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Sample records for zorbax eclipse xdb-c8

  1. Glorious Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2000-12-01

    Stargazers who may have missed the last total solar eclipse of the 20th century this past summer have just been given another chance to observe this "once in a lifetime" occurrence. Inside Glorious Eclipses they will find startling images and rich personal accounts that fully capture this event and other recent eclipses. The book will also insure that readers will not miss another eclipse in the next 60 years! Specially designed in a beautiful, large format, the volume portrays eclipses of all kinds--lunar, solar, and those occurring elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond. Brunier and Luminet have gathered together all aspects of eclipses, and carefully selected a host of lavish images. The authors detail the history of eclipses, the celestial mechanics involved, their observation, and scientific interest. Personal accounts of recent eclipses are also included as well as all relevant information about forthcoming eclipses up to 2060. Complete with NASA maps and data, Glorious Eclipses is the ultimate source for all those interested in these remarkable (and rare) celestial events. Serge Brunier is chief editor of the journal Ciel et Espace, a photo-journalist, and the author of many nonfiction books aimed at both specialists and the general public. Jean-Pierre Luminet is an astrophysicist at the Paris-Meudon Observatory and director of research at the Centre pour la Recherche Scientifique. He is the author of many popular astronomy books, including Black Holes (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

  2. Lunar Eclipse

    2003-11-09

    In this lunar eclipse viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., the full moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere. This light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through - when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse.

  3. Solar Eclipse

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... View Larger Image Within that narrow window during a solar eclipse where an observer on Earth can watch the Moon's shadow obscure ... of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 20920. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 2909 kilometers and use data ...

  4. Solar Eclipse

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... June 10, 2002 the Moon obscured the central portion of the solar disk in a phenomenon known as an annular solar eclipse. Partial phases of ... to obscure about 75 percent of the solar disk. The two scenes are geolocated to adjacent paths within World Reference System-2. ...

  5. Total Eclipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Dennis; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This summer, on August 21, 500 million people across North America will experience one of the most beautiful astronomical phenomena: an eclipse of the Sun. It will be a "must teach" moment, when all students will want to know the "what, when, and why" of the event. In addition, many high school science teachers are likely to be…

  6. Solar eclipses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, W.

    The occasion of a total eclipse impacts the human observer with a bewildering rapid sequence of phenomena: mid-day cooling, failing light without accustomed color change, shadow-bands transiting the ground, cessation of bird sounds, possible frantic beating of jungle drums, Baily's beads, appearance of flame-like prominences, and most fantastic of all the solar corona. The author considers that although the corona is known to be 2 - 20(106)K, there is a lack of consensus on the heating mechanism, except the energy must be non-thermal and derived from surface and sub-surface convective motions. Theoreticians invoke the Joule dissipation of magnetic fields by Alfvén waves, electric currents in loop structures, or MHD turbulence. Although eclipse experiments to discriminate between these ideas generally fail, the sighting of 'plasmoids' was reported from the CFHT on Mauna Kea at the 1991 eclipse. Future experiments include: IR mapping of the coronal spectrum, spectroscopic velocity measurements, and the continued search for waves, nanoflares, and plasmoids.

  7. Development and validation of a simple high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method for simultaneous determination of phytosterols, cholesterol and squalene in parenteral lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Novak, Ana; Gutiérrez-Zamora, Mercè; Domenech, Lluís; Suñé-Negre, Josep M; Miñarro, Montserrat; García-Montoya, Encarna; Llop, Josep M; Ticó, Josep R; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar

    2018-02-01

    A simple analytical method for simultaneous determination of phytosterols, cholesterol and squalene in lipid emulsions was developed owing to increased interest in their clinical effects. Method development was based on commonly used stationary (C 18 , C 8 and phenyl) and mobile phases (mixtures of acetonitrile, methanol and water) under isocratic conditions. Differences in stationary phases resulted in peak overlapping or coelution of different peaks. The best separation of all analyzed compounds was achieved on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C 8 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm; Agilent) and ACN-H 2 O-MeOH, 80:19.5:0.5 (v/v/v). In order to achieve a shorter time of analysis, the method was further optimized and gradient separation was established. The optimized analytical method was validated and tested for routine use in lipid emulsion analyses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Massive eclipsing binary candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, R. F.; Schild, R. E.; Hiltner, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    New UBV data are provided for 63 southern OB stars which are either identified in the survey by Garrison, Hiltner, and Schild as having double lines or are known from Wood et al. to be eclipsing binaries. Twenty of the stars are known eclipsing variables. Four stars, not previously known as eclipsing, have both spectroscopic evidence of duplicity and significant photometric variations. Several additional stars have a marginally significant spread in V magnitude.

  9. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    NASA employees and contractors use protective glasses to view a partial solar eclipse from NASA Headquarters Monday, Aug. 21, 2017 in Washington. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Gwen Pitman)

  10. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-22

    NASA employees and contractors use protective glasses to view a partial solar eclipse from NASA Headquarters Tuesday, Aug. 22, 2017 in Washington. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Gwen Pitman)

  11. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    The Moon is seen passing in front of the Sun at the point of the maximum of the partial solar eclipse near Banner, Wyoming on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  12. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    Robert Lightfoot, acting NASA administrator and Thomas Zurbuchen NASA AA for the science mission directorate view a partial eclipse solar eclipse Monday, August 21, 2017, from onboard a NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center’s Gulfstream III 35,000 feet above the Oregon Coast. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  13. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    This composite image of nine pictures shows the progression of a partial solar eclipse near Banner, Wyoming on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  14. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    The Moon is seen passing in front of the Sun during a solar eclipse from Ross Lake, Northern Cascades National Park, Washington on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    The Sun is seen as it rises behind Jack Mountain head of the solar eclipse, Monday, Aug. 21, 2017, Ross Lake, Northern Cascades National Park, Washington. A total solar eclipse will sweep across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    The Moon is seen as it starts passing in front of the Sun during a solar eclipse from Ross Lake, Northern Cascades National Park, Washington on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    This composite image shows the progression of a partial solar eclipse over Ross Lake, in Northern Cascades National Park, Washington on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. 2017 Solar Eclipse Event

    2017-06-11

    Former Spacelab 1 Mission scientist Rick Chappell views the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse with his wife. Chappell, a former associate director for science at Marshall and now a physics professor at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, joined a throng of Marshall personnel to marvel at the eclipse.

  19. 2017 Solar Eclipse Event

    2017-06-11

    Former Spacelab 1 mission scientist Rick Chappell addresses Marshall team members during the Aug. 21 eclipse-watching event in Activities Building 4316. Chappell, a former associate director for science at Marshall and now a physics professor at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, joined a throng of Marshall personnel to marvel at the eclipse.

  20. 2017 Solar Eclipse Event

    2017-06-11

    Marshall Space Flight Center employees view the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse at the center’s activities building. The Huntsville area experienced 97 percent occultation, nearly a complete blocking out of the sun by the orbit of Earth's moon. The next opportunity to view a solar eclipse in the eastern and central United States will occur in April 2024.

  1. 2017 Solar Eclipse Event

    2017-06-11

    Marshall Space Flight Center employee, Phillip Domen, safely views the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse with his homemade viewing box. The Huntsville area experienced 97 percent occultation, nearly a complete blocking out of the sun by the orbit of Earth's moon. The next opportunity to view a solar eclipse in the eastern and central United States will occur in April 2024.

  2. Eclipses and Eye Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017) will occur on August 21 in the continental United States, bringing totality to this area for the first time since 1979. The Moon's umbra will traverse from Oregon to South Carolina in about 90 minutes, bringing an eerie darkness to 14 states coast-to-coast and a partial eclipse to every part of the country…

  3. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    A total solar eclipse is seen on Monday, August 21, 2017 from onboard a NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center’s Gulfstream III 25,000 feet above the Oregon coast. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  4. Preparing for the Eclipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Anna; Plummer, Julia; Gurton, Suzanne; Schatz, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    On August 21, 2017, sky gazers all across North America will experience a total solar eclipse, arguably the most breathtaking of all astronomical phenomena. The August eclipse is an ideal astronomical event to observe with young children because it allows them to observe a powerful and easily accessible astronomical phenomenon. Observing…

  5. Addressing Students' Misconceptions about Eclipses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Timothy F.; Gelderman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The upcoming Aug. 21, 2017, total solar eclipse, with its 70-mile wide path of totality stretching across much of North America, provides us with a unique opportunity to teach students about eclipses. One might naturally assume that students have little difficulty understanding the nature of eclipses. After all, the notion that eclipses occur when…

  6. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  7. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    The Moon is seen passing in front of the Sun during a total solar eclipse on Monday, August 21, 2017 from onboard a NASA Gulfstream III aircraft flying 25,000 feet above the Oregon coast. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  8. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    This composite image of seven pictures shows the progression of a partial solar eclipse near from Ross Lake, Northern Cascades National Park, Washington on Monday, Aug. 21, 2017. The second to the last frame shows the International Space Station, with a crew of six onboard, in silhouette as it transits the Sun at roughly five miles per second. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. 2017 Solar Eclipse Event

    2017-06-11

    Krisdon Manecke and Danielle Burleson of the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) view the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse at the Marshall Space Flight Center’s viewing opportunity at the activities building. The Huntsville area experienced 97 percent occultation, nearly a complete blocking out of the sun by the orbit of Earth's moon. The next opportunity to view a solar eclipse in the eastern and central United States will occur in April 2024.

  10. 2017 Solar Eclipse Event

    2017-06-11

    Judy Darwin of the Marshall Space Flight Center’s Office of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) views the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse through the telescope set up for Marshall employees. The Huntsville area experienced 97 percent occultation, nearly a complete blocking out of the sun by the orbit of Earth's moon. The next opportunity to view a solar eclipse in the eastern and central United States will occur in April 2024.

  11. Solar Eclipse 2017

    2017-08-21

    From the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests joined Americans from coast to coast following the solar eclipse. Although a partial eclipse on Florida's Space Coast, young and old alike found many ways to watch the rare astronomical event. As the Moon passed between Earth and the midafternoon Sun, a shadow moved across the landscape. The 70-mile-wide totality path, or "umbral cone" -- where the entire Sun will vanish behind the Moon -- stretched across 14 states, from Oregon to South Carolina.

  12. Eclipses and the Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2000-12-01

    Like returns of Halley's comet the Olympic games occur periodically, though not as regularly in antiquity. Dates were also imprecise due to the chaotic calendars in use. Reported sightings of comets and eclipses can be used with game dates to help fix ancient events. However some reported darkening of the sun, e.g., after Julius Caesar's murder in 44 BC, was due to volcanic eruptions. A red comet, visible in daylight, first appeared during the games that year. It was also seen from China and Korea (Pang, Sciences 31, 30). Phlegon's ``Olympiads" (2nd century) says that Christ's crucifixion was in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 29-33), when a total solar eclipse occurred in the 6th hour. Only the Nov. 24, AD 29 eclipse over Asia Minor can match that, and Joel's prophecy (Acts 2, 14-21) that ``the sun will be turned to darkness and moon to blood." However it conflicts with ``the first day of Passover," as recorded by Mathew, Mark and Luke, i.e., full moon in early spring. Humphreys and Waddington (Nature 306, 743) have suggested meteorological darkening and the April 3, AD 33 lunar eclipse instead. Schaefer has questioned the eclipse's visibility from Jerusalem (31.46N, 35.14E). The six computations he cited gave dissimilar answers due to the imprecise rates of the secular lunar acceleration, and lengthening of the day used (Q.Jl.R.astr.Soc. 31, 53). Lunar laser ranging has since fixed the former at -26"/cen2. Analysis of ancient Chinese solar eclipse records, e.g., the April 21, 899 BC and April 4, AD 368 ``double dawns" over Zheng, has given us a delta T (in sec) = 30t2, where t is centuries before 1800 (Pang, Yau and Chou, in ``Dynamics of Ice Age Earth: A Modern Perspective," 1998). Our computations show that the moon rose over Jerusalem, with 1/3 still in the umbra and the rest in penumbra. Holdover meteorological darkening with long absorption air mass could have help reddened the moon also. Finally the first ``eclipse season" (the Aug. 21 lunar, and

  13. Spectral Eclipse Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Agol, Eric; Deming, Drake

    2015-12-01

    We utilize multi-dimensional simulations of varying equatorial jet strength to predict wavelength-dependent variations in the eclipse times of gas-giant planets. A displaced hot spot introduces an asymmetry in the secondary eclipse light curve that manifests itself as a measured offset in the timing of the center of eclipse. A multi-wavelength observation of secondary eclipse, one probing the timing of barycentric eclipse at short wavelengths and another probing at longer wavelengths, will reveal the longitudinal displacement of the hot spot and break the degeneracy between this effect and that associated with the asymmetry due to an eccentric orbit. The effect of time offsets was first explored in the IRAC wavebands by Williams et al. Here we improve upon their methodology, extend to a broad range of wavelengths, and demonstrate our technique on a series of multi-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of HD 209458b with varying equatorial jet strength and hot-spot displacement. Simulations with the largest hot-spot displacement result in timing offsets of up to 100 s in the infrared. Though we utilize a particular radiative hydrodynamical model to demonstrate this effect, the technique is model independent. This technique should allow a much larger survey of hot-spot displacements with the James Webb Space Telescope than currently accessible with time-intensive phase curves, hopefully shedding light on the physical mechanisms associated with thermal energy advection in irradiated gas giants.

  14. Envelopes in eclipsing binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical research on eclipsing binaries is presented. The specific areas of investigation are the following: (1) the relevance of envelopes to the study of the light curves of eclipsing binaries, (2) the disk envelope, and (3) the spherical envelope.

  15. Raspberry Pi Eclipse Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda

    2018-01-01

    The 21 August 2017 solar eclipse was an excellent opportunity for electronics and science enthusiasts to collect data during a fascinating phenomenon. With my recent personal interest in Raspberry Pis, I thought measuring how much the temperature and illuminance changes during a total solar eclipse would be fun and informational.Previous observations of total solar eclipses have remarked on the temperature drop during totality. Illuminance (ambient light) varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night and is highly dependent on relative positions of Sun, Earth, and Moon. I wondered whether totality was really as dark as night.Using a Raspberry Pi Zero W, a Pimoroni Enviro pHAT, and a portable USB charger, I collected environmental temperature; CPU temperature (because the environmental temperature sensor sat very near the CPU on the Raspberry Pi); barometric pressure; ambient light; R, G, and B colors; and x, y, and z acceleration (for marking times when I moved the sensor) data at a ~15 second cadence starting at about 5 am until 1:30 pm from my eclipse observation site in Glendo, WY. Totality occurred from 11:45 to 11:47 am, lasting about 2 minutes and 30 seconds.The Raspberry Pi recorded a >20 degree F drop in temperature during the eclipse, and the illuminance during totality was equivalent to twilight measurements earlier in the day. A limitation in the ambient light sensor prevented accurate measurements of broad daylight and most of the partial phase of the eclipse, but an alternate ambient light sensor combined with the Raspberry Pi setup would make this a cost-efficient set-up for illuminance studies.I will present data from the ambient light sensor, temperature sensor, and color sensor, noting caveats from my experiments, lessons learned for next time, and suggestions for anyone who wants to perform similar experiments for themselves or with a classroom.

  16. 2017 Solar Eclipse Event

    2017-06-11

    Robert Wilson of the Solar/Solar terrestrial Studies team at the National Space Science and Technology Center, a joint research and collaborative think tank partnership of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and the Marshall Space Flight Center, adjusts his telescope which is set up as a viewing opportunity for MSFC employees prior to the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse event. The Huntsville area experienced 97 percent occultation, nearly a complete blocking out of the sun by the orbit of Earth's moon. The next opportunity to view a solar eclipse in the eastern and central United States will occur in April 2024.

  17. 2017 Solar Eclipse Event

    2017-06-11

    Sylvester Dorsey III, avionics lead for the Europa Deorbit Stage Team in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, is joined during Marshall's eclipse-viewing event by his three children, from left, Sylvester IV, Sidney and Sakari. Though Huntsville was south of the path of totality, the Dorseys were among those awestruck by the natural phenomenon. The Huntsville area experienced 97 percent occultation, nearly a complete blocking out of the sun by the orbit of Earth's moon. The next opportunity to view a solar eclipse in the eastern and central United States will occur in April 2024.

  18. Solar Eclipse 2017

    2017-08-21

    From the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests joined Americans from coast to coast following the solar eclipse. Speaking at the event was astronaut John-David Bartoe. Although a partial eclipse on Florida's Space Coast, young and old alike found many ways to watch the rare astronomical event. As the Moon passed between Earth and the midafternoon Sun, a shadow moved across the landscape. The 70-mile-wide totality path, or "umbral cone" -- where the entire Sun will vanish behind the Moon -- stretched across 14 states, from Oregon to South Carolina.

  19. Solar Eclipse 2017

    2017-08-21

    From the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests joined Americans from coast to coast following the solar eclipse. Guest speakers were, astronaut John-David Bartoe, left, and communicator Jeff Lucas. Although a partial eclipse on Florida's Space Coast, young and old alike found many ways to watch the rare astronomical event. As the Moon passed between Earth and the midafternoon Sun, a shadow moved across the landscape. The 70-mile-wide totality path, or "umbral cone" -- where the entire Sun will vanish behind the Moon -- stretched across 14 states, from Oregon to South Carolina.

  20. Earth Eclipses the Sun

    2017-02-21

    Several times a day for a few days the Earth completely blocked the Sun for about an hour due to NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory's orbital path (Feb. 15, 2017). The edge of the Earth is not crisp, but kind of fuzzy due to Earth's atmosphere. This frame from a video shows the ending of one such eclipse over -- just seven minutes. The sun is shown in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. These eclipses re-occur about every six months. The Moon blocks SDO's view of the sun on occasion as well. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21461

  1. Modeling the Eclipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburgh, William R.; Tretter, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a unit in which students investigate total solar eclipses, such as the one coming August 21, from several perspectives. It incorporates mathematical thinking and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standard." This article refers to physical, virtual, and mathematical modeling. Various models and perspectives…

  2. Teaching Science: Eclipse Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for a three-dimensional model as an aid for teaching students why eclipses do not occur every two weeks, as falsely indicated by two-dimensional models such as books, chalkboards, and computer screens. Describes procedure to construct the model. Indicates question related to seasons likely to arise from such a model and…

  3. Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Powell, Mark W.; Bachmann, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout (PEPC) is a program written to leverage parallelism and to automate the checkout process of plug-ins created in Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform). Eclipse plug-ins can be aggregated in a feature project. This innovation digests a feature description (xml file) and automatically checks out all of the plug-ins listed in the feature. This resolves the issue of manually checking out each plug-in required to work on the project. To minimize the amount of time necessary to checkout the plug-ins, this program makes the plug-in checkouts parallel. After parsing the feature, a request to checkout for each plug-in in the feature has been inserted. These requests are handled by a thread pool with a configurable number of threads. By checking out the plug-ins in parallel, the checkout process is streamlined before getting started on the project. For instance, projects that took 30 minutes to checkout now take less than 5 minutes. The effect is especially clear on a Mac, which has a network monitor displaying the bandwidth use. When running the client from a developer s home, the checkout process now saturates the bandwidth in order to get all the plug-ins checked out as fast as possible. For comparison, a checkout process that ranged from 8-200 Kbps from a developer s home is now able to saturate a pipe of 1.3 Mbps, resulting in significantly faster checkouts. Eclipse IDE (integrated development environment) tries to build a project as soon as it is downloaded. As part of another optimization, this innovation programmatically tells Eclipse to stop building while checkouts are happening, which dramatically reduces lock contention and enables plug-ins to continue downloading until all of them finish. Furthermore, the software re-enables automatic building, and forces Eclipse to do a clean build once it finishes checking out all of the plug-ins. This software is fully generic and does not contain any NASA-specific code. It can be applied to any

  4. Eclipse of epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-07-01

    The bright, long-period, eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae is predicted to begin its next eclipse late July or early August of 2009. Epsilon Aurigae is now past solar conjunction and has reappeared as a morning object. All observers -- both visual and instrumental -- are encouraged to contribute observations of the eclipse during the next two years, beginning immediately for morning observers. Observations are urgently requested right now because it is less likely to be observed in the morning, and the eclipse will begin within the next month. The AAVSO is participating in a global campaign to record this eclipse as part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 celebrations, organized by the Citizen Sky project (http://www.citizensky.org). For experienced visual observers, please observe this star on a weekly basis, using charts available via VSP from the AAVSO website. For novice visual observers, we recommend participating in this observing program by following the Citizen Sky 10-Star tutorial program, which provides a simple training experience in variable star observing. Photoelectric observers belonging to the AAVSO PEP-V program may submit data as usual via the WebObs feature of the AAVSO website Blue&Gold section. Photoelectric observers may also contribute reduced observations in all filters (including infrared J- and H-bands) directly to the AAVSO via WebObs. Observers using wide-field CCD and DSLR systems are also encouraged to participate; avoid saturating the star. For those with narrower-field systems (D < 2 degrees), we recommend taking a large number (10-100) of very short exposures and then stacking the resulting images. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. Aaron Price is coordinating Citizen Sky for the AAVSO, and Dr. Robert Stencel and Jeffrey Hopkins are co-leading the precision photometry efforts.

  5. March 2015 Solar Eclipse

    2017-12-08

    Within the penumbra, the eclipse is partial (left), but within the umbra, the Moon completely covers the Sun (right). NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. 2017 Solar Eclipse Event

    2017-06-11

    Brad Addona views the beginning of the August 21, 2017 at a viewing event for Marshall Space Flight Center’s activities building for Marshall employees. The Huntsville area experienced 97 percent occultation, nearly a complete blocking out of the sun by the orbit of Earth's moon. The next opportunity to view a solar eclipse in the eastern and central United States will occur in April 2024.

  7. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    2017-08-21

    The diamond-ring effect occurred at the beginning and end of totality during a total solar eclipse. As the last bits of sunlight pass through the valleys on the moon's limb, and the faint corona around the sun is just becoming visible, it looks like a ring with glittering diamonds on it. Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  8. Eclipses across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    On Monday, August 21, 2017 there will be a Total Solar Eclipse. This will be the first time the Moon's umbra has touched the continental United States since 1979 and the first totality to span the country coast-to-coast since 1918. From within parts of Oregon and through 14 states to South Carolina, the Moon will completely hide the Sun for a few…

  9. Solar Eclipse 2017

    2017-08-21

    A partial eclipse on Florida's Space Coast, the rare astronomical event was photographed from the top of the Vehicle Assembly Building, as the Moon passed between Earth and the midafternoon Sun. The Moon's shadow moved across the landscape from Oregon to South Carolina. The 70-mile-wide totality path, or "umbral cone" -- where the entire Sun will vanish behind the Moon -- stretched across 14 states, from Oregon to South Carolina.

  10. The magnificent African eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, H. W.; James, N. D.

    2001-08-01

    The first total solar eclipse of the new millennium swept across central Africa on 2001 June 21, darkening the sky in a track which took in Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Madagascar. Thousands of visitors from Europe, many of whom were disappointed at home in 1999, converged on the continent to view the event and were rewarded with a magnificent solar-maximum corona, seen for the most part in perfectly clear, dry transparent skies.

  11. Fall 2011 Eclipse Season Begins

    2017-12-08

    The Fall 2011 eclipse season started on September 11. Here is an AIA 171 image from 0657 UT with the first eclipse! SDO has eclipse seasons twice a year near each equinox. For three weeks near midnight Las Cruces time (about 0700 UT) our orbit has the Earth pass between SDO and the Sun. These eclipses can last up to 72 minutes in the middle of an eclipse season. The current eclipse season started on September 11 and lasts until October 4. To read more about SDO go to: sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Credit: NASA/GSFC/SDO NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. Solar Eclipse from NASA Goddard

    2017-08-21

    View of the partial solar eclipse from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md on Monday, August 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Rebecca Roth

  13. Solar Eclipses Observed from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of the solar corona are still best observed during totality of solar eclipses, and other high-resolution observations of coronal active regions can be observed with radio telescopes by differentiation of occultation observations, as we did with the Jansky Very Large Array for the annular solar eclipse of 2012 May 20 in the US. Totality crossing Antarctica included the eclipse of 2003 November 23, and will next occur on 2021 December 4; annularity crossing Antarctica included the eclipse of 2008 February 7, and will next occur on 2014 April 29. Partial phases as high as 87% coverage were visible and were imaged in Antarctica on 2011 November 25, and in addition to partial phases of the total and annular eclipses listed above, partial phases were visible in Antarctica on 2001 July 2011, 2002 December 4, 2004 April 19, 2006 September 22, 2007 September 11, and 2009 January 26, and will be visible on 2015 September 13, 2016 September 1, 2017 February 26, 2018 February 15, and 2020 December 14. On behalf of the Working Group on Solar Eclipses of the IAU, the poster showed the solar eclipses visible from Antarctica and this article shows a subset (see www.eclipses.info for the full set). A variety of investigations of the Sun and of the response of the terrestrial atmosphere and ionosphere to the abrupt solar cutoff can be carried out at the future eclipses, making the Antarctic observations scientifically useful.

  14. Eclipsing the Light...Fantastic! Teaching Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Features the concepts of optics and geometry of eclipses. Presents the "eclipse rule," suggesting classroom activities in which students derive this rule. Includes some triangles activities for outdoors that illustrate eclipsing and sighting phenomena. (ET)

  15. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, J.

    2008-01-01

    While most NASA eclipse bulletins cover a single eclipse, this publication presents predictions for two solar eclipses during 2010. This has required a different organization of the material into the following sections. Section 1 -- Eclipse Predictions: The section consists of a general discussion about the eclipse path maps, Besselian elements, shadow contacts, eclipse path tables, local circumstances tables, and the lunar limb profile. Section 2 -- Annular Solar Eclipse of 2010 Ja n 15: The section covers predictions and weather prospects for the annular eclipse. Section 3 -- Total Solar Eclipse of 2010 Jul 11: The se ction covers predictions and weather prospects for the total eclipse. Section 4 -- Observing Eclipses: The section provides information on eye safety, solar filters, eclipse photography, and making contact timings from the path limits. Section 5 -- Eclipse Resources: The final section contains a number of resources including information on the IAU Working Group on Eclipses, the Solar Eclipse Mailing List, the NASA eclipse bulletins on the Internet, Web sites for the two 2010 eclipses, and a summary identifying the algorithms, ephemerides, and paramete rs used in the eclipse predictions.

  16. ... and more eclipses!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    To prepare students for the big day, the Association for Science Education has produced activity packs aimed at primary and secondary levels, including photocopiable pages accompanied by detailed notes for teachers. Safe viewing, recording and reporting, modelling and explaining, understanding solar physics, as well as using IT and the Internet are all covered, to enable both teachers and students to make the most of the 1999 eclipse experience. ASE Booksales at College Lane, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AA (tel: 01707 283000, free fax: 0800 371856) should be contacted for further details. Also available early in 1999 will be three Investigation packs to stimulate a scientific approach to the 1999 event. The School of Science and Mathematics at Sheffield Hallam University has worked in collaboration with UK scientists active in the field to develop the materials, and there will be opportunities for users to work together across the UK and not just in the zone of totality. Thus a pool of results can be built up nationwide of what is happening on the day. One pack is aimed at primary children, the second at secondary students and the third at the general public, including families with young children. Further information can be obtained from Sheffield Hallam University (tel: 0114 225 4881). And finally...! The magic of solar eclipses can be observed from the comfort of your own armchair thanks to some of the stunning visual images available from UCLimages. A 1999 calendar with 12 photographs taken by Dr Francisco Diego, five posters (size 60 cm by 42 cm) and a widescreen video can all be ordered from `Solar eclipse', UCLimages, 48 Riding House Street, London W1P 7PL (tel: 0171 504 9375, fax: 0171 436 1738, e-mail: images@ucl.ac.uk).

  17. Io in Eclipse, Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Glowing spots of hot lava and ethereal auroral emissions are highlighted against blackness in this sequence of 48 frames from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, which show Jupiter's moon Io in the darkness of the giant planet's shadow.

    The sequence was recorded over a two-hour interval that spanned nearly an entire eclipse on Jan. 1, 2001. Although no sunlight shines on the moon during an eclipse, two types of glows can be seen. The bright points of light are the glows of hot lava from active volcanoes. The brightest is the volcano Pele, which appears to be erupting steadily despite its great intensity. To the right of Pele and slightly above it is a pair of bright spots associated with the volcano Pillan, the source of a major eruption in 1997. NASA's Galileo spacecraft and Hubble Space Telescope saw that 1997 eruption of Pillan dwarf the energy output from neighboring Pele, but Pillan's eruption has waned over the past 30 months to the pair of small hot spots seen here. Another volcano, seen below and to the right of Pele, varies on a time scale of days. This sequence of images illustrates the great variations in intensity and longevity of Io's volcanic eruptions.

    The second type of glow seen on Io during eclipse is a set of faint, diffuse emissions due to atmospheric auroras. Similar to the aurora borealis and aurora australis on Earth, Io's auroras are caused by the collisions of charged particles with gases in Io's tenuous atmosphere. A faint ring encircles the moon, while brighter glows are concentrated near the moon's equator. These equatorial glows are seen here gradually shifting clockwise in location as the eclipse progresses, due to the changing orientation of Jupiter's magnetic field. This is a new result which confirms that these visible auroras, like their counterparts seen at ultraviolet wavelengths, are caused by electrical currents that flow between Io and Jupiter.

    The original images were taken through a clear filter of Cassini's narrow

  18. Io Eclipse Montage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    New Horizons took this montage of images of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io, glowing in the dark of Jupiter's shadow, as the Pluto-bound spacecraft sped through the Jupiter system on Feb. 27, 2007.

    (A): In this picture from the Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), dark blotches and straight lines are artifacts. The brightest spots (including the volcanoes Pele [P] and East Girru [EG]) are incandescent lava from active volcanoes. The more diffuse glows, and the many faint spots, are from gas in the plumes and atmosphere, glowing due to bombardment by plasma in Jupiter's magnetosphere, in a display similar to the Earth's aurorae. (B): The same image with a latitude/longitude grid, showing that the cluster of faint spots is centered near longitude 0 degrees, the point on Io that faces Jupiter. The image also shows the locations of the plumes seen in sunlit images (indicated by red diamonds), which glow with auroral emission in eclipse. (C): Simulated sunlit view of Io with the same geometry, based on sunlit LORRI images. (D): A combination of the sunlit image (in cyan) and the eclipse image (in red), showing that all point-like glows in the eclipse image arise from dark volcanoes in the eclipse image. (E): This infrared image, at a wavelength of 2.3 microns, obtained by New Horizons Linear Etalon Spectral Imaging Array (LEISA) an hour after the LORRI image, showing thermal emission from active volcanoes. Elongation of the hot spots is an artifact. (F): Combined visible albedo (cyan) and LEISA thermal emission (red) image, showing the sources of the volcanic emission. That most of the faint point-like glows near longitude zero, seen in visible light in images A, B, and D, do not appear in the infrared view of volcanic heat radiation, is one reason scientists believe that these glows are due to auroral emission, not heat radiation.

    This image appears in the Oct. 12, 2007, issue of Science magazine, in a paper by John Spencer, et al.

  19. Fall 2011 Eclipse Season Begins

    2011-09-13

    The Fall 2011 eclipse season started on September 11, 2011. Here is an AIA 304 image from 0658 UT. SDO has eclipse seasons twice a year near each equinox. For three weeks near midnight Las Cruces time (about 0700 UT) our orbit has the Earth pass between SDO and the Sun. These eclipses can last up to 72 minutes in the middle of an eclipse season. The current eclipse season started on September 11 and lasts until October 4. To read more about SDO go to: sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Credit: NASA/GSFC/SDO NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  1. solar eclipse 2016

    2017-12-08

    NASA TV video from yesterday's total solar eclipse, when the moon pass directly in front of the sun. It happened from 8:38 to 8:42 p.m. EST March 8. As the moon passed precisely between the sun and Earth – a relatively rare occurrence that happens only about once a year because of the fact that the moon and the sun do not orbit in the exact same plane – it blocked the sun’s bright face, revealing the tenuous and comparatively faint solar atmosphere, the corona. The total eclipse was only visible in parts of Southeast Asia Learn more about this event: youtu.be/MQjPFwcjh9c ‪ NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram ‬

  2. Earth Eclipses the Sun

    2017-12-08

    Twice a year, NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, has an eclipse season — a weeks-long period in which Earth blocks SDO’s view of the sun for part of each day. This footage captured by SDO on Feb. 15, 2017, shows one such eclipse. Earth’s edge appears fuzzy, rather than crisp, because the sun’s light is able to shine through Earth’s atmosphere in some places. These images were captured in wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light, which is typically invisible to our eyes, but is colorized here in gold. Credit: NASA/Goddard/SDO NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Simultaneous determination of five free and total flavonoids in rat plasma by ultra HPLC-MS/MS and its application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofan; Zhao, Xu; Gu, Liqiang; Lv, Chunxiao; He, Bosai; Liu, Zhenzhen; Hou, Pengyi; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (uHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five free flavonoids (amentoflavone, isorhamnetin, naringenin, kaempferol and quercetin) and their total (free and conjugated) forms, and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients in normal and hyperlipidemic rats. The free and total forms of these flavonoids were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The conjugated flavonoids were deconjugated by the enzyme β-Glucuronidase and Sulfatase. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C8 USP L7 column using gradient elution. Detection was performed on a 4000Q uHPLC-MS/MS system from AB Sciex using negative ion mode in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The lower limits of quantification were 2.0-5.0ng/mL for all the analytes. Intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 15% and accuracy ranged from -9.3% to 11.0%, and the mean extraction recoveries of analytes and internal standard (IS) from rat plasma were all more than 81.7%. The validated method was successfully applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of five free and total analytes in rat plasma. The results indicated that the absorption of five total flavonoids in hyperlipidemia group were significantly higher than those in normal group with similar concentration-time curves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Authentication and Quantitation of Fraud in Extra Virgin Olive Oils Based on HPLC-UV Fingerprinting and Multivariate Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Carranco, Núria; Farrés-Cebrián, Mireia; Saurina, Javier

    2018-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography method with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprinting was applied for the analysis and characterization of olive oils, and was performed using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 reversed-phase column under gradient elution, employing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile phase. More than 130 edible oils, including monovarietal extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) and other vegetable oils, were analyzed. Principal component analysis results showed a noticeable discrimination between olive oils and other vegetable oils using raw HPLC-UV chromatographic profiles as data descriptors. However, selected HPLC-UV chromatographic time-window segments were necessary to achieve discrimination among monovarietal EVOOs. Partial least square (PLS) regression was employed to tackle olive oil authentication of Arbequina EVOO adulterated with Picual EVOO, a refined olive oil, and sunflower oil. Highly satisfactory results were obtained after PLS analysis, with overall errors in the quantitation of adulteration in the Arbequina EVOO (minimum 2.5% adulterant) below 2.9%. PMID:29561820

  5. Eclipse - Apollo 12

    1980-08-05

    S80-37406 (14-24 Nov. 1969) --- This photograph of the eclipse of the sun was taken with a 16mm motion picture camera from the Apollo 12 spacecraft during its trans-Earth journey home from the moon. The fascinating view was created when the Earth moved directly between the sun and the Apollo 12 spacecraft. Aboard Apollo 12 were astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander; Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot; and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot. While astronauts Conrad and Bean descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Intrepid" to explore the Ocean of Storms region of the moon, astronaut Gordon remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Yankee Clipper" in lunar orbit.

  6. The Eclipse Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Tom; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Eclipse Project by Tom Tucker provides a readable narrative and a number of documents that record an important flight research effort at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Carried out by Kelly Space and Technology, Inc., in partnership with the Air Force and Dryden at Edwards Air Force Base in the Mojave Desert of California, this project tested and gathered data about a potential newer and less expensive way to launch satellites into space. Whether the new technology comes into actual use will depend on funding, market forces, and other factors at least partly beyond the control of the participants in the project. This is a familiar situation in the history of flight research.

  7. Martian Eclipses: Deimos and Phobos

    2004-03-08

    The panoramic camera on NASA Opportunity combines the first photographs of solar eclipses by Mars two moons, Deimos and Phobos. Deimos appears as a speck in front of the Sun and Phobos grazes its edge.

  8. Heliophysics at total solar eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-08-01

    Observations during total solar eclipses have revealed many secrets about the solar corona, from its discovery in the 17th century to the measurement of its million-kelvin temperature in the 19th and 20th centuries, to details about its dynamics and its role in the solar-activity cycle in the 21st century. Today's heliophysicists benefit from continued instrumental and theoretical advances, but a solar eclipse still provides a unique occasion to study coronal science. In fact, the region of the corona best observed from the ground at total solar eclipses is not available for view from any space coronagraphs. In addition, eclipse views boast of much higher quality than those obtained with ground-based coronagraphs. On 21 August 2017, the first total solar eclipse visible solely from what is now United States territory since long before George Washington's presidency will occur. This event, which will cross coast-to-coast for the first time in 99 years, will provide an opportunity not only for massive expeditions with state-of-the-art ground-based equipment, but also for observations from aloft in aeroplanes and balloons. This set of eclipse observations will again complement space observations, this time near the minimum of the solar activity cycle. This review explores the past decade of solar eclipse studies, including advances in our understanding of the corona and its coronal mass ejections as well as terrestrial effects. We also discuss some additional bonus effects of eclipse observations, such as recreating the original verification of the general theory of relativity.

  9. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  10. David Levy's Guide to Eclipses, Transits, and Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, David H.

    2010-08-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Magic and History of Eclipses: 1. Shakespeare, King Lear, and the Great Eclipse of 1605; 2. Three centuries later: Einstein, relativity, and the solar eclipse of 1919; 3. What causes solar and lunar eclipses; Part II. Observing Solar Eclipses: 4. Safety considerations; 5. What to expect during a partial eclipse; 6. Annular eclipses and what to see in them; 7. Total eclipse of the Sun: introduction to the magic; 8. The onset: temperature drop, Baily's Beads, Diamond Ring; 9. Totality: Corona, Prominences, Chromosphere, and surrounding area; 10. Photographing and imaging a solar eclipse; Part III. Observing Lunar Eclipses: 11. Don't forget the penumbral eclipses!; 12. Partial lunar eclipses; 13. Total lunar eclipses; 14. Photographing and imaging lunar eclipses; Part IV. Occultations: 15. When the Moon occults a star; Part V. Transits: 16. When planets cross the Sun; Part VI. My Favorite Eclipses: 17. A personal canon of eclipses, occultations, and transits I have seen; Appendices; Index.

  11. Io in Eclipse 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Io eclipsed by Jupiter's shadow is a combination of several images taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) between 09:35 and 09:41 Universal Time on February 27, 2007, about 28 hours after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. North is at the top of the image.

    In the darkness, only glowing hot lava, auroral displays in Io's tenuous atmosphere and the moon's volcanic plumes are visible. The brightest points of light in the image are the glow of incandescent lava at several active volcanoes. The three brightest volcanoes south of the equator are, from left to right, Pele, Reiden and Marduk. North of the equator, near the disk center, a previously unknown volcano near 22 degrees north, 233 degrees west glows brightly. (The dark streak to its right is an artifact.)

    The edge of Io's disk is outlined by the auroral glow produced as intense radiation from Jupiter's magnetosphere bombards the atmosphere. The glow is patchy because the atmosphere itself is patchy, being denser over active volcanoes. At the 1 o'clock position the giant glowing plume from the Tvashtar volcano rises 330 kilometers (200 miles) above the edge of the disk, and several smaller plumes are also visible as diffuse glows scattered across the disk. Bright glows at the edge of Io on the left and right sides of the disk mark regions where electrical currents connect Io to Jupiter's magnetosphere.

    New Horizons was 2.8 million kilometers (1.7 million miles) from Io when this picture was taken, and the image is centered at Io coordinates 2 degrees south, 238 degrees west. The image has been heavily processed to remove scattered light from Jupiter, but some artifacts remain, including a horizontal seam where two sets of frames were pieced together. Total exposure time for this image was 56 seconds.

  12. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Across America Promo

    2017-08-10

    On Monday, August 21, 2017, all of North America will be treated to an eclipse of the sun. Anyone within the path of totality can see one of nature’s most awe inspiring sights - a total solar eclipse.

  13. Mapping the 2017 Eclipse: Education, Navigation, Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    Eclipse maps are a unique vessel of knowledge. At a glance, they communicate the essential knowledge of where and when to successfully view a total eclipse of the sun. An eclipse map also provides detailed knowledge of eclipse circumstances superimposed on the highway system for optimal navigation, especially in the event that weather forces relocation. Eclipse maps are also a vital planning tool for solar physicists and astrophotographers capturing high-resolution imagery of the solar corona. Michael Zeiler will speak to the role of eclipse maps in educating the American public and inspiring people to make the effort to reach the path of totality for the sight of a lifetime. Michael will review the role of eclipse maps in astronomical research and discuss a project under development, the 2017 Eclipse Atlas for smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers.

  14. Infrasonic Effect of Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushin, V. F.; Chernogor, L. F.

    2013-06-01

    The relevance of this study is due to the need to understand, physical effects associated with rare phenomenon, solar eclipse. Until recently, the features of internal gravity wave generation, have been studied in the 10 -100 min period range, while in this, study an attempt is made to confirm the fact of generation, and estimate the general parameters of infrasound oscillations, associated with solar eclipses in the 1-10 min period range. The observations were made with the HF Doppler radar at vertical, incidence. The data were subjected to spectral analysis and, band-pass filtering. The solar eclipses that had occurred over, Kharkiv city (Ukraine) within 1999-2011 are determined to be, associated with Doppler shift of frequency oscillations in the, infrasound frequency band ( 5-8 min period range) and with, amplitude of 20 -100 mHz. The corresponding amplitude, of electron density oscillations was approximately equal to, 0.1- 0.5 %.

  15. Analysis of penumbral eclipse data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, H. B.

    1977-01-01

    Two days of data from the ATS-6 1976 eclipse season were analyzed to determine the effects of varying photoelectron flux on spacecraft potential. Particular emphasis was placed on the variation in potential as the satellite entered the earth's penumbra. Measurements from the AE-C satellite of the solar UV radiation were used to construct a model of atmospheric attenuation. This model was found to be consistent with direct measurements of the variations in photoelectron flux as Injun 5 passed into eclipse. Applying the model to the ATS-6 data gave the time dependency of the solar illumination/photoelectron flux as the satellite was eclipsed. This relationship, when combined with the ATS-6 measurements of satellite potential, revealed a nearly linear relation between the solar illumination/photoelectron flux and the logarithm of the satellite potential.

  16. Cognitive aspects of ancient Maya eclipse theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closs, M. P.

    This paper is concerned with determining the nature of eclipse phenomena as it was perceived by the ancient Maya. It approaches the problem by considering the linguistic information pertaining to eclipses and by exploring the traditional beliefs associated with the occurrence of eclipses among the postconquest Maya. These data yield a model of a native eclipse theory which is compatible with hieroglyphic and iconographic materials pertaining to the ancient Maya.

  17. Epsilon Aurigae. [eclipsing binary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    In April 1984, fourth contact ended the two year long eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae. An astrometric study of the study of the system was carried out by Van de kamp (1978) leading to the conclusion that the orbit is seen very close to edge on. The eclipse was monitored by a number of groups from the ground and from spacecraft such as the IUE. Ultraviolet observations of the system from IUE have thrown new light on the nature of the system that led to the conclusion that the secondary object is probably a cold, dusty accretion disk surrounding a star that is completely hidden inside the disk.

  18. Record-Breaking Eclipsing Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    A new record holder exists for the longest-period eclipsing binary star system: TYC-2505-672-1. This intriguing system contains a primary star that is eclipsed by its companion once every 69 years with each eclipse lasting several years!120 Years of ObservationsIn a recent study, a team of scientists led by Joseph Rodriguez (Vanderbilt University) characterizes the components of TYC-2505-672-1. This binary star system consists of an M-type red giant star that undergoes a ~3.45-year-long, near-total eclipse with a period of ~69.1 years. This period is more than double that of the previous longest-period eclipsing binary!Rodriguez and collaborators combined photometric observations of TYC-2505-672-1 by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) with a variety of archival data, including observations by the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) network and historical data from the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) program.In the 120 years spanned by these observations, two eclipses are detected: one in 1942-1945 and one in 2011-2015. The authors use the observations to analyze the components of the system and attempt to better understand what causes its unusual light curve.Characterizing an Unusual SystemObservations of TYC-2505-672-1 plotted from 1890 to 2015 reveal two eclipses. (The blue KELT observations during the eclipse show upper limits only.) [Rodriguez et al. 2016]By modeling the systems emission, Rodriguez and collaborators establish that TYC-2505-672-1 consists of a 3600-K primary star thats the M giant orbited by a small, hot, dim companion thats a toasty 8000 K. But if the companion is small, why does the eclipse last several years?The authors argue that the best model of TYC-2505-672-1 is one in which the small companion star is surrounded by a large, opaque circumstellar disk. Rodriguez and collaborators suggest that the companion could be a former red giant whose atmosphere was stripped from it, leaving behind

  19. Eclipsing Binaries in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, Jens Viggo

    2006-08-01

    The study of detached eclipsing binaries in open clusters can provide stringent tests of theoretical stellar evolutionary models, which must simultaneously fit the masses, radii, and luminosities of the eclipsing stars and the radiative properties of every other star in the cluster. We review recent progress in such studies and discuss two unusually interesting objects currently under analysis. GV Carinae is an A0 m + A8 m binary in the Southern open cluster NGC 3532; its eclipse depths have changed by 0.1 mag between 1990 and 2001, suggesting that its orbit is being perturbed by a relatively close third body. DW Carinae is a high-mass unevolved B1 V + B1 V binary in the very young open cluster Collinder 228, and displays double-peaked emission in the centre of the Hα line which is characteristic of Be stars. We conclude by pointing out that the great promise of eclipsing binaries in open clusters can only be satisfied when both the binaries and their parent clusters are well-observed, a situation which is less common than we would like.

  20. Epsilon Aurigae Eclipse 2009 - Ingress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L.; Stencel, Robert E.; Leadbeater, Robin; Beckmann, Paul J.; Buil, Christian; Collins, Donald; Colombo, Tiziano; Garrel, Thierry; Gorodenski, Stanley; Gudmundsson, Snaevarr; Karlsson, Mukund Kurtadikar; Lindberg, Hans-Goran; Loughney, Des; Mauclaire, Benji; McCandless, Brian E.; Melillo, Frank J.; Miles, Richard; Pearson, Robert T.; Samolyk, Gerard; Schanne, Lothar; Strikis, Iakovos Marios; Teyssier, François; Thizy, Olivier

    The mysterious star system epsilon Aurigae undergoes an eclipse every 27.1 years that lasts nearly two years. The most recent eclipse started during the late summer of 2009. An international campaign for observing this eclipse was created in 2006, with a web site for information and, to-date, 17 periodic newsletters for details, as well as a Yahoo forum List for immediate announcements and comments. Photometric data in the UBVRIJH bands have been submitted. Ingress occurred with first contact in the V band estimated at the second week of 2009 August and second contact estimated at 2010 mid-January. Spectroscopic data were also obtained during ingress. Spectroscopic data have been provided in the potassium I region, hydrogen alpha and beta regions and sodium D line region of the star system's spectrum. In this paper we describe details of observations and preliminary analysis during ingress and second contact. We introduce the observers and discuss plans for observing throughout totality and the end of the eclipse in 2011.

  1. Symbolism and discovery: eclipses in art.

    PubMed

    Blatchford, Ian

    2016-09-28

    There is a fascinating tradition of depicting solar eclipses in Western art, although these representations have changed over time. Eclipses have often been an important feature of Christian iconography, but valued as much for their biblical significance as for the splendour of the physical event. However, as Western culture passed through the Renaissance and Enlightenment the depictions of eclipses came to reflect new astronomical knowledge and a thirst for rational learning well beyond the confines of the church and other elites. Artists also played a surprisingly important role in helping scientists in the nineteenth century understand and record the full phenomena of an eclipse, even as the advent of photography also came to solve a number of scientific puzzles. In the most recent century, artists have responded to eclipses with symbolism, abstraction and playfulness.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Super Blood Moon Lunar Eclipse

    2017-12-08

    A preview animation of the Super Moon Lunar Eclipse On the evening of September 27, 2015 in the Americas (early morning on September 28 in Europe and most of Africa), the Moon enters the Earth’s shadow, creating a total lunar eclipse, the last of four visible in the Western Hemisphere in a span of 18 months. This animation shows the changing appearance of the Moon as it travels into and out of the Earth’s shadow. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Super Blood Moon Lunar Eclipse

    2017-12-08

    What time will you be able to view the Super Moon Eclipse? The images below show times to view it for Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), Central Daylight Time (CDT), Mountain Daylight Time (MDT) and Pacific Daylight Time (PDT). All of South America and most of North and Central America will see the entire eclipse, while those west of roughly 120°W will see it in progress at moonrise. You won’t need special equipment to see it. Just go outside and look up! NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. Super Blue Moon Lunar Eclipse

    2018-01-31

    NASA TV provided coverage of Super Blue Moon Lunar Eclipse on Jan. 31. The full moon was the third in a series of “supermoons,” when the Moon is closer to Earth in its orbit -- known as perigee -- and about 14 percent brighter than usual. It was also the second full moon of the month, commonly known as a “blue moon.” As the super blue moon passed through Earth’s shadow, viewers in some locations experienced a total lunar eclipse. While in Earth’s shadow, the moon also took on a reddish tint – which is sometimes referred to as a “blood moon.”

  5. Exoplanet Characterization With Spitzer Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph

    We will analyze our existing Spitzer eclipse data for 11 exoplanets (GJ 436b, WASP-8b, WASP-29b, WASP-11b, TrES-1, WASP-34b, WASP-43b, HD 209458b, HAT-P-30b, HAT-P-13b, and WASP-12b) along with all other Spitzer eclipse and transit data for these systems (723 hours of total data). In combination with transit results, these measurements reveal the surface fluxes emitted by the planets' atmospheres in the six Spitzer bandpasses (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 16, and 24 1-4m), as well as orbital eccentricity and in a few cases possibly even precession rate. The fluxes, in turn, can constrain atmospheric composition and thermal profiles. We propose here to analyze data for these planets using Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer, model-fitting codes; to conduct aggregate analyses; and to develop and share statistical modeling tools. Secondary eclipses provide us with a unique way to characterize exoplanetary atmospheres. Since other techniques like spectroscopy divide the planetary signal into many channels, they require very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and are only possible for a few planets. Broadband eclipse photometry is thus the only technique that can measure dozens of atmospheres and identify the mechanisms that cause planets at a given irradiation level to behave so differently from one another. Until JWST becomes available, the broad variety of Spitzer data that we already have in hand, along with observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and possibly SOFIA, are our best way to understand the wide diversity of exoplanetary atmospheres. Since 2010, the team has produced six papers from a new, highly modular pipeline that implements optimal methods for analysis of Spitzer photometric time series, and our efficiency is increasing. The sensitivity needed for these measurements is up to 100 times better than Spitzer's design criteria, so careful treatment of systematic error is critically important and first-order approximations rarely work. The new pipeline

  6. Eclipse Photo/Video Coverage

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, KARS Park at Kennedy, and the Vehicle Assembly Building.

