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Sample records for zooplankton responses final

  1. Implementation of the zooplankton functional response in plankton models: State of the art, recent challenges and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Andrew; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Cordoleani, Flora

    2012-09-01

    The conventional way of describing grazing in plankton models is based on a zooplankton functional response framework, according to which the consumption rate is computed as the product of a certain function of food (the functional response) and the density/biomass of herbivorous zooplankton. A large amount of literature on experimental feeding reports the existence of a zooplankton functional response in microcosms and small mesocosms, which goes a long way towards explaining the popularity of this framework both in mean-field (e.g. NPZD models) and spatially resolved models. On the other hand, the complex foraging behaviour of zooplankton (feeding cycles) as well as spatial heterogeneity of food and grazer distributions (plankton patchiness) across time and space scales raise questions as to the existence of a functional response of herbivores in vivo. In the current review, we discuss limitations of the ‘classical’ zooplankton functional response and consider possible ways to amend this framework to cope with the complexity of real planktonic ecosystems. Our general conclusion is that although the functional response of herbivores often does not exist in real ecosystems (especially in the form observed in the laboratory), this framework can be rather useful in modelling - but it does need some amendment which can be made based on various techniques of model reduction. We also show that the shape of the functional response depends on the spatial resolution (‘frame’) of the model. We argue that incorporating foraging behaviour and spatial heterogeneity in plankton models would not necessarily require the use of individual based modelling - an approach which is now becoming dominant in the literature. Finally, we list concrete future directions and challenges and emphasize the importance of a closer collaboration between plankton biologists and modellers in order to make further progress towards better descriptions of zooplankton grazing.

  2. Zooplankton responses to sandbar opening in a tropical eutrophic coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, Jayme M.; de M. Rocha, Adriana; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Carneiro, Luciana S.; de A. Esteves, Francisco

    2007-02-01

    The effects of a disturbance by sandbar opening on the zooplankton community were evaluated through a long-term study in an eutrophic and oligohaline system, Imboassica Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Zooplankton samples and limnological data were collected monthly from March 2000 to February 2003. Before the sandbar was opened in February 2001, the lagoon showed eutrophic conditions, with high mean nutrient concentrations and low salinity (total nitrogen - TN = 190.28 μM, chlorophyll a content - Chl. a = 104.60 μg/L and salinity = 0.87'). During this period, the zooplankton species present, such as the rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus havanaensis, were typical of freshwater to oligohaline and eutrophic environments. After the sandbar opening, the lagoon changed to a lower trophic status and increased salinity (TN = 55.11 μM, Chl. a = 27.56 μg/L and salinity = 19.64'). As a result, the zooplankton community came to consist largely of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, marine copepods and meroplanktonic larvae, mainly Gastropoda. Salinity was the main force structuring the zooplankton community after the sandbar opening. Two years after this episode, the prior zooplankton community had not reestablished itself, indicating a low resilience to this disturbance. The conditions developed prior to a sandbar opening can be crucial to the community responses in the face of this disturbance and for the capacity of the original zooplankton community to re-establish itself.

  3. Fate of thiamethoxam in mesocosms and response of the zooplankton community.

    PubMed

    Lobson, C; Luong, K; Seburn, D; White, M; Hann, B; Prosser, R S; Wong, C S; Hanson, M L

    2018-05-14

    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide that can reach wetlands in agro-ecosystems through runoff. The fate and effects of thiamethoxam on non-target organisms in shallow wetland ecosystems have not been well characterized. To this end, a mesocosm study was conducted with a focus on characterizing zooplankton community responses. A single pulse application of thiamethoxam (0, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/L; n = 3) was applied to experimental systems and monitored for 8 weeks. The mean half-life of thiamethoxam among the different treatments was 3.7 days in the water column with concentrations of <0.8 μg/L in the majority of mesocosms by 56 days. Principal response curve analysis did not show any significant concentration-dependent differences in the zooplankton community among treatments over the course of the study. The minimum detectable difference (MDD%) values for abundance of potentially sensitive arthropod taxa (nauplius larvae, cyclopoid copepods) allowed the detections from controls as low as 42 and 59% effect, respectively. The MDD% values for total abundance of zooplankton (including the potentially less sensitive taxonomic group of Rotifera) allowed the detection from controls as low as 41% effect. There were no statistically significant differences in zooplankton abundance or diversity between control and treated mesocosms at the end of the study. There were also no statistically significant differences for individual taxa that were sustained between sampling points, or manifested as a concentration-response. We conclude that acute exposure to thiamethoxam at environmentally relevant concentrations (typically ng/L) likely does not represent a significant adverse ecological risk to wetland zooplankton community abundance and structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal stress in zooplankton diapause production: post-hatching response.

    PubMed

    Aránguiz-Acuña, Adriana; Pérez-Portilla, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic organisms commonly respond to harsh conditions by forming diapausing stages, which enable populations to survive adverse periods forming egg banks. Production of diapausing eggs is frequently observed in monogonont rotifers, previously changing from asexual to partial sexual reproduction (mixis). In despite that zooplankton are frequently used in ecotoxicological assessment because of their sensitivity to various toxicants and their important role in the ecosystems, toxicity evaluations often consider the directly exposed population produced by parthenogenetic reproduction, exclusively. We assessed experimentally effects of exposure to metals on mixis delay and fitness of hatchlings of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis obtained from a brackish water lagoon with high metal content, especially copper. We show that sub-lethal concentrations of copper affected traits related to sexual reproduction and diapausing egg production in the rotifer. Copper addition did not delay the start of mixis, suggesting that rapid initiation of mixis is promoted in risky environments, according to the hypothesis of mixis as an escape strategy. Higher investment in mixis was obtained when individuals were exposed to metal. Addition of copper negatively affected the hatching success of diapausing eggs and performance of hatchlings. Nevertheless, these effects were greater for individuals formed in non-metal conditions, suggesting an adaptive advantage of populations from natural sediments exposed to copper. These results highlight the ecological and evolutionary consequences of the presence of metals in freshwater environments by modulating diapause adaptive efficacy and the selective process in egg banks.

  5. Size-dependent responses of zooplankton to submerged macrophyte restoration in a subtropical shallow lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lei; He, Feng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Biyun; Dai, Zhigang; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2018-03-01

    To explore the size-dependent responses of zooplankton to submerged macrophyte restoration, we collected macrophyte, zooplankton and water quality samples seasonally from a subtropical shallow lake from 2010 to 2012. Special attention was given to changes in rotifers and crustaceans (cladocerans and copepods). The rotifers were grouped into three size classes (<200 μm, 200 μm-400 μm, >400 μm) to explore their size-related responses to macrophyte restoration. The results showed that during the restoration, the annual mean biomass and macrophyte coverage increased significantly from 0 to 637 g/m2 and 0 to 27%, respectively. In response, the density and biomass of crustaceans and the crustacean-to-rotifer ratio increased significantly, while the rotifer density decreased significantly. Moreover, rotifers showed significant sizedependent responses to macrophyte restoration. Specially, rotifers <400 μm were significantly suppressed, while those ≥400 μm were significantly encouraged. Overall, the population of large-sized zooplankton tended to boom, while that of small rotifers was inhibited during macrophyte restoration. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed positive correlations between macrophytes and crustaceans, rotifers and COD or Chl- a, but negative correlations between macrophytes and COD or Chl- a, and between crustaceans and Chl- a. Moreover, the results indicate that increased predation on phytoplankton by large-sized zooplankton might be an important mechanism for macrophyte restoration during development of aquatic ecosystems, and that this mechanism played a very important role in promoting the formation of a clear-water state in subtropical shallow lakes.

  6. Stable isotope analysis of 1987-1991 zooplankton samples and bowhead whale tissues. Final report

    SciT

    Schell, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    Stable isotope analyses of bowhead whale tissue samples and bowhead whale prey organisms collected over the years 1987 to 1991 were used to provide detail on the isotope ratio gradients evident in the arctic Alaskan zooplankton and to verify previous findings regarding the growth rates and age determination techniques developed for bowhead whales. Zooplankton of the Bering and Chukchi seas are enriched in (13)C relative to the eastern Beaufort Sea. The analysis of baleen from bowhead whales taken between 1987 to 1990 indicate that the whales are slow-growing and the young animals between year one and about six to sevenmore » years of age, undergo a period of little or no linear growth. The authors estimate that bowheads require 16-18 years to reach the length of sexual maturity, i.e., 13-14 m. From baleen Delta(13C) cycles, a 20 year record of the isotope ratios in the phytoplankton of the northern Bering and Chukchi seas was constructed. The long-term record has been compared with the temperature anomalies in surface waters of the Bering Sea. The Delta(13C) of the zooplankton is inversely correlated with temperature and refutes current models attempting to relate ocean temperature, and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels with the Delta(13C) of ocean sediment organic matter.« less

  7. Indicators: Zooplankton

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Zooplankton are small, free-floating aquatic microorganisms including crustaceans, rotifers, open water insect larvae, and aquatic mites. The zooplankton community is composed of both primary consumers and secondary consumers.

  8. Influence of spatial heterogeneity on the type of zooplankton functional response: A study based on field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Andrew; Arashkevich, Elena; Reigstad, Marit; Falk-Petersen, Stig

    2008-10-01

    Mathematical models of plankton dynamics are sensitive to the choice of type of zooplankton functional response, i.e., to how the rate of intake of food varies with the food density. Conventionally, the conclusion on the actual type of functional response for a given zooplankton species is made based upon laboratory analysis on experimental feeding. In this paper, we show that such an approach can be too simplistic and misleading. Based on real ocean data obtained from three expeditions of R/V Jan Mayen in the Barents Sea in 2003-2005, we demonstrate that vertical heterogeneity in algal distribution as well as active vertical movement of herbivorous zooplankton can modify the type of trophic response completely. In particular, we found that the rate of average intake of algae by Calanus glacialis exhibits a Holling type III response, instead of Holling type I or II found previously in laboratory experiments. We argue that this conceptual discrepancy is due to the ability of the zooplankton to feed in layers with high algal density and to avoid depths with lower algal density. Since theoretical studies would predict enhancing in system stability in the case of Holling type III, our results may be of importance for understanding the main factors controlling plankton dynamics.

  9. Examining shifts in zooplankton community as a response of environmental change in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadouani, Anas; Mines, Conor; Legendre, Pierre; Yan, Norman

    2014-05-01

    We examined 20 years of zooplankton samples from Harp Lake for shifts in zooplankton variability following invasion by zooplankton predator Bythotrephes longimanus, using organism body size—as measured at high resolution by Laser Optical Plankton Counter (LOPC)—as the primary metric of investigation. A period of transitory high variability in the 2yr post-invasion was observed for both body size compositional variability and aggregate variability metrics, with both measures of variability shifting from low or intermediate to high variability immediately following invasion, before shifting again to intermediate variability, 2 yr post-invasion. Aggregate and compositional variability dynamics were also considered in combination over the study period, revealing that the period of transitory high variability coincided with a shift from a community-wide stasis variability pattern to one of asynchrony, before a shift back to stasis 2 yr post-invasion. These dynamics were related to changes in the significant zooplankton species within the Harp Lake community over the pre- and post- invasion periods, and are likely to be indicative of changes in the stability in the zooplankton community following invasion by Bythotrephes. The dual consideration of aggregate and compositional variability as measured by LOPC was found to provide a valuable means to assess the ecological effects of biological invasion on zooplankton communities as a whole, extending our knowledge of the effects of invasion beyond that already revealed through more traditional taxonomic investigation.

  10. Response of predatory zooplankton populations to the experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin

    SciT

    Sierszen, M.E.; Frost, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    To assess the effects of lake acidification on large predatory zooplankton, the authors monitored population levels of four limnetic taxa for 6 years in a lake with two basins, one of which was experimentally acidified (2 years at each of three levels: pH 5.6, 5.2 and 4.7). Concentrations of phantom midge (Chaoborus spp.), the most abundant large predator, remained similar in the treatment and reference basins until the fourth year (pH 5.2) when they increased in the treatment basin. In contrast, Epischura lacustris and Leptodora kindtii disappeared from limnetic samples, and water mites declined to near zero upon acidification. Treatmentmore » basin populations of E. lacustris declined sharply during the second year of acidification. The nature of the decline suggested sensitivity of an early life stage during the first year at pH 5.6. Leptodora kindtii showed no population response at pH 5.6, but declined to essentially zero at pH 5.2. Treatment basin populations of water mites fluctuated until declining in the fifth and sixth years (pH 4.7). These changes indicate a variety of direct and indirect responses to lake acidification.« less

  11. Zooplankton responses to increasing sea surface temperatures in the southeastern Australia global marine hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Paige; Clementson, Lesley; Davies, Claire; Corney, Stuart; Swadling, Kerrie

    2016-10-01

    Southeastern Australia is a 'hotspot' for oceanographic change. Here, rapidly increasing sea surface temperatures, rising at more than double the global trend, are largely associated with a southerly extension of the East Australian Current (EAC) and its eddy field. Maria Island, situated at the southern end of the EAC extension at 42°S, 148°E, has been used as a site to study temperature-driven biological trends in this region of accelerated change. Zooplankton have short life cycles (usually < 1 year) and are highly sensitive to environmental change, making them an ideal indicator of the biological effects of an increased southward flow of the EAC. Data from in-situ net drops and the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR), collected since 2009, together with historical zooplankton abundance data, have been analysed in this study. Like the North Atlantic, zooplankton communities of southeastern Australia are responding to increased temperatures through relocation, long-term increases in warm-water species and a shift towards a zooplankton community dominated by small copepods. The biological trends present evidence of extended EAC influence at Maria Island into autumn and winter months, which has allowed for the rapid establishment of warm-water species during these seasons, and has increased the similarity between Maria Island and the more northerly Port Hacking zooplankton community. Generalised Linear Models (GLM) suggest the high salinity and low nutrient properties of EAC-water to be the primary drivers of increasing abundances of warm-water species off southeastern Australia. Changes in both the species composition and size distribution of the Maria Island zooplankton community will have effects for pelagic fisheries. This study provides an indication of how zooplankton communities influenced by intensifying Western Boundary currents may respond to rapid environmental change.

  12. Zooplankton community response to the winter 2013 deep convection process in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoso, Katty; Carlotti, François; Pagano, Marc; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Escribano, Rubén.; Berline, Léo.

    2017-03-01

    The Gulf of Lion is an important area of deep convection, where intense winter vertical mixing brings nutrients up from deeper layers, promoting the largest bloom in the Mediterranean at the end of winter/early spring. The DEWEX program conducted cruises in February and April 2013 to investigate the ecosystem level impacts of deep water convection. Zooplankton data were collected through net sampling and imaging with an Underwater Vision Profiler. In winter, low zooplankton abundance and biomass were observed in the Deep Convection Zone (DCZ) and higher values on its periphery. In spring, this pattern reversed with high biomass in the DCZ and lower values on the periphery. On average for the whole area, the potential grazing impact was estimated to increase by one order of magnitude from winter to spring. In April, all areas except the DCZ incurred top-down control by zooplankton on the phytoplankton stock. In the DCZ, the chlorophyll-a values remained high despite the high zooplankton biomass and carbon demand, indicating a sustained bottom-up control. The zooplankton community composition was comparable for both periods, typified by high copepod dominance, but with some differences between the DCZ and peripheral regions. In spring the DCZ was characterized by a strong increase in herbivorous species such as Centropages typicus and Calanus helgolandicus, and an increase in the number of large zooplankton individuals. Our study indicates that the DCZ is likely an area of both enhanced energy transfer to higher trophic levels and organic matter export in the North Western Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Zooplankton Responses to Low-Oxygen Condition upon a Shallow Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Upwelling Region off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a critical component in the coastal upwelling ecosystem off Chile. This OMZ causes oxygen-deficient water entering the photic layer and affecting plankton communities having low tolerance to hypoxia. Variable, and usually species-dependent, responses of zooplankton to hypoxia condition can be found. Most dominant species avoid hypoxia by restricting their vertical distribution, while others can temporarily enter and even spent part of their life cycle within the OMZ. Whatever the case, low-oxygen conditions appear to affect virtually all vital rates of zooplankton, such as mortality, fecundity, development and growth and metabolism, and early developmental stages seem more sensitive, with significant consequences for population and community dynamics. For most study cases, these effects are negative at individual and population levels. Observations and predictions upon increasing upwelling intensity over the last 20-30 years indicate a gradual shoaling of the OMZ, and so that an expected enhancement of these negative effects of hypoxia on the zooplankton community. Unknown processes of adaptation and community-structure adjustments are expected to take place with uncertain consequences for the food web of this highly productive eastern boundary current ecosystem.

  14. Cross-Diffusion Induced Turing Instability and Amplitude Equation for a Toxic-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton Model with Nonmonotonic Functional Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Renji; Dai, Binxiang

    2017-06-01

    The spatiotemporal pattern induced by cross-diffusion of a toxic-phytoplankton-zooplankton model with nonmonotonic functional response is investigated in this paper. The linear stability analysis shows that cross-diffusion is the key mechanism for the formation of spatial patterns. By taking cross-diffusion rate as bifurcation parameter, we derive amplitude equations near the Turing bifurcation point for the excited modes in the framework of a weakly nonlinear theory, and the stability analysis of the amplitude equations interprets the structural transitions and stability of various forms of Turing patterns. Furthermore, we illustrate the theoretical results via numerical simulations. It is shown that the spatiotemporal distribution of the plankton is homogeneous in the absence of cross-diffusion. However, when the cross-diffusivity is greater than the critical value, the spatiotemporal distribution of all the plankton species becomes inhomogeneous in spaces and results in different kinds of patterns: spot, stripe, and the mixture of spot and stripe patterns depending on the cross-diffusivity. Simultaneously, the impact of toxin-producing rate of toxic-phytoplankton (TPP) species and natural death rate of zooplankton species on pattern selection is also explored.

  15. The response of zooplankton communities to the 2016 extreme hydrological cycle in floodplain lakes connected to the Yangtze River in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Mei; Wu, Qili; Lin, Zhi; Jiang, Fangyuan; Chen, Huan; Zhou, Zhongze

    2018-06-04

    The Huayanghe Lakes play an important role in the Yangtze floodplain in China and had extremely high water levels during the summer of 2016. Monitoring data was collected in an effort to understand the impact of this change on the crustacean zooplankton composition and abundance and the biomass variation in the Huayanghe Lakes between a regular hydrological cycle (RHC) and an extreme hydrological cycle (EHC). The crustacean zooplankton community composition, abundance, and biomass in the floodplain lakes were markedly affected by the water-level disturbance. The number of species was lower in the RHC, but the mean density and biomass decreased from 93.84 ± 13.29 ind./L and 6.11 ± 0.89 mg/L, respectively, in the RHC to 66.62 ± 10.88 ind./L and 1.22 ± 0.26 mg/L, respectively, in the EHC. Pearson correlations and redundancy analyses revealed the environmental factors with the most significant impact on the crustacean zooplankton community differed between the RHC and EHC cycles. Little previous information exists on the zooplankton in these lakes, and the present study provides data on the zooplankton composition, abundance, and biomass, both at baseline and in response to hydrological changes.

  16. Effects of drought and pluvial periods on fish and zooplankton communities in prairie lakes: systematic and asystematic responses.

    PubMed

    Starks, Elizabeth; Cooper, Ryan; Leavitt, Peter R; Wissel, Björn

    2014-04-01

    The anticipated impacts of climate change on aquatic biota are difficult to evaluate because of potentially contrasting effects of temperature and hydrology on lake ecosystems, particularly those closed-basin lakes within semiarid regions. To address this shortfall, we quantified decade-scale changes in chemical and biological properties of 20 endorheic lakes in central North America in response to a pronounced transition from a drought to a pluvial period during the early 21st century. Lakes exhibited marked temporal changes in chemical characteristics and formed two discrete clusters corresponding to periods of substantially different effective moisture (as Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI). Discriminant function analysis (DFA) explained 90% of variability in fish assemblage composition and showed that fish communities were predicted best by environmental conditions during the arid interval (PDSI <-2). DFA also predicted that lakes could support more fish species during pluvial periods, but their occurrences may be limited by periodic stress due to recurrent droughts and physical barriers to colonization. Zooplankton taxonomic assemblages in fishless lakes were resilient to short-term changes in meteorological conditions, and did not vary between drought and deluge periods. Conversely, zooplankton taxa in fish-populated lakes decreased substantially in biomass during the wet interval, likely due to increased zooplanktivory by fish. The powerful effects of such climatic variability on hydrology and the strong subsequent links to water chemistry and biota indicate that future changes in global climate could result in significant restructuring of aquatic communities. Together these findings suggest that semiarid lakes undergoing temporary climate shifts provide a useful model system for anticipating the effects of global climate change on lake food webs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. North Atlantic summers have warmed more than winters since 1353, and the response of marine zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2010-12-28

    Modeling and measurements show that Atlantic marine temperatures are rising; however, the low temporal resolution of models and restricted spatial resolution of measurements (i) mask regional details critical for determining the rate and extent of climate variability, and (ii) prevent robust determination of climatic impacts on marine ecosystems. To address both issues for the North East Atlantic, a fortnightly resolution marine climate record from 1353-2006 was constructed for shallow inshore waters and compared to changes in marine zooplankton abundance. For the first time summer marine temperatures are shown to have increased nearly twice as much as winter temperatures since 1353. Additional climatic instability began in 1700 characterized by ∼5-65 year climate oscillations that appear to be a recent phenomenon. Enhanced summer-specific warming reduced the abundance of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, a key food item of cod, and led to significantly lower projected abundances by 2040 than at present. The faster increase of summer marine temperatures has implications for climate projections and affects abundance, and thus biomass, near the base of the marine food web with potentially significant feedback effects for marine food security.

  18. Zooplankton research off Peru: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón, Patricia; Criales-Hernandez, Maria I.; Schwamborn, Ralf; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    A review of zooplankton studies conducted in Peruvian marine waters is given. After a short history of the development of zooplankton research off Peru, we review zooplankton methodology, taxonomy, biodiversity, spatial distribution, seasonal and interannual variability, trophodynamics, secondary production, and modelling. We review studies on several micro-, meso-, macro-, and meroplankton groups, and give a species list from both published and unpublished reports. Three regional zooplankton groups have been identified: (1) a continental shelf group dominated by Acartia tonsa and Centropages brachiatus; (2) a continental slope group characterized by siphonophores, bivalves, foraminifera and radiolaria; (3) and a species-rich oceanic group. The highest zooplankton abundances and biomasses were often found between 4-6°S and 14-16°S, where continental shelves are narrow. Species composition changes with distance from the shore. Species composition and biomass also vary strongly on short time scales due to advection, peaks of larval production, trophic interactions, and community succession. The relation of zooplankton to climatic variability (ENSO and multi-decadal) and fish stocks is discussed in the context of ecological regime shifts. An intermediate upwelling hypothesis is proposed, based on the negative effects of low upwelling intensity in summer or extremely strong and enduring winter upwelling on zooplankton abundance off Peru. According to this hypothesis, intermediate upwelling creates an optimal environmental window for zooplankton communities. Finally, we highlight important knowledge gaps that warrant attention in future.

  19. Community response of zooplankton to oceanographic changes (2002-2012) in the central/southern upwelling system of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín-Mora, Johanna; Escribano, Ruben; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    A 10-year time series (2002-2012) at Station 18 off central/southern Chile allowed us to study variations in zooplankton along with interannual variability and trends in oceanographic conditions. We used an automated analysis program (ZooImage) to assess changes in the mesozooplankton size structure and the composition of the taxa throughout the entire community. Oceanographic conditions changed over the decade: the water column became less stratified, more saline, and colder; the mixed layer deepened; and the oxygen minimum zone became shallower during the second half of the time series (2008-2012) in comparison with the first period (2002-2007). Both the size structure and composition of the zooplankton were significantly associated with oceanographic changes. Taxonomic and size diversity of the zooplankton community increased to the more recent period. For the second period, small sized copepods (<1 mm) decreased in abundance, being replaced by larger sized (>1.5 mm) and medium size copepods (1-1.5 mm), whereas euphausiids, decapod larvae, appendicularian and ostracods increased their abundance during the second period. These findings indicated that the zooplankton community structure in this eastern boundary ecosystem was strongly influenced by variability of the upwelling process. Thus, climate-induced forcing of upwelling trends can alter the zooplankton community in this highly productive region with potential consequences for the ecosystem food web.

  20. High evolutionary potential of marine zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Goetze, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Open ocean zooplankton often have been viewed as slowly evolving species that have limited capacity to respond adaptively to changing ocean conditions. Hence, attention has focused on the ecological responses of zooplankton to current global change, including range shifts and changing phenology. Here, we argue that zooplankton also are well poised for evolutionary responses to global change. We present theoretical arguments that suggest plankton species may respond rapidly to selection on mildly beneficial mutations due to exceptionally large population size, and consider the circumstantial evidence that supports our inference that selection may be particularly important for these species. We also review all primary population genetic studies of open ocean zooplankton and show that genetic isolation can be achieved at the scale of gyre systems in open ocean habitats (100s to 1000s of km). Furthermore, population genetic structure often varies across planktonic taxa, and appears to be linked to the particular ecological requirements of the organism. In combination, these characteristics should facilitate adaptive evolution to distinct oceanographic habitats in the plankton. We conclude that marine zooplankton may be capable of rapid evolutionary as well as ecological responses to changing ocean conditions, and discuss the implications of this view. We further suggest two priority areas for future research to test our hypothesis of high evolutionary potential in open ocean zooplankton, which will require (1) assessing how pervasive selection is in driving population divergence and (2) rigorously quantifying the spatial and temporal scales of population differentiation in the open ocean. Recent attention has focused on the ecological responses of open ocean zooplankton to current global change, including range shifts and changing phenology. Here, we argue that marine zooplankton also are well poised for evolutionary responses to global change. PMID:24567838

  1. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

  2. A hybrid spectral representation of phytoplankton growth and zooplankton response: The ''control rod'' model of plankton interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Robert A.

    2003-11-01

    Phytoplankton species interact through competition for light and nutrients; they also interact through grazers they hold in common. Both interactions are expected to be size-dependent: smaller phytoplankton species will be at an advantage when nutrients are scarce due to surface/volume considerations, while species that are similar in size are more likely to be consumed by grazers held in common than are species that differ greatly in size. While phytoplankton competition for nutrients and light has been extensively characterized, size-based interaction through shared grazers has not been represented systematically. The latter situation is particularly unfortunate because small changes in community structure can give rise to large changes in ecosystem dynamics and, in inverse modeling, to large changes in estimated parameter values. A simple, systematic way to represent phytoplankton interaction through shared grazers, one resistant to unintended idiosyncrasy of model construction yet capable of representing scientifically justifiable idiosyncrasy, would aid greatly in the modeling process. Here I develop a model structure that allows systematic representation of plankton interaction. In this model, the zooplankton community is represented as a continuous size spectrum, while phytoplankton species can be represented individually. The mechanistic basis of the model is a shift in the zooplankton community from carnivory to omnivory to herbivory as phytoplankton density increases. I discuss two limiting approximations in some detail, and fit both to data from the IronEx II experiment. The first limiting case represents a community with no grazer-based interaction among phytoplankton species; this approximation illuminates the general structure of the model. In particular, the zooplankton spectrum can be viewed as the analog of a control rod in a nuclear reactor, which prevents (or fails to prevent) an exponential bloom of phytoplankton. A second, more complex limiting

  3. Pilot Study on Potential Impacts of Fisheries-Induced Changes in Zooplankton Mortality on Marine Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzlaff, Julia; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    In this pilot study we link the yield of industrial fisheries to changes in the zooplankton mortality in an idealized way accounting for different target species (planktivorous fish—decreased zooplankton mortality; large predators—increased zooplankton mortality). This indirect approach is used in a global coupled biogeochemistry circulation model to estimate the range of the potential impact of industrial fisheries on marine biogeochemistry. The simulated globally integrated response on phytoplankton and primary production is in line with expectations—a high (low) zooplankton mortality results in a decrease (increase) of zooplankton and an increase (decrease) of phytoplankton. In contrast, the local response of zooplankton and phytoplankton depends on the region under consideration: In nutrient-limited regions, an increase (decrease) in zooplankton mortality leads to a decrease (increase) in both zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass. In contrast, in nutrient-replete regions, such as upwelling regions, we find an opposing response: an increase (decrease) of the zooplankton mortality leads to an increase (decrease) in both zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass. The results are further evaluated by relating the potential fisheries-induced changes in zooplankton mortality to those driven by CO2 emissions in a business-as-usual 21st century emission scenario. In our idealized case, the potential fisheries-induced impact can be of similar size as warming-induced changes in marine biogeochemistry.

  4. Acoustic classification of zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Traykovski, Linda V.

    1998-11-01

    Work on the forward problem in zooplankton bioacoustics has resulted in the identification of three categories of acoustic scatterers: elastic-shelled (e.g. pteropods), fluid-like (e.g. euphausiids), and gas-bearing (e.g. siphonophores). The relationship between backscattered energy and animal biomass has been shown to vary by a factor of ~19,000 across these categories, so that to make accurate estimates of zooplankton biomass from acoustic backscatter measurements of the ocean, the acoustic characteristics of the species of interest must be well-understood. This thesis describes the development of both feature based and model based classification techniques to invert broadband acoustic echoes from individual zooplankton for scatterer type, as well as for particular parameters such as animal orientation. The feature based Empirical Orthogonal Function Classifier (EOFC) discriminates scatterer types by identifying characteristic modes of variability in the echo spectra, exploiting only the inherent characteristic structure of the acoustic signatures. The model based Model Parameterisation Classifier (MPC) classifies based on correlation of observed echo spectra with simplified parameterisations of theoretical scattering models for the three classes. The Covariance Mean Variance Classifiers (CMVC) are a set of advanced model based techniques which exploit the full complexity of the theoretical models by searching the entire physical model parameter space without employing simplifying parameterisations. Three different CMVC algorithms were developed: the Integrated Score Classifier (ISC), the Pairwise Score Classifier (PSC) and the Bayesian Probability Classifier (BPC); these classifiers assign observations to a class based on similarities in covariance, mean, and variance, while accounting for model ambiguity and validity. These feature based and model based inversion techniques were successfully applied to several thousand echoes acquired from broadband (~350 k

  5. Responses of trophic structure and zooplankton community to salinity and temperature in Tibetan lakes: Implication for the effect of climate warming.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiuqi; Xu, Lei; Hou, Juzhi; Liu, Zhengwen; Jeppesen, Erik; Han, Bo-Ping

    2017-11-01

    Warming has pronounced effects on lake ecosystems, either directly by increased temperatures or indirectly by a change in salinity. We investigated the current status of zooplankton communities and trophic structure in 45 Tibetan lakes along a 2300 m altitude and a 76 g/l salinity gradient. Freshwater to hyposaline lakes mainly had three trophic levels: phytoplankton, small zooplankton and fish/Gammarus, while mesosaline to hypersaline lakes only had two: phytoplankton and large zooplankton. Zooplankton species richness declined significantly with salinity, but did not relate with temperature. Furthermore, the decline in species richness with salinity in lakes with two trophic levels was much less abrupt than in lakes with three trophic levels. The structural variation of the zooplankton community depended on the length of the food chain, and was significantly explained by salinity as the critical environmental variable. The zooplankton community shifted from dominance of copepods and small cladoceran species in the lakes with low salinity and three trophic levels to large saline filter-feeding phyllopod species in those lakes with high salinity and two trophic levels. The zooplankton to phytoplankton biomass ratio was positively related with temperature in two-trophic-level systems and vice versa in three-trophic-level systems. As the Tibetan Plateau is warming about three times faster than the global average, our results imply that warming could have a considerable impact on the structure and function of Tibetan lake ecosystems, either via indirect effects of salinization/desalinization on species richness, composition and trophic structure or through direct effects of water temperature on trophic interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lethal/sublethal responses of Daphnia magna to acute norfloxacin contamination and changes in phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions induced by this antibiotic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ying; Yan, Shi-Wei; Li, Ruo-Zhu; Hu, Yi-Wen; Chang, Xue-Xiu

    2017-01-01

    Although the well-known antibiotic norfloxacin (NOR) is recognized as an important environmental pollutant, little is known about its impacts on ecological processes, particularly on species interactions. In this paper, we quantified Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) responses in mortality rate at lethal NOR concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L-1), and in heartbeat rate, swimming behavior and feeding rate (on the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa) at sublethal NOR concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) to determine the effects of this antibiotic in plankton systems. In 96-h-long lethal experiment, mortality rates of D. magna increased significantly with increasing NOR concentration and exposure time. In sublethal experiments, heartbeat rate decreased, while time ratio of vertical to horizontal swimming (TVH) and the duration of quiescence increased in D. magna individuals exposed to increasing NOR concentrations after 4 and 12 h of exposure. These collectively led to decreases in both average swimming ability and feeding rate, consistent with the positive relationship between average swimming ability and feeding rate. Overall, results indicate that, by affecting zooplankton heartbeat rate and behavior, NOR decreased feeding efficiency of D. magna even at low doses, therefore, it might seriously compromise ecosystem health and function.

  7. Zooplankton intermittency and turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, François G.

    2010-05-01

    Planktonic organisms usually live in a turbulent world. Since marine turbulence is characterized by very high Reynolds numbers, it possesses very intermittent fluctuations which in turn affect marine life. We consider here such influence on zooplankton on 2 aspects. First we consider zooplankton motion in the lab. Many copepods display swimming abilities. More and more species have been recently recorded using normal or high speed cameras, and many trajectories have been extracted from these movies and are now available for analysis. These trajectories can be complex, stochastic, with random switching from low velocity to high velocity events and even jumps. These complex trajectories show that an adequate modeling is necessary to understand and characterize them. Here we review the results published in the literature on copepod trajectories. We discuss the random walk, Levy walk modeling and introduce also multifractal random walks. We discuss the way to discriminate between these different walks using experimental data. Stochastic simulations will be performed to illustrate the different families. Second, we consider zooplankton contact rates in the framework of intermittent turbulence. Intermittency may have influence on plankton contact rates. We consider the Particle Stokes number of copepods, in a intermediate dissipation range affected by intermittent fluctuations. We show that they may display preferential concentration effects, and we consider the influence on contact rates of this effect in the intermediate dissipation range.

  8. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  9. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  10. Changes to the hydrography and zooplankton in the northern California Current in response to `the Blob'of 2014-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, W. T.

    2016-02-01

    Fortnightly measurements of hydrography and zooplankton species composition have been sustained along the Newport Hydrographic line since 1996. From this 20 year time series we have established that zooplankton abundance and species composition closely tracks the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino Southern Oscillation. During positive (warm) phase of the PDO, a warm water `southern' subtropical coastal community is found whereas during negative (cold) phase a cold water `northern'coastal community dominates. The Blob though was a rule-changer. The Blob began to move slowly ashore at Newport on 14 September 2014 with the seasonal relaxation of upwelling, and within 5 h SST increased 6°C to 19.4°C. On the 25 and 30 September cruises, copepod species richness increased as well, with an anomaly of 2 and 9 species respectively, greater than the 20 year climatology for September. We continued to monitor the plankton throughout the autumn 2014 and winter, spring and summer 2015 and found a total of seventeen copepod species that were either new to Oregon or have occurred only rarely in the past. Many of these species are oceanic with sub-tropical or tropical affinities thus are indicators of tropical waters, suggesting that the Blob water which came ashore in central Oregon had its origins offshore rather than from coastal waters to the south. Some of the copepod species that were new or rarely seen included Subeucalanus crassus, Eucalanus hyalinus, Mecynocera clausi, Calocalanus pavo, Centropages bradyii, and Pleuromamma borealis and P. xiphias. Krill biomass was the lowest in our 20 year time series. The southern California Current neritic krill species Nyctiphanes simplex appears off Oregon during major El Niño events (1983, 1998), but none were seen during The Blob event which again suggests that the origin of the Blob water which appeared off Oregon was from far offshore, not from coastal waters to the south. Note in the figure below that

  11. Development of a Multimetric Indicator of Pelagic Zooplankton ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We used zooplankton data collected for the 2012 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) to develop multimetric indices (MMIs) for five aggregated ecoregions of the conterminous USA (Coastal Plains, Eastern Highlands, Plains, Upper Midwest, and Western Mountains and Xeric [“West’]). We classified candidate metrics into six categories: We evaluated the performance of candidate metrics, and used metrics that had passed these screens to calculate all possible candidate MMIs that included at least one metric from each category. We selected the candidate MMI that had high responsiveness, a reasonable value for repeatability, low mean pairwise correlation among component metrics, and, when possible, a maximum pairwise correlation among component metrics that was <0.7. We were able to develop MMIs that were sufficiently responsive and repeatable to assess ecological condition for the NLA without the need to reduce the effects of natural variation using models. We did not observe effects of either lake size, lake origin, or site depth on the MMIs. The MMIs appear to respond more strongly to increased nutrient concentrations than to shoreline habitat conditions. Improving our understanding of how zooplankton assemblages respond to increased human disturbance, and obtaining more complete autecological information for zooplankton taxa would likely improve MMIs developed for future assessments. Using zooplankton assemblage data from the 2012 National Lakes Assessment (NLA),

  12. Protocol for Automated Zooplankton Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    on maximum dimension on the smallest axis: organisms > 50 microns (urn) (nominally zooplankton), organisms > 10 um to < 50 um (nominally protists ...viability of protists . Recent work has focused on performing measurements at a variety of geographic locations to demonstrate that these stains...provide a location-independent means to identify viable protists in test samples. NRL recommends staining samples with a combination of two vital stains

  13. Effects of Climate on the Zooplankton of the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaniegos, B. E.

    2007-05-01

    Almost six decades of sampling of the California Current system, carried out by the CalCOFI program (California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation) complemented by a decade of observations from the IMECOCAL program (Investigaciones Mexicanas de la Corriente de California), have revealed changing patterns in zooplankton abundances, species composition, and distributions over interannual through multidecadal time scales. Interannual changes associated with ENSO variability are manifested as strong but transitory perturbations in the mean annual cycle in seasonal abundances (and distributions) of particular species. An investigation of longer- term change, limited to the region off southern California, shows a persistent decline in zooplankton volumes (a proxy for overall biomass of macrozooplankton) between 1977 and 1998 that is considered to be a response to the well documented shift in basin-scale climate forcing that occurred in 1976-77. Further examination of this decline in zooplankton volumes indicates that it was due principally to the disappearance of several salp species after 1977. Other species and functional groups did not decline after the change in climate regime, while some species have followed persistent secular trends that appear to be associated more with the phenomenon of long-term global warming. Differences in the regional responses to climate change throughout the California Current system have also been observed recently in the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass and changes in latitudinal ranges of certain species. For example, zooplankton biomass in the Baja California region show typical values for the 1997-98 El Niño that were followed by a decrease during the sharp transition to the cool La Niña conditions in 1999. This contrasts with the nearby region off southern California that was characterized by reduced biomass during the El Niño period and the subsequent recovery during the La Niña. Another regional contrast in

  14. Community composition, abundance and biomass of zooplankton in Zhangzi Island waters, Northern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiehui; Zhang, Guangtao; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Shiwei; Zhao, Zengxia; Wan, Aiyong

    2017-09-01

    Samples were collected monthly from the sea area around Zhangzi Island, northern Yellow Sea, from July 2009 to June 2010. Vertical net towing was used to examine spatial and temporal variability in zooplankton abundance and biomass. Overall, Calanus sinicus and Saggita crassa were the dominant species found during the study period, while the amphipod Themisto gracilipes was dominant in winter and spring. Vast numbers of the ctenophore species of the genus Beroe were found in October and November. It was not possible to count them, but they constituted a large portion of the total zooplankton biomass. Zooplankton species diversity was highest in October, and species evenness was highest in April. Zooplankton abundance (non-jellyfish) and biomass were highest in June and lowest in August, with annual averages of 131.3 ind./m³ and 217.5 mg/m³, respectively. Water temperature may be responsible for the variations in zooplankton abundance and biomass. Beroe biomass was negatively correlated with other zooplankton abundance. Longterm investigations will be carried out to learn more about the influence of the environment on zooplankton assemblages.

  15. Microscale nutrient patches produced by zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, John T.; Scavia, Donald

    1982-01-01

    Both track autoradiography and grain-density autoradiography show that individual zooplankton create miniature patches of dissolved nutrients and that algae exploit those regions to absorb phosphate. The patches are short lived and can be dispersed artificially by small-scale turbulence. Our data support a simple model of encounters between algae and nutrient plumes produced by swimming zooplankton. PMID:16593218

  16. Acoustic Scattering Models of Zooplankton and Microstructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    shelled (gastropods), and gas-bearing ( siphonophores )). 5) LABORATORY EXPERIMENTATION: ZOOPLANKTON. An extensive set of laboratory measurements on the...zooplankton ( siphonophores and pteropods) that have high enough target strengths and occur in sufficiently high numbers that they could interfere with

  17. Acoustic Scattering Models of Zooplankton and Microstructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    scattering by the seafloor. SCATTERING BY GAS-BEARING ZOOPLANKTON. In earlier work we showed that the scattering by gas-bearing zooplankton ( siphonophores ... siphonophores and pteropods) that have high enough target strengths and occur in sufficiently high numbers that they could interfere with the performance of

  18. AGING AND TOXIC RESPONSE: ISSUES RELEVANT TO RISK ASSESSMENT (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a final report entitled, Aging and Toxic Response: Issues Relevant to Risk Assessment. This document contributes to the Agency's efforts to better understand the physiology of aging in order to protect the health of older persons, and identifies several d...

  19. Seasonal Phenology of Zooplankton Composition in the Southeastern Bering Sea, 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, L. B.; Pinchuk, A. I.; Harpold, C.; Siddon, E. C.; Mier, K.

    2016-02-01

    The availability of large crustacean zooplankton prey is critical to the condition and survival of forage fish (e.g., age-0 Walleye Pollock), sea birds, and marine mammals in the eastern Bering Sea. Zooplankton community composition and abundances of large lipid-rich copepods (e.g., Calanus spp.) have been evaluated for single seasons, but few studies have investigated seasonal variations in this region. Here, we investigate seasonal changes in taxa (community structure), stage composition (where appropriate), and diversity from spring through late summer/early fall over three consecutive colder than average years. Zooplankton taxonomic samples were collected with oblique bongo tows over the water column during spring (April-May), mid-summer (June-July) and late summer/early fall (August-September) across the southeastern Bering Sea shelf in 2008-2010. Zooplankton abundances were evaluated by oceanographic region, season and year, and related to water mass characteristics (temperature and salinity) and other environmental drivers. Finally, zooplankton phenology was compared to changes in forage fish composition to determine potential overlap of fish predators and zooplankton prey.

  20. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: Community changes and vertical redistribution

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These cold water species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor Cisco and Rainbow Smelt over Alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  1. Avoidance of strobe lights by zooplankton

    Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at <1 m, 15 m and ⩾100 m distance intervals away from the strobe light. Copepods represented 67.2% and Daphnia spp. represented 23.3% of all zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.

  2. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  3. Microcystin production by Microcystis aeruginosa exposed to different stages of herbivorous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min-Ho; Ha, Kyong; Takamura, Noriko

    2008-04-01

    Microcystin (MC) production by four monoclonal Microcystis aeruginosa strains was evaluated in response to infochemicals (indirect exposure) released from different stages of herbivorous zooplankton (neonate/juvenile and adult Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa). The intracellular MC and extracellular MC concentrations were significantly different among the control and treatments with zooplankton culture media filtrates (p<0.05), and in most cases MC production was significantly higher (p<0.05) in strains exposed to infochemicals released from adult zooplankton rather than those of neonate/juvenile zooplankton in four strains of M. aeruginosa. Compared to intracellular MC (385.0-5598.6microg g(-1)DW), very low concentrations of extracellular MC (9.9-737.6microg ml(-1)) were released, but both showed similar temporal patterns over the course of the experiment. This result might be attributed to the fact that adult zooplankton produced more infochemical signals than equal numbers of smaller juveniles and neonates. It is the first study to provide evidence that MC production might be impacted by infochemicals released from different stages of zooplankton, mediated with physiological characteristics, body size, and feeding habits.

  4. Zooplankton and the Ocean Carbon Cycle.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Deborah K; Landry, Michael R

    2017-01-03

    Marine zooplankton comprise a phylogenetically and functionally diverse assemblage of protistan and metazoan consumers that occupy multiple trophic levels in pelagic food webs. Within this complex network, carbon flows via alternative zooplankton pathways drive temporal and spatial variability in production-grazing coupling, nutrient cycling, export, and transfer efficiency to higher trophic levels. We explore current knowledge of the processing of zooplankton food ingestion by absorption, egestion, respiration, excretion, and growth (production) processes. On a global scale, carbon fluxes are reasonably constrained by the grazing impact of microzooplankton and the respiratory requirements of mesozooplankton but are sensitive to uncertainties in trophic structure. The relative importance, combined magnitude, and efficiency of export mechanisms (mucous feeding webs, fecal pellets, molts, carcasses, and vertical migrations) likewise reflect regional variability in community structure. Climate change is expected to broadly alter carbon cycling by zooplankton and to have direct impacts on key species.

  5. Zooplankton trophic niches respond to different water types of the western Tasman Sea: A stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschke, Natasha; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.; Smith, James A.; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Doblin, Martina A.; Taylor, Matthew D.

    2015-10-01

    The trophic relationships of 21 species from an oceanic zooplankton community were studied using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Zooplankton and suspended particulate organic matter (POM) were sampled in three different water types in the western Tasman Sea: inner shelf (IS), a cold core eddy (CCE) and a warm core eddy (WCE). δ15N values ranged from 3.9‰ for the parasitic copepod Sapphirina augusta to 10.2‰ for the euphausiid, Euphausia spinifera. δ13C varied from -22.6 to -19.4‰ as a result of the copepod Euchirella curticauda and E. spinifera. The isotopic composition of POM varied significantly among water types; as did the trophic enrichment of zooplankton over POM, with the lowest enrichment in the recently upwelled IS water type (0.5‰) compared to the warm core eddy (1.6‰) and cold core eddy (2.7‰). The WCE was an oligotrophic environment and was associated with an increased trophic level for omnivorous zooplankton (copepods and euphausiids) to a similar level as carnivorous zooplankton (chaetognaths). Therefore carnivory in zooplankton can increase in response to lower abundance and reduced diversity in their phytoplankton and protozoan prey. Trophic niche width comparisons across three zooplankton species: the salp Thalia democratica, the copepod Eucalanus elongatus and the euphausiid Thysanoessa gregaria, indicated that both niche partitioning and competition can occur within the zooplankton community. We have shown that trophic relationships among the zooplankton are dynamic and respond to different water types. The changes to the zooplankton isotopic niche, however, were still highly variable as result of oceanographic variation within water types.

  6. Estimating Diversity of Florida Keys Zooplankton Using New Environmental DNA Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurhuus, A.; Goldsmith, D. B.; Sawaya, N. A.; Breitbart, M.

    2016-02-01

    Zooplankton are of great importance in marine food webs, where they serve to link the phytoplankton and bacteria with higher trophic levels. Zooplankton are a diverse group containing molluscs, crustaceans, fish larvae and many other taxa. The sheer number of species and often minor morphological distinctions between species makes it challenging and exceptionally time consuming to identify the species composition of marine zooplankton samples. As a part of the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) project, we have developed and groundtruthed an alternative, relatively time-efficient method for zooplankton identification using environmental DNA (eDNA). Samples were collected from Molasses reef, Looe Key, and Western Sambo along the Florida Keys from five bi-monthly cruises on board the RV Walton Smith. Samples were collected for environmental DNA (eDNA) by filtering 1 L of water on to a 0.22 µm filter and zooplankton samples were collected using nets with three mesh sizes (64μm, 200μm, and 500μm) to catch different size fractions. Half of zooplankton samples were fixed in 70% ethanol and half in 10% formalin, for DNA extraction and morphological identification, respectively. Individuals representing visually abundant taxa were picked into individual wells for PCR with universal 18S rRNA gene primers and subsequent sequencing to build a reference barcode database for zooplankton species commonly found in the study region. PCR and Illumina MiSeq next generation sequencing was applied to the eDNA extracted from the 0.22 μm filters and sequences were be compared to our local custom database as well as publicly available databases to determine zooplankton community composition. Finally, composition and diversity analyses were performed to compare results obtained with the new eDNA approach to standard morphological classification of zooplankton communities. Results show that the eDNA approach can enable the determination of zooplankton diversity through

  7. Shared responsibility for employers regarding health coverage. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-02-12

    This document contains final regulations providing guidance to employers that are subject to the shared responsibility provisions regarding employee health coverage under section 4980H of the Internal Revenue Code (Code), enacted by the Affordable Care Act. These regulations affect employers referred to as applicable large employers (generally meaning, for each year, employers that had 50 or more full-time employees, including full-time equivalent employees, during the prior year). Generally, under section 4980H an applicable large employer that, for a calendar month, fails to offer to its full-time employees health coverage that is affordable and provides minimum value may be subject to an assessable payment if a full-time employee enrolls for that month in a qualified health plan for which the employee receives a premium tax credit.

  8. Locomotor adaptations of some gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q

    1985-01-01

    Swimming behaviour and locomotor adaptations are described in chaetognaths, larvacean tunicates, some cnidaria, and thaliacean tunicates. The first two groups swim by oscillating a flattened tail, the others by jet propulsion. In chaetognaths, the locomotor muscle fibres are extensively coupled and relatively sparsely innervated, they exhibit compound spike-like potentials. The motoneurons controlling the rhythmic activity of the locomotor muscle lie in a ventral ganglion whose organization is briefly described. Rhythmic swimming bursts in larvaceans are similarly driven by a caudal ganglion near the base of the tail, but each caudal muscle cell is separately innervated by two sets of motor nerves, as well as being coupled to its neighbours. The external epithelium is excitable, and linked to the caudal ganglion by the axons of central cells. Mechanical stimulation of the epithelium evokes receptor potentials followed by action potentials and by bursts of rapid swimming. The trachyline medusa Aglantha and the small siphonophore Chelophyes also show rapid escape responses; in Aglantha these are driven by a specialized giant axon system lacking in other hydromedusae, and in Chelophyes. Slow swimming in Aglantha apparently involves a second nerve supply to the same muscle sheets used in rapid swimming, whereas in Chelophyes slow swimming results from the activity of the smaller posterior nectophore. Slow swimming in siphonophores is more economical than the rapid responses. In the hydrozoan medusa Polyorchis (as in Chelophyes) action potentials in the locomotor muscle sheet change in shape during swimming bursts, and their duration is related to the size of the medusa; they are not simply triggers of muscular contraction. The two groups of thaliacean tunicates are specialized differently. Doliolum is adapted for single rapid jet pulses (during which it achieves instantaneous velocities of 50 body lengths s-l), whilst salps are adapted for slow continuous swimming. The

  9. A new modelling approach for zooplankton behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiyu, A. Y.; Yamazaki, H.; Strickler, J. R.

    We have developed a new simulation technique to model zooplankton behaviour. The approach utilizes neither the conventional artificial intelligence nor neural network methods. We have designed an adaptive behaviour network, which is similar to BEER [(1990) Intelligence as an adaptive behaviour: an experiment in computational neuroethology, Academic Press], based on observational studies of zooplankton behaviour. The proposed method is compared with non- "intelligent" models—random walk and correlated walk models—as well as observed behaviour in a laboratory tank. Although the network is simple, the model exhibits rich behavioural patterns similar to live copepods.

  10. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Zwart, Jacob A.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L−1 in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning).

  11. Abundance, composition, and distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to hypolimnetic oxygen depletion in west-central Lake Erie

    Heberger, Roy F.; Reynolds, James B.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of crustacean zooplankton were collected monthly in west-central Lake Erie in April and June to October 1968, and in July and August 1970, before and during periods of hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion. The water column at offshore stations was thermally stratified from June through September 1968, and the hypolimnion contained no DO in mid-August of 1968 or 1970. Composition, abundance, and vertical distribution of crustacean zooplankton changed coincidentally with oxygen depletion. From July to early August, zooplankton abundance dropped 79% in 1968 and 50% in 1970. The declines were attributed largely to a sharp decrease in abundance of planktonic Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi. Zooplankton composition shifted from mainly cyclopoid copepods in July to mainly cladocerans and copepod nauplii in middle to late August. We believe that mortality of adults and dormancy of copepodites in response to anoxia was the probable reason for the late summer decline in planktonic C. b. thomasi.

  12. Interactive effects of temperature, ultraviolet radiation and food quality on zooplankton alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Wolinski, Laura; Modenutti, Beatriz; Souza, Maria Sol; Balseiro, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) is a stressor for aquatic organisms affecting enzyme activities in planktonic populations because of the increase in reactive oxygen species. In addition, UVR exposure combined with other environmental factors (i.e. temperature and food quality) could have even higher detrimental effects. In this work, we aimed to determine the effect of UVR on somatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (APA) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity on the cladoceran Daphnia commutata under two different temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C) and under three food qualities (carbon:phosphorus ratios: 1150, 850 and 550). APA is a biomarker that is considered as a P deficiency indicator in zooplankton. Since recovery from UVR damage under dark conditions is an ATP depending reaction we also measured APA during recovery phases. We carried out a laboratory experiment combining different temperatures and food qualities with exposition to UVR followed by luminic and dark phases for recovery. In addition, we exposed organisms to H2O2, to establish if the response on APA to UVR was a consequence of the reactive oxygen species produced these short wavelengths. Our results showed that somatic APA was negatively affected by UVR exposure and this effect was enhanced under high temperature and low food quality. Consistently, GST activity was higher when exposed to UVR under both temperatures. The H2O2 experiments showed the same trend as UVR exposure, indicating that APA is affected mainly by oxidative stress than by direct effect of UVR on the enzyme. Finally, APA was affected in the dark phase of recovery confirming the P demands. These results enlighten the importance of food quality in the interacting effect of UVR and temperature, showing that C:P food ratio could determine the success or failure of zooplanktonic populations in a context of global change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acoustic Scattering Classification of Zooplankton and Microstructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    As part of this investigation, we have been observing concentrations of siphonulae, a larval form of the gas-bearing zooplankton siphonophore . The...situ measurements of acoustic target strengths of siphonophores , a gas-bearing zooplankter,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 58: 740-749. Warren, J.D., T.K

  14. Nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and macrobenthos

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Watkins, James M.; Hotaling, Christopher; Lantry, Jana R.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Munawar, Mohi; Weidel, Brian C.; Barbiero, Richard; Luckey, Frederick J.; Dove, Alice; Johnson, Timothy B.; Biesinger, Zy

    2017-01-01

    Lower trophic levels support the prey fish on which most sport fish depend. Therefore, understanding the production potential of lower trophic levels is integral to the management of Lake Ontario’s fishery resources. Lower trophic-level productivity differs among offshore and nearshore waters. In the offshore, there is concern about the ability of the lake to support Alewife (Table 1) production due to a perceived decline in productivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton whereas, in the nearshore, there is a concern about excessive attached algal production (e.g., Cladophora) associated with higher nutrient concentrations—the oligotrophication of the offshore and the eutrophication of the nearshore (Mills et al. 2003; Holeck et al. 2008; Dove 2009; Koops et al. 2015; Stewart et al. 2016). Even though the collapse of the Alewife population in Lake Huron in 2003 (and the associated decline in the Chinook Salmon fishery) may have been precipitated by a cold winter (Dunlop and Riley 2013), Alewife had not returned to high abundances in Lake Huron as of 2014 (Roseman et al. 2015). Failure of the Alewife population to recover from collapse has been attributed to declines in lower trophic-level production (Barbiero et al. 2011; Bunnell et al. 2014; but see He et al. 2015). In Lake Michigan, concerns of a similar Alewife collapse led to a decrease in the number of Chinook Salmon stocked. If lower trophic-level production declines in Lake Ontario, a similar management action could be considered. On the other hand, in Lake Erie, which supplies most of the water in Lake Ontario, eutrophication is increasing and so are harmful algal blooms. Thus, there is also a concern that nutrient levels and algal blooms could increase in Lake Ontario, especially in the nearshore. Solutions to the two processes of concern—eutrophication in the nearshore and oligotrophication in the offshore—may be mutually exclusive. In either circumstance, fisheries management needs information on

  15. Seasonal variation in the biochemical compositions of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in the southwestern East/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Naeun; Kang, Jae Joong; Park, Won Gyu; Lee, Bo Ram; Yun, Mi Sun; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Su Min; Lee, Dasom; Joo, HuiTae; Lee, Jae Hyung; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The macromolecular composition of phytoplankton communities and the proximate composition of zooplankton communities were measured monthly in the southwestern East/Japan Sea from April to November 2014 in order to identify seasonal changes in, and relationships among, the biochemical compositions in both phytoplankton and zooplankton. The carbohydrate content of phytoplankton was highest in June, whereas the protein content was highest in August and lipids were highest in April. Overall, carbohydrates were dominant (53.2 ± 12.5%) in the macromolecular composition of phytoplankton during the study period. This composition is believed to result from the dominance of diatoms and/or nutrient-depleted conditions. In comparison, the protein level of zooplankton was highest in November, whereas lipids were slightly higher in May than other months. Overall, proteins were the dominant organic compounds (47.9±8.6% DW) in zooplankton communities, whereas lipids were minor components (5.5±0.6% DW). The high protein content of zooplankton might be related to the abundance of copepods, whereas the low lipid content might be due to a relatively high primary production that could provide a sufficient food supply for zooplankton so that they do not require high lipid storage. A significant positive correlation (r=0.971, n=7, p<0.01) was found between the lipid compositions of phytoplankton and zooplankton during our study period with a time lag, which is consistent with the findings from previous studies. More detailed studies on the biochemical composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton are needed to better understand the East/Japan Sea ecosystem's response to the many environmental changes associated with global warming.

  16. River flow, zooplankton and dominant zooplanktivorous fish dynamics in a warm-temperate South African estuary.

    PubMed

    Mbandzi, N; Wasserman, R J; Deyzel, S H P; Vine, N G; Whitfield, A K

    2018-06-01

    The possible links between river flow, zooplankton abundance and the responses of zooplanktivorous fishes to physico-chemical and food resource changes are assessed. To this end, the seasonal abundance, distribution and diet of the estuarine round-herring Gilchristella aestuaria and Cape silverside Atherina breviceps were studied in the Kariega Estuary. Spatio-temporal differences were determined for selected physico-chemical variables, zooplankton abundance and zooplanktivorous fish abundance and distribution. Results indicated that, following a river flood event in winter (>30 m 3  s -1 ), altered physico-chemical conditions occurred throughout the estuary and depressed zooplankton stocks. Abundance of G. aestuaria was highest in spring, with this species dominant in the upper and middle zones of the estuary, while A. breviceps was dominant in summer and preferred the middle and lower zones. The catch per unit of effort of both zooplanktivores also declined significantly following the flooding, thus suggesting that these fishes are reliant on zooplankton as a primary food source for healthy populations. Copepods dominated the stomach contents of both fish species, indicating a potential for strong interspecific competition for food, particularly in the middle reaches. Temporal differences were evident in dietary overlap between the two zooplanktivorous fish species and were correlated with river flow, zooplankton availability and fish distribution. The findings of this study emphasize the close trophic linkages between zooplankton and zooplanktivorous fishes under changing estuarine environmental conditions, particularly river flow and provide important baseline information for similar studies elsewhere in South Africa and the rest of the world. © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.

    2015-01-01

    The 'biological pump' is the process by which photosynthetically-produced organic matter in the ocean descends from the surface layer to depth by a combination of sinking particles, advection or vertical mixing of dissolved organic matter, and transport by animals. Particulate organic matter that is exported downward from the euphotic zone is composed of combinations of fecal pellets from zooplankton and fish, organic aggregates known as 'marine snow' and phytodetritus from sinking phytoplankton. Previous reviews by Turner and Ferrante (1979) and Turner (2002) focused on publications that appeared through late 2001. Since that time, studies of the biological pump have continued, and there have been >300 papers on vertical export flux using sediment traps, large-volume filtration systems and other techniques from throughout the global ocean. This review will focus primarily on recent studies that have appeared since 2001. Major topics covered in this review are (1) an overview of the biological pump, and its efficiency and variability, and the role of dissolved organic carbon in the biological pump; (2) zooplankton fecal pellets, including the contribution of zooplankton fecal pellets to export flux, epipelagic retention of zooplankton fecal pellets due to zooplankton activities, zooplankton vertical migration and fecal pellet repackaging, microbial ecology of fecal pellets, sinking velocities of fecal pellets and aggregates, ballasting of sinking particles by mineral contents, phytoplankton cysts, intact cells and harmful algae toxins in fecal pellets, importance of fecal pellets from various types of zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton fecal pellets in picoplankton export; (3) marine snow, including the origins, abundance, and distributions of marine snow, particles and organisms associated with marine snow, consumption and fragmentation of marine snow by animals, pathogens associated with marine snow; (4) phytodetritus, including pulsed export of

  18. Acoustic Scattering Models of Zooplankton and Microstructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    1998, a remotely operated vehicle was used to deploy acoustic transducers so that the acoustic scattering by siphonophores , a gas-bearing animal, could...their high frequency acoustics systems. 4) In addition, we have identified two types of zooplankton ( siphonophores and pteropods) that have high...Benfield, P.H. Wiebe, and D. Chu, 1999. “In situ measurements of acoustic target strengths of siphonophores ,” Proceedings of the 2nd EAA

  19. Variations in the structural and functional diversity of zooplankton over vertical and horizontal environmental gradients en route to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait.

    PubMed

    Gluchowska, Marta; Trudnowska, Emilia; Goszczko, Ilona; Kubiszyn, Anna Maria; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Walczowski, Waldemar; Kwasniewski, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    A multi-scale approach was used to evaluate which spatial gradient of environmental variability is the most important in structuring zooplankton diversity in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). The WSC is the main conveyor of warm and biologically rich Atlantic water to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. The data set included 85 stratified vertical zooplankton samples (obtained from depths up to 1000 metres) covering two latitudinal sections (76°30'N and 79°N) located across the multi-path WSC system. The results indicate that the most important environmental variables shaping the zooplankton structural and functional diversity and standing stock variability are those associated with depth, whereas variables acting in the horizontal dimension are of lesser importance. Multivariate analysis of the zooplankton assemblages, together with different univariate descriptors of zooplankton diversity, clearly illustrated the segregation of zooplankton taxa in the vertical plane. The epipelagic zone (upper 200 m) hosted plentiful, Oithona similis-dominated assemblages with a high proportion of filter-feeding zooplankton. Although total zooplankton abundance declined in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m), zooplankton assemblages in that zone were more diverse and more evenly distributed, with high contributions from both herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. The vertical distribution of integrated biomass (mg DW m-2) indicated that the total zooplankton biomass in the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones was comparable. Environmental gradients acting in the horizontal plane, such as the ones associated with different ice cover and timing of the spring bloom, were reflected in the latitudinal variability in protist community structure and probably caused differences in succession in the zooplankton community. High abundances of Calanus finmarchicus in the WSC core branch suggest the existence of mechanisms advantageous for higher productivity or/and responsible for physical

  20. Community Structure and Standing Stock of Epibenthic Zooplankton at Five Sites in Grays Harbor, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    4 GRAYS HARBOR AND CHEHALIS RIVER IMPROVEMENTS TO NAVIGATION ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND STANDING © STOCK OF EPIBENTHIC... FISHERIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE %r UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON B of Engineers SEPTEMBER 1981 Seattle District(DISTRIBUTION STATEM EN T. -A-8-1 2 7 Approved...PERIOD COVERED Community Structure and Standing Stock of Final May 7. 1981 Epibenthic Zooplankton at Five Sites in 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER

  1. Covert Response Patterns in Processing Language Stimuli. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, F. Joseph

    The purpose of this research project is to specify critical events within a person during linguistic processing. The experiments reported here cover such topics as the effects of increased reading rate on covert processes, covert behavior as a direct electro-myographic measure of mediating responses, enhancement of speech perception by…

  2. 77 FR 15608 - Revisions to Final Response to Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO2 Emissions From the Portland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Revisions to Final Response to Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO[bdi2] Emissions From the Portland... final rule. SUMMARY: The EPA issued ``Revisions to Final Response to Petition From New Jersey Regarding... December 22, 2011, we are withdrawing the direct final rule amendments to ``Revisions to Final Response to...

  3. 76 FR 79541 - Revisions to Final Response to Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Revisions to Final Response to Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO2 Emissions From the Portland Generating... Jersey Regarding SO2 Emissions From the Portland Generating Station (Portland) published November 7, 2011... Final Response to Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO2 Emissions From the Portland Generating Station...

  4. Analysis of southeast Australian zooplankton observations of 1938-42 using synoptic oceanographic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Mark E.; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.

