population, dominance of the cooperative strategy and coexistence between cooperators and defectors. The coexistence phase is obtained in the range of large migration rates. It is also verified the existence of a critical level of structuring beyond that cooperation is always likely. In resume, we conclude that the increase in the number of demes as well as in the migration rate favor the fixation of the cooperative behavior. PMID:22761736

  11. Toward population management in an integrated care model.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Franklin W; McMurray, Stephen; Nissenson, Allen R

    2013-04-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will be the primary mechanism for achieving the dual goals of high-quality patient care at managed per capita costs. To achieve these goals in the newly emerging health care environment, the nephrology community must plan for and direct integrated delivery and coordination of renal care, focusing on population management. Even though the ESRD patient population is a complex group with comorbid conditions that may confound integration of care, the nephrology community has unique experience providing integrated care through ACO-like programs. Specifically, the recent ESRD Management Demonstration Project sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the current ESRD Prospective Payment System with it Quality Incentive Program have demonstrated that integrated delivery of renal care can be accomplished in a manner that provides improved clinical outcomes with some financial margin of savings. Moving forward, integrated renal care will probably be linked to provider performance and quality outcomes measures, and clinical integration initiatives will share several common elements, namely performance-based payment models, coordination of communication via health care information technology, and development of best practices for care coordination and resource utilization. Integration initiatives must be designed to be measured and evaluated, and, consistent with principles of continuous quality improvement, each initiative will provide for iterative improvements of the initiative.

  12. Effect of modelling slum populations on influenza spread in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangzhuo; Chu, Shuyu; Chungbaek, Youngyun; Khan, Maleq; Kuhlman, Christopher; Marathe, Achla; Mortveit, Henning; Vullikanti, Anil; Xie, Dawen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research studies the impact of influenza epidemic in the slum and non-slum areas of Delhi, the National Capital Territory of India, by taking proper account of slum demographics and residents’ activities, using a highly resolved social contact network of the 13.8 million residents of Delhi. Methods An SEIR model is used to simulate the spread of influenza on two different synthetic social contact networks of Delhi, one where slums and non-slums are treated the same in terms of their demographics and daily sets of activities and the other, where slum and non-slum regions have different attributes. Results Differences between the epidemic outcomes on the two networks are large. Time-to-peak infection is overestimated by several weeks, and the cumulative infection rate and peak infection rate are underestimated by 10–50%, when slum attributes are ignored. Conclusions Slum populations have a significant effect on influenza transmission in urban areas. Improper specification of slums in large urban regions results in underestimation of infections in the entire population and hence will lead to misguided interventions by policy planners. PMID:27687898

  13. A dynamic urban air pollution population exposure assessment study using model and population density data derived by mobile phone traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Pelliccioni, Armando; Bolignano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic city-wide air pollution exposure assessment study has been carried out for the urban population of Rome, Italy, by using time resolved population distribution maps, derived by mobile phone traffic data, and modelled air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) concentrations obtained by an integrated air dispersion modelling system. More than a million of persons were tracked during two months (March and April 2015) for their position within the city and its surroundings areas, with a time resolution of 15 min and mapped over an irregular grid system with a minimum resolution of 0.26 × 0.34 Km2. In addition, demographics information (as gender and age ranges) were available in a separated dataset not connected with the total population one. Such BigData were matched in time and space with air pollution model results and then used to produce hourly and daily resolved cumulative population exposures during the studied period. A significant mobility of population was identified with higher population densities in downtown areas during daytime increasing of up to 1000 people/Km2 with respect to nigh-time one, likely produced by commuters, tourists and working age population. Strong variability (up to ±50% for NO2) of population exposures were detected as an effect of both mobility and time/spatial changing in pollutants concentrations. A comparison with the correspondent stationary approach based on National Census data, allows detecting the inability of latter in estimating the actual variability of population exposure. Significant underestimations of the amount of population exposed to daily PM2.5 WHO guideline was identified for the Census approach. Very small differences (up to a few μg/m3) on exposure were detected for gender and age ranges population classes.