  7. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS

    SciT

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.

    2015-12-15

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars amongmore » this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.« less

  8. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  9. Eclipse 2017: Through the eyes of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; NASA/GSFC Heliophysics Education Consortium

    2016-10-01

    The August 21, 2017 eclipse will be the first time a total solar eclipse has traversed the Continental US since June 8th, 1918. Anticipation y for energy for this eclipse is off the charts. Over 500 million in North America alone will catch the eclipse in either partial or total phase. Parts of South America, Africa, and Europe will see a partial eclipse as well. NASA is planning to take full advantage of this unique celestial event as an education and public engagement opportunity by leveraging its extensive networks of partners, numerous social media platforms, broadcast media, and its significant unique space assets and people to bring the eclipse to America and the world as only NASA can. This talk will outline NASA's education plans in some detail replicating our many Big Events successes including the 2012 Transit of Venus and the MSL/Curiosity landing and show how scientists and the public can get involved.

  10. Eclipse cooling of selected lunar features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shorthill, R. W.; Saari, J. M.; Baird, F. E.; Lecompte, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    Thermal measurements were made in the 10 to 12 micron band of the lunar surface during the total eclipse of December19, 1964. A normalized differential thermal contour map is included, showing the location of the thermal anomalies or hot spots on the disk and the eclipse cooling curves of 400 sites, of which more than 300 were hot spots. The eclipse cooling data is compared to a particulate thermophysical model of the soil.

  11. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  12. American Solar Eclipses 2017 & 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCanzio, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This research focuses on harnessing the statistical capacity of many available concurrent observers to advance scientific knowledge. By analogy to some Galilean measurement-experiments in which he used minimal instrumentation, this researcher will address the question: How might an individual observer, with a suitably chosen common metric and with widely available, reasonably affordable equipment, contribute to new knowledge from observing the solar eclipse of 2017? Each observer would report data to an institutional sponsor who would analyze these data statistically toward new knowledge about some question currently unsettled in astronomy or in the target field connected with the question which the chosen metric is targeted to address. A subordinate question will be discussed: As a tradeoff between “best question to answer” and “easiest question for observers’ data to answer”, is there an event property and related target question that, with high potential utility and low cost, would be measurable by an observer positioned in the path of totality with minimal or inexpensive equipment and training? (And that, as a statistical sample point, might contribute to new knowledge?) In dialog with the audience, the presenter will suggest some measurables; e.g., solar flares, ground shadow bands, atmospheric metrics, coronal structure, etc., correlated or not with certain other dependent variables. The independent variable would be time in the intervention interval from eclipse contacts 1 -- 4. By the aforementioned analogy, the presenter will review as examples some measurement-experiments conducted or suggested by Galileo; e.g., pendulum laws, Jovian satellite eclipse times, geokinesis as later seen in Bessel's parallactic measurement, and Michelson's measurement of light speed. Because criteria of metrics-determination would naturally include existence of a data-collection-analysis method, this presentation requires dialogue with a critical mass of audience

  13. Eclipse Soundscapes Project: Making the August 21, 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Accessible to Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, H. D., III

    2017-12-01

    The Eclipse Soundscapes Project delivered a multisensory experience that allowed the blind and visually impaired to engage with the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse along with their sighted peers in a way that would not have been possible otherwise. The project, from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and NASA's Heliophysics Education Consortium, includes illustrative audio descriptions of the eclipse in real time, recordings of the changing environmental sounds during the eclipse, and an interactive "rumble map" app that allows users to experience the eclipse through touch and sound. The Eclipse Soundscapes Project is working with organizations such as the National Parks Service (NPS), Science Friday, and Brigham Young University and by WGBH's National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) to bring the awe and wonder of the total solar eclipse and other astronomical phenomena to a segment of the population that has been excluded from and astronomy and astrophysics for far too long, while engaging all learners in new and exciting ways.

  14. Timing of AB And eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyreva, V. S.; Ibrahimov, M. A.; Gaynullina, E. R.; Karimov, R. G.; Hafizov, B. M.; Satovskii, B. L.; Krushevska, V. N.; Kuznyetsova, Yu. G.; Bogomazov, A. I.; Irsmambetova, T. R.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims timing the eclipses of the short period low mass binary star AB And. The times of minima are taken from the literature and from our observations in October 2013 (22 times of minima) and in August 2014 (23 times of minima). We find and discuss an inaccuracy in the determination of the types of minima in the previous investigation by Li et al. (2014). We study the secular evolution of the central binary's orbital period and the possibility of the existence of third and fourth companions in the system.

  15. 2017 Solar Eclipse, Ames Research Center

    2017-08-21

    Taking a break from his duties at the Ames Vertical Gun Range to look up at the eclipse over Ames Research Center in Mountain View Adam Parrish not only views but wears, on his forehead, the image of the 2017 Solar eclipse at 09:20:56 on August 21, 2017.

  16. Evaluating the Eclipse: How good was it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; InsightSTEM Evaluation Team

    2018-01-01

    We present findings from the evaluation program carried out of education, public outreach, and communication activities around the "Great American Eclipse" of August 21, 2017. We include findings drawn from the experiences of 30 participants in planning activities prior to the eclipse and 31 recipients of mini-grants for eclipse activities supported by the American Astronomical Society through a grant from the National Science Foundation. We synthesize evaluations gathered by these and other volunteering organizations to provide a multi-site picture of experiences and learning outcomes at eclipse-related events - both in the path of totality and in partial eclipse settings. We make use of qualitative and quantitative responses representing over 30,000 individuals who observed (or tried to observe) the eclipse. We will share findings from across the range of programs included in our evaluation network along with specific highlights. We emphasize a reflection on the motivation and activity behind the 2017 eclipse, and how to leverage the lessons learned for future events on this scale (such as the eclipse of April 8, 2024) along with messages relevant to other events connected with astronomical phenomena, or in multi-site settings.This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1564535 awarded to the American Astronomical Society. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or the American Astronomical Society.

  17. Paper Moon: Simulating a Total Solar Eclipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Sean P.; Downing, James P.; Comstock, Jocelyne M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a classroom activity in which a solar eclipse is simulated and a mathematical model is developed to explain the data. Students use manipulative devices and graphing calculators to carry out the experiment and then compare their results to those collected in Koolymilka, Australia, during the 2002 eclipse.

  18. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    PubMed

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  19. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    PubMed Central

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2008-01-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey (“Theoclymenus's prophecy”) to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192–1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250–1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse. PMID:18577587

  20. Countdown to the Great American Eclipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Great American Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017) will occur on August 21 this year--the first total solar eclipse in the continental United States since 1979. For many reasons, this is a scientific and educational milestone event of the highest magnitude that should not be missed by any teacher and student whether or not their school is in session…

  1. Get Ready for the Great American Eclipse!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This year marks 38 years since any part of the continental United States was darkened by the Moon's umbral shadow. During this "eclipse drought," no U.S. residents except those on Hawaii's Big Island in 1991 have had the opportunity to observe totality without traveling abroad. The 2017 Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017, August 21, 2017) is…

  2. Total Solar Eclipse of 2006 March 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2004-01-01

    On 2006 March 29, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in Brazil and extends across the Atlantic, northern Africa, and central Asia where it ends at sunset in western Mongolia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the northern two thirds of Africa, Europe, and central Asia.Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  3. Total Solar Eclipse of 2008 August 01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2007-01-01

    On 2008 August 01, a total eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in northern Canada and extends across Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China. A partial eclipse is seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, most of Europe and Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 308 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  4. Strategies for the public communication of eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.

    2015-03-01

    Eclipses are among the celestial events that draw the attention of the public. This paper discusses strategies for using eclipses as public communication opportunities in the media. It discusses the impact of articles written by the author and analysis of published material for 25 observed eclipses over the last 30 years by mass media in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. On each occasion, a standard article was posted on the Internet and sent to newspapers, radio and TV with information, such as: date, time and local circumstances; type of the eclipse; area of visibility; explanation; diagram of the phenomenon, and the Moon's path through Earth's shadow; eclipses in history; techniques of observation; getting photographs; place and event for public observation. Over the years, direct contact was maintained with the media and jounralists by the press offices of the institutions.

  5. Total Solar Eclipse of 2002 December 04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    2001-01-01

    On 2002 December 04, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and the Indian Ocean, and ends at sunset in southern Australia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the southern two thirds of Africa, Antarctica, Indian Ocean and Australia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  6. Observing Solar Eclipses in the Developing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    The paths of totality of total solar eclipses cross the world, with each spot receiving such a view about every 300 years. The areas of the world from which partial eclipses are visible are much wider. For the few days prior to a total eclipse, the attention of a given country is often drawn toward the eclipse, providing a teachable moment that we can use to bring astronomy to the public's attention. Also, it is important to describe how to observe the partial phases of the eclipse safely. Further, it is important to describe to those people in the zone of totality that it is not only safe but also interesting to view totality. Those who are misled by false warnings that overstate the hazards of viewing the eclipse, or that fail to distinguish between safe and unsafe times for naked-eye viewing, may well be skeptical when other health warnings--perhaps about AIDS or malaria prevention or polio inoculations--come from the authorities, meaning that the penalties for misunderstanding the astronomical event can be severe. Through the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses and through the I.A.U.'s Program Group on Public Education at the Times of Eclipses, part of the Commission on Education and Development, we make available information to national authorities, to colleagues in the relevant countries, and to others, through our Websites at http://www.eclipses.info and http://www.totalsolareclipse.net and through personal communication. Among our successes at the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse was the distribution through a colleague in Nigeria of 400,000 eye-protection filters.

  7. Super Blood Moon Lunar Eclipse

    2017-12-08

    CLOUDY with a chance of NOT SEEING the Super Blood Moon Lunar Eclipse? WATCH Live here: bit.ly/1LfspfW No worries, we've got you've covered. Click on over to the live stream starting at 8:00 p.m. until at least 11:30 p.m. EDT broadcast from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., with a live feed from the Griffith Observatory, Los Angeles, Calif. Mitzi Adams, a NASA solar physicist at Marshall will discuss the eclipse and answer questions on Twitter. To ask a question, use ‪#‎askNASA‬. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. EE Cep observations requested for upcoming eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-07-01

    The AAVSO requests observations for the upcoming eclipse of EE Cephei, a long-period eclipsing variable. EE Cep has a period of 2,050 days, and shows strong variations in the eclipse light curve from one event to the next. Observations are needed to study the morphology of the upcoming eclipse, which will be used to better understand the shape of the eclipsing disk and how it precesses. Mid-eclipse is predicted to be August 23, 2014, but the early stages of the eclipse may begin as much as a month earlier. EE Cep is being observed by a number of amateur and professional astronomers using multiple telescopes at multiple wavelengths. Among these is a collaboration (see https://sites.google.com/site/eecep2014campaign/) headed by Cezary Galan at the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland; several individual AAVSO observers are already participating in this effort. The AAVSO is not currently a partner in that campaign, but all data submitted to the AAVSO will be publicly available. The AAVSO strongly encourages observers to begin following this star now, and to continue observations into October 2014 at least. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  9. Eclipse Megamovie 2017: A Citizen Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C.; Koh, J.; Konerding, D.; Peticolas, L. M.; Hudson, H. S.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Zevin, D.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 total solar eclipse presents an amazing opportunity for education and science outreach due to the breadth and reach of this astronomical event. The Eclipse Megamovie project looks to create organize a citizen science effort to capture images of the eclipse as it crosses the US and stitch these photos together into a continuous look at the corona. A collaboration between Google, UC Berkeley, and many other universities and amateur astronomy networks, this project looks to leverage the different strenghts of these organizations and capitalize on this rare outreach opportunity. We're excited to present the results of the project and a review of how things went.

  10. Super Blood Moon Lunar Eclipse

    2017-12-08

    Are you ready for tonight's ‪#‎SuperBloodMoon‬ Lunar Eclipse? Get your camera and find a great spot to snap a pic of the event, then share it with NASA in our Flickr group www.flickr.com/groups/superbloodmoon/ You can also share your photo with us starting at 10:00pm EDT tonight in the NASA photo contest here: go.nasa.gov/superbloodmoon-contest Learn more about this celestial event & when to look up to see it: bit.ly/1NVEwh5 NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. 2017 Solar Eclipse, Ames Research Center

    2017-08-21

    Taking a break from their duties at the Ames Vertical Gun Range to look up at the eclipse over Ames Research Center in Mountain View are from left to right are Alfredo "Freddie" Perez, Chuck Cornelison, Don Bowling, Adam Parish

  12. Total Solar Eclipse of 1999 August 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1997-01-01

    On 1999 August 11, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Eastern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the Atlantic and crosses central Europe, the Middle East, and India, where it ends at sunset in the Bay of Bengal. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, all of Europe, northern Africa, and the western half of Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 1400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  13. Total Solar Eclipse of 1997 March 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1995-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 1997 March 9. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in eastern Kazakhstan and travels through Mongolia and eastern Siberia, where it swings northward to end at sunset in the Arctic Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern Asia, the northern Pacific, and the northwest corner of North America. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 280 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  14. The 1995 total solar eclipse: an overview.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J.

    A number of experiments were conducted during the total solar eclipse of October 24, 1995. First time efforts were made to photograph the solar corona using IAF jet aircrafts and transport planes ad hot air balloons.

  15. Recent Minima of 171 Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samolyk, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper continues the publication of times of minima for 171 eclipsing binary stars from observations reported to the AAVSO EB section. Times of minima from observations received by the author from March 2015 thru October 2015 are presented.

  16. Data Collection During the Great American Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernier, Dave

    2017-12-01

    I am lucky enough (and old enough) to have seen three total eclipses. About a year ago, I became aware of the total eclipse that was coming to the United States on August 21, 2017. Because I knew how exciting a total eclipse can be, I spent a lot of time encouraging people to travel to the zone of totality if they possibly could. I also encouraged teachers to turn this event into a STEM lesson by taking data. We asked teachers to join us in collecting data during the eclipse and to share it. The people collecting these data were either teachers or former teachers (like me). Many times, the sensors were mounted with duct tape and rubber bands, but we got some great data!

  17. Total Solar Eclipse of 2001 June 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1999-01-01

    On 2001 June 21, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and Madagascar, and ends at sunset in the Indian Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern South America and the southern two thirds of Africa. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  18. March 7, 1970 solar eclipse investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Accardo, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Studies from rockets directed toward establishing the solar X-ray fluxes during the 7 March 1970 total eclipse over the North American continent are reported. A map of the eclipse path is presented. The measured absorption profiles for the residual X-rays are useful in establishing their contribution to the D and E region ionization during the eclipse. The studies were performed with two Nike-Apache payloads launched over Wallops Island, Virginia. In addition to three X-ray detectors in the 1 to 8A, 8 to 20A and 44 to 60A bands, there was included in the payloads two additional experiments. These were an electric field experiment and an epithermal photoelectron experiment. The X-ray instrumentation, payload description, flight circumstances and finally, the X-ray results obtained are described. The various computer codes employed for the purpose of reducing the telemetered data as well as the eclipse codes are included.

  19. Monitoring HD 148703 during upcoming eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2017-06-01

    Dr. Milena Ratajczak (University of Wrocław) has requested AAVSO observers' assistance in monitoring the very bright (V = 4.23) and very unusual eclipsing binary HD 148703 (HR 6143, N Sco) during its infrequent primary and secondary eclipses scheduled for 2017 June 11 and June 14, respectively. Dr. Ratajczak writes: "[HD 148703] N Sco is a B-type detached eclipsing binary, which turned out to be an exceptionally interesting object to study when we realised its orbital period is 223 days and time between eclipses is only 3.5 days. Such configuration makes it an extremely eccentric system, probably the most eccentric from any objects of that class ever studied...Since the object is very bright, it's difficult to use professional photometric telescopes due to saturation issues. That is why we kindly invite amateur astronomers to join the campaign. Data taken during times of eclipses (photometry) and time between eclipses (radial velocities from spectroscopy) which occur next week are crucial to cover in order to determine orbital and stellar parameters of system's components. Data taken over that time will be of very high value for us." The next primary eclipse time of minimum is on 2017 June 11 (UT 00:41:45), and the secondary on June 14 (UT 09:17:34). Each eclipse lasts about 20 hours. The amplitude of the primary eclipse is 0.15 magnitude, and the secondary 0.35 mag. PEP V and DSLR V photometry is requested. (CCD V is welcome if saturation can be avoided.) Beginning immediately, one to a few snapshots each night are requested to establish an out-of-eclipse baseline for each observer; they should continue for a few nights after the secondary eclipse has occurred.Time series photometry is requested beginning 12 hours before each time of minimum and continuing until 12 hours after. Precision to 0.01 mag or better per single observation is needed. Exposures should be as long as possible without saturating; don't make very short exposures simply for the purpose of

  20. A validated stability-indicating HPLC method for determination of varenicline in its bulk and tablets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate stability-indicating HPLC method has been developed and validated for determination of varenicline (VRC) in its bulk form and pharmaceutical tablets. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 μm, maintained at ambient temperature) by a mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 50 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (10:90, v/v) with apparent pH of 3.5 ± 0.1 and a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection wavelength was set at 235 nm. VRC was subjected to different accelerated stress conditions. The degradation products, when any, were well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different retention time values. The method was linear (r = 0.9998) at a concentration range of 2 - 14 μg/ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.38 and 1.11 μg/ml, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were satisfactory; the relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The accuracy of the method was proved; the mean recovery of VRC was 100.10 ± 1.08%. The proposed method has high throughput as the analysis involved short run-time (~ 6 min). The method met the ICH/FDA regulatory requirements. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of VRC in bulk and tablets with acceptable accuracy and precisions; the label claim percentages were 99.65 ± 0.32%. The results demonstrated that the method would have a great value when applied in quality control and stability studies for VRC. PMID:21672253

  1. HPLC-FLD determination of 4-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol in surface water samples.

    PubMed

    Cruceru, Ioana; Iancu, Vasile; Petre, Jana; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Vladescu, Luminita

    2012-05-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable HPLC-FLD method for the routine determination of 4-nonylphenol, 4-NP and 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-t-OP content in water samples was developed. The method consists in a liquid-liquid extraction of the target analytes with dichloromethane at pH  3.0-3.5 followed by the HPLC-FLD analysis of the organic extract using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 column, isocratic elution with a mixed solvent acetonitrile/water 65:35, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and applying a column temperature of 40°C. The method was validated and then applied with good results for the determination of 4-NP and 4-t-OP in Ialomiţa River water samples collected each month during 2006. The concentration levels of 4-NP and 4-t-OP vary between 0.08-0.17 μg/L with higher values of 0.24-0.37 μg/L in the summer months for 4-NP, and frequently <0.05 μg/L but also between 0.06-0.09 μg/L with higher values of 0.12-0.16 μg/L in July and August for 4-t-OP and were strongly influenced by sesonial and anthropic factors. The method was also applied on samples collected over 2 years 2007 and 2008 from urban wastewaters discharged into sewage or directly into the rivers by economic agents located in 30 Romanian towns. Good results were obtained when the method was used for analysis of effluents discharged into surface waters by 16 municipal wastewater treatment plants, during the year 2008.

  2. Vigabatrin in dried plasma spots: validation of a novel LC-MS/MS method and application to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kostić, Nađa; Dotsikas, Yannis; Jović, Nebojša; Stevanović, Galina; Malenović, Anđelija; Medenica, Mirjana

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a LC-MS/MS method for the determination of antiepileptic drug vigabatrin in dried plasma spots (DPS). Due to its zwitterionic chemical structure, a pre-column derivatization procedure was performed, aiming to yield enhanced ionization efficiency and improved chromatographic behaviour. Propyl chloroformate, in the presence of propanol, was selected as the best derivatization reagent, providing a strong signal along with reasonable run time. A relatively novel sample collection technique, DPS, was utilized, offering easy sample handling and analysis, using a sample in micro amount (∼5μL). Derivatized vigabatrin and its internal standard, 4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid, were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and determined in positive ion mode by applying two SRM transitions per analyte. A Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column (150×4.6mm, 5μm particle size) maintained at 30°C, was utilized with running mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 0.15% formic acid (85:15, v/v). Flow rate was 550μL/min and total run time 4.5min. The assay exhibited excellent linearity over the concentration range of 0.500-50.0μg/mL, which is suitable for the determination of vigabatrin level after per os administration in children and youths with epilepsy, who were on vigabatrin therapy, with or without co-medication. Specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix-effect and stability were also estimated and assessed within acceptance criteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of anion-exchange/reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods for the speciation of bio-available iodine and bromine from edible seaweed.

    PubMed

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2012-05-04

    Anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry has been novelly applied to assess inorganic (iodide and iodate) and organic (3-iodotyrosine - MIT, and 3,5-diiodotyrosine - DIT) iodine species in a single chromatographic run. The optimized operating conditions (Dionex IonPac AS7, gradient elution with 175 mM ammonium nitrate plus 15% (v/v) methanol, pH 3.8, as a mobile phase and flow rates within the 0.5-1.5 mL min(-1) range) have also been used to perform inorganic bromine speciation analysis (bromide and bromate). The developed method has been applied for determining the bio-available contents of iodine and bromine species in dialyzates from edible seaweed. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8, gradient elution with 0.2% (m/m) acetic acid, and 0.2% (m/m) acetic acid in methanol, as mobile phases, and a constant flow rate of 0.75 mL min(-1)) also hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of organic iodine species (MIT and DIT) in the dialyzates. The verification of the presence of iodinated amino acids (MIT and DIT) in the extracts was also performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LTQ Orbitrap). The developed methods have provided good repeatability (RSD values lower than 10% for both anion exchange and reverse phase separations) and analytical recoveries within the 90-105% range for all cases. The in vitro bio-availability method consisted of a simulated gastric and an intestinal digestion/dialysis (10 kDa molecular weight cut-off - MWCO) two-stage procedure. Iodide and MIT were the main bio-available species quantified, whereas bromide was the major bromine species found in the extracts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitation of the immunological adjuvants, monophosphoryl lipid A and Quil A in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles using high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Bobbala, Sharan; McDowell, Arlene; Hook, Sarah

    2015-01-15

    Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and Quil A are two immunological adjuvants commonly used in vaccines. At present no simple, validated methods for the quantification of Quil A and MPL have been previously reported therefore the aim of the current study was to develop a simple, fast and validated method to quantify MPL and Quil A using high performance liquid chromatography evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). The HPLC-ELSD technique was carried out using a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C8 column (2.1×50 mm; particle size, 3.5 μm) in an isocratic elution mode at 25 °C. MPL was eluted at a retention time of 1.8 min with methanol-water as the mobile phase and a detector temperature of 75 °C. Quil A was resolved as three peaks with retention times of 4.1, 5.5 and 6.4 min with a detector temperature of 30 °C and with water-acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid as the mobile phase. The nebulizer pressure and gain were set at 3.5 bar and 10, respectively. Calibration curves plotted for both the adjuvants had an R(2)>0.997. Accuracy, intra- and inter-day precision were within the accepted limits. The limit of detection for MPL and Quil A were calculated as 1.343 and 2.06 μg/mL, respectively. The limit of quantification was 2.445 for MPL and 8.97 μg/mL for Quil A. This analytical method was used to quantify the entrapment and in vitro release of MPL and Quil A in a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticle vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Annular Solar Eclipse of 10 May 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    An annular eclipse of the Sun will be widely visible from the Western Hemisphere on 10 May 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Mexico, the United States of America, maritime Canada, the North Atlantic, the Azores and Morocco. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the annular path, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of annular and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  6. Spitzer secondary eclipses of Qatar-1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garhart, Emily; Deming, Drake; Mandell, Avi; Knutson, Heather; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: Previous secondary eclipse observations of the hot Jupiter Qatar-1b in the Ks band suggest that it may have an unusually high day side temperature, indicative of minimal heat redistribution. There have also been indications that the orbit may be slightly eccentric, possibly forced by another planet in the system. We investigate the day side temperature and orbital eccentricity using secondary eclipse observations with Spitzer. Methods: We observed the secondary eclipse with Spitzer/IRAC in subarray mode, in both 3.6 and 4.5 μm wavelengths. We used pixel-level decorrelation to correct for Spitzer's intra-pixel sensitivity variations and thereby obtain accurate eclipse depths and central phases. Results: Our 3.6 μm eclipse depth is 0.149 ± 0.051% and the 4.5 μm depth is 0.273 ± 0.049%. Fitting a blackbody planet to our data and two recent Ks band eclipse depths indicates a brightness temperature of 1506 ± 71 K. Comparison to model atmospheres for the planet indicates that its degree of longitudinal heat redistribution is intermediate between fully uniform and day-side only. The day side temperature of the planet is unlikely to be as high (1885 K) as indicated by the ground-based eclipses in the Ks band, unless the planet's emergent spectrum deviates strongly from model atmosphere predictions. The average central phase for our Spitzer eclipses is 0.4984 ± 0.0017, yielding e cos ω = -0.0028 ± 0.0027. Our results are consistent with a circular orbit, and we constrain e cos ω much more strongly than has been possible with previous observations. Tables of the lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A55

  7. Total solar eclipse of 3 November 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from the southern half of the Western Hemisphere on 3 November 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the path of totality, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of total and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  8. Boise State's Idaho Eclipse Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Karan; Jackson, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The 2017 total solar eclipse is an unprecedented opportunity for astronomical education throughout the continental United States. With the path of totality passing through 14 states, from Oregon to South Carolina, the United States is expecting visitors from all around the world. Due to the likelihood of clear skies, Idaho was a popular destination for eclipse-chasers. In spite of considerable enthusiasm and interest by the general population, the resources for STEM outreach in the rural Pacific Northwest are very limited. In order to help prepare Idaho for the eclipse, we put together a crowdfunding campaign through the university and raised over $10,000. Donors received eclipse shades as well as information about the eclipse specific to Idaho. Idaho expects 500,000 visitors, which could present a problem for the many small, rural towns scattered across the path of totality. In order to help prepare and equip the public for the solar eclipse, we conducted a series of site visits to towns in and near the path of totality throughout Idaho. To maximize the impact of this effort, the program included several partnerships with local educational and community organizations and a focus on the sizable refugee and low-income populations in Idaho, with considerable attendance at most events.

  9. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10–1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to ‘eclipse meteorology’ as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ). This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550768

  10. The (Almost) Unseen Total Eclipse of 1831

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2008-03-01

    The total eclipse of August 1831 began at sunrise in Australia, swept across the western South Pacific Ocean, and ended at sunset in the central South Pacific. As a result of the eclipse's path over mostly uninhabited ocean, the region's sparse European (British) population, and near-useless local predictions of the event at Hobart and Sydney in almanacs sold to the general public, almost no one witnessed its passage. In an attempt to document the eclipse, journals of naive observers - those having no access to a prediction - were examined. Thus far, the sole record is in the Pitcairn Island Register Book. Considering the Pitcairners' extreme isolation and the rather modest partial eclipse that occurred there, the entry is a surprising one; however, it can be explained in terms of events associated with their initial removal to Tahiti in March 1831 followed by their return home in June. Further, an authoritative means to identify any issues associated with eclipse predictions compiled for private-sector almanacs came in 1833 when sweeping changes in the British Nautical Almanac's section on eclipses were instituted.

  11. NEWS: Eye safety and the solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeConte, David

    1999-05-01

    Total eclipses of the Sun are amongst nature's most magnificent spectacles, and offer the opportunity for an exceptional educational experience. Many people never see one in their lifetime, but it has been estimated that this August's eclipse will be seen by more people than any other. It would be a sadly lost opportunity if they were denied the experience because they fear a danger that is easily avoided. The dangers of eye damage are real and precautions need to be taken. Staring at the bright solar photosphere can cause temporary or permanent retinal damage. Since the retina has no pain receptors the observer can be unaware that the eye is being `cooked', and the damage may only become apparent several hours later. However, when the photosphere is completely blocked by the Moon during the brief period of totality (two minutes or less), it is quite safe to look directly. In fact, you will not otherwise see anything at all. It is a complex message to get across to the public, and especially to children, that protection is required during the partial phases but not during totality, and that those outside the path of totality require protection for the whole eclipse. The National Eclipse Group was established by PPARC in 1997 to coordinate educational activities, issue public information and give authoritative advice for the 1999 eclipse. It has published a Solar Eclipse Safety Code, which is available on the national eclipse web site (mentioned above). It advises that the safest way to view the Sun is indirectly, by projecting an image of the Sun with a `pinhole', mirror, binoculars or telescope. Most people, however, will wish to observe the eclipse directly. Sunglasses, photographic film, crossed polarizers, smoked glass and similar filters must not be used. The Safety Code states that the Sun may be viewed directly only through special filters made specifically for solar viewing. Such eclipse viewers are typically made of aluminized polyester film (often

  12. Coevality in Young Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M.; Toraskar, Jayashree

    2017-06-01

    The ages of the components in very short period pre-main-sequence (PMS) binaries are essential to an understanding of their formation. We considered a sample of seven PMS eclipsing binaries (EBs) with ages 1-6.3 MY and component masses 0.2-1.4 {M}⊙ . The very high precision with which their masses and radii have been measured and the capability provided by the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics to calculate their evolutionary tracks at exactly the measured masses allows the determination of age differences of the components independent of their luminosities and effective temperatures. We found that the components of five EBs, ASAS J052821+0338.5, Parenago 1802, JW 380, CoRoT 223992193, and UScoCTIO 5, formed within 0.3 MY of each other. The parameters for the components of V1174 Ori imply an implausible large age difference of 2.7 MY and should be reconsidered. The seventh EB in our sample, RX J0529.4+0041 fell outside the applicability of our analysis.

  13. Observations of the eclipsing binary b Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Robert Zavala (USNO-Flagstaff) et al. request V time-series observations of the bright variable star b Persei 7-21 January 2015 UT, in hopes of catching a predicted eclipse on January 15. This is a follow-up to the February 2013 campaign announced in Alert Notice 476, and will be used as a photometric comparison for upcoming interferometric observations with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) in Arizona. b Per (V=4.598, B-V=0.054) is ideal for photoelectric photometers or DSLR cameras. Telescopic CCD observers may observe by stopping down larger apertures. Comparison and check stars assigned by PI: Comp: SAO 24412, V=4.285, B-V = -0.013; Check: SAO 24512, V=5.19, B-V = -0.05. From the PI: "[W]e wanted to try and involve AAVSO observers in a follow up to our successful detection of the b Persei eclipse of Feb 2013, AAVSO Alert Notice 476 and Special Notice 333. Our goal now is to get good time resolution photometry as the third star passes in front of the close ellipsoidal binary. The potential for multiple eclipses exists. The close binary has a 1.5 day orbital period, and the eclipsing C component requires about 4 days to pass across the close binary pair. The primary eclipse depth is 0.15 magnitude. Photometry to 0.02 or 0.03 mags would be fine to detect this eclipse. Eclipse prediction date (JD 2457033.79 = 2015 01 11 UT, ~+/- 1 day) is based on one orbital period from the 2013 eclipse." More information is available at PI's b Persei eclipse web page: http://inside.warren-wilson.edu/~dcollins/bPersei/. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and information on the targets.

  14. Apollo 15 Lunar eclipse views

    1971-08-01

    S71-58222 (31 July-2 Aug. 1971) --- During the lunar eclipse that occurred during the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission, astronaut Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot, used a 35mm Nikon camera to obtain a series of 15 photographs while the moon was entering and exiting Earth's umbra. Although it might seem that there should be no light on the moon when it is in Earth's shadow, sunlight is scattered into this region by Earth's atmosphere. This task was an attempt to measure by photographic photometry the amount of scattered light reaching the moon. The four views from upper left to lower right were selected to show the moon as it entered Earth's umbra. The first is a four-second exposure which was taken at the moment when the moon had just entered umbra; the second is a 15-second exposure taken two minutes after entry; the third, a 30-second exposure three minutes after entry; and the fourth is a 60-second exposure four minutes after entry. In all cases the light reaching the moon was so bright on the very high speed film (Eastman Kodak type 2485 emulsion) that the halation obscures the lunar image, which should be about one-third as big as the circle of light. The background star field is clearly evident, and this is very important for these studies. The spacecraft was in full sunlight when these photographs were taken, and it was pointed almost directly away from the sun so that the windows and a close-in portion of the camera's line-of-sight were in shadow. The environment around the vehicle at this time appears to be very "clean" with no light scattering particles noticeable.

  15. Fifty Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses: 1986-2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1989-01-01

    A complete catalog is presented, listing the general circumstances of every lunar eclipse from 1901 through 2100. To compliment this catalog, a set of figures illustrate the basic Moon-shadow geometry and global visibility for every lunar eclipse over the 200 year interval. Focusing in on the next fifty years, 114 detailed diagrams show the Moon's path through Earth's shadow during every eclipse, including contact times at each phase. The accompanying cylindrical projection maps of Earth show regions of hemispheric visibility for all phases. The appendices discuss eclipse geometry, eclipse frequency and recurrence, enlargement of Earth's shadow, crater timings, eclipse brightness and time determination. Finally, a simple FORTRAN program is provided which can be used to predict the occurrence and general characteristics of lunar eclipses. This work is a companion volume to NASA Reference Publication 1178: Fifty Year Canon of Solar Eclipses: 1986-2035.

  16. Fifty year canon of solar eclipses: 1986 - 2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1987-01-01

    A complete catalog is presented, listing the general characteristics of every solar eclipse from 1901 through 2100. To complement this catalog, a detailed set of cylindrical projection world maps shows the umbral paths of every solar eclipse over the 200 year interval. Focusing in on the next 50 years, accurate geodetic path coordinates and local circumstances for the 71 central eclipses from 1987 through 2035 are tabulated. Finally, the geodetic paths of the umbral and penumbral shadows of all 109 solar eclipses in this period are plotted on orthographic projection maps of the Earth. Appendices are included which discuss eclipse geometry, eclipse frequency and occurrence, modern eclipse prediction and time determination. Finally, code for a simple Fortran program is given to predict the occurrence and characteristics of solar eclipses.

  17. Preparing for and Observing the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J.

    2015-11-01

    I discuss ongoing plans and discussions for EPO and scientific observing of the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. I discuss aspects of EPO based on my experiences at the 60 solar eclipses I have seen. I share cloud statistics along the eclipse path compiled by Jay Anderson, the foremost eclipse meteorologist. I show some sample observations of composite imagery, of spectra, and of terrestrial temperature changes based on observations of recent eclipses, including 2012 from Australia and 2013 from Gabon. Links to various mapping sites of totality, partial phases, and other eclipse-related information, including that provided by Michael Zeiler, Fred Espenak (retired from NASA) and Xavier Jubier can be found on the website I run for the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Eclipses at http://www.eclipses.info.

  18. The earliest known solar eclipse record redated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, T.; van Soldt, W. H.

    1989-03-01

    An astronomical event recorded on a clay tablet found in 1948 among the ruins of the acient city of Ugarit, in what is now Syria, was identified 20 years ago as a description of a total solar eclipse that occurred on May 3, 1375 B.C. A new historical dating of the tablet, and mention in the text of the visibility of the planet Mars during the eclipse as well as the month it which it occurred, are used here to show that the recorded eclipse in fact occurred on March 5, 1223 B.C. This new date implies that the secular deceleration of the earth's rotation has changed very little during the past 3000 years.

  19. The Gaugamela Battle Eclipse: An Archaeoastronomical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Verderame, L.

    A total lunar eclipse occurred during the night preceding the decisive Battle of Gaugamela (20th September 331 BCE), when the Macedonian army, led by Alexander the Great, finally defeated the Persian king Darius and his army. This astronomical event, well known to historians, had a relevant role on the battle outcome. The eclipse was described in detail by Babylonian astronomers, though, unfortunately, the text of their report has only partially been preserved. We have reconstructed the evolution of the phenomenon as it appeared to the observer in Babylonia, by using the positional astronomy code "Planetario V2.0". On the base of this reconstruction we suggest a number of integrations to the lost part of the text, allowing a finer astrological interpretation of the eclipse and of its influence on the mood of the armies that set against each other on the following morning.

  20. Solar eclipse over the South Pacific Ocean

    2017-12-08

    During a total solar eclipse, the MODIS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite recorded this image of the shadow of the moon over the South Pacific Ocean on March 8, 2016, at 10:05 pm EST. This total solar eclipse was the last one before an August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse that will be visible in much of the United States. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse - ISS Transit

    2017-08-21

    The International Space Station, with a crew of six onboard, is seen in silhouette as it transits the Sun at roughly five miles per second during a partial solar eclipse, Monday, Aug. 21, 2017 near Banner, Wyoming. Onboard as part of Expedition 52 are: NASA astronauts Peggy Whitson, Jack Fischer, and Randy Bresnik; Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Sergey Ryazanskiy; and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Paolo Nespoli. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  2. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse - ISS Transit

    2017-08-21

    This composite image, made from seven frames, shows the International Space Station, with a crew of six onboard, as it transits the Sun at roughly five miles per second during a partial solar eclipse, Monday, Aug. 21, 2017 near Banner, Wyoming. Onboard as part of Expedition 52 are: NASA astronauts Peggy Whitson, Jack Fischer, and Randy Bresnik; Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Sergey Ryazanskiy; and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Paolo Nespoli. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  3. Eclipse Megamovie 2017: How did we do?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Bender, M.; Collier, B. L.; Johnson, C.; Koh, J.; Konerding, D.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Peticolas, L. M.; White, V.; Zevin, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Eclipse Megamovie program, as set up for the Great American Eclipse of 21 August 2017, will have completed its first phase, data acquisition, on that day or shortly thereafter. Our objective was to create (with Google's help) a vast public archive of amateur and other photography, down to the smartphone level, of the corona itself and of Baily's Beads at the 2nd and 3rd contacts. The archive and the consumer electronics enabling it open a large new domain of parameter space for eclipse science. At whatever level we have succeeded, the archive is an historical first, and we hope that the it already has been a springboard for citizen-science projects. We will discuss the execution of the program and some of its science plans/results.

  4. Observations of eclipses of UU Sge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2012-06-01

    We have performed spectroscopy and photometry of eclipses of the pre-cataclysmic variable UUSge using the 6-m telescope of the Special AstrophysicalObservatory and the 1.5-mRussian-Turkish telescope. Our analysis of variations of the B- V and V- R color indices during the eclipses indicates that the temperature of the secondary is T eff,2 = 6000-6300 K. A similar value, T eff,2 = 6200 ± 200 K, follows from our comparison of the observed spectrum of UU Sge at the total eclipse phase and theoretical spectra of late-type stars. We identify 27 absorption lines of 11 chemical elements in the secondary's spectrum. Their abnormal intensities indicate possible high-velocity turbulent motions (up to ξ turb = 10.0 km/s) in the atmosphere of the star and the presence of hot gas above its surface.

  5. Baily's Beads Atlas in 2005 - 2008 Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.; Dunham, D. W.; Guhl, K.; Andersson, S.; Bode, H.; Canales, O.; Colona, P.; Farago, O.; Fernández-Ocaña, M.; Gabel, A.; Haupt, M.; Herold, C.; Nugent, R.; Oliva, P.; Patel, M.; Perello, C.; Rothe, W.; Rovira, J.; Schaefer, T.; Schnabel, C.; Schwartz, D.; Selva, A.; Strickling, W.; Tegtmeier, A.; Tegtmeier, C.; Thome, B.; Warren, W. H.

    2009-09-01

    In the annular or total eclipses of 3 October 2005, 29 March 2006, 22 September 2006, and 1 August 2008, observational campaigns were organized to record the phenomenon of Baily’s beads. These campaigns were internationally coordinated through the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) at both its American and European sections. From the stations in the northern and southern zones of grazing eclipse, the eclipses have been recorded on video. Afterward, as many beads as possible have been identified by analyzing the video data of each observing station. The atlas presented in this paper includes 598 data points, obtained by 23 observers operating at 28 different observing stations. The atlas lists the geographic positions of the observing stations and the observed time instants of disappearance or reappearance of beads, identified by an angle measured relative to the Moon’s axis of rotation. The atlas will serve as a basis for determining the solar diameter.

  6. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Science Briefing

    2017-06-21

    During a June 21 media briefing from the Newseum in Washington, representatives from NASA, other federal agencies, and science organizations discussed the opportunity for scientific study offered by the total solar eclipse that will cross the U.S. on August 21. Over the course of 100 minutes, 14 states across the United States will experience more than two minutes of darkness in the middle of the day. Additionally, a partial eclipse will be viewable across all of North America. The eclipse will provide a unique opportunity to study the sun, Earth, moon and their interaction because of the eclipse’s long path over land coast to coast. Scientists will be able to take ground-based and airborne observations over a period of an hour and a half to complement the wealth of data and images provided by space assets.

  7. Eclipse and noneclipse differential photoelectron flux.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, W. C.; Sharp, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Differential photoelectron flux in the energy range of 3 to 50 eV has been measured in the lower ionosphere both during the March 7, 1970, solar eclipse and during a period 24 hours earlier. The two measurements were made with identical retarding potential analyzers carried on Nike-Apache rocket flights to a peak altitude of approximately 180 km. The differential electron flux spectrum within totality on the eclipse flight had the same shape but was a factor of 10 smaller in magnitude than that measured on the control day at altitudes between 120 and 180 km, an expected result for an eclipse function decreasing to 1/10 at totality. The differential flux spectrum measured in full sun has the same general energy dependence as that reported by Doering et al. (1970) but is larger by a factor of 2 to 10, depending on altitude.

  8. Eclipsing Stellar Binaries in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gongjie; Ginsburg, Idan; Naoz, Smadar; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-12-01

    Compact stellar binaries are expected to survive in the dense environment of the Galactic center. The stable binaries may undergo Kozai–Lidov oscillations due to perturbations from the central supermassive black hole (Sgr A*), yet the general relativistic precession can suppress the Kozai–Lidov oscillations and keep the stellar binaries from merging. However, it is challenging to resolve the binary sources and distinguish them from single stars. The close separations of the stable binaries allow higher eclipse probabilities. Here, we consider the massive star SO-2 as an example and calculate the probability of detecting eclipses, assuming it is a binary. We find that the eclipse probability is ∼30%–50%, reaching higher values when the stellar binary is more eccentric or highly inclined relative to its orbit around Sgr A*.

  9. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse - ISS Transit

    2017-08-21

    The International Space Station, with a crew of six onboard, is seen in silhouette as it transits the Sun at roughly five miles per second during a partial solar eclipse, Monday, Aug. 21, 2017 from Ross Lake, Northern Cascades National Park, Washington. Onboard as part of Expedition 52 are: NASA astronauts Peggy Whitson, Jack Fischer, and Randy Bresnik; Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Sergey Ryazanskiy; and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Paolo Nespoli. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse - ISS Transit

    2017-08-21

    This composite image, made from 4 frames, shows the International Space Station, with a crew of six onboard, as it transits the Sun at roughly five miles per second during a partial solar eclipse, Monday, Aug. 21, 2017 from , Northern Cascades National Park in Washington. Onboard as part of Expedition 52 are: NASA astronauts Peggy Whitson, Jack Fischer, and Randy Bresnik; Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Sergey Ryazanskiy; and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Paolo Nespoli. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Campaign for a New Eclipsing Cepheid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henden, Arne; Welch, Doug; Terrell, Dirk

    2007-06-01

    ASAS 182611+1212.6, discovered by Pojmanski et al. during the ASAS survey, independently discovered by Antipin at al. on Moscow archive plates, and found in the NSVS (Wozniak et al. 2004, AJ 127, 2436), was initially classified as a typical Type II Cepheid with a period of 4.1523 days. However, scatter in the light curve indicated possible multiperiodic behavior. After 3 years of CCD observations by Antipin, the system was seen to exhibit eclipses of period 51.38 days and amplitude about 0.3 mag (primary) and possibly about 0.2 mag (secondary). This is the first known glactic eclipsing binary Cepheid. The AAVSO is conducting a campaign to study this star via high-precision, multicolor photometry obtained over several eclipse cycles. Observers are requested to obtain multicolor photometry with a S/N=100 or better on every image. Time resolution of one hour is adequate, so cycling through the filters need not be rushed. Apply transformation coefficients when possible. For calculating ephemerides, the pulsational maximum occurred on HJD 2453196.529 with a period of 4.1523 days; the eclipse primary minimum occurred on HJD 2453571.36 with a period of 51.38 days. The next primary eclipse will occur around July 9, but these eclipses are several days wide. A finding chart may be found at http://www.aavso.org/observing/charts/vsp (enter ASAS182612 for its name, or use the coordinates) with suitable comparison stars marked. Report/upload observations to the AAVSO.

  12. 78 FR 30243 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for all Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 airplanes equipped with Avio, Avio with ETT, or Avio... identified in this proposed AD, contact Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. 26 East Palatine Road, Wheeling, Illinois...

  13. 78 FR 49908 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eclipse Aerospace... Eclipse Aerospace, Inc., 26 East Palatine Road, Wheeling, Illinois 60090; telephone: (877) 373-7978...

  14. The eclipse of the Sun from 20 May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiron, S. D.

    2015-04-01

    The interview of the Radio Moldova with astronomer about the coming Eclipse of the Sun, included the following topics: 1) The circumstances of the Total eclipse 2) The circumstances of the Partial Eclipse in the Republic of Moldova 3) Protection of eyes during Observations

  15. Living matter: the "lunar eclipse" phenomena.

    PubMed

    Korpan, Nikolai N

    2010-01-01

    The present investigations describe a unique phenomenon, namely the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse", which has been observed and discovered by the author in living substance during the freeze-thawing processes in vivo using temperatures of various intensities and its cryosurgical response in animal experiment. Similar phenomena author has observed in nature, namely the total lunar eclipse and total solar eclipse. In this experimental study 76 animals (mongrel dogs) were investigated. A disc cryogenic probe was placed on the pancreas after the laparotomy. For cryosurgical exposure a temperature range of -40 degrees C, -80 degrees C, -120 degrees C and -180 degrees C was selected in contact with pancreas parenchyma. The freeze-thaw cycle was monitored by intraoperative ultrasound before, during and after cryosurgery. Each cryolesion was observed for one hour after thawing intraoperatively. Immediately after freezing, during the thawing process, the snow-white pancreas parenchyma, frozen hard to an ice block and resembling a full moon with a sharp demarcation line, gradually assumed a ruby-red shade and a hemispherical shape as it grew in size depend on reconstruction vascular circulation from the periphery to the center. This snow-white cryogenic lesion dissolved in the same manner in all animal tissues. The "lunar eclipse" phenomenon contributes to a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of biological tissue damage during low temperature exposure in cryoscience and cryomedicine. Properties of the pancreas parenchyma response during the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the formation of cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Vascular changes and circulatory stagnation are commonly considered to be the main mechanism of biological tissue injury during low temperature exposure. The phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" suggests that cryosurgery is the first surgical technique to use

  16. Total solar eclipse of 1995 October 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1994-01-01

    A total eclipse of the sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 24 Oct. 1995. The path of the moon's shadow begins in the Middle East and sweeps across India, Southeast Asia, and the waters of the Indonesian archipelago before ending at sunset in the Pacific. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality.

  17. Chandra Sees Remarkable Eclipse of Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This eclipse has allowed two key predictions about the effects of supermassive black holes to be tested. Just as eclipses of the Sun and moon give astronomers rare opportunities to learn about those objects, an alignment in a nearby galaxy has provided a rare opportunity to investigate a supermassive black hole. Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse The supermassive black hole is located in NGC 1365, a galaxy 60 million light years from Earth. It contains a so called active galactic nucleus, or AGN. Scientists believe that the black hole at the center of the AGN is fed by a steady stream of material, presumably in the form of a disk. Material just about to fall into a black hole should be heated to millions of degrees before passing over the event horizon, or point of no return. The disk of gas around the central black hole in NGC 1365 produces copious X-rays but is much too small to resolve directly with a telescope. However, the disk was eclipsed by an intervening cloud, so observation of the time taken for the disk to go in and out of eclipse allowed scientists to estimate the size of the disk. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation "For years we've been struggling to confirm the size of this X-ray structure," said Guido Risaliti of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass, and the Italian Institute of Astronomy (INAF). "This serendipitous eclipse enabled us to make this breakthrough." The Chandra team directly measured the size of the X-ray source as about seven times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. That means the source of X-rays is about 2 billion times smaller than the host galaxy and only about 10 times larger than the estimated size of the black hole's event horizon, consistent with theoretical predictions. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 1365

  18. NASA Videofile of Solar Eclipse from Jefferson City, Missouri

    2017-08-21

    During the eclipse, 14 states across the U.S. were in the path of totality and experienced more than two minutes of darkness in the middle of the day – with a partial eclipse viewable all across North America. The broadcast – Eclipse Across America: Through the Eyes of NASA – covered locations along the path of totality, from Oregon to South Carolina including public reactions from all ages. During this event, NASA Glenn Research Center celebrates the eclipse at the capital eclipse event in Jefferson City, MO

  19. The 1982 ultraviolet eclipse of the symbiotic binary AR Pav

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Cowley, A. P.; Ake, T. B.; Imhoff, C. L.

    1983-01-01

    Observations with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) of the symbiotic binary AR Pav through its 1982 eclipse show that the hot star is not eclipsed. The hot star is associated with an extended region of continuum emission which is partially eclipsed. The eclipsed radiation is hotter near to its center, with a maximum temperature of about 9000 K. The uneclipsed flux is hotter than this. UV emission lines are not measurably eclipsed and presumably arise in a much larger region than the continuum. These data provide new constraints on models of the system but also are apparently in contradiction to those based on ground-based data.