    2011-03-01

    The research vessel Warreen obtained 1742 planktonic samples along the continental shelf and slope of southeast Australia from 1938-42, representing the earliest spatially and temporally resolved zooplankton data from Australian marine waters. In this paper, Warreen observations along the southeast Australian seaboard from 28°S to 38°S are interpreted based on synoptic meteorological and oceanographic conditions and ocean climatologies. Meteorological conditions are based on the NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis Project; oceanographic conditions use Warreen hydrological observations, and the ocean climatology is the CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas. The Warreen observations were undertaken in waters on average 0.45 °C cooler than the climatological average, and included the longest duration El Niño of the 20th century. In northern New South Wales (NSW), week time-scale events dominate zooplankton response. In August 1940 an unusual winter upwelling event occurred in northern NSW driven by a stronger than average East Australian Current (EAC) and anomalous northerly winds that resulted in high salp and larvacean abundance. In January 1941 a strong upwelling event between 28° and 33°S resulted in a filament of upwelled water being advected south and alongshore, which was low in zooplankton biovolume. In southern NSW a seasonal cycle in physical and planktonic characteristics is observed. In January 1941 the poleward extension of the EAC was strong, advecting more tropical tunicate species southward. Zooplankton abundance and distribution on the continental shelf and slope are more dependent on weekly to monthly timescales on local oceanographic and meteorological conditions than continental-scale interannual trends. The interpretation of historical zooplankton observations of the waters off southeast Australia for the purpose of quantifying anthropogenic impacts will be improved with the use of regional hindcasts of synoptic ocean and atmospheric weather that can

  5. Metabarcoding Baseline for the Sargasso Sea Zooplankton Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Bercial, L.; Alam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the responses and evolution of any community over space and time requires a deep knowledge of the species present at each location and their interactions. Where taxonomy turns out to be challenging, as it is in the case of zooplankton, supra-species grouping is a common resort in community characterization. Although this makes morphological identification manageable, there is the associated price of a limited depth of study and the risk of mixing different species' organismal responses. As global change begins to influence species distributions and physiologies, it becomes ever more important to discriminate at a species specific level. The development of DNA-based identification protocols during the last decades are rapidly driving these limitations away, increasing our understanding of the existing complexity of even very close taxa to different stressors or environmental conditions. Beyond the mere taxonomic discrimination of the analyzed community, the use of DNA sequences allows for the rapid integration of phylogenetic measurements and related indexes. In this presentation, we show our first results tackling one of the regions with the highest zooplankton diversity, the Subtropical North Atlantic at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) site. The chosen metabarcoding region was the hypervariable V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene. In this first investigation, we establish the baseline information needed for further and more comprehensive analyses on the time series: minimum coverage depth per sample, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of the community and effect of the Diel Vertical Migration in the epipelagic community. We also analyze the limitations of the species identification in relation to the variability of the V9 region within and between species.

  6. Upslope transport of near-bed zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Cheryl Ann

    2009-09-01

    Zooplankton residing just above the deep-sea floor is an important component of the benthic/benthopelagic food chain. Consuming planktonic particulates and organisms, holoplankton and meroplankton are prey for fish and large invertebrates. Mechanisms controlling their abundances have been explored over relatively long time scales (months to years). Here, zooplankton were sampled every 2 h for 2.2 d using a moored, automated, serial zooplankton pump. The physical regime (currents and temperature) 1-100 m above bottom was measured during an inclusive 24-d period. The study site was located on the upper continental slope (750 m) of the Mid-Atlantic Bight, between the productive shelf and more impoverished rise and abyss. The coupled biological and physical records indicated tidally driven, net upslope transport of the holoplankton. The copepod (74.5% of collections) time series showed marked periodicity with a peak frequency of ˜13 h, approximately the diurnal tide (Fourier analysis). Local maxima corresponded with minimal water temperatures. Moreover, tidal cross-slope flow was highly coherent and 90° out of phase with temperature. Thus, maximal copepod concentrations, originating in colder deeper water, would be transported up the slope by the tide. Estimated net displacement of ˜1 km/d would deliver the animals to continental-shelf depths within a couple weeks. Time series of the much less abundant larvaceans (urochordates) (15.3%) and polychaete larvae (8.9%) showed periodicities with peak frequencies of 8-9 h. Statistical significance of the periodic signals could not be determined due to low numbers. Revealing holoplankton dynamics on scales of hours, this study may contribute to understanding of, for example, copepod feeding and aggregation near the deep-sea floor.

  7. Acoustic discrimination of Southern Ocean zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, Andrew S.; Ward, Peter; Watkins, Jonathan L.; Goss, Catherine

    Acoustic surveys in the vicinity of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia during a period of exceptionally calm weather revealed the existence of a number of horizontally extensive yet vertically discrete scattering layers in the upper 250 m of the water column. These layers were fished with a Longhurst-Hardy plankton recorder (LHPR) and a multiple-opening 8 m 2 rectangular mid-water trawl (RMT8). Analysis of catches suggested that each scattering layer was composed predominantly of a single species (biovolume>95%) of either the euphausiids Euphausia frigida or Thysanöessa macrura, the hyperiid amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii, or the eucalaniid copepod Rhincalanus gigas. Instrumentation on the nets allowed their trajectories to be reconstructed precisely, and thus catch data to be related directly to the corresponding acoustic signals. Discriminant function analysis of differences between mean volume backscattering strength at 38, 120 and 200 kHz separated echoes originating from each of the dominant scattering layers, and other signals identified as originating from Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba), with an overall correct classification rate of 77%. Using echo intensity data alone, gathered using hardware commonly employed for fishery acoustics, it is therefore possible to discriminate in situ between several zooplanktonic taxa, taxa which in some instances exhibit similar gross morphological characteristics and have overlapping length- frequency distributions. Acoustic signals from the mysid Antarctomysis maxima could also be discriminated once information on target distribution was considered, highlighting the value of incorporating multiple descriptors of echo characteristics into signal identification procedures. The ability to discriminate acoustically between zooplankton taxa could be applied to provide improved acoustic estimates of species abundance, and to enhance field studies of zooplankton ecology, distribution and species interactions.

  8. ZOOPLANKTON SIZE-SPECTRA IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zooplankton mean size and size-distribution are affected by planktivore pressure and potentially reflect the condition of trophic interactions and ecosystem health. We used an optical plankton counter (OPC) to survey and assess zooplankton size-spectra for twenty locations in Lak...

  9. COMPARISONS OF ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY SIZE STRUCTURE IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zooplankton mean-size and size-spectra distribution potentially reflect the condition of trophic interactions and ecosystem health because they are affected by both resource availability and planktivore pressure. We assessed zooplankton mean-size and size-spectra using an optical...

  10. Indigenous species barcode database improves the identification of zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianghua; Zhang, Wanwan; Sun, Jingying; Xie, Yuwei; Zhang, Yimin; Burton, G. Allen; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Incompleteness and inaccuracy of DNA barcode databases is considered an important hindrance to the use of metabarcoding in biodiversity analysis of zooplankton at the species-level. Species barcoding by Sanger sequencing is inefficient for organisms with small body sizes, such as zooplankton. Here mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) fragment barcodes from 910 freshwater zooplankton specimens (87 morphospecies) were recovered by a high-throughput sequencing platform, Ion Torrent PGM. Intraspecific divergence of most zooplanktons was < 5%, except Branchionus leydign (Rotifer, 14.3%), Trichocerca elongate (Rotifer, 11.5%), Lecane bulla (Rotifer, 15.9%), Synchaeta oblonga (Rotifer, 5.95%) and Schmackeria forbesi (Copepod, 6.5%). Metabarcoding data of 28 environmental samples from Lake Tai were annotated by both an indigenous database and NCBI Genbank database. The indigenous database improved the taxonomic assignment of metabarcoding of zooplankton. Most zooplankton (81%) with barcode sequences in the indigenous database were identified by metabarcoding monitoring. Furthermore, the frequency and distribution of zooplankton were also consistent between metabarcoding and morphology identification. Overall, the indigenous database improved the taxonomic assignment of zooplankton. PMID:28977035

  11. Final Report: Proteomic study of brassinosteroid responses in Arabidopsis

    SciT

    Wang, Zhiyong; Burlingame, Alma

    2017-11-29

    The steroid hormone brassinosteroid (BR) is a major growth-promoting phytohormone. The specific aim of the current project is to identify BR-regulated proteins and characterize their functions in various aspects of plant growth, development, and adaptation. Our research has significantly advanced our understanding of how BR signal is transduced from the receptor at the cell surface to changes of nuclear gene expression and other cellular responses such as vesicle trafficking, as well as developmental transitions such as seed germination and flowering. We have also developed effective proteomic methods for quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation and for identification of glycosylated proteins. Throughmore » this DOE funding, we have performed several proteomic experiments and made major discoveries.« less

  12. Zooplankton Distribution in Four Western Norwegian Fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, G.; Flood, P. R.; Youngbluth, M.; Picheral, M.; Grisoni, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP), was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer 1996. Six distinct zoological groups were monitored. The fauna included: (a) small crustaceans (mainly copepods), (b) ctenophores (mainly lobates), (c) siphonophores (mainly physonects), (d) a scyphomedusa Periphylla periphylla, (e) chaetognaths and (f) appendicularians. The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food (living and non-living particulate organic matter) to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords. Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes.

  13. The Interactive Effect of Multiple Stressors on Crustacean Zooplankton Communities in Montane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Jeffrey T.; Strecker, Angela L.

    2018-02-01

    Nonnative fish introductions have altered thousands of naturally fishless montane lakes, resulting in cascading food web repercussions. Nitrogen deposition has been recognized as an anthropogenic contributor to acidification and eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, which may affect the abundance and composition of planktonic communities. This study identified responses of zooplankton communities from two lakes (fish present versus absent) in Mount Rainier National Park to manipulations simulating an episodic disturbance of acidification and eutrophication via nitrogen addition in mesocosms. Zooplankton communities from lakes with different food web structure (i.e., fish present or absent) responded differently to the singular effects of acid and nitrogen addition. For instance, zooplankton biomass decreased in the acid treatment of the fishless lake experiment, but increased in response to acid in the fish-present experiment. In contrast, the combination of acid and nitrogen often resulted in weak responses for both lake types, resulting in nonadditive effects, i.e., the net effect of the stressors was in the opposite direction than predicted, which is known as a reversal or "ecological surprise." This experiment demonstrates the difficulty in predicting the interactive effects of multiple stressors on aquatic communities, which may pose significant challenges for habitat restoration through fish removal.

  14. Summary of Public Comments and Responses for Final NESHAP for Pharmaceuticals Production

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides summaries of public comments and EPA responses related to the final standards for the reduction of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) emitted through the manufacture of pharmaceutical products

  15. Characterization of Lake Michigan coastal lakes using zooplankton assemblages

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Goodrich, Maria L.; Murphy, Paul C.; Davis, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Zooplankton assemblages and water quality were examined bi-weekly from 17 April to 19 October 1998 in 11 northeastern Lake Michigan coastal lakes of similar origin but varied in trophic status and limnological condition. All lakes were within or adjacent to Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan. Zooplankton (principally microcrustaceans and rotifers) from triplicate Wisconsin net (80 I?m) vertical tows taken at each lake's deepest location were analyzed. Oxygen-temperature-pH-specific conductivity profiles and surface water quality were concurrently measured. Bray-Curtis similarity analysis showed small variations among sample replicates but large temporal differences. The potential use of zooplankton communities for environmental lake comparisons was evaluated by means of BIOENV (Primer 5.1) and principal component analyses. Zooplankton analyzed at the lowest identified taxonomic level yielded greatest sensitivity to limnological variation. Taxonomic and ecological aggregations of zooplankton data performed comparably, but less well than the finest taxonomic analysis. Secchi depth, chlorophyll a, and sulfate concentrations combined to give the best correlation with patterns of variation in the zooplankton data set. Principal component analysis of these variables revealed trophic status as the most influential major limnological gradient among the study lakes. Overall, zooplankton abundance was an excellent indicator of variation in trophic status.

  16. Modeling species richness and abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton in radioactively contaminated water bodies.

    PubMed

    Shuryak, Igor

    2018-06-05

    Water bodies polluted by the Mayak nuclear plant in Russia provide valuable information on multi-generation effects of radioactive contamination on freshwater organisms. For example, lake Karachay was probably the most radioactive lake in the world: its water contained ∼2 × 10 7 Bq/L of radionuclides and estimated dose rates to plankton exceeded 5 Gy/h. We performed quantitative modeling of radiation effects on phytoplankton and zooplankton species richness and abundance in Mayak-contaminated water bodies. Due to collinearity between radioactive contamination, water body size and salinity, we combined these variables into one (called HabitatFactors). We employed a customized machine learning approach, where synthetic noise variables acted as benchmarks of predictor performance. HabitatFactors was the only predictor that outperformed noise variables and, therefore, we used it for parametric modeling of plankton responses. Best-fit model predictions suggested 50% species richness reduction at HabitatFactors values corresponding to dose rates of 10 4 -10 5  μGy/h for phytoplankton, and 10 3 -10 4  μGy/h for zooplankton. Under conditions similar to those in lake Karachay, best-fit models predicted 81-98% species richness reductions for various taxa (Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda), ∼20-300-fold abundance reduction for total zooplankton, but no abundance reduction for phytoplankton. Rotifera was the only taxon whose fractional abundance increased with contamination level, reaching 100% in lake Karachay, but Rotifera species richness declined with contamination level, as in other taxa. Under severe radioactive and chemical contamination, one species of Cyanobacteria (Geitlerinema amphibium) dominated phytoplankton, and rotifers from the genus Brachionus dominated zooplankton. The modeling approaches proposed here are applicable to other radioecological data sets. The results provide quantitative information

  17. Use of zooplankton to assess the movement and distribution of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in south-central Lake Ontario in spring

    O'Gorman, Robert; Mills, Edward L.; DeGisi, Joe

    1991-01-01

    Data from assessments of fish and zooplankton conducted during April and May-June 1986-88 in south-central Lake Ontario were examined for evidence that zooplankton size structure can be used to follow the movement of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). The spring influx of alewife into nearshore waters was linked with water temperature and coincided with a decline in the mean length of crustacean zooplankton and the virtual disappearance of zooplankters a?Y 0.9 mm. Alewife moving inshore to spawn fed heavily on the largest zooplankters, negating the possibility that changes in zooplankton size were wholly a response to seasonal recruitment as waters warm and the competition shifts to Bosmina. Offshore, there was usually no significant (P < 0.05) change in mean lengths of zooplankton in the upper water column between April and May-June, and zooplankters a?Y 0.9 mm always remained abundant, suggesting that few alewife were there from April through mid-June. We conclude that in large freshwater lakes where a planktivore is abundant, yet spatially concentrated, changes in size of crustacean zooplankton can facilitate understanding of the fish's movement and distribution.

  18. Global dynamics of zooplankton and harmful algae in flowing habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Sze-Bi; Wang, Feng-Bin; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    This paper is devoted to the study of two advection-dispersion-reaction models arising from the dynamics of harmful algae and zooplankton in flowing-water habitats where a main channel is coupled to a hydraulic storage zone, representing an ensemble of fringing coves on the shoreline. For the system modeling the dynamics of algae and their toxin that contains little limiting nutrient, we establish a threshold type result on the global attractivity in terms of the basic reproduction ratio for algae. For the model with zooplankton that eat the algae and are inhibited by the toxin produced by algae, we show that there exists a coexistence steady state and the zooplankton is uniformly persistent provided that two basic reproduction ratios for algae and zooplankton are greater than unity.

  19. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    Ambler, Julie W.; Cloern, James E.; Hutchinson, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal cycles of zooplankton abundance appear to be constant among years (1978–1981) and are similar in the deep (>10 m) channels and lateral shoals (<3 m). The seasonal zooplankton community dynamics are discussed in relation to: (1) river discharge which alters salinity distribution and residence time of plankton; (2) temperature which induces production and hatching of dormant copepod eggs; (3) coastal hydrography which brings neritic copepods of different zoogeographic affinities into the bay; and (4) seasonal cycles of phytoplankton.

  20. Estimates of Gelatinous Zooplankton Carbon Flux in the Global Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J. Y.; Condon, R.; Cowen, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton (GZ), which include the cnidarians, ctenophores, and pelagic tunicates, are a common feature of marine ecosystems worldwide, but their contribution to global biogeochemical fluxes has never been assessed. We constructed a carbon-cycle model with a single, annual time-step and resolved to a 5° spatial grid for the three major GZ groups in order to evaluate the GZ-mediated carbon fluxes and export to depth. Biomass inputs (totaling 0.149 Pg C) were based off of Lucas et al. (2014) and updated using the JeDI database (Condon et al. 2015). From the upper ocean, biomass export flux from cnidarians, ctenophores, and tunicates totaled 2.96 ± 2.82 Pg C y-1, though only 0.199 ± 0.023 Pg C y-1 of GZ carbon were transferred to upper trophic levels, roughly amounting to one-quarter of all mesozooplankton production flux. In contrast, GZ fluxes to DOC only comprised ca. 2% of labile DOC flux. Egestion flux from the upper ocean totaled 2.56 ± 3.35 Pg C y-1, with over 80% being fast-sinking tunicate fecal pellets. Due to fast sinking rates of carcasses and fecal pellets, 26% of all C export from the upper ocean reached the seafloor, such that GZ fecal matter is estimated to comprise between 20-30% of global POC surface export and 11-30% of POC seafloor deposition. Finally, results from sensitivity analyses showed no increase in cnidarian and ctenophore export fluxes with increased temperature and jelly biomass, though tunicate export fluxes showed some increase with both temperature and biomass. These results suggest that current estimates of global POC flux from the surface oceans, which range between 8.6 - 12.9 Pg C y-1, may be underestimated by as much as 20 - 25%, implying a definite need to incorporate GZ mediated flux in estimating the biological pump transfer efficiency. Our study represents the first effort to quantify the role of gelatinous zooplankton in the global marine carbon cycle.

  1. Determinants of community structure of zooplankton in heavily polluted river ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yiyong; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Weimin; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-02-01

    River ecosystems are among the most affected habitats globally by human activities, such as the release of chemical pollutants. However, it remains largely unknown how and to what extent many communities such as zooplankton are affected by these environmental stressors in river ecosystems. Here, we aim to determine major factors responsible for shaping community structure of zooplankton in heavily polluted river ecosystems. Specially, we use rotifers in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) in North China as a case study to test the hypothesis that species sorting (i.e. species are “filtered” by environmental factors and occur at environmental suitable sites) plays a key role in determining community structure at the basin level. Based on an analysis of 94 sites across the plain region of HRB, we found evidence that both local and regional factors could affect rotifer community structure. Interestingly, further analyses indicated that local factors played a more important role in determining community structure. Thus, our results support the species sorting hypothesis in highly polluted rivers, suggesting that local environmental constraints, such as environmental pollution caused by human activities, can be stronger than dispersal limitation caused by regional factors to shape local community structure of zooplankton at the basin level.

  2. The zooplankton food web under East Antarctic pack ice - A stable isotope study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhongnan; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Meiners, Klaus M.; Kawaguchi, So; Virtue, Patti

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how sea ice serves zooplankton species during the food-limited season is crucial information to evaluate the potential responses of pelagic food webs to changes in sea-ice conditions in the Southern Ocean. Stable isotope analyses (13C/12C and 15N/14N) were used to compare the dietary preferences and trophic relationships of major zooplankton species under pack ice during two winter-spring transitions (2007 and 2012). During sampling, furcilia of Euphausia superba demonstrated dietary plasticity between years, herbivory when feeding on sea-ice biota, and with a more heterotrophic diet when feeding from both the sea ice and the water column. Carbon isotope signatures suggested that the pteropod Limacina helicina, small copepods Oithona spp., ostracods and amphipods relied heavily on sea-ice biota. Post larval E. superba and omnivorous krill Thysanoessa macrura consumed both water column and ice biota, but further investigations are needed to estimate the contribution from each source. Large copepods and chaetognaths overwintered on a water column-based diet. Our study suggests that warm and permeable sea ice is more likely to provide food for zooplankton species under the ice than the colder ice.

  3. Zooplankton community resilience and aquatic environmental stability on aquaculture practices: a study using net cages.

    PubMed

    Dias, J D; Simões, N R; Bonecker, C C

    2012-02-01

    Fish farming in net cages causes changes in environmental conditions. We evaluated the resilience of zooplankton concerning this activity in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples were taken near the net cages installed at distances upstream and downstream, before and after net cage installation. The resilience was estimated by the decrease in the groups' abundance after installing the net cages. The zooplankton community was represented by 106 species. The most abundant species were Synchaeta pectinata, S. oblonga, Conochilus coenobasis, Polyarthra dolichoptera and C. unicornis (Rotifera), Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Moina minuta, Bosmina hagmanni and C. silvestrii (Cladocera) and Notodiaptomus amazonicus (Copepoda). The resilience of microcrustaceans was affected in the growing points as this activity left the production environment for longer, delaying the natural ability of community responses. Microcrustaceans groups, mainly calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, had a different return rate. The net cage installation acted as a stress factor on the zooplankton community. Management strategies that cause fewer risks to the organisms and maximize energy flow may help in maintaining system stability.

  4. Zooplankton Distribution and Species Composition Along an Oxygen Gradient in Puget Sound, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keister, J. E.; Essington, T.; Li, L.; Horne, J. K.; Sato, M.; Parker-Stetter, S. L.; Moriarty, P.

    2016-02-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) is one of the most pronounced, pervasive, and significant disturbances in marine ecosystems, yet our understanding of its effects is incomplete, particularly with respect to impacts on lower trophic levels. As part of a study of how hypoxia affects predator-prey relationships and energy flow through marine food webs, we are studying relationships between ocean chemistry and zooplankton in Puget Sound, Washington—a deep, seasonally hypoxic fjord in the Pacific Northwest that supports a productive and diverse pelagic community. From summer through fall in two years that differed in the timing and intensity of hypoxia, we conducted multi-frequency bioacoustic surveys, CTD casts, and depth-stratified zooplankton sampling to examine changes in distribution and species composition of animals in relation to oxygen concentrations. We exploited a natural gradient in oxygen along the axis of the fjord by sampling at moderately hypoxic and normoxic sites with otherwise similar hydrography and species composition to disentangle the effects of oxygen from changes in other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that zooplankton species composition and vertical distributions are altered by hypoxia, but only when examined at the species and life-stage level. Relatively few taxa showed clear responses to hypoxia, and bioacoustic backscatter data (which was dominated by adult euphausiids and amphipods) indicated that those taxa were not affected by the levels of hypoxia we observed. Examination of net tow data revealed more subtle changes, including behavioral avoidance of low oxygen by some copepods and young euphausiid life stages. Overall, the high species diversity and relatively low susceptibility of many zooplankton to hypoxia in Puget Sound may confer ecosystem resilience to near-future projected changes in this region.

  5. Shared responsibility payment for not maintaining minimum essential coverage. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    This document contains final regulations on the requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the TRICARE Affirmation Act and Public Law 111-173. These final regulations provide guidance to individual taxpayers on the liability under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code for the shared responsibility payment for not maintaining minimum essential coverage and largely finalize the rules in the notice of proposed rulemaking published in the Federal Register on February 1, 2013.

  6. Seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal zone of the North-Eastern Black Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishina, A. B.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Louppova, N. E.; Soloviev, K. A.

    2009-04-01

    The phenological response of zooplankton community is a result of simultaneous effect of several factors: feeding conditions, predation abundance, periods of reproduction of common species and hydrodynamic regime. The Black sea ecosystem is one of the best studied in the world, otherwise there is still some illegibility about ecosystem functioning and especially about environmental factors influence on zooplankton dynamics. For the last twenty years pelagic system of the Black Sea has changed dramatically. The invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the middle of eighties caused significant decrease in zooplankton biomass. It also altered plankton structure and shifted periods of mass reproduction of the abundant species and biomass maximums. For instance, before the invasion of Mnemiopsis the maximum of zooplankton biomass was observed in autumn (data by A. Pasternak, 1983), and after that the maximum moved to the spring (data by V.S. Khoroshilov, 1999). The incursion of ctenophore Beroe ovata feeding on Mnemiopsis in the nineties has led to the enhancement of zooplankton community. Although the detailed analysis of seasonal zooplankton dynamics wasn't performed in the recent years. The object of our research was to study seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal area of the North-Eastern Black Sea. Analysis of interannual, seasonal and spatial changes in zooplankton distribution, abundance and species composition along with age structure of dominant populations were performed based on investigations during 2005-2008 years in the North-Eastern Black Sea. Plankton samples were obtained monthly since June 2005 till December 2008. Plankton was collected at three stations at depths 25m, 50m and 500-1000m along the transect from the Blue Bay to the open sea. Sampling of gelatinous animals was conducted in parallel to the zooplankton sampling. Simultaneously with plankton sampling CTD data were obtained. The feeding conditions were

  7. Distinct zooplankton regime shift patterns across ecoregions of the U.S. Northeast continental shelf Large Marine Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, R. E.; Friedland, K. D.; Tommasi, D.; Stock, C.; Nye, J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated regime shifts in seasonal zooplankton communities of the Northeast continental shelf Large Marine Ecosystem (NES) and its subcomponent ecoregions over a multi-decadal period (1977-2013). Our cross ecoregion analysis shows that regime shifts in different ecoregions often exhibited very distinct characteristics, emphasizing more granular fluctuations in NES plankton communities relative to previous work. Shifts early in the time series generally reflected an increase in abundance levels. The response of zooplankton abundance within fall communities was more similar among ecoregions than for spring communities. The Gulf of Maine exhibited highly distinct patterns from other ecoregions, with regime shifts identified in the early 1980s, early 2000s, and mid-2000s for spring communities. Regime shifts were identified in the early to mid-1990s for the NES, Georges Bank, and the Mid-Atlantic Bight ecoregions, while the fall communities experienced shifts in the early 1990s and late 1980s for the NES and Georges Bank, but in the late 1990s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. A constrained correspondence analysis of zooplankton community against local and basin-scale climatological indices suggests that water temperature, stratification, and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) were the predominant factors in driving the zooplankton community composition.

  8. Regional zooplankton dispersal provides spatial insurance for ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Symons, Celia C; Arnott, Shelley E

    2013-05-01

    Changing environmental conditions are affecting diversity and ecosystem function globally. Theory suggests that dispersal from a regional species pool may buffer against changes in local community diversity and ecosystem function after a disturbance through the establishment of functionally redundant tolerant species. The spatial insurance provided by dispersal may decrease through time after environmental change as the local community monopolizes resources and reduces community invasibility. To test for evidence of the spatial insurance hypothesis and to determine the role dispersal timing plays in this response we conducted a field experiment using crustacean zooplankton communities in a subarctic region that is expected to be highly impacted by climate change - Churchill, Canada. Three experiments were conducted where nutrients, salt, and dispersal were manipulated. The three experiments differed in time-since-disturbance that the dispersers were added. We found that coarse measures of diversity (i.e. species richness, evenness, and Shannon-Weiner diversity) were generally resistant to large magnitude disturbances, and that dispersal had the most impact on diversity when dispersers were added shortly after disturbance. Ecosystem functioning (chl-a) was degraded in disturbed communities, but dispersal recovered ecosystem function to undisturbed levels. This spatial insurance for ecosystem function was mediated through changes in community composition and the relative abundance of functional groups. Results suggest that regional diversity and habitat connectivity will be important in the future to maintain ecosystem function by introducing functionally redundant species to promote compensatory dynamics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Zooplankton data: Vertical distributions of zooplankton in the Norweigian and Greenland Seas during summer, 1989

    SciT

    Lane, P.V.Z.; Smith, S.L.; Schwarting, E.M.

    1993-08-01

    Recent studies of zooplankton populations in the Greenland Sea have focused on processes at the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and the areas immediately adjacent to it under the ice and in open water. These studies have shown a relatively short period of intense secondary productivity which is closely linked temporally and spatially to phytoplankton blooms occurring near the ice edge in spring and early summer. During the summer of 1989 we participated in a project focusing on benthic and water column processes in the basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. This study allowed us to compare biological processes atmore » the MIZ with those occurring in the open waters of the Greenland Sea, and to compare processes at both of these locations with those in the Norwegian Sea. The data presented in this report are the results of zooplankton net tows covering the upper 1000 meters of the water column over the Norwegian Sea basin and the Greenland Sea basin, and the upper 500 meters of open water adjacent to the MIZ in the Greenland Sea. Sampling was conducted between 12 and 29 July 1989.« less

  10. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  11. Changes in fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition of zooplankton assemblages related to environmental conditions

    SciT

    Lambert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in zooplankton fatty acid and hydrocarbon patterns are described in relation to changes in environmental conditions and species composition. The regulation of zooplankton abundance by sea nettle-ctenophore interaction was examined in a small Rhode Island coastal pond. Sea nettles were nettles were able to eliminate ctenophores from the pond and subsequently zooplankton abundance increased. During one increase in zooplankton abundance, it was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased while monounsaturated fatty acids increased. It was concluded that this shift in biochemical pattern was due to food limitation. In addition, zooplankton fatty acids were used in multivariate discriminant analysis tomore » classify whether zooplankton were from coastal or estuarine environments. Zooplankton from coastal environments were characterized by higher monounsaturate fatty acids. Zooplankton hydrocarbon composition was affected by species composition and by pollution inputs. The presence of Calanus finmarchicus was detected by increased levels of pristane.« less

  12. Interactions of phytoplankton, zooplankton and microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, L. R.; Paffenhöfer, G.-A.; Yoder, J. A.

    We present evidence that there are significant interactions between heterotrophic microorganisms, doliolids and Fritillaria within intrusions of nutrient-rich Gulf Stream water stranding on the continental shelf. During the summer of 1981 cold, nutrient-rich water from below the surface of the Gulf Stream was repeatedly intruded and stranded on the continental shelf off northeastern Florida. On August 6 old, stranded Gulf Stream water depleted of nitrate occupied the lower layer on the outer shelf. The upper water was continental shelf water, older but of undefined age. On August 6 free-living bacteria were >10 6ml -1 everywhere at all depths, an order of magnitude greater than normal bacterial numbers on the northeastern Florida continental shelf. Over 10 days the numbers of free bacteria doubled while bacteria attached to particles increased by a factor of four. The adenylate/chlorophyll ratio showed that phytoplankton dominated the lower layers of intruded water, while the surface water became increasingly dominated by heterotrophic microorganisms (bacteria and protozoa) over 10 days. There were significant, negative correlations between bacteria and doliolids and between bacteria and Fritillaria. Regions of maximum bacterial numbers did not coincide with locations of salp swarms. The increased numbers of bacteria at all depths in a highly stratified system in which most phytoplankton are in the lower layer suggests a diverse source of bacterial growth substrates, some of which involve zooplankton as intermediaries. Production of autotrophs is more than twice that of microheterotrophs on average, but because of their differential distribution, microheterotrophs are the dominant biomass in much of the surface water and may be significant in energy flux to metazoan consumers as well as competitors for mutually useable sources of nutrition.

  13. Using occupancy modeling to compare traditional versus DNA metabarcoding methods for characterizing zooplankton biodiversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA metabarcoding tools could increase our ability to detect changes in zooplankton communities and to detect invasive zooplankton taxa while they are still rare. Nonetheless, the use of DNA-metabarcoding for characterizing zooplankton biodiversity in the Great Lakes has not bee...

  14. Zooplankton can actively adjust their motility to turbulent flow

    PubMed Central

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Fouxon, Itzhak

    2017-01-01

    Calanoid copepods are among the most abundant metazoans in the ocean and constitute a vital trophic link within marine food webs. They possess relatively narrow swimming capabilities, yet are capable of significant self-locomotion under strong hydrodynamic conditions. Here we provide evidence for an active adaptation that allows these small organisms to adjust their motility in response to background flow. We track simultaneously and in three dimensions the motion of flow tracers and planktonic copepods swimming freely at several intensities of quasi-homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. We show that copepods synchronize the frequency of their relocation jumps with the frequency of small-scale turbulence by performing frequent relocation jumps of low amplitude that seem unrelated to localized hydrodynamic signals. We develop a model of plankton motion in turbulence that shows excellent quantitative agreement with our measurements when turbulence is significant. We find that, compared with passive tracers, active motion enhances the diffusion of organisms at low turbulence intensity whereas it dampens diffusion at higher turbulence levels. The existence of frequent jumps in a motion that is otherwise dominated by turbulent transport allows for the possibility of active locomotion and hence to transition from being passively advected to being capable of controlling diffusion. This behavioral response provides zooplankton with the capability to retain the benefits of self-locomotion despite turbulence advection and may help these organisms to actively control their distribution in dynamic environments. Our study reveals an active adaptation that carries strong fitness advantages and provides a realistic model of plankton motion in turbulence. PMID:29229858

  15. Chemical and biological characteristics of Emerald Lake and the streams in its watershed and the responses of the lake and streams to acidic deposition. Final report

    SciT

    Melack, J.M.; Cooper, S.D.; Jenkins, T.M.

    1989-03-14

    This report describes the results of field work conducted at Emerald Lake in Sequoia National Park during the period of 1983-88, with an emphasis on the effects of acid deposition on a high-elevation lake in the Sierra Nevada. Time-series data were collected for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, chlorophyll, zooplankton and zoobenthos. Mass balances were calculated for major solutes in the lake, including analysis of the inflows and major solutes in the lake, including analysis of the inflows and outflow from the lake. The ecology and population dynamics of the resident population of brook trout were studied in detail. Biologicalmore » surveys indicated the presence of the Pacific tree frog in small ponds in the vicinity of Emerald Lake. Experimental acidification of large bags in the lake was used to develop dose-response relationships for the major zooplankton species, especially Daphnia. The conclusion of the research to date is that Emerald Lake is not currently showing serious chemical or biological effects of acidification. Acid-sensitive animals are found in the lake and associated streams. The surface waters of the Emerald Basin are extremely dilute and ANC-generating processes in the lake are small compared to that of the watershed. Acidic episodes have been recorded. If these episodes were to increase, the surface waters and the biological populations could be readily affected.« less

  16. Lake St. Clair zooplankton: Evidence for post-Dreissena changes

    David, Katherine A.; Davis, Bruce M.; Hunter, R. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed the zooplankton of Lake St. Clair at 12 sites over ten dates from May to October 2000. Mean zooplankton density by site and date was 168.6 individuals/L, with Dreissena spp. veligers the most abundant taxon at 122.7 individuals/L. Rotifers, copepods, and cladocerans were far lower in mean abundance than in the early 1970s (rotifers, 20.9/L; copepods, 18.1/L; and cladocerans, 6.8/L). Species richness of zooplankton taxa in 2000 was 147, which was virtually unchanged from that of the first reported survey in 1894. Overall, the decline in abundance was greatest for rotifers (-90%) and about equal for cladocerans (-69%) and copepods (-66%). The decrease in abundance of Daphnia spp. was especially dramatic in Canadian waters. The decline in the southeastern region was significant for all three major groups of zooplankton, whereas in the northwestern region the decline was significant only for rotifers. From June to August 2000, Lake St. Clair open waters were numerically dominated by Dreissena spp. veligers, with a reduced abundance of rotifers and crustaceans compared to pre-Dreissena spp. surveys. Mean nutrient concentrations were not different from the 1970s, but Secchi depth (greater) and chlorophyll a concentration (lower) were. Disproportionate reduction in rotifer abundance is consistent with hypotheses implicating direct consumption by settled Dreissena spp. Reduction of crustaceans is likely due to more complex interactions including removal of nauplii as well as resource competition for phytoplankton.

  17. FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

  18. Distribution and abundance of zooplankton populations in Crater Lake, Oregon

    Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Truitt, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    The zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake exhibited consistency in species richness and general taxonomic composition, but varied in density and biomass during the period between 1988 and 2000. Collectively, the assemblages included 2 cladoceran taxa and 10 rotifer taxa (excluding rare taxa). Vertical habitat partitioning of the water column to a depth of 200 m was observed for most species with similar food habits and/or feeding mechanisms. No congeneric replacement was observed. The dominant species in the assemblages were variable, switching primarily between periods of dominance of Polyarthra-Keratella cochlearis and Daphnia. The unexpected occurrence and dominance of Asplanchna in 1991 and 1992 resulted in a major change in this typical temporal shift between Polyarthra-K. cochlearis and Daphnia. Following a collapse of the zooplankton biomass in 1993 that was probably caused by predation from Asplanchna, Kellicottia dominated the zooplankton assemblage biomass between 1994 and 1997. The decline in biomass of Kellicottia by 1998 coincided with a dramatic increase in Daphnia biomass. When Daphnia biomass declined by 2000, Keratella biomass increased again. Thus, by 1998 the assemblage returned to the typical shift between Keratella-Polyarthra and Daphnia. Although these observations provided considerable insight about the interannual variability of the zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake, little was discovered about mechanisms behind the variability. When abundant, kokanee salmon may have played an important role in the disappearance of Daphnia in 1990 and 2000 either through predation, inducing diapause, or both. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. The ICES Working Group on Zooplankton Ecology: Accomplishments of the first 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Peter H.; Harris, Roger; Gislason, Astthor; Margonski, Piotr; Skjoldal, Hein Rune; Benfield, Mark; Hay, Steve; O'Brien, Todd; Valdés, Luis

    2016-02-01

    The ICES Study Group on Zooplankton Ecology was created in 1991 to address issues of current and future concern within the field of zooplankton ecology. Within three years it became the ICES Working Group on Zooplankton Ecology (ICES WGZE) and this unique group in the world's oceanographic community has now been active for 25 years. This article reviews and synthesizes the products, and major accomplishments of the group. Achievements of the group, including the Zooplankton Methodology Manual, the Zooplankton Status Reports, and the International Zooplankton Symposia, have had an important impact on the wider field. Among the future issues that remain to be addressed by the group are the assessment of exploratory fisheries on zooplankton and micronekton species; further development of the zooplankton time-series; compilation and integration of allometric relationships for zooplankton species, and evaluation of new methodologies for the study of zooplankton distribution, abundance, physiology, and genetics. Marine science is an increasingly global undertaking and groups such as the ICES WGZE will continue to be essential to the advancement of understanding of zooplankton community structure and population dynamics in the world's oceans.

  20. 17 CFR 171.42 - Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS Commission Review of Decisions by the National Futures Association In Member Responsibility Actions § 171.42 Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member... well as the Proceeding Clerk and Secretary of the Commission, with a written notice of any final...

  1. 17 CFR 171.42 - Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ACTIONS Commission Review of Decisions by the National Futures Association In Member Responsibility Actions § 171.42 Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility... the Proceeding Clerk and Secretary of the Commission, with a written notice of any final decision in a...

  2. 17 CFR 171.42 - Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ACTIONS Commission Review of Decisions by the National Futures Association In Member Responsibility Actions § 171.42 Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility... the Proceeding Clerk and Secretary of the Commission, with a written notice of any final decision in a...

  3. 17 CFR 171.42 - Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACTIONS Commission Review of Decisions by the National Futures Association In Member Responsibility Actions § 171.42 Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility... the Proceeding Clerk and Secretary of the Commission, with a written notice of any final decision in a...

  4. 17 CFR 171.42 - Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ACTIONS Commission Review of Decisions by the National Futures Association In Member Responsibility Actions § 171.42 Notice of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility... the Proceeding Clerk and Secretary of the Commission, with a written notice of any final decision in a...

  5. Accommodation modulates the individual difference between objective and subjective measures of the final convergence step response.

    PubMed

    Jainta, S; Hoormann, J; Jaschinski, W

    2009-03-01

    Measuring vergence eye movements with dichoptic nonius lines (subjectively) usually leads to an overestimation of the vergence state after a step response: a subjective vergence overestimation (SVO). We tried to reduce this SVO by presenting a vergence stimulus that decoupled vergence and accommodation during the step response, i.e. reduced the degree of 'forced vergence'. In a mirror-stereoscope, we estimated convergence step responses with nonius lines presented at 1000 ms after a disparity step-stimulus and compared it to objective recordings (EyeLink II; n = 6). We presented a vertical line, a cross/rectangle stimulus and a difference-of-gaussians (DOG) pattern. For 180 min arc step stimuli, the subjective measures revealed a larger final vergence response than the objective measure; for the vertical line this SVO was 20 min arc, while it was significantly smaller for the DOG (12 min arc). For 60 min arc step-responses, no overestimation was observed. Additionally, we measured accommodation, which changed more for the DOG-pattern compared with the line-stimulus; this relative increase correlated with the corresponding relative change of SVO (r = 0.77). Both findings (i.e. no overestimation for small steps and a weaker one for the DOG-pattern) reflect lesser conflicting demand on accommodation and vergence under 'forced-vergence' viewing; consequently, sensory compensation is reduced and subjective and objective measures of vergence step responses tend to agree.

  6. Tidally oriented vertical migration and position maintenance of zooplankton in a temperate estuary

    Kimmerer, W.J.; Burau, J.R.; Bennett, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    In many estuaries, maxima in turbidity and abundance of several common species of zooplankton occur in the low salinity zone (LSZ) in the range of 0.5-6 practical salinity units (psu). Analysis of zooplankton abundance from monitoring in 1972-1987 revealed that historical maxima in abundance of the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid Neomysis mercedis, and in turbidity as determined from Secchi disk data, were close to the estimated position of 2 psu bottom salinity. The copepod Sinocalanus doerrii had a maximum slightly landward of that of E. affinis. After 1987 these maxima decreased and shifted to a lower salinity, presumably because of the effects of grazing by the introduced clam Potamocorbula amurensis. At the same time, the copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, the mysid Acanthomysis sp., and amphipods became abundant with peaks at salinity around 0.2-0.5 psu. Plausible mechanisms for maintenance of these persistent abundance peaks include interactions between variation in flow and abundance, either in the vertical or horizontal plane, or higher net population growth rate in the peaks than seaward of the peaks. In spring of 1994, a dry year, we sampled in and near the LSZ using a Lagrangian sampling scheme to follow selected isohalines while sampling over several complete tidal cycles. Acoustic Doppler current profilers were used to provide detailed velocity distributions to enable us to estimate longitudinal fluxes of organisms. Stratification was weak and gravitational circulation nearly absent in the LSZ. All of the common species of zooplankton migrated vertically in response to the tides, with abundance higher in the water column on the flood than on the ebb. Migration of mysids and amphipods was sufficient to override net seaward flow to produce a net landward flux of organisms. Migration of copepods, however, was insufficient to reverse or even greatly diminish the net seaward flux of organisms, implying alternative mechanisms of position maintenance.

  7. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    SciT

    None

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  8. 76 FR 79574 - Revisions to Final Response to Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ...This action proposes to amend the preamble and regulatory text to the Final Response to Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO2 Emissions From the Portland Generating Station (Portland) published November 7, 2011, to revise minor misstatements. These revisions clarify the EPA's finding that Portland significantly contributes to nonattainment or interferes with maintenance of the 1- hour sulfur dioxide (SO2) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) in the State of New Jersey, and not in specific counties within the state. These revisions have no impact on any other provisions of the rule.

  9. Exposure and effects of sediment-spiked fludioxonil on macroinvertebrates and zooplankton in outdoor aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao H; Brock, Theo C M; Barone, Lidia E; Belgers, J Dick M; Boerwinkel, Marie-Claire; Buijse, Laura; van Wijngaarden, René P A; Hamer, Mick; Roessink, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Information from effects of pesticides in sediments at an ecosystem level, to validate current and proposed risk assessment procedures, is scarce. A sediment-spiked outdoor freshwater microcosm experiment was conducted with fludioxonil (lipophilic, non-systemic fungicide) to study exposure dynamics and treatment-related responses of benthic and pelagic macroinvertebrates and zooplankton. Besides blank control and solvent control systems the experiment had six different treatment levels (1.7-614mga.s./kg dry sediment) based around the reported 28-d No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) for Chironomus riparius (40mga.s./kg dry sediment). Twelve systems were available per treatment of which four were sacrificed on each of days 28, 56 and 84 after microcosm construction. Fludioxonil persisted in the sediment and mean measured concentrations were 53-82% of the initial concentration after 84days. The dissipation rate increased with the treatment level. Also exposure concentrations in overlying water were long-term, with highest concentrations 28days after initiation of the experiment. Sediment-dwelling Oligochaeta and pelagic Rotifera and Cladocera showed the most pronounced treatment-related declines. The most sensitive sediment-dwelling oligochaete was Dero digitata (population NOEC 14.2mga.s./kg dry sediment). The same NOEC was calculated for the sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrate community. The most sensitive zooplankton species was the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum (NOEC of 1.6μga.s./L in overlying water corresponding to 5.0mga.s./kg dry sediment). At the two highest treatments several rotifer taxa showed a pronounced decrease, while the zooplankton community-level NOEC was 5.6μga.s./L (corresponding to 14.2mga.s./kg dry sediment). Zooplankton taxa calanoid Copepoda and Daphnia gr. longispina showed a pronounced treatment-related increase (indirect effects). Consequently, an assessment factor of 10 to the chronic laboratory NOECs of Chironomus riparius