  14. Ecological impact and environmental fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate on the zooplankton community in indoor microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Boudreau, Timothy M; Mabury, Scott A; Cheong, Woo-Jay; Solomon, Keith R

    2002-07-01

    There is presently a substantial amount of information being gathered concerning the environmental risk associated with the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) compound. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is requiring that more research be completed before making definitive decisions concerning the regulatory issues covered in the significant new use rule (18/10-2000) under the Toxic Substance Control Act. However, there are no risk assessment requirements under seminatural conditions in microcosms. The PFOS can enter, and has been found in, the aquatic environment through different pathways, including spills associated with use of fire-fighting foams containing PFOS, leaching from washing Scotchgard-treated clothes with the wastewater, leaching from various coatings, discharges as residual waste from fluorochemical production, or volatilization and transportation atmospherically. The biota is the sink of PFOS rather than the sediment or soil. The aim of this article is to determine a 35-d community no-observable-effect concentration (NOECcommunity) for freshwater zooplankton and the fate of PFOS during the course of study. The PFOS persisted in the water phase with only slight reductions over the study; only the decrease from 33.9 mg/L at day 1 to 29.8 mg/L at day 35 was significant. A 90 to 100% reduction (p < 0.01) of the total zooplankton population was found after one week of exposure to 30 mg PFOS/L and a similar reduction after two weeks at 10 mg PFOS/L. The Daphnia magna 21-d NOECsurvival of 12 mg/L has previously been found in a standard laboratory bioassay by 3M. The rank order of susceptibility for the test community was Copepoda > Cladocera > Rotifera, assuming all adverse direct effects.

  15. Solar UVB-induced DNA damage and photoenzymatic DNA repair in antarctic zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, K.D.; Holman, M.A.; Mitchell, D.

    1997-02-18

    The detrimental effects of elevated intensities of mid-UV radiation (UVB), a result of stratospheric ozone depletion during the austral spring, on the primary producers of the Antarctic marine ecosystem have been well documented. Here we report that natural populations of Antarctic zooplankton also sustain significant DNA damage [measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs)] during periods of increased UVB flux. This is the first direct evidence that increased solar UVB may result in damage to marine organisms other than primary producers in Antarctica. The extent of DNA damage in pelagic icefish eggs correlated with daily incident UVB irradiance, reflecting the difference between acquisition and repair of CPDs. Patterns of DNA damage in fish larvae did not correlated with daily UVB flux, possibly due to different depth distributions and/or different capacities for DNA repair. Clearance of CPDs by Antarctic fish and krill was mediated primarily by the photoenzymatic repair system. Although repair rates were large for all species evaluated, they were apparently inadequate to prevent the transient accumulation of substantial CPD burdens. The capacity for DNA repair in Antarctic organisms was highest in those species whose early life history stages occupy the water column during periods of ozone depletion (austral spring) and lowest in fish species whose eggs and larvae are abundant during winter. Although the potential reduction in fitness of Antarctic zooplankton resulting from DNA damage is unknown, we suggest that increased solar UV may reduce recruitment and adversely affect trophic transfer of productivity by affecting heterotrophic species as well as primary producers. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. A MULTI-PATCH MALARIA MODEL WITH LOGISTIC GROWTH POPULATIONS*

    PubMed Central

    GAO, DAOZHOU; RUAN, SHIGUI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-patch model to study the effects of population dispersal on the spatial spread of malaria between patches. The basic reproduction number R0 is derived and it is shown that the disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0<1 and unstable if R0>1. Bounds on the disease-free equilibrium and R0 are given. A sufficient condition for the existence of an endemic equilibrium when R0>1 is obtained. For the two-patch submodel, the dependence of R0 on the movement of exposed, infectious, and recovered humans between the two patches is investigated. Numerical simulations indicate that travel can help the disease to become endemic in both patches, even though the disease dies out in each isolated patch. However, if travel rates are continuously increased, the disease may die out again in both patches. PMID:23723531