  20. Notable Images of the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Teresa; Dahiwale, Aishwarya; Nemiroff, Robert; Bonnell, Jerry

    2018-01-01

    The "Great American Eclipse" – the total solar eclipse visible across the USA on 21 August 2017 – resulted in some notable eclipse images and videos high in educational and scientific value. Some of the images that were selected to appear on the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) website are shown in high resolution accompanied by educational descriptions. The questions of whether this eclipse was the most viewed and the most photographed event of any type in human history will be discussed. People are invited to come by and share their own eclipse images and stories.

  1. Spirit Movie of Phobos Eclipse, Sol 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Spirit Phobos Eclipse Animation

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit observed the Martian moon Phobos entering the shadow of Mars during the night of the rover's 675th sol (Nov. 27, 2005). The panoramic camera captured 16 images, spaced 10 seconds apart, covering the period from when Phobos was in full sunlight to when it was entirely in shadow. As with our own Moon during lunar eclipses on Earth, even when in the planet's shadow, Phobos was not entirely dark. The small amount of light still visible from Phobos is a kind of 'Mars-shine' -- sunlight reflected through Mars' atmosphere and into the shadowed region.

    This clip is a sequence of the 16 images showing the eclipse at about 10 times normal speed. It shows the movement of Phobos from left to right as the moon enters the shadow. Scientists are using information about the precise timing of Martian moon eclipses gained from observations such as these to refine calculations about the orbital path of Phobos. The precise position of Phobos will be important to any future spacecraft taking detailed pictures of the moon or landing on its surface.

  2. New Eclipsing Contact Binary System in Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, S. J.; Robertson, J. W.; Justice, C.; Campbell, R. T.; Hoskins, J.

    2004-05-01

    We present data on a newly discovered eclipsing binary system. The serendipitous discovery of this variable star was made by J.W. Robertson analyzing inhomogeneous ensemble photometry of stars in the field of the cataclysmic variable FS Aurigae from Indiana University RoboScope data. We obtained differential time-series BVR photometry during 2003 of this field variable using an ensemble of telescopes including the university observatories at ATU, UCA and joint ventures with amateur observatories in the state of Arkansas (Whispering Pines Observatory and Nubbin Ridge Observatory). The orbital period of this eclipsing system is 0.2508 days. The B-V light curve indicates colors of 1.2 around quadrature, to nearly 1.4 at primary eclipse. Binary star light curve models that best fit the BVR differential photometry suggest that the system is a contact binary overfilling the inner Roche Lobe by 12%, a primary component with a temperature of 4350K, a secondary component with a temperature of 3500K, a mass ratio of 0.37, and an inclination of 83 degrees. We present BVR light curves, an ephemeris, and best fit model parameters for the physical characteristics of this new eclipsing binary system.

  3. Data Collection during the Great American Eclipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernier, Dave

    2017-01-01

    In this article Dave Vernier describes how he turned the total eclipse on August 21, 2017 into a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) lesson by taking data. He asked teachers and former teachers to join in collecting data and to share it. The most frequently monitored parameters were illuminance (a measure of light brightness as…

  4. Observations of the Eclipsing Millisecond Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookbinder, Jay

    1990-12-01

    FRUCHTER et al. (1988a) HAVE RECENTLY DISCOVERED a 1.6 MSEC PULSAR (PSR 1957+20) IN A 9.2 HOUR ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM. THE UNUSUAL BEHAVIOR OF THE DISPERSION MEASURE AS A FUNCTION OF ORBITAL PHASE, AND THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PULSAR SIGNAL FOR 50 MINUTES DURING EACH ORBIT, IMPLIES THAT THE ECLIPSES ARE DUE TO A PULSAR-INDUCED WIND FLOWING OFF OF THE COMPANION. THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART IS A 21ST MAGNITUDE OBJECT WHICH VARIES IN INTENSITY OVER THE BINARY PERIOD; ACCURATE GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS ARE PREVENTED BY THE PROXIMITY (0.7") OF A 20TH MAGNITUDE K DWARF. WE PROPOSE TO OBSERVE THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART IN A TWO-PART STUDY. FIRST, THE WF/PC WILL PROVIDE ACCURATE MULTICOLOR PHOTOMETRY, ENABLING US TO DETERMINE UNCONTAMINATED MAGNITUDES AND COLORS BOTH AT MAXIMUM (ANTI-ECLIPSE) AS WELL AS AT MINIMUM (ECLIPSE). SECOND, WE PROPOSE TO OBSERVE THE EXPECTED UV LINE EMISSION WITH FOS, ALLOWING FOR AN INTIAL DETERMINATION OF THE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCES OF THE WIND THAT IS BEING ABLATED FROM THE COMPANION. STUDY OF THIS UNIQUE SYSTEM HOLDS ENORMOUS POTENTIAL FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RADIATION FIELD OF A MILLISECOND PULSAR AND THE EVOLUTION OF LMXRBs AND MSPs IN GENERAL. WE EXPECT THESE OBSERVATIONS TO PLACE VERY SIGNIFICANT CONTRAINTS ON MODELS OF THIS UNIQUE OBJECT.

  5. Bringing the Great American Solar Eclipse to West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesee, A. M.; Williamson, K.; Robertson-Honecker, J.

    2017-12-01

    West Virginia experienced up to 90% coverage during the Great American Solar Eclipse on August 21st. To reach the greatest number of West Virginians, we targeted educators and the 4-H program to provide those community leaders with the tools to help students learn about and safely view the eclipse. We developed a website that consolodated relevant eclipse activities, fact sheets, and outreach videos to train educators and others in the public about the science of the eclipse and how to view a partial eclipse safely. The 4-H Summer Experiement used at all 4-H summer camps and events was designed to focus on the eclipse. We distributed over 20,000 custom designed eclipse glasses. These were distributed to teachers through an online request system and to 4-H members involved in summer activities. We hosted a pre-eclipse event on the campus of West Virginia University for the public to learn about the science of the eclipse, relevant research being conducted at the university, and provide tips for safe viewing. Student volunteers were available on campus during the day of the eclipse to hand out glasses and answer questions. We will present the results of our outreach and events as well as lessons learned for the 2024 eclipse. Support for this project was provided by the WVU Department of Physics and Astronomy, WVU Extension, the WV Space Grant Consortium, a WVU internal grant, the Green Bank Observatory, and individual supporters of a crowdfunding campaign.

  6. Spectral irradiance curve calculations for any type of solar eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.; Merrill, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for calculating the eclipse function (EF), alpha, and hence the spectral irradiance curve (SIC), (1-alpha), for any type of solar eclipse: namely, the occultation (partial/total) eclipse and the transit (partial/annular) eclipse. The SIC (or the EF) gives the variation of the amount (or the loss) of solar radiation of a given wavelength reaching a distant observer for various positions of the moon across the sun. The scheme is based on the theory of light curves of eclipsing binaries, the results of which are tabulated in Merrill's Tables, and is valid for all wavelengths for which the solar limb-darkening obeys the cosine law: J = sub c (1 - X + X cost gamma). As an example of computing the SIC for an occultation eclipse which may be total, the calculations for the March 7, 1970, eclipse are described in detail.

  7. Report of the IAU Working Group on Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2015-08-01

    The Working Group on Solar Eclipses coordinates scientists and information in the study of the Sun and the heliosphere at solar eclipses. Our Website at http://eclipses.info has a wide variety of information, including links to maps and other websites dealing with solar eclipses, as well as information on how to observe the partial-phases of solar eclipses safely and why it is interesting for not only scientists but also for the public to observe eclipses and to see how we work to uncover the mysteries of the sun's upper atmosphere. In the last triennium, there were total eclipses in Australia and the Pacific in 2012; in an arc across Africa from Gabon to Uganda and Kenya in 2013; and in the Arctic, including Svalbard and the Faeroes plus many airplanes aloft, in 2015. In the coming triennium, there will be total solar eclipses in Indonesia and the Pacific in 2016 and then, on 21 August 2017, a total solar eclipse that will sweep across the Continental United States from northwest to southeast. Mapping websites, all linked to http://eclipses.info, include Fred Espenak's http://EclipseWise.com; Michael Zeiler's http://GreatAmericanEclipse.com and http://eclipse-maps.com; Xavier Jubier's http://xjubier.free.fr; and (with weather and cloudiness analysis) Jay Anderson's http://eclipser.ca. Members of the Working Group, chaired by Jay Pasachoff (U.S.), include Iraida Kim (Russia), Kiroki Kurokawa (Japan), Jagdev Singh (India), Vojtech Rusin (Slovakia), Zhongquan Qu (China), Fred Espenak (U.S.), Jay Anderson (Canada), Glenn Schneider (U.S.), Michael Gill (U.K.), Xavier Jubier (France), Michael Zeiler (U.S.), and Bill Kramer (U.S.).

  8. Eclipse Megamovie: Solar Discoveries, Education, and Outreach through Crowdsourcing 2017 Eclipse Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Hudson, H. S.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Johnson, C.; Zevin, D.; Krista, L. D.; Bender, M.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Konerding, D.; Koh, J.; Pasachoff, J.; Lorimore, B.; Jiang, G.; Storksdieck, M.; Yan, D.; Shore, L.; Fraknoi, A.; Filippenko, A.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011, a team of solar scientists, eclipse chasers, education and outreach professionals, and film makers have been working to explore the possibility of gathering images from the public during the 2017 eclipse across the United States, to be used for scientific research, education, and enhancing the public's experience of the eclipse. After years of testing the initial ideas, engaging new organizations, and exploring new technologies, our team has developed a blueprint for this project. There are three main goals for this effort: 1. to learn more about the dynamic non-equilibrium processes in the corona and lower atmosphere of the Sun, 2. to educate the public about space physics, 3. provide different levels of engagement opportunities for an interested public, and 4. to understand how these various levels of engagement with a major scientific phenomena allow people to develop deeper personal connections to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). We will meet these goals by training 1000 volunteers to take scientifically valid images and donate the images to this project, while also allowing the general public to share their images as well. During the Aug 21, 2017 eclipse, we will analyze these images in real-time to produce public-generated movies showing the corona of the Sun during totality from thousands of people. These movies will be disseminated in near real-time (on the order of 10s of minutes) to other eclipse programs, news organizations, and to the general public. Meanwhile, images collected during and after the eclipse will be available to scientists and the public for research purposes. To further engage the public, video clips, film, and a documentary will be produced prior and after the event. A science education research team will work alongside the team to understand how the project supports deeper connections to the eclipse experience.

  9. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  10. Eclipsing Binaries with Possible Tertiary Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, LeRoy F.

    2013-05-01

    Many eclipsing binary star systems (EBS) show long-term variations in their orbital periods which are evident in their O-C (observed minus calculated period) diagrams. This research carried out an analysis of 324 eclipsing binary systems taken from the systems analyzed in the Bob Nelson's O-C Files database. Of these 18 systems displayed evidence of periodic variations of the arrival times of the eclipses. These rates of period changes are sinusoidal variations. The sinusoidal character of these variations is suggestive of Keplerian motion caused by an orbiting companion. The reason for these changes is unknown, but mass loss, apsidal motion, magnetic activity and the presence of a third body have been proposed. This paper has assumed light time effect as the cause of the sinusoidal variations caused by the gravitational pull of a tertiary companion orbiting around the eclipsing binary systems. An observed minus calculated (O-C) diagram of the 324 systems was plotted using a quadratic ephemeris to determine if the system displayed a sinusoidal trend in theO-C residuals. After analysis of the 18 systems, seven systems, AW UMa, BB PEG, OO Aql, V508 Oph, VW Cep, WCrv and YY ERI met the benchmark of the criteria of a possible orbiting companion. The other 11 systems displayed a sinusoidal variation in the O-C residuals of the primary eclipses but these systems in the Bob Nelson's O-C Files did not contain times of minimum (Tmin) of the secondary eclipses and therefore not conclusive in determining the presents of the effects of a tertiary companion. An analysis of the residuals of the seven systems yields a light-time semi-amplitude, orbital period, eccentricity and mass of the tertiary companion as the amplitude of the variation is proportional to the mass, period and inclination of the 3rd orbiting body. Knowing the low mass of the tertiary body in the seven cases the possibility of five of these tertiary companions being brown dwarfs is discussed.

  11. Ep7_Total Eclipse over America

    2017-08-18

    >> Houston, we have a podcast. Welcome to the official podcast of the nasa johnson space center, episode 7: total eclipse over america. I m gary jordan and i ll be your host today. So this is the podcast where we bring in the experts-- nasa scientists, engineers, astronauts-- all to tell you the coolest stuff about nasa. So today we re talking about eclipses with mark matney. He s a space debris scientist here at the nasa johnson space center in houston texas, and he also has degrees in astronomy and space physics, and is an avid eclipse aficionado. We had a great discussion about what an eclipse is, some of the history of eclipses, and some of the science that we ve learned and continue to learn from them. This is an exciting conversation, especially because on august 21, 2017, a total solar eclipse will sweep across america. Mark and i talked about where the eclipse will pass through and how you ll be able to see it. They don t happen very often-- the last time a total solar eclipse happened over the states was back in 1991, and we won t see another until 2024. Anyway, we ll get into all that good stuff during this episode. So with no further delay, let s go light speed and jump right ahead to our talk with dr. Mark matney. Enjoy. [ Music ] >> t minus five seconds and counting. Mark. [ Indistinct radio chatter ] >> houston, we have a podcast. [ Music ] >> all right, well, mark, thank you for coming on the podcast today. Perfect timing, because very soon we re going to have a total solar eclipse that s going to pass over the united states. And so i think this is a good chance for us to sit down and talk about eclipses. And you went above and beyond for this one, mark, because you have a lot of different things. I mean, we re talking a lot of science, we re talking a long and detailed history of eclipses. You know, this is not just a, ooh, look at that. Pretty eclipse. No, nasa s going all out for this-- is that fair to say? >> Well, i think this is-- i mean

  12. SDO Sees Spring Eclipse April, 3

    2017-12-08

    NASA image captured April 3, 2011 Twice a year, SDO enters an eclipse season where the spacecraft slips behind Earth for up to 72 minutes a day. Unlike the crisp shadow one sees on the sun during a lunar eclipse, Earth's shadow has a variegated edge due to its atmosphere, which blocks the sun light to different degrees depending on its density. Also, light from brighter spots on the sun may make it through, which is why some solar features extend low into Earth's shadow. Credit: NASA/GSFC/SDO NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  13. SDO Sees Spring Eclipse, April 2

    2017-12-08

    NASA image captured April 2, 2011 Twice a year, SDO enters an eclipse season where the spacecraft slips behind Earth for up to 72 minutes a day. Unlike the crisp shadow one sees on the sun during a lunar eclipse, Earth's shadow has a variegated edge due to its atmosphere, which blocks the sun light to different degrees depending on its density. Also, light from brighter spots on the sun may make it through, which is why some solar features extend low into Earth's shadow. Credit: NASA/GSFC/SDO NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  14. SDO Sees Spring Eclipse, April 1

    2017-12-08

    NASA image captured April 1, 2011 Twice a year, SDO enters an eclipse season where the spacecraft slips behind Earth for up to 72 minutes a day. Unlike the crisp shadow one sees on the sun during a lunar eclipse, Earth's shadow has a variegated edge due to its atmosphere, which blocks the sun light to different degrees depending on its density. Also, light from brighter spots on the sun may make it through, which is why some solar features extend low into Earth's shadow. Credit: NASA/GSFC/SDO NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  15. Eclipse '17 at Indiana University Bloomington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Karna Mahadev; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    August 21, 2017, is the first day of fall classes at Indiana University Bloomington. On campus, we will host viewing stations to assist students, faculty, and community members to watch the eclipse safely. The Kirkwood Observatory solar telescope will provide an online view of the event. Science teachers of Indiana will be surveyed to understand their needs to be prepared for the first week of classes. Working this spring with K12 educators and other local organizations involved in science outreach, we will help to prepare Indiana classrooms to take advantage of the August event to meet the goals of Indiana’s state science standards with eclipse-related activities at all grade levels. These activities are aimed at increasing the scientific literacy in rural Indiana.

  16. Photometric Analysis of Eclipsing Binary Az Vir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugarten, Andrew; Akiba, Tatsuya; Gokhale, Vayujeet

    2018-06-01

    We present photometric analysis of the eclipsing binary star system Az Vir. Standard BVR filter data were obtained using the 17-inch PlaneWave Instruments CDK telescope at the Truman State University Observatory in Kirksville, Mo and the 31-inch NURO telescope at the Lowell Observatory complex in Flagstaff, AZ. We apply an eight-term truncated Fourier fit to the light curves generated from these data to confirm the classification of Az Vir as a W Ursae Majoris-type eclipsing variable, using criteria specified by Rucinski (1997). We also calculate the values for the O’Connell Effect Ratio (OER) and the Light Curve Asymmetry (LCA) to quantify the asymmetry in the BVR light curves. In addition, we use data provided by the SuperWASP mission to perform long term O-C (observed minus calculated) analysis on the system to determine if and how its period is changing.

  17. Eclipse program C-141A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wind loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  18. Eclipse program C-141A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. The project used a QF-106 interceptor aircraft to simulate a future orbiter, which would be towed to a high altitude and released to fire its own engines and carry a payload into space. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  19. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  20. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    2002-01-01

    On Saturday, 2003 May 31, an annular eclipse of the Sun will be visible from a broad corridor that traverses the North Atlantic. The path of the Moon's antumbral shadow begins in northern Scotland, crosses Iceland and central Greenland, and ends at sunrise in Baffin Bay (Canada). A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes most of Europe, the Middle East, central and northern Asia, and northwestern North America. The trajectory of the Moon's shadow is quite unusual during this event. The shadow axis passes to the far north where it barely grazes Earth's surface. In fact, the northern edge of the antumbra actually misses Earth so that one path limit is defined by the day/night terminator rather than by the shadow's upper edge. As a result, the track of annularity has a peculiar "D" shape that is nearly 1200 kilometers wide. Since the eclipse occurs just three weeks prior to the northern summer solstice, Earth's northern axis is pointed sunwards by 22.8 deg. As seen from the Sun, the antumbral shadow actually passes between the North Pole and the terminator. As a consequence of this extraordinary geometry, the path of annularity runs from east to west rather than the more typical west to east. The event transpires near the Moon's ascending node in Taurus five degrees north of Aldebaran. Since apogee occurs three days earlier (May 28 at 13 UT), the Moon's apparent diameter (29.6 arc-minutes) is still too small to completely cover the Sun (31.6 arc-minutes) resulting in an annular eclipse.

  1. Digitizing Villanova University's Eclipsing Binary Card Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Giannina; Dalton, Briana; Conroy, Kyle; Prsa, Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Villanova University’s Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science has years of hand-written archival data on Eclipsing Binaries at its disposal. This card catalog began at Princeton in the 1930’s with notable contributions from scientists such as Henry Norris Russel. During World War II, the archive was moved to the University of Pennsylvania, which was one of the world centers for Eclipsing Binary research, consequently, the contributions to the catalog during this time were immense. It was then moved to University of Florida at Gainesville before being accepted by Villanova in the 1990’s. The catalog has been kept in storage since then. The objective of this project is to digitize this archive and create a fully functional online catalog that contains the information available on the cards, along with the scan of the actual cards. Our group has built a database using a python-powered infrastructure to contain the collected data. The team also built a prototype web-based searchable interface as a front-end to the catalog. Following the data-entry process, information like the Right Ascension and Declination will be run against SIMBAD and any differences between values will be noted as part of the catalog. Information published online from the card catalog and even discrepancies in information for a star, could be a catalyst for new studies on these Eclipsing Binaries. Once completed, the database-driven interface will be made available to astronomers worldwide. The group will also acquire, from the database, a list of referenced articles that have yet to be found online in order to further pursue their digitization. This list will be comprised of references in the cards that were neither found on ADS nor online during the data-entry process. Pursuing the integration of these references to online queries such as ADS will be an ongoing process that will contribute and further facilitate studies on Eclipsing Binaries.

  2. Spirit View of Phobos Eclipse, Sol 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Spirit View of Phobos Eclipse, Sol 675

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit observed the Martian moon Phobos entering the shadow of Mars during the night of the rover's 675th sol (Nov. 27, 2005). The panoramic camera captured 16 images, spaced 10 seconds apart, covering the period from when Phobos was in full sunlight to when it was entirely in shadow. As with our own Moon during lunar eclipses on Earth, even when in the planet's shadow, Phobos was not entirely dark. The small amount of light still visible from Phobos is a kind of 'Mars-shine' -- sunlight reflected through Mars' atmosphere and into the shadowed region.

    This view is a time-lapse composite of images taken 20 seconds apart, showing the movement of Phobos from left to right. (At 10 seconds apart, the images of the moon overlap each other.) Scientists are using information about the precise timing of Martian moon eclipses gained from observations such as these to refine calculations about the orbital path of Phobos. The precise position of Phobos will be important to any future spacecraft taking detailed pictures of the moon or landing on its surface.

  3. Relativistic apsidal motion in eccentric eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M.; Claret, A.; Kotková, L.; Kučáková, H.; Kocián, R.; Brát, L.; Svoboda, P.; Šmelcer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Context. The study of apsidal motion in detached eclipsing binary systems is known to be an important source of information about stellar internal structure as well as the possibility of verifying of General Relativity outside the Solar System. Aims: As part of the long-term Ondřejov and Ostrava observational projects, we aim to measure precise times of minima for eccentric eclipsing binaries, needed for the accurate determination of apsidal motion, providing a suitable test of the effects of General Relativity. Methods: About seventy new times of minimum light recorded with photoelectric or CCD photometers were obtained for ten eccentric-orbit eclipsing binaries with significant relativistic apsidal motion. Their O-C diagrams were analysed using all reliable timings found in the literature, and new or improved elements of apsidal motion were obtained. Results: We confirm very long periods of apsidal motion for all systems. For BF Dra and V1094 Tau, we present the first apsidal-motion solution. The relativistic effects are dominant, representing up to 100% of the total observable apsidal-motion rate in several systems. The theoretical and observed values of the internal structure constant k 2 were compared for systems with lower relativistic contribution. Using the light-time effect solution, we predict a faint third component for V1094 Tau orbiting with a short period of about 8 years. Partly based on photoelectric observations secured at the Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Zagreb, Croatia, in October 2008.

  4. Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.

  5. Eclipse Megamovie 2017: How did we do?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh; Bender, Mark; Collier, Braxton; Johnson, Calvin; Koh, Justin; Konerding, David; Martinez Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Peticolas, Laura; White, Vivian; Zevin, Dan

    2018-01-01

    The Eclipse Megamovie program, as set up for the Great American Eclipse of 21 August 2017, achived a massive volunteer participation, making maximal use existing equipment but with coordinated training. Everything worked fine, and the archive entered the public domain on Friday, October 6. It comprises about 800 GB of data from DSLR cameras and telescopes. An additional 200 GB of data were obtained by smartphone cameras operating a dedicated free app. The massive oversampling made possible by the many (about 2500) volunteer observers has opened new parameter space for tracking coronal and chromospheric time development. Fortuitously some solar activity appeared during the 90-minute period of totality, including a C-class flare and an ongoing CME. At the smartphone level, with the advantage of precise GPS timing, we have data on solar structure via the timing of Baily's Beads at the 2nd and 3rd contacts. The Megamovie archive is an historical first, and we hope that it has already been a springboard for citizen-science projects. We discuss the execution of the program, presenting some of the 2017 science plans and results. We expect that the eclipse of 2024 will be better still.

  6. Public education in developing countries on the occasions of eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    Total solar eclipses will cross southern Africa on June 21, 2001, and on December 4, 2002. Most of Africa will see partial phases. The total phase of the 2001 eclipse will be visible from parts of Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Madagascar. The total phase of the 2002 eclipse will be visible from parts of Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Mozambique. Public education must be undertaken to tell the people how to look at the eclipse safely. We can take advantage of having the attention of the people and of news media to teach about not only eclipses but also the rest of astronomy. I am Chair of a "Public Education at Eclipses" subcommission of IAU Commission 46 on the Teaching of Astronomy, and we are able to advise educators and others about materials, procedures and information releases.

  7. The 2017 Total Solar Eclipse: Through the Eyes of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. Alex; Mayo, Louis; Ng, Carolyn; Cline, Troy; Lewis, Elaine; Reed, Shannon; Debebe, Asidesach; Stephenson, Bryan; Odenwald, Sten; Hill, Steele; Wright, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    The August 21, 2017 eclipse will be the first time a total solar eclipse has traversed the Continental US since June 8th, 1918. Anticipation and energy for this eclipse is off the charts! Over 500 million in North America alone will catch the eclipse in either partial or total phase. Parts of South America, Africa, and Europe will see a partial eclipse as well. NASA is planning to take full advantage of this unique celestial event as an education and public engagement opportunity by leveraging its extensive networks of partners, numerous social media platforms, broadcast media, and its significant unique space assets and people to bring the eclipse to America and the world as only NASA can.This talk will outline NASA’s education plans in some detail replicating our many Big Events successes including the 2012 Transit of Venus and the MSL/Curiosity landing and show how scientists and the public can get involved.

  8. Solar Eclipses and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2009-05-01

    Solar eclipses capture the attention of millions of people in the countries from which they are visible and provide a major opportunity for public education, in addition to the scientific research and student training that they provide. The 2009 International Year of Astronomy began with an annular eclipse visible from Indonesia on 26 January, with partial phases visible also in other parts of southeast Asia. On 22 July, a major and unusually long total solar eclipse will begin at dawn in India and travel across China, with almost six minutes of totality visible near Shanghai and somewhat more visible from Japanese islands and from ships at sea in the Pacific. Partial phases will be visible from most of eastern Asia, from mid-Sumatra and Borneo northward to mid-Siberia. Eclipse activities include many scientific expeditions and much ecotourism to Shanghai, Hangzhou, and vicinity. My review article on "Eclipses as an Astrophysical Laboratory" will appear in Nature as part of their IYA coverage. Our planetarium presented teacher workshops and we made a film about solar research. Several new books about the corona or eclipses are appearing or have appeared. Many articles are appearing in astronomy magazines and other outlets. Eclipse interviews are appearing on the Planetary Society's podcast "365 Days of Astronomy" and on National Geographic Radio. Information about the eclipse and safe observation of the partial phases are available at http://www.eclipses.info, the Website of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses and of its Program Group on Public Education at the Times of Eclipses of its Commission on Education and Development. The Williams College Expedition to the 2009 Eclipse in the mountains near Hangzhou, China, is supported in part by a grant from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. E/PO workshops were supported by NASA.

  9. Total Eclipse From Onboard NASA's G-III Research Aircraft

    2017-09-13

    As the 2017 solar eclipse approaches and enters totality, NASA Armstrong staff and NASA senior management share their excitement and first-hand experience from aboard NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center Gulfstream III aircraft. The G-III aircraft flew at 35,000 feet above the coast of Oregon during the 2017 total solar eclipse, capturing some of the very first views of the 2017 total solar eclipse as it made its way across the United States.

  10. Practicing for 2023 and 2024: What the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force Learned from the "Great American Eclipse" of 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Speck, A. K.; Habbal, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    More than three years ahead of the "Great American Eclipse" of August 2017, the American Astronomical Society formed the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force to function as a think tank, coordinating body, and communication gateway to the vast resources available about the 2017 eclipse and solar eclipses more generally. The task force included professional and amateur astronomers, formal and informal educators, and science journalists; many had experienced total solar eclipses before, and others would experience their first totality in August 2017. The AAS task force secured funding from the AAS Council, the National Science Foundation, and NASA. These resources were used mainly for three purposes: (1) to build a website that contains basic information about solar eclipses, safe viewing practices, and eclipse imaging and video, along with resources for educators and the media and a searchable map of eclipse-related events and activities, with links to other authoritative websites with more detailed information; (2) to solicit, receive, evaluate, and fund proposals for mini-grants to support eclipse-related education and public outreach to underrepresented groups both inside and outside the path of totality; and (3) to organize a series of multidisciplinary workshops across the country to prepare communities for the eclipse and to facilitate collaborations between astronomers, meteorologists, school administrators, and transporation and emergency-management professionals. Most importantly, the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force focused on developing and disseminating appropriate eclipse safety information. The AAS and NASA jointly developed safety messaging that won the endorsement of the American Academies of Opthalmology and Optometry. In the weeks immediately preceding the eclipse, it became clear that the marketplace was being flooded by counterfeit eclipse glasses and solar viewers, leading to a last minute change in our communication strategy. In this talk, we'll review the

  11. Fifty year canon of solar eclipses: 1986-2035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred

    1986-01-01

    A reference of moderately detailed eclipse predictions and maps for use by the professional astronomical community is provided. The general characteristics of every solar eclipse and a detailed set of cylindrical project world maps which show the umbral paths of every solar eclipse from 1901 to 2100 are presented. The geodetic path coordinates and local circumstance on the center line, and a series of orthographic projection maps which show the regions of visibility of both partial and central phases for every eclipse from 1986 through 2035 are also provided.

  12. First Results from the August 21, 2017, Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-08-01

    I report on the observations planned and, weather permitting, made from our site in Salem, Oregon, at the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. I also give a first report on collaborators' successes, including Megamovie and simultaneous space observations. We also describe our participation in PBS's NOVA on the eclipse that was to be aired on public television on eclipse night. Our eclipse expedition is supported in large part by grants from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of NSF and by the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

  13. The Totality App — General Lessons and Future Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jeffrey

    2018-06-01

    With the excitement around the 2017 eclipse, I worked with an app development company to create the Totality app, which featured eclipse predictions from the code of Xavier Jubier. We have since updated the app for future eclipses, including a Spanish version given the upcoming eclipses in Chile/Argentina. I will briefly discuss the current app, the process through which we developed it, and relevant lessons learned along the way that may be useful to others interested in developing apps for astronomy education.

  14. Moon eclipse from 21 december 2010 in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Haus, Marian; Conovici, Matei; Vasiliu, Dan

    2010-12-01

    The authors discuss the Total Moon's eclipse from 21 december 2010, their circumstances for Romania and Central Europe. One notes that the informations from the NASA eclipses website do not inform correctly about the observability of the initial penumbral phase (P1-U1) of the eclipse. The same reffer to the Anuarul Astronomic Roman, published by the Institutul Astronomic Roman for 2010. By contrary the web site by Fred Espenac informed correctly the astronomical community. The Moon setted before the begining of the penumbral phase of the eclipse.

  15. Lunar eclipses: Probing the atmosphere of an inhabited planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Muñoz, A.

    2013-04-01

    The Moon's brightness during a lunar eclipse is indicative of the composition, cloudiness and aerosol loading of the Earth's atmosphere. The idea of using lunar eclipse observations to characterize the Earth's atmosphere is not new, but the interest raised by the prospects of discovering Earth-like exoplanets transiting their host stars has brought renewed attention to the method. We review some recent efforts made in the prediction and interpretation of lunar eclipses. We also comment on the contribution of the lunar eclipse theory to the refractive theory of planetary transits.

  16. Educating the Public about the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-01-01

    On behalf of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses, I have long worked to bring knowledge about eclipses and how to observe the safely to the people of the various countries from which partial, annular, or total solar eclipses are visible. In 2017, we have first a chance to educate the people of South America on the occasion of the February 26 annular eclipse through southern Chile and Argentina that is partial throughout almost the entire continent (and an eclipse workshop will be held February 22-24 in Esquel, Argentina: http://sion.frm.utn.edu.ar/WDEAII) and then a chance to educate the 300 million people of the United States and others in adjacent countries as far south as northern South America about the glories of totality and how to observe partial phases. Our website, a compendium of links to information about maps, safe observing, science, and more is at http://eclipses.info. We link to important mapping sites at EclipseWise.com, GreatAmericanEclipse.com, and http://xjubier.free.fr/en/site_pages/solar_eclipses/xSE_GoogleMap3.php?Ecl=+20170821&Acc=2&Umb=1&Lmt=1&Mag=1&Max=1, and information about cloudiness statistics at http://eclipsophile.com, as well as simulation sites at https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=4314 and http://eyes.jpl.nasa.gov. The American Astronomical Society's task force on the 2017 eclipse has a website at http://eclipse.aas.org. We are working to disseminate accurate information about how and why to observe the total solar eclipse, trying among other things to head off common misinformation about the hazards of looking at the sun at eclipses or otherwise. About 12 million Americans live within the 70-mile-wide band of totality, and we encourage others to travel into it, trying to make clear the difference between even a 99% partial eclipse and a total eclipse, with its glorious Baily's beads, diamond rings, and totality that on this occasion lasts between 2 minutes and 2 minutes 40 seconds

  17. Solar diameter measurements from eclipses as a solar variability proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David W.; Sofia, Sabatino; Guhl, Konrad; Herald, David

    The widths of total solar eclipse paths depends on the diameter of the Sun, so if observations are obtained near both the northern and southern limits of the eclipse path, in principle, the angular diameter of the Sun can be measured. Concerted efforts have been made to obtain contact timings from locations near total solar eclipse path edges since the mid 19th century, and Edmund Halley organized a rather successful first effort in 1715. Members of IOTA have been making increasingly sophisticated observations of the Baily's bead phenomena near central solar eclipse path edges since 1970.

  18. Kepler eclipsing binary stars. IV. Precise eclipse times for close binaries and identification of candidate three-body systems

    SciT

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prša, Andrej

    2014-02-01

    We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levelsmore » in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. This study complements J. A. Orosz et al. (in preparation), which focuses on eclipse timing variations of longer period binaries with flat out-of-eclipse regions. Together, these two papers provide comprehensive eclipse timings for all binaries in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, as an ongoing resource freely accessible online to the community.« less

  19. The Great American Eclipse: Lessons Learned from Public Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edson, Shauna Elizabeth; Phoebe Waterman Haas Public Observatory

    2018-01-01

    The total solar eclipse of 2017 was a high-profile opportunity for nationwide public education. Astronomy experts suddenly became vital sources of information for a lay population whose interest in the eclipse greatly surpassed expectations. At the National Air and Space Museum, we leveraged our relatively accessible location and particularly diverse audience to help thousands of people, from novices to enthusiasts, prepare to view the eclipse safely. The goal was to empower all people so they could experience this unique astronomical event, understand what was happening, and observe the Sun safely. Over the course of two years spent talking with the public about the eclipse, we encountered common misconceptions, worries about safety or liability, and people experiencing confusion or information overload. We developed guidelines for handling these challenges, from correcting misinformation to managing the sudden spike in demand for glasses just before August 21.In particular, we helped people understand the following essential points:- The total phase of the eclipse is only visible from a limited path.- The partial eclipse is visible from a large area outside the path of totality.- The eclipse takes up to three hours from start to finish, providing ample time for viewing.- The Sun can be observed safely using several methods, including but not limited to eclipse glasses.- The eclipse happens because the Moon’s orbit is taking it directly between the Sun and the Earth.- Eclipses do not happen every month because the Moon’s orbit is tilted with respect to the Earth's orbital plane.- Students in schools can safely view the eclipse, with proper protection and supervision, to prevent eye damage and minimize liability.Public education about the eclipse appears to have been successful, as evidenced by the large number of people who saw their first total solar eclipse and the absence of reported eye damage cases. Amidst the excitement, photographs, and stories that

  20. Campaign Photometry During The 2010 Eclipse Of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jeff; Stencel, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    Epsilon Aurigae is a long period (27.1 years) eclipsing binary star system with an eclipse that lasts nearly 2 years, but with severe ambiguities about component masses and shape. The current eclipse began on schedule in August of 2009. During the previous, 1982-1984 eclipse, an International Campaign was formed to coordinate a detailed study of the system. While that Campaign was deemed successful, the evolutionary status of the star system remained unclear. Epsilon Aurigae has been observed nearly continuously since the 1982 eclipse. The current Campaign was officially started in 2006. In addition to a Yahoo forum we have a dedicated web site and more than 18 online newsletters reporting photometry, spectroscopy, interferometry and polarimetry data. High quality UBVRIJH band photometric data since before the start of the current eclipse has been submitted. We explore the color differences among the light curves in terms of eclipse phases and archival data. At least one new model of the star system has been proposed since the current Campaign began: a low mass but very high luminosity F star plus a B star surrounded by a debris disk. The current eclipse and in particular the interferometry and spectroscopic data have caused new thoughts on defining eclipsing variable star contact points and phases of an eclipse. Second contact may not be the same point as start of totality and third contact may not be the same point as the start of egress and end of totality. In addition, the much awaited mid-eclipse brightening may or may not have appeared. This paper identifies the current Campaign contributors and the photometric data. This work was supported in part by the bequest of William Herschel Womble in support of astronomy at the University of Denver, by NSF grant 1016678 to the University of Denver.

  1. Public Education and Outreach for Observing Solar Eclipses and Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2015-08-01

    The general public is often very interested in observing solar eclipses, with widespread attention from newspapers and other sources often available only days before the events. Recently, the 2012 eclipse's partial phases in Australia and the 2015 eclipse's partial phases throughout Europe as well as western Asia and northern Africa, were widely viewed. The 21 August 2017 eclipse, whose totality will sweep across the Continental United States from northwest to southeast, will have partial phases visible throughout the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Central America, and into South America. The 2019 and 2020 partial phases of total eclipses will be visible throughout South America, and partial phases from annular eclipses will be visible from other parts of the world. The 9 May 2016 transit of Mercury will be best visible from the Western Hemisphere, Europe, and Africa. Many myths and misunderstandings exist about the safety of observing partial phases, and it is our responsibility as astronomers and educators to transmit accurate information and to attempt the widest possible distribution of such information. The Working Group on Public Education at Eclipses and Transits, formerly of Commission 46 on Education and Development and now of New Commission 11, tries to coordinate the distribution of information. In collaboration with the Solar Division's Working Group on Solar Eclipses, their website at http://eclipses.info is a one-stop shop for accurate information on how to observe eclipses, why it is interesting to do so, where they will be visible (with links to online maps and weather statistics), and how encouraging students to observe eclipses can be inspirational for them, perhaps even leading them to realize that the Universe can be understood and therefore renewing the strength of their studies. Links to information about transits of Mercury and Venus are also included.

  2. Asiago eclipsing binaries program IV. SZ Camelopardalis, a β Cephei pulsator in a quadruple, eclipsing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamajo, E.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Tomasella, L.; Dallaporta, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the multiple system and early-type eclipsing binary SZ Cam (O9 IV + B0.5 V), which consists of an eclipsing SB2 pair of orbital period P = 2.7 days in a long orbit (~55 yrs) around a non-eclipsing SB1 pair of orbital period P = 2.8 days. We have reconstructed the spectra of the individual components of SZ Cam from the observed composite spectra using the technique of spectral disentangling. We used them together with extensive and accurate BVIC CCD photometry to obtain an orbital solution. Our photometry revealed the presence of a β Cep variable in the SZ Cam hierarchical system, probably located within the non-eclipsing SB1 pair. The pulsation period is (0.33265 ± 0.00005) days and the observed total amplitude in the B band is (0.0105 ± 0.0005) mag. NLTE analysis of the disentangled spectra provided atmospheric parameters for all three components, consistent with those derived from orbital solution. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A139

  3. Physical implications of the eclipsing binary pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserman, Ira; Cordes, James M.

    1988-01-01

    The observed characteristics of the msec pulsar P1957+20, discovered in an eclipsing binary by Fruchter et al. (1988), are considered theoretically. Model equations for the stellar wind and optical emission are derived and used to estimate the effective temperature and optical luminosity associated with wind excitation; then the energy levels required to generate such winds are investigated. The color temperature of the pulsar-heated stellar surface calculated under the assumption of adiabatic expansion is 1000-10,000 K, in good agreement with the observational estimate of 5500 K.

  4. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field variations during solar eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Chang, Heon-Young

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the geomagnetic field variations recorded by INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories, which are observed while the Moon's umbra or penumbra passed over them during a solar eclipse event. Though it is generally considered that the geomagnetic field can be modulated during solar eclipses, the effect of the solar eclipse on the observed geomagnetic field has proved subtle to be detected. Instead of exploring the geomagnetic field as a case study, we analyze 207 geomagnetic manifestations acquired by 100 geomagnetic observatories during 39 solar eclipses occurring from 1991 to 2016. As a result of examining a pattern of the geomagnetic field variation on average, we confirm that the effect can be seen over an interval of 180 min centered at the time of maximum eclipse on a site of a geomagnetic observatory. That is, demonstrate an increase in the Y component of the geomagnetic field and decreases in the X component and the total strength of the geomagnetic field. We also find that the effect can be overwhelmed, depending more sensitively on the level of daily geomagnetic events than on the level of solar activity and/or the phase of solar cycle. We have demonstrated it by dividing the whole data set into subsets based on parameters of the geomagnetic field, solar activity, and solar eclipses. It is suggested, therefore, that an evidence of the solar eclipse effect can be revealed even at the solar maximum, as long as the day of the solar eclipse is magnetically quiet.

  5. 2017 Total Eclipse Viewing Tips - Narrated by George Takei

    2017-08-09

    On Monday, August 21, 2017, all of North America will be treated to an eclipse of the sun. Anyone within the path of totality can see one of nature’s most awe inspiring sights - a total solar eclipse. This video, narrated by actor George Takei, provides a few viewing tips for the public.

  6. The 2017 Solar Eclipse Community Impacts through Public Library Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Holland, A.; LaConte, K.; Mosshammer, G.; Harold, J. B.; Fraknoi, A.; Schatz, D.; Duncan, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    More than two million pairs of eclipse glasses were distributed free through public libraries in the U.S. for the solar eclipse of the Sun taking place on August 21, 2017. About 7,000 organizations, including public library branches, bookmobiles, tribal libraries, library consortia, and state libraries took part in the celestial event of the century. Many organizations received a package of free safe-viewing glasses, plus a 24-page information booklet about eclipse viewing and suggested program ideas. An educational video was also produced on how best to do public outreach programs about the eclipse. The project was supported, in part, by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, with additional help from Google, NASA, the Research Corporation, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The program was managed through the Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning as part of its STAR Library Network (STAR_Net). Resources developed by STAR_Net for this event included an Eclipse Resource Center; a newsletter for participating libraries to learn about eclipses and how to implement an effective and safe eclipse program; eclipse program activities on its STEM Activity Clearinghouse; webinars; and connections to subject matter experts from NASA's and the American Astronomical Society's volunteer networks. This presentation will provide an overview of the extensive collaboration that made this program possible as well as highlight the national impact that public libraries made in their communities.

  7. Period analysis of the eclipsing binary AI Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.; Uhlář, R.; Svoboda, P.

    2010-03-01

    The eclipsing binary system AI Dra reveals changes of its orbital period. These variations could be described as a result of orbiting the eclipsing pair around a common center of mass with two unseen companions with the periods about 18 and 43 years together with a steady period increase. Fourteen new minima observations were carried out by the authors.

  8. Project Report ECLIPSE: European Citizenship Learning Program for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombardelli, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a European project, the Comenius ECLIPSE project (European Citizenship Learning in a Programme for Secondary Education) developed by six European partners coordinated by the University of Trento in the years 2011-2014. ECLIPSE (co-financed by the EACEA--Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency) aims at developing,…

  9. NASA in Silicon Valley Uses Eclipses to Study Our Galaxy

    2017-08-11

    The August 2017 total solar eclipse seen across the United States was an epic event. However, scientists and researchers at NASA's Ames Research Center use different types of eclipses every day to learn about the mysteries of our sun and our galaxy!

  10. Preparing a Nation for the Eclipse of a Generation -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Habbal, Shadia; Tresch Fienberg, Richard; Kentrianakis, Michael; Fraknoi, Andrew; Nordgren, Tyler; Penn, Matthew; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Bakich, Michael; Winter, Henry; Gay, Pamela; Motta, Mario

    2018-01-01

    On August 21st 2017, there was a total solar eclipse visible from a vast swath of the US.In preparation for that event, the American Astronomical society created a taskforce charged with planning for the eclipse for the entire nation. The preparations included interfacing with the public, the media, non-profit organizations and governmental organizations. Preliminary data suggests that nearly 90% of American adults watched the eclipse either directly or via live streams. Moreover, there were no major problems associated with the event, in spite of valiant attempts from, e.g. imprope solar viewing materials. The eclipse offered opportunities for many scientific experiments within and ebyond astronomy. Here we present on the work of the taskforce, and the lessons learned as well as lesser known science experiments undertaken during the eclipse.

  11. A spectroscopic investigation of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balachandran, Suchitra

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were to examine, in detail, the spectra of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae taken with the IUE satellite telescope during the 1982 to 1984 eclipse. All of the low resolution spectra were analyzed and UV light curves are presented. The primary findings are as follows: (1) a constant eclipse depth from 1600 A to longer wavelengths and a sharp drop in the eclipse depth from 1600 to 1200 A; (2) the absence of large amplitude fluctuations in the UV as expected from a Cepheid primary; and (3) equal ingress and egress times in contradiction to that interpreted from visible light curves. The effects of these findings on the eclipse geometry are being studied.

  12. Constructing 'Black Sun': the Documentary Film of the 2012 Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-06-01

    2012 offered an opportunity that was not to be missed: two solar eclipses. Drs Alphonse Sterling and Hakeem Oluseyi began doing collaborative research during total solar eclipses in 2006 in Ghana. Since then they have continued to do eclipse observation when funds and whether permitted. As a filmmaker, the opportunity to film Sterling and Oluseyi during the 2012 eclipses in Tokyo and Cairns fulfilled the goal of showing the excitement of time-sensitive research, the lives of astrophysicists, and diversity within the astronomy community. As an astrophysicist who did not specialize in solar astrophysics, it was an opportunity for me both to learn and to solidify for the audience what we know about the sun and the importance of eclipse observation. Clips of the film will be included.

  13. HF Band Observations and Modeling of the 2017 Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kordella, L.; Han, X.; Moses, M. L.; Sweeney, D.; McGwier, R. W.; Lloyd, W.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A nationwide network of observatories has been created to study the effects of the 2017 eclipse on the F-region of the ionosphere. These include the SuperDARN HF radars in Oregon and Kansas, software defined radios in Oregon, Kansas, and South Carolina, and scintillation receivers placed northward of the central eclipse line across the continent. In this talk we will present data obtained by these systems during the eclipse, and interpret these data using a ray-tracing numerical code in conjunction with the SAMI-3 first principles model. Comparisons to results from the CORS network of GPS-TEC receivers will be made, and the F-region density and altitude perturbations observed during the eclipse will be contrasted with ionosonde data from an eclipse that occurred over the United Kingdom in 1999.

  14. Student artistry sparks eclipse excitement on Maui: NSO/DKIST EPO for the 2016 Partial Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Thomas A.; Penn, Matthew J.; Armstrong, James

    2016-05-01

    Local creativity and artistry is a powerful resource that enhances education programs and helps us generate excitement for science within our communities. In celebration of the 2016 Solar Eclipse, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and its Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) project were pleased to engage with students across Maui County, Hawai`i, via the 2016 Maui Eclipse Art Contest. With the help of the Maui Economic Development Board and the University of Hawai'is Institute for Astronomy, we solicited art entries from all K-12 schools in Maui County approximately 6 months prior to the eclipse. Along with divisional prizes, a grand prize was selected by a panel of local judges, which was subsequently printed on 25,000 solar eclipse viewing glasses and distributed to all Maui students. We found that the impact of a locally-sourced glasses design cannot be understated. Overall, the success of this program relied upon reaching out to individual teachers, supplying educational flyers to all schools, and visiting classrooms. On the day of the eclipse, all of the art entries were prominently displayed during a community eclipse viewing event at Kalama Beach Park in Kihei, HI, that was co-hosted by NSO and the Maui Science Center. This eclipse art contest was integral to making local connections to help promote science education on Maui, and we suggest that it could be adapted to the solar community's EPO activities for the upcoming 2017 Great American Solar Eclipse.

  15. Eclipse 2017: Through the Eyes of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse across America was, by all accounts, the biggest science education program ever carried out by NASA, significantly larger than the Curiosity Mars landing and the New Horizons Pluto flyby. Initial accounting estimates over two billion people reached and website hits exceeding five billion. The NASA Science Mission Directorate spent over two years planning and developing this enormous public education program, establishing over 30 official NASA sites along the path of totality, providing imagery from 11 NASA space assets, two high altitude aircraft, and over 50 high altitude balloons. In addition, a special four focal plane ground based solar telescope was developed in partnership with Lunt Solar Systems that observed and processed the eclipse in 6K resolution. NASA EDGE and NASA TV broadcasts during the entirity of totality across the country reached hundreds of millions, world wide.This talk will discuss NASA's strategy, results, and lessons learned; and preview some of the big events we plan to feature in the near future.

  16. Eclipse Megamovie Citizen Science: The Diamond Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Bender, M.

    2016-12-01

    The 2017 North American total eclipse has begun to encourage many outreach and citizen-science activiites. We describe here a part of the Eclipse Megamovie program, in which we deploy a smartphone app to enable anybody with a GPS-equipped smartphone to record correct images of Baily's Beads (the "Diamond Ring" effect) for subsequent analysis. The multiply oversampled recordings of 2nd and 3rd contacts, across and along the track, will provide material for unique movie representations of the astronomical phenomenon. After the fact, this highly oversampled dataset can be used to confirm and/or extend detailed satellite topography of the Moon from Kaguya and LRO. In addition the high angular resolution inherent in the "knife-edge" motion will provide a unique view of the structure of the solar limb itself. The low angular resolution of the smartphone cameras is a handicap, but excellent time resolution and massive oversampling are great advantages. We anticipate public participation in image selection to get the best sequences of last few-millisecond imagery for the science product here, which can follow the known motions of the solar limb due to p-modes and granulation. No comparable database exists, and so the final product of this crowdsourcing will be a public archive of the data and metadata for future studies.

  17. Novelty and the 1919 Eclipse Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Robert G.

    In her 1996 book, Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge, Deborah Mayo argues that use- (or heuristic) novelty is not a criterion we need to consider in assessing the evidential value of observations. Using the notion of a "severe" test, Mayo claims that such novelty is valuable only when it leads to severity, and never otherwise. To illustrate her view, she examines the historical case involving the famous 1919 British eclipse expeditions that generated observations supporting Einstein's theory of gravitation over Newton's. My plan here is to defend use-novelty as a valuable methodological principle. I begin by exposing a weakness in Mayo's criticism of use-novelty. Remedying this weakness re-establishes the worth of use-novelty under specific conditions; in particular, heuristically novel data are to be preferred, as I will say, "prima facie". Armed with this revised version of use-novelty, I re-examine the history of the eclipse experiments and offer an interpretation of this episode that to an extent-and contrary to Mayo-restores the mildly heretical, Earman/Glymour evaluation of this episode offered in their (1980). I conclude by responding to criticism of my assessment of Mayo's work.