  10. Trophic pathways of phytoplankton size classes through the zooplankton food web over the spring transition period in the north-west Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Brian P. V.; Carlotti, François; Donoso, Katty; Pagano, Marc; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Conan, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of phytoplankton size classes to zooplankton biomass is necessary to understand food-web functioning and response to climate change. During the Deep Water formation Experiment (DEWEX), conducted in the north-west Mediterranean Sea in winter (February) and spring (April) of 2013, we investigated phytoplankton-zooplankton trophic links in contrasting oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions. Size fractionated particulate matter (pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM) and zooplankton (64 to >4000 μm) composition and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were measured inside and outside the nutrient-rich deep convection zone in the central Liguro-Provencal basin. In winter, phytoplankton biomass was low (0.28 mg m-3) and evenly spread among picophytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and microphytoplankton. Using an isotope mixing model, we estimated average contributions to zooplankton biomass by pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM of 28, 59, and 15%, respectively. In spring, the nutrient poor region outside the convection zone had low phytoplankton biomass (0.58 mg m-3) and was dominated by pico/nanophytoplankton. Estimated average contributions to zooplankton biomass by pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM were 64, 28 and 10%, respectively, although the model did not differentiate well between pico-POM and nano-POM in this region. In the deep convection zone, spring phytoplankton biomass was high (1.34 mg m-3) and dominated by micro/nano phytoplankton. Estimated average contributions to zooplankton biomass by pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM were 42, 42, and 20%, respectively, indicating that a large part of the microphytoplankton biomass may have remained ungrazed.Plain Language SummaryThe grazing of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> on algal phytoplankton is a critical step in the transfer of energy through all ocean food webs. Although microscopic, phytoplankton span an enormous size range. The smallest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24124552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24124552"><span>The impact of fish predation and cyanobacteria on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size structure in 96 subtropical lakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jing; Xie, Ping; Tao, Min; Guo, Longgen; Chen, Jun; Li, Li; Xuezhen Zhang; Zhang, Lu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> are relatively small in size in the subtropical regions. This characteristic has been attributed to intense predation pressure, high nutrient loading and cyanobacterial biomass. To provide further information on the effect of predation and cyanobacteria on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size structure, we analyzed data from 96 shallow aquaculture lakes along the Yangtze River. Contrary to former studies, both principal components analysis and multiple regression analysis showed that the mean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size was positively related to fish yield. The studied lakes were grouped into three types, namely, natural fishing lakes with low nutrient loading (Type1), planktivorous fish-dominated lakes (Type 2), and eutrophic lakes with high cyanobacterial biomass (Type 3). A marked difference in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size structure was found among these groups. The greatest mean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size was observed in Type 2 lakes, but <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> density was the lowest. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> abundance was highest in Type 3 lakes and increased with increasing cyanobacterial biomass. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> mean size was negatively correlated with cyanobacterial biomass. No obvious trends were found in Type 1 lakes. These results were reflected by the normalized biomass size spectrum, which showed a unimodal shape with a peak at medium sizes in Type 2 lakes and a peak at small sizes in Type 3 lakes. These results indicated a relative increase in medium-sized and small-sized species in Types 2 and 3 lakes, respectively. Our results suggested that fish predation might have a negative effect on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance but a positive effect on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size structure. High cyanobacterial biomass most likely caused a decline in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size and encouraged the proliferation of small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. We suggest that both planktivorous fish and cyanobacteria have substantial effects on the shaping of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community, particularly in the lakes in the eastern plain along the Yangtze River where aquaculture is widespread</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3790690','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3790690"><span>The Impact of Fish Predation and Cyanobacteria on <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Size Structure in 96 Subtropical Lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jing; Xie, Ping; Tao, Min; Guo, Longgen; Chen, Jun; Li, Li; XueZhen Zhang; Zhang, Lu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> are relatively small in size in the subtropical regions. This characteristic has been attributed to intense predation pressure, high nutrient loading and cyanobacterial biomass. To provide further information on the effect of predation and cyanobacteria on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size structure, we analyzed data from 96 shallow aquaculture lakes along the Yangtze River. Contrary to former studies, both principal components analysis and multiple regression analysis showed that the mean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size was positively related to fish yield. The studied lakes were grouped into three types, namely, natural fishing lakes with low nutrient loading (Type1), planktivorous fish-dominated lakes (Type 2), and eutrophic lakes with high cyanobacterial biomass (Type 3). A marked difference in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size structure was found among these groups. The greatest mean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size was observed in Type 2 lakes, but <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> density was the lowest. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> abundance was highest in Type 3 lakes and increased with increasing cyanobacterial biomass. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> mean size was negatively correlated with cyanobacterial biomass. No obvious trends were found in Type 1 lakes. These results were reflected by the normalized biomass size spectrum, which showed a unimodal shape with a peak at medium sizes in Type 2 lakes and a peak at small sizes in Type 3 lakes. These results indicated a relative increase in medium-sized and small-sized species in Types 2 and 3 lakes, respectively. Our results suggested that fish predation might have a negative effect on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance but a positive effect on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size structure. High cyanobacterial biomass most likely caused a decline in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size and encouraged the proliferation of small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. We suggest that both planktivorous fish and cyanobacteria have substantial effects on the shaping of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community, particularly in the lakes in the eastern plain along the Yangtze River where aquaculture is widespread</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29691934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29691934"><span>Temperature gradient affects differentiation of gene expression and SNP allele frequencies in the dominant Lake Baikal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bowman, Larry L; Kondrateva, Elizaveta S; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Yampolsky, Lev Y</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are main mechanisms of organisms' resilience in changing environments. Both are affected by gene flow and are expected to be weak in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations inhabiting large continuous water bodies and strongly affected by currents. Lake Baikal, the deepest and one of the coldest lakes on Earth, experienced epilimnion temperature increase during the last 100 years, exposing Baikal's <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> to novel selective pressures. We obtained a partial transcriptome of Epischura baikalensis (Copepoda: Calanoida), the dominant component of Baikal's <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and estimated SNP allele frequencies and transcript abundances in samples from regions of Baikal that differ in multiyear average surface temperatures. The strongest signal in both SNP and transcript abundance differentiation is the SW-NE gradient along the 600+ km long axis of the lake, suggesting isolation by distance. SNP differentiation is stronger for nonsynonymous than synonymous SNPs and is paralleled by differential survival during a laboratory exposure to increased temperature, indicating directional selection operating on the temperature gradient. Transcript abundance, generally collinear with the SNP differentiation, shows samples from the warmest, less deep location clustering together with the southernmost samples. Differential expression is more frequent among transcripts orthologous to candidate thermal <span class="hlt">response</span> genes previously identified in model arthropods, including genes encoding cytoskeleton proteins, heat-shock proteins, proteases, enzymes of central energy metabolism, lipid and antioxidant pathways. We conclude that the pivotal endemic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species in Lake Baikal exists under temperature-mediated selection and possesses both genetic variation and plasticity to respond to novel temperature-related environmental pressures. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22203999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22203999"><span>Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia</p> <p>2012-01-17</p> <p>The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3271926','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3271926"><span>Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea. PMID:22203999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011713','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011713"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Fossil <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066061"><span>Ingestion of Microplastics by <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Galbraith, Moira; Ross, Peter S</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 μm) than in copepods (556 ± 149 μm) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ≤91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630079','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630079"><span>Development and Applications of Technology for Sensing <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-09-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>-like particles. WORK COMPLETED In support of our first objective, in prior years we occupied sites in both East and West Sound at Orcas ...Island in northern Puget Sound , WA. We have also made deployments at four sites on open linear coasts, including one just north of Oceanside, CA (Red...layers. Multi-static, multi-frequency methods Most active bioacoustical methods in oceanography exclusively utilize the sound that is scattered</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986DSRA...33.1729Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986DSRA...33.1729Y"><span>Small-scale <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> aggregations at the front of a Kuroshio warm-core ring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Tamiji; Nishizawa, Satoshi</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>A Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder was used to study the small-scale <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution across the front of a Kuroshio warm-core ring in June 1979. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> were strongly aggregated in the frontal region; patches of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and phytoplankton were spatially separated. A major part of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage consisted of neritic forms such as cladocerans and indicator species of the cold Oyashio water. This implies that lateral entrainment of coastal waters, which is directly influenced by the Oyashio, was an important factor in the formation of the aggregations at the Kuroshio warm-core ring front. Variation in the distribution of abundance peaks of individual <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species was also observed. Futhermore, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> showed more intensive non-randomness (aggregation) than phytoplankton and non-motile euphausiid's eggs. Thus, biological processes, such as motility and prey-predator interaction, also appeared to be regulating the patchiness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27510848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27510848"><span>Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> during phytoplankton deficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula</p> <p>2016-08-11</p> <p>Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980614','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980614"><span>Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> during phytoplankton deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917930C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917930C"><span>SEAPODYM-LTL: a parsimonious <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dynamic biomass model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conchon, Anna; Lehodey, Patrick; Gehlen, Marion; Titaud, Olivier; Senina, Inna; Séférian, Roland</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Mesozooplankton organisms are of critical importance for the understanding of early life history of most fish stocks, as well as the nutrient cycles in the ocean. Ongoing climate change and the need for improved approaches to the management of living marine resources has driven recent advances in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> modelling. The classical modeling approach tends to describe the whole biogeochemical and plankton cycle with increasing complexity. We propose here a different and parsimonious <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dynamic biomass model (SEAPODYM-LTL) that is cost efficient and can be advantageously coupled with primary production estimated either from satellite derived ocean color data or biogeochemical models. In addition, the adjoint code of the model is developed allowing a robust optimization approach for estimating the few parameters of the model. In this study, we run the first optimization experiments using a global database of climatological <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass data and we make a comparative analysis to assess the importance of resolution and primary production inputs on model fit to observations. We also compare SEAPODYM-LTL outputs to those produced by a more complex biogeochemical model (PISCES) but sharing the same physical forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ECSS..200..335C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ECSS..200..335C"><span>Estuarine and marine diets of out-migrating Chinook Salmon smolts in relation to local <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations, including harmful blooms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chittenden, C. M.; Sweeting, R.; Neville, C. M.; Young, K.; Galbraith, M.; Carmack, E.; Vagle, S.; Dempsey, M.; Eert, J.; Beamish, R. J.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Changes in food availability during the early marine phase of wild Chinook Salmon (O. tshawytscha) are being investigated as a cause of their recent declines in the Salish Sea. The marine survival of hatchery smolts, in particular, has been poor. This part of the Salish Sea Marine Survival Project examined the diet of young out-migrating Chinook Salmon for four consecutive years in the Cowichan River estuary and in Cowichan Bay, British Columbia, Canada. Local <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities were monitored during the <span class="hlt">final</span> year of the study in the Cowichan River estuary, Cowichan Bay, and eastward to the Salish Sea to better understand the bottom-up processes that may be affecting Chinook Salmon survival. Rearing environment affected body size, diet, and distribution in the study area. Clipped smolts (hatchery-reared) were larger than the unclipped smolts (primarily naturally-reared), ate larger prey, spent very little time in the estuary, and disappeared from the bay earlier, likely due to emigration or mortality. Their larger body size may be a disadvantage for hatchery smolts if it necessitates their leaving the estuary prematurely to meet energy needs; the onset of piscivory began at a forklength of approximately 74 mm, which was less than the average forklength of the clipped fish in this study. The primary <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> bloom occurred during the last week of April/first week of May 2013, whereas the main release of hatchery-reared Chinook Salmon smolts occurs each year in mid-May-this timing mismatch may reduce their survival. Gut fullness was correlated with <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass; however, both the clipped and unclipped smolts were not observed in the bay until the bloom of harmful Noctiluca was finished-20 days after the maximum recorded <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance. Jellyfish medusa flourished in nearshore areas, becoming less prevalent towards the deeper waters of the Salish Sea. The sizable presence of Noctiluca and jellyfish in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> blooms may be repelling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......297B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......297B"><span>Material properties of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and nekton from the California current</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becker, Kaylyn</p> <p></p> <p>This study measured the material properties of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025422','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025422"><span>Selenium in San Francisco Bay <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>: Potential effects of hydrodynamics and food web interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Purkerson, D.G.; Doblin, M.A.; Bollens, S.M.; Luoma, S.N.; Cutter, G.A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The potential toxicity of elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in aquatic ecosystems has stimulated efforts to measure Se concentrations in benthos, nekton, and waterfowl in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay). In September 1998, we initiated a 14 mo field study to determine the concentration of Se in SF Bay <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, which play a major role in the Bay food web, but which have not previously been studied with respect to Se. Monthly vertical plankton tows were collected at several stations throughout SF Bay, and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were separated into two operationally defined size classes for Se analyses: 73-2,000 ??m, and ???2,000 ??m. Selenium values ranged 1.02-6.07 ??g Se g-1 dry weight. No spatial differences in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> Se concentrations were found. However, there were inter- and intra-annual differences. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Se concentrations were enriched in the North Bay in Fall 1999 when compared to other seasons and locations within and outside SF Bay. The abundance and biovolume of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community varied spatially between stations, but not seasonally within each station. Smaller herbivorous-omnivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> had higher Se concentrations than larger omnivorous-carnivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Selenium concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were negatively correlated with the proportion of total copepod biovolume comprising the large carnivorous copepod Tortanus dextrilobatus, but positively correlated with the proportion of copepod biovolume comprising smaller copepods of the family Oithonidae, suggesting an important role of trophic level and size in regulating <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> Se concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29859439','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29859439"><span>Retention and characteristics of microplastics in natural <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa from the East China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Xiaoxia; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Mingliang; Liang, Junhua; Zhao, Yongfang; Zhang, Bo</p> <p>2018-05-30</p> <p>The ubiquitous presence and persistence of microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments have become of particular concern in recent years. Biological interactions are among the key processes that affect the impact and fate of MPs in the oceans. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> is one of the most sensitive taxa because their prey is approximately the same size as MPs. However, the status of MPs in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> within natural marine environments remains largely unknown. By focusing on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the East China Sea, the characteristics, bioaccumulated concentration, and retention of MPs for 10 <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups were systematically studied. Three types of MPs were found in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>: fibres, pellets, and fragments. The fibres (54.6%) were more common than the other two types. The average lengths of the fibres, pellets, and fragments were 295.2 ± 348.6 μm, 20.3 ± 11.0 μm, and 82.4 ± 80.5 μm, respectively. Nineteen polymers were detected in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> via the Thermo Scientific Nicolet iN10 Infrared Microscope. Polymerized oxidized organic material and polyester were dominant, accounting for 35.9% and 25.6% of the polymers, respectively. The bioaccumulated concentration of MPs in the 10 <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa varied from 0.13 pieces/<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> for Copepoda to 0.35 pieces/<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> for Pteropoda. The bioaccumulated concentration was negatively correlated with the abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, showing a significant biological dilution effect. The bioaccumulated concentration was also influenced by the feeding mode of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, showing a trend of omnivorous > carnivorous > herbivorous. High retention of MPs was found in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community of the East China Sea, achieving 19.7 ± 22.4 pieces/m 3 . This is much higher than the MP retention in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from other reported sea areas. By revealing the characteristics and retention of MPs in the natural <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa from the East China Sea, this research identified the influence that MPs have</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036191','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036191"><span>Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Bunnell, D.B.; Hunter, R. Douglas; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> consumed and exceeded <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472138"><span>Ecological value of macrophyte cover in creating habitat for microalgae (diatoms) and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (rotifers and crustaceans) in small field and forest water bodies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Celewicz-Gołdyn, Sofia; Kuczyńska-Kippen, Natalia</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Due to their small area and shallow depth ponds are usually treated as a single sampling unit, while various microhabitats offer different environmental conditions. Thus, we tested the effect of different habitat types typically found within small ponds on the microalgae and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities. We found that submerged macrophytes have the strongest impact on microalgae and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities out of all the analysed habitats. Some epontic diatoms (e.g. Fragilaria dilatata, Cymbella affinis) and littoral-associated <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species (e.g. Simocephalus vetulus, Lecane bulla) were significantly related to elodeids. However, pelagic species (e.g. bosminids) preferred less complex helophytes, which suggests that the most heterogeneous elodeid habitats were not an anti-predator shelter for cladocerans. Selection of different macrophyte types by taxonomically various organisms suggests that it is not only macrophyte cover that is desired for healthy aquatic environment but that a level of habitat mosaic is required to ensure the well-being of aquatic food webs. Species-specific preferences for different types of macrophytes indicate the high ecological value of macrophyte cover in ponds and a potential direction for the management of small water bodies towards maintaining a great variation of aquatic plants. Moreover, the type of surrounding landscape, reflecting human-induced disturbance (28 field ponds) and natural catchment (26 forest ponds), significantly influenced only <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, while diatoms were affected indirectly through the level of conductivity. Nutrient overload (higher content of TRP) and increased conductivity in the field landscape contributed to a rise in microalgae (e.g. Amphora pediculus, Gomphonema parvulum) and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (e.g. Thermocyclops oithonoides, Eubosmina coregoni) abundance. An awareness of the <span class="hlt">responses</span> of both components of plankton communities to environmental factors is necessary for maintaining the good state of small</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28898955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28898955"><span>Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vroom, Renske J E; Koelmans, Albert A; Besseling, Ellen; Halsband, Claudia</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Microplastics (<5 mm) are ubiquitous in the marine environment and are ingested by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> with possible negative effects on survival, feeding, and fecundity. The majority of laboratory studies has used new and pristine microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as weathering and biofouling alter the characteristics of plastic particles in the marine environment. We investigated <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> ingestion of polystyrene beads (15 and 30 μm) and fragments (≤30 μm), and tested the hypothesis that microplastics previously exposed to marine conditions (aged) are ingested at higher rates than pristine microplastics. Polystyrene beads were aged by soaking in natural local seawater for three weeks. Three <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa ingested microplastics, excluding the copepod Pseudocalanus spp., but the proportions of individuals ingesting plastic and the number of particles ingested were taxon and life stage specific and dependent on plastic size. All stages of Calanus finmarchicus ingested polystyrene fragments. Aged microbeads were preferred over pristine ones by females of Acartia longiremis as well as juvenile copepodites CV and adults of Calanus finmarchicus. The preference for aged microplastics may be attributed to the formation of a biofilm. Such a coating, made up of natural microbes, may contain similar prey as the copepods feed on in the water column and secrete chemical exudates that aid chemodetection and thus increase the attractiveness of the particles as food items. Much of the ingested plastic was, however, egested within a short time period (2-4 h) and the survival of adult Calanus females was not affected in an 11-day exposure. Negative effects of microplastics ingestion were thus limited. Our findings emphasize, however, that aging plays an important role in the transformation of microplastics at sea and ingestion by grazers, and should thus be considered in future microplastics ingestion studies and estimates of microplastics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641768"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Gut Passage Mobilizes Lithogenic Iron for Ocean Productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Katrin; Schlosser, Christian; Atkinson, Angus; Fielding, Sophie; Venables, Hugh J; Waluda, Claire M; Achterberg, Eric P</p> <p>2016-10-10</p> <p>Iron is an essential nutrient for phytoplankton, but low concentrations limit primary production and associated atmospheric carbon drawdown in large parts of the world's oceans [1, 2]. Lithogenic particles deriving from aeolian dust deposition, glacial runoff, or river discharges can form an important source if the attached iron becomes dissolved and therefore bioavailable [3-5]. Acidic digestion by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is a potential mechanism for iron mobilization [6], but evidence is lacking. Here we show that Antarctic krill sampled near glacial outlets at the island of South Georgia (Southern Ocean) ingest large amounts of lithogenic particles and contain 3-fold higher iron concentrations in their muscle than specimens from offshore, which confirms mineral dissolution in their guts. About 90% of the lithogenic and biogenic iron ingested by krill is passed into their fecal pellets, which contain ∼5-fold higher proportions of labile (reactive) iron than intact diatoms. The mobilized iron can be released in dissolved form directly from krill or via multiple pathways involving microbes, other <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and krill predators. This can deliver substantial amounts of bioavailable iron and contribute to the fertilization of coastal waters and the ocean beyond. In line with our findings, phytoplankton blooms downstream of South Georgia are more intensive and longer lasting during years with high krill abundance on-shelf. Thus, krill crop phytoplankton but boost new production via their nutrient supply. Understanding and quantifying iron mobilization by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is essential to predict ocean productivity in a warming climate where lithogenic iron inputs from deserts, glaciers, and rivers are increasing [7-10]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME44A0832N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME44A0832N"><span>PCR-Based Assessment of Freshwater <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Feeding on Edible and "Inedible" Prey In Situ.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nejstgaard, J. C.; Belyaeva, M.; Van den Wyngaert, S.; Berger, S. A.; Grossart, H. P.; Kasprzak, P.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Microbiota in pelagic ecosystems can affect <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> nutrition in several ways that are not readily assessable in situ, using classical approaches. In contrast to classical food web models identifying phytoplankton as the dominant food source for crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, recent findings increasingly suggest that <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> may derive a significant part of the diet from a wide variety of taxa including ciliates, aquatic fungi, bacteria and small metazoan <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (e.g. rotifers), in both marine and freshwaters. Direct quantification of soft-bodied and non-pigmented prey in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> guts as well as symbionts and parasites on the prey and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> itself has so far been impeded by the lack of appropriate methodology. We aim to establish molecular approaches to quantify these yet-understudied interactions in lake food webs. As a first step we have validated the qPCR detection method in laboratory experiments with cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid predators and algal prey species (Cryptomonas sp.). We plan to apply the method to study the dietary contribution of aquatic fungi - chytrids, which are parasites on inedible phytoplankton species, thus aiming to provide insights into the Mycoloop - energy transfer from inedible phytoplankton to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> via fungal parasites. The quantitative PCR method, when validated for key <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species and specific prey or parasite groups, has a potential for a broad range of applications in food web research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104688&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=manpower+AND+based+AND+research&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104688&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=manpower+AND+based+AND+research&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>SPATIAL PATTERNS IN ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURES OF PELAGIC FORAGE FISH AND <span class="hlt">ZOOPLANKTON</span> IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This manuscript reports on the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and forage fish in western Lake Superior. Fish and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages are shown to differ substantially in abundance and size structure both between the open lake and nearshore regions and between two differe...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=210166&keyword=Population+AND+numbers&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=210166&keyword=Population+AND+numbers&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Effect of Main-stem Dams on <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Communities of the Missouri River (USA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We examined the distribution and abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from 146 sites on the Missouri River and found large shifts in the dominance of major taxa between management zones of this regulated river. Crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were dominant in the inter-reservoir zone of the river, an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80225&keyword=hplc&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80225&keyword=hplc&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>PHYTOPLANKTON AND <span class="hlt">ZOOPLANKTON</span> SEASONAL DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: IMPORTANCE OF CYANOBACTERIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Murrell, Michael C. and Emile M. Lores. 2004. Phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Seasonal Dynamics in a Subtropical Estuary: Importance of Cyanobacteria. J. Plankton Res. 26(3):371-382. (ERL,GB 1190). <br><br>A seasonal study of phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was conducted from 1999-20...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JMS...177...28J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JMS...177...28J"><span>Temporal and spatial variability of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> on the Faroe shelf in spring 1997-2016</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Sólvá; Gaard, Eilif; Larsen, Karin Margretha Húsgarð; Eliasen, Sólvá Káradóttir; Hátún, Hjálmar</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> availability during spring and summer determines the growth and survival of first-feeding fish larvae, and thus impacts the recruitment to both fish prey species and commercial fish stocks. On the Faroe shelf, however, the relative importance of oceanic versus neritic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species has hitherto not been well understood. In this study, spatio-temporal variability in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure and size spectra on the Faroe shelf is investigated using observations from late April during the period 1997-2016. The main objective was to explore which environmental variables influence the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure in early spring. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in the permanently well mixed central shelf inside the tidal front consists of a mixture of neritic, cosmopolitan and oceanic species. In this region, redundancy analyses showed that chlorophyll concentration had a positive effect on abundance of neritic copepods and meroplankton as well as all <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> < 1.2 mm. The abundance variability of these species shows increased production around 2000 and 2008-2009. The highest <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance, mainly consisting of Calanus finmarchicus, is however observed off-shore from the tidal front, especially on the western side of the Faroe Plateau. A shift in C. finmarchicus phenology occurred around 2007, resulting in earlier reproduction of this species, and this variability could not be explained by the employed regional environmental parameters. Our results indicate that the Faroe shelf biological production is more dependent on the local primary production and neritic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species than on the large oceanic C. finmarchicus stock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066861"><span>Factors driving the seasonal distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in a eutrophicated Mediterranean Lagoon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ziadi, Boutheina; Dhib, Amel; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>The distribution of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community was studied along with environmental factors at five sampling stations in Ghar El Melh Lagoon (GML) (Mediterranean Sea, northern Tunisia). GML is characterized by specific following properties: broad and shallow, freshwater supply (Station 1); connection to the sea (S2); stagnation (S3 especially), and eutrophic conditions with enhanced nutrient concentrations (S4 and S5). Samples were taken twice monthly from February 2011 to January 2012. Twenty-three <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups comprising 10 larval stages were identified. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> assemblages were largely dominated by copepods (37.25%), followed respectively by ciliates (21.09%), bivalve larvae (14.88%) and gastropod veligers (12.53%). Redundancy analysis indicated that while no significant difference was found in the distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> at any station, a strong difference was observed according to season. Both temporal and physicochemical fluctuations explain more than 50% of changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..432..410S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..432..410S"><span>On uses, misuses and potential abuses of fractal analysis in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> behavioral studies: A review, a critique and a few recommendations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seuront, Laurent</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Fractal analysis is increasingly used to describe, and provide further understanding to, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> swimming behavior. This may be related to the fact that fractal analysis and the related fractal dimension D have the desirable properties to be independent of measurement scale and to be very sensitive to even subtle behavioral changes that may be undetectable to other behavioral variables. As early claimed by Coughlin et al. (1992), this creates "the need for fractal analysis" in behavioral studies, which has hence the potential to become a valuable tool in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> behavioral ecology. However, this paper stresses that fractal analysis, as well as the more elaborated multifractal analysis, is also a risky business that may lead to irrelevant results, without paying extreme attention to a series of both conceptual and practical steps that are all likely to bias the results of any analysis. These biases are reviewed and exemplified on the basis of the published literature, and remedial procedures are provided not only for geometric and stochastic fractal analyses, but also for the more complicated multifractal analysis. The concept of multifractals is <span class="hlt">finally</span> introduced as a direct, objective and quantitative tool to identify models of motion behavior, such as Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion, ballistic motion, Lévy flight/walk and multifractal random walk. I <span class="hlt">finally</span> briefly review the state of this emerging field in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> behavioral research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028009','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028009"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> size selection relative to gill raker spacing in rainbow trout</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Budy, P.; Haddix, T.; Schneidervin, R.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss are one of the most widely stocked salmonids worldwide, often based on the assumption that they will effectively utilize abundant invertebrate food resources. We evaluated the potential for feeding morphology to affect prey selection by rainbow trout using a combination of laboratory feeding experiments and field observations in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. For rainbow trout collected from the reservoir, inter-gill raker spacing averaged 1.09 mm and there was low variation among fish overall (SD = 0.28). Ninety-seven percent of all <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> observed in the diets of rainbow trout collected in the reservoir were larger than the interraker spacing, while only 29% of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> found in the environment were larger than the interraker spacing. Over the size range of rainbow trout evaluated here (200-475 mm), interraker spacing increased moderately with increasing fish length; however, the size of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> found in the diet did not increase with increasing fish length. In laboratory experiments, rainbow trout consumed the largest <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> available; the mean size of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> observed in the diets was significantly larger than the mean size of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> available. Electivity indices for both laboratory and field observations indicated strong selection for larger-sized <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. The size threshold at which electivity switched from selection against smaller-sized <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> to selection for larger-sized <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> closely corresponded to the mean interraker spacing for both groups (???1-1.2 mm). The combination of results observed here indicates that rainbow trout morphology limits the retention of different-sized <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey and reinforces the importance of understanding how effectively rainbow trout can utilize the type and sizes of different prey available in a given system. These considerations may improve our ability to predict the potential for growth and survival of rainbow trout within and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029590','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029590"><span>Reduced growth and survival of larval razorback sucker fed selenium-laden <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Bullard, Fern A.; McDonald, Susan</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Four groups of larval razorback sucker, an endangered fish, were exposed to selenium-laden <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and survival, growth, and whole-body residues were measured. Studies were conducted with 5, 10, 24, and 28-day-old larvae fed <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> collected from six sites adjacent to the Green River, Utah. Water where <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were collected had selenium concentrations ranging from <0.4 to 78 μg/L, and concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> ranged from 2.3 to 91 μg/g dry weight. Static renewal tests were conducted for 20 to 25 days using reference water with selenium concentrations of <1.1 μg/L. In all studies, 80–100% mortality occurred in 15–20 days. In the 28-day-old larvae, fish weight was significantly reduced 25% in larvae fed <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> containing 12 μg/g selenium. Whole-body concentrations of selenium ranged from 3.7 to 14.3 μg/g in fish fed <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from the reference site (Sheppard Bottom pond 1) up to 94 μg/g in fish fed <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from North Roadside Pond. Limited information prior to the studies suggested that the Sheppard pond 1 site was relatively clean and suitable as a reference treatment; however, the nearly complete mortality of larvae and elevated concentrations of selenium in larvae and selenium and other elements in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> indicated that this site was contaminated with selenium and other elements. Selenium concentrations in whole-body larvae and in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from all sites were close to or greater than toxic thresholds where adverse effects occur in fish. Delayed mortality occurred in larvae fed the two highest selenium concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and was thought due to an interaction with other elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME44A0846F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME44A0846F"><span>Molecular Quantification of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Gut Content: The Case For qPCR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frischer, M. E.; Walters, T. L.; Gibson, D. M.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Troedsson, C.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The ability to obtain information about feeding selectivity and rates in situ for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is vital for understanding the mechanisms structuring marine ecosystems. However, directly estimating feeding selection and rates of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, without bias, associated with culturing conditions has been notoriously difficult. A potential approach for addressing this problem is to target prey-specific DNA as a marker for prey ingestion and selection. In this study we report the development of a differential length amplification quantitative PCR (dla-qPCR) assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene to validate the use of a DNA-based approach to quantify consumption of specific plankton prey by the pelagic tunicate (doliolid) Dolioletta gegenbauri. Compared to copepods and other marine animals, the digestion of prey genomic DNA inside the gut of doliolids is low. This method minimizes potential underestimations, and therefore allows prey DNA to be used as an effective indicator of prey consumption. We also present an initial application of a qPCR-assay to estimate consumption of specific prey species on the southeastern continental shelf of the U.S., where doliolids stochastically bloom in <span class="hlt">response</span> to upwelling events. Estimated feeding rates, based on qPCR, were in the same range as those estimated from clearance rates in laboratory feeding studies. In the field, consumption of specific prey, including the centric diatom Thalassiosira spp. was detected in the gut of wild caught D. gegenbauri at the levels consistent with their abundance in the water column at the time of collection. Thus, both experimental and field investigations support the hypothesis that a qPCR approach will be useful for the quantitative investigation of the in situ diet of D. gegenbauri without introduced bias' associated with cultivation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17249223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17249223"><span>Phytoplankton food quality determines time windows for successful <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> reproductive pulses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vargas, Cristian A; Escribano, Rubén; Poulet, Serge</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Recruitment success at the early life stages is a critical process for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> demography. Copepods often dominate the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in marine coastal zones and are prey of the majority of fish larvae. Hypotheses interpreting variations of copepod recruitment are based on the concepts of "naupliar predation," "nutritional deficiency," and "toxic effect" of diatom diets. Contradictory laboratory and field studies have reached opposite conclusions on the effects of diatoms on copepod reproductive success, blurring our view of marine food-web energy flow from diatoms to higher consumers by means of copepods. Here we report estimates of copepod feeding selectivity and reproduction in <span class="hlt">response</span> to seasonally changing phytoplankton characteristics measured in a highly productive coastal upwelling area off the coast of central Chile. The variable phytoplankton diversity and changing food quality had a strong and highly significant impact on the feeding selectivity, reproduction, and larval survival of three indigenous copepod species. Seasonal changes in copepod feeding behavior were related to the alternating protozoan-diatom diets, mostly based on dinoflagellates and ciliates during winter and autumn (low highly unsaturated fatty acids [HUFA]/polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA] availability), but switched to a diet of centric and chain-forming diatoms (high HUFA/PUFA availability) during the spring/summer upwelling period. Ingestion of diatom cells induced a positive effect on egg production. However, a negative relationship was found between egg hatching success, naupliar survival, and diatom ingestion. Depending on the phytoplankton species, diets had different effects on copepod reproduction and recruitment. In consequence, it seems that the classical marine food web model does not apply to some coastal upwelling systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24966312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24966312"><span>Synchronous dynamics of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> competitors prevail in temperate lake ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vasseur, David A; Fox, Jeremy W; Gonzalez, Andrew; Adrian, Rita; Beisner, Beatrix E; Helmus, Matthew R; Johnson, Catherine; Kratina, Pavel; Kremer, Colin; de Mazancourt, Claire; Miller, Elizabeth; Nelson, William A; Paterson, Michael; Rusak, James A; Shurin, Jonathan B; Steiner, Christopher F</p> <p>2014-08-07</p> <p>Although competing species are expected to exhibit compensatory dynamics (negative temporal covariation), empirical work has demonstrated that competitive communities often exhibit synchronous dynamics (positive temporal covariation). This has led to the suggestion that environmental forcing dominates species dynamics; however, synchronous and compensatory dynamics may appear at different length scales and/or at different times, making it challenging to identify their relative importance. We compiled 58 long-term datasets of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance in north-temperate and sub-tropical lakes and used wavelet analysis to quantify general patterns in the times and scales at which synchronous/compensatory dynamics dominated <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in different regions and across the entire dataset. Synchronous dynamics were far more prevalent at all scales and times and were ubiquitous at the annual scale. Although we found compensatory dynamics in approximately 14% of all combinations of time period/scale/lake, there were no consistent scales or time periods during which compensatory dynamics were apparent across different regions. Our results suggest that the processes driving compensatory dynamics may be local in their extent, while those generating synchronous dynamics operate at much larger scales. This highlights an important gap in our understanding of the interaction between environmental and biotic forces that structure communities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325448','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325448"><span>Neustonic microplastic and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the North Western Mediterranean Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collignon, Amandine; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Glagani, François; Voisin, Pierre; Collard, France; Goffart, Anne</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Neustonic microplastic and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance was determined in the North Western Mediterranean Sea during a summer cruise between July 9th and August 6th 2010, with a break between July 22 th and 25th due to a strong wind event. Ninety percent of the 40 stations contained microplastic particles (size 0.3-5mm) of various compositions: e.g., filaments, polystyrene, thin plastic films. An average concentration of 0.116 particles/m(2) was observed. The highest abundances (>0.36 particles/m(2)) were observed in shelf stations. The neustonic plastic particles concentrations were 5 times higher before than after the strong wind event which increased the mixing and the vertical repartition of plastic particles in the upper layers of the water column. The values rise in the same order of magnitude than in the North Pacific Gyre. The average ratio between microplastics and mesozooplankton weights was 0.5 for the whole survey and might induce a potential confusion for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> feeders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23632089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23632089"><span>Potential acidification impacts on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in CCS leakage scenarios.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Halsband, Claudia; Kurihara, Haruko</p> <p>2013-08-30</p> <p>Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies involve localized acidification of significant volumes of seawater, inhabited mainly by planktonic species. Knowledge on potential impacts of these techniques on the survival and physiology of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and subsequent consequences for ecosystem health in targeted areas, is scarce. The recent literature has a focus on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, leading to enhanced absorption of CO2 by the oceans and a lowered seawater pH, termed ocean acidification. These studies explore the effects of changes in seawater chemistry, as predicted by climate models for the end of this century, on marine biota. Early studies have used unrealistically severe CO2/pH values in this context, but are relevant for CCS leakage scenarios. Little studied meso- and bathypelagic species of the deep sea may be especially vulnerable, as well as vertically migrating <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, which require significant residence times at great depths as part of their life cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980HM.....33..225S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980HM.....33..225S"><span>Effects of the ``Amoco Cadiz'' oil spill on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samain, J. F.; Moal, J.; Coum, A.; Le Coz, J. R.; Daniel, J. Y.</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p>A survey of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> physiology on the northern coast of Brittany (France) was carried out over a one-year period by comparing two estuarine areas, one oil-polluted area (Aber Benoit) following the oil spill by the tanker “Amoco Cadiz” and one non-oil-polluted area (Rade de Brest). A new approach to an ecological survey was made by describing trophic relationships using analysis of digestive enzyme equipment (amylase and trypsin) of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> organisms, mesoplankton populations and some selected species. These measurements allowed determination of (a) groups of populations with homogeneous trophic and faunistic characteristics and (b) groups of species with homogeneous trophic characteristics. The study of the appearance of these groups over a one-year period revealed the succession of populations and their adaptation to the environment on the basis of biochemical analysis. These phenomena observed in the compared areas showed marked differences in the most polluted areas during the productive spring period. Specific treatment of the data using unusual correlations between digestive enzymes is discussed in terms of the immediate effect on the whole population and on a copepod ( Anomalocera patersoni) living in the upper 10 cm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000408','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000408"><span>Effects of alewife predation on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations in Lake Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Wells, LaRue</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations in southeastern Lake Michigan underwent striking, size-related changes between 1954 and 1966. Forms that decline sharply were the largest cladocerans (Leptodora kindtii, Daphnia galeata, and D. retrocurva), the largest calanoid copepods (Limnocalanus macrurus, Epischura lacustris, and Diaptomus sicilis), and the largest cyclopoid copepod (Mesocyclops edax). Two of these, D. galeata and M. edax (both abundant in 1954), became extremely rare. Certain medium-sized or small species increased in numbers: Daphnia longiremis, Holopedium gibberum, Polyphemus pediculus, Bosmina longirostris, Bosmina coregoni, Ceriodaphnia sp., Cyclops bicuspidatus, Cyclops vernalis, and Diaptomus ashlandi. Evidence is strong that the changes were due to selective predation by alewives. The alewife was uncommon in southeastern Lake Michigan in 1954 but had increased to enormous proportions by 1966; there was a massive dieoff in spring 1967, and abundance remained relatively low in 1968. The composition of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations in 1968 generally had shifted back toward that of 1954, although D. galeata and M. edax remained rare. The average size, and size at onset of maturity, of D. retrocurva decreased noticeably between 1954 and 1966 but increased between 1966 and 1968.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=survey+AND+correlational&pg=7&id=ED575512','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=survey+AND+correlational&pg=7&id=ED575512"><span>A Quantitative Correlational Study of the Interaction between Assignment <span class="hlt">Response</span> Times and Online Students' <span class="hlt">Final</span> Grades and Satisfaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Petrites, Taralynn Wells</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This quantitative correlational study included an investigation of potential factors effecting high attrition rates in postsecondary online courses. Online learner-instructor interaction was examined by assessing instructor <span class="hlt">response</span> times (RTs), student satisfaction, and <span class="hlt">final</span> course grades at an online two-year postsecondary institution. A sample…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-27/pdf/2013-23548.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-27/pdf/2013-23548.pdf"><span>78 FR 59726 - Interim <span class="hlt">Final</span> Appendix D of OMB Circular No. A-123, “Management's <span class="hlt">Responsibility</span> for Internal...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-27</p> <p>... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Interim <span class="hlt">Final</span> Appendix D of OMB Circular No. A-123, ``Management's <span class="hlt">Responsibility</span> for Internal Control,'' and Suspension of Application of OMB Circular No. A-127, ``Financial Management Systems'' September 27, 2013. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: OMB Circular No. A-123, ``Management's...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104900&keyword=principle+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104900&keyword=principle+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>EVALUATION OF OPTICALLY ACQUIRED <span class="hlt">ZOOPLANKTON</span> SIZE-SPECTRUM DATA AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR ASSESSMENT OF CONDITION IN THE GREAT LAKES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An optical <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> counter (OPC) potentially provides as assessment tool for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> condition in ecosystems that is rapid, economical, and spatially extensive. We collected <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> data with an optical <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> counter in 20 near-shore regions of four of the Laure...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......107R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......107R"><span>Acoustic estimates of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton biomass in cyclones and anticyclones of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ressler, Patrick Henry</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), coarse to mesoscale eddies can enhance the supply of limiting nutrients into the euphotic zone, elevating primary production. This leads to 'oases' of enriched standing stocks of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton in otherwise oligotrophic deepwater (>200 m bottom depth). A combination of acoustic volume backscattering (Sv) measurements with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and concurrent net sampling of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton biomass in GOM eddy fields between October 1996 and November 1998 confirmed that cyclones and flow confluences were areas of locally enhanced Sv and standing stock biomass. Net samples were used both to 'sea-truth' the acoustic measurements and to assess the influence of taxonomic composition on measured Sv. During October 1996 and August 1997, a mesoscale (200--300 km diameter) cyclone-anticyclone pair in the northeastern GOM was surveyed as part of a cetacean (whale and dolphin) and seabird habitat, study. Acoustic estimates of biomass in the upper 10--50 m of the water column showed that the cyclone and flow confluence were enriched relative to anticyclonic Loop Current Eddies during both years. Cetacean and seabird survey results reported by other project researchers imply that these eddies provide preferential habitat because they foster locally higher concentrations of higher-trophic-level prey. Sv measurements in November 1997 and 1998 showed that coarse scale eddies (30--150 km diameter) probably enhanced nutrients and S, in the deepwater GOM within 100 km of the Mississippi delta, an area suspected to be important habitat for cetaceans and seabirds. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, Sv, data collected during November-December 1997 and October-December 1998 from a mooring at the head of DeSoto Canyon in the northeastern GOM revealed temporal variability at a single location: characteristic temporal decorrelation scales were 1 day (diel vertical migration of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton) and 5 days (advective processes). A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B12E..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B12E..04B"><span>Linking Biological <span class="hlt">Responses</span> of Terrestrial N Eutrophication to the <span class="hlt">Final</span> Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, M. D.; Clark, C.; Blett, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">response</span> of a biological indicator to N deposition can indicate that an ecosystem has surpassed a critical load and is at risk of significant change. The importance of this exceedance is often difficult to digest by policy makers and public audiences if the change is not linked to a familiar ecosystem endpoint. A workshop was held to bring together scientists, resource managers, and policy makers with expertise in ecosystem functioning, critical loads, and economics in an effort to identify the ecosystem services impacted by air pollution. This was completed within the framework of the <span class="hlt">Final</span> Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) Classification System to produce a product that identified distinct interactions between society and the effects of nitrogen pollution. From each change in a biological indicator, we created multiple ecological production functions to identify the cascading effects of the change to a measureable ecosystem service that a user interacts with either by enjoying, consuming, or appreciating the good or service, or using it as an input in the human economy. This FEGS metric was then linked to a beneficiary group that interacts with the service. Chains detailing the links from the biological indicator to the beneficiary group were created for aquatic and terrestrial acidification and eutrophication at the workshop, and here we present a subset of the workshop results by highlighting for 9 different ecosystems affected by terrestrial eutrophication. A total of 213 chains that linked to 37 unique FEGS metrics and impacted 15 beneficiary groups were identified based on nitrogen deposition mediated changes to biological indicators. The chains within each ecosystem were combined in flow charts to show the complex, overlapping relationships among biological indicators, ecosystem services, and beneficiary groups. Strength of relationship values were calculated for each chain based on support for the link in the scientific literature. We produced the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1507','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1507"><span>Development and field test of a <span class="hlt">responsible</span> alcohol service program. Volume 3, <span class="hlt">Final</span> results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>A Program of <span class="hlt">Responsible</span> Alcohol Service was developed to enable servers and managers in establishments selling alcoholic beverages to exercise <span class="hlt">responsibility</span> in their service of alcohol in order to prevent injury to and by intoxicated patrons. The P...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChJOL..32..858C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChJOL..32..858C"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> community analysis in the Changjiang River estuary by single-gene-targeted metagenomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Fangping; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Song</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>DNA barcoding provides accurate identification of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species through all life stages. Single-gene-targeted metagenomic analysis based on DNA barcode databases can facilitate longterm monitoring of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities. With the help of the available <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> databases, the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary was studied using a single-gene-targeted metagenomic method to estimate the species richness of this community. A total of 856 mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences were determined. The environmental barcodes were clustered into 70 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Forty-two MOTUs matched barcoded marine organisms with more than 90% similarity and were assigned to either the species (similarity>96%) or genus level (similarity<96%). Sibling species could also be distinguished. Many species that were overlooked by morphological methods were identified by molecular methods, especially gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and merozooplankton that were likely sampled at different life history phases. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> community structures differed significantly among all of the samples. The MOTU spatial distributions were influenced by the ecological habits of the corresponding species. In conclusion, single-gene-targeted metagenomic analysis is a useful tool for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> studies, with which specimens from all life history stages can be identified quickly and effectively with a comprehensive database.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSED23A..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSED23A..05C"><span>Under the Scope: Bringing <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Research into the K-12 Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, J.; Petrone, C.; Wickline, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Despite their small size, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are dynamic and engaging animals when viewed by researchers, teachers, and students alike. Recognizing this, we are working with K-12 teachers to develop web-based resources for using <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the classroom. This outreach effort is part of a Delaware Sea Grant-funded research project studying seasonal dynamics of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in Delaware Bay. The research team, in collaboration with a marine education specialist, initially created a website (www.underthescope.udel.edu) containing: background information on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and the research project, a magnification tool, an identification tool, and education modules that facilitate directed use of the website content and tools. Local teachers (elementary through high school) were then hosted for a workshop to engage in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> sampling using methods employed in the research project, including <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> tows and semi-autonomous identification using a ZooScan imaging system. Teachers then explored the website, evaluating its design, content, and usability for their particular grade level. Specific suggestions from the evaluation were incorporated into the website, with additional implementation planned over the next year. This teacher- researcher partnership was successful in developing the digital resource itself, in building excitement and capacity among a cohort of teachers, and in establishing relationships among teachers and researchers to facilitate adding new dimensions to the collaboration. The latter will include <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> sampling by school groups, researcher optical scanning of samples with ZooScan, and subsequent student analysis and reporting on their data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29306392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29306392"><span>Effects of increased <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass on phytoplankton and cyanotoxins: A tropical mesocosm study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dos Santos Severiano, Juliana; Dos Santos Almeida-Melo, Viviane Lúcia; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo; Chia, Mathias Ahii; do Nascimento Moura, Ariadne</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> are important biocontrol agents for algal blooms in temperate lakes, while their potential in tropical and subtropical environments is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increased <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass on phytoplankton community and cyanotoxins (microcystins and saxitoxin) content of a tropical reservoir (Ipojuca reservoir, Brazil) using in situ mesocosms. Mesocosms consisted of 50L transparent polyethylene bags suspended in the reservoir for twelve days. Phytoplankton populations were exposed to treatments having 1 (control), 2, 3 and 4 times the biomass of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> found in the reservoir at the beginning of the experiment. Filamentous cyanobacteria such as Planktothrix agardhii and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were not negatively influenced by increasing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass. In contrast, the treatments with 3 and 4 times <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass negatively affected the cyanobacteria Aphanocapsa sp., Chroococcus sp., Dolichospermum sp., Merismopedia tenuissima, Microcystis aeruginosa and Pseudanabaena sp.; the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana; and the cryptophyte Cryptomonas sp. Total microcystin concentration both increased and decreased at different times depending on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> treatment, while saxitoxin level was not significantly different between the treatments and control. The results of the present study suggest that <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass can be manipulated to control the excessive proliferation of non-filamentous bloom forming cyanobacteria (e.g. M. aeruginosa) and their associated cyanotoxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5209667','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5209667"><span>Temporal variation of cesium isotope concentrations and atom ratios in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ikenoue, Takahito; Takata, Hyoe; Kusakabe, Masashi; Kudo, Natsumi; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki; Ishimaru, Takashi</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, concentrations of cesium isotopes (133Cs, 134Cs, and 137Cs) were measured in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> collected in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan from May 2012 to February 2015. The time series of the data exhibited sporadic 137Cs concentration peaks in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. In addition, the atom ratio of 137Cs/133Cs in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was consistently high compared to that in ambient seawater throughout the sampling period. These phenomena cannot be explained fully by the bioaccumulation of 137Cs in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> via ambient seawater intake, the inclusion of resuspended sediment in the plankton sample, or the taxonomic composition of the plankton. Autoradiography revealed highly radioactive particles within <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples, which could be the main factor underlying the sporadic appearance of high 137Cs concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> as well as the higher ratio of 137Cs/133Cs in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> than in seawater. PMID:28051136</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28051136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28051136"><span>Temporal variation of cesium isotope concentrations and atom ratios in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ikenoue, Takahito; Takata, Hyoe; Kusakabe, Masashi; Kudo, Natsumi; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki; Ishimaru, Takashi</p> <p>2017-01-04</p> <p>After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, concentrations of cesium isotopes ( 133 Cs, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs) were measured in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> collected in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan from May 2012 to February 2015. The time series of the data exhibited sporadic 137 Cs concentration peaks in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. In addition, the atom ratio of 137 Cs/ 133 Cs in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was consistently high compared to that in ambient seawater throughout the sampling period. These phenomena cannot be explained fully by the bioaccumulation of 137 Cs in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> via ambient seawater intake, the inclusion of resuspended sediment in the plankton sample, or the taxonomic composition of the plankton. Autoradiography revealed highly radioactive particles within <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples, which could be the main factor underlying the sporadic appearance of high 137 Cs concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> as well as the higher ratio of 137 Cs/ 133 Cs in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> than in seawater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168363','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168363"><span>The influence of a severe reservoir drawdown on springtime <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and larval fish assemblages in Red Willow Reservoir, Nebraska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>DeBoer, Jason A.; Webber, Christa M.; Dixon, Taylor A.; Pope, Kevin L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Reservoirs can be dynamic systems, often prone to unpredictable and extreme water-level fluctuations, and can be environments where survival is difficult for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and larval fish. Although numerous studies have examined the effects of extreme reservoir drawdown on water quality, few have examined extreme drawdown on both abiotic and biotic characteristics. A fissure in the dam at Red Willow Reservoir in southwest Nebraska necessitated an extreme drawdown; the water level was lowered more than 6 m during a two-month period, reducing reservoir volume by 76%. During the subsequent low-water period (i.e., post-drawdown), spring sampling (April–June) showed dissolved oxygen concentration was lower, while turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration were greater, relative to pre-drawdown conditions. Additionally, there was an overall increase in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> density, although there were differences among taxa, and changes in mean size among taxa, relative to pre-drawdown conditions. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> assemblage composition had an average dissimilarity of 19.3% from pre-drawdown to post-drawdown. The ratio of zero to non-zero catches was greater post-drawdown for larval common carp and for all larval fishes combined, whereas we observed no difference for larval gizzard shad. Larval fish assemblage composition had an average dissimilarity of 39.7% from pre-drawdown to post-drawdown. Given the likelihood that other dams will need repair or replacement in the near future, it is imperative for effective reservoir management that we anticipate the likely abiotic and biotic <span class="hlt">responses</span> of reservoir ecosystems as these management actions will continue to alter environmental conditions in reservoirs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC51A0714B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC51A0714B"><span>Stable carbon isotopes of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> lipid components as a tool to differentiate between pelagic and ice algae as a food source for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bendle, J. A.; Moossen, H.; Jamieson, R.; Wold, A.; Falk-Peterson, S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Every summer in the Arctic, the ice cover melts and releases sea-ice algae into the surrounding waters. How important are these algae, consisting mostly of diatoms, as a major food source for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and higher trophic levels? The answer to this question is timely, given predictions for the loss of summer sea ice cover this century. We are investigating the use of compound specific carbon isotopes as a tool to differentiate between lipids found in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> which feed on diatoms living in the open ocean and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> which feed on diatoms derived from the ice. To this effect we analyse the carbon isotopic signature of the major fatty acids and alcohols and that of the major sterols collected during the Arctic ICE CHASER expedition aboard the RRV James Clark Ross in 2008. Twenty three <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples comprised of 11 different species were collected in four different depth intervals at three different sites around Svalbard. The sites had variable ice cover, from open water to solid ice. We analysed the lipid composition of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples with special emphasis on the fatty acids and fatty alcohols bound as esters. Esters are produced by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> to function as an energy reservoir. Initial results such as the occurrence of Brassicasterol, 24 methylencholest 5 en-3β-ol and Desmosterol, high amounts of the C20:5ω3 fatty acid and high C16:1ω7/C16:0-fatty acid ratios suggest that diatoms are an important part of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> diet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3805558','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3805558"><span>Stable Isotope and Signature Fatty Acid Analyses Suggest Reef Manta Rays Feed on Demersal <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Couturier, Lydie I. E.; Rohner, Christoph A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Nichols, Peter D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Assessing the trophic role and interaction of an animal is key to understanding its general ecology and dynamics. Conventional techniques used to elucidate diet, such as stomach content analysis, are not suitable for large threatened marine species. Non-lethal sampling combined with biochemical methods provides a practical alternative for investigating the feeding ecology of these species. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses of muscle tissue were used for the first time to examine assimilated diet of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, and were compared with different <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> functional groups (i.e. near-surface <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> collected during manta ray feeding events and non-feeding periods, epipelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, demersal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and several different <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa). Stable isotope δ15N values confirmed that the reef manta ray is a secondary consumer. This species had relatively high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicating a flagellate-based food source in the diet, which likely reflects feeding on DHA-rich near-surface and epipelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. However, high levels of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and slightly enriched δ13C values in reef manta ray tissue suggest that they do not feed solely on pelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, but rather obtain part of their diet from another origin. The closest match was with demersal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, suggesting it is an important component of the reef manta ray diet. The ability to feed on demersal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is likely linked to the horizontal and vertical movement patterns of this giant planktivore. These new insights into the habitat use and feeding ecology of the reef manta ray will assist in the effective evaluation of its conservation needs. PMID:24167562</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRI...90...36W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRI...90...36W"><span>Trophic ecology and vertical patterns of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from oxygen minimum zone regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Rebecca L.; Wakeham, Stuart; McKinney, Rick; Wishner, Karen F.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The unique physical and biogeochemical characteristics of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) influence plankton ecology, including <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> trophic webs. Using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, this study examined <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> trophic webs in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) OMZ. δ13C values were used to indicate <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> food sources, and δ15N values were used to indicate <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> trophic position and nitrogen cycle pathways. Vertically stratified MOCNESS net tows collected <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from 0 to 1000 m at two stations along a north-south transect in the ETNP during 2007 and 2008, the Tehuantepec Bowl and the Costa Rica Dome. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> samples were separated into four size fractions for stable isotope analyses. Particulate organic matter (POM), assumed to represent a primary food source for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, was collected with McLane large volume in situ pumps. The isotopic composition and trophic ecology of the ETNP <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community had distinct spatial and vertical patterns influenced by OMZ structure. The most pronounced vertical isotope gradients occurred near the upper and lower OMZ oxyclines. Material with lower δ13C values was apparently produced in the upper oxycline, possibly by chemoautotrophic microbes, and was subsequently consumed by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Between-station differences in δ15N values suggested that different nitrogen cycle processes were dominant at the two locations, which influenced the isotopic characteristics of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. A strong depth gradient in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> δ15N values in the lower oxycline suggested an increase in trophic cycling just below the core of the OMZ. Shallow POM (0-110 m) was likely the most important food source for mixed layer, upper oxycline, and OMZ core <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, while deep POM was an important food source for most lower oxycline <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (except for samples dominated by the seasonally migrating copepod Eucalanus inermis). There was no consistent isotopic progression among the four</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27920375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27920375"><span>Eco-evolutionary dynamics in urbanized landscapes: evolution, species sorting and the change in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> body size along urbanization gradients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brans, Kristien I; Govaert, Lynn; Engelen, Jessie M T; Gianuca, Andros T; Souffreau, Caroline; De Meester, Luc</p> <p>2017-01-19</p> <p>Urbanization causes both changes in community composition and evolutionary <span class="hlt">responses</span>, but most studies focus on these <span class="hlt">responses</span> in isolation. We performed an integrated analysis assessing the relative contribution of intra- and interspecific trait turnover to the observed change in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community body size in 83 cladoceran communities along urbanization gradients quantified at seven spatial scales (50-3200 m radii). We also performed a quantitative genetic analysis on 12 Daphnia magna populations along the same urbanization gradient. Body size in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities generally declined with increasing urbanization, but the opposite was observed for communities dominated by large species. The contribution of intraspecific trait variation to community body size turnover with urbanization strongly varied with the spatial scale considered, and was highest for communities dominated by large cladoceran species and at intermediate spatial scales. Genotypic size at maturity was smaller for urban than for rural D. magna populations and for animals cultured at 24°C compared with 20°C. While local genetic adaptation likely contributed to the persistence of D. magna in the urban heat islands, buffering for the phenotypic shift to larger body sizes with increasing urbanization, community body size turnover was mainly driven by non-genetic intraspecific trait change.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5182426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5182426"><span>Eco-evolutionary dynamics in urbanized landscapes: evolution, species sorting and the change in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> body size along urbanization gradients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Souffreau, Caroline</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Urbanization causes both changes in community composition and evolutionary <span class="hlt">responses</span>, but most studies focus on these <span class="hlt">responses</span> in isolation. We performed an integrated analysis assessing the relative contribution of intra- and interspecific trait turnover to the observed change in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community body size in 83 cladoceran communities along urbanization gradients quantified at seven spatial scales (50–3200 m radii). We also performed a quantitative genetic analysis on 12 Daphnia magna populations along the same urbanization gradient. Body size in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities generally declined with increasing urbanization, but the opposite was observed for communities dominated by large species. The contribution of intraspecific trait variation to community body size turnover with urbanization strongly varied with the spatial scale considered, and was highest for communities dominated by large cladoceran species and at intermediate spatial scales. Genotypic size at maturity was smaller for urban than for rural D. magna populations and for animals cultured at 24°C compared with 20°C. While local genetic adaptation likely contributed to the persistence of D. magna in the urban heat islands, buffering for the phenotypic shift to larger body sizes with increasing urbanization, community body size turnover was mainly driven by non-genetic intraspecific trait change. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences’. PMID:27920375</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1218315H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1218315H"><span>Dead zone or oasis in the open ocean? <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> distribution and migration in low-oxygen modewater eddies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hauss, H.; Christiansen, S.; Schütte, F.; Kiko, R.; Edvam Lima, M.; Rodrigues, E.; Karstensen, J.; Löscher, C. R.; Körtzinger, A.; Fiedler, B.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) features a mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at approximately 300-600 m depth. Here, oxygen concentrations rarely fall below 40 μmol O2 kg-1, but are thought to decline in the course of climate change. The recent discovery of mesoscale eddies that harbour a shallow suboxic (< 5 μmol O2 kg-1) OMZ just below the mixed layer could serve to identify <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups that may be negatively or positively affected by on-going ocean deoxygenation. In spring 2014, a detailed survey of a suboxic anticyclonic modewater eddy (ACME) was carried out near the Cape Verde Ocean Observatory (CVOO), combining acoustic and optical profiling methods with stratified multinet hauls and hydrography. The multinet data revealed that the eddy was characterized by an approximately 1.5-fold increase in total area-integrated <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance. A marked reduction in acoustic target strength (derived from shipboard ADCP, 75kHz) within the shallow OMZ at nighttime was evident. Acoustic scatterers were avoiding the depth range between about 85 to 120 m, where oxygen concentrations were lower than approximately 20 μmol O2 kg-1, indicating habitat compression to the oxygenated surface layer. This observation is confirmed by time-series observations of a moored ADCP (upward looking, 300 kHz) during an ACME transit at the CVOO mooring in 2010. Nevertheless, part of the diurnal vertical migration (DVM) from the surface layer to the mesopelagic continued through the shallow OMZ. Based upon vertically stratified multinet hauls, Underwater Vision Profiler (UVP5) and ADCP data, four strategies have been identified followed by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in <span class="hlt">response</span> to the eddy OMZ: (i) shallow OMZ avoidance and compression at the surface (e.g. most calanoid copepods, euphausiids), (ii) migration to the shallow OMZ core during daytime, but paying O2 debt at the surface at nighttime (e.g. siphonophores, Oncaea spp., eucalanoid copepods), (iii) residing in the shallow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25427342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25427342"><span>Minimum essential coverage and other rules regarding the shared <span class="hlt">responsibility</span> payment for individuals. <span class="hlt">Final</span> regulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-11-26</p> <p>This document contains <span class="hlt">final</span> regulations relating to the requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the TRICARE Affirmation Act and Public Law 111-173 (collectively, the Affordable Care Act). These <span class="hlt">final</span> regulations provide individual taxpayers with guidance under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code on the requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage and rules governing certain types of exemptions from that requirement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5667886','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5667886"><span>Predicting temporal variation in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> beta diversity is challenging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Castelo Branco, Christina W.; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina; Sousa-Filho, Izidro F.; Souza, Leonardo Coimbra e; Bini, Luis Mauricio</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Beta diversity, the spatial variation in species composition, has been related to different explanatory variables, including environmental heterogeneity, productivity and connectivity. Using a long-term time series of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> data collected over 62 months in a tropical reservoir (Ribeirão das Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), we tested whether beta diversity (as measured across six sites distributed along the main axis of the reservoir) was correlated with environmental heterogeneity (spatial environmental variation in a given month), chlorophyll-a concentration (a surrogate for productivity) and water level. We did not found evidence for the role of these predictors, suggesting the need to reevaluate predictions or at least to search for better surrogates of the processes that hypothetically control beta diversity variation. However, beta diversity declined over time, which is consistent with the process of biotic homogenization, a worldwide cause of concern. PMID:29095892</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29095892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29095892"><span>Predicting temporal variation in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> beta diversity is challenging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lopes, Vanessa Guimarães; Castelo Branco, Christina W; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina; Sousa-Filho, Izidro F; Souza, Leonardo Coimbra E; Bini, Luis Mauricio</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Beta diversity, the spatial variation in species composition, has been related to different explanatory variables, including environmental heterogeneity, productivity and connectivity. Using a long-term time series of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> data collected over 62 months in a tropical reservoir (Ribeirão das Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), we tested whether beta diversity (as measured across six sites distributed along the main axis of the reservoir) was correlated with environmental heterogeneity (spatial environmental variation in a given month), chlorophyll-a concentration (a surrogate for productivity) and water level. We did not found evidence for the role of these predictors, suggesting the need to reevaluate predictions or at least to search for better surrogates of the processes that hypothetically control beta diversity variation. However, beta diversity declined over time, which is consistent with the process of biotic homogenization, a worldwide cause of concern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417199"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A <span class="hlt">Response</span> Surface Uncertainty Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ye</p> <p></p> <p>The critical component of a risk assessment study in evaluating GCS is an analysis of uncertainty in CO2 modeling. In such analyses, direct numerical simulation of CO2 flow and leakage requires many time-consuming model runs. Alternatively, analytical methods have been developed which allow fast and efficient estimation of CO2 storage and leakage, although restrictive assumptions on formation rock and fluid properties are employed. In this study, an intermediate approach is proposed based on the Design of Experiment and <span class="hlt">Response</span> Surface methodology, which consists of using a limited number of numerical simulations to estimate a prediction outcome as a combination ofmore » the most influential uncertain site properties. The methodology can be implemented within a Monte Carlo framework to efficiently assess parameter and prediction uncertainty while honoring the accuracy of numerical simulations. The choice of the uncertain properties is flexible and can include geologic parameters that influence reservoir heterogeneity, engineering parameters that influence gas trapping and migration, and reactive parameters that influence the extent of fluid/rock reactions. The method was tested and verified on modeling long-term CO2 flow, non-isothermal heat transport, and CO2 dissolution storage by coupling two-phase flow with explicit miscibility calculation using an accurate equation of state that gives rise to convective mixing of formation brine variably saturated with CO2. All simulations were performed using three-dimensional high-resolution models including a target deep saline aquifer, overlying caprock, and a shallow aquifer. To evaluate the uncertainty in representing reservoir permeability, sediment hierarchy of a heterogeneous digital stratigraphy was mapped to create multiple irregularly shape stratigraphic models of decreasing geologic resolutions: heterogeneous (reference), lithofacies, depositional environment, and a (homogeneous) geologic formation. To ensure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.8979M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.8979M"><span>Nutrient supply, surface currents, and plankton dynamics predict <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> hotspots in coastal upwelling systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Messié, Monique; Chavez, Francisco P.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>A simple combination of wind-driven nutrient upwelling, surface currents, and plankton growth/grazing equations generates <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> patchiness and hotspots in coastal upwelling regions. Starting with an initial input of nitrate from coastal upwelling, growth and grazing equations evolve phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> over time and space following surface currents. The model simulates the transition from coastal (large phytoplankton, e.g., diatoms) to offshore (picophytoplankton and microzooplankton) communities, and in between generates a large <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> maximum. The method was applied to four major upwelling systems (California, Peru, Northwest Africa, and Benguela) using latitudinal estimates of wind-driven nitrate supply and satellite-based surface currents. The resulting <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> simulations are patchy in nature; areas of high concentrations coincide with previously documented copepod and krill hotspots. The exercise highlights the importance of the upwelling process and surface currents in shaping plankton communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/31119','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/31119"><span>Seismic site coefficients and acceleration design <span class="hlt">response</span> spectra based on conditions in South Carolina : <span class="hlt">final</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>The simplified procedure in design codes for determining earthquake <span class="hlt">response</span> spectra involves : estimating site coefficients to adjust available rock accelerations to site accelerations. Several : investigators have noted concerns with the site coeff...