  17. A simple model of optimal population coding for sensory systems.

    PubMed

    Doi, Eizaburo; Lewicki, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    A fundamental task of a sensory system is to infer information about the environment. It has long been suggested that an important goal of the first stage of this process is to encode the raw sensory signal efficiently by reducing its redundancy in the neural representation. Some redundancy, however, would be expected because it can provide robustness to noise inherent in the system. Encoding the raw sensory signal itself is also problematic, because it contains distortion and noise. The optimal solution would be constrained further by limited biological resources. Here, we analyze a simple theoretical model that incorporates these key aspects of sensory coding, and apply it to conditions in the retina. The model specifies the optimal way to incorporate redundancy in a population of noisy neurons, while also optimally compensating for sensory distortion and noise. Importantly, it allows an arbitrary input-to-output cell ratio between sensory units (photoreceptors) and encoding units (retinal ganglion cells), providing predictions of retinal codes at different eccentricities. Compared to earlier models based on redundancy reduction, the proposed model conveys more information about the original signal. Interestingly, redundancy reduction can be near-optimal when the number of encoding units is limited, such as in the peripheral retina. We show that there exist multiple, equally-optimal solutions whose receptive field structure and organization vary significantly. Among these, the one which maximizes the spatial locality of the computation, but not the sparsity of either synaptic weights or neural responses, is consistent with known basic properties of retinal receptive fields. The model further predicts that receptive field structure changes less with light adaptation at higher input-to-output cell ratios, such as in the periphery.

  18. MULTISCALE MODELS OF TAXIS-DRIVEN PATTERNING IN BACTERIAL POPULATIONS.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuan; Othmer, Hans G

    2009-01-01

    Spatially-distributed populations of various types of bacteria often display intricate spatial patterns that are thought to result from the cellular response to gradients of nutrients or other attractants. In the past decade a great deal has been learned about signal transduction, metabolism and movement in E. coli and other bacteria, but translating the individual-level behavior into population-level dynamics is still a challenging problem. However, this is a necessary step because it is computationally impractical to use a strictly cell-based model to understand patterning in growing populations, since the total number of cells may reach 10(12) - 10(14) in some experiments. In the past phenomenological equations such as the Patlak-Keller-Segel equations have been used in modeling the cell movement that is involved in the formation of such patterns, but the question remains as to how the microscopic behavior can be correctly described by a macroscopic equation. Significant progress has been made for bacterial species that employ a "run-and-tumble" strategy of movement, in that macroscopic equations based on simplified schemes for signal transduction and turning behavior have been derived [14, 15]. Here we extend previous work in a number of directions: (i) we allow for time-dependent signals, which extends the applicability of the equations to natural environments, (ii) we use a more general turning rate function that better describes the biological behavior, and (iii) we incorporate the effect of hydrodynamic forces that arise when cells swim in close proximity to a surface. We also develop a new approach to solving the moment equations derived from the transport equation that does not involve closure assumptions. Numerical examples show that the solution of the lowest-order macroscopic equation agrees well with the solution obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation of cell movement under a variety of temporal protocols for the signal. We also apply the method to

  19. Lipids of gelatinous Antarctic zooplankton: Cnidaria and Ctenophora.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M M; Phleger, C F; Mooney, B D; Nichols, P D

    2000-05-01

    Cnidaria (Calycopsis borchgrevinki, Diphyes antarctica, Stygiomedusa gigantea, Atolla wyvillei, Dimophyes arctica) and Ctenophora (Beroe cucumis, B. forskalii, Pleurobrachia pileus, Bolinopsis infundibulum) were collected near Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, during January and February 1997 and 1998. Total lipid was low in all zooplankton (0.1-5 mg g wet mass) and included primarily polar lipids (59-96% of total lipid). Triacylglycerols were 0-26% of total lipids, and wax esters were 0-11% in all species. Cholesterol was the major sterol in all Cnidaria (50-63% of total sterols) whereas in most ctenophores it was lower at 26-45%. These cholesterol levels are consistent with a combined carnivorous and phytoplanktivorous diet in the ctenophores, with the carnivorous diet more dominant in the Cnidaria. Other sterols included primarily trans-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, 24-methylcholest-5,22E-dien-3beta-ol, 24-nordehydrocholesterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. Total stanols were 0-6% in all zooplankton. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all samples (7-25% of total fatty acids) except for A. wyvillei in which docosapentaenoic acid was 10% of total fatty acids. The PUFA 18:5n-3 was not detected in 1997 samples, but constituted 0.2-0.8% in most 1998 samples. Monounsaturated fatty acids included primarily 18:1n-9c, 16:1n-7c, and 18:1n-7c. The principal saturated fatty acids in all samples were 16:0, 18:0, and 14:0. These data are the first for many of these zooplankton species and the first sterol data for most species. The use of the signature lipid approach has enabled examination of aspects of trophodynamics not obtainable by conventional techniques.