  18. Eclipsing Pulsar Promises Clues to Crushed Matter

    2017-12-08

    NASA image release August 17, 2010 Astronomers using NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) have found the first fast X-ray pulsar to be eclipsed by its companion star. Further studies of this unique stellar system will shed light on some of the most compressed matter in the universe and test a key prediction of Einstein's relativity theory. Known as Swift J1749.4-2807 -- J1749 for short -- the system erupted with an X-ray outburst on April 10. During the event, RXTE observed three eclipses, detected X-ray pulses that identified the neutron star as a pulsar, and even recorded pulse variations that indicated the neutron star's orbital motion. To view a video of this pulsar go here: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4901238111 To read more click here Credit: NASA/GSFC NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  19. The Kepler Mission and Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Cochran, William; Jenkins, Jon; Dunham, Edward; Gautier, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a photometric mission with a precision of 14 ppm (at R=12) that is designed to continuously observe a single field of view (FOV) of greater 100 sq deg in the Cygnus-Lyra region for four or more years. The primary goal of the mission is to monitor greater than 100,000 stars for transits of Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. In the process, many eclipsing binaries (EB) will also be detected and light curves produced. To enhance and optimize the mission results, the stellar characteristics for all the stars in the FOV with R less than 16 will have been determined prior to launch. As part of the verification process, stars with transit candidates will have radial velocity follow-up observations performed to determine the component masses and thereby separate eclipses caused by stellar companions from transits caused by planets. The result will be a rich database on EBs. The community will have access to the archive for further analysis, such as, for EB modeling of the high-precision light curves. A guest observer program is also planned to allow for photometric observations of objects not on the target list but within the FOV, since only the pixels of interest from those stars monitored will be transmitted to the ground.

  20. Lunar Surface Properties from Diviner Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul; Paige, David; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Bandfield, Joshua; Siegler, Matthew; Lucey, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The thermal behavior of planetary bodies can reveal information about fundamental processes shaping their surfaces and interiors. Diviner [1] has been mapping the Moon's diurnal temperatures since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) arrived in 2009, yielding new insights into regolith formation [2, 3], the distribution of volatiles [4, 5], lunar volcanism [6, 7, 8], and impact processes [9]. The Moon's cooling during eclipse provides complementary information on the physical properties of the uppermost surface layer, which can be used to further investigate these and other processes. We used data from Diviner's seven thermal infrared spectral channels to measure surface temperatures before, during and after the 8 Oct., 2014 eclipse. In its standard nadir-pushbroom mode, Diviner maps surface temperatures in a ~6-km swath with a spatial resolution of ~250 m. Using Diviner's independent scanning capability [11], we also targeted two regions of interest on sequential orbits to create a time series of thermal observations: 1) Kepler crater (-38°E, 8°N) and 2) an unnamed nighttime "cold spot" (-33.3°E, 3°N). Pre-eclipse surface temperatures in these regions were ~380 K. As a relatively young Copernican-aged impact crater, Kepler was selected to investigate the abundance and size distribution of rocks in the ejecta and interior. Lunar nighttime "cold spots" are anomalous features around very young impact craters, extending for up to hundreds of crater radii, notable for their low temperatures in the Diviner nighttime data [9]. Although their origins are not fully explained, they are likely the result of in-situ disruption and decompression of regolith during the impact process. The selected cold spot (one of hundreds or even thousands on the lunar surface) was located with good viewing ge- ometry from LRO, and had a diameter of ~10 km surrounding a crater < 1 km in diameter. At Kepler crater, we observed dramatic differences in the amount of cooling related to the

  1. Safety assessment of continuous glass filaments used in eclipse.

    PubMed

    Swauger, J E; Foy, J W

    2000-11-01

    Eclipse is a cigarette that produces smoke by primarily heating, rather than burning, tobacco. The Eclipse heat source assembly employs a continuous filament glass mat jacket to insulate the heat source. The glass mat insulator is composed of continuous glass filaments and a binder. The purpose of this article is to address the potential toxicological significance of the continuous glass filaments under the conditions of intended use. Transfer data and the unique physical characteristics of the filaments demonstrate that significant exposure of the smoker will not occur. The available environmental survey data clearly demonstrate that Eclipse smokers are extremely unlikely to be exposed to continuous glass filaments at a level that represents a biologically significant increase over background exposure to glass fibers. The chemical composition of the continuous glass filaments used in Eclipse is generally similar to C-glass fiber compositions such as MMVF 11 that have failed to produce either tumors or fibrosis in chronic inhalation studies conducted in rats. In vitro dissolution data demonstrate that the continuous glass filaments used in Eclipse are more soluble than biologically active fibers such as rock wool (MMVF 21) or asbestos. However, the continuous glass filaments used in Eclipse were not as soluble in simulated extracellular lung fluid as representative C-glass fibers (MMVF 10 and MMVF 11). In brief, exposure of Eclipse smokers to continuous glass filaments is extremely unlikely to occur at a level that may be construed to be of biological significance.

  2. Eclipsing binary stars with a δ Scuti component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman Aliçavuş, F.; Soydugan, E.; Smalley, B.; Kubát, J.

    2017-09-01

    Eclipsing binaries with a δ Sct component are powerful tools to derive the fundamental parameters and probe the internal structure of stars. In this study, spectral analysis of six primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries has been performed. Values of Teff, v sin I, and metallicity for the stars have been derived from medium-resolution spectroscopy. Additionally, a revised list of δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries is presented. In this list, we have only given the δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries to show the effects of the secondary components and tidal-locking on the pulsations of primary δ Sct components. The stellar pulsation, atmospheric and fundamental parameters (e.g. mass, radius) of 92 δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries have been gathered. Comparison of the properties of single and eclipsing binary member δ Sct stars has been made. We find that single δ Sct stars pulsate in longer periods and with higher amplitudes than the primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries. The v sin I of δ Sct components is found to be significantly lower than that of single δ Sct stars. Relationships between the pulsation periods, amplitudes and stellar parameters in our list have been examined. Significant correlations between the pulsation periods and the orbital periods, Teff, log g, radius, mass ratio, v sin I and the filling factor have been found.

  3. A Comprehensive Catalog of Galactic Eclipsing Binary Stars with Eccentric Orbits Based on Eclipse Timing Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.-H.; Kreiner, J. M.; Zakrzewski, B.; Ogłoza, W.; Kim, H.-W.; Jeong, M.-J.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive catalog of 623 galactic eclipsing binary (EB) systems with eccentric orbits is presented with more than 2830 times of minima determined from the archived photometric data by various sky-survey projects and new photometric measurements. The systems are divided into two groups according to whether the individual system has a GCVS name or not. All the systems in both groups are further classified into three categories (D, A, and A+III) on the basis of their eclipse timing diagrams: 453 D systems showing just constantly displaced secondary minima, 139 A systems displaying only apsidal motion (AM), and 31 A+III systems exhibiting both AM and light-time effects. AM parameters for 170 systems (A and A+III systems) are consistently calculated and cataloged with basic information for all systems. Some important statistics for the AM parameters are discussed and compared with those derived for the eccentric EB systems in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.

  4. Coronal Dynamics at Recent Total Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B.; Demianski, M.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Seaton, D. B.; Lucas, R.; Babcock, B. A.; Dantowitz, R.; Gaintatzis, P.; Seeger, C. H.; Malamut, C.; Steele, A.

    2014-12-01

    Our composite images of the solar corona based on extensive imaging at the total solar eclipses of 2010 (Easter Island), 2012 (Australia), and 2013 (Gabon) reveal several coronal mass ejections and other changes in coronal streamers and in polar plumes. Our resultant spatial resolution is finer than that available in imaging from spacecraft, including that from SOHO/LASCO or STEREO. We trace the eruptions back to their footpoints on the sun using imaging from SDO and SWAP, and follow them upwards through the corona, measuring velocities. The high-resolution computer compositing by Miloslav Druckmüller and Hana Druckmüllerová (2010 and 2013) and Pavlos Gaintatzis (2012) allows comparison of our images with those taken at intervals of minutes or hours along the totality path. Williams College's 2013 eclipse expedition was supported in part by grant 9327-13 from National Geographic Society/Committee for Research and Exploration. Our work on the 2012 eclipse is supported in part by grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research/NSF AGS. V.R. and M.S. were partially supported by the VEGA grant agency project 2/0098/10 and 2/0003/13 (Slovak Academy of Sciences) and Grant 0139-12 from NG/CRE, and Hana Druckmüllerová by grant 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation. M.L. was supported by Sigma Xi. C.M. was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow, supported at Williams College by REU/NSF grant AST-1005024. Partial support was provided by U.S. Department of Defense's ASSURE program. J.M.P. thanks Caltech's Planetary Sciences Department for hospitality. Support for D.B.S. and SWAP came from PRODEX grant C90345 managed by ESA in collaboration with the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in support of the PROBA2/SWAP mission, and from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant 218816 (SOTERIA project, www.soteria-space.eu). SWAP is a project of the Centre Spatial de Liège and the Royal Observatory of Belgium funded by

  5. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Total Eclipse of the Ballpark: Connecting Space and Sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasser, Molly; Petro, Noah; Jones, Andrea; Bleacher, Lora; Keller, John; Wes Patterson, G.

    2018-01-01

    The anticipation and excitement surrounding the total solar eclipse of 2017 provided astronomy educators with an incredible platform to share space science with huge audiences. The Public Engagement Team for NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) took advantage of this opportunity to share lunar science with the public by highlighting the often-overlooked central player in the eclipse – the Moon. As the sole planetary science representatives on NASA’s Science Mission Directorate eclipse leadership team, the LRO team had limited resources to conduct national public outreach. In order to increase our reach, we found success in partnerships.In early 2017, we began working with Minor League Baseball (MiLB) teams across the path of totality on August eclipse events. These partnerships proved fruitful for both parties. While MiLB is a national organization, each team is deeply rooted in its community. This proved essential as each of our four main MiLB partners handled event logistics, provided facilities, connected NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) with local media, and drew in captive crowds. With this tactic, a handful of NASA representatives were able to reach nearly 30,000 people. In turn, LRO provided engaging educational content relevant to the context, SMEs to guide the eclipse viewing experience, eclipse glasses, and safety information. Our participation drew in an audience who would not typically attend baseball games while we were able to reach individuals who would not normally attend a science event. In addition, the eclipse inspired one team, the Salem-Keizer Volcanoes from Salem, OR, to make baseball history by holding the first ever eclipse delay in professional sports.In this talk, we will present on the benefits of the partnership, offer lessons learned, and suggest ways to get involved for the 2024 eclipse – and all the baseball seasons in between.

  7. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original 648-page publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Lunar Eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitude, geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude), and the circumstances at greatest eclipse (i.e., Sun altitude and azimuth, path width, and central line duration). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  8. Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  9. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)-Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses. "It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse(latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  10. Determination of the Io heat flow. 1: Eclipse observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinton, W. M.; Kaminski, C.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal emission from Io during eclipse by Jupiter yields data from which the total thermal flux from the volcanoes on the satellite surface can be estimated. Thermal infrared observations in spectral bands between 3.5 and 30 microns of five Io eclipse reappearances and one eclipse disappearance are reported and discussed. The thermal emission of the volcanoes which occurs almost all of the time was determined from the Io heat flux data. The thermal observations of Io are discussed with respect to previous thermophysical theories.

  11. Solar Eclipse Education and Outreach Activities at APSU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. Allyn; Buckner, Spencer L.; Adams, Mitzi; Meisch, Karen; Sudbrink, Don; Wright, Amy; Adams, Angela; Fagan, Ben

    2018-01-01

    The path of totality for the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse passed directly over the APSU campus in north-central Tennessee. We discuss our public outreach and education efforts, both on campus and in the community, and present results and lessons learned from this event. We reached nearly 20,000 people via our efforts and hosted nearly 3000 viewers on campus on eclipse day. We also present our science activities and early results from those. On the whole, this event could be viewed as a large success for the university and the region, and the experiences will guide us in our efforts as we plan future eclipse activities.

  12. A Smoothed Eclipse Model for Solar Electric Propulsion Trajectory Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aziz, Jonathan D.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is the dominant design option for employing low-thrust propulsion on a space mission. Spacecraft solar arrays power the SEP system but are subject to blackout periods during solar eclipse conditions. Discontinuity in power available to the spacecraft must be accounted for in trajectory optimization, but gradient-based methods require a differentiable power model. This work presents a power model that smooths the eclipse transition from total eclipse to total sunlight with a logistic function. Example trajectories are computed with differential dynamic programming, a second-order gradient-based method.

  13. The 1982-1984 Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A workshop proceedings concerned with the new data collected during the 1982-1984 eclipse period of the 27-year system Epsilon Aurigae is presented. This binary star has been a classic problem in astrophysics because the opaque eclipsing object is nonstellar, and probably disk shaped. Invited papers concerning the history of the system, optical, infrared and ultraviolet photometry, optical polarimetry and ultraviolet spectroscopy are included. An invited paper concerning comprehensive theoretical interpretation in the context of stellar evolution also is included. The information collected herein is unparalleled in scope and will remain a standard reference until the next eclipse cycle in the year 2009 A.D., in all probability.

  14. Hot SPOT Eclipses in Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smak, J.

    1996-10-01

    Eclipses of the hot spot in four dwarf novae: U Gem, IP Peg, Z Cha, and OY Car are re-analyzed, assuming two models for the shape of the spot. In Model 1 an elliptical spot is assumed, with the semi-axes s_a in the orbital plane and s_b perpendicular to the orbital plane, its center located on the stream trajectory. The results show that such an ellipse is, within errors, tangent to the disk's circumference. In all four cases the resulting dimensions of the spot s_a are larger than the theoretical cross-section of the stream. Accordingly, in Model2 the spot is assumed to consist of a head, centered on the stream trajectory, and a tail, extending downstream, ie., along disk's circumference. In some cases the resulting parameters, eg., mass ratios or disk radii, differ significantly from those obtained with Model 1.

  15. W UMa Type Eclipsing Binary VW Cep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bong-Seok; Lee, Yong-Sam; Jeong, Jang-Hae

    2000-06-01

    A total of 1,018 observations (509 in B, 509 in V ) of the eclipsing binary VW Cep was made during 7 nights from April through May in 1999 at Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory, using the CCD camera attached to the 61cm telescope. A time of minimum light of HJD2451327.2282 was determined from our data, and we constructed BV light curves with the data. Using Wilson-Devinney's binary model, we analized the light curves. The absolute dimension of M1 = 0.95Msolar, M2 = 0.33Msolar, R1 = 1.02Rsolar, R2 = 0.66Rsolar of the VW Cep system were derived from our light curve solution and Kaszas et al. (1998) spectroscoppic rsult.

  16. Eclipse Images of Io (3 views)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These three images of Io in eclipse (top) show volcanic hot spots and airglow associated with volcanic plumes and Io's atmosphere. They were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during three separate orbits of Jupiter when the moon was in Jupiter's shadow. Brightnesses are color-coded from red which displays the highest intensity to dark blue which displays zero intensity (no light).

    Below them are the corresponding views of Io in reflected sunlight, reprojected from a global mosaic of images obtained during Galileo's first and second orbits of Jupiter. These lit views help to identify the locations of the hot spots seen in the eclipse images. The grid marks are at 15 degree intervals of latitude and longitude. North is to the top.

    In the eclipse images (top) small red ovals and perhaps some small green areas are due to thermal emission from volcanic hot spots with temperatures hotter than about 700 kelvin (about 1000 degrees Fahrenheit). Diffuse greenish areas seen near the limb or edge of the moon are probably the result of auroral and/or airglow emissions of neutral species of oxygen or sulfur in volcanic plumes and in Io's patchy atmosphere.

    All images were acquired by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The top left image was obtained during the spacecraft's fourth orbit (E4) on December 17, 1996, the top middle image during the sixth orbit (E6) on February 21, 1997, and the top right image during the first orbit (G1) on June 29th, 1996. The relatively long exposures used to obtain these eclipse images lead to some smearing of the picture elements which reduces the actual resolution. Unsmeared they would have resolutions of 17.6, 9.1, and 10.5 kilometers per picture element respectively (left to right).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  17. Interpretation of BM Orionis. [eclipsing binary model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.-S.

    1975-01-01

    The entire light curve of the BM Ori system both inside and outside primary and secondary eclipses has been examined on the basis of two models for the disk around the secondary component: one with the luminous energy of the disk coming entirely from the secondary, and another with the luminous energy coming at least partly from the primary. It has been found that if the disk is highly opaque, as is suggested by the fitting of the light curve, there exist in the first model discrepancies between what has been derived from the luminosity consideration for the secondary component and what has been derived from the radius consideration. Hence the second model is accepted. Based on this model the nature of both component stars has been examined from a consideration of the luminosity and the dimensions of the disk.

  18. Acute eclipse retinopathy: a small case series.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Nur; Knyazer, Boris; Lifshitz, Tova; Levy, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We present four young patients with acute severe solar retinopathy after observation of the total eclipse on January 4, 2011 without appropriate eye protection. Funduscopic findings were accompanied by optical coherence tomography (OCT) investigation of the macula. All our patients were young (range 14-29 years). In three of the four patients we have been able to repeat OCT evaluation revealing that the retinal changes were reversible, but delineating mild pathology in the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. Best-corrected visual acuity in the fourth case was 6/24. In addition, macular edema, which has been previously described in literature, could not be demonstrated by OCT. In the two cases we performed an early fluorescein angiogram, no pathology was seen. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. An Outreach Project to Provide 2.1 Million Eclipse Glasses and Eclipse Information through 7,100 Libraries Nationwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew; Schatz, Dennis; Dusenbery, Paul; Duncan, Douglas; Holland, Anne; Laconte, Keliann

    2018-01-01

    With support from the Moore Foundation, Google, the Research Corporation, and NASA, we were able to distribute about 2.1 million eclipse glasses and an extensive booklet of eclipse information and outreach suggestions to 7,100 public libraries throughout the nation. It appears that this project was the single largest program to provide glasses and eclipse information to the public in the U.S. The project using (and significantly enlarged) the existing STARNet network of libraries set up and maintained by the Space Science Institute. We were able to get glasses to a diverse set of institutions, including urban, rural, Native American, small town and large city libraries. In this poster, we will summarize the history of the project, the various components and how they worked together, and the results of a post survey of the librarians, which provided numbers, photographs, and impressions from the many libraries and their patrons. A map of the libraries involved is at www.starnetlibraries.org/2017eclipse/. The booklet of information that was sent to help train librarians in eclipse science and eclipse outreach can still be downloaded free at: http://www.starnetlibraries.org/EclipseGuide/.”

  20. Eclipse Mapping Experiments in Dwarf Novae Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B. W.; Baptista, R.

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we report the eclipse mapping analysis of CCD photometric data of two short period dwarf novae - V4140 Sgr (Borges & Baptista 2005) and HT Cas (Borges, Baptista & Catalán, in preparation) - during observed outburst events. The analysis of the observations of V4140 Sgr, done between 1991 and 2001, reveals that the object was in the decline from an outburst in 1992 and again in outburst in 2001. A distance of d = 170+/-30 pc is obtained from a method similar to that used to constrain the distance to open clusters. From this distance, disc radial brightness temperature distributions are determined, and the disc temperatures remain below the critical effective temperature T_{crit} at all disc radii during the outburst. The distributions in quiescence and in outburst are significantly different from those of other dwarf novae of similar orbital period. These results cannot be explained within the framework of the disc instability model and the small amplitude outbursts of V4140 Sgr can be due bursts of enhanced mass transfer rate from the secondary star. Our HT Cas data consist of V and R CCD photometric observations done in 2005 November with the 0.95-m James Gregory Telescope (JGT) and cover a outburst cycle. We used the entropy associated to the eclipse maps to obtain the semi-opening disc angle α evolution throught the outburst. The obtained angles are systematically lower than those obtained by Ioannou et al. (1999) and we can conclude that the outburst radial profiles must be flatter than the the T ∝ r^{-3/4} law of steady state dics, against the expectations of the disc instability model. Our intensity radial distributions presents the same ``outside-in'' outburst behavior as obtained by the referred author.

  1. The 2012 Total Eclipse Expeditions in Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Lucas, R.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Gaintatzis, P.; Steele, A.; Sterling, A. C.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2013-07-01

    A total eclipse swept across Queensland and other sites in northeastern Australia on the early morning of 14 November 2012, local time. We mounted equipment to observe coronal images and spectra during the approximately 2 minutes of totality, the former for comparison with spacecraft images and to fill in the doughnut of imaging not well covered with space coronagraphs. Matching weather statistics, viewing was spotty, and our best observations were from a last-minute inland site on the Tablelands, with some observations from a helicopter at 9000 feet altitude over our original viewing site at Miallo. Only glimpses of the corona were visible at our Port Douglas and Trinity Beach, Cairns, locations, with totality obscured from our sites at Newell and Miallo, though some holes in the clouds provided coronal views from Palm Cove and elsewhere along the coast. Preliminary analysis of the spectra again shows Fe XIV stronger than Fe X, as in 2010 but not earlier, a sign of solar maximum, as was the coronal shape. An intriguing CME is discernible in the SE. Acknowledgments: We thank Terry Cuttle, Aram Friedman, Michael Kentrianakis, and Nicholas Weber for assistance and collaboration in Australia and Wendy Carlos for image processing. Our expedition was supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division, and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams College. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images.

  2. Spectral changes in the zenith skylight during total solar eclipses.

    PubMed

    Hall, W N

    1971-06-01

    The relative spectral intensity of the zenith sky was measured with an optical scanning spectrometer at Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, during the total solar eclipse of 7 March 1970. The spectral ratios I(5100 A)/I(4300 A) and I(5900 A)/I(5100 A) at Nantucket remained unchanged for 96% or less obscuration of the sun by the moon. The results are compared with other recent relative spectral intensity measurements made during total solar eclipses. Comparison with other eclipse measurements for solar elevation angle at totality less than 45 degrees shows a blue color shift consistent with rayleigh scattering. Eclipses with solar elevation angles at totality greater than 45 degrees do not show consistent color shifts. This inconsistency may be due to difficulty in establishing a suitable reference spectrum for comparison with the spectral distribution of the zenith sky at totality. Selection of a suitable reference spectrum is discussed.

  3. Properties OF M31. V. 298 eclipsing binaries from PAndromeda

    SciT

    Lee, C.-H.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Seitz, S.

    2014-12-10

    The goal of this work is to conduct a photometric study of eclipsing binaries in M31. We apply a modified box-fitting algorithm to search for eclipsing binary candidates and determine their period. We classify these candidates into detached, semi-detached, and contact systems using the Fourier decomposition method. We cross-match the position of our detached candidates with the photometry from Local Group Survey and select 13 candidates brighter than 20.5 mag in V. The relative physical parameters of these detached candidates are further characterized with the Detached Eclipsing Binary Light curve fitter (DEBiL) by Devor. We will follow up the detachedmore » eclipsing binaries spectroscopically and determine the distance to M31.« less

  4. MM Herculis - An eclipsing binary of the RS CVn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowell, J. R.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.; Burke, E. W., Jr.; Milone, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    V, B and U differential photoelectric photometry has been obtained for the RS Canum Venaticorum-class eclipsing binary star MM Her, with the light outside the eclipse being Fourier-analyzed to study wave migration and amplitude. These, together with the mean light level of the system, have been monitored from 1976 through 1980. Observations within the eclipse have revealed eclipses to be partial, rather than total as previously thought. The geometric elements of the presently rectified light curve are forced on the pre-1980 light curves and found to be compatible. With these elements, and previously obtained double line radial velocity curves, new absolute dimensions of 1.18 solar masses and 1.58 solar radii are calculated for the hotter star and 1.27 solar masses and 2.83 solar radii for the cooler star. The plotting of color indices on the color-color curve indicates G2V and K2IV spectral types.

  5. Indoor Astronomy: A Model Eclipsing Binary Star System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomer, Raymond H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a two-hour physics laboratory experiment modeling the phenomena of eclipsing binary stars developed by the Air Force Academy as part of a week-long laboratory-oriented experience for visiting high school students. (BT)

  6. Eclipse 2017: Partnering with NASA MSFC to Inspire Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Craig " Ghee" ; Adams, Mitzi; Gallagher, Dennis; Krause, Linda

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is partnering with the U.S. Space and Rocket Center (USSRC), and Austin Peay State University (APSU) to engage citizen scientists, engineers, and students in science investigations during the 2017 American Solar Eclipse. Investigations will support the Citizen Continental America Telescopic Eclipse (CATE), Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation(HamSCI), and Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE). All planned activities will engage Space Campers and local high school students in the application of the scientific method as they seek to explore a wide range of observations during the eclipse. Where planned experiments touch on current scientific questions, the camper/students will be acting as citizen scientists, participating with researchers from APSU and MSFC. Participants will test their expectations and after the eclipse, share their results, experiences, and conclusions to younger Space Campers at the US Space & Rocket Center.

  7. CCD Times of Minima of Selected Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zejda, Miloslav

    2004-12-01

    682 CCD minima observations of 259 eclipsing binaries made mainly by author are presented. The observed stars were chosen mainly from catalogue BRKA of observing programme of BRNO-Variable Star Section of CAS.

  8. CCD Times of Minima of Faint Eclipsing Binaries in 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zejda, Miloslav

    2002-06-01

    196 CCD minima observations of 122 eclipsing binaries made by the author in 2000 are presented. The observed stars were chosen from the catalogue BRKA of observing programme of BRNO-Variable Star Section of CAS.

  9. Eclipse Shadow from NASA's G-III Research Aircraft

    2017-08-21

    From aboard NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center G-III aircraft, this wide angle video of the moon's umbra was captured as they flew over the coast of Oregon, near Lincoln City at 35,00 feet during the eclipse.

  10. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse - ISS Transit - (NHQ201708210203)

    2017-08-21

    2017 Total Solar Eclipse - ISS Transit - (NHQ201708210203) In this video captured at 1,500 frames per second with a high-speed camera, the International Space Station, with a crew of six onboard, is seen in silhouette as it transits the sun at roughly five miles per second during a partial solar eclipse, Monday, Aug. 21, 2017 near Banner, Wyoming. Onboard as part of Expedition 52 are: NASA astronauts Peggy Whitson, Jack Fischer, and Randy Bresnik; Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Sergey Ryazanskiy; and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Paolo Nespoli. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of South America, Africa, and Europe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  11. The Planetary and Eclipse Oil Paintings of Howard Russell Butler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    The physics-trained artist Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) has inspired many astronomy students through his planetary and eclipse paintings that were long displayed at the Hayden Planetarium in New York, the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, and the Buffalo Museum of Science. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs (1918, 1923, and 1925) at each of those institutions but also his paintings of Mars as seen from Phobos and from Deimos (with landscapes of those moons in the foreground depicted in additional oils hung at Princeton University) and the Earth from our Moon. We also describe his involvement with astronomy and his unique methodology that allowed him to surpass the effects then obtainable with photography, as well as his inclusion in a U.S. Naval Observatory eclipse expedition in 1918, as well as his auroral, solar-prominence, and 1932-eclipse paintings.

  12. Lessons from Distributing Eclipse Glasses: Planning Ahead for April 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer Lynn; Wilson, Teresa; Chizek Frouard, Malynda R.; Phlips, Alan

    2018-01-01

    In preparation for the 2017 August 21 total solar eclipse across the continental United States, a multifaceted effort encouraged safe public observation of this spectacular event. However, we experienced mixed results distributing free ISO 12312-2 compliant eclipse glasses.On the positive side, we successfully dispensed several hundred in Virginia through in-school programs about the eclipse. We created a 2017-eclipse information sheet to accompany a safe-viewing handout. To facilitate sending glasses home in student backpacks, we wrapped each pair in a double-sided flyer and sealed the bundle in an individual envelope. We also passed out glasses during evening and weekend activities at a planetarium. Religious, business, and educational groups were all excited to receive them as were co-workers, family, and friends.On the negative side, planetarium staff declined to give eclipse glasses to students without a parent due to safety and liability concerns. Then, a day camp returned 200 pairs less than 72 hours before the event for the same reasons. However, we also received several requests from groups that had waited until too late to be accommodated easily.During the week before the eclipse, demand for eclipse glasses in New York, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri was less than anticipated. While many people were well prepared, the recalls and reported counterfeiting made others suspicious. Concurrently, vendors were offering their remaining stock for $1–10 each.The experiences of the 2017 total solar eclipse, both good and bad, will not completely fade before preparations for 2024 begin. We look forward enthusiastically to sharing that event with as many people as possible and hope that the overall distribution of eclipse glasses goes more smoothly.We thank the AAS for providing 1,000+ of the eclipse glasses we shared, which were donated to them by Google to promote the Eclipse Megamovie project; Rainbow

  13. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550757

  14. Demonstrations to Teach Electricity and Safely Observe a Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.

    2016-12-01

    Electricity and magnetism are often difficult to understand because they are invisible. We will demonstrate various ways to visualize electric fields. We will play music on a plasma discharge from a Tesla coil, create static charge on balloons with hair, and store charge using a Leyden jar. We will also show safe ways to observe a solar eclipse, which is critical for the upcoming August 21, 2017 eclipse.

  15. How Accurately Can We Predict Eclipses for Algol? (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) beta Persei, or Algol, is a very well known eclipsing binary system consisting of a late B-type dwarf that is regularly eclipsed by a GK subgiant every 2.867 days. Eclipses, which last about 8 hours, are regular enough that predictions for times of minima are published in various places, Sky & Telescope magazine and The Observer's Handbook, for example. But eclipse minimum lasts for less than a half hour, whereas subtle mistakes in the current ephemeris for the star can result in predictions that are off by a few hours or more. The Algol system is fairly complex, with the Algol A and Algol B eclipsing system also orbited by Algol C with an orbital period of nearly 2 years. Added to that are complex long-term O-C variations with a periodicity of almost two centuries that, although suggested by Hoffmeister to be spurious, fit the type of light travel time variations expected for a fourth star also belonging to the system. The AB sub-system also undergoes mass transfer events that add complexities to its O-C behavior. Is it actually possible to predict precise times of eclipse minima for Algol months in advance given such complications, or is it better to encourage ongoing observations of the star so that O-C variations can be tracked in real time?

  16. Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2006-01-01

    During 5,000-year period from -1999 to +3000 (2000BCE to 3000CE), Earth will experience 11,898 eclipses of the Sun. The statistical distribution of eclipse types for this interval is as follows: 4,200 partial eclipses, 3956 annular eclipses, 3173 total eclipses,and 569 hybrid eclipses. Detailed global maps for each of the 11,898 eclipses delineate the geographic regions of visibility for both the penumbral (partial) and umbral or antumbral (total, annular, or hybrid) phases of every event. Modern political borders are plotted to assist in the determination of eclipse visibility. The uncertainty in Earth's rotational period expressed in the parameter (delta)T and its impact on the geographic visibility of eclipses in the past and future is discussed.

  17. A Coral Sea Rehearsal for the Eclipse Megamovie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Davey, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Jones, L.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Paglierani, R.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Russell, R. M.; Suarez Sola, F. I.; Sutherland, L.; Thompson, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The "Eclipse on the Coral Sea" - 13/14 November 2012 (GMT/Australia) - will have happened already. Our intention is to have used this opportunity as a trial run for the eclipse in 2017, which features 1.5 hours of totality across the whole width of the continental US. Conceived first and foremost as an education and public outreach activity, the plan is to engage the public in solar science and technology by providing a way for them to include images they have taken of the solar eclipse, into a movie representation of coronal evolution in time. This project will assimilate as much eclipse photography as possible from the public. The resulting movie(s) will cover all ranges of expertise, and at the basic smartphone or hand-held digital camera level, we expect to have obtained a huge number of images in the case of good weather conditions. The capability of modern digital technology to handle such a data flow is new. The basic purpose of this and the 2017 Megamovie observations is to explore this capability and its ability to engage people from many different communities in the solar science, astronomy, mathematics, and technology. The movie in 2017, especially, may also have important science impact because of the uniqueness of the corona as seen under eclipse conditions. In this presentation we will describe our smartphone application development (see the "Transit of Venus" app for a role model here). We will also summarize data acquisition via both the app and more traditional web interfaces. Although for the Coral Sea eclipse event we don't expect to have a movie product by the time of the AGU, for the 2017 event we do intend to assemble the heterogenous data into beautiful movies within a short space of time after the eclipse. These movies may have relatively low resolution but would extend to the base of the corona. We encourage participation in the 2012 observations, noting that no total eclipse, prior to 2017, will occur in a region with good infrastructure

  18. Eclipse - tow flight closeup and release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This clip, running 15 seconds in length, shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' gear down, with the tow rope secured to the attachment point above the aircraft nose. First there is a view looking back from the C-141A, then looking forward from the nose of the QF-106, and finally a shot of the aircraft being released from the tow rope. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly Space and Technology hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed

  19. HD 47755, a new eclipsing binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, R. H.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Hrivnak, B. J.; Pfeiffer, R. J.; Perry, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The IUE spectra of the close binary star HD 47755 have been examined in order to determine its geometry, chemical composition, and light curve. UBV fluxes in the spectra, when dereddened for E(B-V) = 0.09 yield an effective temperature of 16,500 K. The ratio of the mean radii of the stars is found to agree well with an old blueband spectrophotometric value. Eclipses in the binary have been observed and a complex green light curve is derived. It is suggested that the wind from at least one of the components of HD 47755 is the source of the complexity in the light curve. The geometry of the HD 47755 is compared to that of V 641 Mon, A definite cluster member of NGC 2264. The interstellar line spectrum is found to be similar to that of V 641 Mon and the column densities for a few interstellar ions are given in a table. Evaluation of the nonastrometric evidence indicates that HD 47755 is also a member of NGC 2264.

  20. Earth's transmission spectrum from lunar eclipse observations.

    PubMed

    Pallé, Enric; Osorio, María Rosa Zapatero; Barrena, Rafael; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Martín, Eduardo L

    2009-06-11

    Of the 342 planets so far discovered orbiting other stars, 58 'transit' the stellar disk, meaning that they can be detected through a periodic decrease in the flux of starlight. The light from the star passes through the atmosphere of the planet, and in a few cases the basic atmospheric composition of the planet can be estimated. As we get closer to finding analogues of Earth, an important consideration for the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres is what the transmission spectrum of our planet looks like. Here we report the optical and near-infrared transmission spectrum of the Earth, obtained during a lunar eclipse. Some biologically relevant atmospheric features that are weak in the reflection spectrum (such as ozone, molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide and methane) are much stronger in the transmission spectrum, and indeed stronger than predicted by modelling. We also find the 'fingerprints' of the Earth's ionosphere and of the major atmospheric constituent, molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which are missing in the reflection spectrum.

  1. Eclipsing Binaries from the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Cochran, William; Jenkins, Jon; Dunham, Edward; Gautier, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a photometric space mission that will continuously observe a single 100 sq deg field of view (FOV) of greater than 100,000 stars in the Cygnus-Lyra region for 4 or more years with a precision of 14 ppm (R=12). The primary goal of the mission is to detect Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. In the process, many eclipsing binaries (EB) will also be detected. Prior to launch, the stellar characteristics will have been detennined for all the stars in the FOV with R<16. As part of the verification process, stars with transits <5% will need to have follow-up radial velocity observations performed to determine the component masses and thereby separate transits caused by stellar companions from those caused by planets. The result will be a rich database on EBs. The community will have access to the archive for uses such as for EB modeling of the high-precision light curves. A guest observer program is also planned for objects not already on the target list.

  2. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of Eclipsing Polars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Paul

    2005-01-01

    No changes have been made since the last annual progress report was submitted in conjunction with a unilateral NCX. Dr. Barrett was affected by an STScI Reduction in Force (RIF). He is now employed by the Johns Hopkins University and plans to continue his research there. No expenses have been charged to this grant, however the FUSE data for the eclipsing polar V1432 Aql has been received and processed using CALFWSE v3.0.6. The resulting summed spectrum has been used for a preliminary analysis of the interstellar absorption towards V1432 Aql. We find a hydrogen column density of less than 1.5e21 cm^-2. We have used this result in the paper "X-Ray Emission and Optical Polarization of V1432 Aquilae: An Asynchronous Polar" to fix the hydrogen column density in the soft (<0.5 keV) X-ray band when analyzing the XMM-Newton spectra of this polar. This has enabled us to find an accurate temperature for the blackbody component of 88+/-2 eV, which is significantly higher than that of other polars (20 - 40 eV). We hope to complete our analysis of the phase-resolved emission line spectra of V1432 Aql and to prepare the results for publication in a refereed journal. We hope to begin work on this star within the next few months.

  3. MOC Views of Martian Solar Eclipses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The shadow of the martian moon, Phobos, has been captured in many recent wide angle camera views of the red planet obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). Designed to monitor changes in weather and surface conditions, the wide angle cameras are also proving to be a good way to spot the frequent solar eclipses caused by the passage of Phobos between Mars and the Sun.

    The first figure (above), shows wide angle red (left), blue (middle), and color composite (right) views of the shadow of Phobos (elliptical feature at center of each frame) as it was cast upon western Xanthe Terra on August 26, 1999, at about 2 p.m.local time on Mars. The image covers an area about 250 kilometers (155 miles) across and is illuminated from the left. The meandering Nanedi Valles is visible in the lower right corner of the scene. Note the dark spots on three crater floors--these appear dark in the red camera image (left) but are barely distinguished in the blue image (middle), while the shadow is dark in both images. The spots on the crater floors are probably small fields of dark sand dunes.

    The second figure shows three samples of MOC's global image swaths, each in this case with a shadow of Phobos visible (arrow). The first scene (left) was taken on September 1, 1999, and shows the shadow of Phobos cast upon southern Elysium Planitia. The large crater with dark markings on its floor at the lower right corner is Herschel Basin. The second scene shows the shadow of Phobos cast upon northern Lunae Planum on September 8, 1999. Kasei Valles dominates the upper right and the deep chasms of Valles Marineris dominate the lower third of the September 8 image. The picture on the right shows the shadow of Phobos near the giant volcano, Olympus Mons (upper left), on September 25, 1999. Three other major volcanoes are visible from lower-center (Arsia Mons) and right-center (Pavonis Mons) to upper

  4. Total Solar Eclipse to Introduce Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    We are designing an experiment to record time lapse slit-less flash spectra of solar chromosphere and corona before, during and after the Total Solar Eclipse (TSE). As the moon gradually covers different heights of chromosphere and corona, the time lapse spectra would provide high hight-resolution information about the line formation starting at very close proximity to the solar limb. The flash spectrum will be recored with a slit-less spectrograph consisting of a transmission grating of 300 lines/mm, blazed at 5000 Å, and an 135 mm f/3.5 telephoto lens. Based on earlier such instruments, the system's efficiency is expected to be about 60% at 5303 Å (Fe XIV emission line) and 20% at 6374 Å (Fe X emission line) (Voulgaris, 2010). We shall place the grating before the telephoto lens on a wedge shaped. The full range of the visible spectrum, from 3900 Å to 6700 Å will be projected on the CCD sensor of the digital camera. The resolution of the spectrograph is expected to be 0.5 Å/pixel at 5215 Å. The diameter of the Sun would corresponded to 275 pixels or 6.87''/pixel. By turning the grating, the direction of the ruling shall be set parallel to the direction of the last visible elongated crescent of the Sun; which will play the role of the "slit" in the slitless spectrograph. The spectrograph will be mounted on a solar tracker to observe the sun during TSE.

  5. Determination of aflatoxins in food samples by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Y; Saito, K; Hanioka, N; Narimatsu, S; Kataoka, H

    2009-05-15

    A simple and sensitive automated method for determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in nuts, cereals, dried fruits, and spices was developed consisting of in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Aflatoxins were separated within 8 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column with methanol/acetonitrile (60/40, v/v): 5mM ammonium formate (45:55) as the mobile phase. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for MS detection of aflatoxins. The pseudo-molecular ions [M+H](+) were used to detect aflatoxins in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25draw/eject cycles of 40 microL of sample using a Supel-Q PLOT capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted aflatoxins were readily desorbed from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS with SIM method, good linearity of the calibration curve (r>0.9994) was obtained in the concentration range of 0.05-2.0 ng/mL using aflatoxin M1 as an internal standard, and the detection limits (S/N=3) of aflatoxins were 2.1-2.8 pg/mL. The in-tube SPME method showed >23-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (10 microL injection volume). The within-day and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) at the concentration of 1 ng/mL aflatoxin mixture were below 3.3% and 7.7% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of food samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of aflatoxins spiked into nuts and cereals were >80%, and the relative standard deviations were <11.2%. Aflatoxins were detected at <10 ng/g in several commercial food samples.

  6. MARVELS Radial Velocity Solutions to Seven Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslar, Michael Francis; Thomas, Neil B.; Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Herczeg, Alec; Reyes, Alan; SDSS-III MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries serve momentous purposes to improve the basis of understanding aspects of stellar astrophysics, such as the accurate calculation of the physical parameters of stars and the enigmatic mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. We report the investigation results of 7 eclipsing binary candidates, initially identified by the Kepler mission, overlapped with the radial velocity observations from the SDSS-III Multi-Object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS). The RV extractions and spectroscopic solutions of these eclipsing binaries were generated by the University of Florida's 1D data pipeline with a median RV precision of ~60-100 m/s, which was utilized for the DR12 data release. We performed the cross-reference fitting of the MARVELS RV data and the Kepler photometric fluxes obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (V2) and modelled the 7 eclipsing binaries in the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs. This analysis accurately determined the absolute physical and orbital parameters of each binary. Most of the companion stars were determined to have masses of K and M dwarf stars (0.3-0.8 M⊙), and allowed for an investigation into the mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. Among the cases are KIC 9163796, a 122.2 day period "heartbeat star", a recently-discovered class of eccentric binaries known for tidal distortions and pulsations, with a high eccentricity (e~0.75) and KIC 11244501, a 0.29 day period, contact binary with a double-lined spectrum and mass ratio (q~0.45). We also report on the possible reclassification of 2 Kepler eclipsing binary candidates as background eclipsing binaries based on the analysis of the flux measurements, flux ratios of the spectroscopic and photometric solutions, the differences in the FOVs, the image processing of Kepler, and RV and spectral analysis of MARVELS.

  7. Amateur observations of solar eclipses and derivation of scientific data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoev, A. D.; Stoeva, P. V.

    2008-12-01

    This work presents the educational approach of using total solar eclipse occurrences as a scientific process learning aid. The work reviews the basic scientific aims and experiments included in the observational programs "Total solar eclipse 1999 and 2006" (Stoev, A., Kiskinova, N., Muglova, P. et al. Complex observational programme of the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory and STIL, BAS, Stara Zagora Department for the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse, in: Total Solar Eclipse 1999 - Observational Programmes and Coordination, Proceedings, Recol, Haskovo, pp. 133-137, 1999a (in Bulgarian); Stoeva, P.V., Stoev, A.D., Kostadinov, I.N. et al. Solar Corona and Atmospheric Effects during the March 29, 2006 Total Solar Eclipse, in: 11th International Science Conference SOLAR-Terrestrial Influences, Sofia, November 24-25, pp. 69-72, 2005). Results from teaching and training the students in the procedures, methods and equipment necessary for the observation of a total solar eclipse (TSE) at the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory (PAO) in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, as well as the selection process used in determining participation in the different observational teams are discussed. The final stages reveal the special methodology used to investigate the level of "pretensions", the levels of ambition displayed by the students in achieving each independent goal, and the setting of goals in context with their problem solving capabilities and information gathering abilities in the scientific observation process. Results obtained from the observational experiments are interpreted mainly in the following themes: Investigation of the structure of the white-light solar corona and evolution of separate coronal elements during the total phase of the eclipse; Photometry of the white-light solar corona and specific emission lines; Meteorological, actinometrical and optical atmospheric investigations; Astrometry of the Moon during the phase evolution of the eclipse and

  8. The Great American Eclipse Glasses Debacle of 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresch Fienberg, Richard; AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, looking ahead to the “Great American” solar eclipse of 21 August 2017, the American Astronomical Society established the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force to help prepare the public for a safe and enjoyable experience. We worked with NASA and several associations of eye-care professionals to come up a safety message that we could all stand behind. The gist of it was that it is perfectly safe to view totality without protection, but when any part of the Sun’s bright face is exposed, you must view through eclipse glasses or handheld viewers that meet the ISO 12312-2 international safety standard for filters for direct viewing of the Sun. We compiled a list of manufacturers whose products we knew to meet the standard (because we examined their test data) and posted it on our website. These manufacturers were all based in the US or Europe. A few weeks before the eclipse, reports surfaced of viewers purchased on Amazon.com labeled “Made in China” or that were obvious knock-offs of US manufacturers’ products. Amazon responded by suspending virtually all sales of eclipse viewers and recalling many of units already sold and shipped. Millions of people who’d bought eclipse glasses online, whether from legitimate sources or from bad actors, were unsure whether they could trust their purchases. We had to change our safety messaging: it was no longer sufficient to tell people to look for the ISO 12312-2 label, because that was being printed on Chinese-made glasses that hadn’t actually been shown to meet the standard. Instead, the only way to know that you had safe viewers was to know that you got them from a legitimate source — which meant we had to expand the list on our website to include every legitimate seller we could identify. Doing so required a monumental effort under intense time pressure. Thankfully there were few reports of eye injuries following the eclipse, but apparently many people who otherwise would have viewed the eclipse chose to skip

  9. Impact of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, I.; Andreas, A.; Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing interest in using solar energy as a major contributor to renewable energy utilization, and with the focus on using smart grids to optimize the use of electrical energy based on demand and resources from different locations, arises the need to know the Moon position in the sky with respect to the Sun. When a solar eclipse occurs, the Moon disk might totally or partially shade the Sun disk, which can affect the irradiance level from the sun disk, consequently, a resource on the grid is affected. The Moon position can then provide the smart grid users with information about potential total or partial solar eclipse at different locations in the grid, so that other resources on the grid can be directed where this might be needed when such phenomena occurs. At least five solar eclipses occur yearly at different locations on earth, they can last three hours or more depending on the location, which can have devastating effects on the smart grid users. On August 21, 2017 a partial solar eclipse will occur at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, USA. The solar irradiance will be measured during the eclipse and compared to the data generated by a model for validation.

  10. Eclipse SteerTech liquid lenslet beam steering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, Raymond T.; Rogers, Stanley; Shannon, Kenneth C., III

    2007-09-01

    Eclipse SteerTech TM transmissive fluid state electrowetting technology has successfully demonstrated the ability to control the shape and position of a fluid lenslet. In its final form, the technology will incorporate a dual fluid lenslet approach capable of operating in extremely high acceleration environments. The beam steering system works on the principle of electro-wetting. A substrate is covered with a closely spaced array of, independently addressable, transparent, electrically conductive pixels utilizing Eclipse's proprietary EclipseTEC TM technology. By activating and deactivating selected EclipseTEC TM pixels in the proper sequence, the shape and position of fluid lenslets or arrays of lenslets can be dynamically changed at will. The position and shape of individual fluid lenslets may be accurately controlled on any flat, simply curved, or complex curved, transparent or reflective surface. The smaller the pixels the better control of the position and shape of the fluid lenslets. Information on the successful testing of the Eclipse SteerTech TM lenslet and discussion of its use in a de-centered lenslet array will be presented.

  11. Impact of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on the Smart Grid

    SciT

    Habte, Aron M; Reda, Ibrahim M; Andreas, Afshin M

    With the increasing interest in using solar energy as a major contributor to the use of renewable generation, and with the focus on using smart grids to optimize the use of electrical energy based on demand and resources from different locations, the need arises to know the moons position in the sky with respect to the sun. When a solar eclipse occurs, the moon disk might totally or partially shade the sun disk, which can affect the irradiance level from the sun disk, consequently affecting a resource on the electric grid. The moons position can then provide smart grid usersmore » with information about how potential total or partial solar eclipses might affect different locations on the grid so that other resources on the grid can be directed to where they might be needed when such phenomena occurs. At least five solar eclipses occur yearly at different locations on Earth, they can last 3 hours or more depending on the location, and they can affect smart grid users. On August 21, 2017, a partial and full solar eclipse occurred in many locations in the United States, including at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Solar irradiance measurements during the eclipse were compared to the data generated by a model for validation at eight locations.« less

  12. IUE observations of the atmospheric eclipsing binary system Zeta Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champman, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations of the eclipsing binary system Zeta Aurigae made prior to and during the eclipse of the relatively small B8 V star by the cool supergiant star (spectral type K2 II) are reported. Spectral lines produced by the absorption of B star radiation in the atmosphere of the K star during eclipse can be used as a probe of the extended K star atmosphere, due to the negligible cool star continuum in the 1200-3200 A region. Spectra taken prior to eclipse are found to be similar to those of the single B8 V star 64 Ori, with the exception of very strong multi-component absorption lines of Si II, Si IV, C IV and the Mg resonance doublet with strong P Cygni profiles, indicating a double shell. Absorption lines including those corresponding to Al II, Al III, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II, Ni II and Ca II are observed to increase in strength and number as the eclipse progresses, with high-ionization-potential lines formed far from the K star, possibly in a shock wave, and low-ionization potential lines, formed in cool plasma, probably a cool wind, nearer to the K star. Finally, an emission-line spectra with lines corresponding to those previously observed in absorption is noted at the time the B-star continuum had disappeared.

  13. Periodicity and eclipse minima timing of CM Draconis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Martín, S.; Deeg, H. J.; Dreizler, S.; von Essen, C.; Kozhevnikov, V. P.

    2015-05-01

    Periodic deviations from a linear ephemeris of a binary star's eclipses can indicate the presence of a third body in orbit around both. Hints for such companion around the M4.5/M4.5 binary CMDra were published by Deeg et al. (2008). The assignment of a planet in the CMDra system can however only be accepted if the earlier observed periodicity trends can be verified through further observations over several years. For eclipsing binary stars of low mass, the method of eclipse minimum timing allows one to set mass limits for the detection of a third body. Deeg et al. (2008) concluded that the two possibilities for the source of CMDra's timing variations that remain valid are a planet of a few Jupiter masses on a two decade-long orbit, or an object on a century-to-millenium long orbit with masses 1.5M_J < M_{p} < 0.1M_{⊙}. However, they concluded that it is necessary to do continued observations of the timing of CMDra's eclipses to be decisive regarding the continued viability of the sinusoidal-fit-model, and hence, about the validity of a Jovian-type planet in a circumbinary orbiting around the system. Here we update the analysis of Deeg et al. (2008), including further data presented in Morales et al. (2009r) and new observations taken at Ural Observatory (2008-2013). Eclipse minimum times were obtained using the Kwee-van-Woerden method.