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983DSRA...30.1199S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983DSRA...30.1199S"><span>Dissolved and fecal pellet carbon and nitrogen release by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in tropical waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Small, Lawrence F.; Fowler, Scott W.; Moore, Stanley A.; LaRosa, Jacques</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) release by tropical <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (mostly copepods) and micronekton (euphausiids, pelagic red crabs, and salps) was investigated near VERTEX particle traps at 18°N, 108°W (in 1981) and 15°40'N, 107°30'W (in 1982). The objective was to assess the significance of fecal pellet release relative to respiratory and dissolved excretory release of C and N and relative to primary production in the same waters. For small (< 300 μm) and large (300 to 500 μm) <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, 38 to 49% more ammonium-nitrogen was excreted than C was respired, relative to body concentrations of N and C, respectively. However, for the same <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, 40 to 54% less fecal N was egested than fecal C, again relative to body C and N contents. This apparent compensation yielded a relatively constant body C:N ratio, and, because of the relatively low ratio of respiratory C to excretory N, implied a protein-based metabolism. The same compensatory relationships were found for euphausiids and red crabs, except the percentages of C and N losses were lower than for the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. No such compensatory relationship was found for the salps, using respiratory—excretory data from the literature and our own observations of fecal pellet production. Either the literature data were not applicable to our salps, or the salps had a more lipid-based metabolism. Reasonably balanced C and N loss budgets were computed for the small and large <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Daily fecal pellet C egestion represented only 2 to 3% of both large and small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> body C content, and daily fecal pellet N egestion was <2% of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> body N. Likewise, daily fecal pellet production by small and large <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> together accounted for <2% of the daily primary C and N production in the top 100 m of water; that is, 'new' primary production would have had to replace losses of <2% per day to balance fecal pellet losses from large and small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, presuming all fecal pellets sank below 100 m without being</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045242','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045242"><span>The effects of juvenile American shad planktivory on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production in Columbia River food webs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Columbia River reservoirs support a large population of nonnative American Shad Alosa sapidissima that consume the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> that native fishes also rely on. We hypothesized that the unprecedented biomass of juvenile American Shad in John Day Reservoir is capable of altering the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community if these fish consume a large portion of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production. We derived taxon-specific estimates of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production using field data and a production model from the literature. Empirical daily ration was estimated for American Shad and expanded to population-level consumption using abundance and biomass data from hydroacoustic surveys. Daphnia spp. production was high in early summer but declined to near zero by September as shad abundance increased. American Shad sequentially consumed Daphnia spp., copepods, and Bosmina spp., which tracked the production trends of these taxa. American Shad evacuation rates ranged from 0.09 to 0.24/h, and daily rations ranged from 0.008 to 0.045 g·g−1·d−1 (dry weight) over all years. We observed peak American Shad biomass (45.2 kg/ha) in 1994, and daily consumption (1.6 kg/ha) approached 30% (5.3 kg/ha) of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production. On average, American Shad consumed 23.6% of the available <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production (range, <1–83%). The changes in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community are consistent with a top-down effect of planktivory by American Shad associated with their unprecedented biomass and consumption, but the effects are likely constrained by temperature, nutrient flux, and the seasonal production patterns of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in John Day Reservoir. American Shad add to the planktivory exerted by other species like Neomysis mercedis to reduce the capacity of the reservoir to support other planktivorous fishes. The introduction of American Shad and other nonnative species will continue to alter the food web in John Day Reservoir, potentially affecting native fishes, including Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA482028','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA482028"><span>Dynamics of Marine <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span>: Social Behavior, Ecological Interactions, and Physically-Induced Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>97 3.3.2 Steady-state solutions ..... ........................ 100 3.4 Ecosystem dynamics ...... ............................. 102 3.4.1 Fast ...<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> motion is decoupled from biological ac- tivities, as calculated in Flier] et al. (1999). When the diffusion rate is fast compared to phytoplankton...homogenize the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution, which remains spatially more intermit - tent than a passive scalar field. The last panel shows the index for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70190343','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70190343"><span>Biotic and abiotic factors influencing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> vertical distribution in Lake Huron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Nowicki, Carly J.; Bunnell, David B.; Armenio, Patricia M.; Warner, David M.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Cavaletto, Joann F.; Mayer, Christine M.; Adams, Jean V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> can have substantial influence on trophic structure in freshwater systems, particularly by determining spatial overlap for predator/prey dynamics and influencing energy transfer. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in some of the Laurentian Great Lakes has undergone changes in composition and declines in total biomass, especially after 2003. Mechanisms underlying these <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> changes remain poorly understood, in part, because few studies have described their vertical distributions during daytime and nighttime conditions or evaluated the extent to which predation, resources, or environmental conditions could explain their distribution patterns. Within multiple 24-h periods during July through October 2012 in Lake Huron, we conducted daytime and nighttime sampling of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and measured food (chlorophyll-a), temperature, light (Secchi disk depth), and planktivory (biomass of Bythotrephes longimanus and Mysis diluviana). We used linear mixed models to determine whether the densities for 22 <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa varied between day and night in the epi-, meta-, and hypolimnion. For eight taxa, higher epilimnetic densities were observed at night than during the day; general linear models revealed these patterns were best explained by Mysis diluviana (four taxa), Secchi disk depth (three taxa), epilimnetic water temperature (three taxa), chlorophyll (one taxon), and biomass of Bythotrephes longimanus (one taxon). By investigating the potential effects of both biotic and abiotic variables on the vertical distribution of crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and rotifers, we provide descriptions of the Lake Huron <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community and discuss how future changes in food web dynamics or climate change may alter <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution in freshwater environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA270302','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA270302"><span>Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Community of Livingston Reservoir, Texas, as Related to Paddlefish Food Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>EVALUATION OF THE <span class="hlt">ZOOPLANKTON</span> COMMUNITY OF LIVINGSTON RESERVOIR. TEXAS, AS RELATED TO PADDLEFISH FOOD RESOURCES A Thesis by CASEY KENNETH MOORE...OF LIVINGSTON RESERVOIR, TEXAS. AS RELATED TO PADDLEFISH FOOD RESOURCES A Thesis by CASEY KENNETH MOORE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...Fisheries Sciences iii ABSTRACT Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Community of Livingston Reservoir, Texas, as Related to Paddlefish Food Resources</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ECSS..199....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ECSS..199....1S"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> variability in the subtropical estuarine system of Paranaguá Bay, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salvador, Bianca; Bersano, José Guilherme F.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Spatial and temporal dynamics of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages were studied in the Paranaguá Estuarine System (southern Brazil), including data from the summer (rainy) and winter (dry) periods of 2012 and 2013. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> and environmental data were collected at 37 stations along the estuary and examined by multivariate methods. The results indicated significantly distinct assemblages; differences in abundance were the major source of variability, mainly over the temporal scale. The highest abundances were observed during rainy periods, especially in 2012, when the mean density reached 16378 ind.m-3. Winter assemblages showed lower densities but higher species diversity, due to the more extensive intrusion of coastal waters. Of the 14 taxonomic groups recorded, Copepoda was the most abundant and diverse (92% of total abundance and 22 species identified). The coastal copepods Acartia lilljeborgi (44%) and Oithona hebes (26%) were the most important species in both abundance and frequency, followed by the estuarine Pseudodiaptomus acutus and the neritic Temora turbinata. The results indicated strong influences of environmental parameters on the community structure, especially in <span class="hlt">response</span> to seasonal variations. The spatial distribution of species was probably determined mainly by their preferences and tolerances for specific salinity conditions. On the other hand, the abundances were strongly related to higher water temperature and precipitation rates, which can drive nutrient inputs and consequently food supply in the system, due to intense continental drainage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024890','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024890"><span>Persistence of an unusual pelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in a clear, mountain lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.L.; C. David, McIntire</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The planktonic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in Mowich Lake, Mount Rainier National Park (MORA), was composed almost entirely of rotifers in 1966 and 1967. Adult pelagic crustacean taxa were rare. Their paucity was attributed to predation by kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), which had been stocked in 1961. During a park-wide survey of 24 lakes in 1988, Mowich Lake was the only one that did not contain at least one planktonic crustacean species. Given the apparent persistence of the unusual pelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in Mowich Lake, the first objective of this study was to document the interannual variation in the taxonomic structure of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages in the lake from 1988 through 1999. A second objective was to determine if it was possible to predict the taxonomic composition of the pelagic crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in Mowich Lake prior to the stocking of kokanee salmon. The Mowich Lake <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages in 1988-1999 were consistent with those in 1966 and 1967. Crustacean taxa were extremely rare, but they included most of the primary taxa collected from 23 MORA lakes surveyed in 1988. Nonetheless, the 1988 collections showed that the September rotifer assemblage in Mowich Lake was similar to 10 of the 24 lakes sampled. Seven of the 10 lakes were dominated by cladocerans, primarily Daphnia rosea and Holopedium gibberum. Therefore, it appeared that either one or both of these species may have numerically dominated the crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in the lake prior to 1961.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032564','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032564"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> assemblages in montane lakes and ponds of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.; McIntire, C.D.; Lienkaemper, G.; Samora, B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Water quality and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples were collected during the ice-free periods between 1988 and 2005 from 103 oligotrophic montane lakes and ponds located in low forest to alpine vegetation zones in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, USA. Collectively, 45 rotifer and 44 crustacean taxa were identified. Most of the numerically dominant taxa appeared to have wide niche breadths. The average number of taxa per lake decreased with elevation and generally increased as maximum lake depths increased (especially for rotifers). With one exception, fish presence/absence did not explain the taxonomic compositions of crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages. Many rotifer species were common members of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages in montane lakes and ponds in western North America, whereas the crustacean taxa were common to some areas of the west, but not others. Constraints of the environmental variables did not appear to provide strong gradients to separate the distributions of most <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species. This suggests that interspecific competitive interactions and stochastic processes regulate the taxonomic structures of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages at the landscape level. Crustacean species that had broad niche breadths were associated with different rotifer taxa across the environmental gradients. Studies of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages need to address both crustacean and rotifer taxa, not one or the other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1016168','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1016168"><span>Persistence of an unusual pelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in a clear mountain lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Larson, Gary L.; Hoffman, Robert L.; McIntire, C.D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The planktonic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in Mowich Lake, Mount Rainier National Park (MORA), was composed almost entirely of rotifers in 1966 and 1967. Adult pelagic crustacean taxa were rare. Their paucity was attributed to predation by kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), which had been stocked in 1961. During a park-wide survey of 24 lakes in 1988, Mowich Lake was the only one that did not contain at least one planktonic crustacean species. Given the apparent persistence of the unusual pelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in Mowich Lake, the first objective of this study was to document the interannual variation in the taxonomic structure of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages in the lake from 1988 through 1999. A second objective was to determine if it was possible to predict the taxonomic composition of the pelagic crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in Mowich Lake prior to the stocking of kokanee salmon. The Mowich Lake <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages in 1988a??1999 were consistent with those in 1966 and 1967. Crustacean taxa were extremely rare, but they included most of the primary taxa collected from 23 MORA lakes surveyed in 1988. Nonetheless, the 1988 collections showed that the September rotifer assemblage in Mowich Lake was similar to 10 of the 24 lakes sampled. Seven of the 10 lakes were dominated by cladocerans, primarily Daphnia rosea and Holopedium gibberum. Therefore, it appeared that either one or both of these species may have numerically dominated the crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblage in the lake prior to 1961.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PrOce..74..313S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PrOce..74..313S"><span>Feeding and production of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Atienza, Dacha; Alcaraz, Miquel</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> are key components of the structure and functioning of marine planktonic food webs. They are the main link of planktonic primary production towards top pelagic consumer levels (fish), and play a relevant role on the nutrient recycling in the water column and on the export of particulate matter out of the photic zone. In this paper, we review the present knowledge on the feeding and production of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean), with special emphasis on copepods. Feeding of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Catalan Sea appears typically food limited, with average daily rations on a yearly basis in the order of 48% body C d -1. Heterotrophic prey constitute a relevant fraction of their diet, as an alternative to the scarce phytoplankton in the area. From a structural point of view, the trophic impact and control of their prey populations are low on standing stocks but, at certain times, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> can exert a meaningful effect on their prey production. Regarding <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production, the available estimates of growth rates in the area are based on the egg production rate of copepods. Egg production rates appear to be limited, especially in summer. Tentative estimates of copepod production in the area are in the order of 20-40 mg C m -2 d -1. In conclusion, this review confirms that the oligotrophic character of the NW Mediterranean constrains the feeding activity and production of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME14E0670S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME14E0670S"><span>DNA Barcoding of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> in the Hampton Roads Area: A Biodiversity Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salcedo, A.; Rodríguez, Á. E.; Gibson, D. M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biodiversity and distribution is crucial to understand oceanic ecosystems and anticipate the effects of climate change. Previously, identification of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> relied in morphological identification employed by expert taxonomists. DNA barcoding, a technique that uses the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cytochrome Oxidase 1 (CO1) gene is widely used for taxonomic identification. Thus, this molecular technique will be used to begin a detailed characterization of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> diversity, abundance and community structure in the Hampton Roads Area (HRA). Stations 1 (Jones Creek) and 3 (lower Chesapeake Bay) were sampled in June 19, 2015. Stations 1, 2 (James River), and 3 were sampled in September 2015. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> samples were collected in triplicates with a 0.5m, 200 µm mesh net. Physical parameters (dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature and, water transparency) were measured. Species identified as Opistonema oglinum (Atlantic Thread Herring) and Paracalanus parvus copepods were found at station 3; Anchoa mitchilli and Acartia tonsa copepods were found at stations 1 and 3. This study indicates that mtDNA-CO1 barcoding is suitable to identify <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> to the species level and helps validate DNA barcoding as a faster, more accurate taxonomic approach. The long term objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive assessment of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the HRA and to generate a reference record for broad monitoring programs; vital for a better understanding and management of ecologically and commercially important species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70094775','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70094775"><span>Terrestrial carbon is a resource, but not a subsidy, for lake <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Kelly, Patrick T.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Jones, Stuart E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Inputs of terrestrial organic carbon (t-OC) into lakes are often considered a resource subsidy for aquatic consumer production. Although there is evidence that terrestrial carbon can be incorporated into the tissues of aquatic consumers, its ability to enhance consumer production has been debated. Our research aims to evaluate the net effect of t-OC input on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. We used a survey of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production and resource use in ten lakes along a naturally occurring gradient of t-OC concentration to address these questions. Total and group-specific <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production was negatively related to t-OC. Residual variation in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production that was not explained by t-OC was negatively related to terrestrial resource use (allochthony) by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. These results challenge the designation of terrestrial carbon as a resource subsidy; rather, the negative effect of reduced light penetration on the amount of suitable habitat and the low resource quality of t-OC appear to diminish <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production. Our findings suggest that ongoing continental-scale increases in t-OC concentrations of lakes will likely have negative impacts on the productivity of aquatic food webs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME23B..01R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME23B..01R"><span>Overheated and Out of Breath: Temperature Regulation of Respiration and Oxygen Supply in Coastal <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roman, M.; Elliott, D. T.; Pierson, J. J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Increasing global coastal hypoxia occurs under a large range of temperature and salinity conditions. Temperature directly influences oxygen solubility in seawater as well as the oxygen demand of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, thus oxygen concentration alone is not sufficient to categorize the biological impact of hypoxia for pelagic organisms. To effectively assess the impacts of hypoxic stress on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> habitat space and production, it is necessary to consider the effects of temperature on both oxygen availability and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> metabolism. Our analysis and modeling evaluate available oxygen (partial pressure and concentration) in the context of ambient temperature conditions and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> oxygen demand. We will present allometric models, accounting for both body size and temperature that predict temperature-dependent oxygen supply and demand in coastal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Our goal is to develop generalized, functional relationships that describe and quantify the interactive effects of temperature and low oxygen on coastal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> that can lead to improved size-structured models that serve to predict impacts of increasing coastal hypoxia on pelagic food webs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DSRI...51.1283R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DSRI...51.1283R"><span>How well does the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) sample <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>? A comparison with the Longhurst Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR) in the northeast Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, Anthony J.; John, Eurgain H.; Irigoien, Xabier; Harris, Roger P.; Hays, Graeme C.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey has collected data on basin-scale <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance in the North Atlantic since the 1930s. These data have been used in many studies to elucidate seasonal patterns and long-term change in plankton populations, as well as more recently to validate ecosystem models. There has, however, been relatively little comparison of the data from the CPR with that from other samplers. In this study we compare <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance estimated from the CPR in the northeast Atlantic with near-surface samples collected by a Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR) at Ocean Weather Station India (59°N, 19°W) between 1971 and 1975. Comparisons were made for six common copepods in the region: Acartia clausi, Calanus finmarchicus, Euchaeta norvegica, Metridia lucens, Oithona sp., and Pleuromamma robusta. Seasonal cycles based on CPR data were similar to those recorded by the LHPR. Differences in absolute abundances were apparent, however, with the CPR underestimating abundances by a factor of between 5 and 40, with the exception of A. clausi. Active avoidance by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is thought to be <span class="hlt">responsible</span>. This avoidance is species specific, so that care must be taken describing communities, as the CPR emphasises those species that are preferentially caught, a problem common to many plankton samplers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ECSS...71..335B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ECSS...71..335B"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> taxonomic and size diversity in Mediterranean coastal lagoons (NE Iberian Peninsula): Influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Badosa, Anna; Boix, Dani; Brucet, Sandra; López-Flores, Rocío; Gascón, Stéphanie; Quintana, Xavier D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxonomic and size diversity was analyzed in several shallow lagoons of a Mediterranean salt marsh (Baix Ter Wetlands, NE Iberian Peninsula). Taxonomic diversity correlated better with variables related to the trophic state, such as nutrient concentrations, whereas size diversity was more sensitive to fish predation. However, the fish predation influence on the size diversity was only significant when fishes reached high densities. Under low fish densities no predation effects were observed and the food resource availability (FR a) appeared to be more important in structuring the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. Nevertheless, the two diversity indexes showed opposite <span class="hlt">responses</span> to this factor. With increasing FR a the taxonomic diversity increased and the size diversity decreased. Neither taxonomic nor size diversity of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community correlated with other physical or biotic factors such as hydrological variability or macroinvertebrate predation. The relationships found suggest that the size diversity is mainly related to biotic interactions, such as fish predation or inter/intraspecific competition, while the taxonomic diversity appears to be more sensitive to abiotic factors such as the nutrient composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/10117011-responsible-science-ensuring-integrity-research-process-volume-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/10117011-responsible-science-ensuring-integrity-research-process-volume-final-report"><span><span class="hlt">Responsible</span> science: Ensuring the integrity of the research process. Volume 2. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, 1989--1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p></p> <p>In 1989, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine initiated a major study to examine issues related to the <span class="hlt">responsible</span> conduct of research. The findings and recommendations were published in March 1992 as: <span class="hlt">Responsible</span> Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process, Vol. 1. Volume II of the report, this volume, includes the six commissioned background papers as well as selected institutional guidelines, reports, policies, and procedures. The institutional statements reprinted in Volume II have been selected to convey the diverse approaches for addressing different aspects of misconduct or integrity in sciencemore » within research institutions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PrOce..69..318F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PrOce..69..318F"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> and the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernández-Álamo, María Ana; Färber-Lorda, Jaime</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>We review the spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and relationships with oceanographic factors that affect <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution, abundance and trophic relationships. Large-scale spatial patterns of some <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups show broad coincidence with surface water masses, circulation, and upwelling regions, in agreement with an ecological and dynamic partitioning of the pelagic ecosystem. The papers reviewed and a new compilation of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> volume data at large-scale show that abundance patterns of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass have their highest values in the upwelling regions, including the Gulf of Tehuantepec, the Costa Rica Dome, the equatorial cold tongue, and the coast of Peru. Some of the first studies of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> vertical distribution were done in this region, and a general review of the topic is presented. The possible physiological implications of vertical migration in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and the main hypotheses are described, with remarks on the importance of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) as a barrier to both the vertical distribution and migration of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the region. Recent results, using multiple-net gear, show that vertical distribution is more complex than previously thought. There are some well-adapted species that do live and migrate within the OMZ. Temporal patterns are reviewed and summarized with historical data. Seasonal variations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass follow productivity cycles in upwelling areas. No <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> time series exist to resolve ENSO effects in oceanic regions, but some El Niño events have had effects in the Peru Current ecosystem. Multidecadal periods of up to 50 years show a shift from a warm sardine regime with a low <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass to a cool anchovy regime in the eastern Pacific with higher <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomasses. However, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> volume off Peru has remained at low values since the 1972 El Niño, a trend opposite to that of anchoveta biomass since 1984. Studies of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/877056','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/877056"><span>Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and <span class="hlt">Response</span>: Fiscal Year 2004 <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Stenner, Robert D.</p> <p>2005-09-28</p> <p>Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and <span class="hlt">Response</span> Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/19156','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/19156"><span>Development of an improved capability for predicting the <span class="hlt">response</span> of highway bridges : <span class="hlt">final</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This study compared experimental and analytical stress and deflection <span class="hlt">response</span> of a simply-supported highway bridge as measured from a field test and as predicted from a finite-element analysis. The field test was conducted on one span of a six-span ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=litwin&pg=3&id=ED035087','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=litwin&pg=3&id=ED035087"><span><span class="hlt">Responsive</span> Environment Program Brooklyn, N.Y., Sept. 1968-June 1969: The Talking Typewriter. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Israel, Benjamin L.; Litwin, Zelda</p> <p></p> <p>This progress report covers a 6-month period in the second year of an experimental research project to test the utility of the Edison <span class="hlt">Responsive</span> Environment Talking Typewriter as a major tool for teaching both initial and remedial reading to educationally disadvantaged youth. Conducted in six schools in Brooklyn, New York, the study included…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED357664.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED357664.pdf"><span>National Commission on <span class="hlt">Responsibilities</span> for Financing Postsecondary Education. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report. Background Papers and Reports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kramer, Martin; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This collection of reports analyzes the roles and <span class="hlt">responsibilities</span> of the major participants in the financing system for postsecondary education. The six papers present: (1) a conceptual basis for the roles of the various parties in postsecondary education finance and a description of changes in these roles and the difficulties posed for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED028492.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED028492.pdf"><span>Conditioned Emotional <span class="hlt">Response</span>: Performance Decrement in Humans as a Function of Task Complexity. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sachs, David A.; May, Jack G., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>This study was designed to investigate the effects of increasing levels of task complexity on the conditioned emotional <span class="hlt">response</span> (CER) with human subjects (Ss). Three hypotheses were proposed: (1) the CER would increase as task complexity increased, (2) there would be sex differences between Ss with respect to the interaction between the CER and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/32648','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/32648"><span>North American study on contracting snow and ice <span class="hlt">response</span> : <span class="hlt">final</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Snow and ice control operations are a vital function often conducted by state and local transportation agencies. Many states are choosing to contract snow and ice <span class="hlt">response</span> services, instead of or in addition to the use of in-house forces, to maintain...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.1977H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.1977H"><span>Dead zone or oasis in the open ocean? <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> distribution and migration in low-oxygen modewater eddies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hauss, Helena; Christiansen, Svenja; Schütte, Florian; Kiko, Rainer; Edvam Lima, Miryam; Rodrigues, Elizandro; Karstensen, Johannes; Löscher, Carolin R.; Körtzinger, Arne; Fiedler, Björn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) features a mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at approximately 300-600 m depth. Here, oxygen concentrations rarely fall below 40 µmol O2 kg-1, but are expected to decline under future projections of global warming. The recent discovery of mesoscale eddies that harbour a shallow suboxic (< 5 µmol O2 kg-1) OMZ just below the mixed layer could serve to identify <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups that may be negatively or positively affected by ongoing ocean deoxygenation. In spring 2014, a detailed survey of a suboxic anticyclonic modewater eddy (ACME) was carried out near the Cape Verde Ocean Observatory (CVOO), combining acoustic and optical profiling methods with stratified multinet hauls and hydrography. The multinet data revealed that the eddy was characterized by an approximately 1.5-fold increase in total area-integrated <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance. At nighttime, when a large proportion of acoustic scatterers is ascending into the upper 150 m, a drastic reduction in mean volume backscattering (Sv) at 75 kHz (shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler, ADCP) within the shallow OMZ of the eddy was evident compared to the nighttime distribution outside the eddy. Acoustic scatterers avoided the depth range between approximately 85 to 120 m, where oxygen concentrations were lower than approximately 20 µmol O2 kg-1, indicating habitat compression to the oxygenated surface layer. This observation is confirmed by time series observations of a moored ADCP (upward looking, 300 kHz) during an ACME transit at the CVOO mooring in 2010. Nevertheless, part of the diurnal vertical migration (DVM) from the surface layer to the mesopelagic continued through the shallow OMZ. Based upon vertically stratified multinet hauls, Underwater Vision Profiler (UVP5) and ADCP data, four strategies followed by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in <span class="hlt">response</span> to in <span class="hlt">response</span> to the eddy OMZ have been identified: (i) shallow OMZ avoidance and compression at the surface (e.g. most calanoid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19112701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19112701"><span>Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and <span class="hlt">Response</span> Act of 2002. <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-11-07</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a <span class="hlt">final</span> regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The <span class="hlt">final</span> rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and <span class="hlt">Response</span> Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The <span class="hlt">final</span> rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and <span class="hlt">Response</span> Act of 2002."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6681214-responsiveness-summary-bomarc-missile-site-proposed-plan-final-report-november-may','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6681214-responsiveness-summary-bomarc-missile-site-proposed-plan-final-report-november-may"><span><span class="hlt">Responsiveness</span> summary, bomarc missile site proposed plan. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, November 1989-May 1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Vest, G.</p> <p>1992-11-20</p> <p>A Public Meeting on the United States Air Force proposed plan for the clean-up of contamination at the BOMARC Missile Site, McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey was conducted at Fort Dix, Now Jersey on June 20, 1992. A summary of <span class="hlt">responses</span> to comments provided at the Public Meeting is provided. <span class="hlt">Responses</span> to written comments are provided. A transcript of the public hearing is provided as Appendix A. A copy of all letters provided to the United States Air Force are provided as Appendix B. The BOMARC Missile Site became contaminated in 1960 as the result of a fire whichmore » partially consumed a nuclear warhead-equipped BOMARC missile.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7173748-community-environmental-response-facilitation-act-cerfa-report-fort-george-mead-maryland-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7173748-community-environmental-response-facilitation-act-cerfa-report-fort-george-mead-maryland-final-report"><span>Community Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span> Facilitation Act (CERFA) report, Fort George G. Mead, Maryland. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Schultheisz, D.; Ward, L.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>This report presents the results of the Community Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span> Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) at Fort George G. Meade (FGGM), a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA, Federal agencies are required to expeditiously identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span>, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed.more » Fort George G. Meade, CERFA, Base closure, BRAC.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6293873-structural-response-gas-dynamics-airship-exposed-nuclear-detonation-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6293873-structural-response-gas-dynamics-airship-exposed-nuclear-detonation-final-report"><span>Structural <span class="hlt">response</span> and gas dynamics of an airship exposed to a nuclear detonation. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Gilstad, D.A.; Weeber, C.G.; Kviljord, A.</p> <p>1960-04-25</p> <p>Four Model ZSG-3 airships, U. S. Navy Bureau of Aeronautics Nos. 40, 46, 77, and 92, participated during Operation Plumbbob to determine the <span class="hlt">response</span> characteristics of the Model ZSG-3 airship when subjected to a nuclear detonation in order to establish criteria for safe escape distances for airship delivery of antisubmarine warfare special weapons. Restrained <span class="hlt">response</span> data for 0.40-psi overpressure input were obtained during Shot Franklin with the ZSG-3 No. 77 moored tail to the blast. Unrestrained <span class="hlt">response</span> data for 0.75-psi overpressure input were obtained during Shot Stokes with the ZSG-3 No. 40 free ballooned, tail to the blast, 300 feetmore » aboveground. The first airship exposed to overpressure experienced a structural failure of the nose cone when it was rammed into the mooring mast, together with a tear of the forward ballonet which necessitated deflation of the envelope. The second airship broke in half and crashed following a circumferential failure of the envelope originating at the bottom of the envelope, forward of the car.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1421800','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1421800"><span>2025 California Demand <span class="hlt">Response</span> Potential Study - Charting California’s Demand <span class="hlt">Response</span> Future. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report on Phase 2 Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Alstone, Peter; Potter, Jennifer; Piette, Mary Ann</p> <p></p> <p>California’s legislative and regulatory goals for renewable energy are changing the power grid’s dynamics. Increased variable generation resource penetration connected to the bulk power system, as well as, distributed energy resources (DERs) connected to the distribution system affect the grid’s reliable operation over many different time scales (e.g., days to hours to minutes to seconds). As the state continues this transition, it will require careful planning to ensure resources with the right characteristics are available to meet changing grid management needs. Demand <span class="hlt">response</span> (DR) has the potential to provide important resources for keeping the electricity grid stable and efficient, tomore » defer upgrades to generation, transmission and distribution systems, and to deliver customer economic benefits. This study estimates the potential size and cost of future DR resources for California’s three investor-owned utilities (IOUs): Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), Southern California Edison Company (SCE), and San Diego Gas & Electric Company (SDG&E). Our goal is to provide data-driven insights as the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) evaluates how to enhance DR’s role in meeting California’s resource planning needs and operational requirements. We address two fundamental questions: 1. What cost-competitive DR service types will meet California’s future grid needs as it moves towards clean energy and advanced infrastructure? 2. What is the size and cost of the expected resource base for the DR service types?« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4879453','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4879453"><span>Salivary Biomarker <span class="hlt">Responses</span> to Two <span class="hlt">Final</span> Matches in Women’s Professional Football</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two <span class="hlt">final</span> matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p < 0.001) while cortisol increased only after M1 (+116%, p < 0.001). The testosterone-to-cortisol ratio decreased only after M1 (-32.4%, p < 0.001). IgA concentration did not change after any match. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with IgA concentrations after each match (M1: R = 0.59, p = 0.008; M2: R=0.51, p = 0.02). RPE was correlated with cortisol concentrations after M1 (R = 0.57; p = 0.01), but not after M2 (R = 0.38; p = 0.07). All these results suggest that salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations increase especially after the first match of a <span class="hlt">final</span>, without affecting IgA levels. We speculate that increased testosterone concentration in women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key points In our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate. Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying. The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state. PMID:27274677</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1308445','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1308445"><span>Inter-Individual Variability in Human <span class="hlt">Response</span> to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation, <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Rocke, David</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In order to investigate inter-individual variability in <span class="hlt">response</span> to low-dose ionizing radiation, we are working with three models, 1) in-vivo irradiated human skin, for which we have a realistic model, but with few subjects, all from a previous project, 2) ex-vivo irradiated human skin, for which we also have a realistic model, though with the limitations involved in keeping skin pieces alive in media, and 3) MatTek EpiDermFT skin plugs, which provides a more realistic model than cell lines, which is more controllable than human samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/128173-studies-young-female-responses-acute-ozone-exposure-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/128173-studies-young-female-responses-acute-ozone-exposure-final-report"><span>Studies of young female <span class="hlt">responses</span> to acute ozone exposure. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Adams, W.C.</p> <p></p> <p>The primary purposes of this research were to determine if: (1) young adult females respond with greater acute effects of ozone (O3) than their male counterparts at a dose relative to lung size as well as at the same total dose; (2) O3 <span class="hlt">response</span> in females is influenced by the disparate levels of progesterone (a steroid hormone) that they experience during the various phases of their menstrual cycles; and (3) O3 exposure has an effect on the integrity of normal menstrual cycles of healthy young adult females.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29491177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29491177"><span>Diversity-dependent evolutionary rates in early Palaeozoic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foote, Michael; Cooper, Roger A; Crampton, James S; Sadler, Peter M</p> <p>2018-02-28</p> <p>The extent to which biological diversity affects rates of diversification is central to understanding macroevolutionary dynamics, yet no consensus has emerged on the importance of diversity-dependence of evolutionary rates. Here, we analyse the species-level fossil record of early Palaeozoic graptoloids, documented with high temporal resolution, to test directly whether rates of diversification were influenced by levels of standing diversity within this major clade of marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. To circumvent the statistical regression-to-the-mean artefact, whereby higher- and lower-than-average values of diversity tend to be followed by negative and positive diversification rates, we construct a non-parametric, empirically scaled, diversity-independent null model by randomizing the observed diversification rates with respect to time. Comparing observed correlations between diversity and diversification rate to those expected from this diversity-independent model, we find evidence for negative diversity-dependence, accounting for up to 12% of the variance in diversification rate, with maximal correlation at a temporal lag of approximately 1 Myr. Diversity-dependence persists throughout the Ordovician and Silurian, despite a major increase in the strength and frequency of extinction and speciation pulses in the Silurian. By contrast to some previous work, we find that diversity-dependence affects rates of speciation and extinction nearly equally on average, although subtle differences emerge when we compare the Ordovician and Silurian. © 2018 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490249"><span>Characterization of intermittency in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> behaviour in turbulence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Michalec, François-Gaël; Schmitt, François G; Souissi, Sami; Holzner, Markus</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We consider Lagrangian velocity differences of zooplankters swimming in still water and in turbulence. Using cumulants, we quantify the intermittency properties of their motion recorded using three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. Copepods swimming in still water display an intermittent behaviour characterized by a high probability of small velocity increments, and by stretched exponential tails. Low values arise from their steady cruising behaviour while heavy tails result from frequent relocation jumps. In turbulence, we show that at short time scales, the intermittency signature of active copepods clearly differs from that of the underlying flow, and reflects the frequent relocation jumps displayed by these small animals. Despite these differences, we show that copepods swimming in still and turbulent flow belong to the same intermittency class that can be modelled by a log-stable model with non-analytical cumulant generating function. Intermittency in swimming behaviour and relocation jumps may enable copepods to display oriented, collective motion under strong hydrodynamic conditions and thus, may contribute to the formation of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> patches in energetic environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4033230','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4033230"><span>Parasitic chytrids sustain <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> growth during inedible algal bloom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rasconi, Serena; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlène; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study assesses the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on the planktonic food web of two contrasting freshwater lakes during different algal bloom situations. Carbon-based food web models were used to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin (oligo-mesotrophic) and the autumn cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Aydat (eutrophic). Linear inverse modeling was employed to estimate undetermined flows in both lakes. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modeling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results confirm recent theories on the impact of parasites on food web function through grazers and recyclers. During blooms of “inedible” algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores), the epidemic growth of chytrids channeled 19–20% of the primary production in both lakes through the production of grazer exploitable zoospores. The parasitic throughput represented 50% and 57% of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> diet, respectively, in the oligo-mesotrophic and in the eutrophic lakes. Parasites also affected ecological network properties such as longer carbon path lengths and loop strength, and contributed to increase the stability of the aquatic food web, notably in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Pavin. PMID:24904543</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996GeCoA..60.2265H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996GeCoA..60.2265H"><span>Steryl chlorin esters are formed by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> herbivory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harradine, Paul J.; Harris, Philip G.; Head, Robert N.; Harris, Roger P.; Maxwell, James R.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>Steryl chlorin esters (SCEs) were formed in laboratory feeding experiments when starved females of the copepod Calanus helgolandicus were allowed to graze on a culture of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. They were found when the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> had grazed for 48 hours and were also identified in fecal pellets subsequently left in seawater in the dark. The distribution contained the diatom sterols in approximately the same relative abundance as the free sterols in the substrate, as well as the most abundant copepod sterol, all esterified to the chlorophyll a degradation product, pyropheophorbide a. Hence, in studies aimed at using sedimentary SCE sterol distributions as indicators of phytoplankton community structure, cholesterol should not be considered since the cholesteryl ester of pyropheophorbide a was a significant component in the fecal pellet SCEs. The findings represent a step forward in unravelling the transformations undergone by chlorophyll a in aquatic environments, since the abundance and wide occurrence of sedimentary SCEs indicate that they are a significant preservational sink for the chlorophyll a biosynthesised in the photic zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7010917-community-environmental-response-facilitation-act-cerfa-report-alabama-army-ammunition-plant-talladega-county-alabama-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7010917-community-environmental-response-facilitation-act-cerfa-report-alabama-army-ammunition-plant-talladega-county-alabama-final-report"><span>Community Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span> Facilitation Act (CERFA) report, Alabama Army Ammunition Plant, Talladega County, Alabama. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Young, B.; Frye, C.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>This report presents the results of the Community Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span> Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by The Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) at Alabama Army Ammunition Plant, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA, Federal agencies are required to identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum, products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span>, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. Themore » Alabama Army Ammunition Plant is a 2,187-acre site (more or less) located in Talladega County, Alabama, approximately 5 miles north of Childersburg, Alabama. The installation's primary mission was to manufacture explosives. Activities associated with the property that have environmental significance are the former manufacturing of explosives, the recycling of spent acids, and the disposal of wastes resulting from these operations. The facility is on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. Alabama Army Ammunition Plant, CERFA, Base closure, BRAC.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6965989-community-environment-response-facilitation-act-cerfa-report-cameron-station-alexandria-va-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6965989-community-environment-response-facilitation-act-cerfa-report-cameron-station-alexandria-va-final-report"><span>Community Environment <span class="hlt">Response</span> Facilitation Act (CERFA) report, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p></p> <p>This report presents the results of the Community Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span> Facilitation Act (CERFA) Investigation Conducted by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) at Cameron Station, A U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA, Federal agencies are required to identify expeditiously real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span>, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. Cameron Station ismore » 169-acre site located in Alexandria, Virginia. Cameron Station was purchased by the Federal Government at the start of World War II. It has served primarily as a supply and administrative facility. The current mission is to provide support to the Commanding General of the Military District of Washington (MDW). Support functions of environmental significance include vehicle maintenance, print and paintshops, and photographic laboratories.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1126749','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1126749"><span>Bridging the Divide: Linking Genomics to Ecosystem <span class="hlt">Responses</span> to Climate Change: <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Smith, Melinda D.</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>Over the project period, we have addressed the following objectives: 1) assess the effects of altered precipitation patterns (i.e., increased variability in growing season precipitation) on genetic diversity of the dominant C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii, and 2) experimentally assess the impacts of extreme climatic events (heat wave, drought) on <span class="hlt">responses</span> of the dominant C4 grasses, A. gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, and the consequences of these <span class="hlt">response</span> for community and ecosystem structure and function. Below is a summary of how we have addressed these objectives. Objective 1 After ten years of altered precipitation, we found the number of genotypes ofmore » A. gerardii was significantly reduced compared to the ambient precipitation treatments (Avolio et al., 2013a). Although genotype number was reduced, the remaining genotypes were less related to one another indicating that the altered precipitation treatment was selecting for increasingly dissimilar genomes (based on mean pairwise Dice distance among individuals). For the four key genotypes that displayed differential abundances depending on the precipitation treatment (G1, G4, and G11 in the altered plots and G2 in the ambient plots), we identified phenotypic differences in the field that could account for ecological sorting (Avolio & Smith, 2013a). The three altered rainfall genotypes also have very different phenotypic traits in the greenhouse in <span class="hlt">response</span> to different soil moisture availabilities (Avolio and Smith, 2013c). Two of the genotypes that increased in abundance in the altered precipitation plots had greater allocation to root biomass (G4 and G11), while G1 allocated more biomass aboveground. These phenotypic differences among genotypes suggests that changes in genotypic structure between the altered and the ambient treatments has likely occurred via niche differentiation, driven by changes in soil moisture dynamics (reduced mean, increased variability and changes in the depth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1081/pdf/ofr20131081.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1081/pdf/ofr20131081.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> report for sea-level rise <span class="hlt">response</span> modeling for San Francisco Bay estuary tidal marshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The International Panel on Climate Change has identified coastal ecosystems as areas that will be disproportionally affected by climate change. Current sea-level rise projections range widely with 0.57 to 1.9 meters increase in mea sea level by 2100. The expected accelerated rate of sea-level rise through the 21st century will put many coastal ecosystems at risk, especially those in topographically low-gradient areas. We assessed marsh accretion and plant community state changes through 2100 at 12 tidal salt marshes around San Francisco Bay estuary with a sea-level rise <span class="hlt">response</span> model. Detailed ground elevation, vegetation, and water level data were collected at all sites between 2008 and 2011 and used as model inputs. Sediment cores (taken by Callaway and others, 2012) at four sites around San Francisco Bay estuary were used to estimate accretion rates. A modification of the Callaway and others (1996) model, the Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER), was utilized to run sea-level rise <span class="hlt">response</span> models for all sites. With a mean sea level rise of 1.24 m by 2100, WARMER projected that the vast majority, 95.8 percent (1,942 hectares), of marsh area in our study will lose marsh plant communities by 2100 and to transition to a relative elevation range consistent with mudflat habitat. Three marshes were projected to maintain marsh vegetation to 2100, but they only composed 4.2 percent (85 hectares) of the total marsh area surveyed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7011108-community-environmental-response-facilitation-act-cerfa-report-fort-benjamin-harrison-indiana-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7011108-community-environmental-response-facilitation-act-cerfa-report-fort-benjamin-harrison-indiana-final-report"><span>Community Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span> Facilitation Act (CERFA) report, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>Fort Benjamin Harrison (FBH) has been investigated by Arthur D. Little, Inc. under the Community Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span> Facilitation Act (CERFA). FBH is located 12 miles northeast of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. The installation's mission includes administrative and training activities. The objective of CERFA is to expeditiously identify real property offering the greatest opportunity for immediate reuse and redevelopment. This investigation included interviews, visual inspections, and review of existing documents, regulatory records, data bases, and title documents. This information was used to divide the installation into four categories of parcels. CERFA parcels approximately 1,825 acres of the facility have no history ofmore » Comprehensive Environmental <span class="hlt">Response</span>, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulated hazardous substance or petroleum product release, disposal, or storage. CERFA parcels with qualifiers approximately 78 acres had no evidence of such release, disposal, or storage, but contained non-CERCLA hazards, such as asbestos or radon. CERFA disqualified parcels for approximately 399 acres of the investigated areas there is a history of release, disposal, or storage for one year or more of CERCLA-regulated hazardous substances or petroleum products; and CERFA excluded parcels approximately 201 acres have an existing mandate for retention by the federal government or have already been designated for transfer.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28369846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28369846"><span>Habitat size modulates the influence of heterogeneity on species richness patterns in a model <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schuler, Matthew S; Chase, Jonathan M; Knight, Tiffany M</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Habitat heterogeneity is a primary mechanism influencing species richness. Despite the general expectation that increased heterogeneity should increase species richness, there is considerable variation in the observed relationship, including many studies that show negative effects of heterogeneity on species richness. One mechanism that can create such disparate results is the predicted trade-off between habitat area and heterogeneity, sometimes called the area-heterogeneity-trade-off (AHTO) hypothesis. The AHTO hypothesis predicts positive effects of heterogeneity on species richness in large habitats, but negative effects in small habitats. We examined the interplay between habitat size and habitat heterogeneity in experimental mesocosms that mimic freshwater ponds, and measured <span class="hlt">responses</span> in a species-rich <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. We used the AHTO hypothesis and related mechanisms to make predictions about how heterogeneity would affect species richness and diversity in large compared to small habitats. We found that heterogeneity had a positive influence on species richness in large, but not small habitats, and that this likely resulted because habitat specialists were able to persist only when habitat size was sufficiently large, consistent with the predictions of the AHTO hypothesis. Our results emphasize the importance of considering context (e.g., habitat size in this case) when investigating the relative importance of ecological drivers of diversity, like heterogeneity. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28188321','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28188321"><span>Is Aluminum Innocuous to <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> at pH Below 6?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García-García, G; Jiménez-Contreras, J; Vargas-Hernández, A A; Nandini, S; Sarma, S S S</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Aluminum (Al) use has increased greatly during the last two decades, yet little information is available on its toxic effects in relation to pH particularly on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. In this work, we determined the acute toxicity (LC 50 ) and life table <span class="hlt">responses</span> for Moina micrura exposed to 0.008, 0.016 and 0.08 mg of Al L -1 at pH of 5, 6 and 7. The age-specific survivorship and reproduction showed a steep decline (80% mortality by the second day) at pH 5, independent of Al level. Both gross and net reproductive rates were significantly lower at pH 6 compared to pH 7, regardless of Al concentration. At pH 7 the rate of population increase of M. micrura was not significantly influenced by the Al level, while at pH 6 it was significantly lower (p < 0.05), suggesting that M. micrura is sensitive to changes in Al under slightly acidic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25176489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25176489"><span>The use of chlorine dioxide for the inactivation of copepod <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in drinking water treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Tao; Chen, Wei; Cai, Bo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The presence of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in drinking water treatment system may cause a negative effect on the aesthetic value of drinking water and may also increase the threat to human health due to they being the carriers of bacteria. Very little research has been done on the effects of copepod inactivation and the mechanisms involved in this process. In a series of bench-scale experiments we used a <span class="hlt">response</span> surface method to assess the sensitivity of copepod to inactivation when chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) was used as a disinfectant. We also assessed the effects of the ClO₂dosage, exposure time, organic matter concentration and temperature. Results indicated that the inactivation rate improved with increasing dosage, exposure time and temperature, whereas it decreased with increasing organic matter concentration. Copepod inactivation was more sensitive to the ClO₂dose than that to the exposure time, while being maintained at the same Ct-value conditions. The activation energy at different temperatures revealed that the inactivation of copepods with ClO₂was temperature-dependent. The presence of organic matter resulted in a lower available dose as well as a shorter available exposure time, which resulted in a decrease in inactivation efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/10117006-responsible-science-ensuring-integrity-research-process-volume-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/10117006-responsible-science-ensuring-integrity-research-process-volume-final-report"><span><span class="hlt">Responsible</span> science: Ensuring the integrity of the research process. Volume 1. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, 1989--1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p></p> <p>In 1989, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine initiated a major study to examine issues related to scientific <span class="hlt">responsibility</span> and the conduct of research. This report thoughtfully examines the challenges posed in ensuring that the search for truth reflects adherence to ethical standards. In recent years we have learned that not all scientists adhere to this obligation. Issues of misconduct and integrity in science present complex questions. This report recommends specific actions that all scientists, their institutions, and their sponsors can take to preserve and strengthen the integrity of the researchmore » process and also to deal with allegations of misconduct. The recommendations provide a blueprint for encouraging and safeguarding the intellectual independence that is essential to doing the best science while also providing for fundamental accountability to those who sponsor and support scientific research.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5563156','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5563156"><span>Changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community, and seston and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> fatty acid profiles at the freshwater/saltwater interface of the Chowan River, North Carolina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rinchard, Jacques; Kimmel, David G.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The variability in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> fatty acid composition may be an indicator of larval fish habitat quality as fatty acids are linked to fish larval growth and survival. We sampled an anadromous fish nursery, the Chowan River, during spring of 2013 in order to determine how the seston fatty acid composition varied in comparison with the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition and fatty acid composition during the period of anadromous larval fish residency. The seston fatty acid profiles showed no distinct pattern in relation to sampling time or location. The mesozooplankton community composition varied spatially and the fatty acid profiles were typical of freshwater species in April. The Chowan River experienced a saltwater intrusion event during May, which resulted in brackish water species dominating the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community and the fatty acid profile showed an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The saltwater intrusion event was followed by an influx of freshwater due to high precipitation levels in June. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition once again became dominated by freshwater species and the fatty acid profiles shifted to reflect this change; however, EPA levels remained high, particularly in the lower river. We found correlations between the seston, microzooplankton and mesozooplankton fatty acid compositions. Salinity was the main factor correlated to the observed pattern in species composition, and fatty acid changes in the mesozooplankton. These data suggest that anadromous fish nursery habitat likely experiences considerable spatial variability in fatty acid profiles of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey and that are correlated to seston community composition and hydrodynamic changes. Our results also suggest that sufficient prey density as well as a diverse fatty acid composition is present in the Chowan River to support larval fish production. PMID:28828262</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1070042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1070042"><span>The Role of RUB (related to ubiquitin) Family of Proteins in the Hormone <span class="hlt">Response</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Callis, Judy</p> <p>2013-03-22</p> <p>The Rub pathway is a conserved protein modification pathway. RUB (called Rubp1 in budding yeast, Nedd8 in animals and RUB in plants) is a ubiquitin-like 76-amino acid protein. It covalently attaches to protein using an enzymatic machinery analogous to the enzymes that attach ubiquitin to its substrate proteins. However, the nature of the complement of Rub-modified proteins in organisms was not clear. From bioinformatics analyses, one can identify a Rub activating enzymes and Rub conjugating enzymes. However, in many cases, their biochemical properties were not described. In DOE-funded work, we made major advances in our understanding of the Rub pathwaymore » in yeast and plants, work that is applicable to other organisms as well. There is a multi-subunit enzyme called SCF in all eukaryotes. The SCF consists of several subunits that serve as a scaffold (the cullin, SKP and RBX subunits) and one subunit that interacts with the substrate. This cullin protein (called Cdc53p in yeast and CULLIN 1 in plants and animals) was a known Rub target. In this work, we identified additional Rub targets in yeast as the other cullin-like proteins Cul3p and Rtt101p. Additionally we described the conservation of the Rub pathway because plant RUB1 can conjugated to yeast Cdc53p- in yeast. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we characterized the Rub activating enzymes and showed that they are not biochemically equivalent. We also showed that the Rub pathway is essential in plants and characterized plants with reduced levels of rub proteins. These plants are affected in multiple developmental processes. We discovered that they over-produce ethylene as dark-grown seedlings. We characterized a mutant allele of CULLIN1 in Arabidopsis with impaired interaction with RBX and showed that it is unstable in vivo. We used our knowledge of monitoring protein degradation to map the degradation determinants in a plant transcription factor. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we took a mass spectrometric approach to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Metro..46.2003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Metro..46.2003H"><span>SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report on APMP.PR-S1.1: Bilateral comparison of irradiance <span class="hlt">responsivity</span> of UVA detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Xuebo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In order to assess the performance of the standards and techniques used for calibration and measurement of UVA irradiance <span class="hlt">responsivity</span> of photodetectors in NMISA, South Africa, a new comparison was decided as a follow-up to comparison APMP.PR-S1. It is registered in the Key Comparison Data Base (KCDB) of BIPM as a bilateral supplementary comparison, with the identifier APMP.PR-S1.1. The comparison was carried out following the same technical protocol as that of supplementary comparison APMP PR-S1. The principle, organization and method of the comparison, as well as the preliminary measurements at the pilot laboratory NMC-A*STAR Singapore, were described in the <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report of the APMP.PR-S1 comparison. The results of this bilateral comparison show that the NMISA's results lie within ±2% against the comparison reference values of APMP.PR-S1, which is a great improvement. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The <span class="hlt">final</span> report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6239952-coastal-response-port-sheldon-jetties-pigeon-lake-michigan-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6239952-coastal-response-port-sheldon-jetties-pigeon-lake-michigan-final-report"><span>Coastal <span class="hlt">response</span> to the Port Sheldon jetties at Pigeon Lake, Michigan. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Hansen, M.; Underwood, S.G.</p> <p>1991-07-01</p> <p>The Consumers Powers Corp. constructed two jetties at Port Shelton, Michigan to maintain an open waterway into Pigeon Lake. These jetties are located at the entrance of Pigeon Lake in Port Shelton township, on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. Originally, water was drawn from Lake Michigan via Pigeon Lake Inlet to cool a fossil fuel power plant. The inlet into Pigeon Lake was deepened and widened throughout the early history of the power plant. Adjacent shorelines have been modified directly by Consumers Power Corp. and indirectly by the natural littoral <span class="hlt">response</span> to the jetties. This study sought to determinemore » the impact, if any, of these jetties at the entrance to Pigeon Lake on adjacent shorelines and nearshore zones. Analysis of historical shoreline position and bathymetry data in the vicinity of Port Sheldon indicates approximately 810,600 cu yd of material has been trapped by the jetties since construction in 1964. At present, it appears that the fillet areas adjacent to the jetties have volumetrically stabilized and that natural and bypassing may be occurring around the lakeward tips of the jetties. Results of this study identified a zone of slightly higher erosion 3,000 to 9,000 ft south of the jetties that may be related to jetty construction.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/405939-iranian-threat-key-concerns-combatant-commander-response-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/405939-iranian-threat-key-concerns-combatant-commander-response-final-report"><span>Iranian threat: Key concerns for the combatant commander in <span class="hlt">response</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Jasper, S.</p> <p>1996-03-05</p> <p>In the aftermath of the Gulf War with Iraq, the Islamic Republic of Iran has emerged as the greatest long-term threat to peace and stability in the Central Region. Through purchase of a wide range of high-tech weapons, Iran now has a formidable military force capable of influencing Gulf economic policy. However, in the event of Iranian aggression, the United States Central Command stands ready to defend vital U.S. interests in the Middle East. The national strategy of Iran is bound by the religious tenets of Islam and an oil based economy struggling to support a population which has explodedmore » over the past sixteen years. Iran seeks to build global alliances for export of oil and liquid petroleum gas while continuing support for Islamic communities under attack. Iran perceives the U.S. and the emerging regional order to be the greatest threat to the republic`s existence and, in <span class="hlt">response</span>, has bought fast attack missile patrol boats, diesel electric submarines, ballistic missiles and long range strike aircraft. Iran is now capable of conducting terrorist activities, denying international access to the Gulf and threatening the region with chemical/biological weapons. The Combatant Commander`s theater strategy must be tailored to respond rapidly and decisively to the growing Iranian threat.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/445752-vapor-containment-tests-rapid-response-system-glovebox-final-report-december-april','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/445752-vapor-containment-tests-rapid-response-system-glovebox-final-report-december-april"><span>Vapor containment tests of the rapid <span class="hlt">response</span> system glovebox. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, December 1995-April 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Arca, V.J.; Blewett, W.K.; Kinne, W.E.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The Rapid <span class="hlt">Response</span> System (RRS) is a trailer-mounted facility for demilitarizing Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS), obsolete training kits containing ampules and/or bottles of chemical warfare agents (mustard and lewisite), or other industrial chemical compounds. The main component of the RRS is a glovebox divided into three areas - an airlock station, unpack station, and neutralization station, and the CAIS items are processed through each station by use of 11 glove ports. The glovebox is maintained at negative pressure differential by a gas-particulate filter-blower unit. To measure the performance of the glovebox in containing chemical vapors/gases, a series of testsmore » was conducted on 811 April 1996 at Tooele Army Depot, UT, with methyl salicylate, a simulant for mustard. This testing addressed performance in steady state operation, airlock cycling, waste barrel changeout, and glove changeout. Two trials were also conducted in a simulated power-failure condition to determine the rate of leakage if system airflow is interrupted. The glovebox and its engineering controls provided a very high level of protection. Some procedural changes were recommended to increase the protection factor in glove and barrel changeout operations.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15063074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15063074"><span>Some ecological implications of a neem (azadirachtin) insecticide disturbance to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in forest pond enclosures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kreutzweiser, David P; Sutton, Trent M; Back, Richard C; Pangle, Kevin L; Thompson, Dean G</p> <p>2004-04-28</p> <p>A neem-based insecticide, Neemix 4.5, was applied to forest pond enclosures at concentrations of 10, 17, and 28 microg l(-1) azadirachtin (the active ingredient). At these test concentrations, significant, concentration-dependent reductions in numbers of adult copepods were observed, but immature copepod and cladoceran populations were unaffected. There was no evidence of recovery of adult copepods within the sampling season (May to October). The ecological significance of this disturbance to the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community was examined by determining biomass as a measure of food availability for higher predators, plankton community respiration, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, and conductivity as functional indicators of ecosystem stress, and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> food web stability as a measure of effects on trophic structure. The selective removal or reduction of adult copepods was sufficient to measurably reduce total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass for several weeks mid-season. During the period of maximal impact (about 4-9 weeks after the applications), total plankton community respiration was significantly reduced, and this appeared to contribute to significant, concentration-dependent increases in dissolved oxygen and decreases in conductivity among treated enclosures. The reductions in adult copepods resulted in negative effects on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> food web stability through eliminations of a trophic link and reduced interactions and connectance. Comparing the results here to those from a previous study with tebufenozide, which was selectively toxic to cladocerans and had little effect on food web stability, indicates that differential sensitivity among taxa can influence the ecological significance of pesticide effects on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6.1124S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6.1124S"><span>Ocean acidification reduces demersal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> that reside in tropical coral reefs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Joy N.; de'Ath, Glenn; Richter, Claudio; Cornils, Astrid; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Fabricius, Katharina E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The in situ effects of ocean acidification on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities remain largely unexplored. Using natural volcanic CO2 seep sites around tropical coral communities, we show a threefold reduction in the biomass of demersal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in high-CO2 sites compared with sites with ambient CO2. Differences were consistent across two reefs and three expeditions. Abundances were reduced in most taxonomic groups. There were no regime shifts in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition and no differences in fatty acid composition between CO2 levels, suggesting that ocean acidification affects the food quantity but not the quality for nocturnal plankton feeders. Emergence trap data show that the observed reduction in demersal plankton may be partly attributable to altered habitat. Ocean acidification changes coral community composition from branching to massive bouldering coral species, and our data suggest that bouldering corals represent inferior daytime shelter for demersal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Since <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> represent a major source of nutrients for corals, fish and other planktivores, this ecological feedback may represent an additional mechanism of how coral reefs will be affected by ocean acidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964856"><span>Ingestion of microplastics by natural <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups in the northern South China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Xiaoxia; Li, Qingjie; Zhu, Mingliang; Liang, Junhua; Zheng, Shan; Zhao, Yongfang</p> <p>2017-02-15</p> <p>The ingestion of microplastics by five natural <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups in the northern South China Sea was studied for the first time and two types of sampling nets (505μm and 160μm in mesh size) were compared. The microplastics were detected in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> sampled from 16 stations, with the fibrous microplastics accounting for the largest proportion (70%). The main component of the found microplastics was polyester. The average length of the microplastics was 125μm and 167μm for Nets I and II, respectively. The encounter rates of microplastics/<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> increased with trophic levels. The average encounter rate of microplastics/<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was 5%, 15%, 34%, 49%, and 120% for Net I, and 8%, 21%, 47%, 60%, and 143% for Net II for copepods, chaetognaths, jellyfish, shrimp, and fish larvae, respectively. The average abundance of microplastics that were ingested by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was 4.1pieces/m 3 for Net I and 131.5pieces/m 3 for Net II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18470380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18470380"><span>Water quality and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in tanks with larvae of Brycon Orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1949).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Alvarez, E J da S; Braga, F M de S</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Due to the importance of water variables conditions and available food in the development and survival of fish larvae, the current research evaluates the effects of two different food treatments (ration + <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and only <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>) and water quality in tanks with Brycon orbignyanus larvae. Total water transparency (45 cm) has been mainly associated with short residence time, continuous water flow and shallowness. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.32 and 7.00 mg.L(-1) in tanks with ration + <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and between 1.82 and 7.60 mg.L(-1) in tanks with only <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> treatments. Nutrients were directly affected by the addition of ration in water, with the exception of nitrite. Ten Rotifera species were found represented by high densities, ranging between 8.7 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) org.m(-3), throughout the experimental period (January to March/1996). Cladocera had the lowest density in the four tanks under analysis and ranged between 4.7 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) org.m(-3) for the six species. Diaphanosoma birgei has been classified as the most frequent species. Since ration + <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> produced better larvae yield, this treatment is recommended for Brycon orbignyanus larvae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..98...63C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..98...63C"><span>Variability of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities at Condor seamount and surrounding areas, Azores (NE Atlantic)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carmo, Vanda; Santos, Mariana; Menezes, Gui M.; Loureiro, Clara M.; Lambardi, Paolo; Martins, Ana</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Seamounts are common topographic features around the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). Recently there has been increasing research effort devoted to the ecology of these ecosystems. In the Azores, the mesozooplankon is poorly studied, particularly in relation to these seafloor elevations. In this study, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in the Condor seamount area (Azores) were investigated during March, July and September 2010. Samples were taken during both day and night with a Bongo net of 200 µm mesh that towed obliquely within the first 100 m of the water column. Total abundance, biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations did not vary with sampling site or within the diel cycle but significant seasonal variation was observed. Moreover, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition showed the same strong seasonal pattern regardless of spatial or daily variability. Despite seasonal differences, the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure remained similar for the duration of this study. Seasonal variability better explained our results than mesoscale spatial variability. Spatial homogeneity is probably related with island proximity and local dynamics over Condor seamount. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> literature for the region is sparse, therefore a short review of the most important <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> studies from the Azores is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1172027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1172027"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report Systems Level Analysis of the Function and Adaptive <span class="hlt">Responses</span> of Methanogenic Consortia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Lovley, Derek R.</p> <p></p> <p> that the performance of DIET may be strongly influenced by environmental factors. These studies have significantly modified conceptual models for carbon and electron flow in methane-producing environments and have developed a computational framework for predictive modeling the influence of environmental perturbations on methane-producing microbial communities. The results have important implications for modeling the <span class="hlt">response</span> of methane-producing microbial communities to climate change as well as for the bioenergy strategy of converting wastes and biomass to methane.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9440326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9440326"><span>Sound scattering by several <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups. II. Scattering models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanton, T K; Chu, D; Wiebe, P H</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Mathematical scattering models are derived and compared with data from <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from several gross anatomical groups--fluidlike, elastic shelled, and gas bearing. The models are based upon the acoustically inferred boundary conditions determined from laboratory backscattering data presented in part I of this series [Stanton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 225-235 (1998)]. The models use a combination of ray theory, modal-series solution, and distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA). The formulations, which are inherently approximate, are designed to include only the dominant scattering mechanisms as determined from the experiments. The models for the fluidlike animals (euphausiids in this case) ranged from the simplest case involving two rays, which could qualitatively describe the structure of target strength versus frequency for single pings, to the most complex case involving a rough inhomogeneous asymmetrically tapered bent cylinder using the DWBA-based formulation which could predict echo levels over all angles of incidence (including the difficult region of end-on incidence). The model for the elastic shelled body (gastropods in this case) involved development of an analytical model which takes into account irregularities and discontinuities of the shell. The model for gas-bearing animals (siphonophores) is a hybrid model which is composed of the summation of the exact solution to the gas sphere and the approximate DWBA-based formulation for arbitrarily shaped fluidlike bodies. There is also a simplified ray-based model for the siphonophore. The models are applied to data involving single pings, ping-to-ping variability, and echoes averaged over many pings. There is reasonable qualitative agreement between the predictions and single ping data, and reasonable quantitative agreement between the predictions and variability and averages of echo data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934703','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934703"><span>DNA Barcoding of Metazoan <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Copepods from South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kim, Sang Ki; Lee, Jin Hee; Lim, Young Jin; Lee, Jimin; Jun, Jumin; Kwak, Myounghai; Lee, Young-Sup; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar; Chang, Cheon Young; Kim, Il-Hoi; Hwang, Ui Wook</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Copepods, small aquatic crustaceans, are the most abundant metazoan <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and outnumber every other group of multicellular animals on earth. In spite of ecological and biological importance in aquatic environment, their morphological plasticity, originated from their various lifestyles and their incomparable capacity to adapt to a variety of environments, has made the identification of species challenging, even for expert taxonomists. Molecular approaches to species identification have allowed rapid detection, discrimination, and identification of cryptic or sibling species based on DNA sequence data. We examined sequence variation of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene (COI) from 133 copepod individuals collected from the Korean Peninsula, in order to identify and discriminate 94 copepod species covering six copepod orders of Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida, Monstrilloida, Poecilostomatoida and Siphonostomatoida. The results showed that there exists a clear gap with ca. 20 fold difference between the averages of within-specific sequence divergence (2.42%) and that of between-specific sequence divergence (42.79%) in COI, suggesting the plausible utility of this gene in delimitating copepod species. The results showed, with the COI barcoding data among 94 copepod species, that a copepod species could be distinguished from the others very clearly, only with four exceptions as followings: Mesocyclops dissimilis–Mesocyclops pehpeiensis (0.26% K2P distance in percent) and Oithona davisae–Oithona similis (1.1%) in Cyclopoida, Ostrincola japonica–Pseudomyicola spinosus (1.5%) in Poecilostomatoida, and Hatschekia japonica–Caligus quadratus (5.2%) in Siphonostomatoida. Thus, it strongly indicated that COI may be a useful tool in identifying various copepod species and make an initial progress toward the construction of a comprehensive DNA barcode database for copepods inhabiting the Korean Peninsula. PMID:27383475</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028536','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028536"><span>Hydroacoustic estimation of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass at two shoal complexes in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Holbrook, B.V.; Hrabik, T.R.; Branstrator, D.K.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Hydroacoustics can be used to assess <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations, however, backscatter must be scaled to be biologically meaningful. In this study, we used a general model to correlate site-specific hydroacoustic backscatter with <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dry weight biomass estimated from net tows. The relationship between <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dry weight and backscatter was significant (p < 0.001) and explained 76% of the variability in the dry weight data. We applied this regression to hydroacoustic data collected monthly in 2003 and 2004 at two shoals in the Apostle Island Region of Lake Superior. After applying the regression model to convert hydroacoustic backscatter to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dry weight biomass, we used geostatistics to analyze the mean and variance, and ordinary kriging to create spatial <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution maps. The mean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dry weight biomass estimates from plankton net tows and hydroacoustics were not significantly different (p = 0.19) but the hydroacoustic data had a significantly lower coefficient of variation (p < 0.001). The maps of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution illustrated spatial trends in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dry weight biomass that were not discernable from the overall means.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA573551','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA573551"><span>Field Demonstration of a Broadband Acoustical Backscattering System Mounted on a REMUS-100 for Inferences of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Size and Abundance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-30</p> <p>particularly high, and that numerical abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was dominated by small copepods that were relatively evenly distributed throughout the water...column. Elastic-shelled pterapods and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> with gas-inclusions were not observed at significant abundances. Small copepods were distributed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ECSS...67..424B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ECSS...67..424B"><span>Size and species diversity of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in fluctuating Mediterranean salt marshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brucet, Sandra; Boix, Dani; López-Flores, Rocío; Badosa, Anna; Quintana, Xavier D.</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Differences in size and species diversity were analysed in a <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community of a Mediterranean salt marsh (Empordà wetlands, NE Iberian Peninsula), where the dominance of a single species was frequent. In the permanent salt marsh, species diversity and size diversity had similar patterns along <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> succession. In the temporary salt marsh species diversity was high after flooding and diminished once water inputs ceased. As species diversity declined size diversity increased. Eventually, one species of calanoid dominated the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. The high size diversity in situations of calanoid dominance was possibly due to the co-occurrence of different developmental stages, each of which have different diets. Size diversity would thus indicate trophic niche segregation among different sizes. The combined use of species and size diversity values allows the identification of the successional phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18850675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18850675"><span>Applications for approval to market a new drug; complete <span class="hlt">response</span> letter; amendments to unapproved applications. <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-07-10</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on new drug applications (NDAs) and abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for approval to market new drugs and generic drugs (drugs for which approval is sought in an ANDA). The <span class="hlt">final</span> rule discontinues FDA's use of approvable letters and not approvable letters when taking action on marketing applications. Instead, we will send applicants a complete <span class="hlt">response</span> letter to indicate that the review cycle for an application is complete and that the application is not ready for approval. We are also revising the regulations on extending the review cycle due to the submission of an amendment to an unapproved application and starting a new review cycle after the resubmission of an application following receipt of a complete <span class="hlt">response</span> letter. In addition, we are adding to the regulations on biologics license applications (BLAs) provisions on the issuance of complete <span class="hlt">response</span> letters to BLA applicants. We are taking these actions to implement the user fee performance goals referenced in the Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2002 (PDUFA III) that address procedures and establish target timeframes for reviewing human drug applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JSR....43..317V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JSR....43..317V"><span>Grazing experiments and model simulations of the role of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in Phaeocystis food webs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verity, P. G.