  20. Distribution of zooplankton biomass and potential metabolic activities across the northern Benguela upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Packard, T. T.; Gómez, M.; Postel, L.

    2014-11-01

    The distribution of zooplankton biomass and potential metabolic rates, in terms of electron transport system (ETS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), were analyzed along a cross-shelf transect in waters off Namibia. The highly variable dynamics of upwelling filaments promoted short-term fluctuations in the zooplankton biomass and metabolism. Maximum values were characteristically found over the shelf-break, where zooplankton biomass as dry mass (DM) reached peaks of 64.5 mg m- 3 within the upper 200 m in late August. Two weeks later, the zooplankton-DM decreased by more than a third (19 mg DM m- 3). Zooplankton potential respiration and NH4+ excretion averaged 234 μmol O2 m- 3 d- 1 and 169 μmol NH4+ m- 3 d- 1 in the Namibian shelf, respectively. High protein-specific ETS activities even in the low-chlorophyll waters outside the filament suggested a shift into greater omnivory seaward. In this light, zooplankton elemental and isotopic compositions were used to investigate the pelagic food web interactions. They evidenced spatial changes in the carbon resource for zooplankton as well as changes in the form of nitrogen that fueled the biological production in aging advected waters. Overall, both aspects of zooplankton metabolism impacted the primary productivity at a level less than 10% under all the different oceanographic conditions.

  1. Assessment of Zooplankton Size Fractionation for Monitoring Fry and Fingerling Culture Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methodology was formulated for use in the rapid assessment of zooplankton in channel catfish ponds. Understanding zooplankton prey size is useful for effective pond management. Size fractionation using differential sieve sizes was an effective means of separating size classes in live material, whe...

  2. Effect of Main-stem Dams on Zooplankton Communities of the Missouri River (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the distribution and abundance of zooplankton from 146 sites on the Missouri River and found large shifts in the dominance of major taxa between management zones of this regulated river. Crustacean zooplankton were dominant in the inter-reservoir zone of the river, an...

  3. PHYTOPLANKTON AND ZOOPLANKTON SEASONAL DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: IMPORTANCE OF CYANOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murrell, Michael C. and Emile M. Lores. 2004. Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Seasonal Dynamics in a Subtropical Estuary: Importance of Cyanobacteria. J. Plankton Res. 26(3):371-382. (ERL,GB 1190).

    A seasonal study of phytoplankton and zooplankton was conducted from 1999-20...

  4. SPATIAL PATTERNS IN ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURES OF PELAGIC FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports on the spatial distribution of zooplankton and forage fish in western Lake Superior. Fish and zooplankton assemblages are shown to differ substantially in abundance and size structure both between the open lake and nearshore regions and between two differe...

  5. Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Zooplankton in a Food Control Reservoir and Tailwater.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Zooplankton, when available, may be an important food source for fish fry in lotic habitats. The effects of flood control reservior operation on the...not be warranted since the complexity of factors determining reservior zooplankton dynamics precludes their use as a reliable food source for tailwater biota.

  6. Effects of stochastic population fluctuations in two models of biological macroevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu; Rikvold, Per Arne

    Two mathematical models of macroevolution are studied. These models have population dynamics at the species level, and mutations and extinction of species are also included. The population dynamics are updated by difference equations with stochastic noise terms that characterize population fluctuations. The effects of the stochastic population fluctuations on diversity and total population sizes on evolutionary time scales are studied. In one model, species can make either predator-prey, mutualistic, or competitive interactions, while the other model allows only predator-prey interactions. When the noise in the population dynamics is strong enough, both models show intermittent behavior and their power spectral densities show approximate 1/f fluctuations. In the noiseless limit, the two models have different power spectral densities. For the predator-prey model, 1/f2 fluctuations appears, indicating random-walk like behavior, while the other model still shows 1/f noise. These results indicate that stochastic population fluctuations may significantly affect long-time evolutionary dynamics.