  14. Howard Russell Butler's Oil Paintings of Solar Eclipses and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) was invited to join the US Naval Observatory expedition to the total solar eclipse of 1918 because of his ability to paint astronomical phenomena based on quickly-made notes about spatial and color details. His giant triptych of the total eclipses of 1918, 1923, and 1925 was proposed for a never-built astronomical center at the American Museum of Natural History and wound up at their Hayden Planetarium when it was constructed in the mid-1930s. Half-size versions are installed at the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and at the Firestone Library of Princeton University, whose newly conserved canvases were recently hung; the Buffalo Museum of Science has another half-size version in storage. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs but also the series of large oil paintings he made of solar prominences (in storage at the American Museum of Natural History) and of his 1932-eclipse and other relevant works.JMP was supported for this work in part by Division III Discretionary Funds and the Brandi Fund of Williams College. His current eclipse research is supported by grants AGS-1047726 from the Solar Research Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and 9327-13 from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

  15. On the period determination of ASAS eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayangsari, L.; Priyatikanto, R.; Putra, M.

    2014-03-01

    Variable stars, or particularly eclipsing binaries, are very essential astronomical occurrence. Surveys are the backbone of astronomy, and many discoveries of variable stars are the results of surveys. All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) is one of the observing projects whose ultimate goal is photometric monitoring of variable stars. Since its first light in 1997, ASAS has collected 50,099 variable stars, with 11,076 eclipsing binaries among them. In the present work we focus on the period determination of the eclipsing binaries. Since the number of data points in each ASAS eclipsing binary light curve is sparse, period determination of any system is a not straightforward process. For 30 samples of such systems we compare the implementation of Lomb-Scargle algorithm which is an Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) basis and Phase Dispersion Minimization (PDM) method which is non-FFT basis to determine their period. It is demonstrated that PDM gives better performance at handling eclipsing detached (ED) systems whose variability are non-sinusoidal. More over, using semi-automatic recipes, we get better period solution and satisfactorily improve 53% of the selected object's light curves, but failed against another 7% of selected objects. In addition, we also highlight 4 interesting objects for further investigation.

  16. The detached eclipsing binary TX Her revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Aliçavuş, F.; Soydugan, F.; Doğru, S. S.; Soydugan, E.; Çiçek, C.; Demircan, O.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents new CCD Bessell BVRI light curves and photometric analysis of the Algol-type binary star TX Her. The CCD observations were carried out at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Observatory in 2010. New BVRI light curves from this study and radial velocity curves from Popper (1970) were solved simultaneously using modern light and radial velocity curves synthesis methods. The general results show that TX Her is a well-detached eclipsing binary, however, both component stars fill at least half of their Roche lobes. A significant third light contribution to the total light of the system could not be determined. Using O- C residuals formed by the updated minima times, an orbital period study of the system was performed. It was confirmed that the tilted sinusoidal O- C variation corresponds to an apparent period variation caused by the light travel time effect due to an unseen third body. The following absolute parameters of the components were derived: M1 = 1.62 ± 0.04 M ⊙, M2 = 1.45 ± 0.03 M ⊙, R1 = 1.69 ± 0.03 R ⊙, R2 = 1.43 ± 0.03 R ⊙, L1 = 8.21 ± 0.90 L ⊙ and L2 = 3.64 ± 0.60 L ⊙. The distance to TX Her was calculated as 155 ± 10 pc, taking into account interstellar extinction. The position of the components of TX Her in the HR diagram are also discussed. The components are young stars with an age of ˜500 Myr.

  17. Accuracy of lunar eclipse observations made by Jesuit astronomers in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoohi, L. J.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1996-02-01

    The Jesuit astronomers observed numerous lunar eclipses at Beijing and summaries of their observations - made between 1644 and 1785 - are preserved. The various lunar eclipse measurements that the Jesuits made are compared with the results of present-day computation.

  18. Through the Eyes of NASA: NASA's 2017 Eclipse Education Progam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last three years, NASA has been developing plans to bring the August 21st total solar eclipse to the nation, "as only NASA can", leveraging its considerable space assets, technology, scientists, and its unmatched commitment to science education. The eclipse, long anticipated by many groups, represents the largest Big Event education program that NASA has ever undertaken. It is the latest in a long string of successful Big Event international celebrations going back two decades including both transits of Venus, three solar eclipses, solar maximum, and mission events such as the MSL/Curiosity landing on Mars, and the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to name a few. This talk will detail NASA's program development methods, strategic partnerships, and strategies for using this celestial event to engage the nation and improve overall science literacy.

  19. A model of V356 Sagittarii. [eclipsing binary star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Caldwell, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that V356 Sgr is an abnormal member of the Algol class of binaries. According to Popper (1955), the primary component is of spectral type B3V and is rotating rapidly, while the secondary is of type A2II and is rotating at least approximately in synchronism with the orbital motion. The system is either semidetached or quite near to being semidetached. The main anomalies are related to the ratio of eclipse depths, the very small reflection effect of the light curves, differences between the duration of the primary and the secondary eclipse, and the unusual characteristics of the primary eclipse. It is concluded that the lack of agreement between theory and observation can be due only to an important attribute of the binary which has not yet been incorporated into the theory. The peculiarities can most reasonably be explained in terms of a geometrically and optically thick disk which surrounds the primary component.

  20. The eclipsing AM Herculis variable H1907 + 690

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remillard, R. A.; Silber, A.; Stroozas, B. A.; Tapia, S.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery is reported of an eclipsing cataclysmic variable that exhibits up to 10 percent circular polarization at optical wavelengths, securing its classification as an AM Herculis type binary. The object, H1907 + 609, was located with the guidance of X-ray positions from the HEAO 1 survey. Optical CCD photometry exhibits deep eclipses, from which is derived a precise orbital period of 1.743750 hr. The eclipse duration suggests an inclination angle about 80 deg for a main-sequence secondary star. The optical flux has been persistently faint during observations spanning 1987-1990, while the X-ray measurements suggest long-term X-ray variability. The polarization and photometric light curves can be interpreted with a geometric model in which most of the accretion is directed toward a single magnetic pole, with an accretion spot displaced about 17 deg in longitude from the projection of the secondary star on the white dwarf surface.

  1. The new eclipsing magnetic binary system E 1114 + 182

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, P.; Schmidt, G. D.; Liebert, J.; Tapia, S.; Strittmatter, P. A.; West, S.; Stockman, H. S.; Kuehr, H.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of E 1114 + 182, the first eclipsing AM Herculis binary system and the shortest-period eclipsing cataclysmic variable known, is presented. The time-resolved X-ray observations which led to the system's recognition as an AM Her system with a roughly 90 minute orbital period are reported. The current optical photometric and polarimetric ephemeris and a description of the system's phase-modulated properties are given. The detailed photometric eclipse profile and the highly variable spectroscopic behavior are addressed. This information is used to determine systemic parameters and derive new information on the line emission regions. The data put severe constraints on current torque models for keeping the binary and white dwarf rotation in phase.

  2. RR Lyrae stars in eclipsing systems -- historical candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liška, J.; Skarka, M.; Hájková, P.; Auer, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    Discovery of binary systems among RR Lyrae stars belongs to challenges of present astronomy. So far, none of classical RR Lyrae stars was clearly confirmed, that it is a part of an eclipsing system. From this reason we studied two RR Lyrae stars, VX Her and RW Ari, in which changes assigned to eclipses were detected in sixties and seventies of the 20th century. In this paper our preliminary results based on analysis of new photometric measurements are presented as well as the results from the detailed analysis of original measurements. A new possible eclipsing system, RZ Cet was identified in the archive data. Our analysis rather indicates errors in measurements and reductions of the old data than real changes for all three stars.

  3. Interpretation of Historically Significant Solar and Lunar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradyan, Armine; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Most of the ancient civilizations reacted with great awe and fear to the phenomena occurring in the sky and their changes. Periodically recurring movements of the Sun and the Moon attracting the attention of the astronomers, have given possibility to ancient civilizations to develop various calendars, including quite complicated ones. Since ancient times, Lunar and Solar eclipses were also among the forecasted phenomena, which have played an important role in human history. In the modern era, due to the cooperation of astronomers and historians, precise historical years and dates have been identified and the most important scientific discoveries of mankind have been proved with the help of eclipses. Most important historical Solar and Lunar eclipses, their impact on people, societies, history and science are presented and the interpretation of available to us historical events is given in this article.

  4. An outstanding researcher of the solar eclipses- Nicolas Donitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    1998-09-01

    Nicolae Donitch (1874, Chisinau-1958, Nice, France?) worked in Russia (until 1917), Romania (1918-1944) and France (1945-1958?). His observatory was placed in Dubossary-Vechi (where he worked with some intervals between 1908 and 1944. He was designated by the Russian Academy of Sciences for the observations of the total Solar eclipse in Elche (Spain) on 28 May 1900. Other solar eclipses observed by N. Donitch: 17-18 may 1901, Padong (Sumatra); 1904 - the annular eclipse of the Sun in Pnom-Penh (Cambodge); august 1905, Alcala de Chisvert (Spain) and Assuan (Upper Egypt); 16/17 April 1912, Portugal; 21 august 1914, Crimea; 1925, USA; 1929 Indochina and Philipines; 1930, Egypt; 1932 Egypt and cape Porpoise,Maine USA; 1936, Inneboli, Turkey. Other solar investigations by N. Donitch; Solar cromosphere (Odessa, 1902; Mount- Blanch, 1902-1903); The passage of the planet Mercury through the solar disk (November, 1907, Egypt; October 1914, Algeria).

  5. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation.

  6. NASA's Terra Satellite Sees Shadows of Solar Eclipse

    2015-03-20

    During the morning of March 20, 2015, a total solar eclipse was visible from parts of Europe, and a partial solar eclipse from northern Africa and northern Asia. NASA's Terra satellite passed over the Arctic Ocean on March 20 at 10:45 UTC (6:45 a.m. EDT) and captured the eclipse's shadow over the clouds in the Arctic Ocean. Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. The 1984 eclipse of the symbiotic binary SY Muscae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Michalitisianos, A. G.; Lutz, J. H.; Kafatos, M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from IUE spectra obtained with the 10 x 20-arcsec aperture on May 13, 1984, and optical spectrophotometry obtained with an SIT vidicon on the 1.5-m telescope at CTIO on April 29-May 1, 1984, are reported for the symbiotic binary SY Mus. The data are found to be consistent with a model of a red-giant secondary of 60 solar radii which completely eclipses the hot primary every 627 d but only partially eclipses the 75-solar-radius He(+) region surrounding the primary. The distance to SY Mus is estimated as 1.3 kpc. It is suggested that the large Balmer decrement in eclipse, with (H-alpha)/(H-beta) = 8.3 and (H-beta)/(H-gamma) = 1.5, is associated with an electron density of about 10 to the 10th/cu cm.

  8. A Statistical Approach to Exoplanetary Molecular Spectroscopy Using Spitzer Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Garhart, Emily; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Todorov, Kamen

    2018-01-01

    Secondary eclipses of exoplanets observed using the Spitzer Space Telescope measure the total emission emergent from exoplanetary atmospheres integrated over broad photometric bands. Spitzer photometry is excellent for measuring day side temperatures, but is less well suited to the detection of molecular absorption or emission features. Even for very hot exoplanets, it can be difficult to attain the accuracy on eclipse depth that is needed to unambiguously interpret the Spitzer results in terms of molecular absorption or emission. However, a statistical approach, wherein we seek deviations from a simple blackbody planet as a function of the planet's equilibrium temperature, shows promise for defining the nature and strength of molecular absorption in ensembles of planets. In this paper, we explore such an approach using secondary eclipses observed for tens of hot exoplanets during Spitzer's Cycles 10, 12, and 13. We focus on the possibility that the hottest planets exhibit molecular features in emission, due to temperature inversions.

  9. Daylight levels during the solar eclipse of 11 August 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darula, S.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Kittler, R.

    Solar eclipses are unique phenomena not only for astronomical and space observations but also for terrestrial; they create unique conditions of sunbeam blockage which cause not only the reduction of direct sunlight but also the dimming of skylight from the whole sky vault. Very favorable conditions were met during the recent August 1999 solar eclipse in Athens, Greece and Bratislava, Slovakia. General class daylight stations operate within the International Daylight Measurements Program in the two cities. One-minute data of global/diffuse illuminance and zenith luminance from those stations have been used to provide information about their levels and the daylight reduction rate during the eclipse. An approximate formula for the estimation of sunlight and skylight illuminance levels as well as zenith luminance using relative luminance sky patterns is also presented in this work. To achieve this, recently developed sky standards together with their parameterizations are utilized.

  10. There's An App For That: Planning Ahead for the Solar Eclipse in August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda R.; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2017-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an Android application, available on Google Play.Over the course of the eclipse, as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse 2017 Android application reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The app also lists the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site.All of the data available in the app comes from the flexible USNO Solar Eclipse Computer Application Programming Interface (API), which produces JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or custom applications. Additional information is available in the on-line documentation (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php).For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, the local circumstances can still be requested at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php.In addition the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO).Looking further ahead, a 2024 April 8 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2024.php) is also available.

  11. Simulation of Ionospheric Response During Solar Eclipse Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordella, L.; Earle, G. D.; Huba, J.

    2016-12-01

    Total solar eclipses are rare, short duration events that present interesting case studies of ionospheric behavior because the structure of the ionosphere is determined and stabilized by varying energies of solar radiation (Lyman alpha, X-ray, U.V., etc.). The ionospheric response to eclipse events is a source of scientific intrigue that has been studied in various capacities over the past 50 years. Unlike the daily terminator crossings, eclipses cause highly localized, steep gradients of ionization efficiency due to their comparatively small solar zenith angle. However, the corona remains present even at full obscuration, meaning that the energy reduction never falls to the levels seen at night. Previous eclipse studies performed by research groups in the US, UK, China and Russia have shown a range of effects, some counter-intuitive and others contradictory. In the shadowed region of an eclipse (i.e. umbra) it is logical to assume a reduction in ionization rates correlating with the reduction of incident solar radiation. Results have shown that even this straightforward hypothesis may not be true; effects on plasma distribution, motion and temperature are more appreciable than might be expected. Recent advancements in ionospheric simulation codes present the opportunity to investigate the relationship between geophysical conditions and geomagnetic location on resulting eclipse event ionosphere. Here we present computational simulation results using the Naval Research Lab (NRL) developed ionospheric modeling codes Sami2 and Sami3 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) modified with spatio-temporal photoionization attenuation functions derived from theory and empirical data.

  12. Social Impact of Solar Eclipse in Indonesia: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumpuni, Emanuel S.; Hidayat, Bambang

    2012-09-01

    The social impact and public comprehension of the natural phenomenon varies depending on how a particular cultural background perceives the phenomenon and how the interaction between general public and the authoritative bodies has persisted. While astronomers and scientists have taken for granted that solar eclipse is a natural phenomenon and subjected it to various scientific studies, large percentages of the population have been left uninformed scientifically and have responded to the phenomena quite differently. The technical and scientific aspects of the earliest expedition, to Padang (Sumatra) in 1901, have recently been discussed at length.Two major solar eclipses, namely the 1926 and 1929, offered many scientific outputs as well as results on observations of societies: anthropology, demography, and culinary habits of the local inhabitants. Those days, science was the preserve of a few selected. To a certain degree, many old perceptions of on natural phenomena, with their ruling deities still lingered on. The purpose of this paper is to show the changing views of the endogenous population in particular after the government's massive efforts to enlighten the people and to empower the younger generations in comprehending natural phenomena. The great efforts of the Government of Indonesia's Institute of Sciences (LIPI) related to the June 1983 solar eclipse produced a dramatic change in the sense of appreciation of solar eclipse as a natural phenomenon in consequence of relative motions of the Sun, Moon and the Earth. It took however another five years, till the time of the great eclipse in 1988, to a full fruition in which younger generations as well as older ones abandoned almost completely the old views and embarked on the understanding the value of solar eclipse for science.

  13. Eclipses of the inner satellites of Jupiter observed in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquet, E.; Emelyanov, N.; Colas, F.; Arlot, J.-E.; Robert, V.; Christophe, B.; Dechambre, O.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: During the 2014-2015 campaign of mutual events, we recorded ground-based photometric observations of eclipses of Amalthea (JV) and, for the first time, Thebe (JXIV) by the Galilean moons. We focused on estimating whether the positioning accuracy of the inner satellites determined with photometry is sufficient for dynamical studies. Methods: We observed two eclipses of Amalthea and one of Thebe with the 1 m telescope at Pic du Midi Observatory using an IR filter and a mask placed over the planetary image to avoid blooming features. A third observation of Amalthea was taken at Saint-Sulpice Observatory with a 60 cm telescope using a methane filter (890 nm) and a deep absorption band to decrease the contrast between the planet and the satellites. After background removal, we computed a differential aperture photometry to obtain the light flux, and followed with an astrometric reduction. Results: We provide astrometric results with an external precision of 53 mas for the eclipse of Thebe, and 20 mas for that of Amalthea. These observation accuracies largely override standard astrometric measurements. The (O - C)s for the eclipse of Thebe are 75 mas on the X-axis and 120 mas on the Y-axis. The (O - C)s for the total eclipses of Amalthea are 95 mas and 22 mas, along the orbit, for two of the three events. Taking into account the ratio of (O - C) to precision of the astrometric results, we show a significant discrepancy with the theory established by Avdyushev and Ban'shikova in 2008, and the JPL JUP 310 ephemeris. Three of the four eclipse observations where recorded at the 1 m telescope of Pic du Midi Observatory (S2P), the other at Saint-Sulpice Observatory.

  14. 75 FR 45075 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... in the Federal Register on July 9, 2010 (75 FR 39472), and applies to certain Eclipse Aerospace, Inc... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Eclipse Aerospace, Inc...

  15. Configuring Eclipse for GMAT Builds: Instructions for Windows Users, Rev. 0.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Darrel J.

    2007-01-01

    This document provides instructions about how to configure the Eclipse IDE to build GMAT on Windows based PCs. The current instructions are preliminary; the Windows builds using Eclipse are currently a bit crude. These instructions are intended to give you enough information to get Eclipse setup to build wxWidgets based executables in general, and GMAT in particular.

  16. In the Shadow of the Moon, What Type of Solar Eclipse Will We See?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Todd; Brown, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Solar eclipses occur several times a year, but most people will be lucky if they see one total solar eclipse in their lifetime. There are two upcoming total solar eclipses that can be seen from different parts of the United States (August 21, 2017 and April 8, 2024), and they provide teachers with an amazing opportunity to engage students with a…

  17. The Eclipse of the Sun from 29 March 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca, Sergiu; Gaina, Alex; Stefanco, Alex

    The internet post include: The curve of the temperature during the day of the Eclipse of the Sun from 29 march 2006, Few photographs of the eclipse made in Chisinau (The Republic of Moldova)(47 Deg.03 Min. N.L., 28 Deg. 46 Min. E.L.). A miscellaneous photo of the comet Halle -Bopp made by FED-5B (No. 101962, manufactured in 1979) is presented also. For translation of the texts from Russian to 10 languages use: http://www.translate.ru/text.asp?lang=ru

  18. DEBCat: A Catalog of Detached Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.

    2015-07-01

    Detached eclipsing binary star systems are our primary source of measured physical properties of normal stars. I introduce DEBCat: a catalog of detached eclipsing binaries with mass and radius measurements to the 2% precision necessary to put useful constraints on theoretical models of stellar evolution. The catalog was begun in 2006, as an update of the compilation by Andersen (1991). It now contains over 170 systems, and new results are added on appearance in the refereed literature. DEBCat is available at: http://www.astro.keele.ac.uk/jkt/debcat/.

  19. Using Stellarium to cyber-observe the Great American Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prim, Ellie R.; Sitar, David J.

    2017-09-01

    The Great American Eclipse is over. Somewhat sad, is it not? Individuals who were unable to experience the event on August 21, 2017, can now cyber-observe the eclipse with Stellarium (http://www.stellarium.org). In the authors' opinion, it is fun and has many great applications in the classroom. In addition it is open source and available for Android, iOS, and Linux users. We here at Appalachian use it in our introductory astronomy labs for specific activities such as investigating coordinate systems, discovering differences between solar and sidereal days, as well as determining why your "astrological sign" is most often not your "astronomical sign."

  20. Total solar eclipse effects on VLF signals: Observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Rodger, Craig J.; Thomson, Neil R.; Lichtenberger, János; Steinbach, Péter; Cannon, Paul; Angling, Matthew J.

    During the total solar eclipse observed in Europe on August 11, 1999, measurements were made of the amplitude and phase of four VLF transmitters in the frequency range 16-24 kHz. Five receiver sites were set up, and significant variations in phase and amplitude are reported for 17 paths, more than any previously during an eclipse. Distances from transmitter to receiver ranged from 90 to 14,510 km, although the majority were <2000 km. Typically, positive amplitude changes were observed throughout the whole eclipse period on path lengths <2000 km, while negative amplitude changes were observed on paths >10,000 km. Negative phase changes were observed on most paths, independent of path length. Although there was significant variation from path to path, the typical changes observed were ~3 dB and ~50°. The changes observed were modeled using the Long Wave Propagation Capability waveguide code. Maximum eclipse effects occurred when the Wait inverse scale height parameter β was 0.5 km-1 and the effective ionospheric height parameter H' was 79 km, compared with β=0.43km-1 and H'=71km for normal daytime conditions. The resulting changes in modeled amplitude and phase show good agreement with the majority of the observations. The modeling undertaken provides an interpretation of why previous estimates of height change during eclipses have shown such a range of values. A D region gas-chemistry model was compared with electron concentration estimates inferred from the observations made during the solar eclipse. Quiet-day H' and β parameters were used to define the initial ionospheric profile. The gas-chemistry model was then driven only by eclipse-related solar radiation levels. The calculated electron concentration values at 77 km altitude throughout the period of the solar eclipse show good agreement with the values determined from observations at all times, which suggests that a linear variation in electron production rate with solar ionizing radiation is reasonable

  1. New Light-Time Curve of Eclipsing Binary AM Leo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorda, S. Yu.; Matveeva, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present 72 photoelectric and CCD times of minima of eclipsing binary AM Leo obtained mainly during at Kourovka Astronomical Observatory of the Ural Federal University in Russia. We obtained new values of period of 50.5 years and eccentricity of 0.28 of the orbit of the eclipsing pair around the mass center of the system AM Leo with the third body. These results have been received taking into account the times of minima taken from literature and obtained from to .

  2. The total solar eclipse of 2010 July 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, H.; James, N.; Mason, J.

    2010-08-01

    The solar eclipse of 2010 July 11 always promised to be a logistical nightmare to observe. The Moon's shadow first touched the Earth in the southern Pacific, encountering land at Mangaia in the Cook Islands only after 1450km of open ocean. The narrow track of totality then swung northeast, passing tantalisingly close to the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, which experienced a 98% partial eclipse. Beyond Tahiti the track crossed the Tuamotu archipelago of French Polynesia - thousands of tiny coral atolls, of which very few are inhabited, and even fewer have airstrips that make them accessible to visitors.

  3. St. Benedict Sees the Light: Asam's Solar Eclipses as Metaphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Roberta J. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.

    During the Baroque period, artists worked in a style - encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church and the Council of Trent - that revealed the divine in natural forms and made religious experiences more accessible. Cosmas Damian Asam, painter and architect, and his brother Egid (Aegid) Quirin Asam, sculptor and stuccatore, were the principal exponents of eighteenth-century, southern-German religious decoration and architecture in the grand manner, the Gesamtkunstwerk. Cosmas Damian's visionary and ecstatic art utilized light, both physical and illusionistic, together with images of meteorological and astronomical phenomena, such as solar and lunar eclipses. This paper focuses on his representations of eclipses and demonstrates how Asam was galvanized by their visual, as well as metaphorical power and that he studied a number of them. He subsequently applied his observations in a series of paintings for the Benedictine order that become increasingly astronomically accurate and spiritually profound. From the evidence presented, especially in three depictions of St. Benedict's vision, the artist harnessed his observations to visualize the literary description of the miraculous event in the Dialogues of St. Gregory the Great, traditionally a difficult scene to illustrate, even for Albrecht Dürer. Asam painted the trio at Einsiedeln, Switzerland (1724-27); Kladruby, the Czech Republic (1725-27), where he captured the solar corona and the "diamond-ring effect"; and Weltenburg, Germany (1735), where he also depicted the diamond-ring effect at a total solar eclipse. We conclude that his visualizations were informed by his personal observations of the solar eclipses on 12 May 1706, 22 May 1724, and 13 May 1733. Asam may have also known the eclipse maps of Edmond Halley and William Whiston that were issued in advance. Astronomers did not start studying eclipses scientifically until the nineteenth century, making Asam's depictions all the more fascinating. So powerful was the

  4. Observations of Comets and Eclipses in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowski, Mariusz

    There is no doubt that the Incas possessed a system for observing and interpreting unusual astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses or comets. References to it, however, are scarce, often of anecdotal nature and are not collected into any coherent "Inca observation catalog". The best documented of such events is the "Ataw Wallpa's comet", seen in Cajamarca in July of 1533 and the solar eclipse, that in 1543, prevented conquistador Lucas Martínez from discovering the rich silver mines in northern Chile. Archived descriptions of the Andean population's reaction to these phenomena indicate that they were treated as extremely important omens, that should not, under any circumstances, be ignored.

  5. [Eclipse retinopathy : A case series after the partial solar eclipse on 20 March 2015].

    PubMed

    Bachmeier, I; Helbig, H; Greslechner, R

    2017-01-01

    Solar retinopathy refers to damage to the central macula caused by exposure to intense solar radiation, most frequently observed after a solar eclipse. Description of the morphological changes in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the clinical course in patients with acute solar retinopathy. The study included a retrospective analysis of 12 eyes from 7 patients with solar retinopathy after the partial solar eclipse on 20 March 2015. Best corrected visual acuity, fundus changes and SD-OCT findings were analyzed. Out of the 7 patients 5 underwent treatment with 1 mg prednisolone per kg body weight. The average age of the patients was 30.1±13.1 years. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.65 at initial presentation. In the acute stage all affected eyes showed a small yellowish lesion in the centre of the fovea in the fundoscopic examination. In SD-OCT the continuity of all layers in the foveola appeared disrupted. In the follow-up examination these changes were partially resolved. After 2 months SD-OCT revealed a small defect of the ellipsoid zone. In one patient the defect could not be shown due to slightly excentric imaging sections. Best corrected visual acuity increased to 0.97. The SD-OCT is an appropriate tool to determine the exact localization of the site of damage and for follow-up examination in solar retinopathy. In the acute phase it shows a disruption of the continuity of all layers in the foveola. Despite good recovery of visual acuity a small central defect of the ellipsoid zone remains in the long term.

  6. The X-ray eclipse of the LMC binary CAL 87

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidtke, P. C.; Mcgrath, T. K.; Cowley, A. P.; Frattare, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    ROSAT-PSPC observations of the LMC eclipsing binary CAL 87 show a short-duration, shallow X-ray eclipse which coincides in phase with the primary optical minimum. Characteristics of the eclipse suggest the X-ray emitting region is only partially occulted. Similarities with the eclipse of the accretion-disk corona in X 1822-37 are discussed. However, no temperature variation through eclipse is found for CAL 87. A revised orbital period, combining published data and recent optical photometry, is given.

  7. The eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae visible spectroscopy and ultraviolet activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferluga, S.; Hack, M.

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary results of the study of several high resolution spectrograms (lambda 3500 - lambda 7000 A), obtained at the Haute Provence Observatory (OHP) in France, at different epochs before, during and after the eclipse are reported. Some of these spectrograms are compared with corresponding IUE high resolution observations, in order to study the effects of the intrinsic UV activity, towards the longer wavelengths.

  8. [Survey of ocular injury by solar eclipse 2009].

    PubMed

    Obana, Akira; Takahashi, Jun; Ohnishi, Kouji; Shinohara, Hideo; Matsuo, Atsushi; Saito, Izumi; Ohkawa, Takuya; Ono, Tomoko

    2011-07-01

    Incidence of ocular injury caused by the solar eclipse of 2009 has been investigated using the questionnaire of the Japan Committee of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The questionnaire was available to the public on the website. Answers were obtained from 14 people (12 men, 2 women), aged from sixteen to fifty-four. All had looked at the sun either with the naked eye or through some shading device (plastic sheet, plastic bag, compact disc, etc.) the safty of which is unknown. Reported symptoms included a sense of incongruity, heat, pain, central scotoma or visual disturbance, classified into four periods of duration. Three people with transient symptoms watched the eclipse with the naked eye for one minute in cloudy weather. Three people with symptoms lasting for one day and three people with symptoms lasting for one week had watched it with the naked eye and some shading device for 10 minutes in cloudy weather. Five people with symptoms lasting for more than one week watched the eclipse with the naked eye and through some sort of device in fine or slightly cloudy weather. Three people consulted their ophthalmologist. Those who reported adverse symptoms did not comply with the instructions for safe watching of the eclipse and the duration of the symptoms depended on the weather and the type of device used.

  9. Secondary Eclipse Observations and Orbital Analysis of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2016-01-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered by Maxted et al. (2010), this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 MJ a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 RJ and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 μm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 μm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 μm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  10. The Solar Eclipse Mural Series by Howard Russell Butler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich trove of astronomical phenomena in works of art by artists from the greater New York area, a trend that is even more pronounced in the oeuvres of New York City residents through the present day. A case in point is the trio of oil paintings by artist (and former physics professor) Howard Russell Butler depicting total solar eclipses in 1918, 1923, and 1925 that are based on his own observations. They were long displayed in the former art-deco building of the Hayden Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History, the location of this conference. (The Museum also has nine other Butler paintings, none of which are currently exhibited.) Since the eclipse paintings have been in storage for many years, these once famous works are now virtually forgotten. Based on our research as an astronomer who has seen sixty-two solar eclipses and an art historian who has written extensively about astronomical imagery, we will discuss Butler's Solar Eclipse Triptych to explore its place in the history of astronomical imaging.

  11. What we learn from eclipsing binaries in the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, Edward F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results on stars and stellar physics from IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) observations of eclipsing binaries are discussed. Several case studies are presented, including V 444 Cyg, Aur stars, V 471 Tau and AR Lac. Topics include stellar winds and mass loss, stellar atmospheres, stellar dynamos, and surface activity. Studies of binary star dynamics and evolution are discussed. The progress made with IUE in understanding the complex dynamical and evolutionary processes taking place in W UMa-type binaries and Algol systems is highlighted. The initial results of intensive studies of the W UMa star VW Cep and three representative Algol-type binaries (in different stages of evolution) focused on gas flows and accretion, are included. The future prospects of eclipsing binary research are explored. Remaining problems are surveyed and the next challenges are presented. The roles that eclipsing binaries could play in studies of stellar evolution, cluster dynamics, galactic structure, mass luminosity relations for extra galactic systems, cosmology, and even possible detection of extra solar system planets using eclipsing binaries are discussed.

  12. Dayside atmospheric structure of HD209458b from Spitzer eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, Matthew; Harrington, Joseph; Challener, Ryan; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina

    2017-10-01

    HD209458b is a hot Jupiter with a radius of 1.26 ± 0.08 Jupiter radii (Richardson et al, 2006) and a mass of 0.64 ± 0.09 Jupiter masses (Snellen et al, 2010). The planet orbits a G0 type star with an orbital period of 3.52472 ± 2.81699e-05 days, and a relatively low eccentricity of 0.0082 +0.0078/-0.0082 (Wang and Ford 2013). We report the analysis of observations of HD209458b during eclipse, taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels by the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (Program 90186). We produce a photometric light curve of the eclipses in both channels, using our Photometry for Orbits Eclipses and Transits (POET) code, and calculate the brightness temperatures and eclipse depths. We also present best estimates of the atmospheric parameters of HD209458b using our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code. These are some preliminary results of what will be an analysis of all available Spitzer data for HD209458b. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  13. ScienceCast 163: A Colorful Lunar Eclipse

    2014-09-17

    Mark your calendar: On Oct. 8th, the Moon will pass through the shadow of Earth for a total lunar eclipse. Sky watchers in the USA will see the Moon turn a beautiful shade of celestial red and maybe turquoise, too.

  14. NASA's Lesa Roe Talks Eclipse with Thomas Zurbuchen

    2017-09-13

    Lesa Roe, acting NASA deputy administrator, and Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA science mission directorate’s associate administrator, discuss their most notable experiences from the 2017 Solar Eclipse. Roe and Zurbuchen were passengers aboard NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center Gulfstream III aircraft, which flew 35,000 feet above the coast of Oregon during this phenomenal event.

  15. Observation and Analysis of Secondary Eclipses of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joesph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Matthew O.; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2014-11-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered by Maxted et al. (2010), this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 +/- 0.07 Mj, a radius of 1.18 +/- 0.07 Rj, and an orbital period of 2.71865 +/- 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurements as well as amatuer and professional data. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  16. Observation and Analysis of Secondary Eclipses of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered in 2010 by Maxted et al, this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 Mj, a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 Rj, an equilibrium temperature of 1560 ± 50 K, and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 µm and 4.5 µm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 µm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 µm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 µm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  17. A Mathematical Model of the Great Solar Eclipse of 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An activity that shows how mathematics can be used to model events in the real world is described. A way to calculate the area of the sun covered by the moon during a partial eclipse is presented. A computer program that will determine the coverage percentage is also included. (KR)

  18. NSV 1907 - A new eclipsing, nova-like cataclysmic variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hümmerich, Stefan; Gröbel, Rainer; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Dubois, Franky; Ashley, Richard; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Bernhard, Klaus; Wils, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    NSV 1907, formerly listed as an irregular variable in variability catalogues, was classified as an Algol-type eclipsing binary in the Catalina Surveys Periodic Variable Star Catalogue. We have identified NSV 1907 as an ultraviolet (UV) bright source using measurements from the GALEX space telescope and detected obvious out-of-eclipse variability in archival photometric data from the Catalina Sky Survey, which instigated a closer examination of the object. A spectrum and extensive multicolour photometric observations were acquired, from which we deduce that NSV 1907 is a deeply eclipsing, nova-like cataclysmic variable. Apart from the orbital variations (deep eclipses with a period of P ≈ 6.63 hours), changes in mean brightness and irregular short-term variability (flickering) were observed. The presence of a secondary minimum at phase φ ≈ 0.5 was established, which indicates a significant contribution of the companion star to the optical flux of the system. We find possible evidence for sinusoidal variations with a period of P ≈ 4.2 d, which we interpret as the nodal precession period of the accretion disc. No outbursts or VY Scl-like drops in brightness were detected either by the CSS or during our photometric monitoring. Because of its spectral characteristics and the observed variability pattern, we propose NSV 1907 as a new moderately bright long-period SW Sextantis star. Further photometric and spectroscopic observations are encouraged.

  19. A Glimpse of the Solar Eclipse from NREL

    SciT

    None

    2017-08-22

    On August 21, the NREL campus in Golden, Colorado experience a near-complete eclipse of the sun. This video, recorded from NREL’s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, where researchers carefully measure the sun’s energy, captures the moon crossing the sun before clouds move in and cover the sun.

  20. Searching Planets Around Some Selected Eclipsing Close Binary Stars Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiroglu, Ilham; Slowikowska, Agnieszka; Krzeszowski, Krzysztof; Zejmo, M. Michal; Er, Hüseyin; Goździewski, Krzysztof; Zola, Stanislaw; Koziel-Wierzbowska, Dorota; Debski, Bartholomew; Ogloza, Waldemar; Drozdz, Marek

    2016-07-01

    We present updated O-C diagrams of selected short period eclipsing binaries observed since 2009 with the T100 Telescope at the TUBITAK National Observatory (Antalya, Turkey), the T60 Telescope at the Adiyaman University Observatory (Adiyaman, Turkey), the 60cm at the Mt. Suhora Observatory of the Pedagogical University (Poland) and the 50cm Cassegrain telescope at the Fort Skala Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. All four telescopes are equipped with sensitive, back-illuminated CCD cameras and sets of wide band filters. One of the targets in our sample is a post-common envelope eclipsing binary NSVS 14256825. We collected more than 50 new eclipses for this system that together with the literature data gives more than 120 eclipse timings over the time span of 8.5 years. The obtained O-C diagram shows quasi-periodic variations that can be well explained by the existence of the third body on Jupiter-like orbit. We also present new results indicating a possible light time travel effect inferred from the O-C diagrams of two other binary systems: HU Aqr and V470 Cam.

  1. Worldwide photometry of the January 1989 Tau Persei eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Curott, David R.; Barksdale, William S.; Diethelm-Sutter, Roger; Ells, Jack

    1991-01-01

    New UBV photoelectric photometry of Tau Persei obtained at 19 different observatories during its recent January 1989 eclipse is presented. Mideclipse occurred at JD 2 447 542.31 + or - 0.01. The resulting light curve, though not complete at all phases, is solved for the elements with the help of two quantities derived from spectroscopy: the eclipse is 84 percent total at mideclipse, and the ratio of the radii is 0.135 + or - 0.01. Radii relative to the semimajor axis are 0.0236 for the G5 giant and 0.0032 for the A2 star. With a reasonable total mass assumed, the absolute radii say the A2 star could be luminosity class V or somewhat evolved and the G5 star is between III and II but could be closer to II. The G5 giant is brighter than the A2 star by 1.72 mag in V and the color excess in B - V is 0.06 mag, both quantities consistent (within uncertainties) with earlier estimates of Ake (1986). The eclipse duration, from first to fourth contact, is 2.09 day. The orbital inclination is 88.74 deg, consistent with what McAlister derived from speckle interferometry. Because of the large (e = 0.73) eccentricity, there is no secondary eclipse at all.

  2. Spectroscopic obit for the eclipsing binary IQ Persei

    SciT

    Young, A.

    1975-10-01

    Spectroscopic orbital elements are derived for the eclipsing binary IQ Per. Faint secondary lines are detected, and a mass ratio and individual masses are inferred. The components are found to be on the main sequence, and the system is detached. (auth)

  3. Solar corona during the 1994 and 1999 eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalyan, O. G.; Sýkora, J.

    2008-06-01

    The lower and middle layers of the corona are studied analyzing the ground-based observations carried out during the November 3, 1994 and August 11, 1999 total solar eclipses. While the 1994 eclipse took place nearby the solar activity minimum, the 1999 eclipse occurred closer to the solar cycle maximum. Structures, isolines of brightness and polarization, and topology of the magnetic field lines of force (calculated under a potential approximation) of these two coronae are mutually compared. It is confirmed that the brightness distribution in the corona corresponds to the hydrostatic distribution of density at the distances 1.2-1.8R⊙. Temperature 1.4 MK and density n0 = 3.3 × 108cm-3 are found for the equatorial coronal regions of the 1999 corona. Physical conditions in the polar coronal regions are investigated analyzing the brightness and polarization of the 1994 eclipse. We have found that the degree of polarization in polar plumes is about 10% higher than that in the inter-plumes space. Consideration of the brightness in plumes and in the adjacent background space allowed us to conclude that the temperatures there are close to 1 MK. The density in the individual plumes is near n0 = 2.7 × 108cm-3, while it decreases to about n0 = 2.0 × 108cm-3 in the inter-plumes space. It is pointed out that the simultaneous interpretation of the measured brightness and polarization struggles with some difficulties.

  4. Stonehenge: A Simple and Accurate Predictor of Lunar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challener, S.

    1999-12-01

    Over the last century, much has been written about the astronomical significance of Stonehenge. The rage peaked in the mid to late 1960s when new computer technology enabled astronomers to make the first complete search for celestial alignments. Because there are hundreds of rocks or holes at Stonehenge and dozens of bright objects in the sky, the quest was fraught with obvious statistical problems. A storm of controversy followed and the subject nearly vanished from print. Only a handful of these alignments remain compelling. Today, few astronomers and still fewer archaeologists would argue that Stonehenge served primarily as an observatory. Instead, Stonehenge probably served as a sacred meeting place, which was consecrated by certain celestial events. These would include the sun's risings and settings at the solstices and possibly some lunar risings as well. I suggest that Stonehenge was also used to predict lunar eclipses. While Hawkins and Hoyle also suggested that Stonehenge was used in this way, their methods are complex and they make use of only early, minor, or outlying areas of Stonehenge. In contrast, I suggest a way that makes use of the imposing, central region of Stonehenge; the area built during the final phase of activity. To predict every lunar eclipse without predicting eclipses that do not occur, I use the less familiar lunar cycle of 47 lunar months. By moving markers about the Sarsen Circle, the Bluestone Circle, and the Bluestone Horseshoe, all umbral lunar eclipses can be predicted accurately.

  5. NASA's 2017 Solar Eclipse Coverage from 35,000 feet

    2017-09-13

    Robert Lightfoot, NASA’s acting administrator, and Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA science mission directorate’s associate administrator, discuss the importance and scientific value of capturing the 2017 Solar Eclipse from 35,000 feet above the coast of Oregon aboard the agency’s Gulfstream III aircraft.

  6. Video File - Eclipse Event At Stennis Space Center

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website.  This is footage from Stennis Space Center.

  7. Hinode Satellite Captures Total Solar Eclipse Video Aug. 21

    2017-08-21

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and NASA released this video of Aug. 21 total solar eclipse taken by the X-ray telescope aboard the Hinode joint solar observation satellite as it orbited high above the Pacific Ocean.

  8. Eclipse Across America: Through the Eyes of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. Alex; Heliophysics Education Consortium

    2018-01-01

    Monday, August 21, 2017, marked the first total solar eclipse to cross the continental United States coast-to-coast in almost a century. NASA scientists and educators, working alongside many partners, were spread across the entire country, both inside and outside the path of totality. Like many other organizations, NASA prepared for this eclipse for several years. The August 21 eclipse was NASA's biggest media event in recent history, and was made possible by the work of thousands of volunteers, collaborators and NASA employees. The agency supported science, outreach, and media communications activities along the path of totality and across the country. This culminated in a 3 ½-hour broadcast from Charleston, SC, showcasing the sights and sounds of the eclipse – starting with the view from a plane off the coast of Oregon and ending with images from the International Space Station as the Moon's inner shadow left the US East Coast. Along the way, NASA shared experiments and research from different groups of scientists, including 11 NASA-supported studies, 50+ high-altitude balloon launches, and 12 NASA and partner space-based assets. This talk shares the timeline of this momentous event from NASA's perspective, describing outreach successes and providing a glimpse at some of the science results available and yet to come.

  9. Candidates of eclipsing multiples based on extraneous eclipses on binary light curves: KIC 7622486, KIC 7668648, KIC 7670485 and KIC 8938628

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Qian, Sheng-Bang; He, Jian-Duo

    2017-02-01

    Four candidates of eclipsing multiples, based on new extraneous eclipses found on Kepler binary light curves, are presented and studied. KIC 7622486 is a double eclipsing binary candidate with orbital periods of 2.2799960 d and 40.246503 d. The two binary systems do not eclipse each other in the line of sight, but there is mutual gravitational influence between them which leads to the small but definite eccentricity of 0.0035(0.0022) associated with the short 2.2799960 d period orbit. KIC 7668648 is a hierarchical quadruple system candidate, with two sets of solid 203 ± 5 d period extraneous eclipses and another independent set of extraneous eclipses. A clear and credible extraneous eclipse is found on the binary light curve of KIC 7670485 which makes it a triple system candidate. Two sets of extraneous eclipses with periods of about 390 d and 220 d are found on KIC 8938628 binary curves, which not only confirm the previous conclusion of the 388.5 ± 0.3 triple system, but also indicate new additional objects that make KIC 8938628 a hierarchical quadruple system candidate. The results from these four candidates will contribute to the field of eclipsing multiples.

  10. Eclipses and dust formation by WC9 type Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Visual photometry of 16 WC8-9 dust-making Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars during 2001-2009 was extracted from the All-Sky Automated Survey All Star Catalogue (ASAS-3) to search for eclipses attributable to extinction by dust formed in clumps in our line of sight. Data for a comparable number of dust-free WC6-9 stars were also examined to help characterize the data set. Frequent eclipses were observed from WR 104, and several from WR 106, extending the 1994-2001 studies by Kato et al., but not supporting their phasing the variations in WR 104 with its `pinwheel' rotation period. Only four other stars showed eclipses, WR 50 (one of the dust-free stars), WR 69, WR 95 and WR 117, and there may have been an eclipse by WR 121, which had shown two eclipses in the past. No dust eclipses were shown by the `historic' eclipsers WR 103 and WR 113. The atmospheric eclipses of the latter were observed but the suggestion by David-Uraz et al. that dust may be partly responsible for these is not supported. Despite its frequent eclipses, there is no evidence in the infrared images of WR 104 for dust made in its eclipses, demonstrating that any dust formed in this process is not a significant contributor to its circumstellar dust cloud and suggesting that the same applies to the other stars showing fewer eclipses.

  11. Eclipse prediction on the ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine known as the Antikythera Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Freeth, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, predicted eclipses, based on the 223-lunar month Saros cycle. Eclipses are indicated on a four-turn spiral Saros Dial by glyphs, which describe type and time of eclipse and include alphabetical index letters, referring to solar eclipse inscriptions. These include Index Letter Groups, describing shared eclipse characteristics. The grouping and ordering of the index letters, the organization of the inscriptions and the eclipse times have previously been unsolved. A new reading and interpretation of data from the back plate of the Antikythera Mechanism, including the glyphs, the index letters and the eclipse inscriptions, has resulted in substantial changes to previously published work. Based on these new readings, two arithmetical models are presented here that explain the complete eclipse prediction scheme. The first model solves the glyph distribution, the grouping and anomalous ordering of the index letters and the structure of the inscriptions. It also implies the existence of lost lunar eclipse inscriptions. The second model closely matches the glyph times and explains the four-turn spiral of the Saros Dial. Together, these models imply a surprisingly early epoch for the Antikythera Mechanism. The ancient Greeks built a machine that can predict, for many years ahead, not only eclipses but also a remarkable array of their characteristics, such as directions of obscuration, magnitude, colour, angular diameter of the Moon, relationship with the Moon's node and eclipse time. It was not entirely accurate, but it was an astonishing achievement for its era.

  12. Satellite observations of surface temperature during the March 2015 total solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Good, Elizabeth

    2016-09-28

    The behaviour of remotely sensed land surface temperatures (LSTs) from the spinning-enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI) during the total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 is analysed over Europe. LST is found to drop by up to several degrees Celcius during the eclipse, with the minimum LST occurring just after the eclipse mid-point (median=+1.5 min). The drop in LST is typically larger than the drop in near-surface air temperatures reported elsewhere, and correlates with solar obscuration (r=-0.47; larger obscuration = larger LST drop), eclipse duration (r=-0.62; longer duration = larger LST drop) and time (r=+0.37; earlier eclipse = larger LST drop). Locally, the LST drop is also correlated with vegetation (up to r=+0.6), with smaller LST drops occurring over more vegetated surfaces. The LSTs at locations near the coast and at higher elevation are also less affected by the eclipse. This study covers the largest area and uses the most observations of eclipse-induced surface temperature drops to date, and is the first full characterization of satellite LST during an eclipse (known to the author). The methods described could be applied to Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data over North America during the August 2017 total solar eclipse.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Maxwell Cassady

    Relatively massive B-type stars with closely orbiting stellar companions can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, X-ray binaries, millisecond pulsars, mergers of neutron stars, gamma ray bursts, and sources of gravitational waves. However, the formation mechanism, intrinsic frequency, and evolutionary processes of B-type binaries are poorly understood. As of 2012, the binary statistics of massive stars had not been measured at low metallicities, extreme mass ratios, or intermediate orbital periods. This thesis utilizes large data sets of eclipsing binaries to measure the physical properties of B-type binaries in these previously unexplored portions of the parameter space. The updated binary statistics provide invaluable insight into the formation of massive stars and binaries as well as reliable initial conditions for population synthesis studies of binary star evolution. We first compare the properties of B-type eclipsing binaries in our Milky Way Galaxy and the nearby Magellanic Cloud Galaxies. We model the eclipsing binary light curves and perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations to recover the intrinsic properties and distributions of the close binary population. We find the frequency, period distribution, and mass-ratio distribution of close B-type binaries do not significantly depend on metallicity or environment. These results indicate the formation of massive binaries are relatively insensitive to their chemical abundances or immediate surroundings. Second, we search for low-mass eclipsing companions to massive B-type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Galaxy. In addition to finding such extreme mass-ratio binaries, we serendipitously discover a new class of eclipsing binaries. Each system comprises a massive B-type star that is fully formed and a nascent low-mass companion that is still contracting toward its normal phase of evolution. The large low-mass secondaries discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the hot B-type stars, thereby

  14. Solar Diameter Measurements from Eclipses as a Solar Variability Proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring Dunham, David; Sofia, Sabatino; Guhl, Konrad; Herald, David Russell

    2015-08-01

    Since thermal relaxation times for the Sun are thousands of years, small variations of the Solar intensity are proportional to small variations of the Solar diameter on decadal time scales. In a combination between observations and theory, reliable values of the relation constant W are known, that allow transformation of historical variations of radius into variations of the solar luminosity. During the past 45 years, members of the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) have observed 20 annular and total solar eclipses from locations near the path edges. Baily’s beads, whose occurrence and duration are considerably prolonged as seen from path edge locations, were first timed visually, mostly using projection techniques, but since about 1980, they have been timed mainly from analysis of video recordings. The edge locations have the advantage that most of the beads are defined by the same features in the lunar polar regions that cause the phenomena at each eclipse. Some of the best-observed modern eclipses can be used to assess the accuracy of the results, which are limited mainly by the intensity drop at the Sun’s edge, and the consequent uncertainty in defining the edge. In addition, direct visual contact timings made near the path edges during earlier eclipses, back to 1715, have been found in the literature, and analyzed. Although the observations seem to show small variations, they are only a little larger than the assessed accuracies. The results can be improved with a consistent re-analysis of the observations using the much more accurate lunar profile data that is now available from the Japanese Kaguya and NASA’s LRO lunar orbiter observations. Also, IOTA has plans to observe future eclipses with a variety of techniques that were used in the past, to better assess the accuracies of the different observational methods that have been used, and determine any systematic differences between them.