</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>A combined empirical and modelling study was conducted to further examine the potential importance of grazing by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in pelagic food webs in which Phaeocystis is a significant or dominant component. Laboratory experiments were designed to measure ingestion of Phaeocystis and other potential prey items which co-occur with Phaeocystis. Grazers included copepods and ciliates, and prey included Phaeocystis colonies and solitary cells, diatoms, ciliates, bacteria, and detritus. These data were expressed in the model currency of nitrogen units, and fit to hyperbolic tangent equations which included minimum prey thresholds. These equations and literature data were used to constrain a food web model whose purpose was to investigate trophic interactions rather than to mimic actual events. Nevertheless, the model output was similar to the general pattern and magnitude of development of Phaeocystis-diatom communities in some environments where they occur, e.g. north Norwegian waters. The model included three forms of nitrogen, three phytoplankton groups, bacteria, two <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups, and detritus, with detailed flows between compartments. An important component of the model was inclusion of variable prey preferences for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. The experiments and model simulations suggest several salient conclusions. Phaeocystis globosa colonies were eaten by a medium-sized copepod species, but ingestion appeared to be strongly dependent upon a proper size match between grazer and prey. If not, colonies were eaten little if at all. Phaeocystis solitary cells were ingested rapidly by ciliate microzooplankton, in agreement with prior literature observations. In contrast, detritus was eaten comparatively slowly by both ciliates and copepods. Both types of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> exhibited apparent minimum prey thresholds below which grazing did not occur or was inconsequential. Model simulations implied that transitions between life cycle stages of Phaeocystis may potentially be important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...143...86I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...143...86I"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> diel vertical migration and contribution to deep active carbon flux in the NW Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Isla, Alejandro; Scharek, Renate; Latasa, Mikel</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The diel vertical migration (DVM) of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> contributes to the biological pump transporting material from surface to deep waters. We examined the DVM of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in different size fractions (53-200 μm, 200-500 μm, 500-1000 μm, 1000-2000 μm and > 2000 μm) during three cruises carried out in the open NW Mediterranean Sea. We assessed their metabolic rates from empirical published relationships and estimated the active fluxes of dissolved carbon to the mesopelagic zone driven by migrant <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Within the predominantly oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea, the NW region is one of the most productive ones, with a seasonal cycle characterized by a prominent spring bloom. The study area was visited at three different phases of the seasonal cycle: during the spring bloom, the post-bloom, and strongly stratified oligotrophic conditions. We found seasonal differences in DVM, less evident during the bloom. Changes in DVM intensity were related to the composition of the <span class="hlt">zooplanktonic</span> assemblage, which also varied between cruises. Euphausiids appeared as the most active migrants in all seasons, and their life cycle conditioned the observed pattern. Immature stages, which are unable to perform large diel vertical movements, dominated during the bloom, in contrast to the higher relative importance of migrating adults in the other two sampling periods. The amount of dissolved carbon exported was determined by the migrant <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass, being highest during the post-bloom (2.2 mmol C respired m- 2 d- 1, and up to 3.1 mmol C exported m- 2 d- 1 when DOC release estimations are added). The active transport by diel migrants represented a substantial contribution to total carbon export to deep waters, especially under stratified oligotrophic conditions, revealing the importance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the biological pump operating in the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028680','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028680"><span>Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the lower Columbia River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Haskell, C.A.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PrOce..74..329F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PrOce..74..329F"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> time-series in the Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean): Variability during the decade 1994 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernández de Puelles, Maria Luz; Alemany, Francisco; Jansá, Javier</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Studies of plankton time-series from the Balearic islands waters are presented for the past decade, with main emphasis on the variability of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and how it relates to the environment. The seasonal and interannual patterns of temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll concentration and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance are described with data obtained between 1994 and 2003. Samples were collected every 10 days at a monitoring station in the Mallorca channel, an area with marked hydrographic variability in the Western Mediterranean. Mesoscale variability was also assessed using data from monthly sampling survey carried out between 1994 and 1999 in a three station transect located in the same study area. The copepods were the most abundant group with three higher peaks (March, May and September) distinguished during the annual cycle and a clear coastal-offshore decreasing gradient. Analysis of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community revealed two distinct periods: the mixing period during winter and early spring, where copepods, siphonophores and ostracods were most abundant and, the stratified period characterised by an increase of cladocerans and meroplankton abundances. Remarkable interannual <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> variability was observed in relation to hydrographic regime with higher abundances of main groups during cool years, when northern Mediterranean waters prevailed in the area. The warmer years showed the lowest <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundances, associated with the inflow of less saline and nutrient-depleted Atlantic Waters. Moreover, the correlation found between copepod abundance and large scale climatic factors (e.g., NAO) suggested that they act as main driver of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> variability. Therefore, the seasonal but particularly the interannual variation observed in plankton abundance and structure patterns of the Balearic Sea seems to be highly modulated by large-scale forcing and can be considered an ideal place where to investigate potential consequences of global climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26774785','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26774785"><span>Moonlight Drives Ocean-Scale Mass Vertical Migration of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> during the Arctic Winter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Last, Kim S; Hobbs, Laura; Berge, Jørgen; Brierley, Andrew S; Cottier, Finlo</p> <p>2016-01-25</p> <p>In extreme high-latitude marine environments that are without solar illumination in winter, light-mediated patterns of biological migration have historically been considered non-existent [1]. However, diel vertical migration (DVM) of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> has been shown to occur even during the darkest part of the polar night, when illumination levels are exceptionally low [2, 3]. This paradox is, as yet, unexplained. Here, we present evidence of an unexpected uniform behavior across the entire Arctic, in fjord, shelf, slope and open sea, where vertical migrations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are driven by lunar illumination. A shift from solar-day (24-hr period) to lunar-day (24.8-hr period) vertical migration takes place in winter when the moon rises above the horizon. Further, mass sinking of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from the surface waters and accumulation at a depth of ∼50 m occurs every 29.5 days in winter, coincident with the periods of full moon. Moonlight may enable predation of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> by carnivorous zooplankters, fish, and birds now known to feed during the polar night [4]. Although primary production is almost nil at this time, lunar vertical migration (LVM) may facilitate monthly pulses of carbon remineralization, as they occur continuously in illuminated mesopelagic systems [5], due to community respiration of carnivorous and detritivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. The extent of LVM during the winter suggests that the behavior is highly conserved and adaptive and therefore needs to be considered as "baseline" <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> activity in a changing Arctic ocean [6-9]. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.149..121F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.149..121F"><span>Modeling downward particulate organic nitrogen flux from <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> ammonium regeneration in the northern Benguela</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Gómez, M.; Pollehne, F.; Postel, L.; Packard, T. T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The vertical fluxes of particulate organic matter play a crucial role in the distribution of nutrients throughout the oceans. Although they have been the focus of intensive research, little effort has been made to explore alternative approaches that quantify the particle export at a high spatial resolution. In this study, we assess the minimum nitrogen flux (FN) required to sustain the heterotrophic metabolism in the water column from ocean depth profiles of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> NH4+ excretion (RNH4+). The reduction of RNH4+ as a function of depth was described by a power law fit, RNH4+ = (RNH4+)m (z /zm)b , whereby the b-value determines the net particulate nitrogen loss with increasing depth. Integrating these excretory functions from the base of the euphotic zone to the ocean bottom, we calculated FN at two stations located over the Namibian outer shelf. Estimates of FN (ranging between 0.52 and 1.14 mmol N m-2 d-1) were compared with the sinking fluxes of particles collected in sediment traps (0.15-1.01 mmol N m-2 d-1) 50 m over the seafloor. We found a reasonable agreement between the two approaches when fast-sinking particles dominated the ecosystem, but the FN was somewhat at odds with the measured gravitational flux during a low-sedimentation regime. Applying our conceptual model to the mesozooplankton RNH4+ we further constructed a section of FN along a cross-shelf transect at 20° S, and estimated the efficiency of the epipelagic ecosystem to retain nutrients. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we address the impact of the active flux driven by the migrant mesozooplankton to the total nitrogen export. Depending on the sedimentation regime, the downward active flux (0.86 mmol N m-2 d-1 at 150 m) accounted for between 50 and 307% of the gravitational flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/stationary-sources-air-pollution/standards-performance-new-stationary-sources-petroleum-dry-cleane-0','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/stationary-sources-air-pollution/standards-performance-new-stationary-sources-petroleum-dry-cleane-0"><span>Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources; Petroleum Dry Cleaners: 1985 <span class="hlt">Response</span> to Petition for Reconsideration & <span class="hlt">Final</span> Amendments to the Rule (50 FR 49022)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the November 27, 1985 <span class="hlt">Response</span> to Petition for Reconsideration and <span class="hlt">Final</span> Amendments to the Rule for the Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources; Petroleum Dry Cleaners.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76773&keyword=electronic+AND+document+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76773&keyword=electronic+AND+document+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">RESPONSE</span> PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. OVERVIEW AND APPLICATION. INTERIM <span class="hlt">FINAL</span> - DECEMBER 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The interim <span class="hlt">final</span> <span class="hlt">Response</span> Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76776&keyword=electronic+AND+document+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76776&keyword=electronic+AND+document+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">RESPONSE</span> PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. MODULE 4: ANALYTICAL GUIDE. INTERIM <span class="hlt">FINAL</span> - DECEMBER 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The interim <span class="hlt">final</span> <span class="hlt">Response</span> Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76774&keyword=electronic+AND+document+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76774&keyword=electronic+AND+document+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">RESPONSE</span> PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS, MODULE 3: SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SAMPLING GUIDE. INTERIM <span class="hlt">FINAL</span> - DECEMBER 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The interim <span class="hlt">final</span> <span class="hlt">Response</span> Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76775&Lab=NRMRL&keyword=Information+AND+Communication+AND+Technology+AND+Law&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76775&Lab=NRMRL&keyword=Information+AND+Communication+AND+Technology+AND+Law&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">RESPONSE</span> PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. MODULE 1: WATER UTILITIES PLANNING GUIDE - INTERIM <span class="hlt">FINAL</span> - DECEMBER 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The interim <span class="hlt">final</span> <span class="hlt">Response</span> Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/revised-interim-final-consolidated-enforcement-response-and-penalty-policy-pre','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/revised-interim-final-consolidated-enforcement-response-and-penalty-policy-pre"><span>Revised Interim <span class="hlt">Final</span> Consolidated Enforcement <span class="hlt">Response</span> and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This is the revised version of the Interim <span class="hlt">Final</span> Consolidated Enforcement <span class="hlt">Response</span> and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28168098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28168098"><span>Identifying <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community changes between shallow and upper-mesophotic reefs on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andradi-Brown, Dominic A; Head, Catherine E I; Exton, Dan A; Hunt, Christina L; Hendrix, Alicia; Gress, Erika; Rogers, Alex D</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs, reefs 30-150 m) are understudied, yet the limited research conducted has been biased towards large sessile taxa, such as scleractinian corals and sponges, or mobile taxa such as fishes. Here we investigate <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities on shallow reefs and MCEs around Utila on the southern Mesoamerican Barrier Reef using planktonic light traps. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> samples were sorted into broad taxonomic groups. Our results indicate similar taxonomic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> richness and overall biomass between shallow reefs and MCEs. However, the abundance of larger bodied (>2 mm) <span class="hlt">zooplanktonic</span> groups, including decapod crab zoea, mysid shrimps and peracarid crustaceans, was higher on MCEs than shallow reefs. Our findings highlight the importance of considering <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> when identifying broader reef community shifts across the shallow reef to MCE depth gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16161666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16161666"><span>Comparison of airborne lidar measurements with 420 kHz echo-sounder measurements of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Churnside, James H; Thorne, Richard E</p> <p>2005-09-10</p> <p>Airborne lidar has the potential to survey large areas quickly and at a low cost per kilometer along a survey line. For this reason, we investigated the performance of an airborne lidar for surveys of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. In particular, we compared the lidar returns with echo-sounder measurements of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Data from eight regions of the Sound were compared, and the correlation between the two methods was 0.78. To obtain this level of agreement, a threshold was applied to the lidar return to remove the effects of scattering from phytoplankton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70171286','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70171286"><span>Changes in seasonal nearshore <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance patterns in Lake Ontario following establishment of the exotic predator Cercopagis pengoi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Warner, David M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Benoit, Hugues; Mills, Edward L.; Johannsson, Ora E.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Cercopagis pengoi, a zooplanktivore first discovered in Lake Ontario in 1998, may reduce availability of prey for planktivorous fish. Cercoapgis pengoi is most abundant in late summer and fall. Therefore, we hypothesized that abundance of small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (bosminids and cyclopoids) species would decrease at that time. To determine if the establishment of C. pengoi was followed by changes in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community, seasonal patterns in nearshore <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> collected from May to October 1995–2000 were examined. Early summer density of small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was similar in all years while late summer and fall densities were significantly lower in 1998–2000 than in 1995–1997. The declines of small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> coincided seasonally with the peak in C. pengoidensity. Other possible causes for the observed changes in small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are less likely. High levels of fish predation should have resulted in smaller <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in 1998–2000 than in 1995–1997 and larger declines in Daphnia than other groups. This was not observed. There was no significant decline in chlorophyll-a concentrations or changes in temperature between 1995–1997 and 1998–2000. Therefore, the declines in density of small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were most likely the result of C. pengoi predation. The effect of C. pengoi establishment on alewives is increased competition for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey but C. pengoi has replaced a portion of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass and adult alewife diet formerly dominated by Diacyclops thomasi and Bosmina longirostris.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29326985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29326985"><span>Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ludvigsen, Martin; Berge, Jørgen; Geoffroy, Maxime; Cohen, Jonathan H; De La Torre, Pedro R; Nornes, Stein M; Singh, Hanumant; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Daase, Malin; Johnsen, Geir</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms' <span class="hlt">response</span> to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels. First, in environments free of light pollution, the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime and performs synchronized diel vertical migrations in the upper 30 m despite the sun never rising above the horizon. Second, the vast majority of the pelagic community exhibits a strong light-escape <span class="hlt">response</span> in the presence of artificial light, observed down to 100 m. We conclude that artificial light from traditional sampling platforms affects the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community to a degree where it is impossible to examine its abundance and natural rhythms within the upper 100 m. This study underscores the need to adjust sampling platforms, particularly in dim-light conditions, to capture relevant physical and biological data for ecological studies. It also highlights a previously unchartered susceptibility to light pollution in a region destined to see significant changes in light climate due to a reduced ice cover and an increased anthropogenic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5762190','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5762190"><span>Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ludvigsen, Martin; Berge, Jørgen; Geoffroy, Maxime; Cohen, Jonathan H.; De La Torre, Pedro R.; Nornes, Stein M.; Singh, Hanumant; Sørensen, Asgeir J.; Daase, Malin; Johnsen, Geir</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms’ <span class="hlt">response</span> to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels. First, in environments free of light pollution, the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime and performs synchronized diel vertical migrations in the upper 30 m despite the sun never rising above the horizon. Second, the vast majority of the pelagic community exhibits a strong light-escape <span class="hlt">response</span> in the presence of artificial light, observed down to 100 m. We conclude that artificial light from traditional sampling platforms affects the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community to a degree where it is impossible to examine its abundance and natural rhythms within the upper 100 m. This study underscores the need to adjust sampling platforms, particularly in dim-light conditions, to capture relevant physical and biological data for ecological studies. It also highlights a previously unchartered susceptibility to light pollution in a region destined to see significant changes in light climate due to a reduced ice cover and an increased anthropogenic activity. PMID:29326985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/ust/1988-underground-storage-tanks-technical-requirements-final-rule-and-underground-storage-tanks','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/ust/1988-underground-storage-tanks-technical-requirements-final-rule-and-underground-storage-tanks"><span>1988 Underground Storage Tanks; Technical Requirements; <span class="hlt">Final</span> Rule and Underground Storage Tanks Containing Petroleum-Financial <span class="hlt">Responsibility</span> Requirements and State Program Approval Objective; <span class="hlt">Final</span> Rule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA's 1988 regulations concerning USTs are contained in 40 CFR Part 280, 40 CFR Part 281 and 40 CFR Parts 282.50-282.105 and divided into three sections: technical requirements, financial <span class="hlt">responsibility</span> requirements, and state program approval objectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233339&keyword=nursery&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233339&keyword=nursery&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Linkages between Rivers and Great Lakes: Case Study from the St. Louis River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this case study, we characterized the spatial and seasonal distribution and abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> within the hydrologically complex drowned river mouth of the St. Louis River, the second largest tributary to Lake Superior and an important fish nursery. We hypothesize that z...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29531713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29531713"><span>Improved protocols to accelerate the assembly of DNA barcode reference libraries for freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Valdez-Moreno, Martha; Topan, Janet; Young, Monica R; Cohuo-Colli, José Angel</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Currently, freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> sampling and identification methodologies have remained virtually unchanged since they were first established in the beginning of the XX century. One major contributing factor to this slow progress is the limited success of modern genetic methodologies, such as DNA barcoding, in several of the main groups. This study demonstrates improved protocols which enable the rapid assessment of most animal taxa inhabiting any freshwater system by combining the use of light traps, careful fixation at low temperatures using ethanol, and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>-specific primers. We DNA-barcoded 2,136 specimens from a diverse array of taxonomic assemblages (rotifers, mollusks, mites, crustaceans, insects, and fishes) from several Canadian and Mexican lakes with an average sequence success rate of 85.3%. In total, 325 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) were detected with only three BINs (two cladocerans and one copepod) shared between Canada and Mexico, suggesting a much narrower distribution range of freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> than previously thought. This study is the first to broadly explore the metazoan biodiversity of freshwater systems with DNA barcodes to construct a reference library that represents the first step for future programs which aim to monitor ecosystem health, track invasive species, or improve knowledge of the ecology and distribution of freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME14E0661K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME14E0661K"><span>Investigating long-term interactions between phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the NE Atlantic and North Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khouri, R.; Beaulieu, C.; Henson, S.; Martin, A. P.; Edwards, M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>It is believed that changes in phytoplankton community have happened in the North Sea and NE Atlantic in the past decades. Since phytoplankton are the base of the marine food web, it is essential to understand the causes of such behaviour due its potential to induce change in the wider ecosystem. Whilst the impact of environmental controls, such as climate, have received considerable attention, phytoplankton can also be affected by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> grazing. We investigate how changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> impact phytoplankton populations and community composition, and vice-versa. We use data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey, an unique dataset that uses the same sampling methodology since 1958 and thus provides long and comparable plankton time-series. We apply statistical modelling to describe the interaction between phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. The analysis is inspired from techniques available in econometrics literature, which do not require assumptions of normality, independence or stationarity of the time-series. In particular, we discuss wether climatic factors or <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> grazing are more relevant to the variability in phytoplankton abundance and community composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5191104','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5191104"><span>Looking inside the Ocean: Toward an Autonomous Imaging System for Monitoring Gelatinous <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Corgnati, Lorenzo; Marini, Simone; Mazzei, Luca; Ottaviani, Ennio; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Griffa, Annalisa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Marine plankton abundance and dynamics in the open and interior ocean is still an unknown field. The knowledge of gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution is especially challenging, because this type of plankton has a very fragile structure and cannot be directly sampled using traditional net based techniques. To overcome this shortcoming, Computer Vision techniques can be successfully used for the automatic monitoring of this group.This paper presents the GUARD1 imaging system, a low-cost stand-alone instrument for underwater image acquisition and recognition of gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and discusses the performance of three different methodologies, Tikhonov Regularization, Support Vector Machines and Genetic Programming, that have been compared in order to select the one to be run onboard the system for the automatic recognition of gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. The performance comparison results highlight the high accuracy of the three methods in gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> identification, showing their good capability in robustly selecting relevant features. In particular, Genetic Programming technique achieves the same performances of the other two methods by using a smaller set of features, thus being the most efficient in avoiding computationally consuming preprocessing stages, that is a crucial requirement for running on an autonomous imaging system designed for long lasting deployments, like the GUARD1. The Genetic Programming algorithm has been installed onboard the system, that has been operationally tested in a two-months survey in the Ligurian Sea, providing satisfactory results in terms of monitoring and recognition performances. PMID:27983638</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EnMan..60.1127G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EnMan..60.1127G"><span>Emergent Macrophytes Support <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> in a Shallow Tropical Lake: A Basis for Wetland Conservation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gebrehiwot, Mesfin; Kifle, Demeke; Triest, Ludwig</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the biodiversity value of littoral zones of lakes is a priority for aquatic biodiversity conservation. However, less emphasis has been given to the littoral part of tropical African lakes, with many of the previous researches focusing only on the open water side. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the impact of the littoral zone of a shallow freshwater tropical lake (Ziway, Ethiopia), dominated by two emergent macrophytes, on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure. We hypothesized that the wetland vegetation serves as a preferred microhabitat for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities. A lake with substantial coverage of emergent macrophytes was monitored monthly from January to August, 2016. The monitoring included the measurements of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. Sampling sites were selected to represent areas of the macrophyte vegetation ( Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis) and the open water part of the lake. Sites with macrophyte vegetation were found to be the home of more dense and diverse <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. However, during the period of high vegetation loss, the density of crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> showed significant reduction within the patches of macrophytes. From biodiversity conservation perspective, it was concluded that the preservation of such small areas of macrophytes covering the littoral zone of lakes could be as important as protecting the whole lake. However, the rapid degradation of wetland vegetation by human activities is a real threat to the lake ecosystem. In the not-too-far future, it could displace and evict riparian vegetation and the biota it supports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ECSS...78..739I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ECSS...78..739I"><span>Annual cycle of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance and species composition in Izmit Bay (the northeastern Marmara Sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Isinibilir, Melek; Kideys, Ahmet E.; Tarkan, Ahmet N.; Yilmaz, I. Noyan</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The monthly abundance, biomass and taxonomic composition of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of Izmit Bay (the northeastern Marmara Sea) were studied from October 2001 to September 2002. Most species within the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community displayed a clear pattern of succession throughout the year. Generally copepods and cladocerans were the most abundant groups, while the contribution of meroplankton increased at inner-most stations and dominated the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Both species number ( S) and diversity ( H') were positively influenced by the increase in salinity of upper layers ( r = 0.30 and r = 0.31, p < 0.001, respectively), while chlorophyll a was negatively affected ( r = -0.36, p < 0.001). Even though Noctiluca scintillans had a significant seasonality ( F11,120 = 8.45, p < 0.001, ANOVA), abundance was not related to fluctuations in temperature and only chlorophyll a was adversely correlated ( r = -0.35, p < 0.001). In general, there are some minor differences in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages of upper and lower layers. A comparison of the species composition and abundance of Izmit Bay with other Black Sea bays reveals a high similarity between them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PrOce.159...73B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PrOce.159...73B"><span>Mercury concentration variability in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the southern Baltic coastal zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bełdowska, Magdalena; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Being a toxic element, mercury is introduced to the human organism through the consumption of fish and seafood, which in turn often feed on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. The bioaccumulation of Hg by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is an important factor influencing the magnitude of the mercury load introduced with food into the predator organism. Therefore the present article attempts to identify the processes and factors influencing Hg concentration in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the coastal zone, an area where marine organisms - an attractive food source for humans - thrive. This is particularly important in areas where climate changes influence the species composition and quantity of plankton. The studies were carried out on three test sites in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea in the period from December 2011 to May 2013. The obtained results show that the shorting of the winter season is conducive to Hg increase in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and, consequently, in the trophic chain. High mercury concentrations were measured in genus Synchaeta and Keratella when Mesodinium rubrum were predominant in phytoplankton, while other sources of this metal in the plankton fauna were epilithon, epiphton and microbenthos. This is of particular importance when it comes to sheltered bays and estuaries with low water dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSIS53A..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSIS53A..02B"><span>Determine Age-structure of Gelatinous <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Using Optical Coherence Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bi, H.; Shahrestani, S.; He, Y.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Gelatinous are delicate and transparent by nature, but are conspicuous in many ecosystems when in bloom. Their proliferations are a bothersome and costly nuisance and influencing important food webs and species interactions. More importantly, gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> respond to climate change rapidly and understanding their upsurge needs information on their recruitment and population dynamics which in turn require their age-structure. However, ageing gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is often restricted by the fact that they shrink under unfavorable conditions. In the present study, we examine the potential of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to age gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses light waves to examine 2D or 3D structure of target objects at a resolution of 3-5 µm. We were able to successfully capture both 3D and 2D images of sea nettle muscle fibers. Preliminary results on ctenophores will be discussed. Overall, this non-destructive sampling allows us to scan and capture images of mesoglea from jellyfish cultured in the lab, using the same individual repeatedly through time, documenting its growth which will provide precise measurements to construct an age key that will be applied to gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> captured in the field. Coupled with information on abundance, we can start to quantify their recruitment timing and success rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62597&keyword=opc&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62597&keyword=opc&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">ZOOPLANKTON</span> SIZE-SPECTRA AS AN INDICATOR IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WATERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> size-spectra has the potential to be used as an indicator of ecological condition. Mean size and size-distribution are effected by planktivore pressure and therefore reflect trophic cascade interactions as well as size selective predation. We used an optical plankton ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331157&keyword=HUMAN+AND+RESOURCE&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=331157&keyword=HUMAN+AND+RESOURCE&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Development of a Multimetric Indicator of Pelagic <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Assemblage Condition for the 2012 National Lakes Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We used <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> data collected for the 2012 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) to develop multimetric indices (MMIs) for five aggregated ecoregions of the conterminous USA (Coastal Plains, Eastern Highlands, Plains, Upper Midwest, and Western Mountains and Xeric [“West&rsq...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001082','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001082"><span>Spatial patterns in assemblage structures of pelagic forage fish and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in western Lake Superior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Johnson, Timothy B.; Hoff, Michael H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Bronte, Charles R.; Corry, Timothy D.; Kitchell, James F.; Lozano, Stephen J.; Mason, Doran M.; Scharold, Jill V.; Schram, Stephen T.; Schreiner, Donald R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We assessed abundance, size, and species composition of forage fish and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities of western Lake Superior during August 1996 and July 1997. Data were analyzed for three ecoregions (Duluth-Superior, Apostle Islands, and the open lake) differing in bathymetry and limnological and biological patterns. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> abundance was three times higher in the Duluth-Superior and Apostle Islands regions than in the open lake due to the large numbers of rotifers. Copepods were far more abundant than Cladocera in all ecoregions. Mean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size was larger in the open lake due to dominance by large calanoid copepods although size of individual taxa was similar among ecoregions. Forage fish abundance and biomass was highest in the Apostle Islands region and lowest in the open lake ecoregion. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) comprised over 90% of the abundance and biomass of fishes caught in midwater trawls and recorded with hydroacoustics. Growth and condition of fish was good, suggesting they were not resource limited. Fish and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages differed among the three ecoregions of western Lake Superior, due to a combination of physical and limnological factors related to bathymetry and landscape position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Ocgy...58..205K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Ocgy...58..205K"><span>Species Composition and Distribution of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> from Northeastern Sakhalin Shelf (Sea of Okhotsk)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kasyan, V. V.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The species composition, density, biomass, and distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the northeastern Sakhalin shelf, Sea of Okhotsk (Chaivo, Pil'tunskii, and Morskoi regions) were studied in October 2014. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> was represented by 15 taxonomic groups, which were dominated by Copepoda (13 species). The average density and biomass was highest in the Chaivo region (14112 ± 4322 ind./m3, 395 ± 107 mg/m3) and in the Pil'tunskii region (16692 ± 10707 ind./m3, 346 ± 233 mg/m3); the abundance of detected taxonomic groups was minimal (8-12). The average density and biomass of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was up to 4304 ± 2441 ind./m3, 133 ± 77 mg/m3 in the Morskoi region and increased with depth; the abundance of taxa was maximum (15). Four species of copepods made up the majority of the density and biomass of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>: Acartia hudsonica, Eurytemora herdmani, Pseudocalanus newmani, and Oithona similis. In the Chaivo region, species of the genera Acartia, Eurytemora, and Oithona dominated and subdominated; in Pil'tunskii region, species of the genera Acartia and Oithona dominated and subdominated; and in the Morskoi region, species of the genera Oithona, Pseudocalanus, and Acartia dominated and subdominated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61267&keyword=copepod&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61267&keyword=copepod&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>SIMULATING TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN NUTRIENT, PHYTOPLANKTON, AND <span class="hlt">ZOOPLANKTON</span> ON THE INNER OREGON SHELF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this study is to use a numerical model to examine the linkages between physical processes and temporal variability in the plankton dynamics in a coastal upwelling system. We used a nutrient-phytoplankton-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> model coupled to a two-dimensional circulation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JMS....24..355K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JMS....24..355K"><span>A review of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> investigations of the Black Sea over the last decade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kideys, Ahmet E.; Kovalev, Alexander V.; Shulman, Gregory; Gordina, Anna; Bingel, Ferit</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>Investigations performed in the last decade indicate that there have been important changes in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> composition and structure in the Black Sea. However, contrasting events taking place in different regions of the Black Sea indicate a non-uniform structure of its ecosystem. Several fodder <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species have either disappeared from or substantially decreased in number at different sampling sites of the Black Sea over the last one or two decades. Some other species adapted to thrive in eutrophic conditions have either appeared or increased in quantity. Meanwhile the biomass of the fodder <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> has also fluctuated considerably through the years. However, there seems to be a reverse trend in the long-term variation of fodder <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> between the shallow western and deep eastern areas. Over the last few decades the abundance of fish larvae has decreased significantly when compared either to past records or with larval abundances of other seas. This was shown to be due mainly to malnutrition of larvae. One of the most striking changes in the ichthyoplankton has been the shift in the spawning areas of the main fish species, the anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus from the northwestern to the southeastern Black Sea. Even the invading ctenophore Mnemiopsis were found to be starving. The condition of other species ( Calanus euxinus and Pleurobrachia pileus) disclosed the fact that cyclonic regions where chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations are high, provide better nutrition than anticyclonic regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME14E0667M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME14E0667M"><span>Metagenetic Sequencing of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Communities in the High-Diversity Central North Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matthews, S. A.; van Woudenberg, L.; Iacchei, M.; Lenz, P. H.; Goetze, E.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are important intermediate trophic level consumers in the ocean, and the subtropical North Pacific holds global maxima in species diversity for these communities. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> assemblages in this region include several species complexes, with many understudied and morphologically cryptic species. We used metagenetic sequencing to characterize <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition across depth (0-1500m) at an open ocean time series site in the central North Pacific (Station ALOHA), using depth-stratified 1m2 MOCNESS samples that were size fractionated into 5 size classes (0.2-0.5 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 1-2 mm, 2-5 mm, >5 mm). Our goals were to quantify the fraction of the community that is currently undescribed, identify taxonomic groups that contain large numbers of undescribed species and may be important to biogeochemical cycling in the ocean, and establish a metagenetic method that can be used to effectively characterize the species richness of epipelagic and mesopelagic communities in this region. Amplicons from several DNA loci, including mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 12S rRNA, and nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA genes were sequenced on the MiSeq Illumina platform to characterize community composition. We evaluate species composition across metagenetic marker regions, pelagic depth zones, day and night-time MOCNESS tows, and compare our findings with prior species lists from the region. Our results are an important contribution to establishing standardized metagenetic methods for marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19852074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19852074"><span>Trace metal dynamics in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rejomon, G; Kumar, P K Dinesh; Nair, M; Muraleedharan, K R</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Trace metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from the mixed layer were investigated at 8 coastal and 20 offshore stations in the western Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2003. The ecotoxicological importance of trace metal uptake was apparent within the Bay of Bengal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. There was a distinct spatial heterogeneity of metals, with highest concentrations in the upwelling zones of the southeast coast, moderate concentrations in the cyclonic eddy of the northeast coast, and lowest concentrations in the open ocean warm gyre regions. The average trace metal concentrations (μg g⁻¹) in coastal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (Fe, 44894.1 ± 12198.2; Co, 46.2 ± 4.6; Ni, 62.8 ± 6.5; Cu, 84.9 ± 6.7; Zn, 7546.8 ± 1051.7; Cd, 46.2 ± 5.6; Pb, 19.2 ± 2.6) were higher than in offshore <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (Fe, 3423.4 ± 681.6; Co, 19.5 ± 3.81; Ni, 25.3 ± 7.3; Cu, 29.4 ± 4.2; Zn, 502.3 ± 124.3; Cd, 14.3 ± 2.9; Pb, 3.2 ± 2.0). A comparison of average trace metal concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from the Bay of Bengal showed enrichment of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in coastal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> may be related to metal absorption from primary producers, and differences in metal concentrations in phytoplankton from coastal waters (upwelling zone and cyclonic eddy) compared with offshore waters (warm gyre). <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> showed a great capacity for accumulations of trace metals, with average concentration factors of 4 867 929 ± 569 971, 246 757 ± 51 321, 337 180 ± 125 725, 43 480 ± 11 212, 1 046 371 ± 110 286, 601 679 ± 213 949, and 15 420 ± 9201 for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb with respect to dissolved concentrations in coastal and offshore waters of the Bay of Bengal. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2009. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRI..126..103D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRI..126..103D"><span>Deep-water <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Mediterranean Sea: Results from a continuous, synchronous sampling over different regions using sediment traps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Danovaro, R.; Carugati, L.; Boldrin, A.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Fabres, J.; Finlay, K.; Heussner, S.; Miserocchi, S.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Information on the dynamics of deep-sea biota is extremely scant particularly for long-term time series on deep-sea <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Here, we present the results of a deep-sea <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> investigation over one annual cycle based on samples from sediment trap moorings in three sub-basins along the Mediterranean Sea. Deep-sea <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages were dominated by copepods, as in shallow waters, only in the Adriatic Sea (>60% of total abundance), but not in the deep Ionian Sea, where ostracods represented >80%, neither in the deep Alboran Sea, where polychaetes were >70%. We found that deep-sea <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages: i) are subjected to changes in their abundance and structure over time, ii) are characterized by different dominant taxa in different basins, and iii) display clear taxonomic segregation between shallow and near-bottom waters. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> biodiversity decreases with increasing water depth, but the equitability increases. We suggest here that variations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance and assemblage structure are likely influenced by the trophic condition characterizing the basins. Our findings provide new insights on this largely unknown component of the deep ocean, and suggest that changes in the export of organic matter from the photic zone, such as those expected as a consequence of global change, can significantly influence <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages in the largest biome on Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ECSS..198..400H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ECSS..198..400H"><span>Spatial patterns of littoral <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages along a salinity gradient in a brackish sea: A functional diversity perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Helenius, Laura K.; Leskinen, Elina; Lehtonen, Hannu; Nurminen, Leena</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The distribution patterns and diversity of littoral <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are both key baseline information for understanding the functioning of coastal ecosystems, and for identifying the mechanisms by which the impacts of recently increased eutrophication are transferred through littoral food webs. In this study, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure and diversity along a shallow coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea were determined in terms of horizontal environmental gradients. Spatial heterogeneity of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community was examined along the gradient. Altogether 31 sites in shallow sandy bays on the coast of southwest Finland were sampled in the summer periods of 2009 and 2010 for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and environmental variables (surface water temperature, salinity, turbidity, wave exposure, macrophyte coverage, chlorophyll a and nutrients). <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> diversity was measured as both taxonomic as well as functional diversity, using trait-based classification of planktonic crustaceans. Salinity, and to a lesser extent turbidity and temperature, were found to be the main predictors of the spatial patterns and functional diversity of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. Occurrence of cyclopoid copepods, as well as abundances of the calanoid copepod genus Acartia and the rotifer genus Keratella were found to be key factors in differentiating sites along the gradient. As far as we know, this is the first extensive study of functional diversity in Baltic Sea coastal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664400','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664400"><span>Predation on the Invasive Copepod, Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, and Native <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> in the Lower Columbia River: An Experimental Approach to Quantify Differences in Prey-Specific Feeding Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Adams, Jesse B.; Bollens, Stephen M.; Bishop, John G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Invasive planktonic crustaceans have become a prominent feature of aquatic communities worldwide, yet their effects on food webs are not well known. The Asian calanoid copepod, Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, introduced to the Columbia River Estuary approximately 15 years ago, now dominates the late-summer <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community, but its use by native aquatic predators is unknown. We investigated whether three species of planktivorous fishes (chinook salmon, three-spined stickleback, and northern pikeminnow) and one species of mysid exhibited higher feeding rates on native copepods and cladocerans relative to P. forbesi by conducting `single-prey’ feeding experiments and, additionally, examined selectivity for prey types with `two-prey’ feeding experiments. In single-prey experiments individual predator species showed no difference in feeding rates on native cyclopoid copepods (Cyclopidae spp.) relative to invasive P. forbesi, though wild-collected predators exhibited higher feeding rates on cyclopoids when considered in aggregate. In two-prey experiments, chinook salmon and northern pikeminnow both strongly selected native cladocerans (Daphnia retrocurva) over P. forbesi, and moreover, northern pikeminnow selected native Cyclopidae spp. over P. forbesi. On the other hand, in two-prey experiments, chinook salmon, three-spined stickleback and mysids were non- selective with respect to feeding on native cyclopoid copepods versus P. forbesi. Our results indicate that all four native predators in the Columbia River Estuary can consume the invasive copepod, P. forbesi, but that some predators select for native <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> over P. forbesi, most likely due to one (or both) of two possible underlying casual mechanisms: 1) differential taxon-specific prey motility and escape <span class="hlt">responses</span> (calanoids > cyclopoids > daphnids) or 2) the invasive status of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey resulting in naivety, and thus lower feeding rates, of native predators feeding on invasive prey. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19853879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19853879"><span>Role of predation by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in transport and fate of protozoan (oo)cysts in granular activated carbon filtration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bichai, Françoise; Barbeau, Benoit; Dullemont, Yolanda; Hijnen, Wim</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>The significance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the transport and fate of pathogenic organisms in drinking water is poorly understood, although many hints of the role of predation in the persistence of microorganisms through water treatment processes can be found in literature. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of predation by natural <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> on the transport and fate of protozoan (oo)cysts in granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration process. UV-irradiated unlabelled Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia (oo)cysts were seeded into two pilot-scale GAC filtration columns operated under full-scale conditions. In a two-week period after seeding, a reduction of free (oo)cysts retained in the filter bed was observed. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> was isolated from the filter bed and effluent water on a 30 microm net before and during the two-week period after seeding; it was enumerated and identified. Rotifers, which are potential predators of (oo)cysts, accounted for the major part of the isolated <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Analytical methods were developed to detect (oo)cysts internalized in natural <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> isolated from the filter bed and effluent water. Sample sonication was optimized to disrupt <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> organisms and release internalized microorganisms. (Oo)cysts released from <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> after sonication were isolated by IMS and stained (EasyStain) for microscopic counting. Both Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected in association with <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the filter bed samples as well as in the effluent of GAC filters. The results of this study suggest that predation by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> can play a role in the remobilization of persistent pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts retained in GAC filter beds, and consequently in the transmission of these pathogens in drinking water. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DSRI...57.1278W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DSRI...57.1278W"><span>Feeding ecology of mesopelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean determined with fatty acid biomarkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, S. E.; Steinberg, D. K.; Chu, F.-L. E.; Bishop, J. K. B.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Mesopelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> may meet their nutritional and metabolic requirements in a number of ways including consumption of sinking particles, carnivory, and vertical migration. How these feeding modes change with depth or location, however, is poorly known. We analyzed fatty acid (FA) profiles to characterize <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> diet and large particle (>51 μm) composition in the mesopelagic zone (base of euphotic zone -1000 m) at two contrasting time-series sites in the subarctic (station K2) and subtropical (station ALOHA) Pacific Ocean. Total FA concentration was 15.5 times higher in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> tissue at K2, largely due to FA storage by seasonal vertical migrators such as Neocalanus and Eucalanus. FA biomarkers specific to herbivory implied a higher plant-derived food source at mesotrophic K2 than at oligotrophic ALOHA. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> FA biomarkers specific to dinoflagellates and diatoms indicated that diatoms, and to a lesser extent, dinoflagellates were important food sources at K2. At ALOHA, dinoflagellate FAs were more prominent. Bacteria-specific FA biomarkers in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> tissue were used as an indicator of particle feeding, and peaks were recorded at depths where known particle feeders were present at ALOHA (e.g., ostracods at 100-300 m). In contrast, depth profiles of bacterial FA were relatively constant with depth at K2. Diatom, dinoflagellate, and bacterial biomarkers were found in similar proportions in both <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and particles with depth at both locations, providing additional evidence that mesopelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> consume sinking particles. Carnivory indices were higher and increased significantly with depth at ALOHA, and exhibited distinct peaks at K2, representing an increase in dependence on other <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> for food in deep waters. Our results indicate that feeding ecology changes with depth as well as by location. These changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> feeding ecology from the surface through the mesopelagic zone, and between contrasting environments</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036228','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036228"><span>The Lake Ontario <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community before (1987-1991) and after (2001-2005) invasion-induced ecosystem change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Stewart, T.J.; Johannsson, O.E.; Holeck, K.; Sprules, W.G.; O'Gorman, R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We assessed changes in Lake Ontario <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass, production, and community composition before (1987–1991) and after (2001–2005) invasion-induced ecosystem changes. The ecosystem changes were associated with establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels and invasive predatory cladocerans (Bythotrephes and Cercopagis). Whole-lake total epilimnetic plus metalimnetic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production declined by approximately half from 42.45 (g dry wt∙m−2∙ year−1) during 1987–1991 to 21.91 (g dry wt∙m−2∙ year−1) in 2003 and averaged 21.01 (g dry wt∙m−2∙ year−1) during 2001–2005. Analysis of two independent data sets indicates that the mean biomass and biomass proportion of cyclopoid copepods declined while the same measures increased for the invasive predatory cladocerans. Changes in means and proportions of all other <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups were not consistent between the data sets. Cyclopoid copepod biomass and production declined by factors ranging from 3.6 to 5.7. Invasive predatory cladoceran biomass averaged from 5.0% to 8.0% of the total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community was otherwise resilient to the invasion-induced disruption as <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species richness and diversity were unaffected. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> production was likely reduced by declines in primary productivity but may have declined further due to increased predation by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Shifts in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure were consistent with increased predation pressure on cyclopoid copepods by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Predicted declines in the proportion of small cladocerans were not evident. This study represents the first direct comparison of changes in Lake Ontario <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production before and after the invasion-induced disruption and will be important to food web-scale investigations of invasion effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PrOce.129..176M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PrOce.129..176M"><span>Bridging the gap between marine biogeochemical and fisheries sciences; configuring the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> link</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mitra, Aditee; Castellani, Claudia; Gentleman, Wendy C.; Jónasdóttir, Sigrún H.; Flynn, Kevin J.; Bode, Antonio; Halsband, Claudia; Kuhn, Penelope; Licandro, Priscilla; Agersted, Mette D.; Calbet, Albert; Lindeque, Penelope K.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Møller, Eva F.; Gislason, Astthor; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; St. John, Michael</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Exploring climate and anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems requires an understanding of how trophic components interact. However, integrative end-to-end ecosystem studies (experimental and/or modelling) are rare. Experimental investigations often concentrate on a particular group or individual species within a trophic level, while tropho-dynamic field studies typically employ either a bottom-up approach concentrating on the phytoplankton community or a top-down approach concentrating on the fish community. Likewise the emphasis within modelling studies is usually placed upon phytoplankton-dominated biogeochemistry or on aspects of fisheries regulation. In consequence the roles of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities (protists and metazoans) linking phytoplankton and fish communities are typically under-represented if not (especially in fisheries models) ignored. Where represented in ecosystem models, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are usually incorporated in an extremely simplistic fashion, using empirical descriptions merging various interacting physiological functions governing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> growth and development, and thence ignoring physiological feedback mechanisms. Here we demonstrate, within a modelled plankton food-web system, how trophic dynamics are sensitive to small changes in parameter values describing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> vital rates and thus the importance of using appropriate <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> descriptors. Through a comprehensive review, we reveal the mismatch between empirical understanding and modelling activities identifying important issues that warrant further experimental and modelling investigation. These include: food selectivity, kinetics of prey consumption and interactions with assimilation and growth, form of voided material, mortality rates at different age-stages relative to prior nutrient history. In particular there is a need for dynamic data series in which predator and prey of known nutrient history are studied interacting under varied pH and temperature regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CSR...160...49F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CSR...160...49F"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> seasonality across a latitudinal gradient in the Northeast Atlantic Shelves Province</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fanjul, Alvaro; Iriarte, Arantza; Villate, Fernando; Uriarte, Ibon; Atkinson, Angus; Cook, Kathryn</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> seasonality and its environmental drivers were studied at four coastal sites within the Northeast Atlantic Shelves Province (Bilbao35 (B35) and Urdaibai35 (U35) in the Bay of Biscay, Plymouth L4 (L4) in the English Channel and Stonehaven (SH) in the North Sea) using time series spanning 1999-2013. Seasonal community patterns were extracted at the level of broad <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups and copepod and cladoceran genera using redundancy analysis. Temperature was generally the environmental factor that explained most of the taxa seasonal variations at the four sites. However, between-site differences related to latitude and trophic status (i.e. from oligotrophic to mesotrophic) were observed in the seasonality of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community, mainly in the pattern of taxa that peaked in spring-summer as opposed to late autumn-winter <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, which were linked primarily to differences in the seasonal pattern of phytoplankton. The percentage of taxa variations explained by environmental factors increased with latitude and trophic status likely related to the increase in the co-variation of temperature and chlorophyll a, as well as in the increase in regularity of the seasonal patterns of both temperature and chlorophyll a from south to north, and of chlorophyll a with trophic status. Cladocerans and cirripede larvae at B35 and U35, echinoderm larvae at L4 and decapod larvae at SH made the highest contribution to shape the main mode of seasonal pattern of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community, which showed a seasonal delay with latitude, as well as with the increase in trophic status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24551103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24551103"><span>Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey) effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST) from the Hadley Center and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass, particularly of energy-rich <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> food availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DSRII..51.2041L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004DSRII..51.2041L"><span>Acoustically-inferred <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution in relation to hydrography west of the Antarctic Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lawson, Gareth L.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Ashjian, Carin J.; Gallager, Scott M.; Davis, Cabell S.; Warren, Joseph D.</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>The relationship between the distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, especially euphausiids ( Euphausia and Thysanoessa spp.), and hydrographic regimes of the Western Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf in and around Marguerite Bay was studied as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC program. Surveys were conducted from the RVIB N.B. Palmer in austral fall (April-June) and winter (July-August) of 2001. Acoustic, video, and environmental data were collected along 13 transect lines running across the shelf and perpendicular to the Western Antarctic Peninsula coastline, between 65°S and 70°S. Depth-stratified net tows conducted at selected locations provided ground-truthing for acoustic observations. In fall, acoustic volume backscattering strength at 120 kHz was greatest in the southern reaches of the survey area and inside Marguerite Bay, suggestive of high <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton biomass in these regions. Vertically, highest backscattering was in the 150-450 m depth range, associated with modified Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). The two deep troughs that intersect the shelf break were characterized by reduced backscattering, similar to levels observed off-shelf and indicative of lower <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass in recent intrusions of CDW onto the continental shelf. Estimates of dynamic height suggested that geostrophic circulation likely caused both along- and across-shelf transport of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. By winter, scattering had decreased by an order of magnitude (10 dB) in the upper 300 m of the water column in most areas, and high backscattering levels were found primarily in a deep (>300 m) scattering layer present close to the bottom. The seasonal decrease is potentially explained by advection of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, vertical and horizontal movements, and mortality. Predictions of expected backscattering levels based on net samples suggested that large euphausiids were the dominant source of backscattering only at very particular locations and depths, and that copepods, siphonophores, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3923776','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3923776"><span>Spatio-Temporal Variability of the North Sea Cod Recruitment in Relation to Temperature and <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey) effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST) from the Hadley Center and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass, particularly of energy-rich <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> food availability. PMID:24551103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AcO....32..279B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AcO....32..279B"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> interactions with toxic phytoplankton: Some implications for food web studies and algal defence strategies of feeding selectivity behaviour, toxin dilution and phytoplankton population diversity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barreiro, A.; Guisande, C.; Maneiro, I.; Vergara, A. R.; Riveiro, I.; Iglesias, P.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>This study focuses on the interactions between toxic phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> grazers. The experimental conditions used are an attempt to simulate situations that have, so far, received little attention. We presume the phytoplankton community to be a set of species where a population of a toxic species is intrinsically diverse by the presence of coexisting strains with different toxic properties. The other species in the community may not always be high-quality food for herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> populations may have developed adaptive <span class="hlt">responses</span> to sympatric toxic phytoplankton species. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> grazers may perform a specific feeding behaviour and its consequences on fitness will depend on the species ingested, the effect of toxins, and the presence of mechanisms of toxin dilution and compensatory feeding. Our target species are a strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and a sympatric population of the copepod Acartia clausi. Mixed diets were used with two kinds of A. minutum cells: non-toxic and toxic. The flagellate Rhodomonas baltica and the non-toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense were added as accompanying species. The effect of each alga was studied in separate diets. The toxic A. minutum cells were shown to have negative effects on egg production, hatching success and total reproductive output, while, in terms of its effect on fitness, the non-toxic A. minutum was the best quality food offered. R. baltica and A. tamarense were in intermediate positions. In the mixed diets, copepods showed a strong preference for toxic A. minutum cells and a weaker one for A. tamarense cells, while non-toxic A. minutum was slightly negatively selected and R. baltica strongly negatively selected. Although the level of toxins accumulated by copepods was very similar, in both the diet with only toxic A. minutum cells and in the mixed diet, the negative effects on fitness in the mixed diet could be offset by toxin dilution mechanisms. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=66772&keyword=monographs&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=66772&keyword=monographs&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>STRUCTURED POPULATION MODELS OF HERBIVEROUS <span class="hlt">ZOOPLANKTON</span>. (R823588)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, <span class="hlt">final</span> reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PrOce..75...42L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PrOce..75...42L"><span>Coherence of long-term variations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in two sectors of the California Current System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavaniegos, Bertha E.; Ohman, Mark D.</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>We analyzed long-term (56-year) variations in springtime biomass of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the California Current System from two primary regions sampled by CalCOFI: Southern California (SC) and Central California (CC) waters. All organisms were enumerated from the plankton samples and converted to organic carbon biomass using length-carbon relationships, then aggregated into 19 major taxa. Planktonic copepods dominate the carbon biomass in both SC (59%) and CC (46%), followed by euphausiids (18% and 25% of mean biomass in SC and CC, respectively). Pelagic tunicates, especially salps and doliolids, constituted a higher fraction of the biomass in CC (13%) than in SC (5%). There was no long-term trend detectable in total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> carbon biomass, in marked contrast to a decline in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> displacement volume in both regions. The difference between these biomass metrics is accounted for by a long-term decline in pelagic tunicates (particularly salps), which have a relatively high ratio of biovolume:carbon. The decline in pelagic tunicates was accompanied by a long-term increase in water column density stratification. No other taxa showed a decline over the duration of the study, apart from salps and pyrosomes in SC and doliolids in CC. Some <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa showed compensatory increases over the same time period (ostracods, large decapods, and calycophoran siphonophores in both SC and CC; appendicularians and polychaetes in SC). Two tests for ecosystem shifts, a sequential algorithm and the cumulative sum of anomalies (CuSum) approach, failed to detect changes in 1976-1977 in total carbon biomass, displacement volume, or most individual major taxa, suggesting that aggregated biomass is an insensitive indicator of climate forcing. In contrast, both techniques revealed a cluster of step-like changes associated with the La Niña of 1999. The major El Niño’s in the past half century have consistently depressed total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass and biomass of many major taxa</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29884987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29884987"><span>Bottom-up linkages between primary production, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and fish in a shallow, hypereutrophic lake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsuzaki, Shin-Ichiro S; Suzuki, Kenta; Kadoya, Taku; Nakagawa, Megumi; Takamura, Noriko</p> <p>2018-06-09</p> <p>Nutrient supply is a key bottom-up control of phytoplankton primary production in lake ecosystems. Top-down control via grazing pressure by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> also constrains primary production, and primary production may simultaneously affect <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Few studies have addressed these bidirectional interactions. We used convergent cross-mapping (CCM), a numerical test of causal associations, to quantify the presence and direction of the causal relationships among environmental variables (light availability, surface water temperature, NO 3 -N, and PO 4 -P), phytoplankton community composition, primary production, and the abundances of five functional <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups (large-cladocerans, small-cladocerans, rotifers, calanoids, and cyclopoids) in Lake Kasumigaura, a shallow, hypereutrophic lake in Japan. CCM suggested that primary production was causally influenced by NO 3 -N and phytoplankton community composition; there was no detectable evidence of a causal effect of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> on primary production. Our results also suggest that rotifers and cyclopoids were forced by primary production, and cyclopoids were further influenced by rotifers. However, our CCM suggested that primary production was weakly influenced by rotifers (i.e., bidirectional interaction). These findings may suggest complex linkages between nutrients, primary production, and rotifers and cyclopoids, a pattern that has not been previously detected or has been neglected. We used linear regression analysis to examine the relationships between the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community and pond smelt (Hypomesus nipponensis), the most abundant planktivore and the most important commercial fish species in Lake Kasumigaura. The relative abundance of pond smelt was significantly and positively correlated with the abundances of rotifers and cyclopoids, which were causally influenced by primary production. This finding suggests that bottom-up linkages between nutrient, primary production, and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance might be a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5749802','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5749802"><span>Bioenergetics modeling of the annual consumption of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> by pelagic fish feeding in the Northeast Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Utne, Kjell Rong; Jansen, Teunis; Huse, Geir</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The present study uses bioenergetics modeling to estimate the annual consumption of the main <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups by some of the most commercially important planktivorous fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic, namely Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and NEA mackerel (Scomber scombrus). The data was obtained from scientific surveys in the main feeding area (Norwegian Sea) in the period 2005–2010. By incorporating novel information about ambient temperature, seasonal growth and changes in the diet from stomach content analyses, annual consumption of the different <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups by pelagic fish is estimated. The present study estimates higher consumption estimates than previous studies for the three species and suggests that fish might have a greater impact on the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community as foragers. This way, NEA mackerel, showing the highest daily consumption rates, and NSS herring, annually consume around 10 times their total biomass, whereas blue whiting consume about 6 times their biomass in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. The three species were estimated to consume an average of 135 million (M) tonnes of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> each year, consisting of 53–85 M tonnes of copepods, 20–32 M tonnes of krill, 8–42 M tonnes of appendicularians and 0.2–1.2 M tonnes of fish, depending on the year. For NSS herring and NEA mackerel the main prey groups are calanoids and appendicularians, showing a peak in consumption during June and June–July, respectively, and suggesting high potential for inter-specific feeding competition between these species. In contrast, blue whiting maintain a low consumption rate from April to September, consuming mainly larger euphausiids. Our results suggest that the three species can coexist regardless of their high abundance, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> consumption rates and overlapping diet. Accordingly, the species might have niche segregation, as they are species specific, showing annual and inter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.109..157E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRII.109..157E"><span>Climate-mediated changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure for the eastern Bering Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Andrews, Alexander G.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> are critical to energy transfer between higher and lower trophic levels in the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem. Previous studies from the southeastern Bering Sea shelf documented substantial differences in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa in the Middle and Inner Shelf Domains between warm and cold years. Our investigation expands this analysis into the northern Bering Sea and the south Outer Domain, looking at <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure during a period of climate-mediated, large-scale change. Elevated air temperatures in the early 2000s resulted in regional warming and low sea-ice extent in the southern shelf whereas the late 2000s were characterized by cold winters, extensive spring sea ice, and a well-developed pool of cold water over the entire Middle Domain. The abundance of large <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa such as Calanus spp. (C. marshallae and C. glacialis), and Parasagitta elegans, increased from warm to cold periods, while the abundance of gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (Cnidaria) and small taxa decreased. Biomass followed the same trends as abundance, except that the biomass of small taxa in the southeastern Bering Sea remained constant due to changes in abundance of small copepod taxa (increases in Acartia spp. and Pseudocalanus spp. and decreases in Oithona spp.). Statistically significant changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure and individual species were greatest in the Middle Domain, but were evident in all shelf domains, and in both the northern and southern portions of the eastern shelf. Changes in community structure did not occur abruptly during the transition from warm to cold, but seemed to begin gradually and build as the influence of the sea ice and cold water temperatures persisted. The change occurred one year earlier in the northern than the southern Middle Shelf. These and previous observations demonstrate that lower trophic levels within the eastern Bering Sea respond to climate-mediated changes on a variety of time scales, including those shorter than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DSRII.147...69M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DSRII.147...69M"><span>Seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance and community structure in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2009-2016</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McKinstry, Caitlin A. E.; Campbell, Robert W.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Large calanoid copepods and other zooplankters comprise the prey field for ecologically and economically important predators such as juvenile pink salmon, herring, and seabirds in Prince William Sound (PWS).​ From 2009-2016, the Gulf Watch Alaska program collected <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> 5-10 times each year at 12 stations in PWS to establish annual patterns. Surveys collected 188 species of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> with Oithona similis, Limacina helicina, Pseudocalanus spp., and Acartia longiremis as the most common species present in 519 samples. Generalized additive models assessed seasonal abundance and showed peak abundance in July (mean: 9826 no. m-3 [95% CI: 7990-12,084]) and lowest abundance in January (503 no. m-3 [373 to 678]). Significantly higher <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance occurred in 2010 (542 no. m-3 ± 55 SE) and lowest in 2013 (149 no. m-3 ± 13). The species composition of communities, determined via hierarchical cluster analysis and indicator species analysis, produced six distinct communities based on season and location. The winter community, characterized by warm-water indicator species including Mesocalanus tenuicornis, Calanus pacificus, and Corycaeus anglicus, diverged into four communities throughout the spring and summer. The first spring community, characterized by copepods with affinities for lower salinities, occurred sound-wide. The second spring community, comprised of planktonic larvae, appeared sporadically in PWS bays in 2011-2013. Spring and summer open water stations were defined by the presence of large calanoid copepods. A summer community including the most abundant taxa was common in 2010 and 2011, absent in 2013, then sporadically appeared in 2014 and 2015 suggesting interannual variability of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community shifted to a uniform assemblage characterized by cnidarians in the early autumn. Community assemblages showed significant correlations to a set of environmental variables including SST, mixed layer depth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA248282','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA248282"><span>Distribution and Taxonomy of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> in the Alboran Sea and Adjacent Western Mediterranean: A Literature Survey and Field Guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>Distribution List for Technical Report Exchange I Attn: Stella Sanchez-Wade Pell Marine Science Library Documents Section University of Rhode IslandU...partly on the geographic distribution of marine laboratories on the coasts of these seas. Upwelling regions near Messina, Naples and Nice in the...into three main sections . The first considers gjneral patterns of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution. This is intended as an overview of hydrography, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA598594','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA598594"><span>Field Demonstration of a Broadband Acoustical Backscattering System Mounted on a REMUS-100 for Inferences of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Size and Abundancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-30</p> <p>the Rayleigh-to-geometric scattering transition is within the frequency band of the WHOI broadband system (e.g., copepods ), and either larger fluid...that numerical abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was dominated by small copepods that were relatively evenly distributed throughout the water-column...indication in either the MONESS or the VPR that the acoustic scattering layer was correlated to an increased abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Small copepods</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CorRe..28..895A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CorRe..28..895A"><span>Near-surface enrichment of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> over a shallow back reef: implications for coral reef food webs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alldredge, A. L.; King, J. M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> were 3-8 times more abundant during the day near the surface than elsewhere in the water column over a 1-2.4 m deep back reef in Moorea, French Polynesia. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> were also significantly more abundant near the surface at night although gradients were most pronounced under moonlight. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> in a unidirectional current became concentrated near the surface within 2 m of departing a well-mixed trough immediately behind the reef crest, indicating that upward swimming behavior, rather than near-bottom depletion by reef planktivores, was the proximal cause of these gradients. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> were highly enriched near the surface before and after a full lunar eclipse but distributed evenly throughout the water column during the eclipse itself supporting light as a proximal cue for the upward swimming behavior of many taxa. This is the first investigation of the vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> over a shallow back reef typical of island barrier reef systems common around the world. Previous studies on deeper fringing reefs found <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> depletion near the bottom but no enrichment aloft. In Moorea, where seawater is continuously recirculated out the lagoon and back across the reef crest onto the back reef, selection for upward swimming behavior may be especially strong, because the surface serves both as a refuge from predation and an optimum location for retention within the reef system. Planktivorous fish and corals that can forage or grow even marginally higher in the water column might have a substantial competitive advantage over those nearer the bottom on shallow reefs. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> abundance varied more over a few tens of centimeters vertical distance than it did between seasons or even between day and night indicating that great care must be taken to accurately assess the availability of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> as food on shallow reefs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018IJBC...2850042M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018IJBC...2850042M"><span>Bifurcation and Control in a Singular Phytoplankton-<span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span>-Fish Model with Nonlinear Fish Harvesting and Taxation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meng, Xin-You; Wu, Yu-Qian</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, a delayed differential algebraic phytoplankton-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>-fish model with taxation and nonlinear fish harvesting is proposed. In the absence of time delay, the existence of singularity induced bifurcation is discussed by regarding economic interest as bifurcation parameter. A state feedback controller is designed to eliminate singularity induced bifurcation. Based on Liu’s criterion, Hopf bifurcation occurs at the interior equilibrium when taxation is taken as bifurcation parameter and is more than its corresponding critical value. In the presence of time delay, by analyzing the associated characteristic transcendental equation, the interior equilibrium loses local stability when time delay crosses its critical value. What’s more, the direction of Hopf bifurcation and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are investigated based on normal form theory and center manifold theorem, and nonlinear state feedback controller is designed to eliminate Hopf bifurcation. Furthermore, Pontryagin’s maximum principle has been used to obtain optimal tax policy to maximize the benefit as well as the conservation of the ecosystem. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, some numerical simulations are given to demonstrate our theoretical analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSIS13A..04O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSIS13A..04O"><span>Zooglider - an Autonomous Vehicle for Optical and Acoustic Sensing of Marine <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohman, M. D.; Davis, R. E.; Sherman, J. T.; Grindley, K.; Whitmore, B. M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We will present results from early sea trials of the Zooglider, an autonomous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> glider designed and built by the Instrument Development Group at Scripps. The Zooglider is built upon a modified Spray glider and includes a low power camera with telecentric lens and a custom dual frequency sonar (200/1000 kHz). The imaging system quantifies <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> as they flow through a sampling tunnel within a well-defined sampling volume. The maximum operating depth is 500 m. Other sensors include a pumped CTD and Chl-a fluorometer. The Zooglider permits in situ measurements of mesozooplankton distributions and three dimensional orientation in relation to other biotic and physical properties of the ocean water column. Zooglider development is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED321170.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED321170.pdf"><span>Toward a State of Esteem. The <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report of the California Task Force to Promote Self-esteem and Personal and Social <span class="hlt">Responsibility</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains the <span class="hlt">final</span> report of a California Task Force created to promote self-esteem and personal <span class="hlt">responsibility</span>. It begins with an executive summary listing key principles of the task force and providing recommendations and discussions in each of six major areas upon which the report focuses. The next section presents the task…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29734620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29734620"><span>Effects of pond management on biodiversity patterns and community structure of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in urban environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suski, Jamie G; Swan, Christopher M; Salice, Christopher J; Wahl, Charles F</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>As urban areas continue expanding, major cities become connected forming megacities. Urban encroachment into natural areas transforms the landscape into a built environment with heterogeneously distributed patches of novel habitat. Community structure within novel habitats is influenced by anthropogenic factors including fragmentation and species interactions. Alterations in complex biodiversity patterns may be used to assess how urban stressors impact community assemblages which, ultimately, may inform sustainable management decisions. To manage algal blooms, Aquashade® is applied directly to ponds. We investigated the effects of Aquashade®, nutrient loading and dispersal on local species diversity and compositional turnover of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities from suburban ponds in Columbia, MD, USA using a mesocosm approach. We found that Aquashade® acted as an environmental filter by increasing local species diversity and decreasing compositional turnover. This ultimately could have an overall homogenizing effect on the regional species pool (or γ-diversity). The same pattern was observed in mesocosms that received simulated dispersal events of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Nutrients, overall, increased autotrophic biomass and while Aquashade® had no effect on autotrophic biomass, the interaction of nutrients and Aquashade® similarly caused a homogenization of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. Additionally, there was an overall increase in cladoceran ephippia in mesocosms receiving Aquashade® compared to those not, suggesting there is a 'trigger' switching cladocerans from parthenogenic to sexual reproduction. Taken together, our results show the application of Aquashade®, nutrient loading and dispersal shift biodiversity patterns in urban <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities. We hypothesize these shifts originate at the resource level through alterations in the phytoplankton community either through composition or nutritive value in ponds receiving Aquashade®. Our study illustrates the importance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173606','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173606"><span>Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: Efficacy of treatment on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Barenburg, Amber; Henquinet, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Effective and economical tools are needed for treating ship ballast to meet new regulatory requirements designed to reduce the introduction of invasive aquatic species from ship traffic. We tested the efficacy of hydroxide stabilization as a ballast disinfection tool in replicated, sequential field trials on board the M/V Ranger III in waters of Lake Superior. Ballast water was introduced into each of four identical 1,320 L stainless steel tanks during a simulated ballasting operation. Two tanks were treated with NaOH to elevate the pH to 11.7 and the remaining two tanks were held as controls without pH alteration. After retention on board for 14–18 h, CO2-rich gas recovered from one of two diesel propulsion engines was sparged into tanks treated with NaOH for 2 h to force conversion of NaOH ultimately to sodium bicarbonate, thereby lowering pH to about 7.1. Prior to gas sparging, the engine exhaust was treated by a unique catalytic converter/wet scrubber process train to remove unwanted combustion byproducts and to provide cooling. The contents of each tank were then drained and filtered through 35-µm mesh plankton nets to collect all <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. The composition and relative survival of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in each tank were evaluated by microscopy. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> populations were dominated by rotifers, but copepods and cladocerans were also observed. Hydroxide stabilization was 100% effective in killing all <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> present at the start of the tests. Our results suggest hydroxide stabilization has potential to be an effective and practical tool to disinfect ship ballast. Further, using CO2 released from the ship engine reduces emissions and the neutralized by product, sodium bicarbonate, can have beneficial impacts on the aquatic environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA574182','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA574182"><span>Planar Laser Imaging of Scattering and Fluorescence of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Feeding in Layers of Phytoplankton in situ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-09-30</p> <p>Planar Laser Imaging of Scattering and Fluorescence of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Feeding in Layers of Phytoplankton in situ Peter J.S. Franks Scripps...herbivorous copepod feeding in the laboratory, and 2) to apply these methods in the field to observe the dynamics of copepod feeding in situ. In...particular we intend to test the “ feeding sorties” hypothesis vs. the “in situ feeding ” hypothesis regarding the location and timing of copepod feeding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315826"><span>Seasonal variations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundances in the Iturbide reservoir (Isidro Fabela, State of Mexico, Mexico).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sarma, S S S; Osnaya-Espinosa, Lidia Rosario; Aguilar-Acosta, Claudia Romina; Nandini, S</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>This studywas undertaken to quantify the seasonal variations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (rotifers, cladocerans and copepods) and selected physico-chemical variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, Secchi disc transparency, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate and phosphate concentrations) in the Iturbide dam. Monthly <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples (50 l filtered through 50 microm mesh, in duplicates from each of the 4 stations) were collected from February 2008 to January 2009. Simultaneously physico-chemical variables were measured. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples were fixed in 4% formalin in the field. In general, the temperature ranged from 9 to 16 degrees C, rarely exceeding 20 degrees C. Secchi transparency was nearly 100% since the reservoir was shallow (< 2 m) even during the rainy seasons. Dissolved oxygen was generally high, 13-18 mg l(-1). Nitrate levels (10 to 170 microg l(-1)) were low while phosphates were relatively high (9 to 35 microg l(-1)). The Iturbide reservoir was dominated by rotifer species. We encountered in all, 55 taxa of rotifers, 9 cladocerans and 2 copepods. The rotifer families Trichocercidae and Notommatidae had the highest number of species (7 each) followed by Colurellidae and Lecanidae (6 and 5 species, respectively). Trichocerca elongata, Ascomorpha ovalis, K. americana, K. cochlearis, Lepadella patella and Pompholyx sulcata were the dominant rotifers during the study period. On an annual average, rotifer density ranged between 50-200 ind.(-1). Among crustaceans Chydorus brevilabris and Macrothrix triserialis were most abundant. The maximal density of these cladocerans was about 50 ind. l(-1). Copepods were much lower in numbers (< 20 ind. l(-1)). In general the density of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was higher during summer months (April to July) than during winter. Shannon-Wiener diversity index varied from 1.0 to 4.3 depending on the site and the sampling period. Based on the data of Secchi transparency and nutrient concentrations, the Iturbide reservoir appeared to be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021732','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021732"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> variability and larval striped bass foraging: Evaluating potential match/mismatch regulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Chick, J.H.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We quantified temporal and spatial variability of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in three potential nursery sites (river, transition zone, lake) for larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Lake Marion, South Carolina, during April and May 1993-1995. In two of three years, microzooplankton (rotifers and copepod nauplii) density was significantly greater in the lake site than in the river or transition zone. Macrozooplankton (>200 ??m) composition varied among the three sites in all years with adult copepods and cladocerans dominant at the lake, and juvenile Corbicula fluminea dominant at the river and transition zone. Laboratory feeding experiments, simulating both among-site (site treatments) and within-site (density treatments) variability, were conducted in 1995 to quantify the effects of the observed <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> variability on foraging success of larval striped bass. A greater proportion of larvae fed in the lake than in the river or transition-zone treatments across all density treatments: mean (x), 10x and 100x. Larvae also ingested significantly more dry mass of prey in the lake treatment in both the mean and 10x density treatments. Field <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and laboratory feeding data suggest that both spatial and temporal variability of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> influence larval striped bass foraging. Prey density levels that supported successful foraging in our feeding experiments occurred in the lake during late April and May in 1994 and 1995 but were never observed in the river or transition zone. Because the rivers flowing into Lake Marion are regulated, it may be possible to devise flow management schemes that facilitate larval transport to the lake and thereby increase the proportion of larvae matched to suitable prey resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.B33A..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.B33A..05C"><span>Grazing by <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> on Diazotrophs in the Amazon River Plume and Western Tropical North Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conroy, B.; Steinberg, D. K.; Song, B.; Foster, R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Organisms capable of fixing di-nitrogen (N2), known as diazotrophs, are important primary producers and a potentially significant source for new nitrogen entering the planktonic food web. However, limited evidence exists for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> grazing on diazotrophs compared to other primary producers. In the western tropical North Atlantic Ocean (WTNA), the Amazon River plume creates a niche for symbiotic diatom-diazotroph associations (DDAs) which can form large blooms. In adjacent non-plume-influenced waters, the colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is abundant. In order to reveal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>-diazotroph grazing interactions and determine the fate of newly fixed nitrogen, gut contents of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> captured in these two regions were compared based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay of nitrogenase genes (nifH), and their microbiomes compared using next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. We sampled individual copepods from discrete depth intervals (0-25m and 25-50m) and in two size classes (0.5-1mm and 1-2mm) for analysis. A modified DNA extraction protocol was developed and 54 extracts were used as templates in nifH qPCR assays for the larger size fraction diazotrophs (>10µm): Trichodesmium, and Hemiaulus or Rhizosolenia (diatoms)-Richelia (diazotroph) associations. Copepod gut content nifH copies ranged from 1.6 to 13.6 copies individual-1 for the assay targeting the Hemiaulus-Richelia DDA and from 1.1 to 3.0 copies individual-1 for Trichodesmium. 16S NGS conducted on 35 extracts with an Ion Torrent PGM and mothur revealed that cyanobacteria sequences accounted for up to 20% of sequences per extract. Our results show that both DDAs and Trichodesmium are prey for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and that new nitrogen moves through the food web via these grazing interactions. These interactions should be considered in future explorations of the global ocean nitrogen cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26232092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26232092"><span>Predator evasion in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is suppressed by polyunsaturated fatty acid limitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brzeziński, Tomasz; von Elert, Eric</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> avoid size-selective predation by vertical migration to a deep, cold water refuge. Adaptation to low temperatures in planktonic poikilotherms depends on essential dietary lipids; the availability of these lipids often limits growth and reproduction of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. We hypothesized that limitation by essential lipids may affect habitat preferences and predator avoidance behavior in planktonic poikilotherms. We used a liposome supplementation technique to enrich the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the cyanobacterium Synecchococcus elongatus with the essential lipids, cholesterol and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and an indoor system with a stratified water-column (plankton organ) to test whether the absence of these selected dietary lipids constrains predator avoidance (habitat preferences) in four species of the key-stone pelagic freshwater grazer Daphnia. We found that the capability of avoiding fish predation through habitat shift to the deeper and colder environment was suppressed in Daphnia unless the diet was supplemented with EPA; however, the availability of cholesterol did not affect habitat preferences of the tested taxa. Thus, their ability to access a predator-free refuge and the outcome of predator-prey interactions depends upon food quality (i.e. the availability of an essential fatty acid). Our results suggest that biochemical food quality limitation, a bottom-up factor, may affect the top-down control of herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28545095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28545095"><span>Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> feeding behavior on vertical flux.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; de la Rocha, Christina</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of metabolic rates. We fed 5 copepod species-three calanoid, one harpacticoid and one poecilamastoid-microplankton food, in either dispersed or aggregated form and measured rates of respiration, fecal pellet production and egg production. Calanoid copepods were able to feed only on dispersed food; when their food was introduced as aggregates, their pellet production and respiration rates decreased to rates observed for starved individuals. In contrast, harpacticoids and the poecilamastoid copepod Oncaea spp. were able to feed only when the food was in the form of aggregates. The sum of copepod respiration, pellet production and egg production rates was equivalent to a daily minimum carbon demand of ca. 10% body weight-1 for all non-feeding copepods; the carbon demand of calanoids feeding on dispersed food was 2-3 times greater, and the carbon demand of harpacticoids and Oncaea spp. feeding on aggregates was >7 times greater, than the resting rates. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species composition combined with the type of available food strongly influences the calculated carbon demand of a copepod community, and thus also the attenuation of vertical carbon flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5435449','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5435449"><span>Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> feeding behavior on vertical flux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boutorh, Julia; de la Rocha, Christina</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of metabolic rates. We fed 5 copepod species—three calanoid, one harpacticoid and one poecilamastoid–microplankton food, in either dispersed or aggregated form and measured rates of respiration, fecal pellet production and egg production. Calanoid copepods were able to feed only on dispersed food; when their food was introduced as aggregates, their pellet production and respiration rates decreased to rates observed for starved individuals. In contrast, harpacticoids and the poecilamastoid copepod Oncaea spp. were able to feed only when the food was in the form of aggregates. The sum of copepod respiration, pellet production and egg production rates was equivalent to a daily minimum carbon demand of ca. 10% body weight-1 for all non-feeding copepods; the carbon demand of calanoids feeding on dispersed food was 2–3 times greater, and the carbon demand of harpacticoids and Oncaea spp. feeding on aggregates was >7 times greater, than the resting rates. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species composition combined with the type of available food strongly influences the calculated carbon demand of a copepod community, and thus also the attenuation of vertical carbon flux. PMID:28545095</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000999','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000999"><span>A decade of predatory control of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species composition of Lake Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Bertram, Paul; Lewis, Theodore; Brown, Edward H.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>From 1983 to 1992, 71 species representing 38 genera from the Calanoida, Cladocera, Cyclopoida, Mysidacea, Rotifera, Mollusca and Harpacticoida comprised the offshore <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community of Lake Michigan. Our data demonstrate that the composition and abundance of the calanoid community after 1983 is not unlike that of 1960s and that species diversity of the calanoid community is more diverse than the cladoceran community in the 1990s as compared to the early 1980s. Even though the relative biomass of the cladocerans has remained similar over the 1983-1993 period, the species diversity and evenness of the Cladocera community in the early 1990s is unlike anything that has been previously reported for Lake Michigan. Cladocera dominance is centered in one species, Daphnia galeata mendotae, and only three species of Cladocera were observed in the pelagic region of the lake in 1991 and 1992. Nutrient levels, phytoplankton biomass, and the abundance of planktivorous alewife and bloater chub and Bythotrephes are examined as possible causes of these changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species composition. The increase in Rotifera biomass, but not Crustacea, was correlated with an increase in relative biomass of unicellular algae. Food web models suggest Bythotrephes will cause Lake Michigan's plankton to return to a community similar to that of the 1970s; that is Diaptomus dominated. Such a change has occurred. However, correlational analysis suggest that alewife and bloater chubs (especially juveniles) are affecting size and biomass of larger species of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> as well as Bythotrephes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME21B..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME21B..06B"><span>The Influence of Individual Variability on <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Population Dynamics under Different Environmental Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bi, R.; Liu, H.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Understanding how biological components respond to environmental changes could be insightful to predict ecosystem trajectories under different climate scenarios. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> are key components of marine ecosystems and changes in their dynamics could have major impact on ecosystem structure. We developed an individual-based model of a common coastal calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa to examine how environmental factors affect <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> population dynamics and explore the role of individual variability in sustaining population under various environmental conditions consisting of temperature, food concentration and salinity. Total abundance, egg production and proportion of survival were used to measure population success. Results suggested population benefits from high level of individual variability under extreme environmental conditions including unfavorable temperature, salinity, as well as low food concentration, and selection on fast-growers becomes stronger with increasing individual variability and increasing environmental stress. Multiple regression analysis showed that temperature, food concentration, salinity and individual variability have significant effects on survival of A. tonsa population. These results suggest that environmental factors have great influence on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> population, and individual variability has important implications for population survivability under unfavorable conditions. Given that marine ecosystems are at risk from drastic environmental changes, understanding how individual variability sustains populations could increase our capability to predict population dynamics in a changing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASAJ..115.2557T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASAJ..115.2557T"><span>Multifrequency acoustic observations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in Knight Inlet, B.C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trevorrow, Mark V.; Mackas, David L.; Benfield, Mark C.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>A collaborative investigation of midwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> aggregations in a coastal fjord was conducted in November 2002. Midwater aggregations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in a coastal fjord were sampled and mapped using a calibrated, three-frequency (38, 120, and 200 kHz) vessel-based echo-sounder system, a multinet towed <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> net (BIONESS), and a high-resolution in situ camera system (ZOOVIS). Dense daytime layers of euphausiids and amphipods near 70- to 90-m depth were found in the lower reaches of the inlet, especially concentrated by tidal flows around a sill which rises above the layer. Quantitative euphausiid and amphipod backscattering measurements, combined with in situ species, size, and abundance estimates, were found to agree closely with recent size- and orientation-averaged fluid-cylinder scattering models produced by Stanton et al. Also, in situ scattering measurements of physonect siphonophores were found to have a much stronger low-frequency (38 kHz) scattering strength, in agreement with a simple bubble scattering model. [Work supported by Dr. J. Eckman, ONR code 322BC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4161229','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4161229"><span>Arctic complexity: a case study on diel vertical migration of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berge, Jørgen; Cottier, Finlo; Varpe, Øystein; Renaud, Paul E.; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kwasniewski, Sawomir; Griffiths, Colin; Søreide, Janne E.; Johnsen, Geir; Aubert, Anais; Bjærke, Oda; Hovinen, Johanna; Jung-Madsen, Signe; Tveit, Martha; Majaneva, Sanna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Diel vertical migration (DVM) of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is a global phenomenon, characteristic of both marine and limnic environments. At high latitudes, patterns of DVM have been documented, but rather little knowledge exists regarding which species perform this ecologically important behaviour. Also, in the Arctic, the vertically migrating components of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community are usually regarded as a single sound scattering layer (SSL) performing synchronized patterns of migration directly controlled by ambient light. Here, we present evidence for hitherto unknown complexity of Arctic marine systems, where <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> form multiple aggregations through the water column seen via acoustics as distinct SSLs. We show that while the initiation of DVM during the autumnal equinox is light mediated, the vertical positioning of the migrants during day is linked more to the thermal characteristics of water masses than to irradiance. During night, phytoplankton biomass is shown to be the most important factor determining the vertical positioning of all migrating taxa. Further, we develop a novel way of representing acoustic data in the form of a Sound Image (SI) that enables a direct comparison of the relative importance of each potential scatterer based upon the theoretical contribution of their backscatter. Based on our comparison of locations with contrasting hydrography, we conclude that a continued warming of the Arctic is likely to result in more complex ecotones across the Arctic marine system. PMID:25221372</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24467318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24467318"><span>Cyanobacteria dominance influences resource use efficiency and community turnover in phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filstrup, Christopher T; Hillebrand, Helmut; Heathcote, Adam J; Harpole, W Stanley; Downing, John A</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Freshwater biodiversity loss potentially disrupts ecosystem services related to water quality and may negatively impact ecosystem functioning and temporal community turnover. We analysed a data set containing phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community data from 131 lakes through 9 years in an agricultural region to test predictions that plankton communities with low biodiversity are less efficient in their use of limiting resources and display greater community turnover (measured as community dissimilarity). Phytoplankton resource use efficiency (RUE = biomass per unit resource) was negatively related to phytoplankton evenness (measured as Pielou's evenness), whereas <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> RUE was positively related to phytoplankton evenness. Phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> RUE were high and low, respectively, when Cyanobacteria, especially Microcystis sp., dominated. Phytoplankton communities displayed slower community turnover rates when dominated by few genera. Our findings, which counter findings of many terrestrial studies, suggest that Cyanobacteria dominance may play important roles in ecosystem functioning and community turnover in nutrient-enriched lakes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353240','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353240"><span>Possible association of diazotrophs with marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Pacific Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Azimuddin, Kazi Md; Hirai, Junya; Suzuki, Shotaro; Haider, Md Nurul; Tachibana, Aiko; Watanabe, Keigo; Kitamura, Minoru; Hashihama, Fuminori; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hamasaki, Koji</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Dinitrogen fixation, the biological reduction in N 2 gas to ammonia contributes to the supply of new nitrogen in the surface ocean. To understand the diversity and abundance of potentially diazotrophic (N 2 fixing) microorganisms associated with marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, especially copepods, the nifH gene was studied using <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples collected in the Pacific Ocean. In total, 257 nifH sequences were recovered from 23 nifH-positive DNA extracts out of 90 copepod samples. The nifH genes derived from cyanobacteria related to Trichodesmium, α- and γ-subdivisions of proteobacteria, and anaerobic euryarchaeota related to Methanosaeta concilii were detected. Our results indicated that Pleuromamma, Pontella, and Euchaeta were the major copepod genera hosting dinitrogen fixers, though we found no species-specific association between copepods and dinitrogen fixers. Also, the digital PCR provided novel data on the number of copies of the nifH gene in individual copepods, which we report the range from 30 to 1666 copies per copepod. This study is the first systematic study of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>-associated diazotrophs, covering a large area of the open ocean, which provide a clue to further study of a possible new hotspot of N 2 fixation. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23033803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23033803"><span>[Phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the industrial reservoir R-9 (Lake Karachay)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Priakhin, E A; Triapitsina, G A; Atamaniuk, N I; Osipov, D I; Stukalov, P M; Ivanov, I A; Popova, I Ia; Akleev, A V</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Planktonic communities of the Reservoir-9 (Lake Karachay, storage reservoir of liquid medium-level radioactive waste of the Mayak Production Association) are exposed to the severe radioactive forcing (in 2010 the total beta-activity of the water was 1.8 x 10(7) Bq/L, total alpha-activity was 1.1 x 10(4) Bq/L), aswell as to the chemical contamination (level of nitrates in water 4.1 g/L). The calculated values of the absorbed dose rate were 130 Gy/day for phytoplankton and 4.0 Gy/day for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Extremely low species diversity, the overwhelming dominance of one species (phytoplankton is close to a monoculture of ubiquitous cyanobacteria Geitlerinema amphibium, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>--to a monoculture of rotifers Hexarthrafennica), wide fluctuations in numbers of algae, a low number of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were the most substantial characteristics of the plankton communities in Lake Karachay. So, plankton communities status is a sign of environmental retrogress in this ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED039268.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED039268.pdf"><span>An Exploration of Positional <span class="hlt">Response</span> Sets in Disadvantaged Children and a Technique for Reduction of Such Sets. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Victor, Jack</p> <p></p> <p>This study is concerned with an examination of tendencies among individuals or groups to vary in their selection of certain types of <span class="hlt">responses</span> when the same choice is presented in some other form, the tendencies being termed "<span class="hlt">response</span> sets." Positional <span class="hlt">response</span> sets (PRS), to which multiple-choice type items are prone, have reportedly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23506226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23506226"><span>Increasing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton through diet niche partitioning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ye, Lin; Chang, Chun-Yi; García-Comas, Carmen; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-Hao</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>1. The biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate is a central topic in ecology. Recently, there has been a growing interest in size diversity because body size is sensitive to environmental changes and is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties. However, how size diversity affects ecosystem functioning is an important yet unclear issue. 2. To fill the gap, with large-scale field data from the East China Sea, we tested the novel hypothesis that increasing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton (H1) and compared it with five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: flatter <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation decreases the strength of top-down control of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> on phytoplankton through trophic cascade (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). 3. The results of univariate analyses support the hypotheses based on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size diversity (H1), <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size spectrum (H2), nutrient (H3) and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxonomic diversity (H4), but not the hypotheses based on fish predation (H5) and temperature (H6). More in-depth analyses indicate that <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea. 4. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> would promote diet niche partitioning of predators</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DSRII..55.2330T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DSRII..55.2330T"><span>Pelagic and sympagic contribution of organic matter to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and vertical export in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tamelander, Tobias; Reigstad, Marit; Hop, Haakon; Carroll, Michael L.; Wassmann, Paul</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>The structure and function of the marine food web strongly regulate the cycling of organic matter derived from primary production by phytoplankton and ice algae in Arctic shelf seas. Improved knowledge of trophic relationships and export of organic matter from the surface layer is needed to better understand how the Arctic marine ecosystem may respond to climate-related changes in distribution of sea ice, water masses, and associated primary production regimes. Pelagic and sympagic inputs of organic matter to dominant meso- and macrozooplankton species and vertical export were investigated in the northern Barents Sea by means of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ 13C and δ 15N). Samples were collected during spring and summer (2003-2005) from a total of 13 stations with different ice conditions, abundances of ice algae, and phytoplankton bloom phases. δ 13C signatures were different in organic matter of phytoplankton (mean -24.3‰) and ice algal origin (mean -20.0‰). Stable carbon isotope compositions showed that most of the energy assimilated by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> originated from pelagic primary production, but at times ice algae also contributed to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> diets. Trophic level (TL) estimates of copepods ( Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus) and krill ( Thysanoessa inermis and Thysanoessa longicaudata), calculated based on δ 15N values, varied among stations from 1.3 to 2.7 and from 1.5 to 3.1, for respective taxa. TL in C. glacialis was significantly and inversely related to the depth-integrated phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentration. A similar trend, although weaker, also was observed for the other species. This relationship indicates that copepods graze primarily on the abundant autotrophic biomass during the peak bloom phase. At stations with lower chlorophyll a concentration, the TL of Calanus spp. was 1.0 higher, indicating omnivory outside the peak bloom phase in <span class="hlt">response</span> to changed food availability. The majority of organic matter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29804250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29804250"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> sensitivity and phytoplankton regrowth for ballast water treatment with advanced oxidation processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García-Garay, Juan; Franco-Herrera, Andrés; Machuca-Martinez, Fiderman</p> <p>2018-05-26</p> <p>The ballasting and de-ballasting of ships are two necessary operations with ballast water that provide stability for safe navigation. Empty ships must ballast tanks with water, which contains living organisms and subsequently carries them away from their original distribution. De-ballasting represents an input of still viable <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, phytoplankton, and microorganisms in the destination port, leading to the introduction of alien species, and consequently, the introduction of organisms will alter the local biodiversity. Ballast water treatment is necessary to comply with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for the maximum viable organisms permitted. It is known that UVC eliminates microorganisms, but there are few studies on the other taxonomical groups, such as phytoplankton and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. The advance oxidation processes (AOPs) with UV-C can be a good alternative to manage the problem of ballast water, primarily for microorganisms. However, for larger organisms, there is more resistance, and, a stage with filtration (by physical filtration or hydrocyclone) is usually required. The filter can fail, or certain <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> organisms can escape across the filter and go to the AOPs or UVC reactor. According to the taxonomic group, there can be a different sensitivity to the treatment, and one could survive and generate a risk. The AOPs tested were natural solar radiation (RAD), UV/H 2 O 2 , UV/TiO 2 , UV/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 , and UV/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 /RAD. Natural sea water was pumped and treated with the AOPs. The vital <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> organisms counted were polychaetes, cladocerans, ostracods, nauplii and calanoid, cyclopoid, and harpacticoid copepods. For the phytoplankton, the abundance was estimated, and the photosystem II efficiency was determined. To evaluate the phytoplankton regrowth after the treatments, the treated water was stored and populations counted for 20 days. The most effective treatment for the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups was UVC/H 2 O 2 . Regarding the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28792594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28792594"><span>A compilation of quantitative functional traits for marine and freshwater crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hébert, Marie-Pier; Beisner, Beatrix E; Maranger, Roxane</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This data compilation synthesizes 8609 individual observations and ranges of 13 traits from 201 freshwater and 191 marine crustacean taxa belonging to either Copepoda or Cladocera, two important <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups across all major aquatic habitats. Most data were gathered from the literature, with the balance being provided by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> ecologists. With the aim of more fully assessing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> effects on elemental processes such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) stocks and fluxes in aquatic ecosystems, this data set provides information on the following traits: body size (length and mass), trophic group, elemental and biochemical corporal composition (N, P, C, lipid and protein content), respiration rates, N- and P-excretion rates, as well as stoichiometric ratios. Although relationships for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> metabolism as a function of body mass or requirements have been explored in the past three decades, data have not been systematically compiled nor examined from an integrative and large-scale perspective across crustacean taxa and habitat types. While this contribution likely represents the most comprehensive assembly of traits for both marine and freshwater species, this data set is not exhaustive either. As a result, this compilation also identifies knowledge gaps: a fact that should encourage researchers to disclose information they may have to help complete such databases. This trait matrix is made available for the first time in this data paper; prior to its release, the data set has been analyzed in a meta-analysis published as a companion paper. This data set should prove extremely valuable for aquatic ecologists for trait-based characterization of plankton community structure as well as biogeochemical modeling. These data are also well-suited for deriving shortcut relationships that predict more difficult to measure trait values, most of which can be directly related to ecosystem properties (i.e., effect traits), from simpler traits (e</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME24B0709W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME24B0709W"><span>Can small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> enhance turbulence in a lake during vertical migration?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wain, D.; Simoncelli, S.; Thackeray, S.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Recent research in both oceanic and freshwater systems suggests that the Diel Vertical Migration (DVM), a predator-avoidance mechanism adopted by many <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, may be an underrepresented source of turbulence and mixing. In particular, the migration can play a crucial role when organisms cross the thermocline; this could be particularly important in enhancing the mixing in lakes, where the pelagic zone is often quiescent, with a consequent impact on lake ecosystem functioning. A field experiment was performed to directly measure the temperature fluctuations and kinetic energy dissipation rate generated by DVM of Daphnia spp., a 1 mm crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> genus. Profiles of turbulence were acquired with a temperature microstructure profiler in Vobster Quay (UK), a small quarry with small wind fetch, steep sides, and with a maximum depth of approximately 25 m. Sixteen profiles were measured over the course of two hours during sunset on 16 July 2015, during which there was no wind. Backscatter strength from bottom-mounted ADCP was used as a proxy to assess DVM. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> vertical distribution was also quantified by sampling with a 100 μm mesh net before and after the turbulence profiling in 8 layers to verify the distribution of Daphnia spp. before and after the migration. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> tows show higher abundance (450 ind./L) of Daphnia at 9m and near the bottom before sunset (8PM). Samples after dusk (11.20PM) showed an increase in the surface layer, from 0 up to 250 ind./L. However, migration also appears to happen horizontally. Ensemble-averaged profiles show a great variation of the dissipation rates over the course of the time series with a peak of 10-7 W/kg between 6m and 12m where the DVM is happening and with respect to profiles before sunset. Given the uncertainty in measuring the length scales of turbulence associated with small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, further analysis is required to determine if the observed turbulence during the time of migration was due the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://alaska.usgs.gov/science/biology/seabirds_foragefish/products/reports/Glacier_Bay_Marine_Communities.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://alaska.usgs.gov/science/biology/seabirds_foragefish/products/reports/Glacier_Bay_Marine_Communities.pdf"><span>Ecology of selected marine communities in Glacier Bay: <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span>, forage fish, seabirds and marine mammals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Robards, Martin D.; Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Anson, Jennifer Marie; Abookire, Alisa A.; Bodkin, James L.; Hooge, Philip N.; Speckman, Suzann G.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We studied oceanography (including primary production), secondary production, small schooling fish (SSF), and marine bird and mammal predators in Glacier Bay during 1999 and 2000. Results from these field efforts were combined with a review of current literature relating to the Glacier Bay environment. Since the conceptual model developed by Hale and Wright (1979) ‘changes and cycles’ continue to be the underlying theme of the Glacier Bay ecosystem. We found marked seasonality in many of the parameters that we investigated over the two years of research, and here we provide a comprehensive description of the distribution and relative abundance of a wide array of marine biota. Glacier Bay is a tidally mixed estuary that leads into basins, which stratify in summer, with the upper arms behaving as traditional estuaries. The Bay is characterized by renewal and mixing events throughout the year, and markedly higher primary production than in many neighboring southeast Alaska fjords (Hooge and Hooge, 2002). <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> diversity and abundance within the upper 50 meters of the water column in Glacier Bay is similar to communities seen throughout the Gulf of Alaska. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> in the lower regions of Glacier Bay peak in abundance in late May or early June, as observed at Auke Bay and in the Gulf of Alaska. The key distinction between the lower Bay and other estuaries in the Gulf of Alaska is that a second smaller peak in densities occurs in August. The upper Bay behaved uniformly in temporal trends, peaking in July. Densities had begun to decline in August, but were still more than twice those observed in that region in May. The highest density of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> observed was 17,870 organisms/m3 in Tarr Inlet during July. Trends in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community abundance and diversity within the lower Bay were distinct from upper-Glacier Bay trends. Whereas the lower Bay is strongly influenced by Gulf of Alaska processes, local processes are the strongest influence in the upper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.144...62C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.144...62C"><span>Acoustic insights into the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dynamics of the eastern Weddell Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cisewski, Boris; Strass, Volker H.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The success of any efforts to determine the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems depends on understanding in the first instance the natural variations, which contemporarily occur on the interannual and shorter time scales. Here we present results on the environmental controls of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution patterns and behaviour in the eastern Weddell Sea, Southern Ocean. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> abundance and vertical migration are derived from the mean volume backscattering strength (MVBS) and the vertical velocity measured by moored acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), which were deployed simultaneously at 64°S, 66.5°S and 69°S along the Greenwich Meridian from February, 2005, until March, 2008. While these time series span a period of full three years they resolve hourly changes. A highly persistent behavioural pattern found at all three mooring locations is the synchronous diel vertical migration (DVM) of two distinct groups of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> that migrate between a deep residence depth during daytime and a shallow depth during nighttime. The DVM was closely coupled to the astronomical daylight cycles. However, while the DVM was symmetric around local noon, the annual modulation of the DVM was clearly asymmetric around winter solstice or summer solstice, respectively, at all three mooring sites. DVM at our observation sites persisted throughout winter, even at the highest latitude exposed to the polar night. Since the magnitude as well as the relative rate of change of illumination is minimal at this time, we propose that the ultimate causes of DVM separated from the light-mediated proximal cue that coordinates it. In all three years, a marked change in the migration behaviour occurred in late spring (late October/early November), when DVM ceased. The complete suspension of DVM after early November is possibly caused by the combination of two factors: (1) increased availability of food in the surface mixed layer provided by the phytoplankton spring bloom, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018OcSci..14..355K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018OcSci..14..355K"><span>Spatial variations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure along the Japanese coastline in the Japan Sea: influence of the coastal current</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kodama, Taketoshi; Wagawa, Taku; Iguchi, Naoki; Takada, Yoshitake; Takahashi, Takashi; Fukudome, Ken-Ichi; Morimoto, Haruyuki; Goto, Tsuneo</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>This study evaluates spatial variations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure and potential controlling factors along the Japanese coast under the influence of the coastal branch of the Tsushima Warm Current (CBTWC). Variations in the density of morphologically identified <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the surface layer in May were investigated for a 15-year period. The density of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (individuals per cubic meter) varied between sampling stations, but there was no consistent west-east trend. Instead, there were different <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structures in the west and east, with that in Toyama Bay particularly distinct: Corycaeus affinis and Calanus sinicus were dominant in the west and Oithona atlantica was dominant in Toyama Bay. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) was used to characterize the variation in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure, and four axes (RD1-4) provided significant explanation. RD2-4 only explained < 4.8 % of variation in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community and did not show significant spatial difference; however, RD1, which explained 89.9 % of variation, did vary spatially. Positive and negative species scores on RD1 represent warm- and cold-water species, respectively, and their variation was mainly explained by water column mean temperature, and it is considered to vary spatially with the CBTWC. The CBTWC intrusion to the cold Toyama Bay is weak and occasional due to the submarine canyon structure of the bay. Therefore, the varying bathymetric characteristics along the Japanese coast of the Japan Sea generate the spatial variation in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure, and dominance of warm-water species can be considered an indicator of the CBTWC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000610','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000610"><span>Roles of predation, food, and temperature in structuring the epilimnetic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations in Lake Ontario, 1981-1986</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Johannsson, Ora E.; O'Gorman, Robert</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>We sampled phytoplankton, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and measured water temperature in Lake Ontario during 1981–1986. Through the use of general linear regression models we then sought evidence of control of the eplimnetic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community (mid-July to mid-October) by producers, consumers, and temperature. Our measures of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community were total biomass, cladoceran biomass, and the ratio of large to small Daphnia spp. (D. galeata mendotae andD. retrocurva). <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> population variables assessed were abundance, egg ratio, and productivity. Through factor analysis, factors were created from the standardized, transformed independent variables for use in the regression analyses. Regression models showed significant inverse relationships (P < 0.05) between alewives and Bosmina longirostris (abundance, production, and egg ratio), Ceriodaphnia lacustris (egg ratio), andDaphnia retrocurva (egg ratio). Bosmina longirostris and D. retrocurva egg ratios were inversely related to algae biomass (<20 μm), thus the smaller algae might be controlled in part by the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. Production of C. lacustris was directly related to temperature, as was the production and abundance of Tropocyclops prasinus. The annual size-frequency distributions of B. longirostris and D. retrocurva were inversely related to yearling alewife abundance and directly related to adult alewife abundance, which suggested that yearlings use a particulate-feeding mode on these <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species more frequently than adults. We found no significant negative correlations among the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species, which suggested that interzooplankton predation and competition were not as important in structuring the community as were planktivory and temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11935905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11935905"><span>Community structure of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the main entrance of Bahía Magdalena, México during 1996.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-Gutiérrez, J; Palomares-García, R; Hernández-Trujillo, S; Carballido-Carranza, A</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure, including copepods, euphausiids, chaetognaths, and decapod larvae, was monitored during six circadian cycles using Bongo net (500 microns mesh net) samples from Bahía Magdalena, on the southwest coast of Baja California, México. Samples were obtained during three oceanographic surveys (March, July, and December 1996) to describe the changes in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure throughout the main mouth of Bahía Magdalena. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure showed strong changes with a close relation to environmental conditions. During March, a well-mixed water column with low temperature and salinity indicated an influence of the California Current water and local upwelling processes. During July, temperature increased and a wide salinity range was recorded. The stratification of the water column was intense during summer, enhancing the thermocline. The highest temperatures and salinity were recorded in December, related to the presence of the Costa Rica Coastal Current (CRCC). The thermocline deepened as water temperature increased. A typical temperate community structure with low specific richness dominated by Calanus pacificus, Nyctiphanes simplex, and Acartia clausi and high <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass (average 9.3 and 5.5 ml 1000 m-3 respectively) during March and July shifted to a more complex tropical community structure with a low <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass in December (average 0.37 ml 1000 m-3). The mouth of Bahía Magdalena has a vigorous exchange of water caused by tidal currents. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure was not significantly different between the central part of Bahía Magdalena and the continental shelf outside the bay for all months. The results suggest a more dynamic inside-outside interaction of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages than first thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-15/pdf/2013-08714.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-15/pdf/2013-08714.pdf"><span>78 FR 22298 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and <span class="hlt">Response</span> on Proposed <span class="hlt">Final</span> Judgment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>... Section VII, Penguin also must designate an Antitrust Compliance Officer, who is required to distribute... antitrust laws; certify compliance with the Penguin <span class="hlt">Final</span> Judgment; maintain a log of all communications... Circuit affirmed this Court's denial of Mr. Kohn's motion to intervene for purposes of appealing the Court...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-04/pdf/2013-13133.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-04/pdf/2013-13133.pdf"><span>78 FR 33437 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and <span class="hlt">Response</span> on Proposed <span class="hlt">Final</span> Judgment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-04</p> <p>... must designate an Antitrust Compliance Officer, who is required to distribute copies of the Macmillan... compliance with the Macmillan <span class="hlt">Final</span> Judgment; maintain a log of all communications between Macmillan and... Circuit affirmed this Court's denial of Mr. Kohn's motion to intervene for purposes of appealing the Court...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-02/pdf/2013-07634.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-02/pdf/2013-07634.pdf"><span>78 FR 19879 - <span class="hlt">Final</span> Order in <span class="hlt">Response</span> to a Petition From Certain Independent System Operators and Regional...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-02</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Response</span>,'' \\45\\ as defined in the Proposed Order, where: (1) The price of electric energy is established... physical delivery or receipt of the specified electric energy or a cash payment or receipt at the price... <span class="hlt">response</span> to an increase in the price of electric energy or to incentive payments designed to induce lower...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED268229.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED268229.pdf"><span>Improving Follow-up <span class="hlt">Response</span> Rate at Brevard Community College. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report from September 24, 1984 to August 31, 1985.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lawton, Robert E.</p> <p></p> <p>A plan was developed to improve followup study <span class="hlt">response</span> rates by refining techniques for data collection and improving student motivation to respond to daily requests. Factors affecting <span class="hlt">response</span> rate to followup surveys were investigated, and alternative approaches were recommended. Findings indicated that current procedures--two mailouts of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26778498"><span>Is the way an oil spill <span class="hlt">response</span> is reported in the media important for the <span class="hlt">final</span> perception of the clean-up?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, G; Ashwell, D; Low, S I; Morgan, K J; Pearson, H E</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>This research investigates the media coverage during the C/V Rena grounding in New Zealand (NZ), in 2011, to analyze if information reported in printed media is important for the <span class="hlt">final</span> perception of the overall oil spill <span class="hlt">response</span>. We took all articles available from NZ's largest circulated newspaper and the regional newspaper closest to the incident and analyzed the themes within each article; the article's tone (positive, neutral or negative); the time of the report relative to incident events and any differences between the regional and national papers. This analysis indicates that oil spills are reported and perceived as inherently negative incidents. However, along with coordinating an effective spill <span class="hlt">response</span>, fast, factual and frequent media releases and increased effect in media liaison in areas of <span class="hlt">response</span> with high public intrinsic value such as oiled wildlife <span class="hlt">response</span> can significantly influence tone of media coverage and likely overall public perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA271717','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA271717"><span><span class="hlt">Response</span> to the Directorate of Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigations <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report (Revised) Assessing Power Analysis Approaches for the Fort Bragg Evaluation Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-07-28</p> <p>Below is a summary of Vanderbilt’s <span class="hlt">response</span>, requested by Health Services Command ( HSC ), to the <span class="hlt">final</span> report prepared by the Directorate of Health Care...Command’s ( HSC ) demands for client data it sought to use somehow in power analysis (see Appendix F). Dr. Kapadia’s statement is the standard view held...not involve actual data, the results from this method may be entirely misleading and not accurate." When HSC demanded client data for power analysis in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME24F0772R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME24F0772R"><span>How Do Density Fronts Interact with <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Distributions to Create Baleen Whale Prey-Fields in Roseway Basin?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruckdeschel, G.; Ross, T.; Davies, K. T. A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>On the Scotian Shelf in the northwest Atlantic, Roseway Basin is a feeding ground for several species of large baleen whales, including the highly endangered North Atlantic right whale. In this habitat, aggregations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> must be present at concentrations high enough for baleen whales to obtain an energetic benefit. Regions of highly concentrated <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are formed within the habitat through various biophysical interactions, such as fontal accumulation and retention. In Roseway Basin, humpback and fin whales prey on accumulated euphausiids, while right and sei whales forage for deep layers of Calanoid copepods. Right whales are found most often along the southeastern basin margin in Roseway, and this is also where density fronts occur and are associated with <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> patches that can form and disaggregate at tidal scales. The temporal persistence and biophysical mechanisms behind the observed interactions of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and frontal features have not been assessed. To understand how density fronts impact <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distributions at the scale of feeding whales, we deployed Slocum gliders equipped with conductivity-temperature-depth sensors and echosounders in a series of cross-isobath transects along the sloped southeastern margin of Roseway Basin during August to November 2015. By looking for the presence of density fronts that are also regions of elevated acoustic backscatter (primarily from copepods and euphausiids) and quantifying their persistence over time, we aim to determine how these biophysical interactions create whale prey-fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23189709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23189709"><span>[Effects of large bio-manipulation fish pen on community structure of crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ke, Zhi-Xin; Xie, Ping; Guo, Long-Gen; Xu, Jun; Zhou, Qiong</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>In 2005, a large bio-manipulation pen with the stock of silver carp and bighead carp was built to control the cyanobacterial bloom in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake. This paper investigated the seasonal variation of the community structure of crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and the water quality within and outside the pen. There were no significant differences in the environmental parameters and phytoplankton biomass within and outside the pen. The species composition and seasonal dynamics of crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> within and outside the pen were similar, but the biomass of crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was greatly suppressed by silver carp and bighead carp. The total crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass and cladocerans biomass were significantly lower in the pen (P < 0.05). In general, silver carp and bighead carp exerted more pressure on cladoceran species than on copepod species. A distinct seasonal succession of crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was observed in the Bay. Many crustacean species were only dominated in given seasons. Large-sized crustacean (mainly Daphnia sp. and Cyclops vicnus) dominated in winter and spring, while small-sized species (mainly Bosmina sp., Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and Limnoithona sinensis) dominated in summer and autumn. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that water transparency, temperature, and phytoplankton biomass were the most important factors affecting the seasonal succession of the crustacean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3746U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3746U"><span>Vertical redistribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in an oligotrophic lake associated with reduction in ultraviolet radiation by wildfire smoke</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urmy, Samuel S.; Williamson, Craig E.; Leach, Taylor H.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Overholt, Erin P.; Warren, Joseph D.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We used a natural experiment to test whether wildfire smoke induced changes in the vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in Lake Tahoe by decreasing incident ultraviolet radiation (UV). Fires have a variety of effects on aquatic ecosystems, but these impacts are poorly understood and have rarely been observed directly. UV is an important driver of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> vertical migration, and wildfires may alter it over large spatial scales. We measured UV irradiance and the distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> on two successive days. On one day, smoke haze from a nearby wildfire reduced incident UV radiation by up to 9%, but not irradiance in the visible spectrum. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> responded by positioning themselves, on average, 4.1 m shallower in the lake. While a limited data set such as this requires cautious interpretation, our results suggest that smoke from wildfires can change the UV environment and distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. This process may be important in drought-prone regions with increasingly frequent wildfires, and globally due to widespread biomass burning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/767322','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/767322"><span>Role of Cell Cycle Regulation and MLH1, A Key DNA Mismatch Repair Protein, In Adaptive Survival <span class="hlt">Responses</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>David A. Boothman</p> <p>1999-08-11</p> <p>Due to several interesting findings on both adaptive survival <span class="hlt">responses</span> (ASRs) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR), this grant was separated into two discrete Specific Aim sets (each with their own discrete hypotheses). The described experiments were simultaneously performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/32743','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/32743"><span>Improving hydrologic disaster forecasting and <span class="hlt">response</span> for transportation by assimilating and fusing NASA and other data sets : <span class="hlt">final</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-04-15</p> <p>In this 3-year project, the research team developed the Hydrologic Disaster Forecast and <span class="hlt">Response</span> (HDFR) system, a set of integrated software tools for end users that streamlines hydrologic prediction workflows involving automated retrieval of hetero...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/32548','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/32548"><span>Improving travel times for emergency <span class="hlt">response</span> vehicles : traffic control strategies based on connected vehicles technologies : <span class="hlt">final</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-08-31</p> <p>This research is focused on developing and evaluating new traffic control strategies to enable emergency <span class="hlt">response</span> vehicles (EVs) to travel in transportation networks as quickly as possible while the disruption to the rest of the traffic is kept to a ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JMS.....5..297T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JMS.....5..297T"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> biomass, feeding and metabolism in a geostrophic frontal area (Almeria-Oran Front, western Mediterranean). Significance to pelagic food webs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thibault, D.; Gaudy, R.; Le Fèvre, J.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>Mesozooplankton abundance and physiological rates in copepods were measured at selected sites in the Alboran Sea, in May 1991, on Cruise Almofront 1 (JGofs-France). Higher total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> standing stocks, higher copepod abundance, higher feeding activity by the latter and a higher proportion of phytoplankton-derived carbohydrates in their diet were found in the geostrophic jet of inflowing Atlantic water than in surrounding areas, which offered a range of oligotrophic conditions. Relationships with data obtained in other disciplinary fields on the same cruise show that biological enrichment was due to locally enhanced production rather than advection of exogenous living matter. In the most productive context, sustained production effected by phytoplankton cells in the > 10 μm class size (diatoms) was being significantly transferred to higher trophic levels through herbivores with a relatively long generation time (copepods). The processes <span class="hlt">responsible</span> for the fertilization, and their relationship to the jet and its frontal boundary, are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ECSS..194...16T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ECSS..194...16T"><span>Effects of nutrients and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> on the phytoplankton community structure in Marudu Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Kar Soon; Ransangan, Julian</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Current study was carried out to provide a better understanding on spatial and temporal variations in the phytoplankton community structure in Marudu Bay, an important nursery ground for fishery resources within the Tun Mustapha Marine Park and Coral Triangle Initiative, and their relationship with environmental variables. Samplings were conducted monthly from April 2014 to April 2015 in Marudu Bay, Malaysia. Water samples were collected for nutrients analysis, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and phytoplankton counting. Moreover, the in situ environmental parameters were also examined. The field study showed a total of forty seven phytoplankton genera, representative of 33 families were identified. The nutrient concentrations in Marudu Bay was low (mesotrophic) throughout the year, where the phytoplankton community was often dominated by Chaetoceros spp. and Bacteriastrum spp. In general, increase in nitrate concentration triggered the bloom of centric diatom, Chaetoceros spp. and Bacteriastrum spp. in Marudu Bay. However, the bloom of these phytoplankton taxa did not occur in the presence of high ammonia concentration. In addition, high abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> also a limiting factor of the phytoplankton blooms particularly at end of southwest monsoon. High silica concentration promoted the growth of pennate diatoms, Proboscia spp. and Thallassionema spp., but the depletion of silica quickly terminated the bloom. Interestingly, our study showed that Chaetoceros spp., tolerated silica depletion condition, but the average cell size of this taxon reduced significantly. In summary, the phytoplankton community structure in mesotrophic environment is more sensitive to the changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance, nutrient concentration and its ratio than that in nutrient rich environments. This study also recommends that bivalve farming at industrial scale is not recommended in Marudu Bay because it potentially depletes the primary productivity hence jeopardizing the availability of live food for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28850765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28850765"><span>Ocean acidification alters <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities and increases top-down pressure of a cubozoan predator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hammill, Edd; Johnson, Ellery; Atwood, Trisha B; Harianto, Januar; Hinchliffe, Charles; Calosi, Piero; Byrne, Maria</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The composition of local ecological communities is determined by the members of the regional community that are able to survive the abiotic and biotic conditions of a local ecosystem. Anthropogenic activities since the industrial revolution have increased atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, which have in turn decreased ocean pH and altered carbonate ion concentrations: so called ocean acidification (OA). Single-species experiments have shown how OA can dramatically affect <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> development, physiology and skeletal mineralization status, potentially reducing their defensive function and altering their predatory and antipredatory behaviors. This means that increased OA may indirectly alter the biotic conditions by modifying trophic interactions. We investigated how OA affects the impact of a cubozoan predator on their <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey, predominantly Copepoda, Pleocyemata, Dendrobranchiata, and Amphipoda. Experimental conditions were set at either current (pCO 2 370 μatm) or end-of-the-century OA (pCO 2 1,100 μatm) scenarios, crossed in an orthogonal experimental design with the presence/absence of the cubozoan predator Carybdea rastoni. The combined effects of exposure to OA and predation by C. rastoni caused greater shifts in community structure, and greater reductions in the abundance of key taxa than would be predicted from combining the effect of each stressor in isolation. Specifically, we show that in the combined presence of OA and a cubozoan predator, populations of the most abundant member of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community (calanoid copepods) were reduced 27% more than it would be predicted based on the effects of these stressors in isolation, suggesting that OA increases the susceptibility of plankton to predation. Our results indicate that the ecological consequences of OA may be greater than predicted from single-species experiments, and highlight the need to understand future marine global change from a community perspective. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/355582-effects-repeated-exposure-nonylphenol-zooplankton-community-littoral-enclosures','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/355582-effects-repeated-exposure-nonylphenol-zooplankton-community-littoral-enclosures"><span>Effects of repeated exposure to 4-nonylphenol on the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in littoral enclosures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>O`Halloran, S.L.; Liber, K.; Gangl, J.A.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>The effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP) on freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were evaluated in 18 littoral enclosure mesocosms in northeastern Minnesota. The 18 enclosures were allocated to three blocks of six units with each block including two untreated control enclosures and one enclosure for each of four NP treatments. Treated enclosures received 11 applications of NP over a 20-d period between July 8 and 28, 1993. Maximum NP concentrations measured in the water column 2 h after each application averaged ({+-} SD) 5 {+-} 4, 23 {+-} 11, 76 {+-} 21, and 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L over the 11 applications. Nonylphenol dissipated rapidlymore » from the water column but was more persistent in sediments and in/on macrophytes. All cladoceran and copepod taxa were significantly reduced in abundance at 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L; some sensitive taxa were also affected by 76 {+-} 21 and 23 {+-} 11 {micro}g/L. While many rotifer taxa were unaffected at any of the test concentrations, several were affected at {ge} 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L. Ostracods were only affected at 2,243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L. No <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxon was affected at 5 {+-} 4 {micro}g/L. The period of maximum impact usually occurred within 1 to 7 d of the last NP application, and recovery to control abundance levels generally occurred within 7 to 28 d of the last NP application. Two sensitive taxa, Acroperus and Calanoida, did not recover at {ge} 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L by the end of the study. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for protection of all <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa was estimated at {approximately} 10 {micro}g/L, although overall community diversity was unaffected at 23 {+-} 11. The water was the most probable route of NP exposure, but the greater persistence of NP residues in/on macrophytes may have contributed to the lack of recovery of some macrophyte-associated taxa.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.137...89V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.137...89V"><span>The deep-sea <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the North, Central, and South Atlantic: Biomass, abundance, diversity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vereshchaka, Alexander; Abyzova, Galina; Lunina, Anastasia; Musaeva, Eteri</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Ocean-scale surveys of vertical distribution of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from the surface to the bathypelagic zone along transects are quite rare in the North Atlantic and absent in the Equatorial and South Atlantic. We present the first deep-sea quantitative survey of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Equatorial and South Atlantic, analyze the interaction between environment (depth, water masses, surface productivity) and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance and biomass, and assess the biodiversity and role of copepods in various deep strata. Samples were taken at 20 sites along a submeridional transect between 40°N and 30°S at four discrete depth strata: epi- meso-, upper- and lower- bathypelagic. A closing Bogorov-Rass plankton net (1 m2 opening, 500 μm mesh size, towed at a speed of 1 m s-1) was used and three major plankton groups were defined: non-gelatinous mesozooplankton (mainly copepods and chaetognaths; 1-30 mm length), gelatinous mesozooplankton (mainly siphonophorans, medudae and salps; individual or zooid; 1-30 mm length) and macroplankton (mainly shrimps; over 30 mm length). Over 300 plankton taxa were identified, among which 243 belonged to Copepoda. Two-dimensional distribution (latitude versus depth zone) of major group biomass, total copepod abundance, and abundance of dominant species is presented as well as distribution of biodiversity parameters (number of species, Shannon and 'dominance' indices). Biomass and abundance of all major groups were depth-dependent. The number of taxa (N) was depended on surface productivity, diversity of the communities was strongly linked to depth, whilst 'evenness' was independant upon both variables. Each of depth strata was inhabited by distinct copepod assemblages, which significantly differed from each other. The paper is concluded with brief descriptions of the deep Atlantic plankton communities from studied strata.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24197798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24197798"><span>Effects of a new molt-inducing insecticide, tebufenozide, on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in lake enclosures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kreutzweiser, D P; Thomas, D R</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>: A potent ecdysone agonist, tebufenozide, has recently been developed as a molt-inducing insecticide to control defoliating lepidopterans. As part of continuing research efforts to assess the effectiveness and environmental safety of this material for insect pest management in Canadian forests, tebufenozide (RH-5992-2F) was applied to large lake enclosures and the effects on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities were evaluated. There were significant treatment effects at all test concentrations (0.07-0.66 mg L(-1) tebufenozide). Concentration-dependent reductions in the abundance of cladocerans indicated that there were direct toxic effects of tebufenozide on this group of macrozooplankton. There were no indications of direct toxic effects on copepods. Significant increases in abundance of rotifers in treated enclosures at the three higher test concentrations were coincident with reductions in cladocerans and indicated secondary effects of the insecticide on the abundance of microzooplankton. There were no significant differences among treated and control enclosures in chlorophyll a concentrations, indicating that tebufenozide did not have direct effects on phytoplankton biomass, nor did the alterations in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities of treated enclosures have measurable secondary effects on phytoplankton biomass. Daytime dissolved oxygen concentrations were significantly higher in treated enclosures than in controls, indicating that the perturbation to biotic communities of some treated enclosures was sufficient to induce measurable changes in system-level functional attributes. Recovery of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in the enclosures occurred within 1-2 months at 0.07 and 0.13 mg l(-1) and by the following summer (12-13 months) at 0.33 and 0.66 mg l(-1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME54A0915L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME54A0915L"><span>Drake Passage-Antarctic Peninsula Ecosystem Research: Spring and Fall <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> and Seabird Assemblages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loeb, V. J.; Chereskin, T. K.; Santora, J. A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) records from multiple "L.M. Gould" supply transits of Drake Passage from 1999 to present demonstrate spatial and temporal (diel, seasonal, annual and longer term) variability in acoustics backscattering. Acoustics backscattering strength in the upper water column corresponds to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and nekton biomass that relates to seabird and mammal distribution and abundance. Recent results indicate that interannual variability in backscattering strength is correlated to climate indices. The interpretation of these ecological changes is severely limited because the sound scatterers previously had not been identified and linkages to upper trophic level predators are unknown. Net-tows, depth-referenced underwater videography and seabird/mammal visual surveys during spring 2014 and fall 2015 transits provided information on the taxonomic-size composition, distribution, aggregation and behavioral patterns of dominant ADCP backscattering organisms and relate these to higher level predator populations. The distribution and composition of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species and seabird assemblages conformed to four biogeographic regions. Areas of elevated secondary productivity coincided with increased ADCP target strength with highest concentrations off Patagonia and Antarctic Peninsula and secondary peaks around the Polar Front. Small sized <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa dominated north of the Polar Front while larger taxa dominated to the south. Regionally important prey items likely are: copepods, amphipods, small euphausiids and fish (Patagonia); copepods, myctophids, shelled pteropods and squid (Polar Front); large euphausiids (Antarctic Peninsula). This study demonstrates that biological observations during "L.M. Gould" supply transits greatly augment the value of routinely collected ADCP and XBT data and provide basic information relevant to the impacts of climate change in this rapidly warming portion of the Southern Ocean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19263883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19263883"><span>Recovery after local extinction: factors affecting re-establishment of alpine lake <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knapp, Roland A; Sarnelle, Orlando</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The introduction of fishes into naturally fishless mountain lakes often results in the extirpation of large-bodied <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species. The ability to predict whether or not particular species will recover following fish removal is critically important for the design and implementation of lake restoration efforts but is currently not possible because of a lack of information on what factors affect recovery. The objective of this study was to identify the factors influencing recovery probability in two large-bodied <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species following fish removal. We predicted that (1) Daphnia melanica would have a higher probability of recovery than Hesperodiaptomus shoshone due to differences in reproductive mode (D. melanica is parthenogenetic, H. shoshone is obligately sexual), (2) recovery probability would be a decreasing function of fish residence time due to the negative relationship between fish residence time and size of the egg bank, and (3) recovery probability would be an increasing function of lake depth as a consequence of a positive relationship between lake depth and egg bank size. To test these predictions, we sampled contemporary <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations and collected paleolimnological data from 44 naturally fishless lakes that were stocked with trout for varying lengths of time before reverting to a fishless condition. D. melanica had a significantly higher probability of recovery than did H. shoshone (0.82 vs. 0.54, respectively). The probability of recovery for H. shoshone was also significantly influenced by lake depth, fish residence time, and elevation, but only elevation influenced the probability of recovery in D. melanica. These results are consistent with between-species differences in reproductive mode combined with the much greater longevity of diapausing eggs in D. melanica than in H. shoshone. Our data also suggest that H. shoshone will often fail to recover in lakes with fish residence times exceeding 50 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001DSRII..48.1063H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001DSRII..48.1063H"><span>Diel changes in the near-surface biomass of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and the carbon content of vertical migrants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hays, Graeme C.; Harris, Roger P.; Head, Robert N.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> biomass and the carbon content of vertical migrants were measured in the NE Atlantic (36.5°N, 19.2°W) between 11 and 18 July 1996 as part of the Plankton Reactivity in the Marine Environment (PRIME) programme. The increase in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass near the surface (0-100 m) at night compared to during the day suggested that diel vertical migration was an important feature at this site. For three species of vertically migrant copepods, Pleuromamma pisekii, P. gracilis and P. abdominalis, the carbon content of individuals collected at dusk was significantly less than for individuals collected at dawn, with this reduction being 6.2, 7.3 and 14.8%, respectively. This dawn-dusk reduction in carbon content is consistent with the diel pattern of feeding and fasting exhibited by vertical migrants and supports the suggestion that migrating <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> will cause an active export of carbon from the surface layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChJOL..33.1368E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChJOL..33.1368E"><span>Does salinity change determine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> variability in the saline Qarun Lake (Egypt)?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El-Shabrawy, Gamal M.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Germoush, Mousa O.; Goher, Mohamed E.; Shadrin, Nickolai V.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> and 14 abiotic variables were studied during August 2011 at 10 stations in Lake Qarun, Egypt. Stations with the lowest salinity and highest nutrient concentrations and turbidity were close to the discharge of waters from the El-Bats and El-Wadi drainage systems. A total of 15 holozooplankton species were identified. The salinity in Lake Qarun increased and fluctuated since 1901: 12 g/L in 1901; 8.5 g/L in 1905; 12.0 g/L in 1922; 30.0 g/L in 1985; 38.7 g/L in 1994; 35.3 g/L in 2006, and 33.4 g/L in 2011. The mean concentration of nutrients (nitrate, nitrite and orthophosphate) gradually increased from 35, 0.16 and 0.38 µg/L, respectively, in 1953-1955 to 113, 16.4, and 30.26 µg/L in 2011. From 1999-2003 some decrease of species diversity occurred. Average total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> density was 30 000 ind./m3 in 1974-1977; 356 125 ind./m3 in 1989; 534 000 ind./m3 in 1994-1995; from 965 000 to 1 452 000 ind./m3 in 2006, and 595 000 ind./m3 in 2011. A range of long-term summer salinity variability during the last decades was very similar to a range of salinity spatial variability in summer 2011. There is no significant correlation between <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance and salinity in spatial and long-term changes. We conclude that salinity fluctuations since at least 1955 did not directly drive the changes of composition and abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the lake. A marine community had formed in the lake, and it continues to change. One of the main drivers of this change is a regular introduction and a pressure of alien species on the existent community. Eutrophication also plays an important role. The introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi, first reported in 2014, may lead to a start of a new stage of the biotic changes in Lake Qarun, when eutrophication and the population dynamics of this ctenophore will be main drivers of the ecosystem change.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DSRII..54.2934S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DSRII..54.2934S"><span>Impact of climate change on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities, seabird populations and arctic terrestrial ecosystem—A scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stempniewicz, Lech; Błachowiak-Samołyk, Katarzyna; Węsławski, Jan M.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Many arctic terrestrial ecosystems suffer from a permanent deficiency of nutrients. Marine birds that forage at sea and breed on land can transport organic matter from the sea to land, and thus help to initiate and sustain terrestrial ecosystems. This organic matter initiates the emergence of local tundra communities, increasing primary and secondary production and species diversity. Climate change will influence ocean circulation and the hydrologic regime, which will consequently lead to a restructuring of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities between cold arctic waters, with a dominance of large <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species, and Atlantic waters in which small species predominate. The dominance of large <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> favours plankton-eating seabirds, such as the little auk ( Alle alle), while the presence of small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> redirects the food chain to plankton-eating fish, up through to fish-eating birds (e.g., guillemots Uria sp.). Thus, in regions where the two water masses compete for dominance, such as in the Barents Sea, plankton-eating birds should dominate the avifauna in cold periods and recess in warmer periods, when fish-eaters should prevail. Therefore under future anthropogenic climate scenarios, there could be serious consequences for the structure and functioning of the terrestrial part of arctic ecosystems, due in part to changes in the arctic marine avifauna. Large colonies of plankton-eating little auks are located on mild mountain slopes, usually a few kilometres from the shore, whereas colonies of fish-eating guillemots are situated on rocky cliffs at the coast. The impact of guillemots on the terrestrial ecosystems is therefore much smaller than for little auks because of the rapid washing-out to sea of the guano deposited on the seabird cliffs. These characteristics of seabird nesting sites dramatically limit the range of occurrence of ornithogenic soils, and the accompanying flora and fauna, to locations where talus-breeding species occur. As a result of climate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659035"><span>Experimental evidence of the effect of nutrient enrichment on the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in a Brazilian coastal lagoon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kozlowsky-Suzuki, B; Bozelli, R L</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>Non-treated sewage disposal is one of the main impacts to which Imboassica Lagoon has been subjected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a potential increase in the artificial enrichment on the environmental conditions and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of this system. To this end, an experimental study was conducted in mesocosms where nutrients were added daily. Bacterial numbers, chlorophyll-a, and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria densities showed an increase with the availability of nutrients. Bacterio- and phytoplankton seemed to be regulated by the rotifers Brachionus rotundiformis and Hexarthra brandorffi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1116105M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1116105M"><span>The contribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> faecal pellets to deep carbon transport in the Scotia Sea (Southern Ocean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manno, C.; Stowasser, G.; Enderlein, P.; Fielding, S.; Tarling, G. A.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The northern Scotia Sea contains the largest seasonal uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide yet measured in the Southern Ocean. This study examines one of the main routes by which this carbon fluxes to the deep ocean, through the production of faecal pellets (FPs) by the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. Deep sediment traps were deployed in two sites with contrasting ocean productivity regimes (P3, naturally iron-fertilized and P2, iron-limited), within the same water mass. The magnitude and seasonal pattern of particulate organic carbon (POC) and FPs in the traps was markedly different between the two sites. Maximum fluxes at P3 (22.91 mg C m-2 d-1; 2534 × 10 FP m-2 d-1) were an order of magnitude higher than at P2 (4.01 mg C m-2 d-1; 915 × 10 FP m-2 d-1), with flux at P3 exhibiting a double seasonal peak, compared to a single flatter peak at P2. The maximum contribution of FP carbon to the total amount of POC was twice as high at P3 (91%) compared to P2 (40%). The dominant FP category at P3 varied between round, ovoidal, cylindrical and tabular over the course of the year while, at P2, ovoidal FPs were consistently dominant, always making up more than 60% of the FP assemblage. There was also a difference in the FP state between the two sites, with FPs being relatively intact at P3, while FPs were often fragmented with broken peritrophic membranes at P2. The exception was ovoidal FPs, which were relatively intact at both sites. Our observations suggest that there was community shift from an herbivorous to an omnivorous diet from spring through to autumn at P3 while detritivores had a higher relative importance over the year at P2. Furthermore, the flux was mainly a product of the vertically migrating <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community at P3 while the FP flux was more likely to be generated by deeper-dwelling <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> feeding on recycled material at P2. The results demonstrate that the feeding behavior and vertical distribution of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community plays a critical role in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920012130','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920012130"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> design proposal: Theta Group-The Hotbox. A proposal in <span class="hlt">response</span> to a commercial air transportation study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Hotbox is a 40 passenger commercial aircraft designed to have a minimum range of 5500 ft and cruise at a velocity of 30 ft/sec. The aircraft is designed to serve the longer range overseas market in Aeroworld. In order to serve all the airports in the overseas market, the Hotbox was required to be able to use a five foot gate. A weight requirement was set a 4.5 lbs in order to maximize aircraft efficiency. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, a single engine system was chosen because it minimized system weight, complexity and cost. The Hotbox is estimated to cost $152,000 Aeroworld dollars and will sell for $200.000. The propulsion system for the Hotbox consists of a nose mounted Astro 15 electric powered motor and a Top Flight 12-6 propeller. A Spica airfoil was selected for the Hotbox based on the ease of construction of its flat bottom and its positive lift and drag characteristics. A fuselage of rectangular cross section will internally contain the propulsion system, control system, and a passenger bay with 2x20 seating. A combination of directional and longitudinal control will enable the Hotbox to maneuver. The <span class="hlt">final</span> design of the Hotbox provides for takeoff distance in 26.5 ft and normal cruise range of 17,000 ft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3986219','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3986219"><span>Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids <span class="hlt">Response</span> to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA <span class="hlt">response</span> was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=qualitative+AND+research&pg=2&id=EJ1044158','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=qualitative+AND+research&pg=2&id=EJ1044158"><span><span class="hlt">Finally</span> Making Good on the Promise of Qualitative Research in Special Education? A <span class="hlt">Response</span> to the Special Issue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pugach, Marleen C.; Mukhopadhyay, Ananya; Gomez-Najarro, Joyce</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this <span class="hlt">response</span> to the special issue, we would like to offer two additional considerations to the discourse on qualitative research and special education this issue is meant to catalyze. First, we would like to further problematize the question of why qualitative research continues to be so sparsely represented in most prominent publications of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134..330A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134..330A"><span>Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ariza, A.; Garijo, J. C.; Landeira, J. M.; Bordes, F.; Hernández-León, S.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) in marine ecosystems is performed by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton, promoting a poorly accounted export of carbon to the deep ocean. Major efforts have been made to estimate carbon export due to gravitational flux and to a lesser extent, to migrant <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. However, migratory flux by micronekton has been largely neglected in this context, due to its time-consuming and difficult sampling. In this paper, we evaluated gravitational and migratory flux due to the respiration of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton in the northeast subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Migratory flux was addressed by calculating the biomass of migrating components and measuring the electron transfer system (ETS) activity in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and dominant species representing micronekton (Euphausia gibboides, Sergia splendens and Lobianchia dofleini). Our results showed similar biomass in both components. The main taxa contributing to DVM within <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were juvenile euphausiids, whereas micronekton were mainly dominated by fish, followed by adult euphausiids and decapods. The contribution to respiratory flux of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (3.4 ± 1.9 mg C m-2 d-1) was similar to that of micronekton (2.9 ± 1.0 mg C m-2 d-1). In summary, respiratory flux accounted for 53% (range 23-71) of the gravitational flux measured at 150 m depth (11.9 ± 5.8 mg C m-2 d-1). However, based on larger migratory ranges and gut clearance rates, micronekton are expected to be the dominant component that contributes to carbon export in deeper waters. Micronekton estimates in this paper as well as those in existing literature, although variable due to regional differences and difficulties in calculating their biomass, suggest that carbon fluxes driven by this community are important for future models of the biological carbon pump.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005DSRII..52.2784T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005DSRII..52.2784T"><span>Trophic accumulation of PSP toxins in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> during Alexandrium fundyense blooms in Casco Bay, Gulf of Maine, April-June 1998. II. . <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> abundance and size-fractionated community composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turner, Jefferson T.; Doucette, Gregory J.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Anderson, Donald M.</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>During spring blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in Casco Bay, Maine in 1998, we investigated vectorial intoxication of various <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size fractions with PSP toxins, including <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition from quantitative <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples (>102 μm), as well as <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> composition in relation to toxin levels in various size fractions (20-64, 64-100, 100-200, 200-500, >500 μm). <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> abundance in 102 μm mesh samples was low (most values<10,000 animals m -3) from early April through early May, but increased to maxima in mid-June (cruise mean=121,500 animals m -3). Quantitative <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples (>102 μm) were dominated by copepod nauplii, and Oithona similis copepodites and adults at most locations except for those furthest inshore. At these inshore locations, Acartia hudsonica copepodites and adults were usually dominant. Larger copepods such as Calanus finmarchicus, Centropages typicus, and Pseudocalanus spp. were found primarily offshore, and at much lower abundances than O. similis. Rotifers, mainly present from late April to late May, were most abundant inshore. The marine cladoceran Evadne nordmani was sporadically abundant, particularly in mid-June. Microplankton in 20-64 μm size fractions was generally dominated by A. fundyense, non-toxic dinoflagellates, and tintinnids. Microplankton in 64-100 μm size fractions was generally dominated by larger non-toxic dinoflagellates, tintinnids, aloricate ciliates, and copepod nauplii, and in early May, rotifers. Some samples (23%) in the 64-100 μm size fractions contained abundant cells of A. fundyense, presumably due to sieve clogging, but most did not contain A. fundyense cells. This suggests that PSP toxin levels in those samples were due to vectorial intoxication of microzooplankters such as heterotrophic dinoflagellates, tintinnids, aloricate ciliates, rotifers, and copepod nauplii via feeding on A. fundyense cells. Dominant taxa in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> fractions varied</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1123812','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1123812"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report [Scalable methods for electronic excitations and optical <span class="hlt">responses</span> of nanostructures: mathematics to algorithms to observables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Saad, Yousef</p> <p>2014-03-19</p> <p>The master project under which this work is funded had as its main objective to develop computational methods for modeling electronic excited-state and optical properties of various nanostructures. The specific goals of the computer science group were primarily to develop effective numerical algorithms in Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT). There were essentially four distinct stated objectives. The first objective was to study and develop effective numerical algorithms for solving large eigenvalue problems such as those that arise in Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The second objective was to explore so-called linear scaling methods ormore » Methods that avoid diagonalization. The third was to develop effective approaches for Time-Dependent DFT (TDDFT). Our fourth and <span class="hlt">final</span> objective was to examine effective solution strategies for other problems in electronic excitations, such as the GW/Bethe-Salpeter method, and quantum transport problems.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1348394','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1348394"><span>Behavioral <span class="hlt">Responses</span> Of Fish To A Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Mutlipe Operational Conditions: <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Grippo, Mark A.; Shen, Haixue; Zydlewski, Gayle</p> <p></p> <p>There is significant interest in the interaction of aquatic organisms with current-based marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies. Determining the potential impacts of MHK devices on fish behavior is critical to addressing the environmental concerns that could act as barriers to the permitting and deployment of MHK devices. To address these concerns, we use field monitoring and fish behavior models to characterize the behavioral <span class="hlt">responses</span> of fish to MHK turbines and infer potential stimuli that may have elicited the observed behavioral changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9030970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9030970"><span>Short- and long-term (<span class="hlt">final</span> height) growth <span class="hlt">responses</span> to growth hormone (GH) therapy in patients with Turner syndrome: correlation of growth <span class="hlt">response</span> to stimulated GH levels, spontaneous GH secretion, and karyotype.