  7. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance under clear and snow-covered ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBates, T.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Ward, M.C.; Werlin, K.B.; Lorenzen, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    We described the distribution of cladoceran zooplankton under the ice in a natural, glacial lake. Local light availability apparently altered the spatial distribution of cladocerans. Light levels measured under snow-covered areas (0.178 lux) were an order of magnitude less than those measured at the same depth under clear ice (1.750 lux). Cladoceran density under snow-covered areas was significantly higher (Bosmina spp.=3.34/L; Daphnia spp.=0.61/L) than cladoceran abundance under clear ice (Bosmina spp.=0.91/L; Daphnia spp.=0.19/L).

  8. Changing climate cues differentially alter zooplankton dormancy dynamics across latitudes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Natalie T; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    In seasonal climates, dormancy is a common strategy that structures biodiversity and is necessary for the persistence of many species. Climate change will likely alter dormancy dynamics in zooplankton, the basis of aquatic food webs, by altering two important hatching cues: mean temperatures during the ice-free season, and mean day length when lakes become ice free. Theory suggests that these changes could alter diversity, hatchling abundances and phenology within lakes, and that these responses may diverge across latitudes due to differences in optimal hatching cues and strategies. To examine the role of temperature and day length on hatching dynamics, we collected sediment from 25 lakes across a 1800 km latitudinal gradient and exposed sediment samples to a factorial combination of two photoperiods (12 and 16 h) and two temperatures (8 and 12 °C) representative of historical southern (short photoperiod, warm) and northern (long photoperiod, cool) lake conditions. We tested whether sensitivity to these hatching cues varies by latitudinal origin and differs among taxa. Higher temperatures advanced phenology for all taxa, and these advances were greatest for cladocerans followed by copepods and rotifers. Although phenology differed among taxa, the effect of temperature did not vary with latitude. The latitudinal origin of the egg bank influenced egg abundance and hatchling abundance and diversity, with these latter effects varying with taxa, temperature and photoperiod. Copepod hatchling abundances peaked at mid-latitudes in the high temperature and long photoperiod treatments, whereas hatchling abundances of other zooplankton were greatest at low latitudes and high temperature. The overall diversity of crustacean zooplankton (copepods and cladocerans) also reflected distinct responses of each taxa to our treatments, with the greatest diversity occurring at mid-latitudes (~56 °N) in the shorter photoperiod treatment. Our results demonstrate that hatching cues

  9. Cryptic zooplankton ``swimmers'' in upper ocean sediment traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Anthony F.; Silver, Mary W.; Gowing, Marcia M.; Knauer, George A.

    1990-08-01

    Sediment traps are the major oceanographic tool for collecting passively sinking particulate material (the "particle flux") in the ocean. Sediment traps in the upper ocean also collect actively sinking zooplankton that are usually manually removed prior to analysis. Microscospic analysis of sediment trap samples collected over a 19-month period in the eastern North Pacific reveals that zooplankton "swimmers" are a larger problem than previously recognized. Zooplankton that are cryptic (i.e. difficult to see or distinguish from the detrital material) and difficult to remove (principally gelatinous zooplankton) may have contributed up to 20 mg C m -2 day -1 to the "particulate flux", with the highest values in the upper 150 m. This swimmer problem is in addition to the previously recognized presence of crustaceans and other large metazoans in traps. Additionally, the detritus-laden, mucous-feeding structures (houses)of larvaceans probably enter the traps with the larvaceans and would be impossible to remove. We estimate that the contribution of the cryptic swimmers and larvacean houses could be as much as 96% of the measured carbon flux. The contribution is greatest in the euphotic zone and drops sharply below 200 m. Subtracting out this potential artifact at the VERTEX station results in vertical profiles of organic carbon flux that differ dramatically from the standard flux profile for carbon in the upper ocean: specifically, the implied "regeneration" rate is greatly reduced. Screened traps (300 μm screens below the baffles) contained numerous metazoans smaller than the screen mesh size. These traps also conta