  15. The Trojan war dated by two solar eclipses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, Goran

    The Trojan War was very significant for the ancient Greeks and they dated historical events according to the number of years after the fall of Troy. However, there was already in antiquity no consensus as to the exact date of the war when compared with different epochs. Even after the modern discovery of the ancient city, there has been disagreement among different excavators as to which layer corresponds to the city mentioned in the Iliad attributed to Homer. In this paper an attempt is made to identify the strange obscuration of the sun that occurred during the final battle of the Iliad as a total solar eclipse close to the southern border of the zone of totality. There exists only one solar eclipse that corresponds to the description in the text and this is the total solar eclipse of June 11, in 1312 BC. When I first presented this date in 1986, there was a difference of about 60 years compared with the most common archaeological dating at that time. My date is now fully supported by the latest results from the German-American excavation that identifies the fall of Homer's Troy with the destruction of the archaeological layer Troy VIh, dated to about 1300 BC. Further independent support is provided by another solar eclipse that dates the reign of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. This king wrote a letter to king Alaksandu in Wilusa, identified as the Hittite name for Ilios, the most frequently used name for Troy in the Iliad. Alexander was another name for Paris who abducted Helen, the crime that resulted in the war. Muwatalli II was king 1315-1297 BC, according to the chronology for the Hittite Kingdom based on a solar eclipse in 1335 BC, during the tenth year of King Mursili II (1345- 1315 BC), the father of Muwatalli II.

  16. Report about the Solar Eclipse on August 11, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    This webpage provides information about the total eclipse on Wednesday, August 11, 1999, as it was seen by ESO staff, mostly at or near the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Bavaria, Germany). The zone of totality was about 108 km wide and the ESO HQ were located only 8 km south of the line of maximum totality. The duration of the phase of totality was about 2 min 17 sec. The weather was quite troublesome in this geographical area. Heavy clouds moved across the sky during the entire event, but there were also some holes in between. Consequently, sites that were only a few kilometres from each other had very different viewing conditions. Some photos and spectra of the eclipsed Sun are displayed below, with short texts about the circumstances under which they were made. Please note that reproduction of pictures on this webpage is only permitted, if the author is mentioned as source. Information made available before the eclipse is available here. Eclipse Impressions at the ESO HQ Photo by Eddy Pomaroli Preparing for the Eclipse Photo: Eddy Pomaroli [JEG: 400 x 239 pix - 116k] [JPEG: 800 x 477 pix - 481k] [JPEG: 3000 x 1789 pix - 3.9M] Photo by Eddy Pomaroli During the 1st Partial Phase Photo: Eddy Pomaroli [JPEG: 400 x 275 pix - 135k] [JPEG: 800 x 549 pix - 434k] [JPEG: 2908 x 1997 pix - 5.9M] Photo by Hamid Mehrgan Heavy Clouds Above Digital Photo: Hamid Mehrgan [JPEG: 400 x 320 pix - 140k] [JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 540k] [JPEG: 1280 x 1024 pix - 631k] Photo by Olaf Iwert Totality Approaching Digital Photo: Olaf Iwert [JPEG: 400 x 320 pix - 149k] [JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 380k] [JPEG: 1280 x 1024 pix - 536k] Photo by Olaf Iwert Beginning of Totality Digital Photo: Olaf Iwert [JPEG: 400 x 236 pix - 86k] [JPEG: 800 x 471 pix - 184k] [JPEG: 1280 x 753 pix - 217k] Photo by Olaf Iwert A Happy Eclipse Watcher Digital Photo: Olaf Iwert [JPEG: 400 x 311 pix - 144k] [JPEG: 800 x 622 pix - 333k] [JPEG: 1280 x 995 pix - 644k] ESO HQ Eclipse Video Clip [MPEG-version] ESO HQ Eclipse Video

  17. “Total Eclipse Preview Show”, Total Solar Eclipse: “Through The Eyes of NASA,” Part 1

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website.

  18. The Eclipse, the Astronomer and His Audience: Frederico Oom and the Total Solar Eclipse of 28 May 1900 in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel; Simoes, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study offers a detailed analysis of an episode of the popularization of astronomy which took place in Portugal, a peripheral country of Europe, and occurring in the early twentieth century. The episode was driven by the 28 May 1900 total solar eclipse which was seen on the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). Instead of focusing on one of…

  19. Analysis of 45-years of Eclipse Timings of the Hyades (K2 V+ DA) Eclipsing Binary V471 Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchioni, Lucas; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott

    2018-01-01

    V471 Tau is an important detached 0.521-day eclipsing binary composed of a K2 V and a hot DA white dwarf star. This system resides in the Hyades star cluster located approximately 153 Ly from us. V471 Tau is considered to be the end-product of common-envelope binary star evolution and is currently a pre-CV system. V471 Tau serves as a valuable astrophysical laboratory for studying stellar evolution, white dwarfs, stellar magnetic dynamos, and possible detection of low mass companions using the Light Travel Time (LTT) Effects. Since its discovery as an eclipsing binary in 1970, photometry has been carried out and many eclipse timings have been determined. We have performed an analysis of the available photometric data available on V471 Tauri. The binary system has been the subject of analyses regarding the orbital period. From this analysis several have postulated the existence of a third body in the form of a brown dwarf that is causing periodic variations in the system’s apparent period. In this study we combine ground based data with photometry secured recently from the Kepler K2 mission. After detrending and phasing the available data, we are able to compare the changing period of the eclipsing binary system against predictions on the existence of this third body. The results of the analysis will be presented. This research is sponsored by grants from NASA and NSF for which we are very grateful.

  20. The Citizen CATE Experiment for the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The path of the total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017 passes over about 10 million homes in the USA. Tens of millions more people will travel to the path of totality to view the eclipse first-hand. Using TV and the internet broadcasts, hundreds of millions of people will watch the eclipse, making the event the most viewed astronomical event in the history of mankind. The Citizen Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) Experiment for 2017 is being developed at the National Solar Observatory in partnership with universities, schools, astronomy clubs, and corporations. The CATE experiment will use more than 60 identical telescopes equipped with digital cameras positioned from Oregon to South Carolina to image the solar corona. The project will then splice these images together to show the corona during a 90-minute period, revealing for the first time the plasma dynamics of the inner solar corona. The goals for the highly leveraged CATE experiment are diverse and range from providing an authentic STEM research experience for students and lifelong learners, to making state-of-the-art solar coronal observations of the plasma dynamics of coronal polar plumes, to increasing the US scientific literacy. A key goal of this experiment is to donate the telescope and camera system to the volunteer who collects data with it during the total eclipse. The instrument will be then used for a variety of follow-up citizen science projects in astronomy, ranging from solar to cometary to variable star observations. For this reason no government funding is being sought for the equipment costs, but rather private and corporate sources are being developed. The data collected for the 2017 eclipse will be freely available to the scientific, education and amateur astronomy communities. Crowd sourcing the data collection is an essential part of this project, as there are not enough solar physicists in this country to collect these observations. Finally, each site is expected to collect

  1. Poster 16: Eclipse-induced changes of Titan's meteorology at equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokano, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Titan experiences solar eclipses by Saturn on ˜20 consecutive orbits around equinox for durations of up to ˜6 hours. The impact of these eclipses on Titan's surface, lower atmosphere and middle atmosphere is investigated by a global climate model. When an eclipse commences, the surface temperature on the subsaturnian side drops by up to 0.3 K, so that the diurnal maximum surface temperature remains lower than on the antisaturnian side, which is never eclipsed. By contrast, the tropospheric air temperature does not abruptly decrease during the eclipses because of the large thermal inertia, but the diurnal mean temperature slightly decreases. The surface wind at low latitudes becomes less gusty in the presence of eclipse due to damping of turbulence. The troposphere outside the planetary boundary layer is not sensitive to eclipses. In most parts of the stratosphere and mesosphere the temperature decreases by up to 2 K due to eclipses, but there are also layers, which experience relative warming due to thermal contraction of the underlying layers. The temperature in the middle atmosphere rapidly recovers after the end of the eclipse season. Eclipse-induced cooling and warming changes the zonal wind speed by a few m/s due to thermal wind adjustment to changing latitudinal temperature gradients.

  2. Satellite observations of surface temperature during the March 2015 total solar eclipse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of remotely sensed land surface temperatures (LSTs) from the spinning-enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI) during the total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 is analysed over Europe. LST is found to drop by up to several degrees Celcius during the eclipse, with the minimum LST occurring just after the eclipse mid-point (median=+1.5 min). The drop in LST is typically larger than the drop in near-surface air temperatures reported elsewhere, and correlates with solar obscuration (r=−0.47; larger obscuration = larger LST drop), eclipse duration (r=−0.62; longer duration = larger LST drop) and time (r=+0.37; earlier eclipse = larger LST drop). Locally, the LST drop is also correlated with vegetation (up to r=+0.6), with smaller LST drops occurring over more vegetated surfaces. The LSTs at locations near the coast and at higher elevation are also less affected by the eclipse. This study covers the largest area and uses the most observations of eclipse-induced surface temperature drops to date, and is the first full characterization of satellite LST during an eclipse (known to the author). The methods described could be applied to Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data over North America during the August 2017 total solar eclipse. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550764

  3. Eclipsing cataclysmic variables. Deep eclipses in H0928+501. YY Draconis, the whirling dervish. New x ray pulsar candidates from HEAO-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The status report covering the period from 1 June 1992 to 31 May 1993 is included. Areas of research include: (1) eclipsing cataclysmic variables; (2) deep eclipses in H0928+501; (3) YY Draconis, the Whirling Dervish; and (4) new x ray pulsar candidates from HEAO-1.

  4. Light curve solutions of the eclipsing eccentric binaries KIC 8111622, KIC 10518735, KIC 8196180 and their out-of-eclipse variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana P.; Vasileva, Doroteya L.

    2018-02-01

    We determined the orbits and stellar parameters of three eccentric eclipsing binaries by light curve solutions of their Kepler data. KIC 8111622 and KIC 10518735 undergo total eclipses while KIC 8196180 reveals partial eclipses. The target components are G and K stars, excluding the primary of KIC 8196180 which is early F star. KIC 8196180 reveals well-visible tidally-induced feature at periastron, i.e. it is an eclipsing heartbeat star. The characteristics of the observed periastron feature (shape, width and amplitude) confirm the theoretical predictions. There are additional out-of-eclipse variations of KIC 8196180 with the orbital period which may be explained by spot activity of synchronously rotating component. Besides worse visible periastron feature KIC 811162 exhibits small-amplitude light variations whose period is around 2.3 times shorter than the orbital one. These oscillations were attributed to spot(s) on asynchronously rotating component.

  5. Ultraviolet photometry of the eclipsing variable CW Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieski, S.

    1972-01-01

    A series of photometric observations was made of the eclipsing variable CW Cephei on the OAO 2. Approximate elements were derived from the eclipse depths and shape of the secondary. Persistent asymmetries and anomalous light variations, larger than the expected experimental error, were also found, subsequent ground-based observations show H alpha entirely in emission, indicating the presence of an extended gaseous system surrounding one or both components. A detailed comparison was made of the flux distribution of the binary relative to that for the nominally unreddened stars delta Pic, BlIII, and eta Aur, B3V, to investigate the effects of interstellar extinction. The resultant extinction curves, normalized at a wavelength of 3330 A, show a relatively smooth increase with decreasing wavelength.

  6. Photometric Study of the Pulsating, Eclipsing Binary OO Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.; Wang, K.; Sun, J. J.; Liu, Q. L.; Xin, H. Q.; Zhou, Q.; Yan, Z. Z.; Luo, Z. Q.; Luo, C. Q.

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.

  7. Photometric analysis of the eclipsing binary star AI Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deǧirmenci, Ö. L.; Gülmen, Ö.; Sezer, C.; Erdem, A.; Devlen, A.

    2000-11-01

    New photometric data from the eclipsing binary star AI Draconis has been analyzed with the method of Wilson-Devinney. The system shows a period increase of about 0.91 sec per century, which corresponds to a mass transfer from the less to the more massive component at a rate of 7.5 10-7 Msun/yr under the conservative mass transfer hypothesis. We also suggest that the system has an unseen component which orbits around the mass center of the triplet system with a period of about 23 yrs. We found that the projectional angular separation between the third star and eclipsing pair varies from 0.048 arcsec to 0.235 arcsec. These results suggestive of a third body should be checked in the future with more sensitive observations. Table 1 is only available electronically with the On-Line publication at http://link.springer.de/link/service/00230/

  8. Analysis of Secondary Eclipse Observations of Exoplanet WASP-34b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challener, Ryan; Harrington, Joseph; Garland, Justin; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Smalley, Barry

    2014-11-01

    WASP-34b is a short-period exoplanet with a mass of 0.59 +/- 0.01 Jupiter masses orbiting a sun-like star with a period of 4.3177 days and an eccentricity of 0.038 +/- 0.012 (Smalley, 2010). We observed WASP-34b using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels of the Infrared Array Camera aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 (Program 60003). We present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and refine the orbit using our secondary eclipse measurements. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  9. Surveying the IR corona during the 2017 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryans, P.; Hannigan, J. W.; Sewell, S. D.; Judge, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    The spectral emission of the infrared solar corona is the most promising direct diagnostic of the coronal magnetic field, and yet remains poorly measured. During the 2017 total solar eclipse, we will perform the first spectral survey of the IR corona using the NCAR Airborne Interferometer. This Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer is configured to observe the coronal spectrum from 1.5 to 5.5 microns at R 10,000 from a ground-based site. The location is atop Casper Mountain, Wyoming (42.73ºN, 106.32ºW, 2400 masl), 8 km from the center-line of totality. In this presentation, we will outline the need for such measurements, describe the instrument design and adaptation for the eclipse measurement, observation scheme, and present preliminary results. We will also discuss implications for observing infrared coronal lines from the ground, for example with the upcoming DKIST facility.

  10. The 2017 Total Solar Eclipse: Through the Eyes of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; NASA Goddard Heliophysics Education Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The August 21st, 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Across America provided a unique opportunity to teach event-based science to nationwide audiences. NASA spent over three years planning space and Earth science education programs for informal audiences, undergraduate institutions, and life long learners to bring this celestial event to the public through the eyes of NASA. This talk outlines how NASA used its unique assets including mission scientists and engineers, space based assets, citizen science, educational technology, science visualization, and its wealth of science and technology partners to bring the eclipse to the country through multimedia, cross-discipline science activities, curricula, and media programing. Audience reach, impact, and lessons learned are detailed. Plans for similar events in 2018 and beyond are outlined.

  11. Photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO DRA

    SciT

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component.more » A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.« less

  12. NASA's EPIC View of 2017 Eclipse Across America

    2017-08-22

    From a million miles out in space, NASA’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) captured natural color images of the moon’s shadow crossing over North America on Aug. 21, 2017. EPIC is aboard NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), where it photographs the full sunlit side of Earth every day, giving it a unique view of total solar eclipses. EPIC normally takes about 20 to 22 images of Earth per day, so this animation appears to speed up the progression of the eclipse. To see the images of Earth every day, go to: epic.gsfc.nasa.gov NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. The disappearing act: a dusty wind eclipsing RW Aur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhinova, I.; Scholz, A.; Costigan, G.; Lux, O.; Davis, C. J.; Ray, T.; Boardman, N. F.; Hay, K. L.; Hewlett, T.; Hodosán, G.; Morton, B.

    2016-12-01

    RW Aur is a young binary star that experienced a deep dimming in 2010-2011 in component A and a second even deeper dimming from summer 2014 to summer 2016. We present new unresolved multiband photometry during the 2014-2016 eclipse, new emission line spectroscopy before and during the dimming, archive infrared photometry between 2014 and 2015, as well as an overview of literature data. Spectral observations were carried out with the Fibre-fed RObotic Dual-beam Optical Spectrograph on the Liverpool Telescope. Photometric monitoring was done with the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network and James Gregory Telescope. Our photometry shows that RW Aur dropped in brightness to R = 12.5 in 2016 March. In addition to the long-term dimming trend, RW Aur is variable on time-scales as short as hours. The short-term variation is most likely due to an unstable accretion flow. This, combined with the presence of accretion-related emission lines in the spectra suggest that accretion flows in the binary system are at least partially visible during the eclipse. The equivalent width of [O I] increases by a factor of 10 in 2014, coinciding with the dimming event, confirming previous reports. The blueshifted part of the Hα profile is suppressed during the eclipse. In combination with the increase in mid-infrared brightness during the eclipse reported in the literature and seen in WISE archival data, and constraints on the geometry of the disc around RW Aur A we arrive at the conclusion that the obscuring screen is part of a wind emanating from the inner disc.

  14. Tapir: A web interface for transit/eclipse observability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Tapir is a set of tools, written in Perl, that provides a web interface for showing the observability of periodic astronomical events, such as exoplanet transits or eclipsing binaries. The package provides tools for creating finding charts for each target and airmass plots for each event. The code can access target lists that are stored on-line in a Google spreadsheet or in a local text file.

  15. Solar eclipses as a vehicle for international astronomy education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.

    The public's attention is drawn to astronomy whenever solar eclipse - partial, annular, or total - is visible, and we must take advantage of the opportunity to teach about the nature of science, the ability of astronomers to predict and analyze distant bodies and events, and the value of scientific research. We must also instruct people how to watch the partial and annular phases safely and that the total phase is not harmful.

  16. The 2017 Eclipse: Centenary of the Einstein Light Deflection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennefick, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    August 21st, 2017 will see a total eclipse of the Sun visible in many parts of the United States. Coincidentally this date marks the centenary of the first observational attempt to test Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by measuring gravitational deflection of light by the Sun. This was attempted by the Kodaikanal Observatory in India during the conjunction of Regulus with the Sun in daylight on August 21st, 1917. The observation was attempted at the urging of the amateur German-British astronomer A. F. Lindemann, with his son, F. A. Lindemann, a well-known physicist, who later played a significant role as Churchill's science advisor during World War II. A century later Regulus will once again be in conjunction with the Sun, but by a remarkable coincidence, this will occur during a solar eclipse! Efforts will be made to measure the star deflection during the eclipse and the experiment is contrasted with the famous expeditions of 1919 which were the first to actually measure the light deflection, since the 1917 effort did not meet with success. Although in recent decades there have been efforts made to suggest that the 1919 eclipse team, led by Arthur Stanley Eddington and Sir Frank Watson Dyson, over-interpreted their results in favor of Einstein this talk will argue that such claims are wrong-headed. A close study of their data analysis reveals that they had good grounds for the decisions they made and this conclusion is reinforced by comparison with a modern re-analysis of the plates by the Greenwich Observatory conducted in 1977.

  17. Eclipsing Binaries From the CSTAR Project at Dome A, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Songhu; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Lifan; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Liu, Hui-Gen; Meng, Zeyang; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.; Bayliss, D.; Tinney, Chris; Wang, Ying; Wu, Donghong; Liang, Ensi; Yu, Zhouyi; Fan, Zhou; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, D. M.; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Yan, Jun; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhu, Zhenxi; Zou, Hu

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) has observed an area around the Celestial South Pole at Dome A since 2008. About 20,000 light curves in the i band were obtained during the observation season lasting from 2008 March to July. The photometric precision achieves about 4 mmag at i = 7.5 and 20 mmag at i = 12 within a 30 s exposure time. These light curves are analyzed using Lomb-Scargle, Phase Dispersion Minimization, and Box Least Squares methods to search for periodic signals. False positives may appear as a variable signature caused by contaminating stars and the observation mode of CSTAR. Therefore, the period and position of each variable candidate are checked to eliminate false positives. Eclipsing binaries are removed by visual inspection, frequency spectrum analysis, and a locally linear embedding technique. We identify 53 eclipsing binaries in the field of view of CSTAR, containing 24 detached binaries, 8 semi-detached binaries, 18 contact binaries, and 3 ellipsoidal variables. To derive the parameters of these binaries, we use the Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence method. The primary and secondary eclipse timing variations (ETVs) for semi-detached and contact systems are analyzed. Correlated primary and secondary ETVs confirmed by false alarm tests may indicate an unseen perturbing companion. Through ETV analysis, we identify two triple systems (CSTAR J084612.64-883342.9 and CSTAR J220502.55-895206.7). The orbital parameters of the third body in CSTAR J220502.55-895206.7 are derived using a simple dynamical model.

  18. Distance Estimation for Eclipsing X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Paul, B.; Raichur, H.

    2006-06-01

    Recent interest in eclipsing binaries as distance indicators leads naturally into direct distance estimation for X-ray pulsars by combination of pulse arrival times, radial velocities, X-ray eclipse duration, and spectra. Optical light curves may help in some cases by measuring tides and irradiation, although dynamical tides in eccentric systems limit light curve usefulness. Pulse arrivals give an absolute scale and also orbit shape and orientation, which may be poorly known from radial velocities. For example, orbital eccentricity of 0.09 is known from Vela X1 pulse arrivals, although optical velocities are too noisy to measure eccentricity accurately. Combined pulse and optical velocity data give mass information. A lower limit to sin i from eclipse duration sets a lower limit to R2, and for the general eccentric case. A mass ratio sets lobe size and thus an upper limit to R2, so boxing R2 within a narrow range may be possible. T2 can be assessed from spectra so EB distance estimation can work if magnitude is known in one or more standard bands such as B or V. Realistic distance uncertainties are explored. In regard to new observations, Vela X-1 was observed by RXTE over about nine days in January 2005, including an eclipse of about 3.5 days. We extracted the light curves with time resolution 0.125 s. Spin period measurements by the Chi square criterion show Doppler variation with orbital phase and mean spin period 283.5 s. Pulse profiles of that period were averaged in sets of 10 at 138 phases. Cross correlation for the first 40 pulses show the expected Doppler arrival time variation. As the Vela X-1 pulse period is large compared to light travel time across the orbit, the pulses are already phase connected. Support is by U.S. National Science Foundation grant 0307561.

  19. The Guilford-Carleton Eclipse Expedition of 1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Thomas R., III

    2006-12-01

    The solar eclipse of 1900 May 28 provided an opportunity for American astronomers to make observations from home soil, as the shadow tracked across the southeastern United States from New Orleans to Norfolk. Eclipse parties were scattered throughout the southern states, including large-scale scientific teams traveling to sites in Georgia and North Carolina. These major operations, staffed by groups from Yerkes, Princeton, USNO, and Lick, featured multiple observing programs and all the modern techniques they could manage. In addition to the major astrophysical endeavors, there were many smaller parties in the field in 1900 that resembled the more casual eclipse expeditions that were characteristic of a few decades before. In these efforts, relatively small groups of observers used modest instruments and made mostly visual observations, and the expedition was as much a social event as it was a scientific venture. One such group was the party from Carleton College and Guilford College that observed from a fruit farm in Southern Pines, NC. At the turn of the century, the Goodsell Observatory at Carleton College in Minnesota was an important regional astronomical facility that had provided weather and time data for over 20 years, and was the site of publication of Popular Astronomy, a widely circulated astronomical journal. At Guilford College, on the other hand, the astronomy course was taught by the school’s Treasurer, and there were no significant astronomical facilities. The presentation will explain how these two schools came to combine efforts to study the 1900 solar eclipse, and will summarize the events of the trip and the observations made. This research was supported in part by the Herbert C. Pollock Award of the Dudley Observatory.

  20. The Eclipsing Binary On-Line Atlas (EBOLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, D. H.; Steelman, D. P.; Sanders, S. J.; Hargis, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    In conjunction with the upcoming release of \\it Binary Maker 3.0, an extensive on-line database of eclipsing binaries is being made available. The purposes of the atlas are: \\begin {enumerate} Allow quick and easy access to information on published eclipsing binaries. Amass a consistent database of light and radial velocity curve solutions to aid in solving new systems. Provide invaluable querying capabilities on all of the parameters of the systems so that informative research can be quickly accomplished on a multitude of published results. Aid observers in establishing new observing programs based upon stars needing new light and/or radial velocity curves. Encourage workers to submit their published results so that others may have easy access to their work. Provide a vast but easily accessible storehouse of information on eclipsing binaries to accelerate the process of understanding analysis techniques and current work in the field. \\end {enumerate} The database will eventually consist of all published eclipsing binaries with light curve solutions. The following information and data will be supplied whenever available for each binary: original light curves in all bandpasses, original radial velocity observations, light curve parameters, RA and Dec, V-magnitudes, spectral types, color indices, periods, binary type, 3D representation of the system near quadrature, plots of the original light curves and synthetic models, plots of the radial velocity observations with theoretical models, and \\it Binary Maker 3.0 data files (parameter, light curve, radial velocity). The pertinent references for each star are also given with hyperlinks directly to the papers via the NASA Abstract website for downloading, if available. In addition the Atlas has extensive searching options so that workers can specifically search for binaries with specific characteristics. The website has more than 150 systems already uploaded. The URL for the site is http://ebola.eastern.edu/.

  1. Closeup of QF-106 release hook for Eclipse program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of the release hook on the QF-106 that allowed the pilot to release the tow rope extending from the C-141A tow plane in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  2. A Photometric Study of the Eclipsing Binary NSV 1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, T. J.; Bembrick, C. S.

    2018-06-01

    Abstract NSV 1000 is an unstudied eclipsing binary in Hydrus. Our photometric research in the period 2014-2016 shows it is a W UMa system with a period of 0.336 579 6(3) d, consistent with the catalogued period. Model fitting to our B, V, and Ic light curves shows the two stars are barely in contact. The parameters derived from the fit satisfy the broadly defined characteristics of a W-type W UMa system.

  3. Simulation of Na D emission near Europa during eclipse

    Cassidy, T.A.; Johnson, R.E.; Geissler, P.E.; Leblanc, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini imaging science subsystem observed Europa in eclipse during Cassini's Jupiter flyby. The disk-resolved observations revealed a spatially nonuniform emission in the wavelength range of 200-1050 nm (clear filters). By building on observations and simulations of Europa's Na atmosphere and torus we find that electron-excited Na in Europa's tenuous atmosphere can account for the observed emission if the Na is ejected preferentially from Europa's dark terrain. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Nationwide network of total solar eclipse high altitude balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Des Jardins, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Three years ago we envisioned tapping into the strength of the National Space Grant Program to make the most of a rare astronomical event to engage the general public through education and to create meaningful long-lasting partnerships with other private and public entities. We believe strongly in giving student participants career-making opportunities through the use of the most cutting edge tools, resources, and communication. The NASA Space Grant network was in a unique position to engage the public in the eclipse in an awe-inspiring and educational way at a surprisingly small cost. In addition to public engagement, the multidisciplinary project presented an in-depth hands-on learning opportunity for the thousands of student participants. The project used a network of high altitude ballooning teams positioned along the path of totality from Oregon to South Carolina to conduct coordinated collaborative activities during the eclipse. These activities included 1) capturing and streaming live video of the eclipse from near space, 2) partnering with NASA Ames on a space biology experiment, and 3) conducting high-resolution atmospheric radiosonde measurements. This presentation will summarize the challenges, results, lessons learned, and professional evaluation from developing, training, and coordinating the collaboration. Details of the live streaming HD video and radiosonde activities are described in separate submissions to this session.

  5. NASA's Solar Eclipse Composite Image July 11, 2010

    2017-12-08

    Eclipse 2010 Composite A solar eclipse photo (gray and white) from the Williams College Expedition to Easter Island in the South Pacific (July 11, 2010) was embedded with an image of the Sun’s outer corona taken by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on the SOHO spacecraft and shown in red false color. LASCO uses a disk to blot out the bright sun and the inner corona so that the faint outer corona can be monitored and studied. Further, the dark silhouette of the moon was covered with an image of the Sun taken in extreme ultraviolet light at about the same time by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The composite brings out the correlation of structures in the inner and outer corona. Credits: Williams College Eclipse Expedition -- Jay M. Pasachoff, Muzhou Lu, and Craig Malamut; SOHO’s LASCO image courtesy of NASA/ESA; solar disk image from NASA’s SDO; compositing by Steele Hill, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  6. A New Orbit for the Eclipsing Binary V577 Oph

    SciT

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J.; Barnes, Thomas G. III; Montemayor, Thomas J.

    Pulsating stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique objects for providing constraints on stellar models. To fully leverage the information available from the binary system, full orbital radial velocity curves must be obtained. We report 23 radial velocities for components of the eclipsing binary V577 Oph, whose primary star is a δ Sct variable. The velocities cover a nearly complete orbit and a time base of 20 years. We computed orbital elements for the binary and compared them to the ephemeris computed by Creevey et al. The comparison shows marginally different results. In particular, a change in the systemic velocitymore » by −2 km s{sup −1} is suggested by our results. We compare this systemic velocity difference to that expected due to reflex motion of the binary in response to the third body in the system. The systemic velocity difference is consistent with reflex motion, given our mass determination for the eclipsing binary and the orbital parameters determined by Volkov and Volkova for the three-body orbit. We see no evidence for the third body in our spectra, but we do see strong interstellar Na D lines that are consistent in strength with the direction and expected distance of V577 Oph.« less

  7. Tidally Induced Pulsations in Kepler Eclipsing Binary KIC 3230227

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R.; Fuller, Jim

    2017-01-01

    KIC 3230227 is a short period (P ≈ 7.0 days) eclipsing binary with a very eccentric orbit (e = 0.6). From combined analysis of radial velocities and Kepler light curves, this system is found to be composed of two A-type stars, with masses of M1 = 1.84 ± 0.18 M⊙, M2 = 1.73 ± 0.17 M⊙ and radii of R1 = 2.01 ± 0.09 R⊙, R2 = 1.68 ± 0.08 R⊙ for the primary and secondary, respectively. In addition to an eclipse, the binary light curve shows a brightening and dimming near periastron, making this a somewhat rare eclipsing heartbeat star system. After removing the binary light curve model, more than 10 pulsational frequencies are present in the Fourier spectrum of the residuals, and most of them are integer multiples of the orbital frequency. These pulsations are tidally driven, and both the amplitudes and phases are in agreement with predictions from linear tidal theory for l = 2, m = -2 prograde modes.

  8. The last total Eclipse of teh Millenium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguch, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1998-09-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millenium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two components and has been the cradle of so many past civilisations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificient event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of hystorical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible , Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and the Earthquake Research Institute has arranged field work on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey form south-east at 14:42 L.T. Official observational sites are given in the following table. These sites will have catering, toilet, and guidance facilities. Osmanchik 40.98D North 34.82D East Turhal 40.40D North 36.10D East Sivas 39.75D North 37.03D East Elazig 38.68D North 39.23D East Diyarbakir 37.92D North 40.23D East Batman 37.87 North 41.12D East

  9. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of HAT-P-13b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Ryan A.; Harrington, J.; Hardin, M. R.; Madhusudhan, N.; Cubillos, P.; Blecic, J.; Bakos, G.; Hartman, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    HAT-P-13 b is a transiting hot Jupiter with a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.010) inhabiting a two-planet system. The two-planet arrangement provides an opportunity to probe the interior structure of HAT-P-13b. Under equilibrium-tide theory and confirmation that the apsides of planets b and c are in alignment, a measurement of the planet's eccentricity can be related to the planet's tidal Love number k2, which describes the central condensation of the planet's mass and its deformation under tidal effects. A measurement of k2 could constrain interior models of HAT-P-13b. HAT-P-13b's orbit is configured favorably for refinement of the eccentricity by secondary eclipse timing observations, which provide direct measurements of ecosω. In 2010, Spitzer observed two secondary eclipses of HAT-P-13b in the 3.6- and 4.5-μm IRAC bandpasses. We present secondary eclipse times and depths; joint models of the HAT-P-13 system that incorporate transit photometry and radial velocity data; and constraints on the atmospheric chemistry of HAT-P-13b that suggest solar-abundance composition without a thermal inversion. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA, which provided support for this work. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNX13AF38G.

  10. Solar-system Education for the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-10-01

    I describe an extensive outreach program about the Sun, the silhouette of the Moon, and the circumstances both celestial and terrestrial of the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. Publications included a summary of the last decade of solar-eclipse research for Nature Astronomy, a Resource Letter on Observing Solar Eclipses for the American Journal of Physics, and book reviews for Nature and for Phi Beta Kappa's Key Reporter. Symposia arranged include sessions at AAS, APS, AGU, and AAAS. Lectures include all ages from pre-school through elementary school to high school to senior-citizen residences. The work, including the scientific research about the solar corona that is not part of this abstract, was supported by grants from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. Additional student support was received from NSF, NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Honorary Research Society Sigma Xi, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation, and funds at Williams College.

  11. Investigating the Impact of a Solar Eclipse on Atmospheric Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fender, Josh; Morse, Justin; Ringler, John; Galovich, Cynthia; Kuehn, Charles A.; Semak, Matthew

    2018-06-01

    We present a project that measured atmospheric muon flux as a function of altitude during a total solar eclipse. An auxiliary goal was to design and build a cost-effective muon detection device that is simple enough for those with minimal training to build. The detector is part of a self-contained autonomous payload that is carried to altitude aboard a weather balloon. The detection system consists of three Geiger counters connected to a coincidence circuit. This system, along with internal and external temperature sensors and an altimeter, are controlled by an onboard Arduino Mega microcontroller. An internal frame was constructed to house and protect the payload components using modular 3D-printed parts. The payload was launched during the 2017 solar eclipse from Guernsey, Wyoming, along the path of totality. Initial data analysis indicates that line-of-sight blockage of the sun due to a total eclipse produces a negligible difference in muon flux when compared to the results of previous daytime flights. The successful performance of the payload, its low overall cost, and its ease of use suggest that this project would be well-suited for individuals or groups such as high school or undergraduate science students to reproduce and enhance.

  12. Tidal Synchronization and Differential Rotation of Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, John C.; Vyhmeister, Karl; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Adilia, Jamel; Chen, Andrea; Davenport, James R. A.; Jurić, Mario; Puig-Holzman, Michael; Weisenburger, Kolby L.

    2017-12-01

    Few observational constraints exist for the tidal synchronization rate of late-type stars, despite its fundamental role in binary evolution. We visually inspected the light curves of 2278 eclipsing binaries (EBs) from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog to identify those with starspot modulations, as well as other types of out-of-eclipse variability. We report rotation periods for 816 EBs with starspot modulations, and find that 79% of EBs with orbital periods of less than 10 days are synchronized. However, a population of short-period EBs exists, with rotation periods typically 13% slower than synchronous, which we attribute to the differential rotation of high-latitude starspots. At 10 days, there is a transition from predominantly circular, synchronized EBs to predominantly eccentric, pseudosynchronized EBs. This transition period is in good agreement with the predicted and observed circularization period for Milky Way field binaries. At orbital periods greater than about 30 days, the amount of tidal synchronization decreases. We also report 12 previously unidentified candidate δ Scuti and γ Doradus pulsators, as well as a candidate RS CVn system with an evolved primary that exhibits starspot occultations. For short-period contact binaries, we observe a period-color relation and compare it to previous studies. As a whole, these results represent the largest homogeneous study of tidal synchronization of late-type stars.

  13. PHYSICS OF ECLIPSING BINARIES. II. TOWARD THE INCREASED MODEL FIDELITY

    SciT

    Prša, A.; Conroy, K. E.; Horvat, M.

    The precision of photometric and spectroscopic observations has been systematically improved in the last decade, mostly thanks to space-borne photometric missions and ground-based spectrographs dedicated to finding exoplanets. The field of eclipsing binary stars strongly benefited from this development. Eclipsing binaries serve as critical tools for determining fundamental stellar properties (masses, radii, temperatures, and luminosities), yet the models are not capable of reproducing observed data well, either because of the missing physics or because of insufficient precision. This led to a predicament where radiative and dynamical effects, insofar buried in noise, started showing up routinely in the data, but weremore » not accounted for in the models. PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs; http://phoebe-project.org) is an open source modeling code for computing theoretical light and radial velocity curves that addresses both problems by incorporating missing physics and by increasing the computational fidelity. In particular, we discuss triangulation as a superior surface discretization algorithm, meshing of rotating single stars, light travel time effects, advanced phase computation, volume conservation in eccentric orbits, and improved computation of local intensity across the stellar surfaces that includes the photon-weighted mode, the enhanced limb darkening treatment, the better reflection treatment, and Doppler boosting. Here we present the concepts on which PHOEBE is built and proofs of concept that demonstrate the increased model fidelity.« less

  14. High-speed photometry of the eclipsing dwarf nova OY Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    High-speed photometry of the eclipsing dwarf nova OY Car in the quiescent state is presented. OY Car becomes highly reddened during eclipse, with minimum flux colours inconsistent with optically thick emission in the U and B bandpasses. Mass ratios in the range 6.5 to 12 are required to reconcile the eclipse structure with theoretical gas stream trajectories. Primary eclipse timings reveal a significant decrease in the orbital period and the duration of primary eclipse indicates the presence of a luminous ring about the white dwarf. The hotspot eclipse reveals a hotspot which is elongated along the rim of the accretion disc, with optical emission being non-uniformly distributed along the rim. The location of the hotspot in the accretion disc implies a disc radius larger than that of an inviscid disc, with variation in the position of the hotspot being consistent with a fixed stream trajectory.

  15. The 1st of April 2470 BC Total Solar Eclipse Seen by the Prophet Ibraheem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, S. M.

    The Holy Quran describes a phenomenon seen by young Abraham that can only fit a solar eclipse. Two criteria were given for this particular eclipse; first only one planet was seen as soon as it got dark and second no corona was seen. In order to justify the first selection rule, examinations of solar and planetary longitudes for total solar eclipses passing over Babel were carried out. Only the eclipse of the 1st of April 2470 BC meets this condition, as it was only Venus that was seen at that eclipse. The second selection rule was also naturally fulfilled, as Babel happened to be on the border of the totality zone hence no corona was seen, however all the time the moon glistened as Baily's beads. There is no doubt that the prophet Abraham witnessed the 1st of April total solar eclipse that passed over Babel. This will put him about 470 years backward than it was previously anticipated.

  16. Confirming Variability in the Secondary Eclipse Depth of the Rocky Super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburo, Patrick; Mandell, Avi; Deming, Drake; Garhart, Emily

    2017-01-01

    We present a reanalysis of Spitzer transit and secondary eclipse observations of the rocky super Earth 55 Cancri e using Pixel Level Decorrelation (Deming et al. 2015). Secondary eclipses of this planet were found to be significantly variable by Demory et al. (2016), implying a changing brightness temperature which could be evidence of volcanic activity due to tidal forces. If genuine, this result would represent the first evidence for such a process outside of bodies in our own solar system, and would further expand our understanding of the huge variety of planetary systems that can develop in our universe. Spitzer eclipse observations, however, are subject to strong systematic effects which can heavily impact the retrieved eclipse model. A reanalysis of this result with an independent method is therefore needed to confirm eclipse depth variability. We tentatively confirm variability, finding a shallower increase in eclipse depth over the course of observations compared to Demory et al. (2015).

  17. What are the Perspectives of Indonesian Students to Japanese Ritual during Solar Eclipse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haristiani, N.; Rusli, A.; Wiryani, A. S.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Purnamasari, A.; Sucahya, T. N.; Permatasari, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this globalization era, many people still believe the myths about solar eclipse. The myths about solar eclipse are different between one country or are to another. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the perspective of Indonesian students in viewing how the Japanese people face their believing myths in solar eclipse. This research also investigated the student belief on several mythical stories in Indonesia, their understanding of the Islamic view, and their knowledge based on science concept relating to the solar eclipse phenomenon. To understand the Indonesian students’ perspective about the solar eclipse myths in Japanese, we took a survey to Indonesian students which are studying Japanese culture and language. Based on the results, the Indonesian student think that there is no significant difference between Indonesian and Japanese people in facing the solar eclipse.

  18. A1540-53, an eclipsing X-ray binary pulsator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Swank, J. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Pravdo, S. H.; Saba, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An eclipsing X-ray binary pulsator consistent with the location of A1540-53 has been observed. The source pulse period was 528.93 + or - 0.10 s. The binary nature is confirmed by a Doppler curve for the pulsation period. The eclipse angle of 30.5 + or - 3 deg and the 4-hour transition to and from eclipse suggest an early-type giant or supergiant primary star.

  19. A1540-53, an eclipsing X-ray binary pulsator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Swank, J. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Saba, J. R.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    An eclipsing X-ray binary pulsator consistent with the location of A1540-53 was observed. The source pulse period was 528.93 plus or minus 0.10 seconds. The binary nature is confirmed by a Doppler curve for the pulsation period. The eclipse angle of 30.5 deg plus or minus 3 deg and the 4 h transition to and from eclipse suggest an early type, giant or supergiant, primary star.

  20. A Photometric Study of the Eclipsing Binary Star PY Boötis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Presented here are the first precision multi-band CCD photometry of the eclipsing binary star PY Boötis. Best-fit stellar models were determined by analyzing the light curves with the Wilson-Devinney program. Asymmetries in the light curves were interpreted as resulting from magnetic activity which required spots to be included in the model. The resulting model is consistent with a W-type contact eclipsing binary having total eclipses.

  1. Eclipse studies of the dwarf nova EX Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Catalán, M. S.; Costa, L.

    2000-08-01

    We report on V and R high-speed photometry of the dwarf nova EX Draconis (EX Dra) in quiescence and in outburst. The analysis of the outburst light curves indicates that the outbursts do not start in the outer disc regions. The disc expands during the rise to maximum and shrinks during decline and along the following quiescent period. The decrease in brightness at the later stages of the outburst is due to the fading of the light from the inner disc regions. At the end of two outbursts the system was seen to go through a phase of lower brightness, characterized by an out-of-eclipse level ~=15 per cent lower than the typical quiescent level and by the fairly symmetric eclipse of a compact source at disc centre with little evidence of a bright spot at disc rim. New eclipse timings were measured from the light curves taken in quiescence and a revised ephemeris was derived. The residuals with respect to the linear ephemeris are well described by a sinusoid of amplitude 1.2min and period ~=4yr and are possibly related to a solar-like magnetic activity cycle in the secondary star. Eclipse phases of the compact central source and of the bright spot were used to derive the geometry of the binary. By constraining the gas stream trajectory to pass through the observed position of the bright spot, we find q=0.72+/-0.06 and i85+3-2 degrees. The binary parameters were estimated by combining the measured mass ratio with the assumption that the secondary star obeys an empirical main-sequence mass-radius relation. We find M1=0.75+/-0.15Msolar and M2=0.54+/-0.10Msolar. The results indicate that the white dwarf at disc centre is surrounded by an extended and variable atmosphere or boundary layer of at least three times its radius and a temperature of T~=28000K. The fluxes at mid-eclipse yield an upper limit to the contribution of the secondary star and lead to a lower limit photometric parallax distance of D=290+/-80pc. The fluxes of the secondary star are well-matched by those of a

  2. The 2017 solar eclipse and Majorana & Allais gravity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2017-01-01

    Two little known anomalies hint to phenomena beyond current theory. Majorana effect: around 1920 in a series of well-designed experiments with a chemical laboratory balance, Quirino Majorana found in Italy that mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) might shield terrestrial gravity. Majorana experiments were never repeated by the international scientific community. Instead his results were dismissed on theoretical claims: a) unobserved heating of earth by absorption of gravity, and b) unobserved cyclic lunar perturbation of solar gravity at earth’s surface. However, Majorana critics missed the crucial fact that shielding is not mere absorption, but also scattering, and that atomic number Z of matter in the moon is much lower than Z=80 (Hg) and Z=82 (Pb). From the June 30/1954 solar eclipse onwards, high-quality mechanical gravimeters were used to search for Majorana shielding by the moon. Results are positive, provided that shielding is interpreted as scattering rather than absorption of gravity by moon (H. A. Munera, Physics Essays 24, 428-434, 2011). Allais effect: during the same 1954 eclipse (partial in Paris) Maurice Allais had in operation a sensitive paraconical pendulum for a very different purpose. Surprisingly, the pendulum was perturbed by the eclipse, condition repeated once again in a 1959 solar eclipse, also partial in Paris. During the past sixty years, paraconical, torsion and Foucault pendula, and other mechanical devices, have been used to (dis)confirm Allais effect, but the results are not conclusive thus far. A book edited by this author (Should the laws of gravitation be revised? Apeiron 2011) describes some of those observations. Various unexpected effects, some of them torsional, appear both near the optical shadow, and far away. The Sun-Moon-Earth alignment in a solar eclipse allows detection on the terrestrial surface of the dark matter flow scattered on moon’s surface (flow not hitting earth in other geometries). Rotation of moon may induce

  3. The Eclipsing System EP Andromedae and Its Circumbinary Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Park, Jang-Ho

    2013-04-01

    We present new long-term CCD photometry for EP And acquired during the period 2007-2012. The light curves display total eclipses at primary minima and season-to-season light variability. Our synthesis for all available light curves indicates that the eclipsing pair is a W-type overcontact binary with parameters of q = 2.578, i = 83.°3, ΔT = 27 K, f = 28%, and l 3 = 2%-3%. The asymmetric light curves in 2007 were satisfactorily modeled by a cool spot on either of the eclipsing components from a magnetic dynamo. Including our 95 timing measurements, a total of 414 times of minimum light spanning about 82 yr was used for a period study. A detailed analysis of the eclipse timing diagram revealed that the orbital period of EP And has varied as a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two periodic variations, with cycle lengths of P 3 = 44.6 yr and P 4 = 1.834 yr and semi-amplitudes of K 3 = 0.0100 days and K 4 = 0.0039 days, respectively. The observed period increase at a fractional rate of +1.39 × 10-10 is in excellent agreement with that calculated from the W-D code and can be plausibly explained by some combination of mass transfer from the primary to the secondary star and angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking. The most reasonable explanation for both cycles is a pair of light-travel-time effects driven by the possible existence of a third and fourth component with projected masses of M 3 = 0.25 M ⊙ and M 4 = 0.90 M ⊙. The more massive companion could be revealed using high-resolution spectroscopic data extending over the course of a few years and could also be a binary itself. It is possible that the circumbinary objects may have played an important role in the formation and evolution of the eclipsing pair, which would cause it to have a short initial orbital period and thus evolve into an overcontact configuration by angular momentum loss.

  4. Mechanism of adsorption and eclipse of bacteriophage phi X174. I. In vitro conformational change under conditions of eclipse.

    PubMed

    Incardona, N L; Blonski, R; Feeney, W

    1972-01-01

    Bacteriophage phiX174 undergoes a conformational change during viral eclipse when virus-host cell complexes are incubated briefly at 37 C in a complex starvation buffer at pH 8. In this report, basically the same transition is demonstrated in vitro. Incubation of phiX alone for 2 to 3 hr at 35 C in 0.1 m CaCl(2) (pH 7.2) results in an irreversible decrease in S(20,w) because of an increase in the frictional coefficient that occurs during the change in conformation. The slower sedimenting conformation is noninfectious. These properties are remarkably similar to those of the eclipsed particles characterized by Newbold and Sinsheimer. Therefore, the key structural requirements for the molecular mechanism must reside within the architecture of the virus itself. This extremely simplified system uncovered the calcium ion requirement and pronounced dependence on pH between 6 and 7, both inherent properties of adsorption. This and the more than 10-fold greater rate of the in vivo conformational transition allude to the cooperative nature of attachment and eclipse for phiX.

  5. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. I. Catalog and Principal Characterization of 1879 Eclipsing Binaries in the First Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prša, Andrej; Batalha, Natalie; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William

    2011-03-01

    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD0, P 0), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff, log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2/T 1, q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2/T 1, (R 1 + R 2)/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ~1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.

  6. The Eclipse Megamovie Tour: building awareness of the eclipse and gathering public support for the Megamovie Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Cable, C.; Zevin, D.; Johnson, C.; Bender, M.

    2017-12-01

    The "Eclipse Megamovie" project aimed to gather scientifically useful photographs of the corona from the public at large during the Aug 21, 2017 total solar eclipse. The project used many different mechanisms for gathering 3 types of volunteers: the over 1,000 trained photographers positioned along the path of totality, members of the public along the path of totality using the Megamovie App, and members of the public who took photographs on their own and then uploaded photographs. In order to interest the public in becoming volunteers to provide photographs for this scientific effort, we drove across the path of totality providing presentations in a town hall fashion. We drove through nine states in week-long trips with a total of six trips. The first week took place in August, 2016 through Oregon. The remaining trips took place February-June, 2017. The tour gained press in each town seeded our recruitment efforts, which then gained momentum via articles and press releases in the Spring and Summer, 2017. By Aug 2, 2017 over 1,000 photographers had signed up to be trained volunteers. This presentation will present information on the tours and their impact in seeding the overall recruitment effort for the Eclipse Megamovie Project.

  7. Ionospheric effects over Europe during the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoque, Mainul; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens

    2017-04-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred on March 20, 2015 moving from the North-West Europe towards the North-East. Due to strong solar radiation changes dynamic processes were initiated in the atmosphere and ionosphere causing a measurable impact e.g. on the temperature and ionization during the eclipse. We analyzed the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse effects on the ionospheric structure over Europe using multi-sensor observations such as vertical sounding (VS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Whereas the VS measurements are used to provide peak electron density information at the ionospheric F2, F1 and E layers over selected ionosonde stations, a dense network of GPS stations is used to provide high spatial resolution of the total electron content (TEC) estimates over Europe. We reconstructed the TEC maps with 5 minutes time resolution and thus investigated the original TEC maps and differential TEC maps obtained by subtracting 27 days medians from the actual TEC map values on 20 March 2015. By combining VS and GPS measurements the equivalent slab thickness has been estimated over several ionosonde stations to get information how the shape of the vertical electron density profile changes during the eclipse. The analysis of the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 presented here will contribute to understand the ionospheric response on solar eclipses occurring at different latitudes. The observations indicate that a number of competitive processes initiated by an eclipse are often enhanced by dynamic forces associated with large scale geophysical conditions not directly impacted by the solar eclipse. Our TEC estimation shows that the total ionization reduces up to 60% (after bias correction 40%) as a function of obscuration. Since the 20 March 2015 eclipse occurred during the negative phase of a severe geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2015, the observed TEC depletion is higher than those reported earlier for 1999 and 2005 eclipses. Thus, a negative bias of up to 20

  8. Outreach to Scientists and to the Public about the Scientific Value of Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Great American Eclipse of August 21, 2017, provided an unprecedented opportunity for outreach among American audiences on a giant scale in the age of social media. Professonal scientists and other educators, however, were not exempt from ignorance of the remaining scientific value of observing solar eclipses, often mistakenly thinking that space satellites or mountaintop observatories could make artificial eclipses as good as natural ones, which they can't. Further, as Chair of the Working Group on Eclipses of the International Astronomical Union and as a frequent observer of solar eclipses in other countries, I felt an obligation to provide at-least-equal hospitality in our country. Here I discuss our welcome to and interaction with eclipse scientists from Greece, Slovakia, Australia, Bulgaria, Iran, China, and Japan and their participation in the eclipse observations. I describe my own outreach about the still-vital solar-eclipse observations through my August 2017 articles in Nature Astronomy and Scientific American as well as through book reviews in Nature and Phi Beta Kappa's Key Reporter and co-authorship of a Resource Letter on Observing Solar Eclipses in the July issue og the American Journal of Physics. I describe my eclipse-day Academic Minute on National Public Radio via WAMC and on http://365daysofastronomy.org, a website started during the International Year of Astronomy. I discuss my blog post on lecturing to pre-school through elementary-school students for the National Geographic Society's Education Blog. I show my Op-Ed pre-eclipse in the Washington Post. I discuss our eclipse-night broadcast of an eclipse program on PBS's NOVA, and its preparation over many months, back as far and farther than the February 26, 2017, annular solar eclipse observed from Argentinian Patagonia, with images from prior eclipses including 2013 in Gabon and 2015 in Svalbard. My work at the 2017 total solar eclipse was supported in large part with grants from the

  9. Public outreach and education during the 2016 total solar eclipse in Palu and Malang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmadian, A. P.; Kunjaya, C.; Wahono, W.; Anugrah, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    MAGIC (Ma Chung Galactic Club) of Ma Chung University, Malang, is one of the amateur astronomers club who did public outreach and education during the Total Solar Eclipse March 9, 2016. The motivation for doing this was the bad experience during Total Solar Eclipse 1983. At that time the Indonesian government forbid the people to observe the Total Solar Eclipse in a way to avoid blindness. We try to fix this misunderstanding by educating people the safe way to enjoy the partial and total solar eclipse. MAGIC team was divided into two teams, one team went to Palu and did the solar eclipse related education in six high schools before and during the eclipse. The other team did the observation on Ma Chung University campus, Malang, to accompany people who want to see the partial solar eclipse through filtered telescopes. The sky during the solar eclipse was clear both in Malang and Palu. People were very excited and satisfied with the solar eclipse, and their interest to astronomy is increased.