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmitt, K; Haeusler, G; Blümel, P; Plöchl, E; Frisch, H</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>In 41 girls with Turner syndrome, the growth hormone (GH) peak values during stimulation tests and parameters of spontaneous nocturnal GH secretion were studied and compared with respect to different karyotypes, short-term growth <span class="hlt">response</span> to GH therapy, and <span class="hlt">final</span> height. 22.0% of the girls tested had a subnormal (peak < 11 ng/ml) and 9.7% a pathological (< 7 ng/ml) GH <span class="hlt">response</span>. The spontaneous GH secretion showed a good correlation with the data of the provocation tests, providing no further information regarding GH capacity. Short-term growth <span class="hlt">response</span> to GH treatment could not be predicted by any of the investigated parameters. Although patients with isochromosomes had frequent subnormal GH tests, their growth <span class="hlt">response</span> to GH treatment after 1 year was comparable to that of girls with XO karyotype and mosaicism. In 18 patients who had reached <span class="hlt">final</span> height, the height gain during treatment (calculated as <span class="hlt">final</span> height minus projected adult height) was not different among patients with normal, subnormal, or pathological GH tests. In contrast, <span class="hlt">final</span> height minus projected adult height in 4 girls with isochromosomes was 15.7 +/- 5.1 versus 7.6 +/- 3.3 cm in 14 patients with other karyotypes (p < 0.01). These girls had a more pronounced bone age delay (3.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.8 +/- 1.2 years) at the start of therapy and thus a better growth potential. We conclude that short- and long-term growth <span class="hlt">responses</span> to GH treatment in Turner syndrome could not be predicted by GH testing. Patients with isochromosomes might represent a subpopulation which is more frequently GH deficient and shows a marked bone age delay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5375749-study-air-pollution-effects-ozone-neuropeptide-mediated-responses-human-subjects-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5375749-study-air-pollution-effects-ozone-neuropeptide-mediated-responses-human-subjects-final-report"><span>Study of air pollution: Effects of ozone on neuropeptide-mediated <span class="hlt">responses</span> in human subjects. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Boushey, H.A.</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>The study examined the hypothesis that ozone inactivates the enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, <span class="hlt">responsible</span> for limiting the effects of neuropeptides released from afferent nerve endings. Cough <span class="hlt">response</span> of capsaicin solution delivered from a nebulizer at 2 min. intervals until two or more coughs were produced. Other endpoints measured included irritative symptoms as rated by the subjects on a nonparametric scale, spirometry, of each concentration of ozone were compared to those of filtered air in a single-blind randomized sequence. The results indicate that a 2 h. exposure to 0.4 ppm of ozone with intermittent light exercise alters the sensitivity of airway nervesmore » that mediate the cough <span class="hlt">response</span> to inhaled materials. This dose of ozone also caused a change in FEV1. A lower level of ozone, 0.02 ppm, caused a change in neither cough threshold nor FEV1, even when the duration of exposure was extended to three hours. The findings are consistent with the author's hypothesis that ozone may sensitize nerve endings in the airways by inactivating neutral endopeptidase, an enzyme that regulates their activity, but they do not demonstrate that directly examining an effect directly mediated by airway nerves allows detection of effects of ozone at doses below those causing effects detected by standard tests of pulmonary function.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28574151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28574151"><span>Prey-driven control of predator assemblages: <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance drives aquatic beetle colonization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pintar, Matthew R; Resetarits, William J</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Trophic interactions are critical determinants of community structure and ecosystem function. In freshwater habitats, top predators are traditionally viewed as drivers of ecosystem structure, shaping populations of consumers and primary producers. The temporary nature of small water bodies makes them dependent on colonization by many organisms, particularly insects that form highly diverse predator assemblages. We conducted mesocosm experiments with naturally colonizing populations of aquatic beetles to assess how prey (<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>) abundances influenced colonization and assemblages of natural populations of aquatic beetles. We experimentally demonstrate that <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations can be proximate regulators of predator populations and assemblages via prey-density-dependent predator recruitment. Our results provide support for the importance of prey populations in structuring predator populations and the role of habitat selection in structuring communities. We indicate that traditional views of predators as drivers of ecosystem structure in many systems may not provide a comprehensive picture, particularly in the context of highly disturbed or ephemeral habitats. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27220222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27220222"><span>A meta-analysis of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> functional traits influencing ecosystem function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hébert, Marie-Pier; Beisner, Beatrix E; Maranger, Roxane</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The use of functional traits to characterize community composition has been proposed as a more effective way to link community structure to ecosystem functioning. Organismal morphology, body stoichiometry, and physiology can be readily linked to large-scale ecosystem processes through functional traits that inform on interspecific and species-environment interactions; yet such effect traits are still poorly included in trait-based approaches. Given their key trophic position in aquatic ecosystems, individual <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> affect energy fluxes and elemental processing. We compiled a large database of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> traits contributing to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling and examined the effect of classification and habitat (marine vs. freshwater) on trait relationships. Respiration and nutrient excretion rates followed mass-dependent scaling in both habitats, with exponents ranging from 0.70 to 0.90. Our analyses revealed surprising differences in allometry and respiration between habitats, with freshwater species having lower length-specific mass and three times higher mass-specific respiration rates. These differences in traits point to implications for ecological strategies as well as overall carbon storage and fluxes based on habitat type. Our synthesis quantifies multiple trait relationships and links organisms to ecosystem processes they influence, enabling a more complete integration of aquatic community ecology and biogeochemistry through the promising use of effect traits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000682','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000682"><span>Relationship of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) gill raker characteristics to retention probabilities of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Link, Jason; Hoff, Michael H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We measured morphometric and meristic parameters of gill rakers from the first gill arch of 36 adult lake herring (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior that ranged in length from 283–504 mm. These data, coupled with the mean of the smallest two body dimensions (length, width, or breadth) of various <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey, allowed us to calculate retention probabilities for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa that are common in Lake Superior. The mean of the smallest two body dimensions was positively correlated with body length for cladocerans and copepods. The large cladoceran, Daphnia g. mendotae, is estimated to be retained at a greater probability (74%) than smaller cladocerans (18%-38%). The same is true for the large copepod, Limnocalanus macrurus (60%), when compared to smaller copepods (6–38%). Copepods have a lower probability of being retained than cladocerans of similar length. Lake herring gill rakers and total filtering area are also positively correlated with fish total length. These data provide further evidence that lake herring are primarily planktivores in Lake Superior, and our data show that lake herring can retain a broad range of prey sizes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1015655','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1015655"><span>Effects of hydrology on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in high-mountain ponds, Mount Rainier National Park, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Girdner, Scott; Larson, Gary L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Ten high-mountain ponds in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington State, were studied from ice-out in June through September1992 to investigate the influences of fluctuating pond volumes on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities. All of the ponds were at maximum volume immediately after ice-out. The temporary pond with the shortest wet phase was inhabited by rotifer taxa with short generation times and a crustacean taxon with the ability to encyst as drought-resistant resting bodies at immature stages of development. Dominant <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa in three other temporary ponds and six permanent ponds were similar. Rotifer densities typically were lower in temporary ponds relative to those in permanent ponds, although Brachionus urceolaris was abundant shortly before the temporary ponds dried. Large volume loss was associated with large declines in total abundances of crustacean populations. Daphnia rosea was not present in temporary ponds following fall recharge. In deep-permanent ponds, copepods had slower developmental rates, smaller temporal changes in total abundances of crustacean populations and two additional large-bodied crustacean taxa were present relative to the characteristics of crustacean communities in shallow-permanent ponds. Owing to their small sizes and sensitivity to environmental change, collectively ponds such as these may provide an early signal of long-term climate change in aquatic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28617290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28617290"><span>Micro-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> grazing as a means of fecal bacteria removal in stormwater BMPs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burtchett, Jade M; Mallin, Michael A; Cahoon, Lawrence B</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>A priority for environmental managers is control of stormwater runoff pollution, especially fecal microbial pollution. This research was designed to determine if fecal bacterial grazing by micro-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is a significant control on fecal bacteria in aquatic best management practices (BMPs); if grazing differs between a wet detention pond and a constructed wetland; and if environmental factors enhance grazing. Both 3-day grazing tests and 24-h dilution assays were used to determine grazing differences between the two types of BMP. Micro-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> grazing was a stronger bacteria removal mechanism in stormwater wetlands rich in aquatic vegetation compared to a standard wet detention pond, although grazing was important in detention ponds as well. Our experiments indicated that the majority of grazers that fed on fecal bacteria were <20 μm in size. Grazing rates were positively correlated with fecal coliform abundance and increased water temperatures. Enumeration of grazers demonstrated that protozoans were significantly more abundant among wetland vegetation than in open water, and open wetland waters contained more flagellates and dinoflagellates than open wet detention pond waters. Grazing on fecal bacteria in BMPs is enhanced by aquatic vegetation, and grazing in aquatic BMPs in warmer climates should be greater than in cooler climates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16018461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16018461"><span>Comparison of multifrequency acoustic and in situ measurements of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundances in Knight Inlet, British Columbia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trevorrow, Mark V; Mackas, David L; Benfield, Mark C</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>An investigation of midwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> aggregations in a coastal fjord was conducted in November 2002. This study focused on quantitative comparisons between a calibrated, three-frequency (38, 120, and 200 kHz) vessel-based echo-sounder, a multinet towed <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> sampler (BIONESS), and a high-resolution underwater camera (ZOOVIS). Daytime layers of euphausiids and amphipods near 70-90-m depth were observed in lower parts of the inlet, especially concentrated by tidal flows around a sill. Quantitative backscatter measurements of euphausiids and amphipods, combined with in situ size and abundance estimates, and using an assumed tilt-angle distribution, were in agreement with averaged fluid-cylinder scattering models produced by Stanton and Chu [ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57, 793-807, (2000)]. Acoustic measurements of physonect siphonophores in the upper inlet were found to have a strong 38-kHz scattering strength, in agreement with a damped bubble scattering model using a diameter of 0.4 mm. In relatively dense euphausiid layers, ZOOVIS abundance estimates were found to be a factor of 2 to 4 higher than the acoustic estimates, potentially due to deviations from assumed euphausiid orientation. Nocturnal near-surface euphausiid scattering exhibited a strong (15 dB) and rapid (seconds) sensitivity to vessel lights, interpreted as due to changing animal orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..117.3574T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..117.3574T"><span>Comparison of multifrequency acoustic and in situ measurements of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundances in Knight Inlet, British Columbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trevorrow, Mark V.; Mackas, David L.; Benfield, Mark C.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>An investigation of midwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> aggregations in a coastal fjord was conducted in November 2002. This study focused on quantitative comparisons between a calibrated, three-frequency (38, 120, and 200 kHz) vessel-based echo-sounder, a multinet towed <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> sampler (BIONESS), and a high-resolution underwater camera (ZOOVIS). Daytime layers of euphausiids and amphipods near 70-90-m depth were observed in lower parts of the inlet, especially concentrated by tidal flows around a sill. Quantitative backscatter measurements of euphausiids and amphipods, combined with in situ size and abundance estimates, and using an assumed tilt-angle distribution, were in agreement with averaged fluid-cylinder scattering models produced by Stanton and Chu [ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57, 793-807, (2000)]. Acoustic measurements of physonect siphonophores in the upper inlet were found to have a strong 38-kHz scattering strength, in agreement with a damped bubble scattering model using a diameter of 0.4 mm. In relatively dense euphausiid layers, ZOOVIS abundance estimates were found to be a factor of 2 to 4 higher than the acoustic estimates, potentially due to deviations from assumed euphausiid orientation. Nocturnal near-surface euphausiid scattering exhibited a strong (15 dB) and rapid (seconds) sensitivity to vessel lights, interpreted as due to changing animal orientation. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26905979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26905979"><span>Microplastics Alter the Properties and Sinking Rates of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Faecal Pellets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Penelope K; Fileman, Elaine; Clark, James; Lewis, Ceri; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Plastic debris is a widespread contaminant, prevalent in aquatic ecosystems across the globe. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> readily ingest microscopic plastic (microplastic, < 1 mm), which are later egested within their faecal pellets. These pellets are a source of food for marine organisms, and contribute to the oceanic vertical flux of particulate organic matter as part of the biological pump. The effects of microplastics on faecal pellet properties are currently unknown. Here we test the hypotheses that (1) faecal pellets are a vector for transport of microplastics, (2) polystyrene microplastics can alter the properties and sinking rates of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> egests and, (3) faecal pellets can facilitate the transfer of plastics to coprophagous biota. Following exposure to 20.6 μm polystyrene microplastics (1000 microplastics mL(-1)) and natural prey (∼1650 algae mL(-1)) the copepod Calanus helgolandicus egested faecal pellets with significantly (P < 0.001) reduced densities, a 2.25-fold reduction in sinking rates, and a higher propensity for fragmentation. We further show that microplastics, encapsulated within egests of the copepod Centropages typicus, could be transferred to C. helgolandicus via coprophagy. Our results support the proposal that sinking faecal matter represents a mechanism by which floating plastics can be vertically transported away from surface waters.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/798783','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/798783"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report: <span class="hlt">Response</span> of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Associated Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Oechel, Walter C</p> <p>2002-08-15</p> <p>This research incorporated an integrated hierarchical approach in space, time, and levels of biological/ecological organization to help understand and predict ecosystem <span class="hlt">response</span> to elevated CO{sub 2} and concomitant environmental change. The research utilized a number of different approaches, and collaboration of both PER and non-PER investigators to arrive at a comprehensive, integrative understanding. Central to the work were the CO{sub 2}-controlled, ambient Lit, Temperature controlled (CO{sub 2}LT) null-balance chambers originally developed in the arctic tundra, which were re-engineered for the chaparral with treatment CO{sub 2} concentrations of from 250 to 750 ppm CO{sub 2} in 100 ppm increments, replicated twicemore » to allow for a regression analysis. Each chamber was 2 meters on a side and 2 meters tall, which were installed over an individual shrub reprouting after a fire. This manipulation allowed study of the <span class="hlt">response</span> of native chaparral to varying levels of CO{sub 2}, while regenerating from an experimental burn. Results from these highly-controlled manipulations were compared against Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulations, in an area adjacent to the CO{sub 2}LT null balance greenhouses. These relatively short-term results (5-7 years) were compared to long-term results from Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) surrounding natural CO{sub 2} springs in northern Italy, near Laiatico, Italy. The springs lack the controlled experimental rigor of our CO{sub 2}LT and FACE manipulation, but provide invaluable validation of our long-term predictions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5569988','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5569988"><span>On the road to becoming a <span class="hlt">responsible</span> leader: A simulation-based training approach for <span class="hlt">final</span> year medical students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Kiesewetter, Jan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background and objective: There is a need for young physicians to take a <span class="hlt">responsible</span> role in clinical teams, comparable to a leadership role. However, today’s medical curricula barely consider the development of leadership competencies. Acquisition of leadership skills are currently a by-product of medical education, even though it seems to be a competency relevant for physicians’ success. Therefore, an innovative leadership training program for young physicians was developed and validated. Training conceptualisation were based upon findings of critical incidents interviews (N=19) with relevant personnel (e.g. experienced doctors/nurses, residents) and upon evidence-based leadership contents focusing on ethical leadership behaviors. Method: The training consists of four sessions (3-4 hours each) and provided evidence-based lectures of leadership theory and effective leader behaviors, interactive training elements and a simulation-based approach with professional role players focusing on interprofessional collaboration with care staff. Training evaluation was assessed twice after completion of the program (N=37). Assessments included items from validated and approved evaluation instruments regarding diverse learning outcomes (satisfaction/reaction, learning, self-efficacy, and application/transfer) and transfer indicators. Furthermore, training success predictors were assessed based on stepwise regression analysis. In addition, long-term trainings effects and behavioral changes were analysed. Results: Various learning outcomes are achieved (self-reported training satisfaction, usefulness of the content and learning effects) and results show substantial transfer effects of the training contents and a strengthened awareness for the leadership role (e.g. self-confidence, ideas dealing with work-related problems in a role as <span class="hlt">responsible</span> physician). We identified competence of trainer, training of applied tools, awareness of job expectations, and the opportunity to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28890925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28890925"><span>On the road to becoming a <span class="hlt">responsible</span> leader: A simulation-based training approach for <span class="hlt">final</span> year medical students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Kiesewetter, Jan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background and objective: There is a need for young physicians to take a <span class="hlt">responsible</span> role in clinical teams, comparable to a leadership role. However, today's medical curricula barely consider the development of leadership competencies. Acquisition of leadership skills are currently a by-product of medical education, even though it seems to be a competency relevant for physicians' success. Therefore, an innovative leadership training program for young physicians was developed and validated. Training conceptualisation were based upon findings of critical incidents interviews ( N =19) with relevant personnel (e.g. experienced doctors/nurses, residents) and upon evidence-based leadership contents focusing on ethical leadership behaviors. Method: The training consists of four sessions (3-4 hours each) and provided evidence-based lectures of leadership theory and effective leader behaviors, interactive training elements and a simulation-based approach with professional role players focusing on interprofessional collaboration with care staff. Training evaluation was assessed twice after completion of the program ( N =37). Assessments included items from validated and approved evaluation instruments regarding diverse learning outcomes (satisfaction/reaction, learning, self-efficacy, and application/transfer) and transfer indicators. Furthermore, training success predictors were assessed based on stepwise regression analysis. In addition, long-term trainings effects and behavioral changes were analysed. Results: Various learning outcomes are achieved (self-reported training satisfaction, usefulness of the content and learning effects) and results show substantial transfer effects of the training contents and a strengthened awareness for the leadership role (e.g. self-confidence, ideas dealing with work-related problems in a role as <span class="hlt">responsible</span> physician). We identified competence of trainer, training of applied tools, awareness of job expectations, and the opportunity to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA617579','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA617579"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> and Micronekton Distribution and Interaction with Predators at the Northwest Atlantic Shelf Break and its Canyons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-09-30</p> <p>with marine mammals and other predators . APPROACH The datasets being examined in this project include: 1. Depth-stratified net samples from 1...with Predators at the Northwest Atlantic Shelf Break and its Canyons Gareth L. Lawson, Andone C. Lavery, & Peter H. Wiebe Woods Hole...determining the distribution, abundance, and community composition of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton and their association with predators (including marine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24201907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24201907"><span>Changes in the pelagic crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of high-boreal Island Lake, Saskatchewan, associated with uranium mining.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melville, G E</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Island Lake, Saskatchewan, has become eutrophic, subsaline (salinity between 0.5 and 3.0 g I(-1)) and contaminated with several metals over the last decade. In this study, the crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in the lake in early summer 1989 is compared to the community during the early summers of the baseline years 1978 and 1979, based on archived environmental impact assessment samples. Community composition has changed, probably because of salinization and perhaps, to a lesser extent, eutrophication. Calanoid copepods have disappeared, while the numbers of species of cyclopoid copepods and cladocerans have increased. Ceriodaphnia reticulata, present in 1988 only, was more numerous than any other species during all three years. Densities of all other species were very low in 1989, which has led to lower diversity (Simpsons Index). Predation by Chaoborus probably contributed to the low abundances in 1989. The characteristics of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in 1989 were very similar to those of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in culturally acidified lakes, and indicate that Island Lake is in poor health. The success of Ceriodaphnia, a standard toxicity bioassay genus, is noteworthy under such contaminated conditions. While the taxonomic changes are obvious, the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> data are limited; therefore causes can only be inferred. The study demonstrates the need for more and better ecosystem-specific biological information in order to do environmental impact assessments, in this case for mining in the north.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64657&keyword=hurricanes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64657&keyword=hurricanes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN <span class="hlt">ZOOPLANKTON</span> COMMUNITY DYNAMICS IN THREE URBANIZED BAYOUS OF THE PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM, FLORIDA, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Spatial and temporal patterns in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition and abundance in near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico are not well understood. This survey provides information on spatial and temporal differences in zoolplankton community composition and abundance for a coa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188412&keyword=laser&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188412&keyword=laser&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Lake Superior <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Biomass Predictions from LOPC Tow Surveys Compare Well with a Probability Based Net Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We conducted a probability-based sampling of Lake Superior in 2006 and compared the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass estimate with laser optical plankton counter (LOPC) predictions. The net survey consisted of 52 sites stratified across three depth zones (0-30, 30-150, >150 m). The LOPC tow...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70158599','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70158599"><span>Seasonal dynamics of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in Columbia–Snake River reservoirs,with special emphasis on the invasive copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Emerson, Joshua E.; Bollens, Stephen M.; Counihan, Timothy D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Asian copepod Pseudodiaptomus forbesi has recently become established in the Columbia River. However, little is known about its ecology and effects on invaded ecosystems. We undertook a 2-year (July 2009 to June 2011) field study of the mesozooplankton in four reservoirs in the Columbia and Snake Rivers, with emphasis on the relation of the seasonal variation in distribution and abundance of P. forbesi to environmental variables. Pseudodiaptomus forbesi was abundant in three reservoirs; the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community of the fourth reservoir contained no known non-indigenous taxa. The composition and seasonal succession of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were similar in the three invaded reservoirs: a bloom of rotifers occurred in spring, native cyclopoid and cladoceran species peaked in abundance in summer, and P. forbesi was most abundant in late summer and autumn. In the uninvaded reservoir, total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance was very low year-round. Multivariate ordination indicated that temperature and dissolved oxygen were strongly associated with <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure, with P. forbesi appearing to exhibit a single generation per year . The broad distribution and high abundance of P. forbesi in the Columbia–Snake River System could result in ecosystem level effects in areas intensively managed to improve conditions for salmon and other commercially and culturally important fish species. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27494188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27494188"><span>Interannual abundance changes of gelatinous carnivore <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> unveil climate-driven hydrographic variations in the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Ambrosio, Mariaelena; Molinero, Juan C; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Pardal, Miguel A; Primo, Ana L; Nyitrai, Daniel; Marques, Sónia C</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The persistent massive blooms of gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> recorded during recent decades may be indicative of marine ecosystem changes. In this study, we investigated the potential influence of the North Atlantic climate (NAO) variability on decadal abundance changes of gelatinous carnivore <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Mondego estuary, Portugal, over the period 2003-2013. During the 11-year study, the community of gelatinous carnivores encompassed a larger diversity of hydromedusae than siphonophores; the former dominated by Obelia spp., Lizzia blondina, Clythia hemisphaerica, Liriope tetraphylla and Solmaris corona, while the latter dominated by Muggiaea atlantica. Gelatinous carnivore <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> displayed marked interannual variability and mounting species richness over the period examined. Their pattern of abundance shifted towards larger abundances ca. 2007 and significant phenological changes. The latter included a shift in the mean annual pattern (from unimodal to bimodal peak, prior and after 2007 respectively) and an earlier timing of the first annual peak concurrent with enhanced temperatures. These changes were concurrent with the climate-driven environmental variability mainly controlled by the NAO, which displayed larger variance after 2007 along with an enhanced upwelling activity. Structural equation modelling allowed depicting cascading effects derived from the NAO influence on regional climate and upwelling variability further shaping water temperature. Such cascading effect percolated the structure and dynamics of the community of gelatinous carnivore <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Mondego estuary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311262&keyword=noise&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311262&keyword=noise&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Development of a <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Assemblage Indicator for the 2012 National Lakes Assessment: Performance in the Western U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We used <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> count data collected as part of the 2012 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) to develop candidate metrics and multimetric indices (MMIs) for five aggregated ecoregions of the conterminous USA (Coastal Plains, Eastern Highlands, Plains, Upper Midwest, and Western M...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME44B0859N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME44B0859N"><span>Fine-scale distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is linked to phytoplankton species composition and abundance in a North Norwegian fjord system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norrbin, F.; Priou, P. D.; Varela, A. P.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We studied the influence of dense layers of phytoplankton and aggregates on shaping the vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in a North Norwegian fjord using a Video Plankton Recorder (VPR). This instrument provided fine-scale vertical distribution (cm-m scale) of planktonic organisms as well as aggregates of marine snow in relation to environmental conditions. At the height - later stage of the spring phytoplankton bloom in May, the outer part of the fjord was dominated by Phaeocystis pouchetii, while diatoms (Chaetoceros spp.) were dominating in the innermost basin. Small copepods species like Pseudocalanus spp., Microsetella norvegica, and Oithona spp. prevailed over larger copepod species in the inner part of the fjord whereas the outer part was dominated by large copepods like Calanus finmarchicus. While the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> where spread out over the water column during the early stage of the bloom, in May they were linked to the phytoplankton vertical distribution and in the winter situation they were found in deeper waters. Herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species were affected by phytoplankton species composition; C. finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp. avoided the dense layer of P. pouchetii while herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> matched the distribution of the diatom-dominated bloom. Small, omnivorous copepod species like Microsetella sp., Oithona sp. and Pseudocalanus sp. were often associated with dense layers of snow aggregates. This distribution may provide a shelter from predators as well as a food source. Natural or anthropogenic-induced changes in phytoplankton composition and aggregate distribution may thus influence food-web interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61097&keyword=Albuquerque&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61097&keyword=Albuquerque&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>ANNUAL CYCLE OF PERIPHYTON, <span class="hlt">ZOOPLANKTON</span>, AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ALONG A 5 STATION TRANSECT OF ESCAMBIA BAY, FL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Phytoplankton, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and water quality parameters were monitored monthly along a 5-station transect in Escambia Bay (Pensacola, FL) from fall 1999 to fall 2000. To provide insight into nutrient processing in Escambia Bay and effects of grazers on phytoplankton community st...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/961978','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/961978"><span>Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part B; Limnology, Primary Production, and <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1998 Annual Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Shields, John; Spotts, Jim; Underwood, Keith</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program is the result of a merger between two projects, the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 to continue work historically completed under the separate projects, and is now referred to as the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. The 1998 Annual Report, Part B. Limnology, Primary Production, and <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> in Lake Roosevelt, Washington examined the limnology, primary production, and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> at eleven locations throughout the reservoir. The 1998 research protocol required a continuation of the more complete examinationmore » of limnological parameters in Lake Roosevelt that began in 1997. Phytoplankton and periphyton speciation, phytoplankton and periphyton chlorophyll a analysis, complete <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass analysis by taxonomic group, and an increased number of limnologic parameters (TDG, TDS, etc.) were examined and compared with 1997 results. Total dissolved gas levels were greatly reduced in 1998, compared with 1997, likely resulting from the relatively normal water year experienced in 1998. Mean water temperatures were similar to what was observed in past years, with a maximum of 22.7 C and a minimum of 2.6 C. Oxygen concentrations were also relatively normal, with a maximum of 16.6 mg/L, and a minimum of 0.9 mg/L. Phytoplankton in Lake Roosevelt was primarily composed of microplankton (29.6%), Cryptophyceae (21.7%), and Bacillriophyceae (17.0 %). Mean total phytoplankton chlorophyll a maximum concentration occurred in May (3.53 mg/m{sup 3}), and the minimum in January (0.39 mg/m{sup 3}). Phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations appear to be influenced by hydro-operations and temperature. Trophic status as indicated by phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations place Lake Roosevelt in the oligomesotrophic range. Periphyton colonization rates and biovolume were significantly greater at a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29745208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29745208"><span>[Effects of temperature increase on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size spectra in thermal discharge seawaters near a power plant, China].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Jing; Zhu, Yi Feng; Dai, Mei Xia; Lin, Xia; Mao, Shuo Qian</p> <p>2017-05-18</p> <p>Utilizing the plankton 1 (505 Μm), 2 (160 Μm), 3 (77 Μm) nets to seasonally collect <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples at 10 stations and the corresponding abundance data was obtained. Based on individual <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biovolume, size groups were classified to test the changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of both Sheldon and normalized biovolume size spectra in thermal discharge seawaters near the Guohua Power Plant, so as to explore the effects of temperature increase on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size spectra in the seawaters. The results showed that the individual biovolume of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> ranged from 0.00012 to 127.0 mm 3 ·ind -1 , which could be divided into 21 size groups, and corresponding logarithmic ranges were from -13.06 to 6.99. According to Sheldon size spectra, the predominant species to form main peaks of the size spectrum in different months were Copepodite larvae, Centropages mcmurrichi, Calanus sinicus, fish larvae, Sagitta bedoti, Sagitta nagae and Pleurobrachia globosa, and minor peaks mostly consisted of individuals with smaller larvae, Cyclops and Paracalanus aculeatus. In different warming sections, Copepodite larvae, fish eggs and Cyclops were mostly unaffected by the temperature increase, while the macrozooplankton such as S. bedoti, S. nagae, P. globosa, C. sinicus and Beroe cucumis had an obvious tendency to avoid the outfall of the power plant. Based on the results of normalized size spectra, the intercepts from low to high occurred in November, February, May and August, respectively. At the same time, the minimum slope was found in February, and similarly bigger slopes were observed in May and August. These results indicated that the proportion of small <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was highest in February, while the proportions of the meso- and macro-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were relatively high in May and August. Among different sections, the slope in the 0.2 km section was minimum, which increased with the increase of section distance to the outfall. The result obviously demonstrated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27771544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27771544"><span>Switching to nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase with molecular suboptimal <span class="hlt">response</span> to frontline imatinib: SENSOR <span class="hlt">final</span> results and BIM polymorphism substudy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyamura, Koichi; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Kimura, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Itaru; Hata, Tomoko; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Saito, Shigeki; Hino, Masayuki; Tadokoro, Seiji; Meguro, Kuniaki; Hyodo, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masahide; Kubo, Kohmei; Tsukada, Junichi; Kondo, Midori; Aoki, Makoto; Okada, Hikaru; Yanada, Masamitsu; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Taniwaki, Masafumi</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Optimal management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase with suboptimal molecular <span class="hlt">response</span> (MR) to frontline imatinib is undefined. We report <span class="hlt">final</span> results from SENSOR, which evaluated efficacy/safety of nilotinib in this setting. A substudy assessed whether BIM polymorphisms impacted <span class="hlt">response</span> to nilotinib. In this single-arm, multicenter study, Japanese patients with suboptimal MR per European LeukemiaNet 2009 criteria (complete cytogenetic <span class="hlt">response</span>, but not major MR [MMR]) after ≥18 months of frontline imatinib received nilotinib 400mg twice daily for 24 months. MR, BCR-ABL1 mutations/variants, and BIM polymorphisms were evaluated in a central laboratory. Primary endpoint was the MMR rate at 12 months (null hypothesis of 40%). Of 45 patients (median exposure, 22.08 months), 39 completed the study and six discontinued. At 12 and 24 months, 51.1% (95% CI, 35.8%-66.3%) and 66.7% (95% CI, 51.0%-80.0%) achieved MMR, respectively. Cumulative MMR incidence by 24 months was 75.6%. Of 40 patients analyzed, 10 of 12 (83.3%) with and 17 of 28 (60.7%) without BIM polymorphisms achieved MMR at 24 months. The safety profile was manageable with dose reductions and interruptions. Nilotinib provided clinical benefit for patients with suboptimal <span class="hlt">response</span> to imatinib, and BIM polymorphisms did not influence MMR achievement. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01043874. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5608089','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5608089"><span>Timing the Mode Switch in a Sequential Mixed-Mode Survey: An Experimental Evaluation of the Impact on <span class="hlt">Final</span> <span class="hlt">Response</span> Rates, Key Estimates, and Costs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wagner, James; Schroeder, Heather M.; Piskorowski, Andrew; Ursano, Robert J.; Stein, Murray B.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Colpe, Lisa J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Mixed-mode surveys need to determine a number of design parameters that may have a strong influence on costs and errors. In a sequential mixed-mode design with web followed by telephone, one of these decisions is when to switch modes. The web mode is relatively inexpensive but produces lower <span class="hlt">response</span> rates. The telephone mode complements the web mode in that it is relatively expensive but produces higher <span class="hlt">response</span> rates. Among the potential negative consequences, delaying the switch from web to telephone may lead to lower <span class="hlt">response</span> rates if the effectiveness of the prenotification contact materials is reduced by longer time lags, or if the additional e-mail reminders to complete the web survey annoy the sampled person. On the positive side, delaying the switch may decrease the costs of the survey. We evaluate these costs and errors by experimentally testing four different timings (1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks) for the mode switch in a web–telephone survey. This experiment was conducted on the fourth wave of a longitudinal study of the mental health of soldiers in the U.S. Army. We find that the different timings of the switch in the range of 1–4 weeks do not produce differences in <span class="hlt">final</span> <span class="hlt">response</span> rates or key estimates but longer delays before switching do lead to lower costs. PMID:28943717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27670205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27670205"><span>Modelling the relationship between <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass and environmental variations in the distribution of 210Po during a one year cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Färber Lorda, Jaime; Tateda, Yutaka; Fowler, Scott W</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>To clarify the relationship between <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass and the environmental kinetics of the natural radionuclide 210 Po during a one-year period (October 1995 to November 1996) in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters, a modelling analysis was applied. Using 210 Po concentrations in seawater and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, the 210 Po uptake rate constant from food for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was evaluated using a biokinetics calculation involving the uptake and the excretion rate constants between seawater and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Using the transfer constants obtained, the 210 Po concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were reconstructed and validated by observed concentrations. The simulation results were in good agreement with the measured 210 Po concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Assuming that 210 Po fecal excretion represents the majority of the excretion of 210 Po from <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, the fecal matter associated 210 Po vertical flux was calculated, and compared with the observed vertical fluxes of 210 Po measured in sediment traps. The modelling evaluation showed that fecal pellet vertical transport could not fully explain the observed sinking fluxes of particulate organic matter at 150 m depth, suggesting that other sinking biodetrital aggregates are also important components of the plankton-derived vertical flux of 210 Po. The relationship between 210 Po concentration in seawater and that in rain and dry fallout and their potential effect on 210 Po concentrations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> at this location were also examined. A similar, but diphased trend between 210 Po in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and 210 Po in rain and dry fallout deposition rate was demonstrated. 210 Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater tended to diminish as mean daily rainfall increased suggesting that rain inputs serve as a 210 Po dilution mechanism in seawater at this location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29081040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29081040"><span>The synergetic effects of turbulence and turbidity on the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure in large, shallow Lake Taihu.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jian; Qin, Boqiang; Han, Xiaoxia</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is predicted to influence the heat budget of aquatic ecosystems and, in turn, affect the stability of the water column leading to increased turbulence coupled with enhanced turbidity. However, the synergetic effects of turbulence and turbidity on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure remain to be understood in large, shallow lakes. To determine the possible synergetic effects of these factors on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities, a 15-day mesocosm experiment was carried out and tested under four turbulence and turbidity regimes namely control (ɛ = 0, 7.6 ± 4.2 NTU), low (ɛ = 6.01 × 10 -8  m 2  s -3 , 19.4 ± 8.6 NTU), medium (ɛ = 2.95 × 10 -5  m 2  s -3 , 55.2 ± 14.4 NTU), and high (ɛ = 2.39 × 10 -4  m 2  s -3 , 741.6 ± 105.2 NTU) conditions, which were comparable to the natural conditions in Lake Taihu. Results clearly showed the negative effects of turbulence and turbidity on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> survival, which also differed among taxa. Specifically, increased turbulence and turbidity levels influenced the competition among <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species, which resulted to the shift from being large body crustacean-dominated (copepods and cladocerans) to rotifer-dominated community after 3 days. The shift could be associated with the decrease in vulnerability of crustaceans in such environments. Our findings suggested that changes in the level of both turbidity and turbulence in natural aquatic systems would have significant repercussions on the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities, which could contribute to the better understanding of community and food web dynamics in lake ecosystems exposed to natural mixing/disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042197','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042197"><span>Seasonal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dynamics in Lake Michigan: disentangling impacts of resource limitation, ecosystem engineering, and predation during a critical ecosystem transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Fahnenstiel, Gary L.; Cavaletto, Joann F.; Liebig, James R.; Stow, Craig Stow; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We examined seasonal dynamics of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> at an offshore station in Lake Michigan from 1994 to 2003 and 2007 to 2008. This period saw variable weather, declines in planktivorous fish abundance, the introduction and expansion of dreissenid mussels, and a slow decline in total phosphorus concentrations. After the major expansion of mussels into deep water (2007–2008), chlorophyll in spring declined sharply, Secchi depth increased markedly in all seasons, and planktivorous fish biomass declined to record-low levels. Overlaying these dramatic ecosystem-level changes, the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community exhibited complex seasonal dynamics between 1994–2003 and 2007–2008. Phenology of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> maximum was affected by onset of thermal stratification, but there was no other discernable effect due to temperature. Interannual variability in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass during 1994 and 2003 was strongly driven by planktivorous fish abundance, particularly age-0 and age-1 alewives. In 2007–2008, there were large decreases in Diacyclops thomasi and Daphnia mendotae possibly caused by food limitation as well as increased predation and indirect negative effects from increases in Bythotrephes longimanus abundance and in foraging efficiency associated with increased light penetration. The Bythotrephes increase was likely driven in part by decreased predation from yearling and older alewife. While there was a major decrease in epilimnetic–metalimnetic herbivorous cladocerans in 2007–2008, there was an increase in large omnivorous and predacious calanoid copepods, especially those in the hypolimnion. Thus, changes to the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community are the result of cascading, synergistic interactions, including a shift from vertebrate to invertebrate planktivory and mussel ecosystem impacts on light climate and chlorophyll.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1514090V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1514090V"><span>A New Trait-Based Auto-Emergent Model for <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> and Confrontation with Size-Structured Observations from the Bay of Biscay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vandromme, Pieter; Sourisseau, Marc; Huret, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> plays a significant role in marine ecosystems bridging the gap between primary producers and top consumers and interacting with the particle flux through complex dynamics. Scarcity of data and complexity of observing <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> make it difficult to integrate it in biogeochemical models where it is most often formulated in a simpler manner, i.e. classic box models with usually two compartments (micro and meso/macro <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>). Recent advances in automatic sizing, counting and identification allow better estimates of the dynamics and distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, notably through the measurement of its size structure, and for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> size matter. Most <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> physiological rates as well as predator:prey interactions can be significantly relied to individuals size through allometric relations. Such size-dependency was used in recent models. Yet, these models were neither confronted to observations nor integrated in 3D biogeochemical models. Here we propose a newly developed model of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> dynamics based on size-dependent allometric relations but which allows various diet types regardless of the size. A size and a degree of herbivory is randomly drawn for each <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species generated within the model (up to 400 here, limited by actual computational costs). By generating random degree of herbivory <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species of same size could have various diet (from herbivore to carnivore). Other parameters leading to various reproductive strategies or vertical migration could also be drawn randomly (not tested here). The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> model is coupled to the 3D biogeochemical model MARS3D on a test case representing a simplified view of the Bay of Biscay (i.e., continental shelf, estuary, tides). The model shows auto-emergent properties with the selection of size/diet most adapted to local conditions (here offshore vs. coastal, estuary…). Then, patterns of the modeled size-structure of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are confronted to the ones observed during</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ECSS...31..423C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ECSS...31..423C"><span>Abundance and biomass of herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> off Kingston, Jamaica, with estimates of their annual production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, Cheryl; Roff, John C.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>During 1985-1986 weekly collections of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were made off Lime Cay, Jamaica, which is representative of the cays area off southern Jamaica. The dominant (non-copepod) herbivorous taxa, Larvacea, Thaliacea, Cladocera and Pteropoda, were enumerated, and their daily biomasses were estimated by direct weighing or from length-weight regressions. The dominant taxa, in abundance, were the Oikopleuridae and Fritillaridae (49·8% and 35·8%, respectively), but the dominant taxon in terms of biomass was Thalia democratica-on average 75·2% of the total. These herbivorous taxa generally exhibited pronounced variations in abundance which, with the exception of an inverse relationship between Fritillaria spp. and the picoplankton, were not correlated with any size fraction of the phytoplankton. Calculations suggest that, in total, these "other" herbivorous groups may equal the copepods in terms of annual production, and may on occasions exceed them by nearly three-fold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15913663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15913663"><span>Extended probit mortality model for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> against transient change of PCO(2).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Toru; Watanabe, Yuji; Toyota, Koji; Ishizaka, Joji</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>The direct injection of CO(2) in the deep ocean is a promising way to mitigate global warming. One of the uncertainties in this method, however, is its impact on marine organisms in the near field. Since the concentration of CO(2), which organisms experience in the ocean, changes with time, it is required to develop a biological impact model for the organisms against the unsteady change of CO(2) concentration. In general, the LC(50) concept is widely applied for testing a toxic agent for the acute mortality. Here, we regard the probit-transformed mortality as a linear function not only of the concentration of CO(2) but also of exposure time. A simple mathematical transform of the function gives a damage-accumulation mortality model for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. In this article, this model was validated by the mortality test of Metamphiascopsis hirsutus against the transient change of CO(2) concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035874','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035874"><span>An experimental analysis of harmful algae-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> interactions and the ultimate defense</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Remmel, E.J.; Kohmescher, N.; Larson, J.H.; Hambright, K.D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We examined effects of the invasive, toxigenic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum on grazing rates, feeding behaviors, and life-history characteristics of clonal lineages of three daphniid <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species. Grazing experiments revealed similar clearance rates for P. parvum and a common green alga. Behavioral observations revealed no significant effects of P. parvum on daphniid feeding behaviors after 30 min, but major declines in appendage beat rates after 1 h. Chronic exposure (10 d) to P. parvum resulted in severe reductions in daphniid growth rates, age at first reproduction, fecundity, and survivorship at densities as low as 7750 cells mL-1. Thus, in addition to direct fish mortality during P. parvum blooms of 50,000-200,000 cells mL-1, the entire food web of an invaded system may be subjected to potentially severe negative consequences even at nonbloom densities of P. parvum. ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000359','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000359"><span>Life histories and abundance of crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the outlet of Lake Superior, 1971-72</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Selgeby, James H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>In sampling throughout a year, at about 3-wk intervals, of the crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> discharged from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River, 30 species were collected, including three not previously recorded for the lake: the copepod Cyclops strenuus, and the cladocerans Alona costata and Alonella acutirostris. Five copepods, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Diaptomus ashlandi, D. sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Senecella calanoides were present in the plankton throughout the year while three other copepods, Diaptomus minutus, Epischura lacustris, and Mesocyclops edax, along with all cladocerans, were present only during summer and fall. Five species of copepods, Diaptomus sicilis, D. minutus, Limnocalanus macrurus, Senecella calanoides, and Epischura lacustris produced a single generation annually; three other copepods and all cladocerans produced two or more generations. All species breed 1-3 mo later in Lake Superior than in lakes Michigan and Erie.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180164','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180164"><span>Latitudinal species diversity gradient of marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> for the last three million years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, Gene; Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>High tropical and low polar biodiversity is one of the most fundamental patterns characterising marine ecosystems, and the influence of temperature on such marine latitudinal diversity gradients is increasingly well documented. However, the temporal stability of quantitative relationships among diversity, latitude and temperature is largely unknown. Herein we document marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species diversity patterns at four time slices [modern, Last Glacial Maximum (18 000 years ago), last interglacial (120 000 years ago), and Pliocene (~3.3–3.0 million years ago)] and show that, although the diversity-latitude relationship has been dynamic, diversity-temperature relationships are remarkably constant over the past three million years. These results suggest that species diversity is rapidly reorganised as species' ranges respond to temperature change on ecological time scales, and that the ecological impact of future human-induced temperature change may be partly predictable from fossil and paleoclimatological records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29242669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29242669"><span>Crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> release copious amounts of dissolved organic matter as taurine in the ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clifford, Elisabeth L; Hansell, Dennis A; Varela, Marta M; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Herndl, Gerhard J; Sintes, Eva</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Taurine (Tau), an amino acid-like compound, is present in almost all marine metazoans including crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. It plays an important physiological role in these organisms and is released into the ambient water throughout their life cycle. However, limited information is available on the release rates by marine organisms, the concentrations and turnover of Tau in the ocean. We determined dissolved free Tau concentrations throughout the water column and its release by abundant crustacean mesozooplankton at two open ocean sites (Gulf of Alaska and North Atlantic). At both locations, the concentrations of dissolved free Tau were in the low nM range (up to 15.7 nM) in epipelagic waters, declining sharply in the mesopelagic to about 0.2 nM and remaining fairly stable throughout the bathypelagic waters. Pacific amphipod-copepod assemblages exhibited lower dissolved free Tau release rates per unit biomass (0.8 ± 0.4 μmol g -1 C-biomass h -1 ) than Atlantic copepods (ranging between 1.3 ± 0.4 μmol g -1 C-biomass h -1 and 9.5 ± 2.1 μmol g -1 C-biomass h -1 ), in agreement with the well-documented inverse relationship between biomass-normalized excretion rates and body size. Our results indicate that crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> might contribute significantly to the dissolved organic matter flux in marine ecosystems via dissolved free Tau release. Based on the release rates and assuming steady state dissolved free Tau concentrations, turnover times of dissolved free Tau range from 0.05 d to 2.3 d in the upper water column and are therefore similar to those of dissolved free amino acids. This rapid turnover indicates that dissolved free Tau is efficiently consumed in oceanic waters, most likely by heterotrophic bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/518387-solar-uvb-induced-dna-damage-photoenzymatic-dna-repair-antarctic-zooplankton','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/518387-solar-uvb-induced-dna-damage-photoenzymatic-dna-repair-antarctic-zooplankton"><span>Solar UVB-induced DNA damage and photoenzymatic DNA repair in antarctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Malloy, K.D.; Holman, M.A.; Mitchell, D.</p> <p></p> <p>The detrimental effects of elevated intensities of mid-UV radiation (UVB), a result of stratospheric ozone depletion during the austral spring, on the primary producers of the Antarctic marine ecosystem have been well documented. Here we report that natural populations of Antarctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> also sustain significant DNA damage [measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs)] during periods of increased UVB flux. This is the first direct evidence that increased solar UVB may result in damage to marine organisms other than primary producers in Antarctica. The extent of DNA damage in pelagic icefish eggs correlated with daily incident UVB irradiance, reflecting the differencemore » between acquisition and repair of CPDs. Patterns of DNA damage in fish larvae did not correlated with daily UVB flux, possibly due to different depth distributions and/or different capacities for DNA repair. Clearance of CPDs by Antarctic fish and krill was mediated primarily by the photoenzymatic repair system. Although repair rates were large for all species evaluated, they were apparently inadequate to prevent the transient accumulation of substantial CPD burdens. The capacity for DNA repair in Antarctic organisms was highest in those species whose early life history stages occupy the water column during periods of ozone depletion (austral spring) and lowest in fish species whose eggs and larvae are abundant during winter. Although the potential reduction in fitness of Antarctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> resulting from DNA damage is unknown, we suggest that increased solar UV may reduce recruitment and adversely affect trophic transfer of productivity by affecting heterotrophic species as well as primary producers. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRI..129...32B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRI..129...32B"><span>Variation in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> prey distribution determines marine foraging distributions of breeding Cassin's Auklet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertram, Douglas F.; Mackas, David L.; Welch, David W.; Boyd, W. Sean; Ryder, John L.; Galbraith, Moira; Hedd, April; Morgan, Ken; O'Hara, Patrick D.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>To investigate the causal basis for patterns of seabird foraging distributions during breeding we integrated data from ship-board seabird and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> surveys, aerial radio telemetry, and colony-based research programs. We examined the marine distributions of Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) breeding on Triangle Island, in the Northeast Pacific off the coast of B.C., Canada using surveys conducted in 1999, 2000, and 2001. Concurrently, we sampled <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> at 16 stations along a cross shelf transect in the vicinity of Triangle Island. In 1999 and 2000, when populations of the preferred copepod prey Neocalanus cristatus were available at deep-water stations (1000-2000 m), the majority of the auklets were concentrated SW of the colony 40-75 km offshore and parallel to, but 35 -50 km beyond the shelf break in deep water (1200-2000 m). Birds did not fly farther out to sea to where prey was five times more abundant when N. cristatus could be found at lower abundance levels, closer to the colony. In 2001, N. cristatus were virtually absent at the deep-water stations, likely as a result of massive salp (family Salpidae) aggregations which may have consumed and displaced the seabirds' preferred prey. We demonstrate that while birds were still able to locate and provision chicks with N. cristatus in 2001, they had to forage farther away from the colony in order to do so. Our telemetry results are generally consistent with analyses of at-sea distributions of Cassin's Auklets derived from ship-board surveys (1990-2010) both of which have contributed to the design of the proposed Scott Islands marine National Wildlife Area, the first of its kind in Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35..985W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35..985W"><span>Deep-water <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the Guaymas basin hydrothermal vent field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiebe, Peter H.; Copley, Nancy; Van Dover, Cindy; Tamse, Armando; Manrique, Fernando</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> from the Guaymas Basin deep-sea vent field were collected with a 1 m 2 MOCNESS to examine the distribution of total standing stock, taxonomic composition, size-frequency distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and the species composition of calanoid copepods. Low altitude (˜ 100 m above the bottom) horizontal tows along and across the axis of the basin's southern trough, and oblique tows from the bottom of the basin (˜ 2000 m) to the surface were made. Total biomass in near-bottom samples (range: 13-46 cc/1000 m 3) was only about a factor of 10 lower than in the upper 100 m. However, there was little or no evidence for enrichment of biomass in the ˜ 100 m zone above the vent site relative to biomass at the same depth horizon over non-vent areas. Total numbers of individuals ranged between 2600 and 4800/1000 m 3. Calanoid copepods consistently ranked first in abundance of counts of the taxa, followed by cyclopoid copepods, ostracods, chaetognaths, and amphipods. Other less abundant taxa, but in some cases important contributors to total biomass, were coelenterates (siphonophores, medusae), decapod shrimp, and polychaetes. Size-frequency analysis of individuals from each taxon indicated that the biomass and abundance spectra do not fit the theoretically expected spectra based on weight-dependent metabolism and growth. The pyramid of biomass was substantially different from the pyramid of numbers in this deep-sea community. Of the 67 species of copepods identified in two samples taken on low altitude tows, only 15 co-occurred in both samples. Many of the species in this relatively diverse community remain to be described. Larval and post-larval forms of benthic clams, gastropods, polychaetes, and crustaceans associated with the vents were collected 100-200 m above the southern trough, indicating the post-larvae may play an active role in dispersal of hydrothermal vent species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3391295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3391295"><span>Strong Spatial Influence on Colonization Rates in a Pioneer <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Metacommunity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frisch, Dagmar; Cottenie, Karl; Badosa, Anna; Green, Andy J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The magnitude of community-wide dispersal is central to metacommunity models, yet dispersal is notoriously difficult to quantify in passive and cryptic dispersers such as many freshwater invertebrates. By overcoming the problem of quantifying dispersal rates, colonization rates into new habitats can provide a useful estimate of the magnitude of effective dispersal. Here we study the influence of spatial and local processes on colonization rates into new ponds that indicate differential dispersal limitation of major <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa, with important implications for metacommunity dynamics. We identify regional and local factors that affect <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> colonization rates and spatial patterns in a large-scale experimental system. Our study differs from others in the unique setup of the experimental pond area by which we were able to test spatial and environmental variables at a large spatial scale. We quantified colonization rates separately for the Copepoda, Cladocera and Rotifera from samples collected over a period of 21 months in 48 newly constructed temporary ponds of 0.18–2.95 ha distributed in a restored wetland area of 2,700 ha in Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Species richness upon initial sampling of new ponds was about one third of that in reference ponds, although the rate of detection of new species from thereon were not significantly different, probably owing to high turnover in the dynamic, temporary reference ponds. Environmental heterogeneity had no detectable effect on colonization rates in new ponds. In contrast, connectivity, space (based on latitude and longitude) and surface area were key determinants of colonization rates for copepods and cladocerans. This suggests dispersal limitation in cladocerans and copepods, but not in rotifers, possibly due to differences in propagule size and abundance. PMID:22792241</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22792241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22792241"><span>Strong spatial influence on colonization rates in a pioneer <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> metacommunity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frisch, Dagmar; Cottenie, Karl; Badosa, Anna; Green, Andy J</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The magnitude of community-wide dispersal is central to metacommunity models, yet dispersal is notoriously difficult to quantify in passive and cryptic dispersers such as many freshwater invertebrates. By overcoming the problem of quantifying dispersal rates, colonization rates into new habitats can provide a useful estimate of the magnitude of effective dispersal. Here we study the influence of spatial and local processes on colonization rates into new ponds that indicate differential dispersal limitation of major <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa, with important implications for metacommunity dynamics. We identify regional and local factors that affect <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> colonization rates and spatial patterns in a large-scale experimental system. Our study differs from others in the unique setup of the experimental pond area by which we were able to test spatial and environmental variables at a large spatial scale. We quantified colonization rates separately for the Copepoda, Cladocera and Rotifera from samples collected over a period of 21 months in 48 newly constructed temporary ponds of 0.18-2.95 ha distributed in a restored wetland area of 2,700 ha in Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Species richness upon initial sampling of new ponds was about one third of that in reference ponds, although the rate of detection of new species from thereon were not significantly different, probably owing to high turnover in the dynamic, temporary reference ponds. Environmental heterogeneity had no detectable effect on colonization rates in new ponds. In contrast, connectivity, space (based on latitude and longitude) and surface area were key determinants of colonization rates for copepods and cladocerans. This suggests dispersal limitation in cladocerans and copepods, but not in rotifers, possibly due to differences in propagule size and abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DSRII..55.1775C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DSRII..55.1775C"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.3131H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.3131H"><span>Contribution and pathways of diazotroph-derived nitrogen to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the oligotrophic New Caledonia lagoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hunt, Brian P. V.; Bonnet, Sophie; Berthelot, Hugo; Conroy, Brandon J.; Foster, Rachel A.; Pagano, Marc</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In oligotrophic tropical and subtropical oceans, where strong stratification can limit the replenishment of surface nitrate, dinitrogen (N2) fixation by diazotrophs can represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) for primary production. The VAHINE (VAriability of vertical and tropHIc transfer of fixed N2 in the south-wEst Pacific) experiment was designed to examine the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in such ecosystems. In austral summer 2013, three large ( ˜ 50 m3) in situ mesocosms were deployed for 23 days in the New Caledonia lagoon, an ecosystem that typifies the low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll environment, to stimulate diazotroph production. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> component of the study aimed to measure the incorporation of DDN into <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass, and assess the role of direct diazotroph grazing by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> as a DDN uptake pathway. Inside the mesocosms, the diatom-diazotroph association (DDA) het-1 predominated during days 5-15 while the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria UCYN-C predominated during days 15-23. A Trichodesmium bloom was observed in the lagoon (outside the mesocosms) towards the end of the experiment. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community was dominated by copepods (63 % of total abundance) for the duration of the experiment. Using two-source N isotope mixing models we estimated a mean ˜ 28 % contribution of DDN to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> nitrogen biomass at the start of the experiment, indicating that the natural summer peak of N2 fixation in the lagoon was already contributing significantly to the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Stimulation of N2 fixation in the mesocosms corresponded with a generally low-level enhancement of DDN contribution to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> nitrogen biomass, but with a peak of ˜ 73 % in mesocosm 1 following the UCYN-C bloom. qPCR analysis targeting four of the common diazotroph groups present in the mesocosms (Trichodesmium, het-1, het-2, UCYN-C) demonstrated that all four were ingested by copepod grazers, and that their abundance in copepod</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5247174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5247174"><span>Diel distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> at the Mobil OTEC site (29/sup 0/N 88/sup 0/W) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Steen, Jr, J P; Gunter, G; Hartwig, E O</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>In the study 128 copepod species and 43 other <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa were identified from four depth strata (0 to 50 m, 50 to 100 m, 100 to 300 m and 300 to 500 m). Duplicate step-oblique tows at six hour intervals over 24 hours were taken at a site in the Gulf of Mexico. The distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> numbers and sizes, and species diversity, richness and evenness through a diel period are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961430','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4961430"><span>Temporal Variability of <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> (2000-2013) in the Levantine Sea: Significant Changes Associated to the 2005-2010 EMT-like Event?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ouba, Anthony; Abboud-Abi Saab, Marie; Stemmann, Lars</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigated, for the first time, the potential impact of environmental changes on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance over a fourteen year period (2000–2013) at an offshore station in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (the Levantine basin, offshore Lebanon). Samples were collected monthly and analyzed using the semi-automated system ZooScan. Salinity, temperature and phytoplankton abundance (nano and microphytoplankton) were also measured. Results show no significant temporal trend in sea surface temperature over the years. Between 2005–2010, salinity in the upper layer (0–80 m) of the Levantine basin increased (~0.3°C). During this 5 year period, total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance significantly increased. These modifications were concomitant to the activation of Aegean Sea as a source of dense water formation as part of the “Eastern Mediterranean Transient-like” event. The results of the present study suggested that <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> benefited from enhanced phytoplankton production during the mixing years of the event. Changes in the phenology of some taxa were observed accordingly with a predominantly advanced peak of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance. In conclusion, long-term changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance were related to the Levantine thermohaline circulation rather than sea surface warming. Sampling must be maintained to assess the impact of long-term climate change on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities. PMID:27459093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..495L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..495L"><span>Can heterotrophic uptake of dissolved organic carbon and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> mitigate carbon budget deficits in annually bleached corals?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levas, Stephen; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Schoepf, Verena; Aschaffenburg, Matthew; Baumann, Justin; Bauer, James E.; Warner, Mark E.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Annual coral bleaching events due to increasing sea surface temperatures are predicted to occur globally by the mid-century and as early as 2025 in the Caribbean, and severely impact coral reefs. We hypothesize that heterotrophic carbon (C) in the form of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a significant source of C to bleached corals. Thus, the ability to utilize multiple pools of fixed carbon and/or increase the amount of fixed carbon acquired from one or more pools of fixed carbon (defined here as heterotrophic plasticity) could underlie coral acclimatization and persistence under future ocean-warming scenarios. Here, three species of Caribbean coral— Porites divaricata, P. astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata—were experimentally bleached for 2.5 weeks in two successive years and allowed to recover in the field. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> feeding was assessed after single and repeat bleaching, while DOC fluxes and the contribution of DOC to the total C budget were determined after single bleaching, 11 months on the reef, and repeat bleaching. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> was a large C source for P. astreoides, but only following single bleaching. DOC was a source of C for single-bleached corals and accounted for 11-36 % of daily metabolic demand (CHARDOC), but represented a net loss of C in repeat-bleached corals. In repeat-bleached corals, DOC loss exacerbated the negative C budgets in all three species. Thus, the capacity for heterotrophic plasticity in corals is compromised under annual bleaching, and heterotrophic uptake of DOC and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> does not mitigate C budget deficits in annually bleached corals. Overall, these findings suggest that some Caribbean corals may be more susceptible to repeat bleaching than to single bleaching due to a lack of heterotrophic plasticity, and coral persistence under increasing bleaching frequency may ultimately depend on other factors such as energy reserves and symbiont shuffling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR...111..294C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR...111..294C"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> community structure during a transition from dry to wet state in a shallow, subtropical estuarine lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrasco, Nicola K.; Perissinotto, Renzo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Lake St Lucia is among the most important shallow ecosystems globally and Africa's largest estuarine lake. It has long been regarded as a resilient system, oscillating through periods of hypersalinity and freshwater conditions, depending on the prevailing climate. The alteration of the system's catchment involving the diversion of the Mfolozi River away from Lake St Lucia, however, challenged the resilience of the system, particularly during the most recent drought (2002-2011), sacrificing much of its biodiversity. This study reports on the transition of the St Lucia <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community from a dry hypersaline state to a new wet phase. Sampling was undertaken during routine quarterly surveys at five representative stations along the lake system from February 2011 to November 2013. A total of 54 taxa were recorded during the study period. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community was numerically dominated by the calanoid copepods Acartiella natalensis and Pseudodiaptomus stuhlmanni and the cyclopoid copepod Oithona brevicornis. While the mysid Mesopodopsis africana was still present in the system during the wet phase, it was not found in the swarming densities that were recorded during the previous dry phase, possibly due to increased predation pressure, competition with other taxa and or the reconnection with the Mfolozi River via a beach spillway. The increase in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species richness recorded during the present study shows that the system has undergone a transition to wet state, with the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure reflecting that recorded during the past. It is likely, though, that only a full restoration of natural mouth functioning will result in further diversity increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29126632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29126632"><span>An estimate of the percentage of non-predatory dead variability in coastal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the southern Humboldt Current System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krautz, M C; Hernández-Miranda, E; Veas, R; Bocaz, P; Riquelme, P; Quiñones, R A</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Non-predatory dead variability in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> remains poorly quantified worldwide. Here, we make the first estimation of the percentage of dead organisms in coastal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) under in situ conditions. The study was conducted in four coastal sites of the southern HCS (between 36 and 37°S) over a period of one year. Percentages of dead organisms were based on the classification as live or dead of 158,220 holoplankton and 17,591 meroplankton individuals using neutral red staining technique. The percentage of dead organisms in total-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was between 4.3% in Coronel Bay (summer) and 76.9% in Llico (autumn). The percentage of dead total-holoplankton varied from 4.2% (Itata River Mouth; autumn) to 77.6% (Llico; autumn), while the percentage of dead total-meroplankton ranged from 1.5% to 56.8% in Coronel Bay and Coliumo Bay, respectively. The most abundant taxa analyzed were the copepods Acartia sp., Paracalanus sp., Calanoides sp., Cladocera, Polychaeta, and the eggs of anchoveta Engraulis ringens. Among these taxa, there was a high degree of interspecific variability in the estimation of the dead organisms. The Pearson correlation shows significant relationships between maximum temperature, and minimum salinity, with the percentage of dead individuals of Acartia sp. and Paracalanus sp. Environmental factors explaining those relationships were: the El Niño 2015-2016 event, and freshwater river runoff. The use of vital staining to estimate non-predatory death for total-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and selected sentinel species is a promising tool to establish baselines to evaluate natural perturbations (e.g. ENSO), and anthropogenic alterations in coastal pelagic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA505087','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA505087"><span>Investigating the Relationship Between Fin and Blue Whale Locations, <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Concentrations and Hydrothermal Venting on the Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>such correlations in terms of the influences of globally distributed hydrothermal plumes on the trophic ecology of the deep ocean. OBJECTIVES We are...in a 100-m-thick layer of increased acoustic backscatter near the top of the hydrothermal plume at 1.9 km depth (Thomson et al., 1991, Burd et al...<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> migrate vertically between the upper ocean and the hydrothermal plume (Burd & Thomson, 1994). This interpretation is consistent with a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA532053','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA532053"><span>Investigating the Relationship Between Fin and Blue Whale Locations, <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Concentrations and Hydrothermal Venting on the Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-09-30</p> <p>Ridge. Our goal is to understand the influences of globally distributed hydrothermal plumes on the trophic ecology of the deep ocean. OBJECTIVES...to understand the influences of globally distributed hydrothermal plumes on the trophic ecology of the deep ocean. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY... hydrothermal plume at 1.9 km depth [Burd et al., 1992; Thomson et al., 1991a], leading to the inference that the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were taking advantage of the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29426206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29426206"><span>First results on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community composition and contamination by some persistent organic pollutants in the Gulf of Tadjoura (Djibouti).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boldrocchi, G; Moussa Omar, Y; Rowat, D; Bettinetti, R</p> <p>2018-06-15</p> <p>The Gulf of Tadjoura is located in the Horn of Africa and is widely recognized as an important site where the zooplanktivorous whale sharks seasonally aggregate from October to February. The surface <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community (0-3m) was weekly sampled from November 2016 to February 2017 in two sites during the whale shark aggregation period. A total of 12 phyla were identified. Copepoda represented the most abundant and diverse group with 29 different genera, and contributed with an average of 82% of the mean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> density of approximately 6600indm -3 . During the sampling period, copepods were dominated numerically by Calanoida (3600indm -3 ), followed by Poicilostomatatoida (1300indm -3 ). Within the copepods, Paracalanidae, Calanidae, Oncaeidae and Miraciidae were the most common families. The temporal trend in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass at both stations revealed the highest peak in December (41.3±36.4mgm -3 ), and the lowest in February (6.6±3.3mgm -3 ). As no information is available on the occurrence of legacy contaminants use and release in this area, analysis revealed the consistent presence of both DDT and PCB residues in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples in the Gulf of Tadjoura. Total PCB ranged from approximately 110 to 637ngg -1 d.w., while total DDT from 21 to 80ngg -1 d.w. The proportion of primary DDT in the total residue was higher than DDE and DDD, which strongly suggests that the area might actually be subjected to DDT inputs of the parent compound. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035978','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035978"><span>Strong evidence for terrestrial support of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in small lakes based on stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Cole, J.J.; Carpenter, S.R.; Kitchell, J.; Pace, M.L.; Solomon, C.T.; Weidel, B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in two contrasting lakes. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ???20-40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>) is widespread.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118R1908L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118R1908L"><span>Lessons learned from multifrequency acoustic studies of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton in the western Antarctic Peninsula and the Gulf of Maine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavery, Andone C.; Lawson, Gareth L.; Wiebe, Peter H.</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>A series of acoustic surveys of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton have been performed in the Gulf of Maine (GOM), off the northeast United States, and along the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Similar techniques were used to survey these regions, including multifrequency acoustic backscatter (43, 120, 200, 420, 1000 kHz), MOCNESS, CTD, VPR, and in some instances physical microstructure measurements. The GOM is characterized by heterogeneous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in which biomass is dominated by abundant millimeter sized copepods, but the scattering is frequently dominated by a smaller number of strong scatterers, such as shelled pteropods and gas-bearing siphonophores. Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities are also observed in the WAP, but patches of comparatively large (40 mm) Antarctic krill are present and often dominate the scattering. In both regions, striking patterns are evident in the backscatter that can be related to the biological community structure and physical processes. Differences in community structure, however, strongly affect the quantitative inferences that can be made based on the acoustic data. Combining direct biological and environmental information with recently developed scattering models has allowed dominant scatterers to be identified and inferences to be made regarding the physical factors influencing backscatter variability, though only under limited conditions. Highlights from these studies and lessons learned regarding our ability to interpret multifrequency acoustics are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999DSRII..46.2081M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999DSRII..46.2081M"><span>Diel variations of the bathymetric distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups and biomass in Cap-Ferret Canyon, France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maycas, Encarna Ribera; Bourdillon, André; Macquart-Moulin, Claude; Passelaigue, Françoise; Patriti, Gilbert</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>The bathymetric distribution, abundance and diel vertical migrations (DVM) of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were investigated along the axis of the Cap-Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay, French Atlantic coast) by a consecutive series of synchronous net hauls that sampled the whole water column (0-2000 m in depth) during a diel cycle. The distribution of appendicularians (maximum 189 individuals m -3), cladocerans (maximum 287 individuals m -3), copepods (copepods<4 mm, maximum 773 individuals m -3, copepods>4 mm, maximum 13 individuals m -3), ostracods (maximum 8 individuals m -3), siphonophores (maximum >2 individuals m -3) and peracarids (maximum >600 individuals 1000 m -3) were analysed and represented by isoline diagrams. The biomass of total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (maximum 18419 μg C m -3, 3780 μg N m -3) and large copepods (>4 mm maximum 2256 μg C m -3, 425 μg N m -3) also were determined. Vertical migration was absent or affected only the epipelagic zone for appendicularians, cladocerans, small copepods and siphonophores. Average amplitude of vertical migration was about 400-500 m for ostracods, some hyperiids and mysids, and large copepods, which were often present in the epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic zones. Large copepods can constitute more than 80% of the biomass corresponding to total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. They may play an important role in the active vertical transfer of carbon and nitrogen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033307','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033307"><span>Strong evidence for terrestrial support of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in small lakes based on stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cole, Jonathan J.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Kitchell, Jim; Pace, Michael L.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in two contrasting lakes. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ≈20–40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>) is widespread. PMID:21245299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMS...169...52S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMS...169...52S"><span>Latitudinal distribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in the Western Pacific along 160°E during summer 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Dong; Wang, Chunsheng</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>A total of 51 mesozooplankton samples collected with a WP2 net from 0 to 200 m depth along 160°E (4°S-46°N) in the Western Pacific from June to July 2014 were analyzed. The latitudinal distribution of mesozooplankton community structure was analyzed. The average biomass and abundance in different provinces generally increased with latitude: the biomass of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> ranged from 1.18 mg DW m- 3 (11°N) to 97.81 mg DW m- 3 (45°N), and the abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> ranged from 45.11 ind. m- 3 (3°S) to 439.84 ind. m- 3 (41°N). The community structure of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> also showed a significant latitudinal variation. At lower latitudes, calanoid copepods were the most abundant group, while cyclopoid copepods were the most abundant group at higher latitudes. Multidimensional scaling analysis of community structure and other physical/chemical/biological characteristics supported five ecological provinces in the northwestern Pacific: the Western Pacific Warm Pool Province (WARM), the North Pacific Tropical Gyre (NPTG), the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPST), the Kuroshio Current Province (KURO) and the Pacific Subarctic Gyres Province (PSAG). The Kuroshio Current Province can be regarded as a transitional zone between the subarctic and northern subtropical area, and this transitional zone corresponds much more closely to the ecocline concept, rather than the ecotone concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5838004','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5838004"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> From a Reef System Under the Influence of the Amazon River Plume</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Melo, Pedro A. M. C.; Schwamborn, Ralf; Diaz, Xiomara F. G.; Figueiredo, Lucas G. P.; Silva, Andrea P.; Campelo, Renata P. S.; de Melo Júnior, Mauro; Melo, Nuno F. A. C.; Costa, Alejandro E. S. F.; Araújo, Moacyr; Veleda, Dóris R. A.; Moura, Rodrigo L.; Thompson, Fabiano</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>At the mouth of the Amazon River, a widespread carbonate ecosystem exists below the river plume, generating a hard-bottom reef (∼9500 km2) that includes mainly large sponges but also rhodolith beds. The mesozooplankton associated with the pelagic realm over the reef formation was characterized, considering the estuarine plume and oceanic influence. Vertical hauls were carried out using a standard plankton net with 200 μm mesh size during September 2014. An indicator index was applied to express species importance as ecological indicators in community. Information on functional traits was gathered for the most abundant copepod species. Overall, 179 <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa were recorded. Copepods were the richest (92 species), most diverse and most abundant group, whereas meroplankton were rare and less abundant. Species diversity (>3.0 bits.ind-1) and evenness (>0.6) were high, indicating a complex community. Small holoplanktonic species dominated the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and the total density varied from 107.98 ind. m-3 over the reef area to 2,609.24 ind. m-3 in the estuarine plume, with a significant difference between coastal and oceanic areas. The most abundant copepods were the coastal species ithona plumifera and Clausocalanus furcatus and early stages copepodites of Paracalanidae. The holoplanktonic Oikopleura, an important producer of mucous houses, was very abundant on the reefs. The indicator species index revealed three groups: (1) indicative of coastal waters under the influence of the estuarine plume [Euterpina acutifrons, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oikopleura (Vexillaria) dioica and Hydromedusae]; (2) characterized coastal and oceanic conditions (Clausocalanus); (3) characterized the reef system (O. plumifera). Two major copepods functional groups were identified and sorted according to their trophic strategy and coastal-oceanic distribution. The species that dominated the coastal area and the area over the rhodolith beds are indicators of the estuarine plume and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29545783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29545783"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> From a Reef System Under the Influence of the Amazon River Plume.