  10. Books and Other Resources for Education about the August 21, 2017, Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew; Kentrianakis, Michael

    2017-06-01

    As part of our work to reach and educate the 300+ million Americans of all ages about observing the August 21 solar eclipse, especially by being outdoors in the path of totality but also for those who will see only partial phases, we have compiled annotated lists of books, pamphlets, travel guides, websites, and other information useful for teachers, students, and the general public and made them available on the web, at conferences, and through webinars. Our list includes new eclipse books by David Barron, Anthony Aveni, Frank Close, Tyler Nordgren, John Dvorak, Michael Bakich, and others. We list websites accessible to the general public including those of the International Astronomical Union Working Group on Eclipses (http://eclipses.info, which has links to all the sites listed below); the AAS Eclipse 2017 Task Force (http://eclipse2017.aas.org); NASA Heliophysics (http://eclipse.nasa.gov); Fred Espenak (the updated successor to his authoritative "NASA website": http://EclipseWise.com); Michael Zeiler (http://GreatAmericanEclipse.com); Xavier Jubier (http://xjubier.free.fr/en/site_pages/solar_eclipses/); Jay Anderson (meteorology: http://eclipsophile.com); NASA's Eyes (http://eyes.nasa.gov/eyes-on-eclipse.html and its related app); the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (http://www.astrosociety.org/eclipse); Dan McGlaun (http://eclipse2017.org/); Bill Kramer (http://eclipse-chasers.com). Specialized guides include Dennis Schatz and Andrew Fraknoi's Solar Science for teachers (from the National Science Teachers Association:http://www.nsta.org/publications/press/extras/files/solarscience/SolarScienceInsert.pdf), and a printing with expanded eclipse coverage of Jay Pasachoff's, Peterson Field Guide to the Stars and Planets (14th printing of the fourth edition, 2016: http://solarcorona.com).A version of our joint list is to be published in the July issue of the American Journal of Physics as a Resource Letter on Eclipses, adding to JMP's 2010, "Resource Letter SP

  11. The National Eclipse Weather Experiment: an assessment of citizen scientist weather observations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The National Eclipse Weather Experiment (NEWEx) was a citizen science project designed to assess the effects of the 20 March 2015 partial solar eclipse on the weather over the United Kingdom (UK). NEWEx had two principal objectives: to provide a spatial network of meteorological observations across the UK to aid the investigation of eclipse-induced weather changes, and to develop a nationwide public engagement activity-based participation of citizen scientists. In total, NEWEx collected 15 606 observations of air temperature, cloudiness and wind speed and direction from 309 locations across the UK, over a 3 h window spanning the eclipse period. The headline results were processed in near real time, immediately published online, and featured in UK national press articles on the day of the eclipse. Here, we describe the technical development of NEWEx and how the observations provided by the citizen scientists were analysed. By comparing the results of the NEWEx analyses with results from other investigations of the same eclipse using different observational networks, including measurements from the University of Reading’s Atmospheric Observatory, we demonstrate that NEWEx provided a fair representation of the change in the UK meteorological conditions throughout the eclipse. Despite the simplicity of the approach adopted, robust reductions in both temperature and wind speed during the eclipse were observed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550767

  12. The Solar Eclipse Predictions of Chiljeongsam-Oepyeon in Early Choseon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2004-12-01

    The history books of East Asia about astronomical phenomena have the more records of the solar eclipse frequently than any other ones. It is because traditionally, the solar eclipse meaned the fate of dynasty and the king's rule. The Sun, the biggest thing in the heaven symbolized the king, and the solar eclipse foresaw that the king had the problem in private including the body, and the country might suffer from difficulties in a great scale. So the king and all of the ministers used to gather to hold a ceremony named Gusikrye which solar eclipse may pass safely. Consequently, kings always had concernments on collecting informations of solar eclipse. Inspite of importance of solar eclipse predictions, but at the beginning of the Choseon, the predictions of the solar eclipse didn't fit. King Sejong compiled the Chiljeongsan-naepion and the Chiljeongsan-oepyeon to calculate the celestial phenomena including the solar eclipse. By the publications of these two books, the calendar making system of Choseon was firmly established. The Chiljeongsan-oepyeon adopted Huihui calendar of Arabia. The Solar eclipse predictions of Chiljeongsan-oepyeon were relative correct compared to modern method in early Choseon dynasty.

  13. Effects of the March 2015 solar eclipse on near-surface atmospheric electricity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A J

    2016-09-28

    Measurements of atmospheric electrical and standard meteorological parameters were made at coastal and inland sites in southern England during the 20 March 2015 partial solar eclipse. Clear evidence of a reduction in air temperature resulting from the eclipse was found at both locations, despite one of them being overcast during the entire eclipse. The reduction in temperature was expected to affect the near-surface electric field (potential gradient (PG)) through a reduction in turbulent transfer of space charge. No such effect could be unambiguously confirmed, however, with variability in PG and air-Earth current during the eclipse being comparable to pre- and post-eclipse conditions. The already low solar radiation for this latitude, season and time of day was likely to have contributed to the reduced effect of the eclipse on atmospheric electricity through boundary layer stability. The absence of a reduction in mean PG shortly after time of maximum solar obscuration, as observed during eclipses at lower geomagnetic latitude, implied that there was no significant change in atmospheric ionization from cosmic rays above background variability. This finding was suggested to be due to the relative importance of cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin at geomagnetic mid-latitudes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Impact Results From the Astronomers Without Borders Building on the Eclipse Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolone, L. M.; Simmons, M.; Nelson, A.; Kruse, B.

    2017-12-01

    Astronomers Without Borders "Building on the Eclipse Education Program" was its first to move beyond outreach, exploring how to impact science identity, attitudes towards STEM and inspire audiences to explore careers in STEM. Inspired by the eclipse, educators and scientists were brought together in an online community to support one another in learning about the Sun and light after audiences were inspired by the Total Solar Eclipse. The program also collected and analyzed data on participating groups in an attempt to have more information about audiences for the next total solar eclipse to cross the United States in 2024. Although we anticipate the program will be ongoing, preliminary results will be presented.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: OGLE eclipsing binaries in LMC (Wyrzykowski+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrzykowski, L.; Udalski, A.; Kubiak, M.; Szymanski, M.; Zebrun, K.; Soszynski, I.; Wozniak, P. R.; Pietrzynski, G.; Szewczyk, O.

    2003-09-01

    We present the catalog of 2580 eclipsing binary stars detected in 4.6 square degree area of the central parts of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The photometric data were collected during the second phase of the OGLE microlensing search from 1997 to 2000. The eclipsing objects were selected with the automatic search algorithm based on an artificial neural network. Basic statistics of eclipsing stars are presented. Also, the list of 36 candidates of detached eclipsing binaries for spectroscopic study and for precise LMC distance determination is provided. The full catalog is accessible from the OGLE Internet archive. (2 data files).

  16. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Eclipsing Binary Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrzykowski, L.; Udalski, A.; Kubiak, M.; Szymanski, M.; Zebrun, K.; Soszynski, I.; Wozniak, P. R.; Pietrzynski, G.; Szewczyk, O.

    2003-03-01

    We present the catalog of 2580 eclipsing binary stars detected in 4.6 square degree area of the central parts of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The photometric data were collected during the second phase of the OGLE microlensing search from 1997 to 2000. The eclipsing objects were selected with the automatic search algorithm based on an artificial neural network. Basic statistics of eclipsing stars are presented. Also, the list of 36 candidates of detached eclipsing binaries for spectroscopic study and for precise LMC distance determination is provided. The full catalog is accessible from the OGLE Internet archive.

  17. Geospatial Analysis of Low-frequency Radio Signals Collected During the 2017 Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liles, W. C.; Nelson, J.; Kerby, K. C.; Lukes, L.; Henry, J.; Oputa, J.; Lemaster, G.

    2017-12-01

    The total solar eclipse of 2017, with a path that crosses the continental United States, offers a unique opportunity to gather geospatially diverse data. The EclipseMob project has been designed to crowdsource this data by building a network of citizen scientists across the country. The project focuses on gathering low-frequency radio wave data before, during, and after the eclipse. WWVB, a 60 KHz transmitter in Ft. Collins, CO operated by the National Institutes of Standard and Technology, will provide the transmit signal that will be observed by project participants. Participating citizen scientists are building simple antennas and receivers designed by the EclipseMob team and provided to participants in the form of "receiver kits." The EclipseMob receiver downsamples the 60 KHz signal to 18 KHz and supplies the downsampled signal to the audio jack of a smartphone. A dedicated app is used to collect data and upload it to the EclipseMob server. By studying the variations in WWVB amplitude observed during the eclipse at over 150 locations across the country, we aim to understand how the ionization of the D layer of the ionosphere is impacted by the eclipse as a function of both time and space (location). The diverse locations of the EclipseMob participants will provide data from a wide variety of propagation paths - some crossing the path of the total eclipse, and some remaining on the same side of the eclipse path as the transmitter. Our initial data analysis will involve identifying characteristics that define geospatial relationships in the behavior of observed WWVB signal amplitudes.

  18. Line Identifications in the Far Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Eclipsing Binary System 31 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen Bauer, Wendy; Bennett, P. D.

    2011-05-01

    The eclipsing binary system 31 Cygni (K4 Ib + B3 V) was observed at several phases with the Far Ultraviolet Spectrosocopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. During total eclipse, a rich emission spectrum was observed, produced by scattering of hot star photons in the extended wind of the K supergiant. The system was observed during deep chromospheric eclipse, and 2.5 months after total eclipse ended. We present an atlas of line identifications in these spectra. During total eclipse, emission features from C II , C III, N I, N II, N III, O I, Si II, P II, P III, S II, S III, Ar I, Cr III, Fe II, Fe III, and Ni II were detected. The strongest emission features arise from N II. These lines appear strongly in absorption during chromospheric eclipse, and even 2.5 months after total eclipse, the absorption bottoms out on the underlying emission seen during total eclipse. The second strongest features in the emission spectrum arise from Fe III. Any chromospheric Fe III absorption is buried within strong chromospheric absorption from other species, mainly Fe II. The emission profiles of most of the doubly-ionized species are red-shifted relative to the systemic velocity, with asymmetric profiles with a steeper long-wavelength edge. Emission profiles from singly-ionized species tend to be more symmetric and centered near the systemic velocity. In deep chromospheric eclipse, absorption features are seen from neutral and singly-ionized species, arising from lower levels up to 3 eV. Many strong chromospheric features are doubled in the observation obtained during egress from eclipse. The 31 Cygni spectrum taken 2.5 months after total eclipse ended ws compared to single-star B spectra from the FUSE archives. There was still some additional chromospheric absorption from strong low-excitation Fe II, O I and Ar I.

  19. On the Importance of Solar Eclipse Geometry in the Interpretation of Ionospheric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankov, S.; Verhulst, T. G. W.

    2017-12-01

    A reliable interpretation of solar eclipse effects on the geospace environment, and on the ionosphere in particular, necessitates a careful consideration of the so-called eclipse geometry. A solar eclipse is a relatively rare astronomical phenomenon, which geometry is rather complex, specific for each event, and fast changing in time. The standard, most popular way to look at the eclipse geometry is via the two-dimensional representation (map) of the solar obscuration on the Earth's surface, in which the path of eclipse totality is drawn together with isolines of the gradually-decreasing eclipse magnitude farther away from this path. Such "surface maps" are widely used to readily explain some of the solar eclipse effects including, for example, the well-known decrease in total ionisation (due to the substantial decrease in solar irradiation), usually presented by the popular and easy to understand ionospheric characteristic of Total Electron Content (TEC). However, many other effects, especially those taking place at higher altitudes, cannot be explained in this fashion. Instead, a complete, four-dimensional (4D) description of the umbra (and penumbra), would be required. This presentation will address the issue of eclipse geometry effects on various ionospheric observations carried out during the total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. In particular, GPS-based TEC and ionosonde measurements will be analysed and the eclipse effects on the ionosphere will be interpreted with respect to the actual eclipse geometry at ionospheric heights. Whenever possible, a comparison will be made with results from previous events, such as the ones from March 20, 2015 and October 3, 2005.

  20. Eclipse Prediction on the Ancient Greek Astronomical Calculating Machine Known as the Antikythera Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Freeth, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, predicted eclipses, based on the 223-lunar month Saros cycle. Eclipses are indicated on a four-turn spiral Saros Dial by glyphs, which describe type and time of eclipse and include alphabetical index letters, referring to solar eclipse inscriptions. These include Index Letter Groups, describing shared eclipse characteristics. The grouping and ordering of the index letters, the organization of the inscriptions and the eclipse times have previously been unsolved. A new reading and interpretation of data from the back plate of the Antikythera Mechanism, including the glyphs, the index letters and the eclipse inscriptions, has resulted in substantial changes to previously published work. Based on these new readings, two arithmetical models are presented here that explain the complete eclipse prediction scheme. The first model solves the glyph distribution, the grouping and anomalous ordering of the index letters and the structure of the inscriptions. It also implies the existence of lost lunar eclipse inscriptions. The second model closely matches the glyph times and explains the four-turn spiral of the Saros Dial. Together, these models imply a surprisingly early epoch for the Antikythera Mechanism. The ancient Greeks built a machine that can predict, for many years ahead, not only eclipses but also a remarkable array of their characteristics, such as directions of obscuration, magnitude, colour, angular diameter of the Moon, relationship with the Moon’s node and eclipse time. It was not entirely accurate, but it was an astonishing achievement for its era. PMID:25075747

  1. Two Eclipses, a Theory, and a World War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Both the beginning and ending of World War I were signalled by total solar eclipses at which attempts were made to measure the deflection, predicted by Albert Einstein, of starlight passing close to the Sun. An American team led by W. W. Campbell and a German team led by E. F. Freundlich travelled to Russia to observe the eclipse of 1914 August 21. The Americans were foiled by the weather, and the Germans were interned as enemy aliens, so no successful measurements were made. British astronomers, led by A. S. Eddington, mounted two expeditions to observe the eclipse of 1919 May 29, one to Brazil, the other, with Eddington personally in charge, to an island off the west coast of Africa. The results, presented with much fanfare, appeared to constitute a spectacular confirmation of general relativity, although much debate surrounded the observations and their interpretation in later decades. The stories of Freundlich and Eddington intertwine not only with controversial questions about how best to make and to reduce the observations, but also with attitudes toward the war, notably the extreme anti-German sentiment that pervaded the countries of the western alliance, contrasted with the Quaker pacifism of Eddington himself; and also with differing attitudes to relativity among European and American astronomers. Eddington later played a role in bringing Freundlich to the United Kingdom after the rise of Hitler and the Nazis. Ironically, in later life, Freundlich became increasingly sceptical of general relativity and proposed a theory of proton-proton interaction to account for the cosmological red-shifts.

  2. Eclipse program F-106 aircraft in flight, front view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shot of the QF-106 aircraft in flight with the landing gear deployed. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  3. Solar Eclipse Video Captured by STEREO-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    No human has ever witnessed a solar eclipse quite like the one captured on this video. The NASA STEREO-B spacecraft, managed by the Goddard Space Center, was about a million miles from Earth , February 25, 2007, when it photographed the Moon passing in front of the sun. The resulting movie looks like it came from an alien solar system. The fantastically-colored star is our own sun as STEREO sees it in four wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light. The black disk is the Moon. When we observe a lunar transit from Earth, the Moon appears to be the same size as the sun, a coincidence that produces intoxicatingly beautiful solar eclipses. The silhouette STEREO-B saw, on the other hand, was only a fraction of the Sun. The Moon seems small because of the STEREO-B location. The spacecraft circles the sun in an Earth-like orbit, but it lags behind Earth by one million miles. This means STEREO-B is 4.4 times further from the Moon than we are, and so the Moon looks 4.4 times smaller. This version of the STEREO-B eclipse movie is a composite of data from the coronagraph and extreme ultraviolet imager of the spacecraft. STEREO-B has a sister ship named STEREO-A. Both are on a mission to study the sun. While STEREO-B lags behind Earth, STEREO-A orbits one million miles ahead ('B' for behind, 'A' for ahead). The gap is deliberate as it allows the two spacecraft to capture offset views of the sun. Researchers can then combine the images to produce 3D stereo movies of solar storms. The two spacecraft were launched in Oct. 2006 and reached their stations on either side of Earth in January 2007.

  4. NASA VERVE: Interactive 3D Visualization Within Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Tamar; Allan, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    At NASA, we develop myriad Eclipse RCP applications to provide situational awareness for remote systems. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed VERVE - a high-performance, robot user interface that provides scientists, robot operators, and mission planners with powerful, interactive 3D displays of remote environments.VERVE includes a 3D Eclipse view with an embedded Java Ardor3D scenario, including SWT and mouse controls which interact with the Ardor3D camera and objects in the scene. VERVE also includes Eclipse views for exploring and editing objects in the Ardor3D scene graph, and a HUD (Heads Up Display) framework allows Growl-style notifications and other textual information to be overlayed onto the 3D scene. We use VERVE to listen to telemetry from robots and display the robots and associated scientific data along the terrain they are exploring; VERVE can be used for any interactive 3D display of data.VERVE is now open source. VERVE derives from the prior Viz system, which was developed for Mars Polar Lander (2001) and used for the Mars Exploration Rover (2003) and the Phoenix Lander (2008). It has been used for ongoing research with IRG's K10 and KRex rovers in various locations. VERVE was used on the International Space Station during two experiments in 2013 - Surface Telerobotics, in which astronauts controlled robots on Earth from the ISS, and SPHERES, where astronauts control a free flying robot on board the ISS.We will show in detail how to code with VERVE, how to interact between SWT controls to the Ardor3D scenario, and share example code.

  5. S193: another non-eclipsing SW Sex star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pais, I. G.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Casares, J.

    1999-05-01

    We present time-resolved optical spectroscopy of the cataclysmic variable S193. The emission lines are remarkably similar to those of V795 Her and exhibit high-velocity S-waves and complex absorptions that are modulated with the orbital period. Evidence for transient anomalous spectral features is seen during the first two nights of our run. We propose that S193 and V795 Her are non-eclipsing SW Sex stars. Finally, we show that the `disc overflow' model fails to explain the Balmer line orbital behaviour in these low-inclination systems.

  6. The ultraviolet spectrum of the eclipsing binary IM Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Feibelman, W. A.; Kondo, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Low dispersion IUE spectra have been obtained at primary and secondary minima, together with a high dispersion spectrum near maximum, for the eclipsing Algol-type IM Aurigae system. The weak, sharp absorption features noted at two distinct velocities in the high dispersion data are attributed to circumbinary gaseous shells and/or gas streams between the stellar components. The implications of these results for the recently observed increase in O-C values of the primary minimum, which prompted this UV spectral search for evidence of a recent mass-loss event, are discussed.

  7. X-rays from the eclipsing pulsar 1957+20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruchter, A. S.; Bookbinder, J.; Garcia, M. R.; Bailyn, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The detection of soft X-rays of about 1 keV energy from the eclipsing pulsar PSR1957+20 is reported. This high-energy radiation should be a valuable diagnostic of the wind in this recycled pulsar system. Possible sources of the X-ray emission are the interstellar nebula driven by the pulsar wind, the interaction between the pulsar and its evaporating companion, and the pulsar itself. The small apparent size of the X-ray object argues against the first of these possibilities and suggests that the X-rays are produced within the binary.

  8. LX Persei, an eclipsing binary with H and K emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The masses and MK classes were calculated for the eclipsing spectroscopic binary LX Persei. Its spectrum shows strong H and K emission and doubled lines in the photographic region. The Ca II emission velocity shifts vary in phase with the secondary's absorption lines and are presumably associated with this component. The stars are tentatively classed as G0 V and K0 IV, and the cooler component is the more massive by a ratio of 0.96. The system has a period of 8.0 days.

  9. Anomalous Eclipses of the Young Star RW Aur A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamzin, S.; Cheryasov, D.; Chuntonov, G.; Dodin, A.; Grankin, K.; Malanchev, K.; Nadzhip, A.; Safonov, B.; Shakhovskoy, D.; Shenavrin, V.; Tatarnikov, A.; Vozyakova, O.

    2017-06-01

    Results of UBVRIJHKLM photometry, VRI polarimetry and optical spectroscopy of a young star RW Aur A obtained during 2010-11 and 2014-16 dimming events are presented. During the second dimming the star decreased its brightness to ΔV >4.5 mag, polarization of its light in I-band was up to 30 %, and color-magnitude diagramm was similar to that of UX Ori type stars. We conclude that the reason of both dimmings is an eclipses of the star by dust screen, but the size of the screen is much larger than in the case of UXORs.

  10. NASA's Aqua Satellite Sees Partial Solar Eclipse Effect in Alaska

    2017-12-08

    This image shows how the partial solar eclipse darkened clouds over Alaska. It was taken on Oct. 23 at 21:10 UTC (5:10 p.m. EDT) by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Earth Observations taken during an Annular Solar Eclipse

    2012-05-20

    ISS031-E-41594 (20 May 2012) --- This is one of a series of photos taken by Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit aboard the International Space Station, showing a shadow of the moon created by the May 20 solar eclipse, as the shadow spreads across cloud cover on Earth. Pettit used a 28-mm lens on a digital still camera to record the image at 23:35:17 GMT. One of the space station’s solar array panels appears at the top of the frame.

  12. Light Curve and Analysis of the Eclipsing Binary BF Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, M. A.; Wolf, G. W.

    2003-12-01

    The eclipsing binary star BF Centauri was observed photometrically by GWW in the uvby filter system from Mt. John Observatory in New Zealand during 1982, 1989 and 1998. It was also observed spectroscopically at 10 A/mm by W. A. Lawson in 1993 at Mt. Stromlo in Australia to obtain a radial velocity solution. The combined light curves and spectroscopic results have been analyzed using the 1998 version of Robert Wilson's WD light-curve programs. A consistent model for the system will be presented. This analysis was done as a part of a senior research project by MAM, who would like to acknowledge financial support from the Missouri Space Grant Consortium.

  13. The Sun and solar eclipses in traditional Romanian ornamental patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenici, Dimitrie; Olenici, Maria

    2011-06-01

    Various ornamental shapes, such as the wheel, the rhombus, the broken cross, and the radiant triangle, which can be seen on popular costumes, domestic objects as well as in architecture, represent solar symbols with a clear apotropaic function whose origins may be detected on the Neolithic clay plates from Jevdet Nasr (Iraq), Knosos (Greece) and Tartaria (Romania). In the North-East of Romania the occurrence of such motifs is extremely frequent especially in traditional architecture. The Triple-Rayed Sun intersected by two lateral arcs is a remarkable adornment of this kind that seems to suggest the representation of an eclipse.

  14. Earth Observations taken during an Annular Solar Eclipse

    2012-05-20

    ISS031-E-41622 (20 May 2012) --- This is one of a series of photos taken by Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit aboard the International Space Station, at the time located over the Western Pacific, showing a shadow of the moon created by the May 20 solar eclipse, as the shadow spreads across cloud cover on Earth. Pettit used a 28-mm lens on a digital still camera to record the image at 23:36:45 GMT. One of the space station’s solar array panels appears at the top of the frame.

  15. Earth Observations taken during an Annular Solar Eclipse

    2012-05-20

    ISS031-E-41595 (20 May 2012) --- This is one of a series of photos taken by Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit aboard the International Space Station, at the time located over the Western Pacific, showing a shadow of the moon created by the May 20 solar eclipse, as the shadow spreads across cloud cover on Earth. Pettit used a 28-mm lens on a digital still camera to record the image at 23:35:36 GMT. One of the space station’s solar array panels appears at the top of the frame.

  16. Orbital period determination in an eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bąkowska, Karolina; Olech, Arkadiusz

    2014-09-01

    HT Cassiopeiae was discovered over seventy years ago (Hoffmeister 1943). Unfortunately, for 35 years this object did not receive any attention, until the eclipses of HT Cas were observed by Bond. After a first analysis, Patterson (1981) called HT Cas "a Rosetta stone among dwarf novae". Since then, the literature on this star is still growing, reaching several dozens of publications. We present an orbital period determination of HT Cas during the November 2010 super-outburst, but also during a longer time span, to check its stability.

  17. Learning about Phases of the Moon and Eclipses: A Guide for Teachers and Curriculum Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Claudine; Agan, Lori; Sneider, Cary

    2005-01-01

    "National Science Education Standards" (1996), published by the National Research Council, recommends that students learn to explain Moon phases and eclipses by the time they graduate from eighth grade. It is clear from the research literature, however, that misconceptions about Moon phases and eclipses are widespread and resistant to change, even…

  18. On the detection and attribution of gravity waves generated by the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Internal gravity waves are generated as adjustment radiation whenever a sudden change in forcing causes the atmosphere to depart from its large-scale balanced state. Such a forcing anomaly occurs during a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow cools part of the Earth's surface. The resulting atmospheric gravity waves are associated with pressure and temperature perturbations, which in principle are detectable both at the surface and aloft. In this study, surface pressure and temperature data from two UK sites at Reading and Lerwick are examined for eclipse-driven gravity wave perturbations during the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse over northwest Europe. Radiosonde wind data from the same two sites are also analysed using a moving parcel analysis method, to determine the periodicities of the waves aloft. On this occasion, the perturbations both at the surface and aloft are found not to be confidently attributable to eclipse-driven gravity waves. We conclude that the complex synoptic weather conditions over the UK at the time of this particular eclipse helped to mask any eclipse-driven gravity waves.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Eclipse-induced wind changes over the British Isles on the 20 March 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The British Isles benefits from dense meteorological observation networks, enabling insights into the still-unresolved effects of solar eclipse events on the near-surface wind field. The near-surface effects of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 are derived through comparison of output from the Met Office’s operational weather forecast model (which is ignorant of the eclipse) with data from two meteorological networks: the Met Office’s land surface station (MIDAS) network and a roadside measurement network operated by Vaisala. Synoptic-evolution relative calculations reveal the cooling and increase in relative humidity almost universally attributed to eclipse events. In addition, a slackening of wind speeds by up to about 2 knots in already weak winds and backing in wind direction of about 20° under clear skies across middle England are attributed to the eclipse event. The slackening of wind speed is consistent with the previously reported boundary layer stabilization during eclipse events. Wind direction changes have previously been attributed to a large-scale ‘eclipse-induced cold-cored cyclone’, mountain slope flows, and changes in the strength of sea breezes. A new explanation is proposed here by analogy with nocturnal wind changes at sunset and shown to predict direction changes consistent with those observed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550759

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parameters of 529 Kepler eclipsing binaries (Kjurkchieva+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Vasileva, D.; Atanasova, T.

    2017-11-01

    We reviewed the Kepler eclipsing binary catalog (Prsa et al. 2011, Cat. J/AJ/141/83; Slawson et al. 2011, Cat. J/AJ/142/160; Matijevic et al. 2012) to search for detached eclipsing binaries with eccentric orbits. (5 data files).

  1. A possible additional body in eclipsing binary system HS 2231+2441

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Shliakhetska, Ya. O.; Romanyuk, Ya. O.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of the light curves of eclipsing binary systems HS 2231+2441, obtained with the 36-cm telescope, is made. In processing the photometric data on eclipses by method of timing, obtained evidence for the existence of a third body in the system.

  2. SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser

    None

    2017-12-09

    The NOTTE experiment (Neutrino Oscillations with Telescope during Total Eclipse) aims at searching for visible photons emitted through a possible radiative decay of solar neutrinos. The experiment and the expeditions organized by a group of physicists and astrophysicists from INFN and INAF Bologna hunting for Total Solar Eclipses from 1998 to 2006 wil be described. The results of observations performed during total solar eclipse expeditions in 2001 (Zambia) and 2006 (Sahara desert, Libya) are presented and a beautiful photo gallery will be shown. Other peculiar observations that can be made during a solar eclipse are also illustrated. The seminar will be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.

  3. SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser

    SciT

    None

    2011-02-08

    The NOTTE experiment (Neutrino Oscillations with Telescope during Total Eclipse) aims at searching for visible photons emitted through a possible radiative decay of solar neutrinos. The experiment and the expeditions organized by a group of physicists and astrophysicists from INFN and INAF Bologna hunting for Total Solar Eclipses from 1998 to 2006 wil be described. The results of observations performed during total solar eclipse expeditions in 2001 (Zambia) and 2006 (Sahara desert, Libya) are presented and a beautiful photo gallery will be shown. Other peculiar observations that can be made during a solar eclipse are also illustrated. The seminar willmore » be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.« less

  4. Monitoring a photovoltaic system during the partial solar eclipse of August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurinec, Santosh K.; Kucer, Michal; Schlein, Bill

    2018-05-01

    The power output of a 4.85 kW residential photovoltaic (PV) system located in Rochester, NY is monitored during the partial solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. The data is compared with the data on a day before and on the same day, a year ago. The area of exposed solar disk is measured using astrophotography every 16 s of the eclipse. Global solar irradiance is estimated using the eclipse shading, time of the day, location coordinates, atmospheric conditions and panel orientation. A sharp decline, as expected in the energy produced is observed at the time of the peak of the eclipse. The observed data of the PV energy produced is related with the model calculations taking into account solar eclipse coverage and cloudiness conditions. The paper provides a cohesive approach of irradiance calculations and obtaining anticipated PV performance.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler Mission. VII. Eclipsing binaries in DR3 (Kirk+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, B.; Conroy, K.; Prsa, A.; Abdul-Masih, M.; Kochoska, A.; Matijevic, G.; Hambleton, K.; Barclay, T.; Bloemen, S.; Boyajian, T.; Doyle, L. R.; Fulton, B. J.; Hoekstra, A. J.; Jek, K.; Kane, S. R.; Kostov, V.; Latham, D.; Mazeh, T.; Orosz, J. A.; Pepper, J.; Quarles, B.; Ragozzine, D.; Shporer, A.; Southworth, J.; Stassun, K.; Thompson, S. E.; Welsh, W. F.; Agol, E.; Derekas, A.; Devor, J.; Fischer, D.; Green, G.; Gropp, J.; Jacobs, T.; Johnston, C.; Lacourse, D. M.; Saetre, K.; Schwengeler, H.; Toczyski, J.; Werner, G.; Garrett, M.; Gore, J.; Martinez, A. O.; Spitzer, I.; Stevick, J.; Thomadis, P. C.; Vrijmoet, E. H.; Yenawine, M.; Batalha, N.; Borucki, W.

    2016-07-01

    The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog lists the stellar parameters from the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) augmented by: primary and secondary eclipse depth, eclipse width, separation of eclipse, ephemeris, morphological classification parameter, and principal parameters determined by geometric analysis of the phased light curve. The previous release of the Catalog (Paper II; Slawson et al. 2011, cat. J/AJ/142/160) contained 2165 objects, through the second Kepler data release (Q0-Q2). In this release, 2878 objects are identified and analyzed from the entire data set of the primary Kepler mission (Q0-Q17). The online version of the Catalog is currently maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu/. A static version of the online Catalog associated with this paper is maintained at MAST https://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/eclipsing_binaries.html. (10 data files).

  6. The Unique Scientific Assets of Multi-Wavelength Total Solar Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habbal, S. R.; Druckmuller, M.; Ding, A.

    2017-12-01

    Total solar eclipses continue to yield new discoveries regarding the dynamics and thermodynamics of the corona, due to the radial span of the field of view available during totality, starting from the solar surface out to several solar radii, and due to the diagnostic potential provided by coronal emission lines. Scientific highlights from past eclipse observations as well as from the 21 August 2017 eclipse, now spanning a solar cycle, will be presented. These include white light and spectral line imaging as well as imaging spectrometry. Emphasis will be placed on the unique insights into the origin of dynamic structures captured in eclipse images, and the temperature distribution in the corona derived from these eclipse observations. Implications of these results for the general problem of coronal heating, as well as for the next generation of space instrumentation will be discussed.

  7. Solar Eclipse: Concept of “Science” and “Language” Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haristiani, N.; Zaen, R.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Rusmana, A. N.; Azis, F.; Danuwijaya, A. A.; Abdullah, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concept of science and language literacy of solar eclipse. The study was conducted through a survey to 250 students with different ages (from 17 to 23 years old), grades, and majors in Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. The survey was completed with a questionnaire consisting of 41 questions. In the case of the language literacy, experimental results showed that various expressions in facing the solar eclipse phenomenon are found. Relating to the science literacy, most students have good science understanding to the solar eclipse phenomenon. In conclusion, the understanding about the solar eclipse is affected by formal science education and religion understanding that they have been accepted since their childhood. These factors have also influenced the belief of Indonesian people to the solar eclipse myth and the way of expressions a language literacy.

  8. Eclipse Across America on This Week @NASA – August 25, 2017

    2017-08-25

    The Aug. 21 eclipse across America generated interest and excitement far and wide. Our coverage of the historic eclipse – the first coast-to-coast total solar eclipse for the U.S. in 99 years – was widespread … Anchored from the College of Charleston, in South Carolina – we showed you views of the eclipse that only NASA could. Views from space, from Earth’s atmosphere and from the ground – with expert observation and analysis provided from many of the 14 states around the country, situated along the path of totality. That’s where thousands of people flocked – for the ultimate eclipse experience – total darkness in the middle of the day!

  9. Analysis of ionospheric irregularities during total solar eclipse 2016 based on GNSS observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husin, A.; Jiyo; Anggarani, S.; Ekawati, S.; Dear, V.

    2016-11-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred over Indonesia in the morning hours on 9 March 2016. Ionisations in the ionosphere which is associated with the solar radiation during the total eclipse provided a good opportunity to study the ionospheric irregularities. Using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data taken from dual-frequency receivers in Manado, we investigated and analysed the total electron content (TEC) perturbations with a time resolution of 60 s to reveal ionospheric irregularities during total eclipse. Result showed that TEC conditions based on IPP were decreased during solar eclipse on March 9, comparing with the neighbour day. The maximum percentage deviation (DTEC) from the average value during eclipse period, 00:00 - 02:40 UT reach -41.5%. The duration of maximum decrement in TEC occurs were around 2-30 minutes after the maximum obscuration.

  10. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. I. CATALOG AND PRINCIPAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 1879 ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE FIRST DATA RELEASE

    SciT

    Prsa, Andrej; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle

    2011-03-15

    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg{sup 2} field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID),more » ephemeris (BJD{sub 0}, P{sub 0}), morphology type, physical parameters (T{sub eff}, log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T{sub 2}/T{sub 1}, q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T{sub 2}/T{sub 1}, (R{sub 1} + R{sub 2})/a, esin {omega}, ecos {omega}, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be {approx}1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.« less

  11. The extraneous eclipses on binary light curves: KIC 5255552, KIC 10091110, and KIC 11495766

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Qian, S. B.; Wang, S. M.; Sun, L. L.; Wu, Y.; Jiang, L. Q.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: We aim to find more eclipsing multiple systems and obtain their parameters, thus increasing our understanding of multiple systems. Methods: The extraneous eclipses on the Kepler binary light curves indicating extraneous bodies were searched. The binary light curves were analyzed using the binary model, and the extraneous eclipses were studied on their periodicity and shape changes. Results: Three binaries with extraneous eclipses on the binary light curves were found and studied based on the Kepler observations. The object KIC 5255552 is an eclipsing triple system with a fast changing inner binary and an outer companion uncovered by three groups of extraneous eclipses of 862.1(±0.1) d period. The KIC 10091110 is suggested to be a double eclipsing binary system with several possible extraordinary coincidences: the two binaries share similar extremely small mass ratios (0.060(13) and 0.0564(18)), similar mean primary densities (0.3264(42) ρ⊙ and 0.3019(28) ρ⊙), and, most notably, the ratio of the two binaries' periods is very close to integer 2 (8.5303353/4.2185174 = 2.022). The KIC 11495766 is a probable triple system with a 120.73 d period binary and (at least) one non-eclipse companion. Furthermore, very close to it in the celestial sphere, there is a blended background stellar binary of 8.3404432 d period. A first list of 25 eclipsing multiple candidates is presented, with the hope that it will be beneficial for study of eclipsing multiples.

  12. Solar Eclipse-Induced Changes in the Ionosphere over the Continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, P. J.; Zhang, S.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Coster, A. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Sulzer, M. P.; Vierinen, J.

    2017-12-01

    For the first time in 26 years, a total solar eclipse occurred over the continental United States on 21 August 2017, between 16:00-20:00 UT. We report on American solar eclipse observations of the upper atmosphere, conducted by a team led by MIT Haystack Observatory. Efforts measured ionospheric and thermospheric eclipse perturbations. Although eclipse effects have been studied for more than 50 years, recent major sensitivity and resolution advances using radio-based techniques are providing new information on the eclipse ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere (ITM) system response. Our study was focused on quantifying eclipse effects on (1) traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) and atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs); (2) spatial ionospheric variations associated with the eclipse; and (3) altitudinal and temporal ionospheric profile variations. We present selected early findings on ITM eclipse response including a dense global network of 6000 GNSS total electron content (TEC) receivers (100 million measurements per day; 1x1 degree spatial grid) and the Millstone Hill and Arecibo incoherent scatter radars. TEC depletions of up to 60% in magnitude were associated with the eclipse umbra and penumbra and consistently trailed the eclipse totality center. TEC enhancements associated with prominent orographic features were observed in the western US due to complex interactions as the lower atmosphere cooled in response to decreasing EUV energy inputs. Strong TIDs in the form of bow waves, stern waves, and a stern wake were observed in TEC data. Altitude-resolved plasma parameter profiles from Millstone Hill saw a nearly 50% decrease in F region electron density in vertical profiles, accompanied by a corresponding 200-250 K decrease in electron temperature. Wide field Millstone Hill radar scans showed similar decreases in electron density to the southwest, maximizing along the line of closest approach to totality. Data is available to the research community through the MIT

  13. Inferred Eccentricity and Period Distributions of Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, G.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the underlying eccentricity and orbital period distributions from an observed sample of eclipsing binary stars is not a trivial task. Shen and Turner (2008) have shown that the commonly used maximum likelihood estimators are biased to larger eccentricities and they do not describe the underlying distribution correctly; orbital periods suffer from a similar bias. Hogg, Myers and Bovy (2010) proposed a hierarchical probabilistic method for inferring the true eccentricity distribution of exoplanet orbits that uses the likelihood functions for individual star eccentricities. The authors show that proper inference outperforms the simple histogramming of the best-fit eccentricity values. We apply this method to the complete sample of eclipsing binary stars observed by the Kepler mission (Prsa et al. 2011) to derive the unbiased underlying eccentricity and orbital period distributions. These distributions can be used for the studies of multiple star formation, dynamical evolution, and they can serve as a drop-in replacement to prior, ad-hoc distributions used in the exoplanet field for determining false positive occurrence rates.

  14. IUE spectra of the eclipsing binary NN Serpentis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Janet H.; Marsh, Thomas R.

    1991-01-01

    Low-resolution SWP and LWP IUE spectra are used to fit the temperature and angular radius of the white dwarf in the detached eclipsing binary NN Ser. It is found that the redenning to the system has E(B-V) of 0.05 +/-0.05, the white dwarf temperature is 60,000 +/-10,000 K, and the age of the white dwarf is less than 10 exp 7. The shape of eclipse and the K-magnitude of the secondary star are used to constrain the inclination of the binary and the masses and radii of the two stars. The size of the secondary star relative to its Roche lobe and the age of the white dwarf indicate that mass transfer has not yet occurred and that the system is a precataclysmic variable rather than a cataclysmic variable which has entered the period gap. Fitting the observed magnitude of the sinusoidal modulation with a reprocessing model shows that only when i is approximately equal to 90 deg is the required temperature of the secondary star consistent with these results. For this solution the white dwarf temperature is also consistent with those obtained from the IUE spectra.

  15. LIMB-DARKENING COEFFICIENTS FOR ECLIPSING WHITE DWARFS

    SciT

    Gianninas, A.; Strickland, B. D.; Kilic, Mukremin

    2013-03-20

    We present extensive calculations of linear and nonlinear limb-darkening coefficients as well as complete intensity profiles appropriate for modeling the light-curves of eclipsing white dwarfs. We compute limb-darkening coefficients in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system as well as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) ugrizy system using the most up to date model atmospheres available. In all, we provide the coefficients for seven different limb-darkening laws. We describe the variations of these coefficients as a function of the atmospheric parameters, including the effects of convection at low effective temperatures. Finally, we discuss the importance of having readily available limb-darkening coefficientsmore » in the context of present and future photometric surveys like the LSST, Palomar Transient Factory, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The LSST, for example, may find {approx}10{sup 5} eclipsing white dwarfs. The limb-darkening calculations presented here will be an essential part of the detailed analysis of all of these systems.« less

  16. Orbital Circularization of Hot and Cool Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eylen, Vincent; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The rate of tidal circularization is predicted to be faster for relatively cool stars with convective outer layers, compared to hotter stars with radiative outer layers. Observing this effect is challenging because it requires large and well-characterized samples that include both hot and cool stars. Here we seek evidence of the predicted dependence of circularization upon stellar type, using a sample of 945 eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler. This sample complements earlier studies of this effect, which employed smaller samples of better-characterized stars. For each Kepler binary we measure e cos ω based on the relative timing of the primary and secondary eclipses. We examine the distribution of e cos ω as a function of period for binaries composed of hot stars, cool stars, and mixtures of the two types. At the shortest periods, hot-hot binaries are most likely to be eccentric; for periods shorter than four days, significant eccentricities occur frequently for hot-hot binaries, but not for hot-cool or cool-cool binaries. This is in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectations based on the slower dissipation rates of hot stars. However, the interpretation of our results is complicated by the largely unknown ages and evolutionary states of the stars in our sample.

  17. Eclipse-Free-Time Assessment Tool for IRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagle, David

    2012-01-01

    IRIS_EFT is a scientific simulation that can be used to perform an Eclipse-Free- Time (EFT) assessment of IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) mission orbits. EFT is defined to be those time intervals longer than one day during which the IRIS spacecraft is not in the Earth s shadow. Program IRIS_EFT implements a special perturbation of orbital motion to numerically integrate Cowell's form of the system of differential equations. Shadow conditions are predicted by embedding this integrator within Brent s method for finding the root of a nonlinear equation. The IRIS_EFT software models the effects of the following types of orbit perturbations on the long-term evolution and shadow characteristics of IRIS mission orbits. (1) Non-spherical Earth gravity, (2) Atmospheric drag, (3) Point-mass gravity of the Sun, and (4) Point-mass gravity of the Moon. The objective of this effort was to create an in-house computer program that would perform eclipse-free-time analysis. of candidate IRIS spacecraft mission orbits in an accurate and timely fashion. The software is a suite of Fortran subroutines and data files organized as a "computational" engine that is used to accurately predict the long-term orbit evolution of IRIS mission orbits while searching for Earth shadow conditions.

  18. ORBITAL CIRCULARIZATION OF HOT AND COOL KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES

    SciT

    Eylen, Vincent Van; Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N., E-mail: vincent@phys.au.dk

    The rate of tidal circularization is predicted to be faster for relatively cool stars with convective outer layers, compared to hotter stars with radiative outer layers. Observing this effect is challenging because it requires large and well-characterized samples that include both hot and cool stars. Here we seek evidence of the predicted dependence of circularization upon stellar type, using a sample of 945 eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler . This sample complements earlier studies of this effect, which employed smaller samples of better-characterized stars. For each Kepler binary we measure e cos ω based on the relative timing of themore » primary and secondary eclipses. We examine the distribution of e cos ω as a function of period for binaries composed of hot stars, cool stars, and mixtures of the two types. At the shortest periods, hot–hot binaries are most likely to be eccentric; for periods shorter than four days, significant eccentricities occur frequently for hot–hot binaries, but not for hot–cool or cool–cool binaries. This is in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectations based on the slower dissipation rates of hot stars. However, the interpretation of our results is complicated by the largely unknown ages and evolutionary states of the stars in our sample.« less

  19. PREFACE: Eclipse on the Coral Sea: Cycle 24 Ascending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cally, Paul; Erdélyi, Robert; Norton

    2013-06-01

    A total solar eclipse is the most spectacular and awe-inspiring astronomical phenomenon most people will ever see in their lifetimes. Even hardened solar scientists draw inspiration from it. The eclipse with 2 minutes totality in the early morning of 14 November 2012 (local time) drew over 120 solar researchers (and untold thousands of the general public) to the small and picturesque resort town of Palm Cove just north of Cairns in tropical north Queensland, Australia, and they were rewarded when the clouds parted just before totality to reveal a stunning solar display. Eclipse photograph The eclipse was also the catalyst for an unusually broad and exciting conference held in Palm Cove over the week 12--16 November. Eclipse on the Coral Sea: Cycle 24 Ascending served as GONG 2012, LWS/SDO-5, and SOHO 27, indicating how widely it drew on the various sub-communities within solar physics. Indeed, as we neared the end of the ascending phase of the peculiar Solar Cycle 24, it was the perfect time to bring the whole community together to discuss our Sun's errant recent behaviour, especially as Cycle 24 is the first to be fully observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The whole-Sun perspective was a driving theme of the conference, with the cycle probed from interior (helioseismology), to atmosphere (the various lines observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assemble (AIA) aboard SDO, the several instruments on Hinode, and other modern observatories), and beyond (CMEs etc). The quality of the presentations was exceptional, and the many speakers are to be commended for pitching their talks to the broad community present. These proceedings draw from the invited and contributed oral presentations and the posters exhibited in Palm Cove. They give an (incomplete) snapshot of the meeting, illustrating its broad vistas. The published contributions are organized along the lines of the conference sessions, as set out in the Contents, leading off with a provocative view of

  20. Building on the US Eclipse Experience in Schools, with the Public, and Beyond the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Mike; Chee, Zoe; Bartolone, Lindsay

    2018-01-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) organized several programs for the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse, both before and after the event, to increase participation, build on the inspiration of the eclipse, share the eclipse experience, and prepare for the eclipse in 2024.AWB focused on preparing institutions that were least likely to receive resources despite extensive nationwide efforts. AWB distributed more than 100,000 donated glasses, to isolated schools, children's cancer hospitals, abused women’s shelters, and other institutions without access to other resource providers.AWB’s Building on the Eclipse Education Program builds on the inspiration of the eclipse for STEM education. The program uses a small, personal spectroscope kit to study sunlight in different scientific fields and includes free classroom activities that meet NGSS standards.A program to collect eclipse observing glasses for schools in developing countries for future eclipses was announced around the time of the eclipse and quickly went viral, with coverage by national and innumerable local media outlets. This effort builds on AWB’s earlier programs for schools in Africa and in South America for past eclipses. Well over one million pairs are expected, as compared to the tens of thousands AWB provided through crowdfunding for previous efforts. Nearly 1000 glasses collection centers were created spontaneously, without a public call. Factors leading to widespread and diverse public participation will be presented.A program calling for first-time eclipse observers to share their experiences addresses a major issue in encouraging people to travel to the path of totality. Expert and eclipse-enthusiast testimony often fails to convince people of the value of the experience of totality as “a few minutes of darkness.” This program will share the disconnect between expectation and experience from first-time “ordinary” observers to encourage others to travel to the path of totality for the

  1. The Assembled Solar Eclipse Package (ASEP) in Bangka Indonesia during the total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puji Asmoro, Cahyo; Wijaya, Agus Fany Chandra; Dwi Ardi, Nanang; Abdurrohman, Arman; Aria Utama, Judhistira; Sutiadi, Asep; Hikmat; Ramlan Ramalis, Taufik; Suyardi, Bintang

    2016-11-01

    The Assembled Solar Eclipse Package (ASEP) is not only an integrated apparatus constructed to obtain imaging data during solar eclipse, but also it involved sky brightness and live streaming requirement. Main four parts of ASEP are composed by two imaging data recorders, one high definition video streaming camera, and a sky quality meter instrument (SQM) linked by a personal computer and motorized mounting. The parts are common instruments which are used for education or personal use. The first part is used to capture corona and prominence image during totality. For the second part, video is powerful data in order to educate public through web streaming lively. The last part, SQM is used to confirm our imaging data during obscuration. The perfect prominence picture was obtained by one of the data capture using William-Optics F=388mm with Nikon DSLR D3100. In addition, the diamond ring and corona were recorded by the second imaging tool using Sky Watcher F=910mm with Canon DSLR 60D. The third instrument is the Sony HXR MC5 streaming set to be able to broadcast to public domain area via official website. From the SQM, the value of the darkness during totality is quiet similar as a dawn condition. Finally, ASEP was entirely successful and be able to fulfil our competency as educational researcher in university.

  2. New Zealand Astronomy and the 9 September 1885 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Rowe, Glen

    The second half of the nineteenth century saw a blossoming of interest in solar eclipses as astronomers tried to establish whether the corona was a solar, lunar or terrestrial phenomenon, and as they investigated the nature of the corona, the chromosphere and prominences. Critical in these investigations were astronomy's newest allies: photography and spectroscopy. Photography was used with great effectiveness throughout the half century, but spectroscopy was first applied during the `Indian eclipse' of 1868. Thereafter, almost every total solar eclipse was subjected to scrutiny, the intensity of which depended upon the duration of the eclipse and the location of its path of totality. The first total solar eclipse visible from New Zealand following European settlement occurred on 9 September 1885, and attracted the attention of professional scientists and amateur astronomers. The centre of the path of totality extended from West Wanganui Inlet on the far northern reaches of the west coast of the South Island to Castle Point on the Wairarapa Coast, and a total eclipse was visible from population centres like Collingwood, Nelson, Picton, Wellington, Otaki, Palmerston North, Wanganui and throughout the Wairarapa. In this chapter we examine this eclipse, in the context of New Zealand astronomy and the international development of solar physics.

  3. Suppression of the Polar Tongue of Ionization During the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Tong; Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin; Burns, Alan; Zhang, Binzheng; Zhang, Shun-Rong

    2018-04-01

    It has long been recognized that during solar eclipses, the ionosphere-thermosphere system changes greatly within the eclipse shadow, due to the rapid reduction of solar irradiation. However, the concept that a solar eclipse impacts polar ionosphere behavior and dynamics as well as magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling has not been appreciated. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse on the polar tongue of ionization (TOI) using a high-resolution, coupled ionosphere-thermosphere-electrodynamics model. The reduction of electron densities by the eclipse in the middle latitude TOI source region leads to a suppressed TOI in the polar region. The TOI suppression occurred when the solar eclipse moved into the afternoon sector. The Global Positioning System total electron content observations show similar tendency of polar region total electron content suppression. This study reveals that a solar eclipse occurring at middle latitudes may have significant influences on the polar ionosphere and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  4. Solar Eclipse Engagement and Outreach in Madras and Warm Springs, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, M. S.; Pesnell, W. D.; Ahern, S.; Boyle, M.; Gonzales, T.; Leone, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Oregon towns of Madras and Warm Springs were in an ideal location to observe the total solar eclipse of 2017. In anticipation of this event, we embarked on a yearlong partnership to engage and excite these communities. We developed educational events for all students in the school district, grades K-12, as well as two evening keynote addresses during an eclipse week in May. This eclipse week provided resources, learning opportunities, and safety information for all students and families prior to the end of the school year. With the collaboration of graphic design students at Oregon State University, we produced static educational displays as an introduction to the Museum at Warm Springs' exhibit featuring eclipse art. The weekend before the eclipse, we gave away 15,000 pairs of solar viewing glasses to the local community and manned a science booth at the Oregon Solarfest to engage the arriving eclipse tourists. These efforts culminated on Monday, August 21st with tens of thousands of people viewing eclipse totality in Madras and Warm Springs.

  5. On the detection and attribution of gravity waves generated by the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Internal gravity waves are generated as adjustment radiation whenever a sudden change in forcing causes the atmosphere to depart from its large-scale balanced state. Such a forcing anomaly occurs during a solar eclipse, when the Moon’s shadow cools part of the Earth’s surface. The resulting atmospheric gravity waves are associated with pressure and temperature perturbations, which in principle are detectable both at the surface and aloft. In this study, surface pressure and temperature data from two UK sites at Reading and Lerwick are examined for eclipse-driven gravity wave perturbations during the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse over northwest Europe. Radiosonde wind data from the same two sites are also analysed using a moving parcel analysis method, to determine the periodicities of the waves aloft. On this occasion, the perturbations both at the surface and aloft are found not to be confidently attributable to eclipse-driven gravity waves. We conclude that the complex synoptic weather conditions over the UK at the time of this particular eclipse helped to mask any eclipse-driven gravity waves. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550763

  6. The Astrophysics of the Solar Corona at the August 21, 2017, American Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The first total solar eclipse to cross the United States from coast to coast in 99 years will occur on August 21, 2017, with a 70-mile-wide path of totality from Oregon to South Carolina, with cloudiness statistics more favorable in the northwest than in the southeast. I will discuss a series of observations of the solar corona made during recent solar eclipses and related spacecraft observations. I will further discuss plans for using the 2017 eclipse for furthering our studies of the heating of the solar corona to millions of kelvins, of the dynamics of coronal mass ejections and polar plumes, and of the response of the corona to the solar magnetic field. I will conclude by discussing public-education plans for the eclipse, during which the whole U.S., Mexico, Central America, and Canada will enjoy a partial eclipse. My work at solar eclipses has recently been supported by the NSF and the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society, and I thank them both for research grants for our scientific studies of the 2017 total eclipse, including AGS-1602461 from the NSF and 987816 from National Geographic.

  7. Educational, scientific, tourist and outreach potential of the September 1, 2016 Annular Solar Eclipse in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayabali Jiwaji, Noorali

    2015-08-01

    Tanzania will witness a major astronomical spectacle of an annular eclipse on September 1, 2016. The central part of the eclipse will pass through southern Tanzania, crossing national parks and game reserves such as Katavi and the world famous Selous. For the rest of Tanzania and neighbouring countries it will be a memorable event with large of the proportion of the Sun being covered up. The climate in Tanzania during September is cool and dry which will provide ideal viewing conditions. Solar eclipse events attract "eclipse chasers" from around the globe.Scientific interest in measuring the properties of the Sun and the effects of the eclipse on the atmosphere will allow local scientists to partner with leading scientists to gain valuable experience and knowledge.Local population's wonder and interest in eclipses can be exploited through public-private partnerships by encouraging students and local people to travel to the central path or to observe from their backyards. Large number of eclipse glasses can be manufactured cheaply using safe solar filters for supplying to students and general population in Tanzania and neigbouring countries. This will raise science awareness about the wonders of our Universe.When combined with the attraction of Tanzania's treasures in the north and the 16 tonne Mbozi meteorite in southern Tanzania, the touristic potential of this event can be exploited through tour packages and worldwide advertisements during the coming year.

  8. Outreach activities in anticipation of the 2016 solar eclipse in Sorong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra Raharja, Endra; Pramudya, Yudhiakto

    2016-11-01

    Sorong is located outside the narrow path of total solar eclipse on March 9th, 2016. The predicted obscuration of the sun was 94.2%. The public outreach to anticipate the solar eclipse was intended to educate students in junior and senior high school in Sorong Regency. Some of them are located in the remote area where the educational materials are difficult to find. The public outreach is unique, since it was run by the local person who is student of physics education. The student has both the ability to explain the solar eclipse phenomenon and able to adapt to knowledge level of students. The materials that were given to the schools are brochure and the eclipse glasses. Beside solar eclipse lectures in class, the pinhole workshop and observation practice were held. The limited materials and resources were faced during the public outreach. However, the enthusiasm was shown by the students and teachers. At least one of the schools held the solar eclipse observation on the day of the eclipse.

  9. Atmospheric boundary layer effects induced by the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Suzanne L.; Harrison, R. Giles

    2016-04-01

    The British Isles benefits from dense meteorological observation networks, enabling insights into the still-unresolved effects of solar eclipse events on the near-surface wind field. The near-surface effects of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 are derived through comparison of output from the Met Office's operational weather forecast model (which is ignorant of the eclipse) with data from two meteorological networks: the Met Office's land surface station (MIDAS) network and a roadside measurement network operated by Vaisala. Synoptic-evolution relative calculations reveal the cooling and increase in relative humidity almost universally attributed to eclipse events. In addition, a slackening of wind speeds by up to about 2 knots in already weak winds and backing in wind direction of about 20 degrees under clear skies across middle England are attributed to the eclipse event. The slackening of wind speed is consistent with the previously reported boundary layer stabilisation during eclipse events. Wind direction changes have previously been attributed to a large-scale `eclipse-induced cold-cored cyclone', mountain slope flows, and changes in the strength of sea breezes. A new explanation is proposed here by analogy with nocturnal wind changes at sunset and shown to predict direction changes consistent with those observed.

  10. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our

  11. Public Education Plans for the 2017 August 21 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2016-06-01

    A total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on 2017 August 21, the first such in 99 years and the first whose path of totality on land is entirely in the United States since 1776. People in the rest of the United States-as well as in Canada, Central America, and northern South America-will have a partial solar eclipse. Totality will range up to about 70 km in diameter, and will be visible from a path that extends from Oregon to South Carolina. Cloudiness statistics based on decades on satellite infrared imaging are more favorable for western sites. The sun's diameter will be 80% covered in Miami (south of totality) and New York (north of totality), and 70% covered in Los Angeles (south of totality). For the Working Group on Solar Eclipses of the International Astronomical Union, I maintain a website at http://eclipses.info that provides links to a wide variety of eclipse-related material and to useful websites run by others.Prior to this total eclipse, annular eclipses will cross Africa (from Gabon to Tanzania and Madagascar) and Isle de la Réunion on 2016 September 1, and Chile and Argentina on 2017 February 26, at which time we plan an eclipse workshop in Esquel, Argentina.For the forthcoming 2017 eclipse, we acknowledge grants to JMP and Williams College from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation and from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

  12. The first eclipsing binary catalogue from the MOA-II data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. C. A.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Bond, I. A.; Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Koshimoto, N.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Evans, P.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first catalogue of eclipsing binaries in two MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) fields towards the Galactic bulge, in which over 8000 candidates, mostly contact and semidetached binaries of periods <1 d, were identified. In this paper, the light curves of a small number of interesting candidates, including eccentric binaries, binaries with noteworthy phase modulations and eclipsing RS Canum Venaticorum type stars, are shown as examples. In addition, we identified three triple object candidates by detecting the light-travel-time effect in their eclipse time variation curves.

  13. The Great American Eclipse of 2017: An Outreach Opportunity and Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.; Schatz, D.; Shore, L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper consists of notes for, and from, a standing-room only Special Interest Group discussion at the 2014 ASP Meeting regarding the total eclipse of the Sun visible from the U.S. in 2017. There was a great deal of interest in organizing in advance for this total eclipse, and there was considerable discussion of the kinds of efforts and partnerships that may be needed at the national and local levels. People who read this summary and are interested in helping with national eclipse education and outreach efforts can contact the first author.

  14. GK Dra: a delta Scuti Star in a New Eclipsing System Discovered by Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallaporta, Sergio; Tomov, Toma; Zwitter, Tomaz; Munari, Ulisse

    2002-09-01

    GK Dra has been discovered by the Hipparcos mission as a 17 days eclipsing binary. We present here the first ground-based study of this star, based on extensive BV photoelectric photometry. We found a period of 9.974 days, equal depth primary and secondary eclipse (m=0.35 mag), no color variation in eclipse, and one of the components being a Sct star with an amplitude of 0.04 mag and a period of about 2.7 hours.

  15. Observing the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse from the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, Sean Matthew; Cline, J. Donald; Krochmal, Mark; Donald Cline, Mark Krochmal

    2017-01-01

    The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is located directly under the path of totality of next year’s solar eclipse and possesses two 26m radio telescopes capable of interferometry at simultaneously at 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHZ. PARI is preparing these radio telescopes for use by the astronomical community to observe solar eclipse. We will present the status of PARI’s radio telescopes and information on access for the eclipse. We will also present the status and availability of several optical telescopes.

  16. EFFECTS OF TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE ON MENTAL PATIENTS—A CLINICOBIOCHEMICAL CORRELATION

    PubMed Central

    Boral, G. C.; Mishra, D. C.; Pal, S. K.; Ghosh, K. K.

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirteen treated psychotic cases comprising of eight schizophrenic, four M.D.P. (manic type) and one M. D. P. (depressive type), who were clinically symptom free, were studied in respect of their hormones and behavioural abnormalities under effect of total solar eclipse. Of the hormones studied viz., T2, T4, TSH, Cortisol and prolactin, it is prolactin which showed an increase in titre associated with behavioural abnormalities in concerned patients during and immediately after the total solar eclipse. Deflection in both prolactin and behaviour gradually seemed to normalise over the post eclipse period. PMID:22064835

  17. Initial Results of Interdisciplinary Science Enabled by Eclipse 2017: NASA Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhathakurta, M.

    2017-12-01

    The exceptionally long path over land of the August 21st total and partial solar eclipse provided an unprecedented opportunity for cross disciplinary studies of the sun, moon, Earth, and their interactions. NASA supported research using ground-based measurements, balloons and planes that "chased" the eclipse as well as data taken from a vast array of orbiting spacecraft, all of which helped scientists take continuous measurements of the sun and the effects of the eclipse on the ionosphere and Earth for relatively long periods of time. This talk will summarize some of the initial findings from these research.

  18. Observation of the total solar eclipse on 21 June 2001 in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Noritsugu; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2002-04-01

    On 21 June 2001, path of totality in Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Madagascar in Africa. The Japan Scientific Observation Team, consisting primarily of the members of the Solar Eclipse Subcommittee of the Committee for International Collaboration in Astronomy of the Science Council of JAPAN, visited Lusaka in Zambia to observe the total solar eclipse. Blessed with fine weather, the observation was successful. The outline of the influence of solar eclipse on the terrestrial magnetism, polarization of the flash spectrum, and other observation data, as well as the way educational activities were carried out, are reported.

  19. Total Solar Eclipse: “Through The Eyes of NASA,” Part 4

    2017-08-21

    During the eclipse, 14 states across the U.S. were in the path of totality and experienced more than two minutes of darkness in the middle of the day – with a partial eclipse viewable all across North America. The broadcast – Eclipse Across America: Through the Eyes of NASA – covered locations along the path of totality, from Oregon to South Carolina including public reactions from all ages. The eclipse’s long path over land provided a unique opportunity to study the Sun, Earth, Moon and their interaction.

  20. Total Solar Eclipse: “Through The Eyes of NASA,” Part 3

    2017-08-21

    During the eclipse, 14 states across the U.S. were in the path of totality and experienced more than two minutes of darkness in the middle of the day – with a partial eclipse viewable all across North America. The broadcast – Eclipse Across America: Through the Eyes of NASA – covered locations along the path of totality, from Oregon to South Carolina including public reactions from all ages. The eclipse’s long path over land provided a unique opportunity to study the Sun, Earth, Moon and their interaction.

  1. Lightcurve Analysis for Two Near-Earth Asteroids Eclipsed by the Earth's Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birtwhistle, Peter

    2018-07-01

    Photometry was obtained from Great Shefford Observatory of near-Earth asteroids 2012 XE54 in 2012 and 2016 VA in 2016 during close approaches. A superfast rotation period has been determined for 2012 XE54 and H-G magnitude system coefficients have been estimated for 2016 VA. While under observation, 2012 XE54 underwent a deep penumbral eclipse by the Earth's shadow and 2016 VA also experienced a total eclipse by the Earth's shadow. The dimming due to the eclipses is modeled taking into account solar limb darkening.

  2. Eclipsing binary stars in the era of massive surveys First results and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, Athanasios; Catelan, Márcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Drake, Andrew J.

    2017-09-01

    Our thinking about eclipsing binary stars has undergone a tremendous change in the last decade. Eclipsing binary stars are one of nature's best laboratories for determining the fundamental physical properties of stars and thus for testing the predictions of theoretical models. Some of the largest ongoing variable star surveys include the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) and the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea survey (VVV). They both contain a large amount of photometric data and plenty of information about eclipsing binaries that wait to be extracted and exploited. Here we briefly describe our efforts in this direction.

  3. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Eclipsing Binary Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrzykowski, L.; Udalski, A.; Kubiak, M.; Szymanski, M. K.; Zebrun, K.; Soszynski, I.; Wozniak, P. R.; Pietrzynski, G.; Szewczyk, O.

    2004-03-01

    We present new version of the OGLE-II catalog of eclipsing binary stars detected in the Small Magellanic Cloud, based on Difference Image Analysis catalog of variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds containing data collected from 1997 to 2000. We found 1351 eclipsing binary stars in the central 2.4 square degree area of the SMC. 455 stars are newly discovered objects, not found in the previous release of the catalog. The eclipsing objects were selected with the automatic search algorithm based on the artificial neural network. The full catalog is accessible from the OGLE Internet archive.

  4. FUSE Observations of the Bright, Eclipsing Nova-like Cataclysmic Variable, UX UMa (FUSE 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Knox; Froning, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to study the disk and wind of the eclipsing nova-like variable UX UMa, in order to better define the wind geometry of the system, including the nature of the transition region between the disk photosphere and the supersonic wind. We proposed to use phase resolved spectroscopy of the system, taking advantage of the fact that UX UMa is an eclipsing system, to isolate different regions of the wind and to use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the spectra through the eclipse.

  5. Observations of hot stars and eclipsing binaries with FRESIP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gies, Douglas R.

    1994-01-01

    The FRESIP project offers an unprecedented opportunity to study pulsations in hot stars (which vary on time scales of a day) over a several year period. The photometric data will determine what frequencies are present, how or if the amplitudes change with time, and whether there is a connection between pulsation and mass loss episodes. It would initiate a new field of asteroseismology studies of hot star interiors. A search should be made for selected hot stars for inclusion in the list of project targets. Many of the primary solar mass targets will be eclipsing binaries, and I present estimates of their frequency and typical light curves. The photometric data combined with follow up spectroscopy and interferometric observations will provide fundamental data on these stars. The data will provide definitive information on the mass ratio distribution of solar-mass binaries (including the incidence of brown dwarf companions) and on the incidence of planets in binary systems.

  6. HST images of the eclipsing pulsar B1957+20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruchter, Andrew S.; Bookbinder, Jay; Bailyn, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained images of the eclipsing pulsar binary PSR B1957+20 using the Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The high spatial resolution of this instrument has allowed us to separate the pulsar system from a nearby background star which has confounded ground-based observations of this system near optical minimum. Our images limit the temperature of the backside of the companion to T less than or approximately = 2800 K, about a factor of 2 less than the average temperature of the side of the companion facing the pulsar, and provide a marginal detection of the companion at optical minimum. The magnitude of this detection is consistent with previous work which suggests that the companion nearly fills its Roche lobe and is supported through tidal dissipation.

  7. Oregon Wildfire in Eclipse Zone Imaged by NASA Satellite

    2017-08-21

    The Whitewater Fire in the Mount Jefferson Wilderness in Oregon was started by a lightning strike. As of Aug. 18, 2017, more than 117,000 acres and 30 miles (48 kilometers) of the Pacific Crest Trail are closed to the public in an area that had been expected to be popular with people there to view the August 21 solar eclipse. The smoke clouds sit over the burned area, just west-northwest of Mount Jefferson. The image was acquired Aug. 18, 2017, covers an area of 16 by 17 miles (26.1 by 27.2 kilometers), and is located at 44.7 degrees north, 121.8 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21877

  8. Non regular variations in the LOD from European medieval eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Marco, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The study of ancient eclipses has demonstrated its utility to approximate some astronomical constants, in particular in the field of the Earth's rotation. It is a well known fact that the rate of rotation of the Earth is slowly decreasing in time. There are many possible reasons for this fact, including internal and external mechanisms. The most important external causes are lunar and solar tides. While internal causes can be very diverse: examples of short term effects are changing wind patterns, electromagnetic coupling between the fluid core of the Earth and the lower mantle, while sea-level fluctuations associated with climatic variations are examples of long time effects. In any case, the most important cause is the tidal friction.

  9. Photometric study of the eclipsing binary GR Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhang, Y. P.; Fu, J. N.; Xue, H. F.

    2016-07-01

    We present CCD photometry and low-resolution spectra of the eclipsing binary GR Boo. A new ephemeris is determined based on all the available times of the minimum light. The period analysis reveals that the orbital period is decreasing with a rate of dP / dt = - 2.05 ×10-10 d yr-1 . A photometric analysis for the obtained light curves is performed with the Wilson-Devinney Differential Correction program for the first time. The photometric solutions confirm the W UMa-type nature of the binary system. The mass ratio turns out to be q = 0.985 ± 0.001 . The evolutionary status and physical nature of the binary system are briefly discussed.

  10. Light curve variations of the eclipsing binary V367 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akan, M. C.

    1987-07-01

    The long-period eclipsing binary star V367 Cygni has been observed photoelectrically in two colours, B and V, in 1984, 1985, and 1986. These new light curves of the system have been discussed and compared for the light-variability with the earlier ones presented by Heiser (1962). Using some of the previously published photoelectric light curves and the present ones, several primary minima times have been derived to calculate the light elements. Any attempt to obtain a photometric solution of the binary is complicated by the peculiar nature of the light curve caused by the presence of the circumstellar matter in the system. Despite this difficulty, however, some approaches are being carried out to solve the light curves which are briefly discussed.

  11. A Photometric Study of Three Eclipsing Binary Stars (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, A.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) As part of a program to study eclipsing binary stars that exhibit the O'Connell Effect (OCE) we are observing a selection of binary stars in a long term study. The OCE is a difference in maximum light across the ligthcurve possibly cause by starspots. We observed for 7 nights at McDonald Observatory using the 30-inch telescope in July 2015, and used the same telescope remotely for a total of 20 additional nights in August, October, December, and January. We will present lightcurves for three stars from this study, characterize the OCE for these stars, and present our model results for the physical parameters of the star making up each of these systems.

  12. Properties of an eclipsing double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748

    SciT

    Kaplan, David L.; Walker, Arielle N.; Marsh, Thomas R.

    2014-01-10

    We present high-quality ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing detached double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. This system consists of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and an extremely low mass (<0.2 M {sub ☉}) helium-core white dwarf in a 5.6 hr orbit. To date, such extremely low-mass white dwarfs, which can have thin, stably burning outer layers, have been modeled via poorly constrained atmosphere and cooling calculations where uncertainties in the detailed structure can strongly influence the eventual fates of these systems when mass transfer begins. With precise (individual precision ≈1%), high-cadence (≈2 s), multicolor photometry of multiple primary and secondary eclipsesmore » spanning >1.5 yr, we constrain the masses and radii of both objects in the NLTT 11748 system to a statistical uncertainty of a few percent. However, we find that overall uncertainty in the thickness of the envelope of the secondary carbon/oxygen white dwarf leads to a larger (≈13%) systematic uncertainty in the primary He WD's mass. Over the full range of possible envelope thicknesses, we find that our primary mass (0.136-0.162 M {sub ☉}) and surface gravity (log (g) = 6.32-6.38; radii are 0.0423-0.0433 R {sub ☉}) constraints do not agree with previous spectroscopic determinations. We use precise eclipse timing to detect the Rømer delay at 7σ significance, providing an additional weak constraint on the masses and limiting the eccentricity to ecos ω = (– 4 ± 5) × 10{sup –5}. Finally, we use multicolor data to constrain the secondary's effective temperature (7600 ± 120 K) and cooling age (1.6-1.7 Gyr).« less

  13. The Quadruple-lined, Doubly Eclipsing System V482 Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Guillermo; Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Fekel, Francis C.; Wolf, Marek; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.

    2017-09-01

    We report spectroscopic and differential photometric observations of the A-type system V482 Per, which reveal it to be a rare hierarchical quadruple system containing two eclipsing binaries. One binary has the previously known orbital period of 2.4 days and a circular orbit, and the other a period of 6 days, a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.11), and shallow eclipses only 2.3% deep. The two binaries revolve around their common center of mass in a highly elongated orbit (e = 0.85) with a period of 16.67 yr. Radial velocities are measured for all components from our quadruple-lined spectra and are combined with the light curves and measurements of times of minimum light for the 2.4 day binary to solve for the elements of the inner and outer orbits simultaneously. The line-of-sight inclination angles of the three orbits are similar, suggesting they may be close to coplanar. The available observations appear to indicate that the 6 day binary experiences significant retrograde apsidal motion in the amount of about 60 deg per century. We derive absolute masses for the four stars good to better than 1.5%, along with radii with formal errors of 1.1% and 3.5% for the 2.4 day binary and ˜9% for the 6 day binary. A comparison of these and other physical properties with current stellar evolution models gives excellent agreement for a metallicity of [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-0.15 and an age of 360 Myr.

  14. The Age of Upper Scorpius from Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Scorpius OB association is the nearest region of recent massive star formation and thus an important benchmark for investigations concerning astrophysical timescales. Classical estimates of the association age based on the kinematics of high-mass members and a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram of the full stellar population established an age of 5 Myr. However, recent analyses based on the H-R diagram for intermediate- and high-mass members suggest an older age of 11 Myr. Importantly, the H-R diagram ages of stars in Upper Scorpius (and other clusters of a similar age) are mass-dependent, such that low-mass members appear younger than their high-mass counterparts. Here we report an age that is self-consistent in the mass range of 0.3–5 M⊙, and based on the fundamentally-determined masses and radii of eclipsing binaries (EBs). We present nine EBs in Upper Scorpius, four of which are newly reported here and all of which were discovered from K2 photometry. Joint fitting of the eclipse photometry and radial velocities from newly acquired Keck-I/HIRES spectra yields precise masses and radii for those systems that are spectroscopically double-lined. We identify one of the EB components as a slowly pulsating B-star. We use these EBs to develop an empirical mass-radius relation for pre-main-sequence stars, and to evaluate the predictions of widely-used stellar evolutionary models. Our results are consistent with previous studies that indicate most models underestimate the masses of low-mass stars by tens of percent based on H-R diagram analyses. Models including the effects of magnetic fields produce better agreement between the observed bulk and radiative parameters of these young, low-mass stars. From the orbital elements and photometrically inferred rotation periods, we consider the dynamical states of several binaries and compare with expectations from tidal dissipation theories.

  15. Analysis of a Failed Eclipse Plasma Ejection Using EUV Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavabi, E.; Koutchmy, S.; Bazin, C.

    2018-03-01

    The photometry of eclipse white-light (W-L) images showing a moving blob is interpreted for the first time together with observations from space with the PRoject for On Board Autonomy (PROBA-2) mission (ESA). An off-limb event seen with great details in W-L was analyzed with the SWAP imager ( Sun Watcher using Active pixel system detector and image Processing) working in the EUV near 174 Å. It is an elongated plasma blob structure of 25 Mm diameter moving above the east limb with coronal loops under. Summed and co-aligned SWAP images are evaluated using a 20-h sequence, in addition to the 11 July, 2010 eclipse W-L images taken from several sites. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) recorded the event suggesting a magnetic reconnection near a high neutral point; accordingly, we also call it a magnetic plasmoid. The measured proper motion of the blob shows a velocity up to 12 km s^{-1}. Electron densities of the isolated condensation (cloud or blob or plasmoid) are photometrically evaluated. The typical value is 108 cm^{-3} at r=1.7 R_{⊙}, superposed on a background corona of 107 cm^{-3} density. The mass of the cloud near its maximum brightness is found to be 1.6×10^{13} g, which is typically 0.6×10^{-4} of the overall mass of the corona. From the extrapolated magnetic field the cloud evolves inside a rather broad open region but decelerates, after reaching its maximum brightness. The influence of such small events for supplying material to the ubiquitous slow wind is noticed. A precise evaluation of the EUV photometric data, after accurately removing the stray light, suggests an interpretation of the weak 174 Å radiation of the cloud as due to resonance scattering in the Fe IX/X lines.

  16. An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Solar Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samra, Jenna; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; Philip, Judge

    2016-05-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an innovative solar spectrometer that will observe the 2017 solar eclipse from the NSF/NCAR High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER). AIR-Spec will image five infrared coronal emission lines to determine whether they may be useful probes of coronal magnetism.The solar magnetic field provides the free energy that controls coronal heating, structure, and dynamics. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections and ultimately drives space weather. Therefore, direct coronal field measurements have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind.While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, AIR-Spec will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. During the total solar eclipse of 2017, AIR-Spec will observe five magnetically sensitive coronal emission lines between 1.4 and 4 µm from the HIAPER Gulfstream V at an altitude above 14.9 km. The instrument will measure emission line intensity, width, and Doppler shift, map the spatial distribution of infrared emitting plasma, and search for waves in the emission line velocities.AIR-Spec consists of an optical system (feed telescope, grating spectrometer, and infrared detector) and an image stabilization system, which uses a fast steering mirror to correct the line-of-sight for platform perturbations. To ensure that the instrument meets its research goals, both systems are undergoing extensive performance modeling and testing. These results are shown with reference to the science requirements.

  17. Modeling Radial Velocities and Eclipse Photometry of the Kepler Target KIC 4054905: an Oscillating Red Giant in an Eclipsing Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbakoura, M.; Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Beck, P. G.; Jackiewicz, J.; García, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool to measure the fundamental properties of stars and probe their interiors. This is particularly efficient for red giants because their modes are well detectable and give information on their deep layers. However, the seismic relations used to infer the mass and radius of a star have been calibrated on the Sun. Therefore, it is crucial to assess their accuracy for red giants which are not perfectly homologous to it. We study eclipsing binaries with a giant component to test their validity. We identified 16 systems for which we intend to compare the dynamical masses and radii obtained by combined photometry and spectroscopy to the values obtained from asteroseismology. In the present work, we illustrate our approach on a system from our sample.

  18. On-line Eclipse Resources from the U.S. Naval Observatory: Planning Ahead for April 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredericks, Amy C.; Bartlett, J. L.; Bell, S.; Stapleton, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    On 8 April 2024, “…night from mid-day…” (Archilochus, 648 BCE) will appear to fortunate observers along a narrow band, approximately 115 mi (185 km) wide, that crosses fifteen states from Texas to Maine. In response to growing interest in the two total solar eclipses that will sweep the continental United States in the next 11 years, the U.S. Naval Observatory has developed an on-line resource center with direct links to 2024-specific services: the 2024 April 8 Total Solar Eclipse page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2024.php). The Solar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php) calculates tables of local circumstances for events visible throughout the world. A similar service is available for lunar eclipses, Lunar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/LunarEclipse.php). The USNO Eclipse Portal (http://astro.ukho.gov.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi) provides diagrams and animations showing the global circumstances for events visible throughout the world and local circumstances for events visible at selected locations. The Web site, which includes both solar and lunar eclipses, is a joint effort with Her Majesty’s Nautical Almanac Office. The Eclipses of the Sun and Moon page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/UpcomingEclipses.php) links to electronic copies of the visibility maps from The Astronomical Almanac. The Eclipse Reference List (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/eclipse_ref.php) is a representative survey of the available literature for those interested in delving into these phenomena, either technically or historically. As exciting as the 2024 total solar eclipse, another spectacular event will precede it; a total solar eclipse will cross a different swath of the continent on August 21, 2017. The U.S. Naval Observatory has a resource center for that event as well (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) . If your plans for 2024 are not yet made, visit the 2024 April 8 Total Solar Eclipse

  19. Observation of variable pre-eclipse dips and disk winds in the eclipsing LMXB XTE J1710-281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Gayathri; Maitra, Chandreyee; Paul, Biswajit

    2018-04-01

    We report the first detection of highly ionized Fe species in the X-ray spectrum of the eclipsing and dipping Low Mass X-ray Binary XTE J1710-281. Using archival Chandra and Suzaku observations, we have carried out a spectro-timing analysis of the source during three different epochs. We compare the average orbital profile and obtain differences in pre-eclipse dip morphologies between different observation epochs. We observe an orbit to orbit evolution of the dips for the first time in this source in both the Chandra observations, reflecting changes in the structure of the accretion disc in timescales of hours. We further perform intensity resolved spectroscopy for both the Chandra and the Suzaku data to characterize the changes in the spectral parameters from the persistent to the dipping intervals. We find that the absorbers responsible for the dips, can be best described using a partially ionized partial covering absorber, with an ionization parameter, log(ξ) of ˜2. The photon index of the source remained at ˜2 during both the Chandra and the Suzaku observations. In the 0.6-9 keV Suzaku spectra, we detect a broad 0.72 keV Fe L-alpha emission line complex and two narrow absorption lines at ˜6.60 keV and ˜7.01 keV. The highly ionized Fe line signatures, being an indicator of accretion disc-winds, has been observed for the first time in XTE J1710-281.

  20. z'-BAND GROUND-BASED DETECTION OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE OF WASP-19b

    SciT

    Burton, J. R.; Watson, C. A.; Pollacco, D.

    2012-08-01

    We present the ground-based detection of the secondary eclipse of the transiting exoplanet WASP-19b. The observations were made in the Sloan z' band using the ULTRACAM triple-beam CCD camera mounted on the New Technology Telescope. The measurement shows a 0.088% {+-} 0.019% eclipse depth, matching previous predictions based on H- and K-band measurements. We discuss in detail our approach to the removal of errors arising due to systematics in the data set, in addition to fitting a model transit to our data. This fit returns an eclipse center, T{sub 0}, of 2455578.7676 HJD, consistent with a circular orbit. Our measurementmore » of the secondary eclipse depth is also compared to model atmospheres of WASP-19b and is found to be consistent with previous measurements at longer wavelengths for the model atmospheres we investigated.« less

  1. [Development of a Software for Automatically Generated Contours in Eclipse TPS].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhao; Hu, Jinyou; Zou, Lian; Zhang, Weisha; Zou, Yuxin; Luo, Kelin; Liu, Xiangxiang; Yu, Luxin

    2015-03-01

    The automatic generation of planning targets and auxiliary contours have achieved in Eclipse TPS 11.0. The scripting language autohotkey was used to develop a software for automatically generated contours in Eclipse TPS. This software is named Contour Auto Margin (CAM), which is composed of operational functions of contours, script generated visualization and script file operations. RESULTS Ten cases in different cancers have separately selected, in Eclipse TPS 11.0 scripts generated by the software could not only automatically generate contours but also do contour post-processing. For different cancers, there was no difference between automatically generated contours and manually created contours. The CAM is a user-friendly and powerful software, and can automatically generated contours fast in Eclipse TPS 11.0. With the help of CAM, it greatly save plan preparation time and improve working efficiency of radiation therapy physicists.

  2. Reliability of the totality of the eclipse in AD 628 in Nihongi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka; Soma, Mitsuru

    It is generally accepted that the solar eclipse on April 10, 628 (the second day, the third month, the thirty-sixth year of Empress Suiko) recorded in Nihongi is not total but partial though it is written as a total eclipse. We argue for the record appealing to the contemporary total or near total eclipses in Chinese history books and Japanese occultation observation. If the value of the tidal term in the lunar longitude (the coefficient of T2 term) is different from the present value by about -2"/cy-2, then there disappears an apparent contradiction of ΔT around AD 600 derived from lunar and solar eclipses. Grazing occultation data are found to be useful.

  3. An ultraviolet investigation of the unusual eclipsing binary system FF AQR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorren, J. D.; Guinan, E. F.; Sion, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    A series of seven low dispersion IUE exposures in ultraviolet and wavelength regions obtained on December 6, 1981 during the eclipse of the subdwarf, during egress, and out of eclipse is analyzed. These observations and the binary phase at which they were made are shown on a schematic representation of the V-band light curve obtained in 1975. The depth in V is 0.15 mag. The circles are IUE V magnitudes from FES measures obtained during the observing run. They indicate an eclipse depth some 0.05 mag lower than expected, possibly due to difficulties with the color term in the FES calibration. The eclipse depths of Dworetsky in U, B and V were assumed in the calculations.

  4. Interacting Winds in Eclipsing Symbiotic Systems - The Case Study of EG Andromedae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrò, Emanuele

    2014-03-01

    We report the mathematical representation of the so called eccentric eclipse model, whose numerical solutions can be used to obtain the physical parameters of a quiescent eclipsing symbiotic system. Indeed the nebular region produced by the collision of the stellar winds should be shifted to the orbital axis because of the orbital motion of the system. This mechanism is not negligible, and it led us to modify the classical concept of an eclipse. The orbital elements obtained from spectroscopy and photometry of the symbiotic EG Andromedae were used to test the eccentric eclipse model. Consistent values for the unknown orbital elements of this symbiotic were obtained. The physical parameters are in agreement with those obtained by means of other simulations for this system.

  5. ISAAC Photometric Comparison of ECLIPSE Jitter and the ORAC-DR Equivalent Recipe for ISAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Motivated by a request from astronomers demanding accurate and consistent infrared photometry, I compare the photometry and quality of mosaics generated by the ECLIPSE jitter task and the ORAC-DR JITTER_SELF_FLAT recipe in two fields. The current (v4.9.0) ECLIPSE produces photometry a few percent fainter than ORAC-DR; the systematic trend with magnitude seen in v4.4.1 is now removed. Random errors arising from poor flat-fielding are not resolved. ECLIPSE generates noisier mosaics; ORAC-DR has poorer bias removal in crowded fields and defaults to larger mosaics. ORAC-DR runs a few times slower than ECLIPSE, but its recipe development is measured in weeks, not years.

  6. FIRST DAUGHTER IVANKA TRUMP PARTICIPATES IN SOLAR ECLIPSE ACTIVITIES AT NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, First Daughter, Ivanka Trump participated in solar eclipse viewing and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) educational activities hosted by the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.

  7. Response of Cassava canopy to mid-day pseudo sunrise induced by solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Latha, R; Murthy, B S

    2013-07-01

    Variations in CO(2) concentration over a cassava canopy were measured during a solar eclipse at Thiruvananthapuram, India. The analysis presented attempts to differentiate between the eclipse effect and the possible effect of thick clouds, taking CO(2) as a proxy for photosynthesis. CO(2) and water vapor were measured at a rate of 10 Hz, and radiation at 1 Hz, together with other meteorological parameters. A rapid reduction in CO(2) observed post-peak eclipse, due apparently to intense photosynthesis, appears similar to what happens at daybreak/post-sunrise. The increase in CO(2) (4 ppm) during peak eclipse, with radiation levels falling below the photosynthesis cut-off for cassava, indicates domination of respiration due to the light-limiting conditions.

  8. Bringing the Great American Eclipse of 2017 to Audiences across the Nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. A.; Mayo, L.; Cline, T. D.; Ng, C.; Stephenson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    The August 21, 2017 eclipse across America will be seen by an estimated 500 million people from northern Canada to South America as well as parts of western Europe and Africa. Through This "Great American Eclipse" NASA in partnership with Google, the American Parks Network, American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical League, and numerous other science, education, outreach, and public communications groups and organizations will develop the approaches, resources, partnerships, and technology applications necessary to bring the excitement and the science of the August 21st, 2017 total solar eclipse across America to formal and informal audiences in the US and around the world. This effort will be supported by the highly visible and successful Sun Earth Days program and will be the main theme for Sun-Earth Days 2017.This presentation will discuss NASA's education and communication plans for the eclipse and will detail a number of specific programs and partnerships being leveraged to enhance our reach and impact.

  9. G-III Aircraft from NASA Armstrong Provides Live TV Coverage of Solar Eclipse Across America

    2017-08-13

    For the first time in 99 years, a total solar eclipse will cross the entire nation Monday, Aug. 21. A total solar eclipse occurs when the sun is completely obscured by the moon. The lunar shadow enters the United States near Lincoln City, Oregon, at 9:05 a.m. PDT. Totality, where the moon completely covers the sun, begins in Lincoln City around 10:16 a.m. PDT. During totality, there will be up to two and a half minutes of darkness. The G-III aircraft was modified with upgraded windows and communications equipment to enable high-definition video to be streamed to NASA TV during the eclipse enabling citizen science. The aircraft will be flying at 25,000 feet over the coast of Oregon, near Lincoln City during the eclipse on August 21, 2017.

  10. Ionospheric wave signature of the American solar eclipse on 21 August 2017 in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2018-05-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred on 21 August 2017, with the path of totality starting over the North Pacific Ocean, crossing North-America and ending over the Mid-Atlantic Ocean slightly North of the equator. As a result, a partial solar eclipse was observed as far away as the Western Europe. The ionospheric observatory in Dourbes, Belgium, was right on the edge of the partial eclipse and was exposed for a very short period of only few minutes just before the local sunset. High-resolution ionospheric measurements were carried out at the observatory with collocated digital ionosonde and GNSS receivers. The data analysis revealed a clear wave-like pattern in the ionosphere that can be seen arriving before the local onset of the eclipse. The paper details the analysis and provides a possible explanation of the observed phenomenon.

  11. Response of Cassava canopy to mid-day pseudo sunrise induced by solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, R.; Murthy, B. S.

    2013-07-01

    Variations in CO2 concentration over a cassava canopy were measured during a solar eclipse at Thiruvananthapuram, India. The analysis presented attempts to differentiate between the eclipse effect and the possible effect of thick clouds, taking CO2 as a proxy for photosynthesis. CO2 and water vapor were measured at a rate of 10 Hz, and radiation at 1 Hz, together with other meteorological parameters. A rapid reduction in CO2 observed post-peak eclipse, due apparently to intense photosynthesis, appears similar to what happens at daybreak/post-sunrise. The increase in CO2 (4 ppm) during peak eclipse, with radiation levels falling below the photosynthesis cut-off for cassava, indicates domination of respiration due to the light-limiting conditions.

  12. Engage All Americans with Eclipse 2017 Through the Eyes of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C.; Young, C. A.; Mayo, L.; Cline, T. D.; Stephenson, B. E.; Debebe, A.; Lewis, E. M.; Odenwald, S. F.; Hill, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Join NASA and millions in the U.S. and around the world in observing the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse. This presentation will discuss NASA's education and communication plans for the 2017 eclipse, highlighting some programs, resources, and citizen science activities that will engage and educate many across the country and beyond. NASA will offer unique observations of this celestial event from the ground to space. Additionally, there are do-it-yourself (DIY) science, lunar and math challenges, art contests, Makerspace ideas, and various activities for learners of all ages. Education resources and tool kits may be of particular interest to formal and informal educators. Find out what events are happening in your neighborhood, and plan your own eclipse parties with resources and activities. Last but not the least, experience the eclipse on August 21 and learn more through NASA broadcast programming that will include telescopic views from multiple locations, simple measurements, and live and taped interviews.

  13. Using the ionospheric response to the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 to detect spatial structure in the solar corona.

    PubMed

    Scott, C J; Bradford, J; Bell, S A; Wilkinson, J; Barnard, L; Smith, D; Tudor, S

    2016-09-28

    The total solar eclipse that occurred over the Arctic region on 20 March 2015 was seen as a partial eclipse over much of Europe. Observations of this eclipse were used to investigate the high time resolution (1 min) decay and recovery of the Earth's ionospheric E-region above the ionospheric monitoring station in Chilton, UK. At the altitude of this region (100 km), the maximum phase of the eclipse was 88.88% obscuration of the photosphere occurring at 9:29:41.5 UT. In comparison, the ionospheric response revealed a maximum obscuration of 66% (leaving a fraction, Φ, of uneclipsed radiation of 34±4%) occurring at 9:29 UT. The eclipse was re-created using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory to estimate the fraction of radiation incident on the Earth's atmosphere throughout the eclipse from nine different emission wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray spectrum. These emissions, having varying spatial distributions, were each obscured differently during the eclipse. Those wavelengths associated with coronal emissions (94, 211 and 335 Å) most closely reproduced the time varying fraction of unobscured radiation observed in the ionosphere. These results could enable historic ionospheric eclipse measurements to be interpreted in terms of the distribution of EUV and X-ray emissions on the solar disc.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Implementation of Bessel's method for solar eclipses prediction in the WRF-ARW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montornes, Alex; Codina, Bernat; Zack, John W.; Sola, Yolanda

    2016-05-01

    Solar eclipses are predictable astronomical events that abruptly reduce the incoming solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere, which frequently results in non-negligible changes in meteorological fields. The meteorological impacts of these events have been analyzed in many studies since the late 1960s. The recent growth in the solar energy industry has greatly increased the interest in providing more detail in the modeling of solar radiation variations in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models for the use in solar resource assessment and forecasting applications. The significant impact of the recent partial and total solar eclipses that occurred in the USA (23 October 2014) and Europe (20 March 2015) on solar power generation have provided additional motivation and interest for including these astronomical events in the current solar parameterizations.Although some studies added solar eclipse episodes within NWP codes in the 1990s and 2000s, they used eclipse parameterizations designed for a particular case study. In contrast to these earlier implementations, this paper documents a new package for the Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) model that can simulate any partial, total or hybrid solar eclipse for the period 1950 to 2050 and is also extensible to a longer period. The algorithm analytically computes the trajectory of the Moon's shadow and the degree of obscuration of the solar disk at each grid point of the domain based on Bessel's method and the Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses provided by NASA, with a negligible computational time. Then, the incoming radiation is modified accordingly at each grid point of the domain.This contribution is divided in three parts. First, the implementation of Bessel's method is validated for solar eclipses in the period 1950-2050, by comparing the shadow trajectory with values provided by NASA. Latitude and longitude are determined with a bias lower than 5 x 10-3 degrees (i

  15. Comparisons of Measurements and Modeling of Solar Eclipse Effects on VLF Transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D. D.; Sojka, J. J.; Marshall, R. A.; Drob, D. P.; Decena, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 provides an excellent opportunity to examine Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio signal propagation through the path of the solar eclipse between Navy VLF transmitters and several VLF receivers. The VLF transmitters available for this study radio signal propagation study are NLK in Jim Creek, Washington (24.8 kHz, 192 kW, 48.20N, 121.90W), NML in LaMour, North Dakota (25.2 kHz, 500 kW 46.37N, 93.34W), and NAA in Cutler, Maine (24.0 kHz, 1000 kW, 44.65N, 67.29W). These VLF transmitters provide propagation paths to three VLF receivers at Utah State University (41.75N, 111.76W), Bear Lake Observatory (41.95N, 111.39W), Salt Lake City (40.76N, 111.89W) and one receiver in Boulder, Colorado (40.02N, 105.27W). The solar eclipse shadow will cross all propagations paths during the day and will modify the D region electron density within the solar shadow. The week prior to the solar eclipse will be used to generate a diurnal baseline of VLF single strength for each transmitter-receiver pair. These will be compared to the day of the solar eclipse to identify VLF propagation differences through the solar eclipse shawdow. Additionally, the electron density effects of the week prior and of the solar eclipse day will be modeled using the Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) model [Eccles et al., 2005] with a detailed eclipse solar flux mask. The Long-Wave Propagation Code and the HASEL RF ray-tracing code will be used to generate VLF signal strength for each measured propagation path through the days prior and the solar eclipse day. Model-measurement comparisons will be presented and the D region electron density effects of the solar eclipse will be examined. The DDDR is a time-dependent D region model, which makes it very suitable for the solar eclipse effects on the electron density for the altitude range of 36 to 130 km. Eccles J. V., R. D. Hunsucker, D. Rice, J. J. Sojka (2005), Space weather effects on midlatitude HF propagation paths: Observations and

  16. SS Bootis - A totally eclipsing binary of the RS CVn type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaucher, C. A.; Africano, J. L.; Henry, G. W.; Hall, D. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectric photometry gathered for SS Bootis over the 1976-1981 period shows a distortion wave amplitude variation from 0.05 to 0.20 mag, with no apparent pattern. From the rectified light curve, a new time of midprimary eclipse was found to be 2444332.0335 + or - 0.0005 days. Solutions of the primary eclipse data, rectified for star spots as well as for ellipticity and reflection, are presented.

  17. British Observations of the 18 August 1868 Total Solar Eclipse from Guntoor, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Lee, Eun-Hee; Ahn, Young-Sook

    The total solar eclipse of 18 August 1868 was observed in Aden, India, Siam (present-day Thailand) and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). One Indian expedition was sponsored by the Royal Astronomical Society, and led by Major J.F. Tennant. In this chapter we describe the observing team and instruments, discuss their observations, and conclude with some remarks on the place of the 1868 eclipse in solar studies and later nineteenth century European astronomical expeditions to India.

  18. What If It Rains on Your Eclipse? Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Keohane, J.

    2010-01-01

    It was a dark and rainy morning, not far out of Shanghai, when we saw the 2009 July 22 total solar eclipse. Many of the Americans puttering around their equipment that morning, in hopes that the sky would clear enough to catch some of event they had traveled around the world to view, were already planning ahead for 2017 August 21, when a narrow strip of the United States will experience up to 2 minutes and 45 seconds of totality. For most people, a total solar eclipse is once in a lifetime event steeped in legend. If you are situated along this privileged corridor, you will have a wonderful opportunity for public outreach. But what if it rains? Historically, August is mostly sunny at the location of greatest eclipse, near Makanda, Illinois. Even with such favorable circumstances, having a rain plan will ensure you make the most of the occasion. First, the flexibility to relocate your program to take advantage of the most favorable weather would be ideal. If that is not a realistic option, include some protective gear with your equipment so that you can set up despite misty or drizzling conditions. Second, monitoring changing light levels and temperatures should be possible even under cloudy skies. Third, for some sites, changes in wildlife behavior may also be noticeable. If the weather is clear, such projects could enhance your program during the partial phases of the eclipse and provide enrichment materials for those unable to attend. While 2017 may still seem in the distant future to all but eclipse fanatics, some creativity and advance brainstorming will ensure that your outreach program shines during the event, even if the Sun does not cooperate. S. Bell (2009, pc.), HMNAO, provided the eclipse predictions. Additional information is available via USNO Eclipse Portal (http://www.eclipse.org.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi).

  19. Searching for planets around eclipsing binary stars using timing method: NSVS 14256825

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiroglu, Ilham; Goździewski, Krzysztof; Słowikowska, Aga; Krzeszowski, Krzysztof; Żejmo, Michal; Zola, Staszek; Er, Huseyin

    2018-04-01

    We present four new mid eclipse times and an updated O-C diagram of the short period eclipsing binary NSVS14256825. The new data follow the (O-C) trend and its model proposed in Nasiroglu et al. (2017). The (O-C) diagram shows quasi-periodic variations that can be explained with the presence of a brown-dwarf in a quasi-circular circumbinary orbit.

  20. Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths Measured with Post-cryogenic Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, J. E.; Carey, S. J.; Stauffer, John R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Buzasi, Derek; Deming, Drake; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Evans, Thomas M.; Morello, G.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wong, Ian; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5 μm data set, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3b system during secondary eclipse, using seven different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique, the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 156 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 3 of the photon noise limit. All methods but one accurately assess their own errors: for these methods, the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10 epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as to clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated data set of 10 visits to XO-3b, for which the eclipse depth is known. We find that three of the methods (BLISS mapping, Pixel Level Decorrelation, and Independent Component Analysis) obtain results that are within three times the photon limit of the true eclipse depth. When averaged over the 10 epoch ensemble, 5 out of 7 techniques come within 60 ppm of the true value. Spitzer exoplanet data, if obtained following current best practices and reduced using methods such as those described here, can measure repeatable and accurate single eclipse depths, with close to photon-limited results.