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Melo, Pedro A M C; Schwamborn, Ralf; Diaz, Xiomara F G; Figueiredo, Lucas G P; Silva, Andrea P; Campelo, Renata P S; de Melo Júnior, Mauro; Melo, Nuno F A C; Costa, Alejandro E S F; Araújo, Moacyr; Veleda, Dóris R A; Moura, Rodrigo L; Thompson, Fabiano</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>At the mouth of the Amazon River, a widespread carbonate ecosystem exists below the river plume, generating a hard-bottom reef (∼9500 km 2 ) that includes mainly large sponges but also rhodolith beds. The mesozooplankton associated with the pelagic realm over the reef formation was characterized, considering the estuarine plume and oceanic influence. Vertical hauls were carried out using a standard plankton net with 200 μm mesh size during September 2014. An indicator index was applied to express species importance as ecological indicators in community. Information on functional traits was gathered for the most abundant copepod species. Overall, 179 <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa were recorded. Copepods were the richest (92 species), most diverse and most abundant group, whereas meroplankton were rare and less abundant. Species diversity (>3.0 bits.ind -1 ) and evenness (>0.6) were high, indicating a complex community. Small holoplanktonic species dominated the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, and the total density varied from 107.98 ind. m -3 over the reef area to 2,609.24 ind. m -3 in the estuarine plume, with a significant difference between coastal and oceanic areas. The most abundant copepods were the coastal species ithona plumifera and Clausocalanus furcatus and early stages copepodites of Paracalanidae. The holoplanktonic Oikopleura , an important producer of mucous houses, was very abundant on the reefs. The indicator species index revealed three groups: (1) indicative of coastal waters under the influence of the estuarine plume [ Euterpina acutifrons, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oikopleura (Vexillaria) dioica and Hydromedusae]; (2) characterized coastal and oceanic conditions ( Clausocalanus ); (3) characterized the reef system ( O. plumifera ). Two major copepods functional groups were identified and sorted according to their trophic strategy and coastal-oceanic distribution. The species that dominated the coastal area and the area over the rhodolith beds are indicators of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22858642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22858642"><span>210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide (210)Po/(210)Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995-November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and (210)Po/(210)Pb measurements in seawater, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> "bloom" was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of (210)Po in sea water and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest (210)Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained (210)Po and (210)Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5-486 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more (210)Po and (210)Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass peak observed in May, the (210)Po concentration in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.140...69K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.140...69K"><span>Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of pelagic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> elucidate ecohydrographic features in the oligotrophic Red Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kürten, Benjamin; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Kürten, Saskia; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Devassy, Reny P.; Struck, Ulrich; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Jones, Burton H.; Hansen, Thomas; Bruss, Gerd; Sommer, Ulrich</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> occupy key roles in aquatic biogeochemical cycles, little is known about the pelagic food web and trophodynamics of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Red Sea. Natural abundance stable isotope analysis (SIA) of carbon (δ13C) and N (δ15N) is one approach to elucidating pelagic food web structures and diet assimilation. Integrating the combined effects of ecological processes and hydrography, ecohydrographic features often translate into geographic patterns in δ13C and δ15N values at the base of food webs. This is due, for example, to divergent 15N abundances in source end-members (deep water sources: high δ15N, diazotrophs: low δ15N). Such patterns in the spatial distributions of stable isotope values were coined isoscapes. Empirical data of atmospheric, oceanographic, and biological processes, which drive the ecohydrographic gradients of the oligotrophic Red Sea, are under-explored and some rather anticipated than proven. Specifically, five processes underpin Red Sea gradients: (a) monsoon-related intrusions of nutrient-rich Indian Ocean water; (b) basin scale thermohaline circulation; (c) mesoscale eddy activity that causes up-welling of deep water nutrients into the upper layer; (d) the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) by diazotrophs; and (e) the deposition of dust and aerosol-derived N. This study assessed relationships between environmental samples (nutrients, chlorophyll a), oceanographic data (temperature, salinity, current velocity [ADCP]), particulate organic matter (POM), and net-phytoplankton, with the δ13C and δ15N values of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> collected in spring 2012 from 16°28‧ to 26°57‧N along the central axis of the Red Sea. The δ15N of bulk POM and most <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa increased from North (Duba) to South (Farasan). The potential contribution of deep water nutrient-fueled phytoplankton, POM, and diazotrophs varied among sites. Estimates suggested higher diazotroph contributions in the North, a greater contribution of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..87...72K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..87...72K"><span>The impact of different hydrographic conditions and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Walkusz, Wojciech; Karnovsky, Nina; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Cisek, Malgorzata; Stempniewicz, Lech</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Composition and abundance of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks ( Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Sørkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the abundance of prey preferred by Little Auks, Arctic Calanus glacialis copepodids stage V, among <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was similar in both localities. However, there was much more of Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus on the shelf outside Magdalenefjorden compared to Hornsund, resulting in different abundance ratios of Arctic to Atlantic copepods in the two areas (1:14 and 1:1, respectively). Even greater differences between the two areas occurred in the ratio of C. glacialis CV to other zooplankters, amounting to 1:40 in Magdalenefjorden and 1:6 in Hornsund. In both Little Auk colonies food brought by parents to their chicks contained mainly C. glacialis CV, albeit the proportion of this copepod in meals was significantly higher in Hornsund. Meals delivered to Little Auk chicks in Hornsund had also higher <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> numbers, biomass and energy content. In Magdalenefjorden, on the other hand, a higher number of feedings and longer duration of foraging trips were recorded. These differences became more apparent with increasing energy requirements of the fast growing nestlings. This was probably a consequence of lower relative abundance of the Little Auks’ preferred prey in the sea adjacent to Magdalenefjorden colony. It seems that searching for the preferred food items, such as C. glacialis, among abundant but less favored C. finmarchicus, may require more time and energy demanding foraging behavior. As a consequence, foraging effort of the Little Auk parents from Magdalenefjorden was higher, and feeding efficiency lower, than those of birds from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMS....93....4O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMS....93....4O"><span>Estimation of mortality for stage-structured <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations: What is to be done?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohman, Mark D.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Estimation of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> mortality rates in field populations is a challenging task that some contend is inherently intractable. This paper examines several of the objections that are commonly raised to efforts to estimate mortality. We find that there are circumstances in the field where it is possible to sequentially sample the same population and to resolve biologically caused mortality, albeit with error. Precision can be improved with sampling directed by knowledge of the physical structure of the water column, combined with adequate sample replication. Intercalibration of sampling methods can make it possible to sample across the life history in a quantitative manner. Rates of development can be constrained by laboratory-based estimates of stage durations from temperature- and food-dependent functions, mesocosm studies of molting rates, or approximation of development rates from growth rates, combined with the vertical distributions of organisms in relation to food and temperature gradients. Careful design of field studies guided by the assumptions of specific estimation models can lead to satisfactory mortality estimates, but model uncertainty also needs to be quantified. We highlight additional issues requiring attention to further advance the field, including the need for linked cooperative studies of the rates and causes of mortality of co-occurring holozooplankton and ichthyoplankton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMS....88..553P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMS....88..553P"><span>Influence of the late winter bloom on migrant <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> metabolism and its implications on export fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Putzeys, S.; Yebra, L.; Almeida, C.; Bécognée, P.; Hernández-León, S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Studies on carbon active fluxes due to diel migrants are scarce and critical for carbon flux models and biogeochemical estimates. We studied the temporal variability and vertical distribution of biomass, indices of feeding and respiration of the <span class="hlt">zooplanktonic</span> community north off the Canary Islands during the end of the late winter bloom, in order to assess vertical carbon fluxes in this area. Biomass distribution during the day presented two dense layers of organisms at 0-200 m and around 500 m, whereas at night, most of the biomass concentrated in the epipelagic layer. The gut pigment flux (0.05-0.18 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ) represented 0.22% of the estimated passive export flux (POC flux) while potential ingestion represented 3.91% of the POC (1.24-3.40 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ). The active respiratory flux (0.50-1.36 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ) was only 1.57% of the POC flux. The total carbon flux mediated by diel migrants (respiration plus potential ingestion) ranged between 3.37 and 9.22% of the POC flux; which is three-fold higher than calculating ingestion fluxes from gut pigments. Our results suggest that the fluxes by diel migrants play a small role in the downward flux of carbon in the open ocean during the post-bloom period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343421','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343421"><span>Isolation mediates persistent founder effects on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> colonisation in new temporary ponds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Badosa, Anna; Frisch, Dagmar; Green, Andy J.; Rico, Ciro; Gómez, Africa</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the colonisation process in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is crucial for successful restoration of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we analyzed the clonal and genetic structure of the cyclical parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis by following populations established in new temporary ponds during the first three hydroperiods. Rotifer populations established rapidly after first flooding, although colonisation was ongoing throughout the study. Multilocus genotypes from 7 microsatellite loci suggested that most populations (10 of 14) were founded by few clones. The exception was one of the four populations that persisted throughout the studied hydroperiods, where high genetic diversity in the first hydroperiod suggested colonisation from a historical egg bank, and no increase in allelic diversity was detected with time. In contrast, in another of these four populations, we observed a progressive increase of allelic diversity. This population became less differentiated from the other populations suggesting effective gene flow soon after its foundation. Allelic diversity and richness remained low in the remaining two, more isolated, populations, suggesting little gene flow. Our results highlight the complexity of colonisation dynamics, with evidence for persistent founder effects in some ponds, but not in others, and with early immigration both from external source populations, and from residual, historical diapausing egg banks. PMID:28276459</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018MeScT..29g5401T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018MeScT..29g5401T"><span>Single-camera three-dimensional tracking of natural particulate and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troutman, Valerie A.; Dabiri, John O.</p> <p>2018-07-01</p> <p>We develop and characterize an image processing algorithm to adapt single-camera defocusing digital particle image velocimetry (DDPIV) for three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) of natural particulates, such as those present in the ocean. The conventional DDPIV technique is extended to facilitate tracking of non-uniform, non-spherical particles within a volume depth an order of magnitude larger than current single-camera applications (i.e. 10 cm  ×  10 cm  ×  24 cm depth) by a dynamic template matching method. This 2D cross-correlation method does not rely on precise determination of the centroid of the tracked objects. To accommodate the broad range of particle number densities found in natural marine environments, the performance of the measurement technique at higher particle densities has been improved by utilizing the time-history of tracked objects to inform 3D reconstruction. The developed processing algorithms were analyzed using synthetically generated images of flow induced by Hill’s spherical vortex, and the capabilities of the measurement technique were demonstrated empirically through volumetric reconstructions of the 3D trajectories of particles and highly non-spherical, 5 mm <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635039A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635039A"><span>Chytrid parasitism facilitates trophic transfer between bloom-forming cyanobacteria and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (Daphnia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agha, Ramsy; Saebelfeld, Manja; Manthey, Christin; Rohrlack, Thomas; Wolinska, Justyna</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Parasites are rarely included in food web studies, although they can strongly alter trophic interactions. In aquatic ecosystems, poorly grazed cyanobacteria often dominate phytoplankton communities, leading to the decoupling of primary and secondary production. Here, we addressed the interface between predator-prey and host-parasite interactions by conducting a life-table experiment, in which four Daphnia galeata genotypes were maintained on quantitatively comparable diets consisting of healthy cyanobacteria or cyanobacteria infected by a fungal (chytrid) parasite. In four out of five fitness parameters, at least one Daphnia genotype performed better on parasitised cyanobacteria than in the absence of infection. Further treatments consisting of purified chytrid zoospores and heterotrophic bacteria suspensions established the causes of improved fitness. First, Daphnia feed on chytrid zoospores which trophically upgrade cyanobacterial carbon. Second, an increase in heterotrophic bacterial biomass, promoted by cyanobacterial decay, provides an additional food source for Daphnia. In addition, chytrid infection induces fragmentation of cyanobacterial filaments, which could render cyanobacteria more edible. Our results demonstrate that chytrid parasitism can sustain <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> under cyanobacterial bloom conditions, and exemplify the potential of parasites to alter interactions between trophic levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28912552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28912552"><span>Under-ice availability of phytoplankton lipids is key to freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> winter survival.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grosbois, Guillaume; Mariash, Heather; Schneider, Tobias; Rautio, Milla</p> <p>2017-09-14</p> <p>Shortening winter ice-cover duration in lakes highlights an urgent need for research focused on under-ice ecosystem dynamics and their contributions to whole-ecosystem processes. Low temperature, reduced light and consequent changes in autotrophic and heterotrophic resources alter the diet for long-lived consumers, with consequences on their metabolism in winter. We show in a survival experiment that the copepod Leptodiaptomus minutus in a boreal lake does not survive five months under the ice without food. We then report seasonal changes in phytoplankton, terrestrial and bacterial fatty acid (FA) biomarkers in seston and in four <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species for an entire year. Phytoplankton FA were highly available in seston (2.6 µg L -1 ) throughout the first month under the ice. Copepods accumulated them in high quantities (44.8 µg mg dry weight -1 ), building lipid reserves that comprised up to 76% of body mass. Terrestrial and bacterial FA were accumulated only in low quantities (<2.5 µg mg dry weight -1 ). The results highlight the importance of algal FA reserve accumulation for winter survival as a key ecological process in the annual life cycle of the freshwater plankton community with likely consequences to the overall annual production of aquatic FA for higher trophic levels and ultimately for human consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5546047','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5546047"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> communities and Bythotrephes longimanus in lakes of the montane region of the northern Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Horváth, Zsófia; Vad, Csaba F.; Preiler, Christian; Birtel, Julia; Matthews, Blake; Ptáčníková, Radka; Ptáčník, Robert</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Lakes in the Alps represent a considerable fraction of nutrient-poor lakes in Central Europe, with unique biodiversity and ecosystem properties. Although some individual lakes are well studied, less knowledge is available on large-scale patterns essential to general understanding of their functioning. Here, we aimed to describe crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities (Cladocera, Copepoda) and identify their environmental drivers in the pelagic zone of 54 oligotrophic lakes in the montane region of the Alps (400–1200 m) in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, covering a spatial scale of 650 km. Moreover, we aimed to provide data on the distribution and ecological requirements of the North American invader Bythotrephes longimanus in its Central European native range. Communities were mainly dominated by widespread species typical of lowland habitats, and only a few true specialists of oligotrophic alpine lakes were present. The most frequent taxa were the Daphnia longispina complex and Eudiaptomus gracilis, with 48 and 45 occurrences, respectively. Species richness decreased with altitude and increased with lake area. The main structuring factors of community composition were chlorophyll a concentration and depth, which drove an apparent separation of mesotrophic and oligotrophic communities. Bythotrephes had 13 occurrences, showing a preference for deep oligotrophic lakes. Its presence was not coupled with lower crustacean species richness, as was repeatedly observed in North America. Additionally, it frequently co-occurred with the other large predatory cladoceran, Leptodora kindtii. B. longimanus might be considered a truly montane species in Central Europe, given its absence in lowland and alpine lakes. PMID:28824797</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950456"><span>Regional <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biodiversity provides limited buffering of pond ecosystems against climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Patrick L; Shurin, Jonathan B</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>1. Climate change and other human-driven environmental perturbations are causing reductions in biodiversity and impacting the functioning of ecosystems on a global scale. Metacommunity theory suggests that ecosystem connectivity may reduce the magnitude of these impacts if the regional species pool contains functionally redundant species that differ in their environmental tolerances. Dispersal may increase the resistance of local ecosystems to environmental stress by providing regional species with traits adapted to novel conditions. 2. We tested this theory by subjecting freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in mesocosms that were either connected to or isolated from the larger regional species pool to a factorial manipulation of experimental warming and increased salinity. 3. Compensation by regional taxa depended on the source of stress. Warming tolerant regional taxa partially compensated for reductions in heat sensitive local taxa but similar compensation did not occur under increased salinity. 4. Dispersal-mediated species invasions dampened the effects of warming on summer net ecosystem productivity. However, this buffering effect did not occur in the fall or for periphyton growth, the only other ecosystem function affected by the stress treatments. 5. The results indicate that regional biodiversity can provide insurance in a dynamic environment but that the buffering capacity is limited to some ecosystem processes and sources of stress. Maintaining regional biodiversity and habitat connectivity may therefore provide some limited insurance for local ecosystems in changing environments, but is unable to impart resistance against all sources of environmental stress. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35..881L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35..881L"><span>Vertical nitrogen flux from the oceanic photic zone by diel migrant <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and nekton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Longhurst, Alan R.; Glen Harrison, W.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>Where the photic zone is a biological steady-state, the downward flux of organic material across the pycnocline to the interior of the ocean is thought to be balanced by upward turbulent flux of inorganic nitrogen across the nutricline. This model ignores a significant downward dissolved nitrogen flux caused by the diel vertical migration of interzonal <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and nekton that feed in the photic zone at night and excrete nitrogenous compounds at depth by day. In the oligotrophic ocean this flux can be equivalent to the flux of particulate organic nitrogen from the photic zone in the form of faecal pellets and organic flocculates. Where nitrogen is the limiting plant nutrient, and the flux by diel migration of interzonal plankton is significant compared to other nitrogen exports from the photic zone, there must be an upward revision of previous estimates for the ratio of new to total primary production in the photic zone if a nutrient balance is to be maintained. This upward revision is of the order 5-100% depending on the oceanographic regime.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743983B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743983B"><span>Isolation mediates persistent founder effects on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> colonisation in new temporary ponds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Badosa, Anna; Frisch, Dagmar; Green, Andy J.; Rico, Ciro; Gómez, Africa</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Understanding the colonisation process in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> is crucial for successful restoration of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we analyzed the clonal and genetic structure of the cyclical parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis by following populations established in new temporary ponds during the first three hydroperiods. Rotifer populations established rapidly after first flooding, although colonisation was ongoing throughout the study. Multilocus genotypes from 7 microsatellite loci suggested that most populations (10 of 14) were founded by few clones. The exception was one of the four populations that persisted throughout the studied hydroperiods, where high genetic diversity in the first hydroperiod suggested colonisation from a historical egg bank, and no increase in allelic diversity was detected with time. In contrast, in another of these four populations, we observed a progressive increase of allelic diversity. This population became less differentiated from the other populations suggesting effective gene flow soon after its foundation. Allelic diversity and richness remained low in the remaining two, more isolated, populations, suggesting little gene flow. Our results highlight the complexity of colonisation dynamics, with evidence for persistent founder effects in some ponds, but not in others, and with early immigration both from external source populations, and from residual, historical diapausing egg banks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...131..120L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...131..120L"><span>Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and fishes linked to environmental variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001CSR....21...69S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001CSR....21...69S"><span>Multisensor sampling of pelagic ecosystem variables in a coastal environment to estimate <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> grazing impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sutton, Tracey; Hopkins, Thomas; Remsen, Andrew; Burghart, Scott</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Sampling was conducted on the west Florida continental shelf ecosystem modeling site to estimate <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> grazing impact on primary production. Samples were collected with the high-resolution sampler, a towed array bearing electronic and optical sensors operating in tandem with a paired net/bottle verification system. A close biological-physical coupling was observed, with three main plankton communities: 1. a high-density inshore community dominated by larvaceans coincident with a salinity gradient; 2. a low-density offshore community dominated by small calanoid copepods coincident with the warm mixed layer; and 3. a high-density offshore community dominated by small poecilostomatoid and cyclopoid copepods and ostracods coincident with cooler, sub-pycnocline oceanic water. Both high-density communities were associated with relatively turbid water. Applying available grazing rates from the literature to our abundance data, grazing pressure mirrored the above bio-physical pattern, with the offshore sub-pycnocline community contributing ˜65% of grazing pressure despite representing only 19% of the total volume of the transect. This suggests that grazing pressure is highly localized, emphasizing the importance of high-resolution sampling to better understand plankton dynamics. A comparison of our grazing rate estimates with primary production estimates suggests that mesozooplankton do not control the fate of phytoplankton over much of the area studied (<5% grazing of daily primary production), but "hot spots" (˜25-50% grazing) do occur which may have an effect on floral composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23906853','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23906853"><span>Trophic transfer of microcystins through the lake pelagic food web: evidence for the role of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> as a vector in fish contamination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sotton, Benoît; Guillard, Jean; Anneville, Orlane; Maréchal, Marjorie; Savichtcheva, Olga; Domaizon, Isabelle</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An in situ study was performed to investigate the role of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> as a vector of microcystins (MCs) from Planktothrix rubescens filaments to fish during a metalimnic bloom of P. rubescens in Lake Hallwil (Switzerland). The concentrations of MCs in P. rubescens and various <span class="hlt">zooplanktonic</span> taxa (filter-feeders and predators) were assessed in different water strata (epi-, meta- and hypolimnion) using replicated sampling over a 24-hour survey. The presence of P. rubescens in the gut content of various <span class="hlt">zooplanktonic</span> taxa (Daphnia, Bosmina and Chaoborus) was verified by targeting the cyanobacterial nucleic acids (DNA). These results highlighted that cyanobacterial cells constitute a part of food resource for herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplanktonic</span> taxa during metalimnic bloom periods. Furthermore, presence of MCs in Chaoborus larvae highlighted the trophic transfer of MCs between herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and their invertebrate predators. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">zooplanktonic</span> herbivores by diel vertical migration (DVM) act as vectors of MCs by encapsulating grazed cyanobacteria. As a consequence, they largely contribute to the contamination of <span class="hlt">zooplanktonic</span> predators, and in fine of zooplanktivorous whitefish. Indeed, we estimated the relative contribution of three preys of the whitefish (i.e. Daphnia, Bosmina and Chaoborus) to diet contamination. We showed that Chaoborus and Daphnia were the highest contributor as MC vectors in the whitefish diet (74.6 and 20.5% of MC-LR equivalent concentrations, respectively). The transfer of MCs across the different trophic compartments follows complex trophic pathways involving various trophic levels whose relative importance in fish contamination might vary at daily and seasonal scale. © 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779727"><span>Seasonal variations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass and size-fractionated abundance in relation to environmental changes in a tropical mangrove estuary in the Straits of Malacca.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balqis, A R S; Yusoff, F M; Arshad, A; Nishikawa, J</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Seasonal variations of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in terms of biomass and size-fractionated densities were studied in a tropical Sangga Kechil river, Matang, Perak from June 2010 to April 2011. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> and jellyfish (hydromedusae, siphonophores and ctenophores) samples were collected bimonthly from four sampling stations by horizontal towing of a 140-?m plankton net and 500 ?m bongo net, respectively. A total of 12 <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups consisting of six groups each of mesozooplankon (0.2 mm-2.0 mm) and macrozooplankton (2.0 mm-20.0 cm) were recorded. The total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> density (12375?3339 ind m(-3)) and biomass (35.32?14.56 mg m(-3)) were highest during the northeast (NE) monsoon and southwest (SW) monsoon, respectively, indicating the presence of bigger individuals in the latter season. Mesozooplankton predominated (94%) over the macrozooplankton (6%) during all the seasons, and copepods contributed 84% of the total mesozooplankton abundance. Macrozooplankton was dominated by appendicularians during most of the seasons (43%-97%), except during the NE monsoon (December) when chaetognaths became the most abundant (89% of the total macrozooplankton). BIO-ENV analysis showed that total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> density was correlated with turbidity, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, which in turn was positively correlated to chlorophyll a. Cluster analysis of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community showed no significant temporal difference between the SW and NE monsoon season during the study period (> 90% similarity). The present study revealed that the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in the tropical mangrove estuary in the Straits of Malacca was dominated by mesoplankton, especially copepods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970874"><span>Changes of concentrations and possibility of accumulation of bisphenol A and alkylphenols, depending on biomass and composition, in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of the Southern Baltic (Gulf of Gdansk).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Staniszewska, Marta; Nehring, Iga; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The focus of the present study was to find the relationship between concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and seasonal changes in the composition and biomass of particular <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa in the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic) in the years 2011-2012. Assays of BPA, OP and NP in water and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples were performed using the HPLC/FL system. High mean concentrations of the studied compounds, determined in spring (405.9 (BPA); 25.7 (OP); 111.2 (NP) ng g(-1) dw), can be linked to the high proportion of meroplankton in that season. Rotifera also had an influence on the rise in concentrations of the studied compounds but to a lesser degree, while the lowest concentrations (determined in summer) can be associated with the high participation of Copepoda and Cladocera in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass. It was also observed that juvenile forms can be more susceptible to accumulating endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This is indicated by the positive correlation between BPA concentration in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and the proportion of Copepoda nauplii biomass in spring (r = 0.90; p < 0.05). In most cases, greater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass accumulated higher concentrations and loads of the studied compounds. With biomass growth (to 123.32 μg m(-3)), the bioconcentration factor also rose (to max 46.1·10(3)), demonstrating that unlike typical hydrophobic compounds the studied EDCs do not become "diluted" in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass. The highest BPA concentrations from all compounds may be connected with anthropogenic sources located in the coastal zone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29574359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29574359"><span>Bioavailability and uptake of smelter emissions in freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in northeastern Washington, USA lakes using Pb isotope analysis and trace metal concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Child, A W; Moore, B C; Vervoort, J D; Beutel, M W</p> <p>2018-07-01</p> <p>The upper Columbia River and associated valley systems are highly contaminated with metal wastes from nearby smelting operations in Trail, British Columbia, Canada (Teck smelter), and to a lesser extent, Northport, Washington, USA (Le Roi smelter). Previous studies have investigated depositional patterns of airborne emissions from these smelters, and documented the Teck smelter as the primary metal contamination source. However, there is limited research directed at whether these contaminants are bioavailable to aquatic organisms. This study investigates whether smelter derived contaminants are bioavailable to freshwater <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Trace metal (Zn, Cd, As, Sb, Pb and Hg) concentrations and Pb isotope compositions of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and sediment were measured in lakes ranging from 17 to 144 km downwind of the Teck smelter. Pb isotopic compositions of historic ores used by both smelters are uniquely less radiogenic than local geologic formations, so when <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assimilate substantial amounts of smelter derived metals their compositions deviate from local baseline compositions toward ore compositions. Sediment metal concentrations and Pb isotope compositions in sediment follow significant (p < 0.001) negative exponential and sigmoidal patterns, respectively, as distance from the Teck smelting operation increases. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> As, Cd, and Sb contents were related to distance from the Teck smelter (p < 0.05), and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> Pb isotope compositions suggest As, Cd, Sb and Pb from historic and current smelter emissions are biologically available to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> from lakes within 86 km of the Teck facility display isotopic evidence that legacy ore pollution is biologically available for assimilation. However, without water column data our study is unable to determine if legacy contaminants are remobilized from lake sediments, or erosional pathways from the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1056875','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1056875"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>DeTar, Carleton</p> <p></p> <p>This document constitutes the <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PrOce.101..121E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PrOce.101..121E"><span>Late-summer <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community structure, abundance, and distribution in the Hudson Bay system (Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions, 2003-2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estrada, Rafael; Harvey, Michel; Gosselin, Michel; Starr, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Straneo, Fiammetta</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> communities were examined for the first time in three different hydrographic regions of the Hudson Bay system (HBS) in early August to early September from 2003 to 2006. Sampling was conducted at 50 stations distributed along different transects located in Hudson Bay (HB), Hudson Strait (HS), and Foxe Basin (FB). Variations in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass, abundance, taxonomic composition, and diversity in relation to environmental variables were studied using multivariate techniques. During all sampling years, the total <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass was on average four times lower in HB than in HS and FB. Clustering samples by their relative species compositions revealed no interannual variation in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community but showed a marked interregional variability between the three regions. Water column stratification explained the greatest proportion (25%) of this spatial variability. According to redundancy analysis (RDA), the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> taxa that contribute most to the separation of the three regions are Microcalanus spp., Oithona similis, Oncaea borealis, Aeginopsis laurentii, Sagitta elegans, Fritillaria sp., and larvae of cnidaria, chaetognatha, and pteropoda in HB; hyperiid amphipods in FB; and Pseudocalanus spp. CI-CV, Calanus glacialis CI-CVI, Calanus finmarchicus CI-CVI, Calanus hyperboreus CV-CVI, Acartia longiremis CI-CV, Metridia longa N3-N6 CI-CIII CVIf, Eukrohnia hamata, larvae of echinodermata, mollusca, cirripedia, appendicularia, and polychaeta in the northwestern and southeastern HS transects. For the HB transect, the RDA analyzed allowed us to distinguish three regions (HB west, central, and east) with different environmental gradients and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages, in particular higher concentration of Pseudocalanus spp. nauplii and CI-CVI, as well as benthic macrozooplankton and meroplankton larvae in western HB. In HS, Calanoid species (mainly C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis) were mostly observed at the north shore stations associated with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10178405','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10178405"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3-70). Volume 2, Public comments and NRC <span class="hlt">response</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Zeitoun, A.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Final</span> Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (Volume 1), was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to assess the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana by Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF{sub 6}, using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are co on, bothmore » normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning of the site. In order to help assure that releases from the operation of the facility and potential impacts on the public are as low as reasonably achievable, an environmental monitoring program was developed by LES to detect significant changes in the background levels of uranium around the site. Other issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment, and proposes to issue a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility. The letters in this Appendix have been divided into three sections. Section One contains letters to which the NRC responded by addressing specific comments. Section Two contains the letters that concerned the communities of Forest Grove and Center Springs. Section Three is composed of letters that required no <span class="hlt">response</span>. These letters were generally in support of the facility.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227443"><span><span class="hlt">Response</span> to long-term growth hormone therapy in patients affected by RASopathies and growth hormone deficiency: Patterns of growth, puberty and <span class="hlt">final</span> height data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, <span class="hlt">final</span> height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height <span class="hlt">response</span> compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10488436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10488436"><span>Impact of moderate silver carp biomass gradient on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities in a eutrophic reservoir. Consequences for the use of silver carp in biomanipulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Domaizon, I; Dévaux, J</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>We examined the impacts of moderate gradient silver carp biomass (five levels from 0 to 36 g.m-3, i.e. about 0-792 kg.ha-1) on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities of the eutrophic Villerest reservoir (France). During our mesocosm experiment changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> assemblages were dependent on silver carp biomass. In the fishless and low fish biomass treatments, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance increased through time, owing to a peak in cladoceran density, but decreased (mainly cladocerans) at highest fish biomass. Copepods and rotifers were less affected at the highest fish biomass and dominated <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities. We highlighted that the presence of high silver carp biomass could lead to changes in phytoplankton assemblage via the impact on herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. Since silver carp efficiently graze on particles > 20 microns, the suppression of herbivorous cladocerans could result in an increase in small size algae (< 20 microns) abundance since these species would be released from grazers as well as competitors (large algae grazed by silver carp) and nutrients levels would be enhanced by fish internal loading. Our results showed that the use of low silver carp biomass (< 200 kg.ha-1) would allow us to minimize these negative effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..139a2012M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..139a2012M"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> communities in Cenderawasih Bay National Park, West Papua: can their composition be used to predict whale shark Rhincodon typus Smith, 1828 appearance frequencies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marliana, S. N.; Bataona, M.; Ihsan, E. N.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The use of lift net fishing vessels in Cenderawasih Bay National Park (CBNP) along with the increased popularity of CBNP as an ecotourism area is suspected to have an impact on the behavior and population of its whale sharks Rhincodon typus Smith, 1828. The differing frequency of whale shark appearances along the waters of CBNP has been alleged to be related to the distribution of the whale sharks’ food sources, one of which is <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>. This preliminary research aimed to investigate the composition of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in CBNP based on distance from the coast and difference in locations, and to use the pattern of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> compositional variation as a basis for indication of the frequency of whale shark appearances. There were clear differences in the composition and diversity of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities among sampling stations, but these differences were not strong enough to infer the cause of the different whale shark appearance frequencies in different locations. Nevertheless, the waters of CBNP had an equal availability of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> for whale sharks. With the increasing popularity of whale shark tourism, understanding the species’ feeding habits is critical to the sustainability of both the industry and the enigmatic species on which it depends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DSRI...49.2035R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DSRI...49.2035R"><span>Acoustic backscatter measurements with a 153 kHz ADCP in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: determination of dominant <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton scatterers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ressler, Patrick H.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>A 153 kHz narrowband acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used to measure volume backscattering strength ( Sv) during a deepwater oceanographic survey of cetacean and seabird habitat in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Sv was positively related to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and micronekton biomass (wet displacement volume) in 'sea-truth' net hauls made with a 1 m 2 Multiple Opening-Closing Net Environmental Sensing System (MOCNESS). A subset of these MOCNESS tows was used to explore the relationship between the numerical densities of various taxonomic categories of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and the ADCP backscatter signal. Crustaceans, small fish, and fragments of non-gas-bearing siphonophores in the net samples all showed significant, positive correlations with the acoustic signal, while other types of gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, pteropod and atlantid molluscs, and gas-filled siphonophore floats showed no significant correlation with Sv. Previously published acoustic scattering models for <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> were used to calculate expected scattering for several general <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> types and sizes for comparison with the field data. Even though gelatinous material often made up a large fraction of the total biomass, crustaceans, small fish, and pteropods were most likely the important scatterers. Since only crustacean and small fish densities were significantly correlated with Sv, it is suggested that Sv at 153 kHz can be used as a relative proxy for the abundance of these organisms in the Gulf of Mexico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18464350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18464350"><span>Data breaches. <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-04-11</p> <p>This document adopts, without change, the interim <span class="hlt">final</span> rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This <span class="hlt">final</span> rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in <span class="hlt">response</span> to a data breach of sensitive personal information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5480595','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5480595"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> communities and Bythotrephes longimanus in lakes of the montane region of the northern Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Horváth, Zsófia; Vad, Csaba F.; Preiler, Christian; Birtel, Julia; Matthews, Blake; Ptáčníková, Radka; Ptacnik, Robert</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Lakes in the Alps represent a considerable fraction of nutrient-poor lakes in Central Europe, with unique biodiversity and ecosystem properties. Although some individual lakes are well-studied, less knowledge is available on large-scale patterns essential to generalise the understanding of their functioning. Here, we aimed to describe crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities (Cladocera, Copepoda) and identify their environmental drivers in the pelagic zone of 54 oligotrophic lakes in the montane region of the Alps (400–1200 m) in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, covering a spatial scale of 650 km. Moreover, we aimed to provide data on the distribution and ecological requirements of the North American invader Bytotrephes longimanus in its Central European native range. Communities were mainly dominated by widespread species typical of lowland habitats, and only a few true specialists of oligotrophic alpine lakes were present. The most frequent taxa were the Daphnia longispina complex and Eudiaptomus gracilis, with 48 and 45 occurrences, respectively. Species richness decreased with altitude and increased with lake area. The main structuring factors of community composition were chlorophyll a concentration and depth, which drove an apparent separation of mesotrophic and oligotrophic communities. Bytotrephes had 13 occurrences, showing a preference for deep oligotrophic lakes. Its presence was not coupled with lower crustacean species richness as it was repeatedly observed in North America. Additionally, it frequently co-occurred with the other large predatory cladoceran, Leptodora kindtii. B. longimanus might be considered a truly montane species in Central Europe, given its absence in lowland and alpine lakes. PMID:28649318</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS51F..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS51F..08L"><span>Methyl mercury uptake by diverse marine phytoplankton and trophic transfer to <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, C. S.; Fisher, N. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>While it is well known that methylmercury (MeHg) biomagnifies in aquatic food chains, few studies have quantified its bioaccumulation in marine phytoplankton from seawater, even though that is overwhelmingly the largest bioaccumulation step. Aquatic animals acquire MeHg mainly from dietary exposure and it is important to evaluate the bioaccumulation of this compound in planktonic organisms that form the base of marine food webs. We used a gamma-emitting radioisotope, 203Hg, to assess the rate and extent of MeHg uptake in marine diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, cryptophytes chlorophytes, and cyanobacteria held in unialgal cultures under varying temperature and light conditions. For experimental conditions in which the dissolved MeHg was at 300 pM, the uptake rates in all species ranged from 0.004 to 0.75 amol Hg μm-3 cell volume d-1 and reached steady state within 2 d. Volume concentration factors (VCFs) ranged from 0.4 to 60 x 105 for the different species. Temperature and light conditions had no direct effect on cellular MeHg uptake but ultimately affected growth of the cells, resulting in greater suspended particulate matter and associated MeHg. VCFs strongly correlated with cell surface area to volume ratios in all species. Assimilation efficiencies of MeHg from phytoplankton food (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Dunaliella tertiolecta and Rhodomonas salina) in a marine copepod grazer (Acartia tonsa) ranged from 74 to 92%, directly proportional to the cytoplasmic partitioning of MeHg in the phytoplankton cells. MeHg uptake in copepods from the aqueous phase was low and modeling shows that nearly all the MeHg acquired by this zooplankter is from diet. Herbivorous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> can be an important link from phytoplankton at the base of the food web to fish higher in the food chain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26039111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26039111"><span>Is Ambient Light during the High Arctic Polar Night Sufficient to Act as a Visual Cue for <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen, Jonathan H; Berge, Jørgen; Moline, Mark A; Sørensen, Asgeir J; Last, Kim; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Renaud, Paul E; Leu, Eva S; Grenvald, Julie; Cottier, Finlo; Cronin, Heather; Menze, Sebastian; Norgren, Petter; Varpe, Øystein; Daase, Malin; Darnis, Gerald; Johnsen, Geir</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The light regime is an ecologically important factor in pelagic habitats, influencing a range of biological processes. However, the availability and importance of light to these processes in high Arctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities during periods of 'complete' darkness (polar night) are poorly studied. Here we characterized the ambient light regime throughout the diel cycle during the high Arctic polar night, and ask whether visual systems of Arctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> can detect the low levels of irradiance available at this time. To this end, light measurements with a purpose-built irradiance sensor and coupled all-sky digital photographs were used to characterize diel skylight irradiance patterns over 24 hours at 79°N in January 2014 and 2015. Subsequent skylight spectral irradiance and in-water optical property measurements were used to model the underwater light field as a function of depth, which was then weighted by the electrophysiologically determined visual spectral sensitivity of a dominant high Arctic zooplankter, Thysanoessa inermis. Irradiance in air ranged between 1-1.5 x 10-5 μmol photons m-2 s-1 (400-700 nm) in clear weather conditions at noon and with the moon below the horizon, hence values reflect only solar illumination. Radiative transfer modelling generated underwater light fields with peak transmission at blue-green wavelengths, with a 465 nm transmission maximum in shallow water shifting to 485 nm with depth. To the eye of a zooplankter, light from the surface to 75 m exhibits a maximum at 485 nm, with longer wavelengths (>600 nm) being of little visual significance. Our data are the first quantitative characterisation, including absolute intensities, spectral composition and photoperiod of biologically relevant solar ambient light in the high Arctic during the polar night, and indicate that some species of Arctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are able to detect and utilize ambient light down to 20-30m depth during the Arctic polar night.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4670095','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4670095"><span>Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem (South Brazilian Bight)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Codina, Juan Carlos Ugaz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45’S; 47°33’W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (>70 m); warm (>20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3–0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most species, which typically inhabit epipelagic warm waters. Even among migratory species, only a few (Aglaura hemistoma, Abylopsis tetragona eudoxids, Beroe sp., Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis) crossed the thermocline and reached the bottom layer. (ii) A general tendency of partial migrations, with variable intensity depending on the different species and developmental stages; populations tended to be more widely distributed through the water column during daylight, and to become more aggregated in the upper layer during the night, which can be explained based on the idea of the “hunger-satiation hypothesis”, maximizing feeding and minimizing the chances of being predated. PMID:26637179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4454649','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4454649"><span>Is Ambient Light during the High Arctic Polar Night Sufficient to Act as a Visual Cue for <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cohen, Jonathan H.; Berge, Jørgen; Moline, Mark A.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.; Last, Kim; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Renaud, Paul E.; Leu, Eva S.; Grenvald, Julie; Cottier, Finlo; Cronin, Heather; Menze, Sebastian; Norgren, Petter; Varpe, Øystein; Daase, Malin; Darnis, Gerald; Johnsen, Geir</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The light regime is an ecologically important factor in pelagic habitats, influencing a range of biological processes. However, the availability and importance of light to these processes in high Arctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities during periods of 'complete' darkness (polar night) are poorly studied. Here we characterized the ambient light regime throughout the diel cycle during the high Arctic polar night, and ask whether visual systems of Arctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> can detect the low levels of irradiance available at this time. To this end, light measurements with a purpose-built irradiance sensor and coupled all-sky digital photographs were used to characterize diel skylight irradiance patterns over 24 hours at 79°N in January 2014 and 2015. Subsequent skylight spectral irradiance and in-water optical property measurements were used to model the underwater light field as a function of depth, which was then weighted by the electrophysiologically determined visual spectral sensitivity of a dominant high Arctic zooplankter, Thysanoessa inermis. Irradiance in air ranged between 1–1.5 x 10-5 μmol photons m-2 s-1 (400–700 nm) in clear weather conditions at noon and with the moon below the horizon, hence values reflect only solar illumination. Radiative transfer modelling generated underwater light fields with peak transmission at blue-green wavelengths, with a 465 nm transmission maximum in shallow water shifting to 485 nm with depth. To the eye of a zooplankter, light from the surface to 75 m exhibits a maximum at 485 nm, with longer wavelengths (>600 nm) being of little visual significance. Our data are the first quantitative characterisation, including absolute intensities, spectral composition and photoperiod of biologically relevant solar ambient light in the high Arctic during the polar night, and indicate that some species of Arctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> are able to detect and utilize ambient light down to 20–30m depth during the Arctic polar night. PMID:26039111</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26637179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26637179"><span>Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem (South Brazilian Bight).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Codina, Juan Carlos Ugaz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45'S; 47°33'W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (>70 m); warm (>20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3-0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most species, which typically inhabit epipelagic warm waters. Even among migratory species, only a few (Aglaura hemistoma, Abylopsis tetragona eudoxids, Beroe sp., Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis) crossed the thermocline and reached the bottom layer. (ii) A general tendency of partial migrations, with variable intensity depending on the different species and developmental stages; populations tended to be more widely distributed through the water column during daylight, and to become more aggregated in the upper layer during the night, which can be explained based on the idea of the "hunger-satiation hypothesis", maximizing feeding and minimizing the chances of being predated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS23B..16M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS23B..16M"><span><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Structure of the La Paz Bay southern Gulf of California and their Relation with the Hydrography during the summer 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mojica-Ramirez, E.; Monreal-Gomez, M. A.; Salas-de-Leon, D. A.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Physical and biological data were gathered in Bay of La Paz, Southern Gulf of California, in summer, 2004. These include hydrographical data, ADP currents, backscattering signals, in vivo natural fluorescence, as well as, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples. The topography of the 15°C shows a dome in the central part of the bay that becomes deeper towards the periphery suggesting the existence of a cyclonic eddy. The 35 salinity topography shows an uplift of 35 m. The eddy has a north-south diameter of approximately 35 km and cover almost all the bay. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples reveal the existence of 23 groups the most abundant were cladocera, copepods, siphonophores, chaetognaths and larvae of crustaceans. The <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> biomass presents higher values in the periphery of the eddy indicating an influence of the cyclonic circulation in their distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.1955M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.1955M"><span>The contribution of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> faecal pellets to deep-carbon transport in the Scotia Sea (Southern Ocean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manno, C.; Stowasser, G.; Enderlein, P.; Fielding, S.; Tarling, G. A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The northern Scotia Sea contains the largest seasonal uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide yet measured in the Southern Ocean. This study examines one of the main routes by which this carbon fluxes to the deep ocean: through the production of faecal pellets (FPs) by the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community. Deep sediment traps were deployed at two sites with contrasting ocean productivity regimes (P3, naturally iron-fertilized, and P2, iron-limited) within the same water mass. The magnitude and seasonal pattern of particulate organic carbon (POC) and FPs in the traps was markedly different between the two sites. Maximum fluxes at P3 (22.91 mg C m-2 d-1; 2534 FP m-2 d1) were 1 order of magnitude higher than at P2 (4.01 mg C m-2 d-1; 915 FP m-2 d1, with flux at P3 exhibiting a double seasonal peak, compared to a single flatter peak at P2. The maximum contribution of FP carbon to the total amount of POC was twice as high at P3 (91%) compared to P2 (40%). The dominant FP category at P3 varied between round, ovoidal, cylindrical and tabular over the course of the year, while, at P2, ovoidal FPs were consistently dominant, always making up more than 60% of the FP assemblage. There was also a difference in the FP state between the two sites, with FPs being relatively intact at P3, while FPs were often fragmented with broken peritrophic membranes at P2. The exception was ovoidal FPs, which were relatively intact at both sites. Our observations suggest that there was a community shift from a herbivorous to an omnivorous diet from spring through to autumn at P3, while detritivores had a higher relative importance over the year at P2. Furthermore, the flux was mainly a product of the vertically migrating <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community at P3, while the FP flux was more likely to be generated by deeper-dwelling <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> feeding on recycled material at P2. The results demonstrate that the feeding behaviour and vertical distribution of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community plays a critical role in controlling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492990','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492990"><span>Estimating In Situ <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Non-Predation Mortality in an Oligo-Mesotrophic Lake from Sediment Trap Data: Caveats and Reality Check</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dubovskaya, Olga P.; Tang, Kam W.; Gladyshev, Michail I.; Kirillin, Georgiy; Buseva, Zhanna; Kasprzak, Peter; Tolomeev, Aleksandr P.; Grossart, Hans-Peter</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Mortality is a main driver in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> population biology but it is poorly constrained in models that describe <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> population dynamics, food web interactions and nutrient dynamics. Mortality due to non-predation factors is often ignored even though anecdotal evidence of non-predation mass mortality of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> has been reported repeatedly. One way to estimate non-predation mortality rate is to measure the removal rate of carcasses, for which sinking is the primary removal mechanism especially in quiescent shallow water bodies. Objectives and Results We used sediment traps to quantify in situ carcass sinking velocity and non-predation mortality rate on eight consecutive days in 2013 for the cladoceran Bosmina longirostris in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Stechlin; the outcomes were compared against estimates derived from in vitro carcass sinking velocity measurements and an empirical model correcting in vitro sinking velocity for turbulence resuspension and microbial decomposition of carcasses. Our results show that the latter two approaches produced unrealistically high mortality rates of 0.58-1.04 d-1, whereas the sediment trap approach, when used properly, yielded a mortality rate estimate of 0.015 d-1, which is more consistent with concurrent population abundance data and comparable to physiological death rate from the literature. Ecological implications <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> carcasses may be exposed to water column microbes for days before entering the benthos; therefore, non-predation mortality affects not only <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> population dynamics but also microbial and benthic food webs. This would be particularly important for carbon and nitrogen cycles in systems where recurring mid-summer decline of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> population due to non-predation mortality is observed. PMID:26146995</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.135...27P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.135...27P"><span>Spatial heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> summer distribution in the eastern Chukchi Sea in 2012-2013 as a result of large-scale interactions of water masses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Interest in the Arctic shelf ecosystems has increased in recent years as the climate has rapidly warmed and sea ice declined. These changing conditions prompted the broad-scale multidisciplinary Arctic Ecosystem integrated survey (Arctic Eis) aimed at systematic, comparative analyses of interannual variability of the shelf ecosystem. In this study, we compared <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> composition and geographical distribution in relation to water properties on the eastern Chukchi and northern Bering Sea shelves during the summers of 2012 and 2013. In 2012, waters of Pacific origin prevailed over the study area carrying expatriate oceanic species (e.g. copepods Neocalanus spp., Eucalanus bungii) from the Bering Sea outer shelf well onto the northeastern Chukchi shelf. In contrast, in 2013, <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> of Pacific origin was mainly distributed over the southern Chukchi shelf, suggesting a change of advection pathways into the Arctic. These changes also manifested in the emergence of large lipid-rich Arctic <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (e.g. Calanus hyperboreus) on the northeastern Chukchi shelf in 2013. The predominant copepod Calanus glacialis was composed of two distinct populations originating from the Bering Sea and from the Arctic, with the Arctic population expanding over a broader range in 2013. The observed interannual variability in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution on the Chukchi Sea shelf may be explained by previously described systematic oceanographic patterns derived from long-term observations. Variability in oceanic circulation and related <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distributions (e.g. changes in southwestward advection of C. hyperboreus) may impact keystone predators such as Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) that feed on energy-rich <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chris+AND+higgins&pg=2&id=EJ989007','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chris+AND+higgins&pg=2&id=EJ989007"><span><span class="hlt">Response</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Higgins, Chris</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article presents the author's <span class="hlt">response</span> to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief <span class="hlt">response</span>, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5730670-analysis-six-groups-zooplankton-samples-taken-proposed-otec-site-eastern-gulf-mexico-off-tampa-bay','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5730670-analysis-six-groups-zooplankton-samples-taken-proposed-otec-site-eastern-gulf-mexico-off-tampa-bay"><span>Analysis of six groups of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in samples taken in 1978/79 at the proposed OTEC site in the eastern Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Flock, M.E.; Hopkins, T.L.</p> <p>1981-05-01</p> <p>Continued analysis has been made of the 33 <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> collections made at the proposed OTEC site in the Gulf of Mexico off Tampa Bay. Six groups of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> - siphonophores (Calycophora), pteropods (Thecosomata), chaetognaths, thaliaceans, euphausiids and amphipods were quantitatively investigated. Numbers and biomass were determined for all taxa and diurnal, seasonal and depth trends were discussed. Considering the present study and the previous investigation of the copepod population, this proposed OTEC site is probably one of the faunistically better known locales in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1285324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1285324"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Stinis, Panos</p> <p>2016-08-07</p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">final</span> report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018WRR....54.2362R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018WRR....54.2362R"><span>A Functional Approach to <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> Communities in Mountain Lakes Stocked With Non-Native Sportfish Under a Changing Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Redmond, Laura E.; Loewen, Charlie J. G.; Vinebrooke, Rolf D.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Cumulative impacts of multiple stressors on freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem function likely increase with elevation, thereby possibly placing alpine communities at greatest risk. Here, consideration of species traits enables stressor effects on taxonomic composition to be translated into potential functional impacts. We analyzed data for 47 taxa across 137 mountain lakes and ponds spanning large latitudinal (491 km) and elevational (1,399 m) gradients in western Canada, to assess regional and local factors of the taxonomic composition and functional structure of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities. Multivariate community analyses revealed that small body size, clonal reproduction via parthenogenesis, and lack of pigmentation were species traits associated with both introduced non-native sportfish and also environmental conditions reflecting a warmer and drier climate—namely higher water temperatures, shallower water depths, and more chemically concentrated water. Thus, historical introductions of sportfish appear to have potentially induced greater tolerance in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> communities of future climatic warming, especially in previously fishless alpine lakes. Although alpine lake communities occupied a relatively small functional space (i.e., low functional diversity), they were contained within the broader regional functional structure. Therefore, our findings point to the importance of dispersal by lower montane species to the future functional stability of alpine communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1008603','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1008603"><span>Temperature effects on stocks and stability of a phytoplankton-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> model and the dependence on light and nutrients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Norberg, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A model of a closed phytoplankton—<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> ecosystem was analyzed for effects of temperature on stocks and stability and the dependence of these effects on light and total nutrient concentration of the system. An analysis of the steady state equations showed that the effect of temperature on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and POM biomass was levelled when primary production is nutrient limited. Temperature increase had a generally negative effect on all biomasses at high nutrient levels due to increased maintenance costs. Nutrient limitation of net primary production is the main factor governing the effect of stocks and flows as well as the stability of the system. All components of the system, except for phytoplankton biomass, are proportional to net production and thus to the net effect of light on photosynthesis. However, temperature determines the slope of that relationship. The resilience of the system was measured by calculating the eigenvalues of the steady state. Under oligotrophic conditions, the system can be stable, but an increase in temperature can cause instability or a decrease in resilience. This conclusion is discussed in the face of recent models that take spatial heterogeneity into account and display far more stable behavior, in better agreement to empirical data. Using simulations, we found that the amplitude of fluctuations of the herbivore stock increases with temperature while the mean biomass and minimum values decrease in comparison with steady state predictions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19657169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19657169"><span>Pilot study on control of phytoplankton by <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> coupling with filter-feeding fish in surface water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Hua; Cui, Fuyi; Liu, Zhiquan; Fan, Zhenqiang</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A pilot-scale facility was originally designed to control phytoplankton in algae-laden reservoir water characterized by summer cyanobacteria blooms (mainly Microcystis flos-aquae). The system made good use of the different food habits of Daphnia magna and silver carp. <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> (Daphnia magna), filter-feeding fish (silver carp), and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> (Daphnia magna) were stocked in three separated tanks in sequence, respectively. Thus, single-cell phytoplankton and some Microcystis flos-aquae in small size were first grazed by Daphnia magna in the first tank, and in the second tank phytoplankton larger than 10 microm were filtered by silver carp, and the concentration of the remaining phytoplankton was further reduced to a rather low level by Daphnia magna in the third tank. The results showed that the system had good removal efficiencies of phytoplankton and chlorophyll a, 86.85% and 59.41%, respectively, and permanganate consumption (COD(Mn)) and turbidity were lowered as well. A high phytoplankton removal efficiency and low cost indicated that the system had a good advantage in pre-treating algae-laden source water in drinking water works.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24360334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24360334"><span>Annual variation in neustonic micro- and meso-plastic particles and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Bay of Calvi (Mediterranean-Corsica).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collignon, Amandine; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Galgani, François; Collard, France; Goffart, Anne</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>The annual variation in neustonic plastic particles and <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> was studied in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica) between 30 August 2011 and 7 August 2012. Plastic particles were classified into three size classes, small microplastics (0.2-2mm), large microplastics (2-5mm) and mesoplastics (5-10mm). 74% of the 38 samples contained plastic particles of varying composition: e.g. filaments, polystyrene, thin plastic films. An average concentration of 6.2 particles/100 m(2) was observed. The highest abundance values (69 particles/100 m(2)) observed occurred during periods of low offshore wind conditions. These values rose in the same order of magnitude as in previous studies in the North Western Mediterranean. The relationships between the abundance values of the size classes between <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> and plastic particles were then examined. The ratio for the intermediate size class (2-5mm) reached 2.73. This would suggest a potential confusion for predators regarding planktonic prey of this size class. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PolSc..12...25M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PolSc..12...25M"><span>Meso-<span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance and spatial distribution off Lützow-Holm Bay during austral summer 2007-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makabe, Ryosuke; Tanimura, Atsushi; Tamura, Takeshi; Hirano, Daisuke; Shimada, Keishi; Hashihama, Fuminori; Fukuchi, Mitsuo</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>To elucidate spatial differences in mesozooplankton community structure in local scale, vertical hauls using a 60-μm mesh closing net were carried out off Lützow-Holm Bay in January 2008. All of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples collected from three layers (0-100, 100-200, and 200-500 m) at seven stations were dominated by Oithona spp., Oncaea spp., Ctenocalanus citer, Microcalanus pygmaeus, and copepod nauplii. The cluster analysis of mesozooplankton abundances showed three distinct groups according to sampling depth, which appeared to be due to the preferential vertical distribution of dominant copepods. The other cluster analysis on integrated abundance upper 500 m revealed that mesozooplankton community structures at stations located on the western and eastern edges of the observation area (Cluster A) differed from those at the central stations (Cluster B). Abundance of copepod nauplii, Oithona spp., and C. citer differed between Clusters A and B, which was likely caused by differences in recruitment and early development in the dominant copepods, being associated with the timing and duration of ice edge blooms. This suggests that such heterogeneity in abundance and recruitment/development of dominant taxa was likely caused by local heterogeneity in sea ice dynamics. This may affect our understanding of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991ECSS...32..597L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991ECSS...32..597L"><span>The effect of Kingston Harbour outflow on the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> populations of Hellshire, south-east coast, Jamaica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindo, Mona K.</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span> sampling was conducted at 16 stations located at the mouth of Kingston Harbour and throughout the Hellshire area from November 1985 to March 1987. Parameters examined included total biomass, total numbers and numbers of numerically important <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> species. Maximum values were recorded west of the Harbour mouth (station 1) and these gradually decreased with distance from the Harbour especially at the 'offshore' stations, producing a gradient effect in this area. Mean biomass and abundance for the period sampled ranged from 14 g m -3 and 16 313 individuals m -3 at the western side of the Harbour mouth to 0·4 g m -3 and 172 individuals m -3 at Wreck Reef. Stations within the bays of Hellshire occasionally had values similar to those recorded at the mouth of Kingston Harbour and here there was less evidence of a gradual decline. Considerable monthly fluctuation occurred in these parameters but there was no discernible seasonal pattern. Copepods dominated the population at most stations and the sergestid Lucifer faxoni also proved an important member at the western Harbour mouth station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29663076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29663076"><span>Amino acid composition reveals functional diversity of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in tropical lakes related to geography, taxonomy and productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aranguren-Riaño, Nelson J; Guisande, Cástor; Shurin, Jonathan B; Jones, Natalie T; Barreiro, Aldo; Duque, Santiago R</p> <p>2018-07-01</p> <p>Variation in resource use among species determines their potential for competition and co-existence, as well as their impact on ecosystem processes. Planktonic crustaceans consume a range of micro-organisms that vary among habitats and species, but these differences in resource consumption are difficult to characterize due to the small size of the organisms. Consumers acquire amino acids from their diet, and the composition of tissues reflects both the use of different resources and their assimilation in proteins. We examined the amino acid composition of common crustacean <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from 14 tropical lakes in Colombia in three regions (the Amazon floodplain, the eastern range of the Andes, and the Caribbean coast). Amino acid composition varied significantly among taxonomic groups and the three regions. Functional richness in amino acid space was greatest in the Amazon, the most productive region, and tended to be positively related to lake trophic status, suggesting the niche breadth of the community could increase with ecosystem productivity. Functional evenness increased with lake trophic status, indicating that species were more regularly distributed within community-wide niche space in more productive lakes. These results show that <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> resource use in tropical lakes varies with both habitat and taxonomy, and that lake productivity may affect community functional diversity and the distribution of species within niche space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17614513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17614513"><span>Density and sound speed of two gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>: ctenophore (Mnemiopsis leidyi) and lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warren, Joseph D; Smith, Joy N</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>The density and sound speed of two coastal, gelatinous <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span>, Mnemiopsis leidyi (a ctenophore) and Cyanea capillata (lion's mane jellyfish), were measured. These parameters are important inputs to acoustic scattering models. Two different methods were used to measure the density of individual animals: one used a balance and graduated cylinder to determine the mass and displacement volume of the animal, the other varied the density of the solution the animal was immersed in. When the same animal was measured using both methods, density values were within 1% of each other. A travel-time difference method was used to measure the sound speed within the animals. The densities of both <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> slightly decreased as the animals increased in length, mass, and volume. The ratio of animal density and sound speed to the surrounding seawater (g and h, respectively) are reported for both animals. For Mnemiopsis leidyi ranging in length from 1 to 5 cm, the mean value (+/-standard deviation) of g and h were 1.009 (+/-0.004) and 1.007 (+/-0.001). For Cyanea capillata ranging in bell diameter from 2 to 11 cm, the mean value (+/-standard deviation) of g and single value of h were 1.009 (+/-0.004) and 1.0004.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DSRI..131..121S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DSRI..131..121S"><span>Comparative larval growth and mortality of mesopelagic fishes and their predatory impact on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Kuroshio region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sassa, Chiyuki; Takahashi, Motomitsu</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Larvae of mesopelagic fishes usually dominate in oceanic larval fish assemblages, but detailed investigations of their ecology are limited and thus preclude full assessment of the ecosystem structure and dynamics in oceanic waters. Here, we examined the growth and mortality of six taxa of numerically dominant mesopelagic fish larvae and their predatory impact on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> in the Kuroshio region off southern Japan during late winter. The weight-specific growth coefficient (Gw) ranged from 0.077 (Sigmops gracilis) to 0.156 d-1 (Vinciguerria nimbaria), and the instantaneous daily mortality coefficient (M) from 0.067 (S. gracilis) to 0.143 d-1 (Myctophum asperum). The ratio Gw/M, an index of stage-specific survival of the larvae, was from 0.90 (Notoscopelus japonicus) to 1.24 (V. nimbaria), without a significant difference from a value of 1 in all species. Based on the reported relationship between Gw and ingestion rate of the larval fishes, the daily ration of each species was calculated to be 32-57% of body dry weight d-1. Mean and 95% confidence interval of food requirements of the six taxa of larvae was 1.41 ± 0.55 mg C m-2 d-1. Predatory impact of the mesopelagic fish larvae on the production rate of the available prey was estimated to be approximately 3.5-5.2%, implying that the larvae have a low level but consistent effect on <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> production in the oligotrophic Kuroshio region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134...77P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134...77P"><span>Changes in <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> habitat, behavior, and acoustic scattering characteristics across glider-resolved fronts in the Southern California Current System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Powell, Jesse R.; Ohman, Mark D.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We report cross-frontal changes in the characteristics of plankton proxy variables measured by autonomous Spray ocean gliders operating within the Southern California Current System (SCCS). A comparison of conditions across the 154 positive frontal gradients (i.e., where density of the surface layer decreased in the offshore direction) identified from six years of continuous measurements showed that waters on the denser side of the fronts typically showed higher Chl-a fluorescence, shallower euphotic zones, and higher acoustic backscatter than waters on the less dense side. Transitions between these regions were relatively abrupt. For positive fronts the amplitude of Diel Vertical Migration (DVM), inferred from a 3-beam 750 kHz acoustic Doppler profiler, increased offshore of fronts and covaried with optical transparency of the water column. Average interbeam variability in acoustic backscatter also changed across many positive fronts within 3 depth strata (0-150 m, 150-400 m, and 400-500 m), revealing a front-related change in the acoustic scattering characteristics of the assemblages. The extent of vertical stratification of distinct scattering assemblages was also more pronounced offshore of positive fronts. Depth-stratified <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> samples collected by Mocness nets corroborated the autonomous measurements, showing copepod-dominated assemblages and decreased <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> body sizes offshore and euphausiid-dominated assemblages with larger median body sizes inshore of major frontal features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9440325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9440325"><span>Sound scattering by several <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> groups. I. Experimental determination of dominant scattering mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanton, T K; Chu, D; Wiebe, P H; Martin, L V; Eastwood, R L</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The acoustic scattering properties of live individual <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> from several gross anatomical groups have been investigated. The groups involve (1) euphausiids (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) whose bodies behave acoustically as a fluid material, (2) gastropods (Limacina retroversa) whose bodies include a hard elastic shell, and (3) siphonophores (Agalma okeni or elegans and Nanomia cara) whose bodies contain a gas inclusion (pneumatophore). The animals were collected from ocean waters off New England (Slope Water, Georges Bank, and the Gulf of Maine). The scattering properties were measured over parts or all of the frequency range 50 kHz to 1 MHz in a laboratory-style pulse-echo setup in a large tank at sea using live fresh specimens. Individual echoes as well as averages and ping-to-ping fluctuations of repeated echoes were studied. The material type of each group is shown to strongly affect both the overall echo level and pattern of the target strength versus frequency plots. In this first article of a two-part series, the dominant scattering mechanisms of the three animal types are determined principally by examining the structure of both the frequency spectra of individual broadband echoes and the compressed pulse (time series) output. Other information is also used involving the effect on overall levels due to (1) animal orientation and (2) tissue in animals having a gas inclusion (siphonophores). The results of this first paper show that (1) the euphausiids behave as weakly scattering fluid bodies and there are major contributions from at least two parts of the body to the echo (the number of contributions depends upon angle of orientation and shape), (2) the gastropods produce echoes from the front interface and possibly from a slow-traveling circumferential (Lamb) wave, and (3) the gas inclusion of the siphonophore dominates the echoes, but the tissue plays a role in the scattering and is especially important when analyzing echoes from individual animals on a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7007S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7007S"><span>Methane anomalies in the oxygenated upper waters of the central Baltic Sea associated with <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> abundance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmale, Oliver; Wäge, Janine; Morholz, Volker; Rehder, Gregor; Wasmund, Norbert; Gräwe, Ulf; Labrenz, Matthias; Loick-Wilde, Natalie</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Apart from the sediment as the dominant source of methane in the aquatic realm the process of methane production in well-oxygenated waters has received considerable attention during the last years. The paradox of methane accumulation in these relatively shallow waters, commonly termed as "oceanic methane paradox", has been sporadically observed in lakes as well as in marine ecosystems like the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, Arctic waters or above the continental shelf off the coast of Spain and Africa. Even if this phenomenon has been described in the literature over the last decades, the potential sources of shallow methane accumulation are still controversially discussed. We report on methane enrichments that were observed during summer in the upper water column of the Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea. In the eastern part of the basin methane concentrations just below the thermocline (in about 30 m water depth) varied between 15 and 77 nM, in contrast to the western part of the basin where no methane enrichments could be detected. Stable carbon isotope ratios of methane (delta 13C-CH4 of -67.6‰) clearly indicated its in situ biogenic origin. This is supported by clonal sequences from the depth with high methane concentrations in the eastern Gotland Basin, which cluster with the clade Methanomicrobiacea, a family of methanogenic Archaea. Hydroacoustic observation in combination with plankton net tows displayed a seston enrichment (size >100 micro meter) in a layer between 30-50 m depth. The dominant species in the phytoplankton, Dinophysis norvegica, was concentrated at 10-20 m depth, and showed higher concentrations in the eastern Gotland Basin in comparison with the western part of the basin. In contrast to the western Gotland Basin, the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in the eastern part was dominated by the copepod species Temora longicornis. Laboratory incubations of a T. longicornis dominated seston fraction (>100 micro meter) sampled in the depth</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5562678','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5562678"><span>Prey Capture, Ingestion, and Digestion Dynamics of Octopus vulgaris Paralarvae Fed Live <span class="hlt">Zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nande, Manuel; Presa, Pablo; Roura, Álvaro; Andrews, Paul L. R.; Pérez, Montse</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Octopus vulgaris is a species of great interest in research areas such as neurobiology, ethology, and ecology but also a candidate species for aquaculture as a food resource and for alleviating the fishing pressure on its wild populations. This study aimed to characterize the predatory behavior of O. vulgaris paralarvae and to quantify their digestive activity. Those processes were affordable using the video-recording analysis of 3 days post-hatching (dph), mantle-transparent paralarvae feeding on 18 types of live <span class="hlt">zooplanktonic</span> prey. We show for the first time in a live cephalopod that octopus paralarvae attack, immobilize, drill, and ingest live cladocerans and copepods with 100% efficiency, which decreases dramatically to 60% on decapod prey (Pisidia longicornis). The majority (85%) of successful attacks targeted the prey cephalothorax while unsuccessful attacks either targeted the dorsal cephalothorax or involved prey defensive strategies (e.g., juvenile crab megalopae) or prey protected by thick carapaces (e.g., gammaridae amphipods). After immobilization, the beak, the buccal mass and the radula were involved in exoskeleton penetration and content ingestion. Ingestion time of prey content was rapid for copepods and cladocerans (73.13 ± 23.34 s) but much slower for decapod zoeae and euphausiids (152.49 ± 29.40 s). Total contact time with prey was always <5 min. Contrary to the conventional view of crop filling dynamics observed in adult O. vulgaris, food accumulated first in the stomach of paralarvae and the crop filled after the stomach volume plateaued. Peristaltic crop contractions (~18/min) moved food into the stomach (contractions ~30/min) from where it passed to the caecum. Pigmented food particles were seen to enter the digestive gland, 312 ± 32 s after the crop reached its maximum volume. Digestive tract contents passed into the terminal intestine by peristalsis (contraction frequency ~50/min) and defaecation was accompanied by an increased frequency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.5103M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.5103M"><span>Downward particle flux and carbon export in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean; the role of <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miquel, J.-C.; Gasser, B.; Martín, J.; Marec, C.; Babin, M.; Fortier, L.; Forest, A.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>As part of the international, multidisciplinary project Malina, downward particle fluxes were investigated by means of a drifting multi-sediment trap mooring deployed at three sites in the Canadian Beaufort Sea in late summer 2009. Mooring deployments lasted between 28 and 50 h and targeted the shelf-break and the slope along the Beaufort-Mackenzie continental margin, as well as the edge between the Mackenzie Shelf and the Amundsen Gulf. Besides analyses of C and N, the collected material was investigated for pigments, phyto- and microzooplankton, faecal pellets and swimmers. The measured fluxes were relatively low, in the range of 11-54 mg m-2 d-1 for the total mass, 1-15 mg C m-2 d-1 for organic carbon and 0.2-2.5 mg N m-2 d-1 for nitrogen. Comparison with a long-term trap data set from the same sampling area showed that the short-term measurements were at the lower end of the high variability characterizing a rather high flux regime during the study period. The sinking material consisted of aggregates and particles that were characterized by the presence of hetero- and autotrophic microzooplankters and diatoms and by the corresponding pigment signatures. Faecal pellets contribution to sinking carbon flux was important, especially at depths below 100 m, where they represented up to 25 % of the total carbon flux. The vertical distribution of different morphotypes of pellets showed a marked pattern with cylindrical faeces (produced by calanoid copepods) present mainly within the euphotic zone, whereas elliptical pellets (produced mainly by smaller copepods) were more abundant at mesopelagic depths. These features, together with the density of matter within the pellets, highlighted the role of the <span class="hlt">zooplankton</span> community in the transformation of carbon issued from the primary production and the transition of that carbon from the productive surface zone to the Arctic Ocean's interior. Our data indicate that sinking carbon flux in this late summer period is primarily</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1361207','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1361207"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Issen, Kathleen</p> <p>2017-06-05</p> <p>This project employed a continuum approach to formulate an elastic constitutive model for Castlegate sandstone. The resulting constitutive framework for high porosity sandstone is thermodynamically sound, (i.e., does not violate the 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics), represents known material constitutive <span class="hlt">response</span>, and is able to be calibrated using available mechanical <span class="hlt">response</span> data. To authenticate the accuracy of this model, a series of validation criteria were employed, using an existing mechanical <span class="hlt">response</span> data set for Castlegate sandstone. The resulting constitutive framework is applicable to high porosity sandstones in general, and is tractable for scientists and researchers endeavoring to solve problemsmore » of practical interest.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1342819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1342819"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo</p> <p></p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">final</span> report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental r